Receptors, IgE: Specific molecular sites on the surface of B- and T-lymphocytes which combine with IgEs. Two subclasses exist: low affinity receptors (Fc epsilon RII) and high affinity receptors (Fc epsilon RI).Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Binding, Competitive: The interaction of two or more substrates or ligands with the same binding site. The displacement of one by the other is used in quantitative and selective affinity measurements.Binding Sites: The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.Receptors, Cell Surface: Cell surface proteins that bind signalling molecules external to the cell with high affinity and convert this extracellular event into one or more intracellular signals that alter the behavior of the target cell (From Alberts, Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2nd ed, pp693-5). Cell surface receptors, unlike enzymes, do not chemically alter their ligands.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Protein Binding: The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.Macromolecular Substances: Compounds and molecular complexes that consist of very large numbers of atoms and are generally over 500 kDa in size. In biological systems macromolecular substances usually can be visualized using ELECTRON MICROSCOPY and are distinguished from ORGANELLES by the lack of a membrane structure.Receptors, Interleukin: Cell surface proteins that bind interleukins and trigger intracellular changes influencing the behavior of cells.Recombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Receptors, Interleukin-5: Cell surface receptors that are specific for INTERLEUKIN-5. They are heterodimeric proteins consisting of the INTERLEUKIN-5 RECEPTOR ALPHA SUBUNIT and the CYTOKINE RECEPTOR COMMON BETA SUBUNIT. Signaling from interleukin-5 receptors can occur through interaction of their cytoplasmic domains with SYNTENINS.Interleukin-6 Receptor alpha Subunit: A low affinity interleukin-6 receptor subunit that combines with the CYTOKINE RECEPTOR GP130 to form a high affinity receptor for INTERLEUKIN-6.Estrogen Receptor alpha: One of the ESTROGEN RECEPTORS that has marked affinity for ESTRADIOL. Its expression and function differs from, and in some ways opposes, ESTROGEN RECEPTOR BETA.Immunoglobulin E: An immunoglobulin associated with MAST CELLS. Overexpression has been associated with allergic hypersensitivity (HYPERSENSITIVITY, IMMEDIATE).Receptors, Granulocyte-Macrophage Colony-Stimulating Factor: Receptors that bind and internalize the granulocyte-macrophage stimulating factor. Their MW is believed to be 84 kD. The most mature myelomonocytic cells, specifically human neutrophils, macrophages, and eosinophils, express the highest number of affinity receptors for this growth factor.Interleukin-5 Receptor alpha Subunit: A low affinity interleukin-5 receptor subunit that combines with the CYTOKINE RECEPTOR COMMON BETA SUBUNIT to form a high affinity receptor for INTERLEUKIN-5. Several isoforms of the interleukin-5 receptor alpha subunit exist due to multiple ALTERNATIVE SPLICING.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Transfection: The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.Radioligand Assay: Quantitative determination of receptor (binding) proteins in body fluids or tissue using radioactively labeled binding reagents (e.g., antibodies, intracellular receptors, plasma binders).Ligands: A molecule that binds to another molecule, used especially to refer to a small molecule that binds specifically to a larger molecule, e.g., an antigen binding to an antibody, a hormone or neurotransmitter binding to a receptor, or a substrate or allosteric effector binding to an enzyme. Ligands are also molecules that donate or accept a pair of electrons to form a coordinate covalent bond with the central metal atom of a coordination complex. (From Dorland, 27th ed)Receptors, Cholinergic: Cell surface proteins that bind acetylcholine with high affinity and trigger intracellular changes influencing the behavior of cells. Cholinergic receptors are divided into two major classes, muscarinic and nicotinic, based originally on their affinity for nicotine and muscarine. Each group is further subdivided based on pharmacology, location, mode of action, and/or molecular biology.Ciliary Neurotrophic Factor Receptor alpha Subunit: A ciliary neurotrophic factor receptor subunit. It is anchored to the cell surface via GLYCOSYLPHOSPHATIDYLINOSITOL LINKAGE and has specificity for binding to CILIARY NEUROTROPHIC FACTOR. It lacks signal transducing domains which are found on the other two subunits of the receptor.Cell Membrane: The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.Chromatography, Affinity: A chromatographic technique that utilizes the ability of biological molecules to bind to certain ligands specifically and reversibly. It is used in protein biochemistry. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Myasthenia Gravis: A disorder of neuromuscular transmission characterized by weakness of cranial and skeletal muscles. Autoantibodies directed against acetylcholine receptors damage the motor endplate portion of the NEUROMUSCULAR JUNCTION, impairing the transmission of impulses to skeletal muscles. Clinical manifestations may include diplopia, ptosis, and weakness of facial, bulbar, respiratory, and proximal limb muscles. The disease may remain limited to the ocular muscles. THYMOMA is commonly associated with this condition. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1459)Bungarotoxins: Neurotoxic proteins from the venom of the banded or Formosan krait (Bungarus multicinctus, an elapid snake). alpha-Bungarotoxin blocks nicotinic acetylcholine receptors and has been used to isolate and study them; beta- and gamma-bungarotoxins act presynaptically causing acetylcholine release and depletion. Both alpha and beta forms have been characterized, the alpha being similar to the large, long or Type II neurotoxins from other elapid venoms.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Interleukin-10 Receptor alpha Subunit: A subunit of the interleukin-10 receptor. It plays a role in receptor signaling by associating with JANUS KINASE 1.Structure-Activity Relationship: The relationship between the chemical structure of a compound and its biological or pharmacological activity. Compounds are often classed together because they have structural characteristics in common including shape, size, stereochemical arrangement, and distribution of functional groups.Receptor Aggregation: Chemically stimulated aggregation of cell surface receptors, which potentiates the action of the effector cell.Receptors, Interleukin-3: High affinity receptors for INTERLEUKIN-3. They are found on early HEMATOPOIETIC PROGENITOR CELLS; progenitors of MYELOID CELLS; EOSINOPHILS; and BASOPHILS. Interleukin-3 receptors are formed by the dimerization of the INTERLEUKIN-3 RECEPTOR ALPHA SUBUNIT and the CYTOKINE RECEPTOR COMMON BETA SUBUNIT.Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.Mast Cells: Granulated cells that are found in almost all tissues, most abundantly in the skin and the gastrointestinal tract. Like the BASOPHILS, mast cells contain large amounts of HISTAMINE and HEPARIN. Unlike basophils, mast cells normally remain in the tissues and do not circulate in the blood. Mast cells, derived from the bone marrow stem cells, are regulated by the STEM CELL FACTOR.CHO Cells: CELL LINE derived from the ovary of the Chinese hamster, Cricetulus griseus (CRICETULUS). The species is a favorite for cytogenetic studies because of its small chromosome number. The cell line has provided model systems for the study of genetic alterations in cultured mammalian cells.Receptors, IgG: Specific molecular sites on the surface of various cells, including B-lymphocytes and macrophages, that combine with IMMUNOGLOBULIN Gs. Three subclasses exist: Fc gamma RI (the CD64 antigen, a low affinity receptor), Fc gamma RII (the CD32 antigen, a high affinity receptor), and Fc gamma RIII (the CD16 antigen, a low affinity receptor).Tumor Cells, Cultured: Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.Receptors, Nicotinic: One of the two major classes of cholinergic receptors. Nicotinic receptors were originally distinguished by their preference for NICOTINE over MUSCARINE. They are generally divided into muscle-type and neuronal-type (previously ganglionic) based on pharmacology, and subunit composition of the receptors.Cricetinae: A subfamily in the family MURIDAE, comprising the hamsters. Four of the more common genera are Cricetus, CRICETULUS; MESOCRICETUS; and PHODOPUS.Leukemia Inhibitory Factor Receptor alpha Subunit: A receptor subunit that combines with CYTOKINE RECEPTOR GP130 to form the dual specificity receptor for LEUKEMIA INHIBITORY FACTOR and ONCOSTATIN M. The subunit is also a component of the CILIARY NEUROTROPHIC FACTOR RECEPTOR. Both membrane-bound and secreted isoforms of the receptor subunit exist due to ALTERNATIVE SPLICING of its mRNA. The secreted isoform is believed to act as an inhibitory receptor, while the membrane-bound form is a signaling receptor.Recombinant Fusion Proteins: Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.Protein Conformation: The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).Receptors, Fibroblast Growth Factor: Specific molecular sites or structures on cell membranes that react with FIBROBLAST GROWTH FACTORS (both the basic and acidic forms), their analogs, or their antagonists to elicit or to inhibit the specific response of the cell to these factors. These receptors frequently possess tyrosine kinase activity.Phosphorylation: The introduction of a phosphoryl group into a compound through the formation of an ester bond between the compound and a phosphorus moiety.Cloning, Molecular: The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.Torpedo: A genus of the Torpedinidae family consisting of several species. Members of this family have powerful electric organs and are commonly called electric rays.Interleukin-4 Receptor alpha Subunit: A receptor subunit that is a component of the TYPE I INTERLEUKIN-4 RECEPTOR and the TYPE II INTERLEUKIN-4 RECEPTOR. It signals through interaction of its cytoplasmic domain with JANUS KINASES such as JANUS KINASE 1.Interleukin-21 Receptor alpha Subunit: An interleukin-21 receptor subunit that combines with the INTERLEUKIN RECEPTOR COMMON GAMMA SUBUNIT to form a high affinity receptor for interleukin-21. It signals via interaction of its cytoplasmic domain with JANUS KINASES such as JANUS KINASE 1 and JANUS KINASE 3.Models, Molecular: Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.Mutagenesis, Site-Directed: Genetically engineered MUTAGENESIS at a specific site in the DNA molecule that introduces a base substitution, or an insertion or deletion.Receptors, Interleukin-2: Receptors present on activated T-LYMPHOCYTES and B-LYMPHOCYTES that are specific for INTERLEUKIN-2 and play an important role in LYMPHOCYTE ACTIVATION. They are heterotrimeric proteins consisting of the INTERLEUKIN-2 RECEPTOR ALPHA SUBUNIT, the INTERLEUKIN-2 RECEPTOR BETA SUBUNIT, and the INTERLEUKIN RECEPTOR COMMON GAMMA-CHAIN.Interleukin-11 Receptor alpha Subunit: A low affinity interleukin-11 receptor subunit that combines with the CYTOKINE RECEPTOR GP130 to form a high affinity receptor for INTERLEUKIN-11. Multiple isoforms of this protein exist due to ALTERNATIVE SPLICING of its MRNA.Molecular Weight: The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.Receptors, Drug: Proteins that bind specific drugs with high affinity and trigger intracellular changes influencing the behavior of cells. Drug receptors are generally thought to be receptors for some endogenous substance not otherwise specified.Receptors, Fc: Molecules found on the surface of some, but not all, B-lymphocytes, T-lymphocytes, and macrophages, which recognize and combine with the Fc (crystallizable) portion of immunoglobulin molecules.Protein Structure, Tertiary: The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.Dose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.Leukemia, Basophilic, Acute: A rare acute myeloid leukemia in which the primary differentiation is to BASOPHILS. It is characterized by an extreme increase of immature basophilic granulated cells in the bone marrow and blood. Mature basophils are usually sparse.Cross-Linking Reagents: Reagents with two reactive groups, usually at opposite ends of the molecule, that are capable of reacting with and thereby forming bridges between side chains of amino acids in proteins; the locations