Hierarchy, Social: Social rank-order established by certain behavioral patterns.Social Dominance: Social structure of a group as it relates to the relative social rank of dominance status of its members. (APA, Thesaurus of Psychological Index Terms, 8th ed.)Agonistic Behavior: Any behavior associated with conflict between two individuals.Systematized Nomenclature of Medicine: Controlled vocabulary of clinical terms produced by the International Health Terminology Standards Development Organisation (IHTSDO).Immunodominant Epitopes: Subunits of the antigenic determinant that are most easily recognized by the immune system and thus most influence the specificity of the induced antibody.Aggression: Behavior which may be manifested by destructive and attacking action which is verbal or physical, by covert attitudes of hostility or by obstructionism.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Vocabulary, Controlled: A specified list of terms with a fixed and unalterable meaning, and from which a selection is made when CATALOGING; ABSTRACTING AND INDEXING; or searching BOOKS; JOURNALS AS TOPIC; and other documents. The control is intended to avoid the scattering of related subjects under different headings (SUBJECT HEADINGS). The list may be altered or extended only by the publisher or issuing agency. (From Harrod's Librarians' Glossary, 7th ed, p163)Mescaline: Hallucinogenic alkaloid isolated from the flowering heads (peyote) of Lophophora (formerly Anhalonium) williamsii, a Mexican cactus used in Indian religious rites and as an experimental psychotomimetic. Among its cellular effects are agonist actions at some types of serotonin receptors. It has no accepted therapeutic uses although it is legal for religious use by members of the Native American Church.Gene Expression Regulation, Developmental: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action during the developmental stages of an organism.Algorithms: A procedure consisting of a sequence of algebraic formulas and/or logical steps to calculate or determine a given task.Higher Nervous Activity: A term used in Eastern European research literature on brain and behavior physiology for cortical functions. It refers to the highest level of integrative function of the brain, centered in the CEREBRAL CORTEX, regulating language, thought, and behavior via sensory, motor, and cognitive processes.Caulobacter: A genus of gram-negative, aerobic, rod- or vibroid-shaped or fusiform bacteria that commonly produce a stalk. They are found in fresh water and soil and divide by binary transverse fission.Terminology as Topic: The terms, expressions, designations, or symbols used in a particular science, discipline, or specialized subject area.Transcription Factors: Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.Epitopes, T-Lymphocyte: Antigenic determinants recognized and bound by the T-cell receptor. Epitopes recognized by the T-cell receptor are often located in the inner, unexposed side of the antigen, and become accessible to the T-cell receptors after proteolytic processing of the antigen.Cell Lineage: The developmental history of specific differentiated cell types as traced back to the original STEM CELLS in the embryo.Sex Differentiation: The process in developing sex- or gender-specific tissue, organ, or function after SEX DETERMINATION PROCESSES have set the sex of the GONADS. Major areas of sex differentiation occur in the reproductive tract (GENITALIA) and the brain.Flagella: A whiplike motility appendage present on the surface cells. Prokaryote flagella are composed of a protein called FLAGELLIN. Bacteria can have a single flagellum, a tuft at one pole, or multiple flagella covering the entire surface. In eukaryotes, flagella are threadlike protoplasmic extensions used to propel flagellates and sperm. Flagella have the same basic structure as CILIA but are longer in proportion to the cell bearing them and present in much smaller numbers. (From King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Neoplastic Stem Cells: Highly proliferative, self-renewing, and colony-forming stem cells which give rise to NEOPLASMS.Economics, Behavioral: The combined discipline of psychology and economics that investigates what happens in markets in which some of the agents display human limitations and complications.Abies: A plant genus in the family PINACEAE, order Pinales, class Pinopsida, division Coniferophyta. Balm of Gilead is a common name more often referring to POPULUS and sometimes to COMMIPHORA.Phenotype: The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.Computer Simulation: Computer-based representation of physical systems and phenomena such as chemical processes.Models, Theoretical: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of systems, processes, or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Social Behavior: Any behavior caused by or affecting another individual, usually of the same species.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Gene Expression Regulation, Bacterial: Any of the processes by which cytoplasmic or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in bacteria.Cell Differentiation: Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.Drosophila: A genus of small, two-winged flies containing approximately 900 described species. These organisms are the most extensively studied of all genera from the standpoint of genetics and cytology.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.Homeodomain Proteins: Proteins encoded by homeobox genes (GENES, HOMEOBOX) that exhibit structural similarity to certain prokaryotic and eukaryotic DNA-binding proteins. Homeodomain proteins are involved in the control of gene expression during morphogenesis and development (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION, DEVELOPMENTAL).Computational Biology: A field of biology concerned with the development of techniques for the collection and manipulation of biological data, and the use of such data to make biological discoveries or predictions. This field encompasses all computational methods and theories for solving biological problems including manipulation of models and datasets.DNA-Binding Proteins: Proteins which bind to DNA. The family includes proteins which bind to both double- and single-stranded DNA and also includes specific DNA binding proteins in serum which can be used as markers for malignant diseases.Drosophila Proteins: Proteins that originate from insect species belonging to the genus DROSOPHILA. The proteins from the most intensely studied species of Drosophila, DROSOPHILA MELANOGASTER, are the subject of much interest in the area of MORPHOGENESIS and development.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Dictionaries, MedicalModels, Neurological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of the neurological system, processes or phenomena; includes the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Transcription, Genetic: The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.Ethology: The discipline pertaining to the study of animal behavior.Ecdysone: A steroid hormone that regulates the processes of MOLTING or ecdysis in insects.CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes: A critical subpopulation of regulatory T-lymphocytes involved in MHC Class I-restricted interactions. They include both cytotoxic T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and CD8+ suppressor T-lymphocytes.Sociobiology: The comparative study of social organization in animals including humans, especially with regard to its genetic basis and evolutionary history. (Merriam-Webster's Collegiate Dictionary, 10th ed)Photic Stimulation: Investigative technique commonly used during ELECTROENCEPHALOGRAPHY in which a series of bright light flashes or visual patterns are used to elicit brain activity.Visual Cortex: Area of the OCCIPITAL LOBE concerned with the