Colorless, odorless crystals that are used extensively in research laboratories for the preparation of polyacrylamide gels for electrophoresis and in organic synthesis, and polymerization. Some of its polymers are used in sewage and wastewater treatment, permanent press fabrics, and as soil conditioning agents.
Small double-stranded, non-protein coding RNAs, 21-25 nucleotides in length generated from single-stranded microRNA gene transcripts by the same RIBONUCLEASE III, Dicer, that produces small interfering RNAs (RNA, SMALL INTERFERING). They become part of the RNA-INDUCED SILENCING COMPLEX and repress the translation (TRANSLATION, GENETIC) of target RNA by binding to homologous 3'UTR region as an imperfect match. The small temporal RNAs (stRNAs), let-7 and lin-4, from C. elegans, are the first 2 miRNAs discovered, and are from a class of miRNAs involved in developmental timing.
A phylum of oxygenic photosynthetic bacteria comprised of unicellular to multicellular bacteria possessing CHLOROPHYLL a and carrying out oxygenic PHOTOSYNTHESIS. Cyanobacteria are the only known organisms capable of fixing both CARBON DIOXIDE (in the presence of light) and NITROGEN. Cell morphology can include nitrogen-fixing heterocysts and/or resting cells called akinetes. Formerly called blue-green algae, cyanobacteria were traditionally treated as ALGAE.
Macrocyclic polyethers with the repeating unit of (-CH2-CH2-O)n where n is greater than 2 and some oxygens may be replaced by nitrogen, sulfur or phosphorus. These compounds are useful for coordinating CATIONS. The nomenclature uses a prefix to indicate the size of the ring and a suffix for the number of heteroatoms.
Stable elementary particles having the smallest known negative charge, present in all elements; also called negatrons. Positively charged electrons are called positrons. The numbers, energies and arrangement of electrons around atomic nuclei determine the chemical identities of elements. Beams of electrons are called CATHODE RAYS.
Neutral or negatively charged ligands bonded to metal cations or neutral atoms. The number of ligand atoms to which the metal center is directly bonded is the metal cation's coordination number, and this number is always greater than the regular valence or oxidation number of the metal. A coordination complex can be negative, neutral, or positively charged.
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The evaluation by experts of the quality and pertinence of research or research proposals of other experts in the same field. Peer review is used by editors in deciding which submissions warrant publication, by granting agencies to determine which proposals should be funded, and by academic institutions in tenure decisions.
Critical and exhaustive investigation or experimentation, having for its aim the discovery of new facts and their correct interpretation, the revision of accepted conclusions, theories, or laws in the light of newly discovered facts, or the practical application of such new or revised conclusions, theories, or laws. (Webster, 3d ed)
Guanosine Diphosphate Mannose
For example, ethane (C2H6), has a higher boiling point than methane (CH4). This is because the London dispersion forces between ... ethane molecules are higher than that between methane molecules, resulting in stronger forces of intermolecular attraction, ... ISBN 978-1-4832-8025-7. Charles Gerhardt (1843) "Sur la classification chimique des substances organiques" (On the chemical ... Titanium, vanadium, and molybdenum oxides all form homologous series (e.g. VnO2n − 1 for 2 < n < 10), as do the silanes, SinH2n ...
"Butanol.com. 2005-08-15. Retrieved 2010-07-14.. *^ Evans, Jon (14 January 2008). "Biofuels aim higher". Biofuels, Bioproducts ... Butanol (C. 4H. 9OH) is formed by ABE fermentation (acetone, butanol, ethanol) and experimental modifications of the process ... show potentially high net energy gains with butanol as the only liquid product. Butanol will produce more energy and allegedly ... Atmospheric Formaldehyde was 160% higher in Brazil, and Acetaldehyde was 260% higher. ...
"Higher Alcohols". Waterhouse Lab. UC Davis. Retrieved 22 September 2020. Hazelwood, Lucie A.; Daran, Jean-Marc; van Maris, ... one of the least toxic of the butanols. 1-propanol Other higher alcohols that can be produced during fermentation include: ... Fusel oil and fusel-oil acetates are used in the lacquer industry as high boiling point solvents. Excessive concentrations of ... Fusel alcohols or fuselol, also sometimes called fusel oils in Europe, are mixtures of several higher alcohols (those with more ...
Main article: Butanol fuel. Butanol can be made from algae or diatoms using only a solar powered biorefinery. This fuel has an ... which is 10 to 23 times as high as the next highest yielding crop, oil palm, at 5 950 L/ha/year. ... In most gasoline engines, butanol can be used in place of gasoline with no modifications. In several tests, butanol consumption ... In addition, due to its high growth-rate, Ulva has been investigated as a fuel for use in the SOFT cycle, (SOFT stands for ...
The high chemospecificity has been confirmed also in the case of substrates presenting two potential redox sites. For instance ... and NADH-dependent butanol dehydrogenases EC 1.1.1.- (genes adh1, bdhA and bdhB), enzymes that have activity using butanol and ... The enzyme is present at high levels in the liver and the lining of the stomach. It catalyzes the oxidation of ethanol to ... Though this feature is not adaptive from an energy point of view, by making alcohol in such high concentrations so that they ...
Strong acids like HI and HBr can cleave this ether. In the presence of oxygen, dibutyl ether is oxidized to a peroxide or ... Dibutyl ether is obtained from dehydration of 1-butanol with sulfuric acid as a catalyst and dehydrating agent: 2C 4H 9OH → C ... dibutyl ether can be obtained by dehydration of 1-butanol on alumina at 300 °C. This compound is generally ...
The advantages compared to ferrite or elemental nanoparticles are: Higher magnetization Higher stability in acidic and basic ... In chemistry, a catalyst support is the material, usually a solid with a high surface area, to which a catalyst is affixed. The ... A promising candidate for high-density storage is the face-centered tetragonal phase FePt alloy. Grain sizes can be as small as ... The Debye/Rosenszweig model can be used for low amplitude or high frequency oscillations of particles, which assumes linear ...
A 2017 meta-analysis found higher circulating TMAO was associated with 23% higher risk of cardiovascular events and a 55% ... High concentrations of carnitine are found in red meat, some energy drinks, and some dietary supplements. Some types of normal ... The concentration of TMAO increases with the depth at which the animal lives; TMAO is found in high concentrations in the ... In general, the bodies of animals living at great depths are adapted to high pressure environments by having pressure-resistant ...
Benzyl butyl phthalate
... the toxic effect correlates with the water solubility of the phthalate which is relatively high for BBP compared to high ... Benzyl butyl phthalate (BBP) is a phthalate, an ester of phthalic acid, benzyl alcohol, and n-butanol. BBP is a clear liquid ... The adult exposure was estimated to be 2 μg/kg body weight/day in the U.S. BBP exposure to children is likely to be higher due ... Prenatal exposure to high levels of BBP in rats can lead to lower fetal body weight, increased incidence of fetal malformations ...
When a semiconductor is hit by a photon with an energy higher than the bandgap, an electron is excited to the valence band and ... Besides the high volumetric density, ammonia and hydrous hydrazine have a low flammability, which makes it superior to hydrogen ... This needs to be done with high safety measures due to the toxicity of ammonia for humans. Further research needs to be done to ... Making the anode basic and the cathode acidic increased the power density a lot, showing high peaks of around 1 W/cm2 at a ...
Atsumi, S.; Hanai, T.; Liao, J. C. (2008). "Non-fermentative pathways for synthesis of branched-chain higher alcohols as ... These are n-butanol, 2 stereoisomers of sec-butanol, isobutanol and tert-butanol. Butanol is primarily used as a solvent and as ... Salts of butanol are chemical intermediates; for example, alkali metal salts of tert-butanol are tert-butoxides. Butanol is a ... Butanol is a potential biofuel (butanol fuel). Butanol at 85 percent concentration can be used in cars designed for gasoline ( ...
The net energy released per cycle is higher for butanol than ethanol or methanol and about 10% higher than for gasoline. The ... The kinematic viscosity of butanol is several times higher than that of gasoline and about as viscous as high quality diesel ... t-Butanol is used as an additive in gasoline but cannot be used as a fuel in its pure form because its relatively high melting ... Compared to ethanol, butanol can be mixed in higher ratios with gasoline for use in existing cars without the need for retrofit ...
Clostridium produces much higher yields of butanol. Research is underway to increase the biobutanol yield from biomass. Butanol ... 2-butanol, and tert-butanol. The unmodified term butanol usually refers to the straight chain isomer. 1-Butanol occurs ... Therefore, a vehicle using butanol would return fuel consumption more comparable to gasoline than ethanol. Butanol can also be ... Butyraldehyde is then hydrogenated to produce butanol. A second method for producing butanol involves the Reppe reaction of ...
Hexadehydro Diels-Alder reaction
Products are often formed in high yield with few side-products. Catalysis - HDDA reaction occurs thermally or with a sub- ... high activation energy). Calculations have suggested that the formation of unsubstituted o-benzyne (from butadiyne and ... As a result of higher activation energy, some HDDA reactions require heating to elevated temperatures (>100 °C) in order to ... tricyclic ring systems from linear triyne precursors in one step and high yields via a thermally-initiated, intramolecular HDDA ...
It is an aggressive solvent with a Kauri-butanol value of 129 which is similar to 1,1,1-Trichloroethane Its increasing use in ... "substance of very high concern". Since 2007, it has been approved for use under the U.S. EPA's Significant New Alternatives ... and skin cancer at higher rates. Although 1-bromopropane is naturally produced, it is one of the very short- ... AS A SUBSTANCE OF VERY HIGH CONCERN According to Articles 57 and 59 of Regulation (EC) 1907/20061" (PDF). European Union. 29 ...