of naturally reactive areas within proteins can thereby be identified; may also be used for other macromolecules, like glycoproteins, nucleic acids, or other.Affinity Labels: Analogs of those substrates or compounds which bind naturally at the active sites of proteins, enzymes, antibodies, steroids, or physiological receptors. These analogs form a stable covalent bond at the binding site, thereby acting as inhibitors of the proteins or steroids.Electrophoresis, Polyacrylamide Gel: Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.Receptors, Immunologic: Cell surface molecules on cells of the immune system that specifically bind surface molecules or messenger molecules and trigger changes in the behavior of cells. Although these receptors were first identified in the immune system, many have important functions elsewhere.Sequence Homology, Amino Acid: The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.Antibodies, Monoclonal: Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.Granulocyte-Macrophage Colony-Stimulating Factor: An acidic glycoprotein of MW 23 kDa with internal disulfide bonds. The protein is produced in response to a number of inflammatory mediators by mesenchymal cells present in the hemopoietic environment and at peripheral sites of inflammation. GM-CSF is able to stimulate the production of neutrophilic granulocytes, macrophages, and mixed granulocyte-macrophage colonies from bone marrow cells and can stimulate the formation of eosinophil colonies from fetal liver progenitor cells. GM-CSF can also stimulate some functional activities in mature granulocytes and macrophages.Receptor, Insulin: A cell surface receptor for INSULIN. It comprises a tetramer of two alpha and two beta subunits which are derived from cleavage of a single precursor protein. The receptor contains an intrinsic TYROSINE KINASE domain that is located within the beta subunit. Activation of the receptor by INSULIN results in numerous metabolic changes including increased uptake of GLUCOSE into the liver, muscle, and ADIPOSE TISSUE.Receptors, GABA-A: Cell surface proteins which bind GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID and contain an integral membrane chloride channel. Each receptor is assembled as a pentamer from a pool of at least 19 different possible subunits. The receptors belong to a superfamily that share a common CYSTEINE loop.Receptors, Nerve Growth Factor: Cell surface receptors that bind NERVE GROWTH FACTOR; (NGF) and a NGF-related family of neurotrophic factors that includes neurotrophins, BRAIN-DERIVED NEUROTROPHIC FACTOR and CILIARY NEUROTROPHIC FACTOR.DNA: A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.DNA Primers: Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.Interleukin-15 Receptor alpha Subunit: A low affinity interleukin-15 receptor subunit that combines with the INTERLEUKIN-2 RECEPTOR BETA SUBUNIT and the INTERLEUKIN RECEPTOR COMMON GAMMA-CHAIN to form a high affinity receptor for INTERLEUKIN-15.Receptors, Leukotriene B4: A class of cell surface leukotriene receptors with a preference for leukotriene B4. Leukotriene B4 receptor activation influences chemotaxis, chemokinesis, adherence, enzyme release, oxidative bursts, and degranulation in polymorphonuclear leukocytes. There are at least two subtypes of these receptors. Some actions are mediated through the inositol phosphate and diacylglycerol second messenger systems.Calcium: A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.Interleukin-3 Receptor alpha Subunit: A low affinity interleukin-3 receptor subunit that combines with the CYTOKINE RECEPTOR COMMON BETA SUBUNIT to form a high affinity receptor for INTERLEUKIN-3.Cattle: Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.Cell Division: The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.Immunoglobulin epsilon-Chains: The class of heavy chains found in IMMUNOGLOBULIN E. They have a molecular weight of approximately 72 kDa and they contain about 550 amino acid residues arranged in five domains and about three times more carbohydrate than the heavy chains of IMMUNOGLOBULIN A; IMMUNOGLOBULIN D; and IMMUNOGLOBULIN G.Peptides: Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.Protein Subunits: Single chains of amino acids that are the units of multimeric PROTEINS. Multimeric proteins can be composed of identical or non-identical subunits. One or more monomeric subunits may compose a protomer which itself is a subunit structure of a larger assembly.Interleukin-2: A soluble substance elaborated by antigen- or mitogen-stimulated T-LYMPHOCYTES which induces DNA synthesis in naive lymphocytes.Basophils: Granular leukocytes characterized by a relatively pale-staining, lobate nucleus and cytoplasm containing coarse dark-staining granules of variable size and stainable by basic dyes.Glycoprotein Hormones, alpha Subunit: The alpha chain of pituitary glycoprotein hormones (THYROTROPIN; FOLLICLE STIMULATING HORMONE; LUTEINIZING HORMONE) and the placental CHORIONIC GONADOTROPIN. Within a species, the alpha subunits of these four hormones are identical; the distinct functional characteristics of these glycoprotein hormones are determined by the unique beta subunits. Both subunits, the non-covalently bound heterodimers, are required for full biologic activity.Carrier Proteins: Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.Interleukin-18 Receptor alpha Subunit: A subunit of the interleukin-18 receptor that is responsible of extracellular binding of IL-18.Peptide Fragments: Partial proteins formed by partial hydrolysis of complete proteins or generated through PROTEIN ENGINEERING techniques.Iodine Radioisotopes: Unstable isotopes of iodine that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. I atoms with atomic weights 117-139, except I 127, are radioactive iodine isotopes.Antibody Affinity: A measure of the binding strength between antibody and a simple hapten or antigen determinant. It depends on the closeness of stereochemical fit between antibody combining sites and antigen determinants, on the size of the area of contact between them, and on the distribution of charged and hydrophobic groups. It includes the concept of "avidity," which refers to the strength of the antigen-antibody bond after formation of reversible complexes.Receptors, Adrenergic, alpha: One of the two major pharmacological subdivisions of adrenergic receptors that were originally defined by the relative potencies of various adrenergic compounds. The alpha receptors were initially described as excitatory receptors that post-junctionally stimulate SMOOTH MUSCLE contraction. However, further analysis has revealed a more complex picture involving several alpha receptor subtypes and their involvement in feedback regulation.Gene Expression: The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.Receptors, OSM-LIF: Cell surface receptors formed from the dimerization of LIF RECEPTOR ALPHA SUBUNIT with CYTOKINE RECEPTOR GP130. Although originally described as receptors for LEUKEMIA INHIBITORY FACTOR these receptors also bind the closely-related protein ONCOSTATIN M and are referred to as both LIF receptors and type I oncostatin M receptors.Receptor, trkA: A protein-tyrosine kinase receptor that is specific for NERVE GROWTH FACTOR; NEUROTROPHIN 3; neurotrophin 4, neurotrophin 5. It plays a crucial role in pain sensation and thermoregulation in humans. Gene mutations that cause loss of receptor function are associated with CONGENITAL INSENSITIVITY TO PAIN WITH ANHIDROSIS, while gene rearrangements that activate the protein-tyrosine kinase function are associated with tumorigenesis.Solubility: The ability of a substance to be dissolved, i.e. to form a solution with another substance. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Tyrosine: A non-essential amino acid. In animals it is synthesized from PHENYLALANINE. It is also the precursor of EPINEPHRINE; THYROID HORMONES; and melanin.Cell Degranulation: The process of losing secretory granules (SECRETORY VESICLES). This occurs, for example, in mast cells, basophils, neutrophils, eosinophils, and platelets when secretory products are released from the granules by EXOCYTOSIS.Blotting, Western: Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.Antigens, Differentiation, B-Lymphocyte: Membrane antigens associated with maturation stages of B-lymphocytes, often expressed in tumors of B-cell origin.Liver: A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.Enzyme Activation: Conversion of an inactive form of an enzyme to one possessing metabolic activity. It includes 1, activation by ions (activators); 2, activation by cofactors (coenzymes); and 3, conversion of an enzyme precursor (proenzyme or zymogen) to an active enzyme.Gene Expression Regulation: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.Nerve Growth Factors: Factors which enhance the growth potentialities of sensory and sympathetic nerve cells.Antigens, CD: Differentiation antigens residing on mammalian leukocytes. CD stands for cluster of differentiation, which refers to groups of monoclonal antibodies that show similar reactivity with certain subpopulations of antigens of a particular lineage or differentiation stage. The subpopulations of antigens are also known by the same CD designation.T-Lymphocytes: Lymphocytes responsible for cell-mediated immunity. Two types have been identified - cytotoxic (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and helper T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, HELPER-INDUCER). They are formed when lymphocytes circulate through the THYMUS GLAND and differentiate to thymocytes. When exposed to an antigen, they divide rapidly and produce large numbers of new T cells sensitized to that antigen.Growth Substances: Signal molecules that are involved in the control of cell growth and differentiation.GTP-Binding Proteins: Regulatory proteins that act as molecular switches. They control a wide range of biological processes including: receptor signaling, intracellular signal transduction pathways, and protein synthesis. Their activity is regulated by factors that control their ability to bind to and hydrolyze GTP to GDP. EC 3.6.1.-.Interleukin-13 Receptor alpha1 Subunit: An interleukin receptor subunit with specificity for INTERLEUKIN-13. It dimerizes with the INTERLEUKIN-4 RECEPTOR ALPHA SUBUNIT to form the TYPE II INTERLEUKIN-4 RECEPTOR which has specificity for both INTERLEUKIN-4 and INTERLEUKIN-13. Signaling of this receptor subunit occurs through the interaction of its cytoplasmic domain with JANUS KINASES such as the TYK2 KINASE.Escherichia coli: A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.Mice, Knockout: Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.Fibroblast Growth Factor 2: A single-chain polypeptide growth factor that plays a significant role in the process of WOUND HEALING and is a potent inducer of PHYSIOLOGIC ANGIOGENESIS. Several different forms of the human protein exist ranging from 18-24 kDa in size due to the use of alternative start sites within the fgf-2 gene. It has a 55 percent amino acid residue identity to FIBROBLAST GROWTH FACTOR 1 and has potent heparin-binding activity. The growth factor is an extremely potent inducer of DNA synthesis in a variety of cell types from mesoderm and neuroectoderm lineages. It was originally named basic fibroblast growth factor based upon its chemical properties and to distinguish it from acidic fibroblast growth factor (FIBROBLAST GROWTH FACTOR 1).Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Tetradecanoylphorbol Acetate: A phorbol ester found in CROTON OIL with very effective tumor promoting activity. It stimulates the synthesis of both DNA and RNA.Mice, Inbred C57BLFibroblast Growth Factor 1: A 17-kDa single-chain polypeptide growth factor that plays a significant role in the process of WOUND HEALING and is a potent inducer of PHYSIOLOGIC ANGIOGENESIS. It binds to HEPARIN, which potentiates its biological activity and protects it from proteolysis. The growth factor is an extremely potent inducer of DNA synthesis in a variety of cell types from mesoderm and neuroectoderm lineages, and also has chemotactic and mitogenic activities. It was originally named acidic fibroblast growth factor based upon its chemical properties and to distinguish it from basic fibroblast growth factor (FIBROBLAST GROWTH FACTOR 2).Interleukin-13 Receptor alpha2 Subunit: An interleukin-13 receptor subunit that is closely-related to the INTERLEUKIN-13 RECEPTOR ALPHA1 SUBUNIT. The receptor is found as a monomeric protein and has been considered to be a decoy receptor for interleukin-13 due the fact that it lacks cytoplasmic signaling domains.Interleukin-6: A cytokine that stimulates the growth and differentiation of B-LYMPHOCYTES and is also a growth factor for HYBRIDOMAS and plasmacytomas. It is produced by many different cells including T-LYMPHOCYTES; MONOCYTES; and FIBROBLASTS.Epidermal Growth Factor: A 6-kDa polypeptide growth factor initially discovered in mouse submaxillary glands. Human epidermal growth factor was originally isolated from urine based on its ability to inhibit gastric secretion and called urogastrone. Epidermal growth factor exerts a wide variety of biological effects including the promotion of proliferation and differentiation of mesenchymal and EPITHELIAL CELLS. It is synthesized as a transmembrane protein which can be cleaved to release a soluble active form.Heparin: A highly acidic mucopolysaccharide formed of equal parts of sulfated D-glucosamine and D-glucuronic acid with sulfaminic bridges. The molecular weight ranges from six to twenty thousand. Heparin occurs in and is obtained from liver, lung, mast cells, etc., of vertebrates. Its function is unknown, but it is used to prevent blood clotting in vivo and vitro, in the form of many different salts.Polymerase Chain Reaction: In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.PPAR alpha: A nuclear transcription factor. Heterodimerization with RETINOID X RECEPTOR GAMMA is important to metabolism of LIPIDS. It is the target of FIBRATES to control HYPERLIPIDEMIAS.3T3 Cells: Cell lines whose original growing procedure consisted being transferred (T) every 3 days and plated at 300,000 cells per plate (J Cell Biol 17:299-313, 1963). Lines have been developed using several different strains of mice. Tissues are usually fibroblasts derived from mouse embryos but other types and sources have been developed as well. The 3T3 lines are valuable in vitro host systems for oncogenic virus transformation studies, since 3T3 cells possess a high sensitivity to CONTACT INHIBITION.Protein-Tyrosine Kinases: Protein kinases that catalyze the PHOSPHORYLATION of TYROSINE residues in proteins with ATP or other nucleotides as phosphate donors.DNA, Complementary: Single-stranded complementary DNA synthesized from an RNA template by the action of RNA-dependent DNA polymerase. cDNA (i.e., complementary DNA, not circular DNA, not C-DNA) is used in a variety of molecular cloning experiments as well as serving as a specific hybridization probe.COS Cells: CELL LINES derived from the CV-1 cell line by transformation with a replication origin defective mutant of SV40 VIRUS, which codes for wild type large T antigen (ANTIGENS, POLYOMAVIRUS TRANSFORMING). They are used for transfection and cloning. (The CV-1 cell line was derived from the kidney of an adult male African green monkey (CERCOPITHECUS AETHIOPS).)Fibroblast Growth Factors: A family of small polypeptide growth factors that share several common features including a strong affinity for HEPARIN, and a central barrel-shaped core region of 140 amino acids that is highly homologous between family members. Although originally studied as proteins that stimulate the growth of fibroblasts this distinction is no longer a requirement for membership in the fibroblast growth factor family.Rabbits: The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.Transcription, Genetic: The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.Flow Cytometry: Technique using an instrument system for making, processing, and displaying one or more measurements on individual cells obtained from a cell suspension. Cells are usually stained with one or more fluorescent dyes specific to cell components of interest, e.g., DNA, and fluorescence of each cell is measured as it rapidly transverses the excitation beam (laser or mercury arc lamp). Fluorescence provides a quantitative measure of various biochemical and biophysical properties of the cell, as well as a basis for cell sorting. Other measurable optical parameters include light absorption and light scattering, the latter being applicable to the measurement of cell size, shape, density, granularity, and stain uptake.Protein Kinase C: An serine-threonine protein kinase that requires the presence of physiological concentrations of CALCIUM and membrane PHOSPHOLIPIDS. The additional presence of DIACYLGLYCEROLS markedly increases its sensitivity to both calcium and phospholipids. The sensitivity of the enzyme can also be increased by PHORBOL ESTERS and it is believed that protein kinase C is the receptor protein of tumor-promoting phorbol esters.Fibroblasts: Connective tissue cells which secrete an extracellular matrix rich in collagen and other macromolecules.Glycoproteins: Conjugated protein-carbohydrate compounds including mucins, mucoid, and amyloid glycoproteins.Muscles: Contractile tissue that produces movement in animals.src-Family Kinases: A PROTEIN-TYROSINE KINASE family that was originally identified by homology to the Rous sarcoma virus ONCOGENE PROTEIN PP60(V-SRC). They interact with a variety of cell-surface receptors and participate in intracellular signal transduction pathways. Oncogenic forms of src-family kinases can occur through altered regulation or expression of the endogenous protein and by virally encoded src (v-src) genes.Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Cytokines: Non-antibody proteins secreted by inflammatory leukocytes and some non-leukocytic cells, that act as intercellular mediators. They differ from classical hormones in that they are produced by a number of tissue or cell types rather than by specialized glands. They generally act locally in a paracrine or autocrine rather than endocrine manner.Molecular Structure: The location of the atoms, groups or ions relative to one another in a molecule, as well as the number, type and location of covalent bonds.DNA-Binding Proteins: Proteins which bind to DNA. The family includes proteins which bind to both double- and single-stranded DNA and also includes specific DNA binding proteins in serum which can be used as markers for malignant diseases.Receptor, Epidermal Growth Factor: A cell surface receptor involved in regulation of cell growth and differentiation. It is specific for EPIDERMAL GROWTH FACTOR and EGF-related peptides including TRANSFORMING GROWTH FACTOR ALPHA; AMPHIREGULIN; and HEPARIN-BINDING EGF-LIKE GROWTH FACTOR. The binding of ligand to the receptor causes activation of its intrinsic tyrosine kinase activity and rapid internalization of the receptor-ligand complex into the cell.Retinoid X Receptor alpha: A nuclear transcription factor. Heterodimerization with PPAR GAMMA is important in regulation of GLUCOSE metabolism and CELL GROWTH PROCESSES.Membrane Proteins: Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.Receptor Protein-Tyrosine Kinases: A class of cellular receptors that have an intrinsic PROTEIN-TYROSINE KINASE activity.Type C Phospholipases: A subclass of phospholipases that hydrolyze the phosphoester bond found in the third position of GLYCEROPHOSPHOLIPIDS. Although the singular term phospholipase C specifically refers to an enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of PHOSPHATIDYLCHOLINE (EC 220.127.116.11), it is commonly used in the literature to refer to broad variety of enzymes that specifically catalyze the hydrolysis of PHOSPHATIDYLINOSITOLS.Down-Regulation: A negative regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.Interleukin-1: A soluble factor produced by MONOCYTES; MACROPHAGES, and other cells which activates T-lymphocytes and potentiates their response to mitogens or antigens. Interleukin-1 is a general term refers to either of the two distinct proteins, INTERLEUKIN-1ALPHA and INTERLEUKIN-1BETA. The biological effects of IL-1 include the ability to replace macrophage requirements for T-cell activation.Transcription Factors: Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.Promoter Regions, Genetic: DNA sequences which are recognized (directly or indirectly) and bound by a DNA-dependent RNA polymerase during the initiation of transcription. Highly conserved sequences within the promoter include the Pribnow box in bacteria and the TATA BOX in eukaryotes.Phosphotyrosine: An amino acid that occurs in endogenous proteins. Tyrosine phosphorylation and dephosphorylation plays a role in cellular signal transduction and possibly in cell growth control and carcinogenesis.Receptors, Cytokine: Cell surface proteins that bind cytokines and trigger intracellular changes influencing the behavior of cells.Heparitin Sulfate: A heteropolysaccharide that is similar in structure to HEPARIN. It accumulates in individuals with MUCOPOLYSACCHARIDOSIS.Blotting, Northern: Detection of RNA that has been electrophoretically separated and immobilized by blotting on nitrocellulose or other type of paper or nylon membrane followed by hybridization with labeled NUCLEIC ACID PROBES.Substrate Specificity: A characteristic feature of enzyme activity in relation to the kind of substrate on which the enzyme or catalytic molecule reacts.Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha: Serum glycoprotein produced by activated MACROPHAGES and other mammalian MONONUCLEAR LEUKOCYTES. It has necrotizing activity against tumor cell lines and increases ability to reject tumor transplants. Also known as TNF-alpha, it is only 30% homologous to TNF-beta (LYMPHOTOXIN), but they share TNF RECEPTORS.Rats, Inbred Strains: Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. This also includes animals with a long history of closed colony breeding.Growth Inhibitors: Endogenous or exogenous substances which inhibit the normal growth of human and animal cells or micro-organisms, as distinguished from those affecting plant growth (= PLANT GROWTH REGULATORS).Hypoxia-Inducible Factor 1, alpha Subunit: Hypoxia-inducible factor 1, alpha subunit is a basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor that is regulated by OXYGEN availability and is targeted for degradation by VHL TUMOR SUPPRESSOR PROTEIN.Estrogen Receptor beta: One of the ESTROGEN RECEPTORS that has greater affinity for ISOFLAVONES than ESTROGEN RECEPTOR ALPHA does. There is great sequence homology with ER alpha in the DNA-binding domain but not in the ligand binding and hinge domains.Leukemia Inhibitory Factor: An INTERLEUKIN-6 related cytokine that exhibits pleiotrophic effects on many physiological systems that involve cell proliferation, differentiation, and survival. Leukemia inhibitory factor binds to and acts through the lif receptor.Precipitin Tests: Serologic tests in which a positive reaction manifested by visible CHEMICAL PRECIPITATION occurs when a soluble ANTIGEN reacts with its precipitins, i.e., ANTIBODIES that can form a precipitate.Rats, Sprague-Dawley: A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.Mice, Inbred BALB CProto-Oncogene Proteins: Products of proto-oncogenes. Normally they do not have oncogenic or transforming properties, but are involved in the regulation or differentiation of cell growth. They often have protein kinase activity.Guanosine 5'-O-(3-Thiotriphosphate): Guanosine 5'-(trihydrogen diphosphate), monoanhydride with phosphorothioic acid. A stable GTP analog which enjoys a variety of physiological actions such as stimulation of guanine nucleotide-binding proteins, phosphoinositide hydrolysis, cyclic AMP accumulation, and activation of specific proto-oncogenes.Estradiol: The 17-beta-isomer of estradiol, an aromatized C18 steroid with hydroxyl group at 3-beta- and 17-beta-position. Estradiol-17-beta is the most potent form of mammalian estrogenic steroids.alpha 1-Antitrypsin: Plasma glycoprotein member of the serpin superfamily which inhibits TRYPSIN; NEUTROPHIL ELASTASE; and other PROTEOLYTIC ENZYMES.Interleukin-7 Receptor alpha Subunit: A low affinity interleukin-7 receptor subunit that combines with the INTERLEUKIN RECEPTOR COMMON GAMMA SUBUNIT to form a high affinity receptor for INTERLEUKIN-7.Sequence Alignment: The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.Dimerization: The process by which two molecules of the same chemical composition form a condensation product or polymer.Thyroid Hormone Receptors alpha: High affinity receptors for THYROID HORMONES, especially TRIIODOTHYRONINE. These receptors are usually found in the nucleus where they regulate DNA transcription. They are encoded by the THRA gene (also known as NR1A1, THRA1, ERBA or ERBA1 gene) as several isoforms produced by alternative splicing.Sodium-Potassium-Exchanging ATPase: An enzyme that catalyzes the active transport system of sodium and potassium ions across the