processing of visual information relayed via VISUAL PATHWAYS.Software: Sequential operating programs and data which instruct the functioning of a digital computer.Semantics: The relationships between symbols and their meanings.Pattern Recognition, Physiological: The analysis of a critical number of sensory stimuli or facts (the pattern) by physiological processes such as vision (PATTERN RECOGNITION, VISUAL), touch, or hearing.Behavior, Animal: The observable response an animal makes to any situation.Classification: The systematic arrangement of entities in any field into categories classes based on common characteristics such as properties, morphology, subject matter, etc.Mice, Inbred C57BLGene Regulatory Networks: Interacting DNA-encoded regulatory subsystems in the GENOME that coordinate input from activator and repressor TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS during development, cell differentiation, or in response to environmental cues. The networks function to ultimately specify expression of particular sets of GENES for specific conditions, times, or locations.Brain Mapping: Imaging techniques used to colocalize sites of brain functions or physiological activity with brain structures.Visual Perception: The selecting and organizing of visual stimuli based on the individual's past experience.Concept Formation: A cognitive process involving the formation of ideas generalized from the knowledge of qualities, aspects, and relations of objects.Pattern Recognition, Visual: Mental process to visually perceive a critical number of facts (the pattern), such as characters, shapes, displays, or designs.Grooming: An animal's cleaning and caring for the body surface. This includes preening, the cleaning and oiling of feathers with the bill or of hair with the tongue.Generalization, Stimulus: The tendency to react to stimuli that are different from, but somewhat similar to, the stimulus used as a conditioned stimulus.Sex Determination Processes: The mechanisms by which the SEX of an individual's GONADS are fixed.Drosophila melanogaster: A species of fruit fly much used in genetics because of the large size of its chromosomes.Models, Genetic: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of genetic processes or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Competitive Behavior: The direct struggle between individuals for environmental necessities or for a common goal.User-Computer Interface: The portion of an interactive computer program that issues messages to and receives commands from a user.Insect Proteins: Proteins found in any species of insect.Biological Evolution: The process of cumulative change over successive generations through which organisms acquire their distinguishing morphological and physiological characteristics.Gene Expression Profiling: The determination of the pattern of genes expressed at the level of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION, under specific circumstances or in a specific cell.Genes, Regulator: Genes which regulate or circumscribe the activity of other genes; specifically, genes which code for PROTEINS or RNAs which have GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION functions.Cluster Analysis: A set of statistical methods used to group variables or observations into strongly inter-related subgroups. In epidemiology, it may be used to analyze a closely grouped series of events or cases of disease or other health-related phenomenon with well-defined distribution patterns in relation to time or place or both.Information Storage and Retrieval: Organized activities related to the storage, location, search, and retrieval of information.Astacoidea: A superfamily of various freshwater CRUSTACEA, in the infraorder Astacidea, comprising the crayfish. Common genera include Astacus and Procambarus. Crayfish resemble lobsters, but are usually much smaller.Proteins: Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.Protein Binding: The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.Bacterial Proteins: Proteins found in any species of bacterium.Gene Expression Regulation: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.Jaw Fixation Techniques: The stable placement of surgically induced fractures of the mandible or maxilla through the use of elastics, wire ligatures, arch bars, or other splints. It is used often in the cosmetic surgery of retrognathism and prognathism. (From Dorland, 28th ed, p636)Morphogenesis: The development of anatomical structures to create the form of a single- or multi-cell organism. Morphogenesis provides form changes of a part, parts, or the whole organism.Unified Medical Language System: A research and development program initiated by the NATIONAL LIBRARY OF MEDICINE to build knowledge sources for the purpose of aiding the development of systems that help health professionals retrieve and integrate biomedical information. The knowledge sources can be used to link disparate information systems to overcome retrieval problems caused by differences in terminology and the scattering of relevant information across many databases. The three knowledge sources are the Metathesaurus, the Semantic Network, and the Specialist Lexicon.Droperidol: A butyrophenone with general properties similar to those of HALOPERIDOL. It is used in conjunction with an opioid analgesic such as FENTANYL to maintain the patient in a calm state of neuroleptanalgesia with indifference to surroundings but still able to cooperate with the surgeon. It is also used as a premedicant, as an antiemetic, and for the control of agitation in acute psychoses. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 29th ed, p593)Hematopoietic Stem Cells: Progenitor cells from which all blood cells derive.Sexual Behavior, Animal: Sexual activities of animals.Promoter Regions, Genetic: DNA sequences which are recognized (directly or indirectly) and bound by a DNA-dependent RNA polymerase during the initiation of transcription. Highly conserved sequences within the promoter include the Pribnow box in bacteria and the TATA BOX in eukaryotes.Embryo, Nonmammalian: The developmental entity of a fertilized egg (ZYGOTE) in animal species other than MAMMALS. For chickens, use CHICK EMBRYO.Subject Headings: Terms or expressions which provide the major means of access by subject to the bibliographic unit.Ecdysterone: A steroid hormone that regulates the processes of MOLTING or ecdysis in insects. Ecdysterone is the 20-hydroxylated ECDYSONE.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Oviposition: The process of laying or shedding fully developed eggs (OVA) from the female body. The term is usually used for certain INSECTS or FISHES with an organ called ovipositor where eggs are stored or deposited before expulsion from the body.Dissent and Disputes: Differences of opinion or disagreements that may arise, for example, between health professionals and patients or their families, or against a political regime.Visual Pathways: Set of cell bodies and nerve fibers conducting impulses from the eyes to the cerebral cortex. It includes the RETINA; OPTIC NERVE; optic tract; and geniculocalcarine tract.Metamorphosis, Biological: Profound physical changes during maturation of living organisms from the immature forms to the adult forms, such as from TADPOLES to frogs; caterpillars to BUTTERFLIES.Knowledge: The body of truths or facts accumulated in the course of time, the cumulated sum of information, its volume and nature, in any civilization, period, or country.Internet: A loose confederation of computer communication networks around the world. The networks that make up the Internet are connected through several backbone networks. The Internet grew out of the US Government ARPAnet project and was designed to facilitate information exchange.Clone Cells: A group of genetically identical cells all descended from a single common ancestral cell by mitosis