... including solid-state reaction or oxide mixture at high temperature, melt-quenching, and Czochralski growth. Particularly, high ... Overcoming High Pressures by 2,3-Bis(2-pyridyl)pyrazine Doping". Crystal Growth & Design. 15 (6): 3032-3037. doi:10.1021/acs. ... However, when exposed to high hydrostatic pressure, the tetragonal α-Ag2MoO4 forms as a metastable phase. Research published in ... "Behavior of silver molybdate at high-pressure". Journal of Solid State Chemistry. 196: 391-397. Bibcode:2012JSSCh.196..391A. ...
Mild solvents have low scores in the tens and twenties; powerful solvents like chlorinated solvents and "High Sol 10" or "High ... The Kauri-butanol value ("Kb value") is an international, standardized measure of solvent power for a hydrocarbon solvent, and ... In terms of the test itself, the kauri-butanol value (Kb) of a chemical shows the maximum amount of the hydrocarbon that can be ... "Stronger" solvents such as benzene can be added in a greater amount (and thus have a higher Kb value) than "weaker" solvents ...
Higher concentrations can lead to unconsciousness and coma after prolonged exposure. Contact with the skin and mucous membranes ... and its structural formula is similar to that of the alcohol n-butanol. 1-Butanethiol is prepared by the free radical catalyzed ... and at sufficiently high concentrations, it produces serious health effects in both humans and animals, especially as a result ... The scent of 1-butanethiol is so strong that the human nose can easily detect it in the air at concentrations as low as 10 ...
From Redox data, Butyryl-COA dehydrogenase shows little to no activity at pH higher than 7.0. This is important as Enzyme ... "Selective n-Butanol Production by Clostridium sp. MTButOH1365 During Continuous Synthesis Gas Fermentation Due to Expression of ... and NAD-Dependent Butanol Dehydrogenase". Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology. 169 (3): 950-959. doi:10.1007/s12010-012-0060 ... Butyryl-COA dehydrogenase Oxidation-Reduction reaction consists of 2 electron transfer with 1 proton exchange. Ideally, this ...
Identification of high-risk individuals could lead to improved methods of prevention of tobacco-related cancer, and improved ... Such individuals would be at higher risk for cancer when they use tobacco products or are exposed to secondhand smoke. ... Others include N′-nitrosoanatabine (NAT) and N-nitrosoanabasine (NAB). NNK and its metabolite 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3- ... pyridyl)-1-butanol (NNAL) are potent systemic lung carcinogens in rats. Tumors of the nasal cavity, liver, and pancreas are ...
In most gasoline engines, butanol can be used in place of gasoline with no modifications. In several tests, butanol consumption ... which is 10 to 23 times as high as the next highest yielding crop, oil palm, at 5 950 L/ha/year. The U.S. Department of ... Butanol can be made from algae or diatoms using only a solar powered biorefinery. This fuel has an energy density 10% less than ... The green waste left over from the algae oil extraction can be used to produce butanol. In addition, it has been shown that ...
In other words, the higher the amylopectin content, the higher the swelling of the starch granule. Though the amylopectin ... The chemicals that make up the flavour of plain or "natural" mochi are ethyl ester acetic acid, ethanol, 2-butanol, 2 methyl 1- ... The high amylopectin content of waxy or glutinous starches is genetically controlled by the waxy or wax gene. Its quality of ... The protein concentration of the rice is higher than that of normal short-grain rice, and the two also differ in amylose ...
A diluted odorous mixture and an odor-free gas-n-Butanol-as a reference are presented from sniffing ports to a group of ... Higher cognitive brain mechanisms and more olfactory brain regions enable humans to discriminate odors better than other ... If the source has high humidity. Issues such as temperature and humidity are best overcome using either pre-dilution or dynamic ... The recognition odor threshold is usually a factor of 2 to 5 times higher than the detection threshold. ...
Therefore, it can be used to determine the thermal conductivity of gases at high temperatures, where it is difficult to measure ... 50 for n-butanol between 100 and 40,000 for engine oil 1000 for glycerol 10,000 for polymer melts around 1×1025 for Earth's ... The ratio of the thermal to momentum boundary layer over a flat plate is well approximated by δ t δ = P r − 1 / 3 , 0.6 ≤ P r ... 1) relative to momentum. Consequently thermal boundary layer is much thicker for liquid metals and much thinner for oils ...
List of honey bee pheromones
The amounts of 2-heptanone increase with the age of bees and becomes higher in the case of foragers. It was therefore suggested ... n-butanol, 1-octanol, hexyl acetate, octyl acetate, n-pentyl acetate and 2-nonanol. These chemical compounds have low molecular ... 240 (1): 153-158. doi:10.1007/BF00217569. ISSN 1432-0878. S2CID 45073312. Katzav-Gozansky T., Soroker V., Hefetz A. (2002). " ... doi:10.1016/0022-1910(71)90077-1. Butler, C. 1609. The Feminine Monarchie. On a Treatise Concerning Bees, and the Due Ordering ...
If the source is under vacuum if the source is at a high temperature If the source has high humidity Issues such as temperature ... A diluted odorous mixture and an odor-free gas-n-Butanol-as a reference are presented from sniffing ports to a group of ... Higher cognitive brain mechanisms and more olfactory brain regions enable humans to discriminate odors better than other ... The recognition odor threshold is usually a factor of two to five higher than the detection threshold. The measurement of odor ...
Butanol, with a four-carbon chain, is moderately soluble. Because of hydrogen bonding, alcohols tend to have higher boiling ... Like ethanol, butanol can be produced by fermentation processes. Saccharomyces yeast are known to produce these higher alcohols ... Ethanol, isopropanol, 2-butanol, and tert-butanol are produced by this general method. Two implementations are employed, the ... When a higher priority group is present in the compound, the prefix hydroxy- is used in its IUPAC name. The suffix -ol in non- ...
... butanol, ethanol) and experimental modifications of the process show potentially high net energy gains with butanol as the only ... One drawback to butanol production in E. coli remains the high cost of nutrient rich media, however, recent work has ... high evidence, high agreement), including reduced emissions of black carbon, a short-lived climate forcer that also causes ... Algal fuels have high yields, can be grown with minimal impact on fresh water resources, can be produced using saline water and ...
Electrochemical reduction of carbon dioxide
Many processes suffer from high overpotential, low current efficiency, low selectivity, slow kinetics, and/or poor catalyst ... ISBN 1-56670-284-4 Rosen, Brian A.; Salehi-Khojin, Amin; Thorson, Michael R.; Zhu, W.; Whipple, Devin T.; Kenis, Paul J. A.; ... 1 (24): 3451-3458. doi:10.1021/jz1012627. Machundaa, R.L.; et al. (2011). "Electrocatalytic reduction of CO 2 gas at Sn-based ... 160 (1): F69-F74. doi:10.1149/2.052301jes. ISSN 0013-4651. S2CID 95111100. Lv, Jing-Jing; Jouny, Matthew; Luc, Wesley; Zhu, ...
In the US, it is considered a High Production Volume Chemical because greater than 100 million pounds of this chemical is ... 2-Butoxyethanol is commonly obtained through two processes; the ethoxylation reaction of butanol and ethylene oxide in the ... Laboratory tests by the U. S. National Toxicology Program have shown that only sustained exposure to high concentrations (100- ... Harmful effects have been observed in nonhuman mammals exposed to high levels of 2-butoxyethanol. Developmental effects were ...
Liquid-liquid behaviour of ionic liquid-1-butanol-water and high pressure CO2-induced phase changes - Lancaster...
... of water added to butanol. The hydrostatic pressure effect on cloud points is rather modest (approximate to-3.5 x 10(-3) K bar ... a new apparatus which employs a high-pressure variable-volume cell, was conceived and built. The apparatus was tested for the ... If a small amount of water is present in the [C(4)mim][NTf2]-1-butanol system it decreases the UCST as much as 1.5 K per mol% ... Najdanovic-Visak, Vesna and Rebelo, Luis P. N. and da Ponte, Manuel Nunes (2005) Liquid-liquid behaviour of ionic liquid-1- ...
Figure 1 from Production, Purification, and Characterization of a Xylooligosaccharides-forming Xylanase from High-butanol...
... and Characterization of a Xylooligosaccharides-forming Xylanase from High-butanol-producing Strain Clostridium sp. BOH3 ... 1 Xylanase purification by using FPLC with an anion exchange Q-column.Only fractions 1 and 2 show xylanase activity - ... Production, Purification, and Characterization of a Xylooligosaccharides-forming Xylanase from High-butanol-producing Strain ... Butanol production from thin stillage using Clostridium pasteurianum.. Jae-hyung Ahn, Byoung-In Sang, Youngsoon Um ...
'1 butanol' Protocols and Video...
Radiolabeling and Quantification of Cellular Levels of Phosphoinositides by High Performance Liquid Chromatography-coupled Flow ... 1 butanol include Pouring and Running a Protein Gel by reusing Commercial Cassettes, Directed Assembly of Elastin-like ... JoVE Core JoVE Science Education JoVE Lab Manual High Schools Faculty Resource Center ... Radiolabeling and Quantification of Cellular Levels of Phosphoinositides by High Performance Liquid Chromatography-coupled Flow ...