cell wall. Sodium and potassium ions are closely coupled with membrane ATPase which undergoes phosphorylation and dephosphorylation, thereby providing energy for transport of these ions against concentration gradients.Brain: The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.Receptors, Cytoplasmic and Nuclear: Intracellular receptors that can be found in the cytoplasm or in the nucleus. They bind to extracellular signaling molecules that migrate through or are transported across the CELL MEMBRANE. Many members of this class of receptors occur in the cytoplasm and are transported to the CELL NUCLEUS upon ligand-binding where they signal via DNA-binding and transcription regulation. Also included in this category are receptors found on INTRACELLULAR MEMBRANES that act via mechanisms similar to CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS.Receptors, Retinoic Acid: Proteins in the nucleus or cytoplasm that specifically bind RETINOIC ACID or RETINOL and trigger changes in the behavior of cells. Retinoic acid receptors, like steroid receptors, are ligand-activated transcription regulators. Several types have been recognized.Receptor, Serotonin, 5-HT2A: A serotonin receptor subtype found widely distributed in peripheral tissues where it mediates the contractile responses of variety of tissues that contain SMOOTH MUSCLE. Selective 5-HT2A receptor antagonists include KETANSERIN. The 5-HT2A subtype is also located in BASAL GANGLIA and CEREBRAL CORTEX of the BRAIN where it mediates the effects of HALLUCINOGENS such as LSD.Hydrogen-Ion Concentration: The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)GTP-Binding Protein alpha Subunits: The GTPase-containing subunits of heterotrimeric GTP-binding proteins. When dissociated from the heterotrimeric complex these subunits interact with a variety of second messenger systems. Hydrolysis of GTP by the inherent GTPase activity of the subunit causes it to revert to its inactive (heterotrimeric) form. The GTP-Binding protein alpha subunits are grouped into families according to the type of action they have on second messenger systems.Oligopeptides: Peptides composed of between two and twelve amino acids.Lymphocyte Activation: Morphologic alteration of small B LYMPHOCYTES or T LYMPHOCYTES in culture into large blast-like cells able to synthesize DNA and RNA and to divide mitotically. It is induced by INTERLEUKINS; MITOGENS such as PHYTOHEMAGGLUTININS, and by specific ANTIGENS. It may also occur in vivo as in GRAFT REJECTION.Cell Differentiation: Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.Mice, Transgenic: Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.Cricetulus: A genus of the family Muridae consisting of eleven species. C. migratorius, the grey or Armenian hamster, and C. griseus, the Chinese hamster, are the two species used in biomedical research.Adenylate Cyclase: An enzyme of the lyase class that catalyzes the formation of CYCLIC AMP and pyrophosphate from ATP. EC 18.104.22.168.Guanylyl Imidodiphosphate: A non-hydrolyzable analog of GTP, in which the oxygen atom bridging the beta to the gamma phosphate is replaced by a nitrogen atom. It binds tightly to G-protein in the presence of Mg2+. The nucleotide is a potent stimulator of ADENYLYL CYCLASES.Surface Plasmon Resonance: A biosensing technique in which biomolecules capable of binding to specific analytes or ligands are first immobilized on one side of a metallic film. Light is then focused on the opposite side of the film to excite the surface plasmons, that is, the oscillations of free electrons propagating along the film's surface. The refractive index of light reflecting off this surface is measured. When the immobilized biomolecules are bound by their ligands, an alteration in surface plasmons on the opposite side of the film is created which is directly proportional to the change in bound, or adsorbed, mass. Binding is measured by changes in the refractive index. The technique is used to study biomolecular interactions, such as antigen-antibody binding.Yohimbine: A plant alkaloid with alpha-2-adrenergic blocking activity. Yohimbine has been used as a mydriatic and in the treatment of ERECTILE DYSFUNCTION.Membrane Glycoproteins: Glycoproteins found on the membrane or surface of cells.Monocytes: Large, phagocytic mononuclear leukocytes produced in the vertebrate BONE MARROW and released into the BLOOD; contain a large, oval or somewhat indented nucleus surrounded by voluminous cytoplasm and numerous organelles.Purinergic P1 Receptor Agonists: Compounds that bind to and stimulate PURINERGIC P1 RECEPTORS.Plasmids: Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction: A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.Receptors, Serotonin: Cell-surface proteins that bind SEROTONIN and trigger intracellular changes which influence the behavior of cells. Several types of serotonin receptors have been recognized which differ in their pharmacology, molecular biology, and mode of action.Immunoglobulin G: The major immunoglobulin isotype class in normal human serum. There are several isotype subclasses of IgG, for example, IgG1, IgG2A, and IgG2B.Receptors, Opioid: Cell membrane proteins that bind opioids and trigger intracellular changes which influence the behavior of cells. The endogenous ligands for opioid receptors in mammals include three families of peptides, the enkephalins, endorphins, and dynorphins. The receptor classes include mu, delta, and kappa receptors. Sigma receptors bind several psychoactive substances, including certain opioids, but their endogenous ligands are not known.Cyclic AMP: An adenine nucleotide containing one phosphate group which is esterified to both the 3'- and 5'-positions of the sugar moiety. It is a second messenger and a key intracellular regulator, functioning as a mediator of activity for a number of hormones, including epinephrine, glucagon, and ACTH.Protein Structure, Secondary: The level of protein structure in which regular hydrogen-bond interactions within contiguous stretches of polypeptide chain give rise to alpha helices, beta strands (which align to form beta sheets) or other types of coils. This is the first folding level of protein conformation.Cell Line, Tumor: A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.Lymphokines: Soluble protein factors generated by activated lymphocytes that affect other cells, primarily those involved in cellular immunity.Integrins: A family of transmembrane glycoproteins (MEMBRANE GLYCOPROTEINS) consisting of noncovalent heterodimers. They interact with a wide variety of ligands including EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX PROTEINS; COMPLEMENT, and other cells, while their intracellular domains interact with the CYTOSKELETON. The integrins consist of at least three identified families: the cytoadhesin receptors(RECEPTORS, CYTOADHESIN), the leukocyte adhesion receptors (RECEPTORS, LEUKOCYTE ADHESION), and the VERY LATE ANTIGEN RECEPTORS. Each family contains a common beta-subunit (INTEGRIN BETA CHAINS) combined with one or more distinct alpha-subunits (INTEGRIN ALPHA CHAINS). These receptors participate in cell-matrix and cell-cell adhesion in many physiologically important processes, including embryological development; HEMOSTASIS; THROMBOSIS; WOUND HEALING; immune and nonimmune defense mechanisms; and oncogenic transformation.Rats, Wistar: A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.Receptors, Muscarinic: One of the two major classes of cholinergic receptors. Muscarinic receptors were originally defined by their preference for MUSCARINE over NICOTINE. There are several subtypes (usually M1, M2, M3....) that are characterized by their cellular actions, pharmacology, and molecular biology.Amino Acid Substitution: The naturally occurring or experimentally induced replacement of one or more AMINO ACIDS in a protein with another. If a functionally equivalent amino acid is substituted, the protein may retain wild-type activity. Substitution may also diminish, enhance, or eliminate protein function. Experimentally induced substitution is often used to study enzyme activities and binding site properties.
1990). „The alpha Subunit of the Human IgE Receptor (FcERI) Is Sufficient for High Affinity IgE Binding". ... Angažovanje FcεRI, uz interleukin-5 (IL-5), koji je produkt aktivnosti Th2 pomoćnih ćelija, aktivira degranulaciju eozinofila, ... CD23 (Fcε receptor tipa 2) - receptor niskog afiniteta za IgE. FcεRI receptor se u velikom broju nalazi na membranama mastocita ... FcεRI (Fcε receptor tipa 1) - receptor visokog afiniteta za IgE ... CD23 receptor je integralni membranski protein tipa 2 i sadrži ...
Because β-arr's have high affinity only to the phosphorylated form of most GPCRs (see above or below), the majority of ... α subunit from the Gβγ dimer and from the receptor. The dissociated Gα and Gβγ subunits interact with other intracellular ... "Cannabinoid Receptor 2 (CB 2 ) Signals via G-alpha-s and Induces IL-6 and IL-10 Cytokine Secretion in Human Primary Leukocytes ... GPCRs are also involved in immune-modulation, e. g. regulating interleukin induction  or suppressing TLR-induced immune ...
The high affinity of rapamycin binding to FKBP12 is explained by number of hydrogen bonds through two different hydrophobic ... Interleukin-6 receptor *Tocilizumab. *LFA-1 *Odulimomab. *IL-2 receptor/CD25 *Basiliximab ... A subunit of protein phosphatase 2A and TOR1). Specific protein activators regulate the PIKK kinases but binding of them to ... Receptor protein serine/threonine kinase (EC 22.214.171.124). *Bone morphogenetic protein receptors *BMPR1 ...
Interleukin. Type I. (grouped by. receptor. subunit). γ chain. *IL2/IL15. *IL4/IL13 ... Interferon alpha (interferon alfa, IFN-α). *Interferon alfa (IFNA1, IFNA2, IFNA4, IFNA5, IFNA6, IFNA7, IFNA8, IFNA10, IFNA13, ... Affinity for heparan sulfate resides solely within the deleted sequence of 17 amino acids. Within this sequence of 17 amino ... Uterine Natural Killer cells (NK) secrete high levels of chemoattractants, such as IFNγ. IFNγ dilates and thins the walls of ...
G-protein alpha-subunit binding. • serotonin binding. • neurotransmitter receptor activity. Cellular component. • cytoplasm. • ... high affinity, orally bioavailable 5-HT2B receptor antagonist". British Journal of Pharmacology. 127 (5): 1075-82. doi:10.1038/ ... control of interleukin-6, interleukin-1beta, and tumor necrosis factor-alpha cytokine production by ventricular fibroblasts". ... 5-Hydroxytryptamine receptor 2B (5-HT2B) also known as serotonin receptor 2B is a protein that in humans is encoded by the ...
IL-15 and its receptor subunit alpha (IL-15Rα) are also produced by skeletal muscle in response to different exercise doses ( ... Figure 4. IL-15 bind to IL-15Rα receptor alone with affinity (Ka = 1.1011/M). It can also bind to IL-15Rβγc signaling complex ... "STAT3 signaling contributes to the high effector activities of interleukin-15-derived dendritic cells". Immunology and Cell ... A hematopoietin receptor, the IL-15 receptor, that binds IL-15 propagates its function. Some subunits of the IL-15 receptor are ...
... although it has higher affinity for another antibody called IgM. This receptor is called the Fc-alpha/mu receptor (Fcα/μR) ... interleukin 4, interleukin 5, interleukin 6, interleukin 13, tumor necrosis factor-alpha, GM-CSF, and several chemokines.[ ... This adaptor protein is called the Fcγ subunit and, like FcγRIIA, contains the two YXXL sequences that are characteristic of an ... the high-affinity receptor FcεRI is a member of the immunoglobulin superfamily (it has two Ig-like domains). FcεRI is found on ...
Interleukin. Type I. (grouped by. receptor. subunit). γ chain. *IL2/IL15. *IL4/IL13 ... or with a decoy circulating receptor fusion protein such as etanercept (Enbrel) which binds to TNFα with greater affinity than ... Whereas high concentrations of TNF induce shock-like symptoms, the prolonged exposure to low concentrations of TNF can result ... TNF can bind two receptors, TNFR1 (TNF receptor type 1; CD120a; p55/60) and TNFR2 (TNF receptor type 2; CD120b; p75/80). TNFR1 ...
... with a higher affinity than do the other ligands for this receptor, CXCL9 and CXCL10. CXCL11 is chemotactic for activated ... Interleukin. Type I. (grouped by. receptor. subunit). γ chain. *IL2/IL15. *IL4/IL13 ... Mohan K, Ding Z, Hanly J, Issekutz TB (June 2002). "IFN-gamma-inducible T cell alpha chemoattractant is a potent stimulator of ... A keratinocyte-derived high affinity CXC-chemokine ligand for the IP-10/Mig receptor (CXCR3)". The Journal of Investigative ...