in eukaryotes or by binary fission in prokaryotes. Clone cells also include populations of recombinant DNA molecules all carrying the same inserted sequence. (From King & Stansfield, Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Peptides: Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.Logical Observation Identifiers Names and Codes: A vocabulary database of universal identifiers for laboratory and clinical test results. Its purpose is to facilitate the exchange and pooling of results for clinical care, outcomes management, and research. It is produced by the Regenstrief Institute. (LOINC and RELMA [Internet]. Indianapolis: The Regenstrief Institute; c1995-2001 [cited 2002 Apr 2]. Available from http://www.regenstrief.org/loinc)Magnetic Resonance Imaging: Non-invasive method of demonstrating internal anatomy based on the principle that atomic nuclei in a strong magnetic field absorb pulses of radiofrequency energy and emit them as radiowaves which can be reconstructed into computerized images. The concept includes proton spin tomographic techniques.Anatomy: A branch of biology dealing with the structure of organisms.Learning: Relatively permanent change in behavior that is the result of past experience or practice. The concept includes the acquisition of knowledge.Metabolic Networks and Pathways: Complex sets of enzymatic reactions connected to each other via their product and substrate metabolites.Auditory Perception: The process whereby auditory stimuli are selected, organized, and interpreted by the organism.Databases, Protein: Databases containing information about PROTEINS such as AMINO ACID SEQUENCE; PROTEIN CONFORMATION; and other properties.Reaction Time: The time from the onset of a stimulus until a response is observed.Antigen Presentation: The process by which antigen is presented to lymphocytes in a form they can recognize. This is performed by antigen presenting cells (APCs). Some antigens require processing before they can be recognized. Antigen processing consists of ingestion and partial digestion of the antigen by the APC, followed by presentation of fragments on the cell surface. (From Rosen et al., Dictionary of Immunology, 1989)Biology: One of the BIOLOGICAL SCIENCE DISCIPLINES concerned with the origin, structure, development, growth, function, genetics, and reproduction of animals, plants, and microorganisms.Larva: Wormlike or grublike stage, following the egg in the life cycle of insects, worms, and other metamorphosing animals.Species Specificity: The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Data Interpretation, Statistical: Application of statistical procedures to analyze specific observed or assumed facts from a particular study.Psychomotor Performance: The coordination of a sensory or ideational (cognitive) process and a motor activity.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Binding Sites: The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.Pupa: An inactive stage between the larval and adult stages in the life cycle of insects.Databases, Factual: Extensive collections, reputedly complete, of facts and data garnered from material of a specialized subject area and made available for analysis and application. The collection can be automated by various contemporary methods for retrieval. The concept should be differentiated from DATABASES, BIBLIOGRAPHIC which is restricted to collections of bibliographic references.Psychophysics: The science dealing with the correlation of the physical characteristics of a stimulus, e.g., frequency or intensity, with the response to the stimulus, in order to assess the psychologic factors involved in the relationship.Protein Modification, Translational: Any of the enzymatically catalyzed modifications of the individual AMINO ACIDS of PROTEINS, and enzymatic cleavage or crosslinking of peptide chains that occur pre-translationally (on the amino acid component of AMINO ACYL TRNA), co-translationally (during the process of GENETIC TRANSLATION), or after translation is completed (POST-TRANSLATIONAL PROTEIN PROCESSING).Evolution, Molecular: The process of cumulative change at the level of DNA; RNA; and PROTEINS, over successive generations.Blattellidae: A family of insects in the order Dictyoptera (COCKROACHES), including genera Blattella, Parcoblatta, and Symploce.Phylogeny: The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.Protein Structure, Tertiary: The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.Figural Aftereffect: A perceptual phenomenon used by Gestalt psychologists to demonstrate that events in one part of the perceptual field may affect perception in another part.Models, Psychological: Theoretical representations that simulate psychological processes and/or social processes. These include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Molting: Periodic casting off FEATHERS; HAIR; or cuticle. Molting is a process of sloughing or desquamation, especially the shedding of an outer covering and the development of a new one. This phenomenon permits growth in ARTHROPODS, skin renewal in AMPHIBIANS and REPTILES, and the shedding of winter coats in BIRDS and MAMMALS.Image Processing, Computer-Assisted: A technique of inputting two-dimensional images into a computer and then enhancing or analyzing the imagery into a form that is more useful to the human observer.Artificial Intelligence: Theory and development of COMPUTER SYSTEMS which perform tasks that normally require human intelligence. Such tasks may include speech recognition, LEARNING; VISUAL PERCEPTION; MATHEMATICAL COMPUTING; reasoning, PROBLEM SOLVING, DECISION-MAKING, and translation of language.Body Size: The physical measurements of a body.In Situ Hybridization: A technique that localizes specific nucleic acid sequences within intact chromosomes, eukaryotic cells, or bacterial cells through the use of specific nucleic acid-labeled probes.Evidence-Based Medicine: An approach of practicing medicine with the goal to improve and evaluate patient care. It requires the judicious integration of best research evidence with the patient's values to make decisions about medical care. This method is to help physicians make proper diagnosis, devise best testing plan, choose best treatment and methods of disease prevention, as well as develop guidelines for large groups of patients with the same disease. (from JAMA 296 (9), 2006)Functional Laterality: Behavioral manifestations of cerebral dominance in which there is preferential use and superior functioning of either the left or the right side, as in the preferred use of the right hand or right foot.Membrane Proteins: Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.Association Learning: The principle that items experienced together enter into a connection, so that one tends to reinstate the other.Body Patterning: The processes occurring in early development that direct morphogenesis. They specify the body plan ensuring that cells will proceed to differentiate, grow, and diversify in size and shape at the correct relative positions. Included are axial patterning, segmentation, compartment specification, limb position, organ boundary patterning, blood vessel patterning, etc.Nerve Net: A meshlike structure composed of interconnecting nerve cells that are separated at the synaptic junction or joined to one another by cytoplasmic processes. In invertebrates, for example, the nerve net allows nerve impulses to spread over a wide area of the net because synapses can pass information in any direction.Wnt1 Protein: A proto-oncogene protein and member of the Wnt family of proteins. It is expressed in the caudal MIDBRAIN and is essential for proper development of the entire mid-/hindbrain region.Models, Statistical: Statistical formulations or analyses which, when applied to data and found to fit the data, are then used to verify the assumptions and parameters used in the analysis. Examples of