CISDOC - 3-Methyl-1-butanol
Density, Viscosity and Water Phase Stability of 1-Butanol-Gasoline Blends
Water solubility in 1-butanol-gasoline blend was determined as the temperature of a phase separation. The water was separated ... The aim of this work was to describe the density and viscosity and water tolerance of 1-butanol-gasoline blends. Density and ... Influence of ethanol and ethers used for gasoline blending on water phase stability of 1-butanol-gasoline blend was studied. ... In contrast to the ethanol-gasoline blends, 1-butanol remained in the hydrocarbon phase. ...
1-Butanol - Wikipedia
Clostridium produces much higher yields of butanol. Research is underway to increase the biobutanol yield from biomass. Butanol ... 2-butanol, and tert-butanol. The unmodified term butanol usually refers to the straight chain isomer. 1-Butanol occurs ... Therefore, a vehicle using butanol would return fuel consumption more comparable to gasoline than ethanol. Butanol can also be ... Butyraldehyde is then hydrogenated to produce butanol. A second method for producing butanol involves the Reppe reaction of ...
Catalysts | Free Full-Text | One-Pot Liquid-Phase Catalytic Conversion of Ethanol to 1-Butanol over Aluminium Oxide-The Effect...
For the most promising catalyst, a 25% ethanol conversion with 80% selectivity (among liquid carbon products) to 1-butanol ... Direct catalytic valorization of bioethanol to 1-butanol over different alumina supported catalysts was studied. Thirteen (13) ... catalysts were screened in search for the optimal material composition for direct one-pot conversion of ethanol to 1-butanol. ... and highest selectivity (Sbutanol = 62%) in the whole series. Nevertheless, it is expected that after optimizing catalyst ...
Biotechnology: An Illustrated Primer | Wiley
Quantitative target analysis and kinetic profiling of acyl-CoAs reveal the rate-limiting step in cyanobacterial 1-butanol...
Cyanobacterial 1-butanol production is an important model system for direct conversion of CO2 to fuels and chemicals. ... 2010), a given metabolite with higher intracellular concentration and turnover rate will have a higher carbon incorporation ... Considering the higher PYR/AcCoA ratio in strain EL22 compared to wild type (Fig. 4), the conversion of pyruvate to acetyl-CoA ... Since the PYR/AcCoA ratio of the strain BUOH-SE w/o pduP was also high similar with strain EL22 (Fig. 4), we therefore infer ...
NNAL (4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanol) Factsheet | National Biomonitoring Program | CDC
In studies of children exposed to ETS, levels of NNAL in urine have been 2 to 3 times higher than the levels found in ETS- ... Smokers had NNAL levels that were about 50 to 150 times higher than in nonsmokers. By measuring NNAL, scientists can estimate ... NNAL is a product formed after 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone (NNK) enters the body. NNK belongs to a group of ... Substance Profile-4-(N-Nitrosomethylamino)-1-(3-Pyridyl)-1-Butanonepdf iconexternal icon ...
Liquid-liquid behaviour of ionic liquid-1-butanol-water and high pressure CO<sub>2</sub>-induced phase...
... of water added to butanol. The hydrostatic pressure effect on cloud points is rather modest (≈-3.5 × 10-3 K bar-1). As for ... of water added to butanol. The hydrostatic pressure effect on cloud points is rather modest (≈-3.5 × 10-3 K bar-1). As for ... of water added to butanol. The hydrostatic pressure effect on cloud points is rather modest (≈-3.5 × 10-3 K bar-1). As for ... of water added to butanol. The hydrostatic pressure effect on cloud points is rather modest (≈-3.5 × 10-3 K bar-1). As for ...
CHARACTERIZATION OF N-GLUCURONIDATION OF THE LUNG CARCINOGEN 4-(METHYLNITROSAMINO)-1-(3-PYRIDYL)-1-BUTANOL (NNAL) IN HUMAN...
However, high Km values were also observed for the two O-glucuronidating enzymes UGT2B7 (9.3 mM) and UGT1A9 (23.1 mM) (Ren et ... In addition, the ratio of NNAL-N-Gluc/NNAL-O-Gluc was significantly higher in the urine of smokers compared with the urine of ... The high Km associated with UGT1A4-induced glucuronidation of NNAL brings into question the physiological importance of this ... Recent studies suggest that variability in levels of NNAL glucuronidation may be linked to subject smoking habits, with higher ...
Metabolic engineering of the ethylmalonyl-CoA pathway in M. extorquens AM1 for 1-butanol production
Finally, adaptive laboratory evolution was used as a tool to develop ,italic,M. extorquens,/italic, AM1 for high 1-butanol ... Metabolic engineering of the ethylmalonyl-CoA pathway in M. extorquens AM1 for 1-butanol production. ... We applied a serial transfer method to isolate two mutants that demonstrated improved 1-butanol tolerance compared to the ... Our success in producing 1-butanol from the engineered ,italic,M. extorquens,/italic, AM1 opens the possibility for using ...
Analysis of Total 4-(Methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-Pyridyl)-1-Butanol in Smokers' Blood | Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers & Prevention
The high sensitivity of LC-ESI-MS/MS, which has a sub-femtomole detection limit for NNAL, makes this method feasible with 1-mL ... A previous study of plasma from smokeless tobacco users found that total NNAL averaged 340 fmol/mL, eight times higher than ... LC-ESI-MS/MS provides both high-sensitivity and structural information supporting analyte identity. The method is practical and ... A disposable precolumn filter (Phenomenex) was used to protect the high-performance liquid chromatography column. The column ...
Better Bugs for Making Butanol | MIT Technology Review
The new technology could speed up the development of butanol biofuels into a cost-effective alternative to ethanol. While ... coli that is highly efficient in producing butanol, a promising new type of biofuel. ... With all the combined manipulations, the engineered microbes achieved an efficiency high enough for industrial use, says Liao. ... Butanol bugs: Through a series of genetic modifications, scientists programmed E. coli to make butanol efficiently, bringing ...
Processing of Odor Mixtures in the Drosophila Antennal Lobe Reveals both Global Inhibition and Glomerulus-Specific Interactions...
2001) A high signal-to-noise Ca2+ probe composed of a single green fluorescent protein. Nat Biotechnol 19:137-141. ... The concentration of PTX was set to 5 μm because concentrations of 10 μm and higher induced spontaneous calcium waves in the AL ... The upper bound was the response to a twofold higher concentration of the same odor. This test is based on the null hypothesis ... Odors were acquired from Sigma, and were of the highest purity available. New odor dilutions were prepared every week for the ...
n butanol - offers from n butanol manufacturers, suppliers, exporters & wholesalers
... n butanol suppliers, manufacturers, wholesalers, n butanol sellers, traders, exporters and distributors from China and around ... n butanol Manufacturers Directory ☆ 3 million global importers and exporters ☆ ... N-Butanol. Specifications N-Butanol 98%min 71-36-3 HIGH QUALITY AND COEPETITIVE PRICE ISO9001:2008 AAA standard .... ... BrightVisualNote: Total higher alcohol = Iso-propanol + n-Propanol + Iso-butanol + N-butanol + .... ...
Comprehensive molecular characterization of Methylobacterium extorquens AM1 adapted for 1-butanol tolerance | Biotechnology for...
... demonstrated increased growth rates and higher survival rates with the existence of 1-butanol. Whole genome sequencing revealed ... In this work, adaptive laboratory evolution was used as a tool to isolate mutants with 1-butanol tolerance up to 0.5 %. The ... However, M. extorquens AM1 is vulnerable to solvent stress, which impedes further development for 1-butanol production. Only a ... Therefore, it is highly desirable to obtain a strain with ameliorated 1-butanol tolerance and elucidate the molecular mechanism ...
butyl alcohol n butanol exporter - butyl alcohol n butanol manufacturers, exporters, factories, suppliers, China butyl alcohol...
... butyl alcohol n butanol manufacturers, factories, exporters, wholesalers, distributors, China butyl alcohol n butanol. EC21 - ... quality butyl alcohol n butanol from suppliers in China and around the world, ... butyl alcohol n butanol Suppliers Directory ☆ 3 million global importers and exporters ☆ ... N-Butanol. Specifications N-Butanol 98%min 71-36-3 HIGH QUALITY AND COEPETITIVE PRICE ISO9001:2008 AAA standard .... ...
High Purity Primary Solvents | Semiconductor Materials | Fujifilm USA
is one of the largest manufacturers of high purity chemicals in North America, serving the semiconductor, disk drive, flat ... Our purification expertise allows us to provide high purity chemicals which are unobtainable elsewhere ... If you are looking for a product that is not listed here, please call us at 1-800-662-0378. ...
Overall, our approach aims to move the emphasis away from the transition metal, and instead, place high importance on secondary ... Compared to ethanol, 1-butanol has a much higher energy density and is immiscible with water, mitigating corrosion and storage ... The appended groups serve at least three roles: they (1) promote a bifunctional activation pathway of H-H and related bonds, (2 ... These catalysts also are highly active for upgrading ethanol to 1-butanol. Ethanol can be produced from renewable feedstocks ( ...
3-alkyl-1-butanol attractants for frugivorous pest insects - Patent # 6224890 - PatentGenius
Compositions and lures are described which provide 3-alkyl-1-butanol vapors and vapor blends of 3-alkyl-1-butanol with one or ... Lures were loaded with about 5- or 10-.mu.l (low dose) or about 50 .mu.l (high dose) of 3-methyl-1-butanol. Lures were placed ... High speed CMOS output buffer using 3 volt or lower supply voltage supplied on a plurality of bond pads. ... New plastic jars were used for each change in test substrate, unless a higher concentration of the same substrate was used in ...