Although RNA polymerase holoenzyme shows high affinity to non-specific sites of the DNA, this characteristic does not allow us ... DNA binding by the alpha subunit of RNA polymerase". Science. 262 (5138): 1407-1413. Bibcode:1993Sci...262.1407R. doi:10.1126/ ... Hobbs, K.; Negri, J.; Klinnert, M.; Rosenwasser, L. J.; Borish, L. (1998). "Interleukin-10 and Transforming Growth Factor- β ... "Sex steroid receptors in skeletal differentiation and epithelial neoplasia: is tissue-specific intervention possible?". ...
Activated T cells also produce the alpha sub-unit of the IL-2 receptor (CD25 or IL-2R), enabling a fully functional receptor ... and has a higher affinity for macrophages), resulting in a slow kill rate of CD4+ T cells by the immune system ... Interleukin-2 interleukin-10 production has been reported in activated Th1 cell. interleukin-4, interleukin-5, interleukin- ... 6, interleukin-9, interleukin-10, interleukin-13 Immune stimulation promoted. Cellular immune system. Maximizes the killing ...
... cellular level where it became apparent that cell membranes of certain tissues contain specific high-affinity SHBG receptors.[ ... and cytokines like TNF-alpha and Interleukin reduce SHBG, whereas insulin does not. As an example anti-psoriatic drugs that ... evidence for two identical subunits". Journal of Steroid Biochemistry. 24 (4): 815-24. doi:10.1016/0022-4731(86)90442-5. PMID ... Affinity and bindingEdit. Affinities of endogenous steroids for SHBG and plasma protein binding Steroid. SHBG affinity. ...
It may also modulate the activity of various neurotransmitter receptors, including the Alpha-7 nicotinic receptor. BDNF has ... subunit of the N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor". The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 276 (1): 693-99. doi:10.1074/jbc.M008085200 ... for low-affinity nerve growth factor receptor, also known as p75). ... High levels of BDNF and Substance P have been associated with increased itching in eczema. ...
Gong R, Ding C, Hu J, Lu Y, Liu F, Mann E, Xu F, Cohen M, Luo M (2011). "Role for the membrane receptor guanylate cyclase-c in ... sGC expression has been shown to be highest in the striatum compared to other brain regions and has been explored as a possible ... and mutations in this region increase RETGC-1 affinity for GCAP. This works to alter the calcium sensitivity of the neuron by ... G alpha subunit Gα *GNAO1. *GNAI1. *GNAI2. *GNAI3. *GNAT1. *GNAT2. *GNAT3 ...
... might bind BLT2 with high affinity. In 2009, 12-HHT was found to bind to the BLT2 receptor with ~10-fold higher affinity than ... both receptors are G protein coupled receptors that, when ligand-bound, activate cells by releasing the Gq alpha subunit and ... 12-HHT inhibits HaCaT cells from synthesizing interleukin-6 (IL-6), a pro-inflammatory cytokine associated with cutaneous ... pertussis toxin-sensitive Gi alpha subunit from Heterotrimeric G proteins. BLT1 receptor has a high degree of ligand- ...
In some cancer cell lines, this protein has been found to be fused with estrogen receptor alpha (ER-alpha), in which the N- ... Joshi AK, Rangan VS, Smith S (February 1998). "Differential affinity labeling of the two subunits of the homodimeric animal ... cellular response to interleukin-4. • pantothenate metabolic process. • lipid metabolic process. • biosynthetic process. • ... "Fatty acid synthase is expressed mainly in adult hormone-sensitive cells or cells with high lipid metabolism and in ...
... which is required for receptor activation but not high-affinity binding., in Mol. Cell. Biol., vol. 16, nº 6, 1996, pp. 3035-46 ... Klein BK, Feng Y, McWherter CA, et al., The receptor binding site of human interleukin-3 defined by mutagenesis and molecular ... Ihle JN, Pepersack L, Rebar L, Regulation of T cell differentiation: in vitro induction of 20 alpha-hydroxysteroid ... which is required for receptor activation but not high-affinity binding, in Mol. Cell. Biol., vol. 16, nº 6, UNITED STATES, ...
In almost all case the highest affinity sites of gluten are derived by deamidation. The HLA DQB1*0202 and its linked DQA1* ... Tjernström F, Hellmer G, Nived O, Truedsson L, Sturfelt G (1999). "Synergetic effect between interleukin-1 receptor antagonist ... DQ2 beta chains can pair with trans to other alpha chain. However, there is no precedance in cis isoforms for DQ2,4,7,8, or 9 ... DQB1*0201 is genetically linked to DQA1*0501 forming the DQ2.5 haplotype that encodes both α5 and β2 subunits. The DQ2.5 ...
... and gamma subunit immunoreceptor tyrosine-based activation motif in signaling of myeloid high affinity Fc receptor for IgG (Fc ... "Identification of Tyr-762 in the platelet-derived growth factor alpha-receptor as the binding site for Crk proteins". Oncogene ... through the guanine nucleotide exchange factor C3G in hematopoietic cells stimulated with erythropoietin or interleukin-3". The ... Smit L, van der Horst G, Borst J (Apr 1996). "Sos, Vav, and C3G participate in B cell receptor-induced signaling pathways and ...
... synergizes with toll-like receptors to increase the production of proinflammatory cytokines such as TNF alpha and interleukin- ... SUCNR1 is one of the highest expressed G protein-coupled receptors on human platelets, present at levels similar to P2Y12, ... This enzyme complex is a 4 subunit membrane-bound lipoprotein which couples the oxidation of succinate to the reduction of ... all of which demonstrated significantly lower binding affinity. Overall, the EC50 for succinate-GPR91 is in the 20-50 uM range ...
LIF receptor) and a high-affinity converter subunit, gp130. Both LIFR and gp130 are members of a family of cytokine receptors ... LIF Receptor alpha Subunit at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) This article incorporates ... Boulton TG, Stahl N, Yancopoulos GD (April 1994). "Ciliary neurotrophic factor/leukemia inhibitory factor/interleukin 6/ ... LIF action appears to be mediated through a high-affinity receptor complex composed of a low-affinity LIF binding chain ( ...
... the common gamma-chain is an indispensable subunit of the IL-21 receptor complex". J. Immunol. 167 (1): 1-5. doi:10.4049/ ... "Phosphatidic acid generation through interleukin 2 (IL-2)-induced alpha-diacylglycerol kinase activation is an essential step ... It has been shown that IL-21R knock-out mice express higher levels of IgE and lower levels of IgG1 than normal mice after ... Li Y, Bleakley M, Yee C (2005). "IL-21 influences the frequency, phenotype, and affinity of the antigen-specific CD8 T cell ...
Different recognition sub-units are used for actin or tubulin although there is some overlap. In actin the subunits that bind ... In vertebrates, three main groups of actin isoforms, alpha, beta, and gamma have been identified. The alpha actins, found in ... Actin's affinity for profilin is greatly reduced in this allele. The ACTG1 locus codes for the cytosolic γ-actin protein that ... Higher concentration of ATP in the nucleus (compared to the cytoplasm) promote ADP to ATP exchange in the actin-cofilin complex ...
"A human high affinity interleukin-5 receptor (IL5R) is composed of an IL5-specific alpha chain and a beta chain shared with the ... The interleukin-5 receptor is a type I cytokine receptor. It is a heterodimer of the interleukin 5 receptor alpha subunit and ... Both monomeric forms of IL-5Rα are low affinity receptors, while dimerization with the β-chain produces a high affinity ... "JAK2 and JAK1 constitutively associate with an interleukin-5 (IL-5) receptor alpha and betac subunit, respectively, and are ...
... alpha subunit FARSB NM_005687 phenylalanyl-tRNA synthetase, beta subunit GARS (gene)GARS NM_002047 glycyl-tRNA synthetase HARS ... Regulated by MITF) HMGB1 High mobility group box binds DNA ILF2 Homo sapiens interleukin enhancer binding factor 2, 45kDa (ILF2 ... 001105 similar to ACVRL1 TGF Beta receptor family Rendu-Osler-Weber syndrome ACVR1B NM_004302 CD23 FCER2 low affinity IgE ... subunit, alpha type, 7 (PSMA7), PSMB1 NM_002793 Homo sapiens proteasome (prosome, macropain) subunit, beta type, 1 (PSMB1), ...
Based on these alignments the Duffy antigen is considered to be most similar to the interleukin-8B receptors. Scatchard ... analysis of competition binding studies has shown high affinity binding to the Duffy antigen with dissociation constants (KD) ... which encodes the major subunit of the Duffy blood group system and the receptor for the Plasmodium vivax malaria parasite". ... Growth related gene alpha (GRO-α) - CXCL1 Platelet factor 4 - CXCL4 ENA-78 - CXCL5 Neutrophil activating peptide-2 (NAP-2) - ...
... to 100-fold higher affinity for it than does LTB4; 12-HHT fails to bind or activate BLT1 receptors. While BLT2 receptors have ... G proteins that contain either the Gi alpha subunit and are therefore inhibited by pertussis toxin or the Gq alpha subunit and ... BLT2 receptor knockout mice exhibit attenuated ovalbumen-induced allergic airway eosinophilia and Interleukin 13 (IL-13) ... with far lower affinity than the BLT1 receptor does and therefore has been termed the low affinity LTB4 receptor. Sometime ...
Although the addition of recombinant interleukin-1-beta, interleukin-2, and alpha-interferon during the 18-h incubation ... each bind with high affinity to a common site on a small FK506 binding protein (FKBP-12) and inhibit its peptidylprolyl cis- ... Refined localization of the alpha 1-subunit of the skeletal muscle L-type voltage-dependent calcium channel (CACNL1A3) to human ... levels of interleukin (IL)-17, soluble receptor activator of nuclear factor-kappa B ligand (sRANKL), and osteoprotegerin (OPG) ...
Effect of recombinant IL-1β, TNF-α, TGF-β and IL-17 treatment on the expression of IL19, IL20, IL24 and their receptors was ... Structural basis for receptor sharing and activation by interleukin-20 receptor-2 (IL-20R2) binding cytokines. Proc Natl Acad ... Recombinant human epidermal growth factor (EGF), tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), interleukin-17 (IL-17), interleukin-24 ( ... 1h). Our experiments also demonstrated that the expression of IL20RA, IL20RB and IL22RA receptor subunits is tightly regulated ...
... mice with a diverse human T cell antigen receptor repertoire Identification of human T-cell receptors with optimal affinity to ... increase its protein stability and drive EGFR hyperactivation through enhanced secretion of amphiregulin High-dose interleukin- ... and chronic kidney disease Architecture and subunit arrangement of native AMPA receptors elucidated by cryo-EM Working memory ... impede tissue regeneration via distinct activation of TAK1/MKK/p38 Alpha-synuclein RT-QuIC in the CSF of patients with alpha- ...
Cytokine-inducible gene signatures such as type I interferon (IFN), tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-?), interleukin (IL)-1?, ... In mammals, rapamycin inhibits interleukin-2 receptor-induced S phase entry and subsequent T-cell proliferation, resulting in ... CN is comprised of two subunits: a 59-kDa catalytic subunit (CNA), which contains a calmodulin binding domain and ... By affinity chromatography, both FKBP12 and cyclophilin A bind calcineurin A in the absence of ligand, and FK506 and ...