statistical models are the linear model, binomial model, polynomial model, two-parameter model, etc.Auditory Cortex: The region of the cerebral cortex that receives the auditory radiation from the MEDIAL GENICULATE BODY.Neural Networks (Computer): A computer architecture, implementable in either hardware or software, modeled after biological neural networks. Like the biological system in which the processing capability is a result of the interconnection strengths between arrays of nonlinear processing nodes, computerized neural networks, often called perceptrons or multilayer connectionist models, consist of neuron-like units. A homogeneous group of units makes up a layer. These networks are good at pattern recognition. They are adaptive, performing tasks by example, and thus are better for decision-making than are linear learning machines or cluster analysis. They do not require explicit programming.Occipital Lobe: Posterior portion of the CEREBRAL HEMISPHERES responsible for processing visual sensory information. It is located posterior to the parieto-occipital sulcus and extends to the preoccipital notch.Animal Communication: Communication between animals involving the giving off by one individual of some chemical or physical signal, that, on being received by another, influences its behavior.Models, Molecular: Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.Analysis of Variance: A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.Animals, Genetically Modified: ANIMALS whose GENOME has been altered by GENETIC ENGINEERING, or their offspring.Reproducibility of Results: The statistical reproducibility of measurements (often in a clinical context), including the testing of instrumentation or techniques to obtain reproducible results. The concept includes reproducibility of physiological measurements, which may be used to develop rules to assess probability or prognosis, or response to a stimulus; reproducibility of occurrence of a condition; and reproducibility of experimental results.Systems Biology: Comprehensive, methodical analysis of complex biological systems by monitoring responses to perturbations of biological processes. Large scale, computerized collection and analysis of the data are used to develop and test models of biological systems.Mice, Transgenic: Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.Databases, Genetic: Databases devoted to knowledge about specific genes and gene products.Attention: Focusing on certain aspects of current experience to the exclusion of others. It is the act of heeding or taking notice or concentrating.Neurons: The basic cellular units of nervous tissue. Each neuron consists of a body, an axon, and dendrites. Their purpose is to receive, conduct, and transmit impulses in the NERVOUS SYSTEM.Behavior: The observable response of a man or animal to a situation.Multipotent Stem Cells: Specialized stem cells that are committed to give rise to cells that have a particular function; examples are MYOBLASTS; MYELOID PROGENITOR CELLS; and skin stem cells. (Stem Cells: A Primer [Internet]. Bethesda (MD): National Institutes of Health (US); 2000 May [cited 2002 Apr 5]. Available from: http://www.nih.gov/news/stemcell/primer.htm)Trans-Activators: Diffusible gene products that act on homologous or heterologous molecules of viral or cellular DNA to regulate the expression of proteins.Language: A verbal or nonverbal means of communicating ideas or feelings.Sequence Alignment: The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.Database Management Systems: Software designed to store, manipulate, manage, and control data for specific uses.Genome: The genetic complement of an organism, including all of its GENES, as represented in its DNA, or in some cases, its RNA.Lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus: The type species of ARENAVIRUS, part of the Old World Arenaviruses (ARENAVIRUSES, OLD WORLD), producing a silent infection in house and laboratory mice. In humans, infection with LCMV can be inapparent, or can present with an influenza-like illness, a benign aseptic meningitis, or a severe meningoencephalomyelitis. The virus can also infect monkeys, dogs, field mice, guinea pigs, and hamsters, the latter an epidemiologically important host.Probability Learning: Usually refers to the use of mathematical models in the prediction of learning to perform tasks based on the theory of probability applied to responses; it may also refer to the frequency of occurrence of the responses observed in the particular study.Systems Integration: The procedures involved in combining separately developed modules, components, or subsystems so that they work together as a complete system. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Sequence Homology, Amino Acid: The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.Pattern Recognition, Automated: In INFORMATION RETRIEVAL, machine-sensing or identification of visible patterns (shapes, forms, and configurations). (Harrod's Librarians' Glossary, 7th ed)Gene Expression: The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.Oligonucleotide Array Sequence Analysis: Hybridization of a nucleic acid sample to a very large set of OLIGONUCLEOTIDE PROBES, which have been attached individually in columns and rows to a solid support, to determine a BASE SEQUENCE, or to detect variations in a gene sequence, GENE EXPRESSION, or for GENE MAPPING.DNA Primers: Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.Hematopoiesis: The development and formation of various types of BLOOD CELLS. Hematopoiesis can take place in the BONE MARROW (medullary) or outside the bone marrow (HEMATOPOIESIS, EXTRAMEDULLARY).Recognition (Psychology): The knowledge or perception that someone or something present has been previously encountered.Sex Characteristics: Those characteristics that distinguish one SEX from the other. The primary sex characteristics are the OVARIES and TESTES and their related hormones. Secondary sex characteristics are those which are masculine or feminine but not directly related to reproduction.Brain: The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.Software Design: Specifications and instructions applied to the software.Operon: In bacteria, a group of metabolically related genes, with a common promoter, whose transcription into a single polycistronic MESSENGER RNA is under the control of an OPERATOR REGION.Genes, Bacterial: The functional hereditary units of BACTERIA.Genes, Homeobox: Genes that encode highly conserved TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS that control positional identity of cells (BODY PATTERNING) and MORPHOGENESIS throughout development. Their sequences contain a 180 nucleotide sequence designated the homeobox, so called because mutations of these genes often results in homeotic transformations, in which one body structure replaces another. The proteins encoded by homeobox genes are called HOMEODOMAIN PROTEINS.Antigens, CD24: A cell adhesion protein that was originally identified as a heat stable antigen in mice. It is involved in METASTASIS and is highly expressed in many NEOPLASMS.Decision Support Techniques: Mathematical or statistical procedures used as aids in making a decision. They are frequently used in medical decision-making.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Mesoderm: The middle germ layer of an embryo derived from three paired mesenchymal aggregates along the neural tube.Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction: A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.Population Dynamics: The pattern of any process, or the interrelationship of phenomena, which affects growth or change within a population.Linguistics: The science of language, including phonetics, phonology, morphology, syntax, semantics, pragmatics, and historical linguistics. (Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)Reproduction: The total process by which organisms produce offspring. (Stedman, 25th ed)Decision Making: The process of making a selective intellectual judgment when presented with several complex alternatives consisting of several variables, and usually defining a course of action or an idea.Flow Cytometry: Technique using an instrument system for making, processing, and displaying one or more measurements on individual cells obtained from a cell suspension. Cells are usually stained with one or more fluorescent dyes specific to cell components of interest, e.g., DNA, and fluorescence of each cell is measured as it rapidly transverses the excitation beam (laser or mercury arc lamp). Fluorescence provides a quantitative measure of various biochemical and biophysical properties of the cell, as well as a basis for cell sorting. Other measurable optical parameters include light absorption and light scattering, the latter being applicable to the measurement of cell size, shape, density, granularity, and stain uptake.Caulobacter crescentus: A species of gram-negative, aerobic bacteria that consist of slender vibroid cells.Orientation: Awareness of oneself in relation to time, place and person.Vocalization, Animal: Sounds used in animal communication.Cognition: Intellectual or mental process whereby an organism obtains knowledge.Form Perception: The sensory discrimination of a pattern shape or outline.Cichlids: Common name for perch-like fish of the family Cichlidae, belonging to the suborder Labroidei, order PERCIFORMES.Biomechanical Phenomena: The properties, processes, and behavior of biological systems under the action of mechanical forces.Language Therapy: Rehabilitation of persons with language disorders or training of children with language development disorders.Zebrafish Proteins: Proteins obtained from the ZEBRAFISH. Many of the proteins in this species have been the subject of studies involving basic embryological development (EMBRYOLOGY).Task Performance and Analysis: The detailed examination of observable activity or behavior associated with the execution or completion of a required function or unit of work.Hepatocyte Nuclear Factor 1-beta: A hepatocyte nuclear factor that is closely related to HEPATOCYTE NUCLEAR FACTOR 1-ALPHA but is only weakly expressed in the LIVER. Mutations in hepatocyte nuclear factor 1-beta are associated with renal CYSTS and MATURITY-ONSET DIABETES MELLITUS type 5.Ecosystem: A functional system which includes the organisms of a natural community together with their environment. (McGraw Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Zebrafish: An exotic species of the family CYPRINIDAE, originally from Asia, that has been introduced in North America. They are used in embryological studies and to study the effects of certain chemicals on development.Cell Proliferation: All of the processes involved in increasing CELL NUMBER including CELL DIVISION.Alleles: Variant forms of the same gene, occupying the same locus on homologous CHROMOSOMES, and governing the variants in production of the same gene product.Programming Languages: Specific languages used to prepare computer programs.Computer Graphics: The process of pictorial communication, between human and computers, in which the computer input and output have the form of charts, drawings, or other appropriate pictorial representation.Cell SeparationFingers: Four or five slender jointed digits in humans and primates, attached to each HAND.
The fourth proof arises from the degrees that are found in things. A hierarchy of each quality. For there is found a greater ... In the hierarchy of complexity one might find a worm lower down, a dog higher, and a human higher than that. There exists ...
The office also settles labour issues which arise. It was instituted by Pope John Paul II on 1 January 1989. Jan Pieter Schotte ... catholic-hierarchy.org. ...
... hierarchy or authoritarian leaders. Independent associations of like-minded people arise spontaneously. The participants of the ... Anastasianism has been classified as part of the broad spectrum of self-described "Vedic" religions arising in post-Soviet ...
Separate dominance hierarchies are found for each sex. Male hierarchies are determined by age, tenure in the group, fighting ... Conflict often arises when one group member shows aggression toward a close relative of another. Further, both males and ... Within groups, aggression is directed primarily at individuals that are lower on the hierarchy. Once an individual is three ... abilities, and allies, while female hierarchies are dependent on maternal social status. A large proportion of interactions ...
This hierarchy was an inversion of the ranks these men had held during the revolution. Adams wanted to reverse the order, ... Disputes arose over the relative rankings of his chosen command. Washington selected Alexander Hamilton as his inspector ...
The Processes hierarchy describes the operations that the ISE will perform on the currently active module. The hierarchy ... The window also denotes issues or errors that arise with each function. The Transcript window provides status of currently ... The Design hierarchy consists of design files (modules), whose dependencies are interpreted by the ISE and displayed as a tree ... which includes the design hierarchy (Sources), a source code editor (Workplace), an output console (Transcript), and a ...
Groups of people can form a dominance hierarchy. For example, a hierarchical organization uses a command hierarchy for top-down ... Particular duties arise from each person's particular situation in relation to others. The individual stands simultaneously in ... According to Maslow's hierarchy of needs, humans need to feel love (sexual/nonsexual) and acceptance from social groups (family ... For example, a feudal society under a monarchy exhibits a strong dominance hierarchy in both economics and physical power, ...
Abraham Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs (1943) was applied to offer an explanation of how the work environment motivates employees ... Motivation in such cultures arises from finding creative solutions to problems, continually improving, and empowering agility. ... The next level of need in the hierarchy is safety, which could be interpreted to mean adequate housing or living in a safe ... And finally, Hierarchy cultures value control, efficiency, and predictability. Motivation in such a culture relies on ...
Certain variations among them rank the hierarchy of the queens and thus select the ultimate queen. Although the precise causes ... However, when several candidates of queens arise, there is competition among them. ...
In the carnival, usual social hierarchies and proprieties are upended; emphasis is placed on the body in its open dimension, in ... At the same time there arises a heightened awareness of one's sensual, material, bodily unity and community. Bakhtin's notion ...
... with these social problems in turn arising from structures and relationships of dominating hierarchy. They argue that apart ... As a body of ideas, social ecology envisions a moral economy that moves beyond scarcity and hierarchy, toward a world that ... Social ecologists claim that the systemic issue of hierarchy cannot be resisted by individual actions alone such as ethical ... The Ecology of Freedom: The Emergence and Dissolution of Hierarchy. Oakland: AK Press, 2005, p. 85-7. Bookchin, Murray. The ...
Challenges to elite power are often likely to arise on the margins of society. The arts, for example, are often seen as a means ... Entrenched hierarchies become increasingly rigid and out of touch with social realities. ... Monopolies of knowledge arise when ruling classes maintain their political power through their control of key communications ... 2] Wherever new media arise, so too do monopolies of knowledge concerning how to use the technologies to reinforce the power ...