1-butanol - search results
Slightly higher Bin #2: Slightly lower Compounds: -butanol -but-2-enal -heptan-3-one -hept-4-en-3-one -cinnamaldehyde -3 ... n-butanol 3. 2-butanol 4. tert-butanol alcohol 5. pentane 6. hexanes I know that the forces include- dipole-dipole, ion-dipole ... Slightly higher Bin #2: Slightly lower Compounds: -butanol -but-2-enal -heptan-3-one -hept-4-en-3-one -cinnamaldehyde -3 ... Slightly higher Bin #2: Slightly lower Compounds: -butanol -but-2-enal -heptan-3-one -hept-4-en-3-one -cinnamaldehyde -3 ...
Safety - Distillers Wiki
I dont know which fruits are highest/lowest in pectin content, but apples are commonly considered the highest. ... 5907.3-Methyl-2-butanol.. dl-sec-Isoamyl alcohol; sec-isopentyl alcohol; isopropyl ethyl carbinol. Liquid, bp 113-114°. Fusel ... Hi temp ethanol steam is even more so. The vapor path (lyne arm) in a still should only be made of copper or stainless steel. ... High concns may cause CNS depression, narcosis; lower concns, headache, dizziness. 5906. 2-Methyl-1-butanol.. Active amyl ...
Performance of the Biocompatible Surfactant Tween 80, for the Formation of Microemulsions Suitable for New Pharmaceutical...
If high temperatures (around 60°C) are required, then the choice should be to add ethanol. On the other hand, if surfactant ... "Effect of temperature on pseudoternary system Tween-80-butanol-hexane-water," Journal of Colloid and Interface Science, vol. ... Similarly, at high temperatures the emulsion region shifted to the left; however, cloud point was not detected on the range of ... Bicontinuous phase displayed high or low conductivity depending on what the external phase was, water or oil. ...
Past PhD Defenses | College of Engineering, Michigan State University
Contribution and Mechanisms of Action of Graphite Nanomaterials in Ultra High Performance Concrete Tuesday, July 15, 2014 - 1: ... Structuring of Graphene Nanoplatelets to Produce High Surface Area Electrodes for Electrochemical Energy Storage Applications ... Tuesday, December 1, 2015 - 9:00am 3405 A/B Engineering Building Saisi Xue Chemical Engineering and Materials Science Improving ... Friday, August 1, 2014 - 10:00am August 1, 2014 10:00am Keith T. Honaker Chemical Engineering and Materials Science ...
Extraction of a Murine Tumor-specific Antigen from Cells and Plasma Membranes Using 1-Butanol: Augmentation of Antigen Yield by...
Modification of the extraction protocol using higher concentrations of butanol and longer extraction times did release ... To investigate this possibility, we extracted with butanol MCA-F cells that had been preincubated in colchicine. Treatment of ... Although brief incubation of intact MCA-F cells in 2.5% butanol releases potent immunoprotective activity, application of this ... Augmentation of antigen yield was also observed when plasma membranes were pretreated with colchicine prior to 2.5% butanol ...
Sako, T.; Sugeta, T.; Nakazawa, N.; Otake, K.; Sato, M.; Ishihara, K.; Kato, M., High pressure vapor-liquid and vapor-liquid- ... or 2-Butanol, J. Chem. Eng. Data, 1992, 37, 164. [all data] ... Kodama, D.; Kubota, N.; Yamaki, Y.; Tanaka, H.; Kato, M., High ... Kato, M.; Aizawa, K.; Kanahira, T.; Ozawa, T., A new experimental method of vapor-liquid equilibria at high pressures, J. Chem ... Kato, M.; Chung, W.K.; Lu, B.C.Y., Correlation of High-Pressure Vapor-Liquid Equilibrium Data in Intern. Symp. Vapor-Liquid ...
BIODIESEL, A CLEAN SOURCE OF ENERGY. - Free Online Library
Trans esterification produces high quality biodiesel with desired qualities of low viscosity and, high combustion power. ... Vegetable oils have high viscosity that hinders its proper combustion in the engine and causes numerous problems such as coking ... Micro emulsion technique may be employed to solve high viscosity problems. Solvents (such as methanol, ethanol and 1-butanol) ... Molar ratio should be 3:1 for vegetable oil and 6:1 for the animal fats, respectively. There are numerous methods of producing ...
Larsson Lab | Chalmers
But higher alcohols (such as butanol) would actually be more suitable as fuel, due to, e.g. their higher energy density and ... We have therefore started a project to engineer yeast for production of 2-butanol from a glucose-based media, a process which ... In more recent years we have also included butanol has an alternative biofuel that has many advantages compared to ethanol. S. ... Traditionally, butanol is produced either chemically or from Clostridial fermentations (yielding 1-butanol). However, 1-butanol ...
Produce butanolIsobutanolAlcoholsMethanolAcetone-butanol-ethanolFermentationTiterBiofuelTert-butanolImproved 1-butanol toleranceClostridiumIsomersEthanol to 1-butanolMethod for produciAlcoholConcentrations of butanolYieldMixturesStrains2016EscherichiaCarbonBiomassFeedstocks2017EthylDensityToleranceCompoundsTemperatureCrudeSolubilityHydrogenCombustionPathwaySolventsFuelsMetabolitesBioethanolButylChloroformConverts1987LignocellulosicProductionSolventInvention relatesFermentationsPurityAqueousBlendsMetabolismCatalystsBiosynthesisMicroorganismsStrainEsterificationExtractEnzymeStabilityYieldsOctane
- Butyraldehyde is then hydrogenated to produce butanol. (wikipedia.org)
- Prior to the 1950s, Clostridium acetobutylicum was used in industrial fermentation to produce butanol. (wikipedia.org)
- Research in the past few decades showed results of other microorganisms that can produce butanol through fermentation. (wikipedia.org)
- Although the bacterium does not produce butanol naturally, it is easy to modify and grows fast. (technologyreview.com)
- Instead of tweaking the pathway that the microbes employ for fermenting sugar into alcohol, Liao reasoned that he could program E. coli to produce butanol by diverting some of the microorganism's metabolites into alcohol production. (technologyreview.com)
- Ibrahim MF, Abd-Aziz S, Yusoff MEM, Phang LY, Hassan MA (2015) Simultaneous enzymatic saccharification and ABE fermentation using pretreated oil palm empty fruit bunch as substrate to produce butanol and hydrogen as biofuel. (springer.com)
- A1424 was able to produce butanol and isopropanol from various carbon sources. (biomedcentral.com)
- The second goal of my thesis study was to produce butanol isomers including 2,3-butanediol (2,3-BD) and isobutanol by industrial yeast S. cerevisiae strain. (illinois.edu)
- Two isomers 1-butanol (n-butanol and butan-1-ol) and 2-methyl-1-propanol (isobutanol) can be easily produced from biomass via fermentation. (hindawi.com)
- Isomers of 1-Butanol are isobutanol, 2-butanol, and tert-butanol. (wikipedia.org)
- Not only did Liao improve the efficiency of the process, but he also designed his microbes to produce a particular form of butanol called isobutanol. (technologyreview.com)
- Compared with 1-butanol, isobutanol has a higher octane number, which reduces knocking in the vehicle's engine. (technologyreview.com)
- Mainly, the microbes need to get faster at producing butanol, and their tolerance to isobutanol, which is toxic to the organisms, must improve. (technologyreview.com)
- The integrated strains could, with far lower expression levels than plasmid-based expression, produce high titers (10.0 ± 0.9 g/liter isobutanol in 48 hours) and yields (69% of the theoretical maximum). (sciencemag.org)
- 2. The method according to claim 1 wherein the butanol is isobutanol. (freepatentsonline.com)
- Presents individual monographs on the risks to health and the environment associated with 1-butanol, 2-butanol, tert-butanol, and isobutanol. (who.int)
- The overall goal of my thesis research is to produce four-carbon alcohols such as 1-butanol and 2,3-butanediol, and isobutanol as advanced biofuels and chemicals from microorganisms through metabolic engineering, systems biology, and synthetic biology approaches. (illinois.edu)
- Specifically, we generated bioengineered strains that were able to synthesize up to the highest 5362 and 4976 mg/L isobutanol, 1945 and 1747 mg/L 2-methyl-1-butanol (2 MB), and 785.34 and 781 mg/L 3-methyl-1-butanol (3 MB) from pure glucose and duckweed substrates, respectively. (bireme.br)
- Properties of alcohols and automotive gasoline with octane number 95 [ 1 , 5 - 7 ]. (hindawi.com)
- 1-Butanol is one of the "fusel alcohols" (from the German for "bad liquor"), which include alcohols that have more than two carbon atoms and have significant solubility in water. (wikipedia.org)
- TdS45 increased the ethyl acetate levels, while SbS42 caused a different production pattern of higher alcohols. (mdpi.com)
- But higher alcohols (such as butanol) would actually be more suitable as fuel, due to, e.g. their higher energy density and less corrosive properties. (chalmers.se)
- The corresponding homologous series of primary straight-chained alcohols comprises methanol (CH4O), ethanol (C2H6O), 1-propanol (C3H8O), 1-butanol, and so on. (wikipedia.org)
- Use of the mixture of glucose and glycerol was successful to achieve acetone-free, 1,3-PDO-free, and enhanced IB production with higher yield, productivity, and selectivity of butanol compared to those with glucose only, providing great advantages from the perspective of carbon recovery to alcohols. (biomedcentral.com)
- Objective The purpose of this lab is to determine the fuel efficiency of the two alcohols Ethanol and Butanol, by comparing their respective enthalpy changes. (ipl.org)
- Synthesis of alkyl glucosides by transglycosylation in monophasic alcohol media is thus most favorable for short chain alcohols, and should be carried out at high water. (lu.se)
- The present invention relates to a high-recovery, high-resolution method for purifying antihemophilic factor by using column chromatography techniques in the presence of sugars, polyhydric alcohols, amino acids or salts. (freepatentsonline.com)
- Overall, this study has broad implications for the sustainable biological production of higher-chain alcohols as advanced biofuels and chemicals which can replace the use of fossil fuel and petroleum. (illinois.edu)