Assessment of GM-CSF receptors by real-time RT-PCR on cell lines expressing high and low affinity receptors and their relation ... The four kinds of cancer cell lines had prominent GM-CSF receptor alpha subunit expression.,/p,,p,,b,CONCLUSION,/b,It suggests ... Dendritic Cells , Granulocyte-Macrophage Colony-Stimulating Factor , Interleukin-4 , Receptors, Formyl Peptide , Receptors, ... In all immunotoxins that GM-CSF has been used as cell targeting; only cell lines expressing high affinity receptor have been ...
The IL-4R consists of two subunits: the alpha chain (IL-4Ralpha), which is a high-affinity IL-4 binding site shared with the IL ... Receptors, Cytokine , Receptors, Interleukin-4 , Rhinitis ... the tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha), was up-regulated ... A Study of Susceptibility between Allergic Rhinitis and IL-4 Receptor alpha Gene Polymorphism Study in Korean / 대한이비인후과학회지 ... BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) is recognized as a proinflammatory host alert cytokine that ...
SARS-CoV-2 has a higher binding affinity to human ACE2 than to that of other species. Animal models that mimic the human ... Prkaca consists of the catalytic subunit alpha protein kinase A (PKA), which is involved in many cellular processes. In this ... PURPOSE: Interleukin-10 (IL-10) is an immunoregulatory cytokine and its cervical and serum concentrations have been associated ... YY1 is likely to suppress adipogenesis in two different ways by regulating peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma ...
Heat stress increased concentrations of tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α) in the serum and liver, interleukin-1ß (IL-1ß) in the ... Rearing chicken was significantly associated with high prevalence of S. Typhi (2.1%; p = 0.011). The proportion of children ... Compared to mammalian antibodies (IgG), chicken egg yolk antibodies (IgY) have greater binding affinity to specific antigens, ... Furthermore, the recombination of an alpha or betacoronavirus with a gammacoronavirus is extremely unlikely. For recombination ...
The antisera were affinity purified (NAb protein A spin chromatography kit; Pierce Chemical Co., Rockford, Ill.), tested, and ... and genetic complementation studies have suggested that TLR4 can serve as a major transducing subunit of the LPS receptor ... The intestinal mucus layer from patients with inflammatory bowel disease harbors high numbers of bacteria compared with ... Bacterial lipopolysaccharide activates nuclear factor-kappaB through interleukin-1 signaling mediators in cultured human dermal ...
IL2RA; interleukin-2 receptor subunit alpha isoform X1 [KO:K05068]. 113249383 interleukin-2 receptor subunit beta-like isoform ... A secreted high-affinity inhibitor of human TNF from Tanapox virus.. Journal. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 100:4831-6 (2003). DOI: ... IL20RB; interleukin-20 receptor subunit beta [KO:K05137]. 113268505 IL22RA1; interleukin-22 receptor subunit alpha-1 [KO:K05138 ... IL6R; interleukin-6 receptor subunit alpha isoform X1 [KO:K05055]. 113255323 IL6ST; interleukin-6 receptor subunit beta isoform ...
TF can also be induced by the inflammatory mediators interleukin 1 and TNF-alpha, as well as by endotoxin, to appear on ... help/subunit_structure target=_top>More...,/a>,/p>Subunit structurei. Interacts with HSPE; the interaction, inhibited by ... Larson P.J., Stanfield-Oakley S.A., VanDusen W.J., Kasper C.K., Smith K.J., Monroe D.M., High K.A.. J. Biol. Chem. 271:3869- ... cytokine receptor activity Source: GO_Central ,p>Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor,/p> ,p>A type of phylogenetic ...
Vazegepant (Biohaven Pharmaceuticals): an intranasal, high-affinity calcitonin gene-related peptide receptor antagonist that ... signaling by binding to the alpha subunit of the GM-CSF receptor (GM-CSFR). In a prospective, interventional, single-active-arm ... Sarilumab (Regeneron and Sanofi): the interleukin (IL)-6 receptor antagonist is being evaluated in patients hospitalized with ... Ifenprodil (Algernon Pharmaceuticals): an N-methyl-d-aspartate (NDMA) receptor glutamate receptor antagonist that is being ...
FRa, a high-affinity folate-binding protein and a member of the folate receptor family, is overexpressed in various cancer cell ... F-18 16 alpha-fluoroestradiol is actively taken up in tumor cells expressing the estrogen receptor (ER), allowing visualization ... CD123, the interleukin-3 receptor alpha chain, is overexpressed in a variety of hematological malignancies; its expression is ... which is a subunit of the transport system xc(-), with potential imaging activity upon positron emission tomography (PET). Upon ...
Generating a high-affinity scorpion-toxin receptor in KcsA-Kv1.3 (2000). Legros C, Pollmann V, Knaus HG, Farrell AM, Darbon H, ... Structural basis for alpha-K toxin specificity for K+ channels revealed through the solution 1H NMR structures of two ... Neutralization of Human Interleukin 23 by Multivalent Nanobodies Explained by the Structure of Cytokine-Nanobody Complex. (2017 ... Structure-Function Analysis of the C-Terminal Domain of the Type VI Secretion TssB Tail Sheath Subunit. (2018) ...
electrical failure mechanisms in high voltage, high energy density multilayer ceramic capacitors ... Mechanism and kinetics of carbide dissolution in near alpha Ti-5.6Al-4.8Sn-2Zr-1Mo-0.35Si-0.7Nd titanium alloy ... Mechanism of cardioprotection following trauma-hemorrhagic shock by a selective estrogen receptor-β agonist: up-regulation of ... Mechanism of action of interleukin-13 antagonist (IL-13E13K) in cells expressing various types of IL-4R ...
protein phosphatase 2 (formerly 2A), regulatory subunit A (PR 65), alpha isoform. 0.034. ... interleukin enhancer binding factor 3b. 0.043. bmpr1bb. bone morphogenetic protein receptor, type 1bb. 0.043. ... high mobility group AT-hook 1a. 0.011. dnaja2. DnaJ (Hsp40) homolog, subfamily A, member 2. 0.011. ... MAP/microtubule affinity-regulating kinase 3. 0.012. pxn. paxillin. 0.012. naa15b. N(alpha)-acetyltransferase 15, NatA ...
membrane-spanning 4-domains, subfamily A, member 2 (Fc fragment of IgE, high affinity I, receptor for; beta polypeptide). 0.075 ... sodium channel, voltage-gated, type IV, alpha subunit. 0.016. Ctla2a. cytotoxic T lymphocyte-associated protein 2 alpha. 0.016 ... gap junction protein, alpha 6. 0.026. Il13ra2. interleukin 13 receptor, alpha 2. 0.026. ... solute carrier family 1 (neuronal/epithelial high affinity glutamate transporter, system Xag), member 1. 0.011. ...
... a small molecule with a high affinity for sigma receptors, a class of cell membrane receptors that are commonly but not ... strongly stimulated interferon alpha production and had no effect on the cytokines interleukin 6 (IL-6) or tumor necrosis ... Potent siRNA inhibitors of ribonucleotide reductase subunit RRM2 reduce cell proliferation in vitro and in vivo. Clin. Cancer ... Rather, there just needs to be a high affinity interaction of the oligomer and the target RNA in its folded, native state. The ...
Despite a decrease in the number of high affinity receptor cells the dissociation constant (Kd) was comparable for the three ... Early serum procalcitonin, interleukin-6, and 24-hour lactate clearance: useful indicators of septic infections in severely ... Site-directed spin-labeling studies showed ivexterm tabletas 6 mg dilaudid that the N-terminus of the Galpha subunit is ... Oral antiviral therapy improves the diagnostic accuracy of alpha-fetoprotein levels in patients with chronic hepatitis B. ...
Phosphorylates gamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit gamma-2 (GABRG2), which reduces the response of GABA receptors to ... High-affinity binding of the divalent mercuric ion to thiol or sulfhydryl groups of proteins is believed to be the major ... and may enhance channel activities and potentiates fast synaptic transmission by phosphorylating the pore-forming alpha subunit ... Through binding with SQSTM1/p62, functions in interleukin-1 signaling and activation of NF-kappa-B with the specific adapters ...
Attenuated sensitivity to neuroactive steroids in gamma-aminobutyrate type A receptor delta subunit knockout mice. It should be ... At a slightest, youth athletes participating in high-risk sports should in high-top athletic shoes in state of affairs to ... Actions of TNF-alpha on glutamatergic synaptic transferral in the inner worried system. Nowadays, suspect next-generation ... Delayed response and deficit of habituation in plasma Interleukin-6 to acute mental stress and strain in men. Such an nearer of ...
Insurance Delivery 15 years WorldWide Supplier 100% Satisfaction Guarantee High Quality Medications ... Level of endothelin-1,2,6-keto-pgf1-alpha and atrial natriuretic peptide in serum of pregnant women with late hypertension (i) ... Here we show that dectin-1 expressed on human dendritic cells activates not only the Syk-dependent canonical NF-kappaB subunits ... In addition, the recent cloning of both neural- and immune-derived opioid receptors will ultimately facilitate the ...
The high-affinity sulphonylurea receptor regulates KATP channels in nerve terminals of the rat motor cortex. Lee, K., Dixon, A ... interactions of the immunoglobulin receptor family tyrosine-based activation motifs present in the T cell receptor ζ subunits ... The p38/RK mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway regulates interleukin-6 synthesis in response to tumour necrosis factor. ... Topping, K. J., Oct 1996, In : Higher Education. 32, 3, p. 321-345 25 p.. Research output: Contribution to journal › Article ...
Interleukin 13 Receptor Subunit Alpha 2. *Synonyms. *Interleukin 13 Receptor Subunit Alpha 2 ... CellRapeutics™ Chimeric Antigen Receptor (CAR) Technology. *T-Scan Platform for High-throughput Identification of T Cell- ... TCR-Like Antibody Affinity Characterization. *TCR-Like CAR Construction and Evaluation Service ... CellRapeutics™ Chimeric Antigen Receptor (CAR) Technology. *T-Scan Platform for High-throughput Identification of T Cell- ...
The crystal structure of the human high-affinity IgE receptor (Fc epsilon RI alpha) ANNUAL REVIEW OF IMMUNOLOGY Garman, S. C., ... Inhibin alpha-Subunit N Terminus Interacts with Activin Type IB Receptor to Disrupt Activin Signaling JOURNAL OF BIOLOGICAL ... THE INTERLEUKIN-4 INDUCING PRINCIPLE FROM ,it,SCHISTOSOMA MANSONI,/it, EGGS (IPSE) EXACERBATES UTI-INDUCED PAIN AND SUPPRESSES ... Structure of the Fc fragment of human IgE bound to its high-affinity receptor Fc epsilon RI alpha NATURE Garman, S. C., ...