As a result, new communities, using the words "Round Lake" in their corporate titles, arose. This resulted in a duplication of ... political hierarchies and village services which still exists. Since the 1970s, Round Lake has embarked on an expansive ...
The harem males suppress aggression between the females and prevent any dominance hierarchies from arising. Despite this, some ... the dominant males of the units are probably close relatives of one another and have an age-related dominance hierarchy. Bands ...
It can give emphasis to create a hierarchy to the piece of art. It is also important to note that color choices in design ... Overall is a mosaic form of balance which normally arises from too many elements being put on a page. Due to the lack of ... hierarchy and contrast, this form of balance can look noisy but sometimes quiet. A good design contains elements that lead the ...
Sometimes their position gives them power by placing them at the top of a political hierarchy. At other times, the structure of ... Earlier evolutionary models, by contrast, claimed that culture arose as an adaptation to the natural environment. Crucially, in ...
By that time, Rembrandt had arisen up the social hierarchy and had various success in life. In 1636, he successfully sued ...
Application which arises as people begin to use the technology in new ways within their practices. Such use tends to produce ... In the case of collaborative software, this included rigid career hierarchies, individualistic incentives, and competitive ...
The Vice-Curator is the "first and most senior living entity" in the college's hierarchy. The current Vice-Curatrice is Tanya ... "I arise again the same though changed"). The permanent head of the college is the Inamovable Curator, Dr. Faustroll, assisted ...
and Eastern Region, the necessary provision will be made in the Budget as and when the need arises. The organizational ... The following is the decision making hierarchy of officials in a Regional Rural Bank. Board of Directors Chairman & Managing ...
... arises from the simplicity of the language. The Chomsky (1956) hierarchy is a containment hierarchy of classes of formal ... From the Chomsky hierarchy perspective, if the algorithm can be specified on a simpler language (than unrestricted), it can be ...
Prestige is the "reputation or influence arising from success, achievement, rank, or other favorable attributes." Power and ... prestige are factors in determining a person's place in the social hierarchy, and they manifest themselves in multiple ways. ...
Traditionalistic political culture arose in the South, which elevates social order and family structure to a prominent role. It ... The political scientist Richard Ellis identified egalitarianism, individualism, and hierarchy as defining cultures in American ... Individualistic political culture arose from Dutch influence in the Mid-Atlantic region; it regards multiculturalism as a ... The formation of traditionalistic political culture is often thought to have arisen principally out of Virginia, the first and ...
Questions still arise on what will be the ecclesiastical status of the Church and who will head it, and as of February 2007 no ... The skeptical hierarchy of the Russian Orthodox Church called for a full Synodical council (Sobor) where this issue would have ... The Soviet régime initially supported it, then in the early 1930s destroyed its hierarchy, which it forced into exile. The ... After the nation became independent, the question of an independent and an autocephalous Orthodox Church arose once again. In ...
... linear hierarchy whereas there is a less rigid structure in Border Leicesters when a competitive feeding situation arises. In ... The dominance hierarchy of sheep and their natural inclination to follow a leader to new pastures were the pivotal factors in ... Primarily among rams, horn size is a factor in the flock hierarchy. Rams with different size horns may be less inclined to ... Sheep establish a dominance hierarchy through fighting, threats and competitiveness. Dominant animals are inclined to be more ...
This situation frequently arises in real world conflicts, ranging from schoolyard fights to civil and regional wars. The reason ... that arose during trench warfare in the First World War. Troops dug in only a few hundred feet from each other would evolve an ...
Hierarchy in somatic mutations arising during genomic evolution and progression of follicular lymphoma. . Blood 121, 1604-1611 ...
6). As the majority of the one-gene sharing edges involves the most common var types, the pattern could arise from these genes ... Thus, the activation hierarchy could bias var genes toward differential strength of immune selection. Other open areas for ... The pattern could also arise from differential selection pressure on the genes. Although our model assumes that parasites ...
very quick a true hierarchy of initials arose.. Here we can distinguish two periods, ... Here is where an authentic hierarchy of initials becomes clearly. distinguishable in two different levels, one in paint and one ... impacting the reader and establishing graphical hierarchy on the page.. Display script can appear in graphic sequences or ... At the top level of the hierarchy are historiated initial,. then a figurative initial, anthropomorphic, zoomorphic or floriate. ...
This command is documented in R84 of [RFC5654]. If EXER commands are input at both ends, then a race condition may arise. This ... Synchronous Digital Hierarchy SF Signal Fail SF-P Signal Fail on Protection path SF-W Signal Fail on Working path SFc Clear ... Operational Expectations of Synchronous Digital Hierarchy, Optical Transport Network, and Ethernet Transport Network Operators ... such as Synchronous Digital Hierarchy (SDH), Optical Transport Network (OTN), and Ethernet transport networks. Linear ...
2007) A hierarchy of timescales in protein dynamics is linked to enzyme catalysis. Nature 450:913-916. ... 27 and related discussion therein). The fact that the distance in the mutant is smaller arises most likely as a result of an ... We start by reproducing the trend in the measured change in catalysis upon mutations (which was assumed to arise as a result of ... 6 compared to WT DHFR arises out of an inability to sample higher-energy conformational substates. We will also emphasize the ...
They are those that will support the cause every step of the way; are not constrained by hierarchy; and take a solutions based ... mindset to every challenge that arises.. Attending relevant events can build knowledge and provide opportunities to network ...
Certain variations among them rank the hierarchy of the queens and thus select the ultimate queen. Although the precise causes ... However, when several candidates of queens arise, there is competition among them. ...
... and understand the safety hierarchy so you can limit your companys risk profile. ... and understand the safety hierarchy so you can limit your companys risk profile. ... The only time a case arises is after someone/something has already been harmed. So: just do the right thing. ... Safety Hierarchy. To guard against risks, a consensus among safety professionals has identified the following hierarchy of ...
National literatures arose to express common traditions and the common spirit of each people. New emphasis was given to ... Hierarchy over equality * Collective values over individualism * Divine or natural law over secular law ... Originally, conservatism as an organized political creed arose as a reaction against the Age of Enlightenment. Conservatives ...