- The concern is due to the presence of methanol (wood alcohol), an optic nerve poison, which can be present in small amounts when fermenting grains or fruits high in pectin . (homedistiller.org)
- Kato, M. , High pressure vapor-liquid equilibria and density behaviors for carbon dioxide + methanol system at 313.15 K , Netsu Bussei , 1996, 10, 16-20. (nist.gov)
- Solvents (such as methanol, ethanol and 1-butanol) have been used in micro emulsion technique. (thefreelibrary.com)
- A. 1-Propanol B. 1-Butanol C. n-pentane D. n-hexane E. methanol F. ethanol We shall be happy to critique your thinking. (jiskha.com)
- Butanol extract of S. wightii was observed with the highest ZOI (14.0 ± 0.83) against P. aeruginosa , whereas G. edulis methanol extract and U. lactuca ethyl-acetate extract were observed with the lowest ZOI (6.0 ± 0.0). (scirp.org)
- For E. coli , butanol and methanol extracts of G. edulis and U. lactuca showed the highest (12.0 ± 0.54) and the lowest (6.0 ± 0.0). (scirp.org)
- A two-phase solvent system containing chloroform/n-butanol/methanol/water (4:1:3:2, v/v/v/v) was selected following consideration of the partition coefficient of the target compound. (sigmaaldrich.com)
- Previously, we were able to successfully engineer the cyanobacteria Synechococcus elongates PCC 7942 to produce 1-butanol under anoxic and dark conditions via a modified CoA-dependent pathway (Lan and Liao 2011 ) based on the acetone-butanol-ethanol fermentation in Clostridium species (Gheshlaghi et al. (springer.com)
- Acetone-butanol-ethanol fermentation has been studied for butanol production. (biomedcentral.com)
- Bio-butanol production was started in the 1900s via acetone-butanol-ethanol (ABE) fermentation using clostridia. (biomedcentral.com)
- Biobutanol is an attractive renewable biofuel and intermediate chemical that has been produced from the ABE (acetone-butanol-ethanol) fermentation by solventogenic clostridia such as Clostridium beijerinckii. (illinois.edu)
- Direct fermentation of xylan by Clostridium strain BOH3 for the production of butanol and hydrogen using optimized culture medium. (semanticscholar.org)
- 1-Butanol occurs naturally as a minor product of the fermentation of sugars and other carbohydrates and is present in many foods and beverages. (wikipedia.org)
- Butanol can also be produced by fermentation of biomass by bacteria. (wikipedia.org)
- 1-Butanol occurs naturally as a result of carbohydrate fermentation in a number of alcoholic beverages, including beer, grape brandies, wine, and whisky. (wikipedia.org)
- H. osmophila and T. delbrueckii showed the highest capacity for prompt initiation of fermentation, while S. bacillaris achieved a higher fermentation rate in the second half of the process. (mdpi.com)
- The cold active butanol-tolerant endoglucanase was valuable for biobutanol production by a simultaneous saccharification and fermentation process. (springer.com)
- Ezeji TC, Qureshi N, Blaschek HP (2004) Butanol fermentation research: upstream and downstream manipulations. (springer.com)
- Hou XR, From N, Angelidaki I, Huijgen WJJ, Bjerre A (2017) Butanol fermentation of the brown seaweed Laminaria digitata by Clostridium beijerinckii DSM-6422. (springer.com)
- 6. The method according to claim 1 wherein the recovered butanol has an effective titer of at least about 37 g per liter of the fermentation medium. (freepatentsonline.com)
- 7. The method according to claim 1, wherein the fermentation medium further comprises ethanol, and the butanol-containing organic phase contains ethanol. (freepatentsonline.com)
- Its high efficiency to convert grape sugars to ethanol and the ability to withstand the harsh conditions of fermentation has established its hegemonic role in industrial winemaking as starter yeast culture ( Albergaria and Arneborg, 2016 ). (frontiersin.org)
- The fermentation yielded predominantly acetate and was strictly dependent on high bicarbonate concentrations. (asm.org)
- Effective isopropanol-butanol (IB) fermentation with high butanol content using a newly isolated Clostridium sp. (biomedcentral.com)
- Here, we report an effective isopropanol and butanol (IB) fermentation using a newly isolated Clostridium sp. (biomedcentral.com)
- More interestingly, using glucose-glycerol mixtures at ratios ranging from 20:2 to 14:8 led to not only acetone-free and 1,3-PDO-free IB fermentation but also enhanced IB production along with a much higher butanol content (butanol/isopropanol ratio of 1.81 with glucose vs. 2.07-6.14 with glucose-glycerol mixture). (biomedcentral.com)
- These butanol isomers, which occur naturally as products of fermentation, are also synthesized from petrochemicals and widely used as solvents and intermediates in chemical industries. (who.int)
- Although the ABE fermentation is considered as a promising process for butanol production, current drawbacks in the ABE fermentation include low titer, yield, and productivity of solvent production that needs to be improved to achieve an economically viable process. (illinois.edu)
- Therefore, the first goal of my thesis study was to improve the ABE fermentation by C. beijerinckii for production of butanol and its derivatives. (illinois.edu)
- First, optimization of ABE fermentation condition was conducted to maximize butanol production in a small-scale standard platform. (illinois.edu)
- Second, product diversification in the ABE fermentation producing butyl esters was carried out through simultaneous ABE fermentation, condensation, and extraction to compensate the low yield of butanol. (illinois.edu)
- the 1-butanol titer is 317 mg/L from CO 2 in 12 days using Synechococcus elongatus and 30 g/L from glucose in 7 days using Escherichia coli (Lan et al. (springer.com)
- Furthermore, when the mixture of glucose and crude glycerol at the ratio of 14:8 (total concentration of 35.68 g/L) was used, high butanol/isopropanol ratio (3.44) and butanol titer (9.86 g/L) were achieved with 1.4-fold enhanced butanol yield (0.28 g/g) and productivity (0.41 g/L/h) compared to those with glucose only at pH 5.5. (biomedcentral.com)
- The productivity and titer of butanol and total alcohol obtained in this study were higher than the previously reported results obtained using other natural IB producers. (biomedcentral.com)
- The metabolically engineered Pdc-negative S. cerevisiae containing heterologous 2,3-BD biosynthetic pathway successfully produced 2,3-BD at high titer, yield and productivity without ethanol production. (illinois.edu)
- Such features explain why this organism can produce butyric acid to a much higher titer and better tolerate toxic metabolites. (asm.org)
- Nevertheless 1-butanol could be a possible alternative to the ethanol which is currently the most useful biofuel for spark ignition engines. (hindawi.com)
- 1-Butanol produced from waste biomass or nonfood agricultural products is classified as the biofuel of the second generation [ 4 ]. (hindawi.com)
- Butanol is considered as a potential biofuel (butanol fuel). (wikipedia.org)
- In a push to find better biofuels to reduce gasoline consumption and lower greenhouse-gas emissions, scientists have genetically engineered E. coli that is highly efficient in producing butanol, a promising new type of biofuel. (technologyreview.com)
- Through a series of genetic modifications, scientists programmed E. coli to make butanol efficiently, bringing the biofuel closer to commercialization. (technologyreview.com)
- While ethanol is the main biofuel on the market today, energy firms are increasingly looking to alternatives such as butanol. (technologyreview.com)
- In more recent years we have also included butanol has an alternative biofuel that has many advantages compared to ethanol. (chalmers.se)
- Butanol is considered to be a better biofuel than ethanol because it. (bio-medicine.org)
- Butanol is considered to be a better biofuel than ethanol because its less corrosive and has a higher caloric value, giving a higher energy value. (bio-medicine.org)
- tert-butanol alcohol 5. (jiskha.com)
Improved 1-butanol tolerance1
- We applied a serial transfer method to isolate two mutants that demonstrated improved 1-butanol tolerance compared to the parent strain. (washington.edu)
- Figure 1 from Production, Purification, and Characterization of a Xylooligosaccharides-forming Xylanase from High-butanol-producing Strain Clostridium sp. (semanticscholar.org)
- A mesophilic Clostridium species that produces butanol from monosaccharides and hydrogen from polysaccharides. (semanticscholar.org)
- Butanol production from thin stillage using Clostridium pasteurianum. (semanticscholar.org)
- Clostridium produces much higher yields of butanol. (wikipedia.org)
- Metabolically-engineered cyanobacteria introduced with a heterologous Coenzyme A (CoA)-dependent pathway modified from Clostridium species can convert atmospheric CO 2 into 1-butanol. (springer.com)
- Most of these groups rely on the bacterium Clostridium acetobutylicum , which naturally makes a form of butanol called 1-butanol. (technologyreview.com)
- Butanol exists in four isomers. (hindawi.com)
- Human exposure to high concentrations is primarily occupational, while exposure to low concentrations is mainly through foods in which the isomers occur either naturally or as flavouring agents. (who.int)
- Although the butanol isomers can be classified as slightly or practically nontoxic, all isomers, in large amounts, have the ability to induce signs of alcoholic intoxication in both animals and man. (who.int)
- For this purpose, evolutionary engineering and metabolic engineering of pyruvate decarboxylase (Pdc)-negative S. cerevisiae were performed to increase the production of butanol isomers by eliminating ethanol production. (illinois.edu)
Ethanol to 1-butanol2
Method for produci1