Binding proteinProteinsImmunoglobulinDifferentiationLigandIL6RTransmembraneBindsBindChemokinePathwayCytoplasmicKinasesAntigen receptorProinflammatory cytokinesSpecificityOlfactoryTumor necroHistone deacetylaseVoltage-gated sPurinergicIL24GeneExpressionAbstractEndothelial2017AdenosineMonoclonalDrosophilaCannabinoidSubfamilyAntibodiesEstrogen receptorNeurotransmitterPostsynapticTranscriptionACE2HumanGABAImmuneIntracellularNociceptorsInteractionTherapeuticSurvival1993Significantly
- Two largely nonpolar, structurally related macrolide ligands, tacrolimus (also known as FK506) and rapamycin, each bind with high affinity to a common site on a small FK506 binding protein (FKBP-12) and inhibit its peptidylprolyl cis-trans-isomerase activity. (termsreign.tk)
- Identification of Dual Receptor Binding Protein Systems in Lactococcal 936 Group Phages. (univ-mrs.fr)
- Viral cytokines and cytokine receptors, together with a group of structurally unique, soluble, cytokine-binding or cytokine receptor-binding proteins, represent the three major molecular strategies for subversion and modulation of the host cytokine networks mainly in large DNA viruses. (kegg.jp)
- Viral cytokines and cytokine receptor homologs, including other binding proteins, may activate or inhibit cytokine signaling and possibly affect different aspects of immunity. (kegg.jp)
- Reflecting the increased amino acid transport capacity of tumor cells, F-18 fluroethyltyrosine (F-18 FET) is actively taken up in tumor cells via amino acid transport system L, but is neither incorporated into proteins nor readily degraded, resulting in high intracellular concentrations of this imaging agent. (cancer.gov)
- We observed different higher-order enrichment and depletion patterns across sets of proteins. (termsreign.gq)
- High-affinity binding of the divalent mercuric ion to thiol or sulfhydryl groups of proteins is believed to be the major mechanism for the activity of mercury. (t3db.ca)
- CD28 is the receptor for CD80 (B7.1) and CD86 (B7.2) proteins which are expressed on antigen-presenting cells (APC). (creative-biolabs.com)
- It therefore appears that antibodies to FMD virus NS proteins can still be detected around 3 years after infection of small ruminants, but that virus carriers cannot be detected at this time. (termsreign.tk)
- PDZ domain proteins are frequently associated with the plasma membrane, a compartment where high concentrations of phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate (PIP2) are found. (embl.de)
- Here we show that the transactivation function of NF-κB is also regulated through interaction of the p65 (RelA) subunit with histone deacetylase (HDAC) corepressor proteins. (asm.org)
- In this framework, the advancement of high-throughput technologies, together with the extensive identification of new genes, proteins and other biomolecules in the "omics" era, facilitate large-scale biological measurements. (biomedcentral.com)
- Under platelet proteins, it is IL13RA1 IGH skin standards and rarely contributes the compound of single tetramers followed in a phosphorylation of Many mutations, intact as human tyrosine, wasting, linkage, growth and programming subunit interconnectivity. (evakoch.com)
- Topics include 1) prevalence of known food allergens from a global perspective, 2) understanding endogenous protein allergenicity in the context of new foods and particularly genetically modified (GM) food crops, 3) food matrix effects on allergenic potential of proteins, and 4) proteolytic effects of allergens on sensitization potential. (biomedcentral.com)
- At the cell surface is thought to act as an endothelial receptor for plasma proteins of the complement and kallikrein-kinin cascades. (uniprot.org)
- TLRs are transmembrane proteins expressed by means of immunocompetent cells such as antigen presenting cells (APCs) and helping workaday cytoplasmic domains with the IL-1 receptor family. (kavalerist.ru)
- HCs are comprised of six proteins subunits termed connexins (Cxs) . (cancercurehere.com)
- The RNA-binding domains consists of a number of RNP consensus motifs (RNP-CS) that are necessary for high affinity and sequence-specific binding from the proteins to ICG-001 RNA (Burd and Dreyfuss, 1994). (cylch.org)
- The cellular elements involved in the immune response within the intestine of pike were assessed by ultrastructural techniques and immunohistochemistry using antibodies against met-enkephalin, immunoglobulin E (IgE)-like receptor (FCεRIγ), histamine, interleukin-6, interleukin-1β, substance P, lysozyme, serotonin, inducible-nitric oxide synthase (i-NOS), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and the antimicrobial peptide piscidin 3 (P3). (biomedcentral.com)
- Chronic Urticaria (CU) Index: A nonspecific measure of basophil histamine release, which, if positive, may indicate the presence of an autoantibody to the Fc receptor of immunoglobulin E (IgE)-that is, anti-FceR. (medscape.com)
- these activated receptors act as transcription factors, regulating gene expression that results in the inhibition of cell proliferation, induction of cell differentiation, and apoptosis of both normal cells and tumor cells. (blogspot.com)
- Together, gonadotropins, steroids, and locally derived peptidergic principles form a triad, which modulates the growth and differentiation of ovarian follicles (Fig. 3). (glowm.com)
- Some of the responses to cytokines can include reducing or elevating membrane receptor protein expression, stimulating proliferation, differentiation and secretion of specific effector molecules. (elisakits.co.uk)
- Interleukins are the largest group of cytokines and these play an important role in stimulating immune cell proliferation and differentiation. (elisakits.co.uk)
- Ongoing research projects include studies of paramyxovirus and herpesvirus entry mechanisms, IgE-receptor structure and function and TGF-beta ligand signaling pathways. (stanford.edu)
- Interleukin 13 receptor, α2 acts as a high affinity decoy receptor for interleukin 13 that sequesters the ligand away from IL13Rα1 and is involved in down-regulating IL-13 responses in vivo . (guidetoimmunopharmacology.org)
- OSM binds to a receptor complex consisting of the ubiquitously expressed signal transducer gp130 and the ligand binding OSM receptor subunit, which is expressed on a specific subset of primary afferent neurons. (biomedcentral.com)
- 2009). Proof for ligand-specific receptor conformations is seen in a evaluation from the structure from the EGFR extracellular area when destined to EGF or TGFα. (arcillaresearch.com)
- We and colleagues have previously demonstrated that various intestinal epithelial cell lines constitutively express several members of a novel family of transmembrane receptors designated Toll-like receptors (TLRs) which may serve as a major link between innate and adaptive mucosal immune responses ( 5 ). (asm.org)
- And CD28 results in a brightly expressed, stable receptor as the transmembrane domain. (creative-biolabs.com)
- They are a hTERT-BJ1 trisphosphate nucleus in the other set response of the stimulating conjunction in sustainable, and receptors with the logical bacteria, termed nuclear web aspects, can activate known in factor from formed transcription peptides by protein of a molecule of disorder transmembrane devices( Takahashi and Yamanaka 2006, Takahashi et al. (evakoch.com)
- The transmembrane protein Tim-3 has been shown to negatively regulate T-cell-dependent immune responses and was recently demonstrated to be associated with the phenomenon of immune exhaustion, which can occur as a consequence of chronic viral infection. (asm.org)
- They are activated upon FcεRI aggregation, when specific Ag binds to receptor-bound IgE Abs ( 1 ). (jimmunol.org)
- Kinetic studies on enzymes that only bind one substrate, such as triosephosphate isomerase, aim to measure the affinity with which the enzyme binds this substrate and the turnover rate. (blogspot.com)
- Whereas IL-6 binds to its receptor IL-6R and dimerizes with two molecules of gp130, OSM receptor (OSMR) signaling requires just a single gp130 molecule to exert its effects. (biomedcentral.com)
- Human OSM is capable of binding not only to the OSMR but also to the LIF receptor, in contrast to murine OSM that only binds to the OSMR [ 7 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
- IgG were long ago reported to bind to human basophils ( 18 ) on which two low-affinity IgG receptors were subsequently identified: FcγRIIA and FcγRIIB ( 19 , 20 ). (jimmunol.org)
- In general, IL-6 related cytokines bind to their specific receptor and requires dimerization with the common signal transducer gp130 to form a functional receptor complex [ 6 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
- In order to carry out their functions, it is essential that they bind to specific membrane receptors and this results in triggering a signal transduction cascade which can lead to altering the behaviour of the cell. (elisakits.co.uk)
- In order for them to function to generate an appropriate response, they need to bind to specific membrane receptors, which leads to the transmission of a signal to the cells through the action of second messengers (usually tyrosine kinases) in order to alter the behaviour of the cell (known as gene expression). (elisakits.co.uk)
- Avidin is a homotetrameric protein that contains 4 identical subunits which bind to Biotin with high extent of affinity and specificity consisting of 128 amino acids and has a molecular mass of about 67K Daltons. (neobiolab.com)
- It is able to bind TGFB1 and TGFB2 with high affinity, but not TGFB3 ( PubMed:8294451 ). (antibody-antibodies.com)
- The RNA binding website of U2AF65 consists of three RNP consensus sequence motifs that specifically bind to the polypyrimidine tract ICG-001 adjacent to the 3 splice site (Zamore et al. (cylch.org)
- To investigate the expression of CC-chemokine receptor 7(CCR7) in patients with multiple myeloma(MM) and its correlation with clinical features of MM. (statescale.tk)
- Cytokine is most often used as a general name, however, there are more specific terms which are used to identify where the cytokines has been made from for example monokine (cytokines produced by monocytes), lymphokine (cytokines produced by lymphocytes), interleukin (cytokines produced by interleukins) and chemokine (cytokines that possess a chemotactic activity). (elisakits.co.uk)
- 3. Tu M, Wange W, Cai L, Zhu P, Gao Z, Zheng W. (2016) IL-13 receptor α2 stimulates human glioma cell growth and metastasis through the Src/PI3K/Akt/mTOR signaling pathway. (guidetoimmunopharmacology.org)
- Characteristics of the contralateral optical signals suggested that they correspond to the neural activity in the second/higher-ordered nucleus of the vagal pathway, possibly the parabrachial nucleus, which receives inputs from the NTS. (courtfield.tk)
- Signal transduction via IL-1 and TNF-α pathways involves activation of pathway-specific receptor proximal kinases and ubiquitin E3 ligases. (asm.org)
- The type I IFN pathway is believed to play an important role in SLE, and the proposed involvement of this pathway helps explain the frustration behind the failure at targeting either IFN-α or the type 1 IFN receptor itself. (qxmd.com)
- report on an intriguing phase 1b study that demonstrates an approach for inhibiting this pathway in the skin using an mAB (BIIB059) that targets the blood DC antigen 2 (BDCA-2) receptor on plasmacytoid DCs (pDCs). (qxmd.com)
- We have exploited this observation to dissect what elements within the cytoplasmic tail of Tim-3 are required for coupling to downstream signaling pathways. (asm.org)
- Here we have demonstrated that two of the more membrane-proximal cytoplasmic tail tyrosines are required for Tim-3 signaling to T-cell activation pathways in a redundant fashion. (asm.org)
- We experimentally determined a rich and accurate dataset of steady-state profiles of selected downstream kinases of PDGF-receptor-alpha mutants in combination with inhibitor treatments. (uni.lu)
- Pharmacological inhibition of phosphoinositide 3 and TOR kinases improves survival of Drosophila melanogaster. (statescale.tk)
- Oncostatin M (OSM) is a monomeric glycoprotein that belongs to the interleukin-6 (IL-6) family of proinflammatory cytokines. (biomedcentral.com)
- Viral infection is associated with a vigorous inflammatory response characterized by cellular infiltration and release of the proinflammatory cytokines interleukin-1 (IL-1) and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α). (asm.org)
- Activation of IL-1 and TNF-α pathways is initiated by proinflammatory cytokines IL-1α/β and TNF-α binding their cognate receptors following release from activated macrophages and T lymphocytes at sites of infection. (asm.org)
- Tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF alpha) protein and messenger (m)RNA distribution was studied in biopsy samples of glial brain tumors, using immunohistochemistry and in situ hybridization with molecular probes, to investigate the role of this cytokine in tumor proliferation and immunological host defense. (storysteel.gq)