Hierarchy in Somatic Mutations Arising During Genomic Evolution and Progression of Follicular Lymphoma 54th Annual Meeting and ... Hierarchy in somatic mutations arising during genomic evolution and progression of follicular lymphoma. Blood Green, M. R., ... We defined the hierarchy of somatic mutations arising during tumor evolution by analyzing the phylogenetic relationship of ... We describe a novel EGFR L798I mutation and find that EGFR C797S, which arises in ∼33% of patients after osimertinib treatment ...
Hierarchy in somatic mutations arising during genomic evolution and progression of follicular lymphoma. Blood. 2013;121(9):1604 ...
Hierarchy in Somatic Mutations Arising During Genomic Evolution and Progression of Follicular Lymphoma 54th Annual Meeting and ... Hierarchy in somatic mutations arising during genomic evolution and progression of follicular lymphoma. Blood Green, M. R., ... We defined the hierarchy of somatic mutations arising during tumor evolution by analyzing the phylogenetic relationship of ... Overlapping gene groups (OGGs) arise when exons of one gene are contained within the introns of another. Typically, the two ...
1, 1-12 (1980). "Hierarchies of models in reactive systems." In W. E. Stewart, W.H. Ray, and J. Conway (eds.), Dynamics and ... Aris, Rutherford (1961). The optimal design of chemical reactors: a study in dynamic programming. Academic Press. Aris, ... Aris, Rutherford (1989). Vectors, tensors, and the basic equations of fluid mechanics. Dover (reprint). Aris, Rutherford (1964 ... Aris, Rutherford (1965). Introduction to the analysis of chemical reactors. Prentice-Hall. Aris, Rutherford (1965). Dynamic ...
The hierarchy arises from approximation spaces considered at successively finer scales. A detailed analysis of stability, ... The hierarchy arises from approximation spaces considered at successively finer scales. A detailed analysis of stability, ...
Discovering hierarchy in reinforcement learning with hexq by Bernhard Hengst - In Nineteenth International Conference on ... of uncertainty that can arise. The Partially Observable Markov Decision Process (POMDP) (Ästrom, 1965; Sondik, 1971; Monahan, ... sub-space regions based on the state variables the algorithm uses temporal and state abstraction to construct a hierarchy of ...
1.8 The Requirements Hierarchy. The evolution of computing implies a requirements hierarchy (Figure 1.7). If the hardware works ... They only become a community if they see themselves as one, i.e. the community level arises directly from personal level ... As hardware over-heating problems are solved, software data locking problems arise. As software response times improve, user ... The idea of socio-technology arose when technology was implemented with ethics as an after-thought. ...
Every one was bound together in a graduated hierarchy of rank. But when the king was reached, there arose the question, who was ... Its enormous size arose from the fact that it represented the old kingdom of Mercia. Disorders and abuses were everywhere ... They wrote a circular letter to all the bishops and chapters in the country recounting the evils that arose from the preferment ...
If dominance hierarchies are an outcome of natural selection, and if early Homo sapiens were naturally selected (they were), ... It should be noted in the anarchist context that the contributions arise from the masses. [↩] ... If dominance hierarchies are an outcome of natural selection, and if early Homo sapiens were naturally selected (they were), ... Moreover, if dominance hierarchies genetically prevailed over humans, then anarchists must represent some kind of evolutionary ...
If the Higgs field had no mass term, then no hierarchy problem arises. But by missing a quadratic term in the Higgs field, one ... This is a hierarchy problem very similar to that of the Higgs boson mass problem, since the cosmological constant is also very ... A hierarchy problem occurs when the fundamental value of some physical parameter, such as a coupling constant or a mass, in ... Hierarchy problems are related to fine-tuning problems and problems of naturalness and over the past decade many scientists ...
5A). If Lgr5-expressing cells arise from mTert-expressing cells, then following a period of chase, LacZ+ Lgr5+ cells should ... Whether a similar hierarchy exists in the intestine remains to be determined. Interestingly, our lineage-tracing analysis ... 5I). These results provide important proof-of-principle evidence that Lgr5+ CBC cells can arise from mTert-expressing ISCs, ... It has recently been proposed that Lgr5+ cells in skin arise from a more "primitive" stem cell (30). ...
In comparison with the classical drift-diffusion system arising in the modeling of semiconductor devices, the originality of ... A. Jüngel and Y. J. Peng, A hierarchy of hydrodynamic models for plasmas. Zero-electron-mass limits in the drift-diffusion ... On the existence of solutions for a drift-diffusion system arising in corrosion modeling. Claire Chainais-Hillairet 1, and ... On the existence of solutions for a drift-diffusion system arising in corrosion modeling. Discrete & Continuous Dynamical ...
Often complexities arise, however, when women challenge anti-sexist men. Men get defensive when women critique their ... No one is above being questioned, as there should be no unnecessary hierarchy. The lack of principled criticism and self- ... of course that shouldnt just apply to women but everyone, since informal hierarchies are wider than just gender) ... back in the late 60s and early 70s and in some organisations subsequently that gave prominance to such issues arising in that ...
Title: On the stability of travelling wave solutions of integral-differential equations arising from synaptically coupled ... With an L2--norm minimization procedure we formally close the moment hierarchy. The 2-moment closure leads to semilinear ... 2) The juvenile migration arises as a response to high zooplankton density in the coast at the time of the migration, although ... We consider the moment-closure approach to transport equations which arise in mathematical biology. We show that the negative L ...
Hierarchy in somatic mutations arising during genomic evolution and progression of follicular lymphoma. Blood. 2013;121(9):1604 ... As individual genes have been described to increase the likelihood of transformation, the question arises of whether a ... Alternatively, biological transformation could arise entirely after diagnosis, a situation in which detection of the ... these findings point to transformation arising through selective pressures that are yet unidentified. ...
There is a hierarchy when credibility issues arise in the courts. It is not only a simple hierarchy of men over women, but it ...