- A second method for producing butanol involves the Reppe reaction of propylene with CO and water: CH3CH=CH2 + H2O + 2 CO → CH3CH2CH2CH2OH + CO2 In former times, butanol was prepared from crotonaldehyde, which can be obtained from acetaldehyde. (wikipedia.org)
- Animal experiments show isoamyl alcohol (3-methyl-1-butanol) to be an irritant to mucous membranes of the respiratory tract and eyes. (ilo.org)
- 1-Butanol (IUPAC: Butan-1-ol) also known as n-Butanol is a primary alcohol with the chemical formula C4H9OH and a linear structure. (wikipedia.org)
- At sub-lethal doses, 1-butanol acts as a depressant of the central nervous system, similar to ethanol: one study in rats indicated that the intoxicating potency of 1-butanol is about 6 times higher than that of ethanol, possibly because of its slower transformation by alcohol dehydrogenase. (wikipedia.org)
- alcohol, with high dilution of petroleum hydrocarbon, obtained by the action of ethylene oxide and n-butanol. (ec21.com)
- This page is your butyl alcohol n butanol one-stop source for the competitive price and quality. (ec21.com)
- Global butyl alcohol n butanol buyers find suppliers here every day. (ec21.com)
- All butyl alcohol n butanol Offers/ Products/ Company Profiles/ Images and other contents are posted by the user and EC21 shall not be liable for any such content. (ec21.com)
- Room temp alcohol will burn at ~50% ABV or higher with an ignition source. (homedistiller.org)
- For cold storage of low alcohol ABV (15% or less) PET, LDPE/MDPE/HDPE (Low/Medium/High density Polyethylene), stainless steel, or glass is fine. (homedistiller.org)
- Maximum ester may be produced with ratio of (1:3) reactant triglyceride and alcohol. (thefreelibrary.com)
- On the contrary, the presence of an alcohol (ethanol or 1-butanol) enhanced the solubility of the surfactant in the oil phase and decreased the mixture viscosity, resulting in improved surface activity. (hindawi.com)
- An electrotransport composition comprises at least one C2 -C4 lower alcohol, unsaturated derivatives thereof, or mixtures thereof, and at least one C8 -C14 higher alcohol, unsaturated derivatives thereof, or mixtures thereof. (google.com)
- An electrotransport composition comprises at least one C 2 -C 4 lower alcohol, unsaturated derivatives thereof, or mixtures thereof, and at least one C 8 -C 14 higher alcohol, unsaturated derivatives thereof, or mixtures thereof. (google.com)
- about 0.5 to 30% (v/v) of at least one C 2 -C 4 alcohol selected from the group consisting of ethanol, 1-propanol, 2-propanol, 1-butanol, 2-butanol, 1-butyl alcohol, and unsaturated derivatives thereof. (google.com)
- 5. The composition of claim 1, 2, or 3, wherein the C 2 -C 4 alcohol comprises ethanol. (google.com)
- 6. The composition of claim 1, 2, or 3, wherein the C 8 -C 14 alcohol comprises dodecanol. (google.com)
- In terms of the test itself, the kauri-butanol value (Kb) of a chemical shows the maximum amount of the hydrocarbon that can be added to a solution of kauri resin (a thick, gum-like material) in butyl alcohol without causing cloudiness. (wikipedia.org)
Concentrations of butanol1
- Modification of the extraction protocol using higher concentrations of butanol and longer extraction times did release measurable tumor antigen activity. (aacrjournals.org)
- If the heat of combustion of 1-butanol (C4H9OH) is 2,710 kJ/mol, what mass of oxygen is consumed when enough 1-butanol is burned to yield 26,400 kJ of energy? (jiskha.com)
- Augmentation of antigen yield was also observed when plasma membranes were pretreated with colchicine prior to 2.5% butanol extraction. (aacrjournals.org)
- It is noteworthy that the reactions reported herein each provide the corresponding rearranged product in high yield in a single synthetic step. (unt.edu)
- Manufacturer-reported, sales-weighted, average annual nicotine yield was assessed, as were nicotine yield sales trends by quartile: markedly low (0.10-0.60 mg/stick), low (0.61-0.80 mg/stick), moderate (0.81-0.90 mg/stick), and high (0.91-3.00 mg/stick). (cdc.gov)
- 05). Most pack sales occurred among high (41.5%) and low (30.7%) nicotine yield quartiles. (cdc.gov)
- There is provided a method for producing, at a high yield, a composition containing 3-chloro-4-methoxybenzylamine hydrochloride (CMBA-HCl) in which the purity. (patents.com)
- Demixing pressures of the ternary and quaternary mixtures, (1-butanol-water-CO2) and ([C(4)mim][NTf2]-1-butanol-water CO2), were determined for a few compositions and temperatures. (lancs.ac.uk)
- Demixing pressures of the ternary and quaternary mixtures, (1-butanol-water- CO 2 ) and ([C 4 mim][NTf 2 ]-1-butanol-water-CO 2 ), were determined for a few compositions and temperatures. (unl.pt)
- Demixing pressures of the ternary and quaternary mixtures, (1-butanol-water- CO2) and ([C4mim][NTf2]-1-butanol-water-CO 2), were determined for a few compositions and temperatures. (unl.pt)
- Compositions and lures are described which provide 3-alkyl-1-butanol vapors and vapor blends of 3-alkyl-1-butanol with one or more compounds selected from the group consisting of acetic acid, ammonia, putrescine and mixtures which function as highly effective attractants for frugivorous pest flies especially of Anastrepha species. (patentgenius.com)
- 3. The ink according to claim 1, wherein the one or more surfactant is selected from the group consisting of anionic surfactants, cationic surfactants, non-ionic surfactants, zwitterionic surfactants, and mixtures thereof. (patentgenius.com)
- 13. The ink according to claim 1 wherein the monomer is selected from the group consisting of acrylated esters, acrylated polyesters, acrylated ethers, acrylated polyethers, acrylated epoxies, urethane acrylates, pentaerythritol tetraacrylate,dipentaerythritol pentaacrylate, and mixtures thereof. (patentgenius.com)
- 15. The ink according to claim 1, wherein the one or more additives are selected from the group consisting of a wax, a dispersant, a synergist, a stabilizer, a viscosity modifier, a clarifier, and mixtures thereof. (patentgenius.com)
- Meanwhile, the boiling points of the compounds of the mixtures are 82.3 °C for 2-pronanol and 117 °C for 1-butanol (National Center for Biotechnology Information). (ipl.org)
- The process utilizes boron trifluoride catalysis with a promoter to produce oligomer mixtures that have surprisingly low viscosities at low temperatures and surprisingly high viscosity indexes as compared with the oligomers found in other methods. (google.com)
- Another study also showed that a diet high in choline markedly increases the growth of harmful Firmicutes colon bacteria that raise TMAO levels, and reduces levels of healthful Bacteroidetes that lower TMAO ( Molecular Nutrition and Food Research , July 5, 2016). (drmirkin.com)
- Development of a high-performing production strain for a desired molecule generally requires tuning the expression levels of native and/or heterologous genes in hosts such as Escherichia coli ( 1 , 2 ). (sciencemag.org)
- Escherichia coli has been engineered toward an archaebacterium with an unprecedented high level of archaeal ether phospholipids. (pnas.org)
- Here you can see the latest Metabolic Engineering Escherichia Coli Production Butanol From Crude articles that have been published worldwide. (bioportfolio.com)
- We have published hundreds of Metabolic Engineering Escherichia Coli Production Butanol From Crude news stories on BioPortfolio along with dozens of Metabolic Engineering Escherichia Coli Production Butanol From Crude Clinical Trials and PubMed Articles about Metabolic Engineering Escherichia Coli Production Butanol From Crude for you to read. (bioportfolio.com)
- In addition to the medical data, news and clinical trials, BioPortfolio also has a large collection of Metabolic Engineering Escherichia Coli Production Butanol From Crude Companies in our database. (bioportfolio.com)
- You can also find out about relevant Metabolic Engineering Escherichia Coli Production Butanol From Crude Drugs and Medications on this site too. (bioportfolio.com)
- Metabolic Pathway Engineering for High-level Production of 5-Hydroxytryptophan in Escherichia coli. (bioportfolio.com)
- For the most promising catalyst, a 25% ethanol conversion with 80% selectivity (among liquid carbon products) to 1-butanol could be reached at 250 °C. Additionally, the reaction kinetics and mechanisms were further investigated upon use of the most suitable catalyst candidate. (mdpi.com)
- Methylobacterium extorquens AM1, a facultative methylotrophic α-proteobacterium, has been engineered to generate 1-butanol from cheap carbon feedstocks through a synthetic metabolic pathway. (biomedcentral.com)
- Vegetable oils have high viscosity that hinders its proper combustion in the engine and causes numerous problems such as coking, carbon deposition, sticking of oil ring and thickening and gelling of lubrication. (thefreelibrary.com)
- From the following combustion: 1-butanol + oxygen = carbon dioxide + water. (jiskha.com)
- How many grams of carbon dioxide and water are produced when 130.6 grams of 1-butanol is completely burned? (jiskha.com)
- In addition, we determined carbon monoxide and found high amounts in the smoke being causative for high levels of carboxyhemoglobin (COHb) in the blood of smokers. (nih.gov)
- Natural gas is a fossil fuel with a high potential to become the bridging fuel in the transition towards a sustainable future because of its lower share of carbon compared to oil and coal. (doria.fi)
- Carbon-silicon (C-Si) polymeric films have been formed by electron beam bombardment or ultraviolet (UV) radiation of molecularly adsorbed vinyl silane precursors on metal substrates under ultra-high vacuum (UHV) conditions. (unt.edu)
- Possible RI-raising additives include metal-oxide nanoparticles and monomers/polymers containing atoms with high (compared to carbon) atomic numbers. (sigmaaldrich.com)