- Human aortic EC (HAEC) and, for chromatin immunoprecipitation assays, human umbilical vein EC (HUVEC) were treated with tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFα) in the presence of conditioned medium generated by HAEC grown on collagen particles (ECPCM), and the anti-inflammatory effects were evaluated by analysing the expression of the inflammation-related adhesion molecules E-selectin and vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1). (vascularcell.com)
- Interleukin-1 (IL-1) and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) signaling pathways of the innate immune response are critical antimicrobial responses that have been highly conserved ( 37 ). (asm.org)
- T-cell exhaustion is characterized as the progressive and stepwise loss of the ability to secrete interleukin 2 (IL-2), tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), and gamma interferon (IFN-γ) in response to antigenic stimulation, culminating (in the most extreme cases) in apoptosis ( 33 ). (asm.org)
- Effect of recombinant IL-1β, TNF-α, TGF-β and IL-17 treatment on the expression of IL19 , IL20 , IL24 and their receptors was investigated by real-time RT-PCR in small intestinal epithelial cells (FHs74Int), in primary duodenal myofibroblasts (pdMFs) and in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs). (biomedcentral.com)
- Using a high-probe-density, gene-centric aCGH microarray, we present evidence of small-scale genomic aberrations that can contribute to gene inactivation. (saladgaffe.tk)
- Finally, we show that inhibition of HDAC activity with TSA causes an increase in both basal and TNF-induced expression of the NF-κB-regulated interleukin-8 (IL-8) gene. (asm.org)
- Therefore, we examined the expression of IL-19, IL-20 and IL-24 and their receptors in duodenal biopsies of pediatric patients with CD. (biomedcentral.com)
- In vitro experiments were performed to determine the effect of inflammatory cytokines on the expression of the investigated interleukins and their receptors. (biomedcentral.com)
- Moreover, SAA decreased cell surface GM-CSF receptor expression. (bvsalud.org)
- SAA also decreased the expression of PU.1 and C/EBPα, which play roles in the expression of GM-CSF receptor. (bvsalud.org)
- 3 4 5 6 7 8 In addition to growing and dividing, Müller cells routinely increase intermediate filament expression and grow specifically into the subretinal space, suggesting that many responses to RD are highly coordinated and regulated. (arvojournals.org)
- In the patients with prolonged remission, the memory B cells remained depleted while naive B cells recovered within 3-9 months, and the expression levels of CD40 and CD80 remained downregulated for 2 years. (termsreign.tk)
- A high expression level of V1Rs was detected in the vomeronasal organ (VNO) and testes, while a low expression level of V1Rs was observed in all other tissues examined. (courtfield.tk)
- Furthermore, this unconventional STAT activation by mutated PDGFRalpha is already initiated in the endoplasmic reticulum whereas the conventional signalling pathways rather require cell surface expression of the receptor. (uni.lu)
- High expression of FCER1G is associated with chronic myeloid leukemia. (cusabio.com)
- NF-κB is an inducible transcription factor that plays a role in the expression of a variety of genes involved in immune and inflammatory responses and cell survival ( 3 , 13 ). (asm.org)
- Expression and purification of human (pro)renin receptor in insect cells using baculovirus expression system. (courtfield.tk)
- Interferons which include IFN-alpha and IFN-beta (function to inhibit virus replication in infected cells) and IFN-gamma (functions in stimulating antigen-presenting cell MHC expression). (elisakits.co.uk)
- Cu deficiency decreased mycorrhizal colonization and arbuscule CR2 frequency, but increased and expression in the IRM, which suggest that the IRM has a high Cu demand. (californiaehealth.org)
- and expression is highly induced under Cu deficiency in order to facilitate high-affinity Cu acquisition and Ctr2 mobilizes Cu vacuolar stores when Cu levels are extremely low. (californiaehealth.org)
- We have found that ectopic expression of Tim-3 in T cells leads to enhancement of T-cell receptor (TCR)-dependent signaling pathways, which was observed at the level of transcriptional reporters and endogenous cytokine production. (asm.org)
- The role of vascular endothelial growth factor, interleukin 8, and insulinlike growth factor in sustaining autophagic DIRAS3-induced dormant ovarian cancer xenografts. (mdanderson.org)
- By acting as C1q receptor is involved in chemotaxis of immature dendritic cells and neutrophils and is proposed to signal through CD209/DC-SIGN on immature dendritic cells, through integrin alpha-4/beta-1 during trophoblast invasion of the decidua, and through integrin beta-1 during endothelial cell adhesion and spreading. (uniprot.org)
- From this preliminary study the conclusion can be drawn that introduction of bulky chains at the N (6) position of 9-propyladenine significantly increased binding affinity at the human A(1) and A(3) adenosine receptors, while the presence of a chlorine atom at the 2 position resulted in a not univocal effect, depending on the receptor subtype and/or on the substituent present in the N (6) position. (courtfield.tk)
- An immunocytokine of the human monoclonal antibody fragment F16 (scFv) against the extra-domain A1 of tenascin-C fused, via a short 5-amino acid linker, to a recombinant form of the human cytokine interleukin-2 (IL-2) with potential immunostimulating and antineoplastic activities. (cancer.gov)
- A high-affinity monoclonal anti-IgE antibody, ligelizumab, has recently been developed to overcome some of the limitations associated with the clinical use of the therapeutic anti-IgE antibody, omalizumab. (stanford.edu)
- Synergistic effect of anti-T cell receptor monoclonal antibody and 15-deoxyspergualin on cardiac xenograft survival in a mouse-to-rat model. (faintpower.ml)
- Agonists of the cannabinoid receptor 1 (CB1) have been suggested as possible treatments for a range of medical disorders including gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD). (termsreign.tk)
- Spinal cannabinoid CB2 receptors as a target for neuropathic pain: an investigation using chronic constriction injury. (augmentin2020.site)
- Most laboratory assays for HIT have a high sensitivity for anti-PF4/heparin antibodies and a negative test generally excludes HIT (high negative predictive value), especially in a setting of a low pretest probability. (pianolarge.ga)
- In intestines of the pike, several MCs were immunopositive to 9 out of the 11 aforementioned antibodies and infected fish had a higher number of positive MCs when compared to uninfected fish. (biomedcentral.com)
- Background Anti-NMDA-encephalitis is due to antibodies contrary to the N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) and seen as a a severe encephalopathy with psychosis, epileptic seizures and autonomic disruptions. (gpcr19.info)
- Keywords: Autoimmune disease, Encephalitis, Neuropsychological evaluation, Paraneoplastic symptoms, Anti-NMDA-antibody Background Anti-N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) encephalitis is really a recently referred to disorder seen as a psychosis, epileptic seizures, inflammatory cells in cerebrospinal liquid (CSF) and NMDAR-binding antibodies detectable in serum and CSF . (gpcr19.info)
- Peptide formulations also induced antibodies with high affinity and in vitro neutralizated the formation of HIV-1 syncytia. (biomedcentral.com)
- High-Throughput Protein Production Combined with High- Throughput SELEX Identifies an Extensive Atlas of Ciona robusta Transcription Factor DNA-Binding Specificities. (univ-mrs.fr)
- ECPCM did not affect the mRNA stability of the two genes, but suppressed TNFα-induced binding of the p65 subunit of NF-kB transcription factor to E-selectin and VCAM-1 promoters. (vascularcell.com)
- NF-κB subunits are able to homo- or heterodimerize through the Rel homology domain, forming transcription factor complexes with a wide range of DNA-binding and activation potentials. (asm.org)
- Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2), the pathogen of COVID-19, infects the human body using angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) as a receptor identical to the severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) pandemic that occurred in 2002-2003. (bvsalud.org)
- SARS-CoV-2 has a higher binding affinity to human ACE2 than to that of other species. (bvsalud.org)
- Angiotensin-converting Enzyme 2 (ACE2)-CHO Cell Line Model for COVID-19: Helps researchers to further study the interaction between the receptor ACE2 and the COVID-19 virus. (creative-biolabs.com)
- Like mouse ( 16 ) and human ( 17 ) mast cells, mouse and human basophils express not only IgE receptors, but also IgG receptors. (jimmunol.org)
- Human basophils also express minute amounts of the GPI-anchored low-affinity IgG receptor FcγRIIIB ( 22 ), whose biological properties are unclear. (jimmunol.org)
- 1999) Receptor for interleukin 13 is a marker and therapeutic target for human high-grade gliomas. (guidetoimmunopharmacology.org)
- mass spectrometry of WT human FcRgamma from receptor-stimulated cells shows consistent preferential phosphorylation of the serine residue at position 51. (cusabio.com)
- They activate human paths of result subunits. (evakoch.com)
- Crystallization of purified recombinant human interleukin-1 beta. (saladgaffe.ga)
- After 3 weeks in tradition around, neural populations got developed a thick neurite network, the prerequisite for the noticed spontaneous human population bursting. (gpcr19.info)
- mouse human brain at an early on post-natal age and it is characterized by a sophisticated variety of microglia, elevated degrees of interleukin-1 and the current presence of turned on astrocytes . (cancercurehere.com)
- This system of clonal deletion has been documented under conditions of persistent antigen stimulation, such as high-grade chronic viral infections in both mouse and human and, most recently, in patients with advanced melanoma. (asm.org)
- Materials and Methods: The present research engineers a novel chicken adjuvant with potent immune-potentiating capability by incorporating avian tollï»¿-like receptor 21 (TLR21) agonist CpG ODN 2007 with a poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA)-based hollow nanoparticle platform (CpG-NP), which subsequently assessed ex vivo and in vivo. (bvsalud.org)
- Upon subsequent coupling with infectious bronchitis virus subunit antigen administration, chickens were immunostimulated to acquire higher humoral immune response and protective response against viral challenge. (bvsalud.org)
- This enhanced immune stimulation benefits from high stability and controlled release of internal component of nanoparticles that improve cellular delivery, lymphoid organ targeting and sustainable DC activation. (bvsalud.org)
- Viruses have evolved diverse mechanisms to evade detection and destruction by the immune system, including copying and repurposing host cytokine and cytokine receptor genes. (kegg.jp)
- In higher vertebrates, these pathways have evolved to serve as a critical interface between the innate and adaptive immune system ( 25 ). (asm.org)
- These findings should help further the study of Tim-3 function in other physiological settings, such as those that lead to immune exhaustion. (asm.org)
- therefore, a lack of function in these protein leads to the intracellular build up of free of charge cholesterol and various other lipids in past due endosomes/lysosomes . (cancercurehere.com)
- Sensitivity of high-conductance potassium channels in synaptosomal membranes from the rat brain to intracellular pH. (augmentin2020.site)
- The present data suggest that OSM induces thermal hypersensitivity by directly sensitizing nociceptors via OSMR-gp130 receptor mediated potentiation of TRPV1. (biomedcentral.com)
- At the close of these fibers are specialized receptors, called nociceptors, which ripen into activated when they are exposed to noxious stimuli. (kavalerist.ru)
- The presence of free hydroxyl groups in positions 3 (phenol) and 17beta and their interorientation proved to determine the interaction with the recptor system of the guinea pig uterus. (termsreign.gq)
- In most cases, interaction between a PDZ domain and its target is constitutive, with a binding affinity of 1 to 10 microns. (embl.de)
- In both groups, patients under four months of age had significantly higher serum digoxin levels than older patients, in the high dose group 2.6 ng/ml compared with 1.4 ng/ml and in the low dose group 2.2 ng/ml compared with 1.0 ng/ml. (statescale.tk)
- TBG, though present in significantly lesser amounts than TBPA and albumin, has a higher affinity for the thyroid hormones and is therefore the chief carrier protein. (unitslab.com)