  • Thus, the sequential performance of the two behaviors arises from one modulator activating the first behavior and also initiating the release of the second modulator. (jneurosci.org)
  • This is because most of the variation in behaviors arises due to differences we observe when taking consecutive measures of behavior on individuals. (utu.fi)
  • All animals, including humans, release stress hormones in response to stress, which aids in the stress response when a threatening situation arises. (yourtango.com)
  • We also compare our model with a dominance-based hierarchy and conclude that humans were probably egalitarian in hunter-gatherer-like societies, maintaining an average maximum of four or five social links connecting all members in a largest social network of around 132 people. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • Such simple patterns are universal - arising from a subtle interplay of feedback and linear processes - and not dependent on the details of whether the system involves cloud formations, patterns of light, animal skin patterns, concentrations of chemicals in reactions, etc. (salford.ac.uk)
  • As the phenotype (i.e. what we measure) is affected by many aspects, it is possible that phenotypic correlations arise through various processes, not all of which are equally interesting. (utu.fi)
  • This pattern appears to be real and not caused by biases arising due to statistical or publication processes. (utu.fi)
  • This outcome arises in part because our acquaintances are typically less similar to us than close friends, and in part because they spend less time with us. (leader-values.com)
  • Hierarchy problems are related to fine-tuning problems and problems of naturalness and over the past decade many scientists argued that the hierarchy problem is a specific application of Bayesian statistics. (wikipedia.org)
  • On October 17, Edge organized a Reality Club meeting at The Hotel Ritz in Paris to allow neuroscientist Stanislas Dehaene to present his new theory on how consciousness arises in the brain to a group of Parisian scientists and thinkers. (edge.org)
  • While this study relies on Darwin's familiar writings, this approach differs by suggesting a new hierarchy, allowing scientists to partially predict the next step in evolution. (thefutureofthings.com)
  • Recently, biologist Gerard Jagers from Radboud University has developed the "operator hierarchy," a system based on the complexity of particles and of organisms that can predict the next step in evolution. (thefutureofthings.com)
  • This linear hierarchy ignores the fact that instead of just one there are three different dimensions for the increase in complexity," complains Jagers. (thefutureofthings.com)
  • But the mere distribution of a group of workers across occupations does not yield the information needed to infer their placement in the hierarchy of occupations. (pewresearch.org)
  • This bibliography of Rutherford Aris contains a comprehensive listing of the scientific publications of Aris, including books, journal articles, and contributions to other published material. (wikipedia.org)
  • Examination of the pathophysiology of these diseases has provided interesting insights into not only the hierarchy of leukemia stem cells but also their clonal evolution. (wiley.com)
  • Through his "hierarchy of needs," Maslow succeeds in combining the insights of earlier psychologists such as Freud and Skinner, who focus on the more basic human instincts, and the more upbeat work of Jung and Fromm, who insist that the desire for happiness is equally worthy of attention. (pursuit-of-happiness.org)
  • In theoretical physics, the hierarchy problem is the large discrepancy between aspects of the weak force and gravity. (wikipedia.org)
  • A hierarchy problem occurs when the fundamental value of some physical parameter, such as a coupling constant or a mass, in some Lagrangian is vastly different from its effective value, which is the value that gets measured in an experiment. (wikipedia.org)
  • In particle physics, the most important hierarchy problem is the question that asks why the weak force is 1024 times as strong as gravity. (wikipedia.org)
  • One proposed solution, popular amongst many physicists, is that one may solve the hierarchy problem via supersymmetry. (wikipedia.org)
  • The hand-washing conundrum arises from a problem all of us encounter, in our organizations and-let's face it-in our own psyches. (kornferry.com)
  • Universality would imply that this signature could predict fractal formation that is independent of both the detail of the physical system (e.g. in optics, whether this arises in interacting beams or in single- or multi-mirror configurations) and the particular type of material nonlinearity, or feedback loop, that drives the pattern formation. (salford.ac.uk)
  • Furthermore, the researcher is able to predict possible problems, barriers or conflict which could arise from and understand how other authors have dealt with a similar situation. (wiretrip.net)
  • To delineate the cellular hierarchy in human skeletal muscle and determine signaling networks that are disregulated in aged muscle stem cells (MuSC, defined as Lin- CD34+ CD20+ a7integrin+). (ca.gov)
  • There nonetheless has arisen a lively and growing strand of modern hylomorphism, more or less beholden to Aristotle but aiming not to present an historical analysis of a superannuated doctrine but rather a serious metaphysical position addressing current philosophical problems. (nd.edu)
  • but if we have to outlive sides using to a scholarly interruption, arising so from the realm to the sea or the wrote, we am generally greater landslides. (sunshineday.com)
  • Hierarchy results as an accumulation of individual interaction, group dynamics, and sharing of resources, therefore group size and composition can affect the dominance decisions of high-ranking individuals and hierarchy type. (wikipedia.org)
  • Reasoners can be used to assist with ontology development, automatically placing classes in a subsumption hierarchy based on their properties. (jove.com)
  • Hierarchies can be formed that have components, including a numerator time series with values from input data, a denominator time series with values from input data, and a ratio time series of the numerator time series over the denominator. (google.ca)
  • 4. The method of claim 1 , wherein modeling the components includes modeling the numerator time series and the denominator time series jointly at a node of the hierarchies. (google.ca)
  • 10. The method of claim 9 , wherein reconciling the forecasted hierarchies includes determining reconciled ratio forecasts using reconciled forecasts for the numerator time series and reconciled forecasts for the denominator time series. (google.ca)
  • A related issue arises with respect to comparisons over time. (pewresearch.org)
  • Biologists might have mistakenly classified the members of such a group together based on their morphology because these organisms share similar (analogous) features arising from convergent evolution. (scribd.com)
  • 6. The method of claim 5 , wherein reconciling the forecasted hierarchies includes using a weight associated with each of the components. (google.ca)
  • 11. The method of claim 9 , wherein modeling the components includes deriving confidence bands for the forecasted hierarchies using a transformation or simulation. (google.ca)
  • SfN does not assume any responsibility for any injury and/or damage to persons or property arising from or related to any use of any material contained in JNeurosci . (jneurosci.org)
  • Figure 1: A Three-tier ACTN control hierarchy The two interfaces with respect to the MDSC, one north of the MDSC and the other south of the MDSC are referred to as CMI (CNC-MDSC Interface) and MPI (MDSC-PNC Interface), respectively. (ietf.org)