-  Renewable biofuels generally involve contemporary carbon fixation , such as those that occur in plants or microalgae through the process of photosynthesis . (wikipedia.org)
- STR00001## (in formula (1), R.sup.1 represents a 2n-valent group having 1 to 30 carbon atoms, R.sup.2 to. (patents.com)
- The fuel is butanol, It can be derived from lignocellulosic material, plant biomass parts that range from woody stems, straw, agricultural residues, corn fiber and husks, all containing in large part cellulose and some lignin. (bio-medicine.org)
- A number of research groups are engineering microbes that can convert sugar from various feedstocks into butanol. (technologyreview.com)
- Under the principles of sustainable development and being environmentally friendly, a new field, called green chemistry, has been developed based on waste minimisation, energy efficiency, nonhazardous raw materials, solvents or products, inherently safe chemicals processes, and on renewable feedstocks [ 1 ]. (hindawi.com)
- A review of 17 clinical studies covering 26,167 subjects, followed for an average 4.3 years, found that high blood levels of TMAO are associated with an almost double increased risk for an early death ( European Heart Journal , July 19, 2017;38(39):2948-2956). (drmirkin.com)
- 4-methyl-1-pentanol 2-methyl-2-butanol 3-ethyl-1-butanol 2, 2-diethyl-4-pentanol 3-ethyl -2-hexanol IS THERE ANY WRONG NAMES? (jiskha.com)
- On the other hand, higher levels of total ethyl esters were associated with SML. (frontiersin.org)
- A hitherto unknown crystalline form of (-)-(1R,2R)-3-(3-dimethylamino-1-ethyl-2-methylpropyl)-phenol hydrochloride, pharmaceutical compositions containing the. (patents.com)
- The most abundant volatile compounds in Gravenstein were 1-butanol, 2-methyl-1-butanol, 1-hexanol, ethyl butanoate, butyl butanoate, hexyl butanoate, hexyl hexanoate and a-farnesene. (nofima.no)
- The compounds having the highest aroma values (concentration/odour threshold) were ethyl butanoate, ethyl 2-methylbutanoate and ethyl hexanoate. (nofima.no)
- Ethyl butanoate could be an appropriate ripeness indicator compound in Gravenstein due to its increasing concentration during storage and its high aroma value. (nofima.no)
- The aim of this work was to describe the density and viscosity and water tolerance of 1-butanol-gasoline blends. (hindawi.com)
- Density and viscosity of 1-butanol are higher than that for gasoline and they can affect these parameters in the final gasoline blend. (hindawi.com)
- Density increases linearly and viscosity exponentially with the content of 1-butanol. (hindawi.com)
- 1-Butanol could affect the density and viscosity of its blends with gasoline due to their higher values compared to gasoline. (hindawi.com)
- Higher value of density results in higher amount of injected fuel. (hindawi.com)
- The lower heating value (energy density) of 1-butanol is close to that of gasoline. (hindawi.com)
- Compared to ethanol, 1-butanol has a much higher energy density and is immiscible with water, mitigating corrosion and storage issues. (umich.edu)
- AM1 for high 1-butanol tolerance. (washington.edu)
- Therefore, it is highly desirable to obtain a strain with ameliorated 1-butanol tolerance and elucidate the molecular mechanism of 1-butnaol tolerance in M. extorquens AM1 for future strain improvement. (biomedcentral.com)
- Whole genome sequencing revealed a SNP mutation at kefB in BHBT5, which was confirmed to be responsible for increasing 1-butanol tolerance through an allelic exchange experiment. (biomedcentral.com)
- We successfully screened mutants resistant to 1-butanol and provided insights into the molecular mechanism of 1-butanol tolerance in M. extorquens AM1. (biomedcentral.com)
- This research will be useful for uncovering the mechanism of cellular response of M. extorquens AM1 to solvent stress, and will provide the genetic blueprint for the rational design of a strain of M. extorquens AM1 with increased 1-butanol tolerance in the future. (biomedcentral.com)
- Therefore, it is difficult to improve 1-butanol tolerance of M. extorquens AM1 through manipulating a single gene or a few genes as a cluster. (biomedcentral.com)
- The major tasks are (1) to improve tolerance to 2-butanol, (2) to identify and subsequently express the two genes encoding protein activities required for formation of 2-butanol, and (3) to optimize growth conditions and metabolism (the latter to be achieved by metabolic engineering of pathways predicted to be relevant). (chalmers.se)
- Fig. 1 ) and its glucuronides (NNAL-Glucs) are metabolites of NNK in rodents and humans, and numerous studies have quantified levels of these compounds in the urine of smokers, smokeless tobacco users, and nonsmokers exposed to environmental tobacco smoke ( 6 , 7 ). (aacrjournals.org)
- The well-known Maillard reaction results from an interaction between amino compounds, usually amino acids or proteins, and reducing carbohydrates (1). (scribd.com)
- Moreover, volatile lipid oxidation products can affect product odour in concentrations below 1 ng/g for some volatile compounds. (dtu.dk)
- The first two compounds were detected at the highest frequency when combining both media. (cdc.gov)
- Moreover, the possible "curative" efficiency of fining treatments on wines contaminated by high concentrations of OTA was investigated by evaluating both the ability of different fining agents to remove the toxin and the simultaneous reduction of polyphenols and aroma compounds associated with each fining agent. (ajevonline.org)
- Concentrations of 54 volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and ventilation rates were measured in four new manufactured houses over 2-to-9.5 months following installation and in seven new site-built houses 1-to-2 months after completion. (buildingscienceconsulting.com)
- His PhD thesis at the Pierre and Marie Curie University (UPMC) focused on the development of high-resolution mass spectrometry-based methods for the characterization and accurate identification of organophosphorus compounds and explosives. (chemweb.com)
- Roberts said that only one of the compounds, 3-methyl-1-butanol, is used in perfumes. (baltimoresun.com)
- The liquid-liquid equilibrium of the [C(4)mim][NTf2]-1-butanol system presents upper critical solution temperature (UCST) behaviour. (lancs.ac.uk)
- Water solubility in 1-butanol-gasoline blend was determined as the temperature of a phase separation. (hindawi.com)
- abstract = "The liquid-liquid equilibrium of the [C4mim][NTf 2]-1-butanol system presents upper critical solution temperature (UCST) behaviour. (unl.pt)
- Predict change in temperature for 1-butanol, CHSCH2CH2CH2OH, if same experiment were using 1-butanol? (jiskha.com)
- The cooking conditions of the agave pines such as high temperature, low pH (4.5), time, and humidity are highly favorable to the Maillard reaction (9). (scribd.com)
- Melt point temperature was 2.5 °C higher in 5% butanol solution (50.0 °C) than that in butanol-free solution (47.5 °C). At 45-60 °C, Gbbs-free energy change, ∆ G , was higher in 5% butanol solution than that in butanol-free solution. (springer.com)
- Tributyl Citrate (TBC) Market: Overview Tributyl Citrate (TBC), also known as Butyl Citrate, Tri-n-butyl citrate, and Tributyl Ester, is a colorless, non-toxic, and oily liquid with a high boiling point and fruity flavor at room temperature. (openpr.com)
- They also have significant physical properties such as high hardness, high temperature stability, and low thermal expansion. (openpr.com)
- Global High Performance Plastics Market: Overview High performing plastics are specially designed polymers with high mechanical strength, chemical resistance, and, all-importantly, temperature resistance. (openpr.com)
- Stability at high temperature is the main criterion used to differentiate high performance plastics from regular plastics, but the high mechanical strength of high performance plastics has made them a key component of the global manufacturing sector in recent years. (openpr.com)
- Anti-Herpes Simplex Virus Type-1 Activity and Phenolic Content of Crude Ethanol Extract and Four Corresponding Fractions of Quercus brantii L Acorn. (greenmedinfo.com)
- This research was aimed to evaluate anti-herpes simplex virus type-1 (anti-HSV-1) activity of crude ethanol extract and 4 corresponding fractions of Quercus brantii acorn in vitro. (greenmedinfo.com)
- Based on our results, the chloroform fraction and the crude extract had the highest effect against HSV-1 with selectivity indices of 53.8 and 48.4, respectively. (greenmedinfo.com)
- The crude extract (200 mg) was loaded onto a 280-mL HSCCC column and yielded 22 mg harpagoside and 31 mg angroside C with the purity of higher than 98 and 98.5%, respectively. (sigmaaldrich.com)
- the solubility of 1-butanol in water is 7.9g per 100g of water. (jiskha.com)
- The answer I found was that: only 1-butanol can form hydrogen bonds. (jiskha.com)
- Tran's esterification produces high quality biodiesel with desired qualities of low viscosity and, high combustion power. (thefreelibrary.com)
- Nora Azmani IB3G Chemistry HL Dr. Petersen Date of submission: 01/12/2014 Comparing the Enthalpy Changes of Combustion of Ethanol (CH3CH2OH) and Butanol(CH3CH2CH2CH2OH) in order to determine which one of them that is the more efficient as a fuel. (ipl.org)
- The most efficient fuel will be the one with the highest enthalpy change of combustion. (ipl.org)
- Combustion and emission characteristics of wood pyrolysis oil-butanol blended fuels in a diesel engine. (springer.com)
- Efforts to optimize the 1-butanol pathway in Synechococcus elongatus PCC 7942 have focused on the improvement of the CoA-dependent pathway thus, probing the in vivo metabolic state of the CoA-dependent pathway is essential for identifying its limiting steps. (springer.com)
- Therefore, intracellular metabolic profiling of the intermediates in the CoA-dependent pathway is expected to be essential for gaining clues for further optimization of the 1-butanol biosynthesis pathway. (springer.com)
- To tackle this problem, we performed targeted quantitative analysis and kinetic profiling of acyl-CoAs in the modified CoA-dependent pathway by using reversed phase ion-pair liquid chromatography-triple quadrupole mass spectrometry (RP-IP-LC)/QqQ-MS. This study aimed to gain insights into further CoA-dependent pathway optimization for the improvement of 1-butanol productivity in Synechococcus elongatus . (springer.com)
- AM1 and establish a synthetic 1-butanol pathway as a proof of principle case. (washington.edu)
- AM1 as a future industrial microorganism, a 1-butanol synthesis pathway was established in M. extorquens AM1 by diverting part of the native crotonyl-CoA flux from the EMC pathway to 1-butanol production. (washington.edu)
- The appended groups serve at least three roles: they (1) promote a bifunctional activation pathway of H-H and related bonds, (2) regulate the charge, and thus the hydricity of intermediate ruthenium hydrides, (3) function as a tethering group for a Lewis acid (alkali metal or borane) to coordinate to a substrate and direct hydride transfer, and (4) significantly improve reaction rates and product selectivities. (umich.edu)
- Here, we present a new approach for tuning pathway gene expression levels via random integration and high-throughput screening. (sciencemag.org)
- powerful solvents like chlorinated solvents and "High Sol 10" or "High Sol 15" (naphthenic aromatic solvents) have ratings that are in the low hundreds. (wikipedia.org)
- Stronger" solvents such as benzene can be added in a greater amount (and thus have a higher Kb value) than "weaker" solvents like mineral spirits. (wikipedia.org)
- The preferred use of 1-butanol in the road transport is the production of motor fuels for spark ignition engines by mixing with conventional gasoline. (hindawi.com)
- Cyanobacterial 1-butanol production is an important model system for direct conversion of CO 2 to fuels and chemicals. (springer.com)
- Particle number-size distributions and PM mass concentrations from diesel, n-butanol, and WPO-butanol blended fuels were investigated via aerosol measurements using a fast mobility particle sizer and an aerosol monitor with three generator outputs (0, 3.3, and 6.6 kWe). (springer.com)
- Global metabolomic analysis further discovered that the pools of multiple key metabolites, including fatty acids, amino acids, and disaccharides, were increased in BHBT5 in response to 1-butanol stress. (biomedcentral.com)
- TMAO is a key factor in regulating lipid metabolites in the liver, and at elevated levels has been linked with higher risks for heart attack, stroke , and all-cause death. (medscape.com)
- Direct catalytic valorization of bioethanol to 1-butanol over different alumina supported catalysts was studied. (mdpi.com)
- The largest use of 1-butanol is as an industrial intermediate, particularly for the manufacture of butyl acetate (itself an artificial flavorant and industrial solvent). (wikipedia.org)
- The n-hexane, n-butanol, and chloroform fractions inhibited HSV-1 replication in postadsorption stage (P (greenmedinfo.com)
- The results obtained indicated that the chloroform fraction of Q brantii acorn with high inhibitory effect against HSV-1 replication could be a new promising anti-HSV-1 agent. (greenmedinfo.com)
- 1987). 1-Butanol : health and safety guide. (who.int)
- In order to overcome this problem, the second generation biofuels are increasingly prepared from non-edible raw materials, e.g., wood, agricultural waste and other lignocellulosic materials [ 1 , 2 , 3 ]. (mdpi.com)
- Lastly, evolutionary engineering of C. beijerinckii was performed to increase cell growth on lignocellulosic hydrolysate which is a potential feedstock for industrial butanol production. (illinois.edu)
- The fuel is butanol It can be derived from lignocellulosic materia. (bio-medicine.org)
- Fermentative production of butanol--the industrial perspective. (semanticscholar.org)
- Constituting 85% of its use, 1-butanol is mainly used in the production of varnishes. (wikipedia.org)
- To the best of our knowledge, there is no report on the investigation of the in vivo metabolic state of 1-butanol-producing cyanobacteria in spite of the attention given to photosynthetic 1-butanol production system. (springer.com)
- However, M. extorquens AM1 is vulnerable to solvent stress, which impedes further development for 1-butanol production. (biomedcentral.com)
- We have therefore started a project to engineer yeast for production of 2-butanol from a glucose-based media, a process which is predicted to be redox neutral. (chalmers.se)
- 2-propanol and 2-butanol production, distn. (europa.eu)
- Akcapinar GB, Gul O, Sezerman UO (2012) From in silico to in vitro: modelling and production of Trichoderma reesei endoglucanase 1 and its mutant in Pichia pastoris . (springer.com)
- however, residual 1,3-PDO and acetone, low IBE production by natural IBE producers, and complicated gene modification are limitations. (biomedcentral.com)
- Directed strain evolution restructures metabolism for 1-butanol production in minimal media. (bioportfolio.com)
- Among the chemicals that can be produced by microorganisms, butyric acid is an important industrial chemical that has been used for the production of short-chain esters for perfume and food flavoring agents ( 1 ). (asm.org)
- The IEH was determined via screening out the mutant strain with the highest production of branched-chain organic acids (BCOA) using high throughput screening method. (bireme.br)
- 1-Butanol is used as an ingredient in processed and artificial flavorings, and for the extraction of lipid-free protein from egg yolk, natural flavouring materials and vegetable oils, the manufacture of hop extract for beermaking, and as a solvent in removing pigments from moist curd leaf protein concentrate. (wikipedia.org)
- 4. The composition of claim 1, 2, or 3, further comprising an aqueous solvent. (google.com)
- The Kauri-butanol value ("Kb value") is an international, standardized measure of solvent power for a hydrocarbon solvent, and is governed by an ASTM standardized test, ASTM D1133. (wikipedia.org)
- A higher Kb value means the solvent is more aggressive or active in the ability to dissolve certain materials. (wikipedia.org)
- The present invention relates to a preparation method of 4-isopropylamino-1-butanol, in which using cheap and readily available tetrahydrofuran and acetic acid. (patents.com)
- Traditionally, butanol is produced either chemically or from Clostridial fermentations (yielding 1-butanol). (chalmers.se)
- FUJIFILM Ultra Pure Solutions, Inc. is one of the largest manufacturers of high purity chemicals in North America, serving the semiconductor, disk drive, flat panel, pharmaceutical, and bio-tech industries. (fujifilmusa.com)
- The purpose of this investigation was to examine the ability of single-phase aqueous solutions of 1-butanol to release immunoprotective tumor antigen activity from partially purified plasma membranes of the methylcholanthrene-induced fibrosarcoma, MCA-F. Tumor antigen activity was assessed by s.c. immunization of syngeneic C3H/HeJ mice 10 days prior to supralethal challenge. (aacrjournals.org)
- In contrast to the ethanol-gasoline blends, 1-butanol remained in the hydrocarbon phase. (hindawi.com)
- To characterize NNAL metabolism by N- glucuronidation in humans, high-pressure liquid chromatography was used to detect glucuronide conjugates of NNAL formed in human liver microsomes in vitro. (aspetjournals.org)
- For example, a high NADH/NAD + ratio triggers overflow metabolism ( 33 ), and a low NADH/NAD + ratio enhances the glycolytic flux ( 38 ). (asm.org)
- Overall, our approach aims to move the emphasis away from the transition metal, and instead, place high importance on secondary-coordination sphere interactions (not directly bound to the metal) to develop new metal complexes and catalysts that synergistically engage substrates for binding/reduction, regulate activity, and ultimately incorporate earth-abundant metals. (umich.edu)
- Microbial biosynthesis is a sustainable, high-specificity approach to achieve chemical conversions with the potential to produce a vast assortment of pharmaceutical, fuel, and commodity chemicals. (sciencemag.org)
- However, 1-butanol is highly toxic to most microorganisms, which limits the yields. (chalmers.se)
- butanol-acetic acid esterification process and n_butene_acetic acid addition process. (ec21.com)
- An extract of Q brantii fruit has a high inhibitory effect against HSV-1 replication, and could be a new promising anti-HSV-1 agent. (greenmedinfo.com)
- 2. NAD + enzyme coupled reaction → NADH (then proceeds to reaction 1). (celltechnology.com)
- Influence of ethanol and ethers used for gasoline blending on water phase stability of 1-butanol-gasoline blend was studied. (hindawi.com)
- The prototype lip care formulations with the highest lipid content also had the lowest oxidative stability. (dtu.dk)
- 1,2 With the need for mechanical strength, environmental stability and ease of processing, polymeric-based materials have the potential to be excellent alternatives to traditional inorganic optical films. (sigmaaldrich.com)
- The main goal of this project is now to achieve higher yields of ethylene. (chalmers.se)
- Because the octane number of isoalkanes is higher than that for n-alkanes (in general), BP and other manufactures (e.g. (hindawi.com)
- Properties of conventional gasoline meeting requirements of CSN EN 228 with an octane number of 95, ethanol, and 1-butanol are compared in Table 1 . (hindawi.com)
- Not to mention to very viable use of n-butanol (1-butanol) as a gasoline alternative with high specific energy, high octane rating, and insolubility in water to a great extent. (theengineer.co.uk)