Term used to designate tetrahydroxy aldehydic acids obtained by oxidation of hexose sugars, i.e. glucuronic acid, galacturonic acid, etc. Historically, the name hexuronic acid was originally given to ascorbic acid.
Component of dermatan sulfate. Differs in configuration from glucuronic acid only at the C-5 position.
Acids derived from monosaccharides by the oxidation of the terminal (-CH2OH) group farthest removed from the carbonyl group to a (-COOH) group. (From Stedmans, 26th ed)
Derivatives of GLUCURONIC ACID. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that include the 6-carboxy glucose structure.
A sugar acid formed by the oxidation of the C-6 carbon of GLUCOSE. In addition to being a key intermediate metabolite of the uronic acid pathway, glucuronic acid also plays a role in the detoxification of certain drugs and toxins by conjugating with them to form GLUCURONIDES.
A heteropolysaccharide that is similar in structure to HEPARIN. It accumulates in individuals with MUCOPOLYSACCHARIDOSIS.
Heteropolysaccharides which contain an N-acetylated hexosamine in a characteristic repeating disaccharide unit. The repeating structure of each disaccharide involves alternate 1,4- and 1,3-linkages consisting of either N-acetylglucosamine or N-acetylgalactosamine.
Oligosaccharides containing two monosaccharide units linked by a glycosidic bond.
Derivatives of chondroitin which have a sulfate moiety esterified to the galactosamine moiety of chondroitin. Chondroitin sulfate A, or chondroitin 4-sulfate, and chondroitin sulfate C, or chondroitin 6-sulfate, have the sulfate esterified in the 4- and 6-positions, respectively. Chondroitin sulfate B (beta heparin; DERMATAN SULFATE) is a misnomer and this compound is not a true chondroitin sulfate.
The sequence of carbohydrates within POLYSACCHARIDES; GLYCOPROTEINS; and GLYCOLIPIDS.
Carbohydrates consisting of between two (DISACCHARIDES) and ten MONOSACCHARIDES connected by either an alpha- or beta-glycosidic link. They are found throughout nature in both the free and bound form.
A six carbon compound related to glucose. It is found naturally in citrus fruits and many vegetables. Ascorbic acid is an essential nutrient in human diets, and necessary to maintain connective tissue and bone. Its biologically active form, vitamin C, functions as a reducing agent and coenzyme in several metabolic pathways. Vitamin C is considered an antioxidant.
Guidelines and objectives pertaining to food supply and nutrition including recommendations for healthy diet.
Works containing information articles on subjects in every field of knowledge, usually arranged in alphabetical order, or a similar work limited to a special field or subject. (From The ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)
The amounts of various substances in the diet recommended by governmental guidelines as needed to sustain healthy life.
The amounts of various substances in food needed by an organism to sustain healthy life.
A condition due to a dietary deficiency of ascorbic acid (vitamin C), characterized by malaise, lethargy, and weakness. As the disease progresses, joints, muscles, and subcutaneous tissues may become the sites of hemorrhage. Ascorbic acid deficiency frequently develops into SCURVY in young children fed unsupplemented cow's milk exclusively during their first year. It develops also commonly in chronic alcoholism. (Cecil Textbook of Medicine, 19th ed, p1177)
Any food that has been supplemented with essential nutrients either in quantities that are greater than those present normally, or which are not present in the food normally. Fortified food includes also food to which various nutrients have been added to compensate for those removed by refinement or processing. (From Segen, Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992)
Branch of psychology that deals with paranormal behavior and events such as telepathy, precognition, and clairvoyance, which are not explicable by present day "natural laws".
This discipline concerns the study of SEXUALITY, and the application of sexual knowledge such as sexual attitudes, psychology, and SEXUAL BEHAVIOR. Scope of application generally includes educational (SEX EDUCATION), clinical (SEX COUNSELING), and other settings.
The separation or resolution of the psyche into its constituent elements. The term has two separate meanings: 1. a procedure devised by Sigmund Freud, for investigating mental processes by means of free association, dream interpretation and interpretation of resistance and transference manifestations; and 2. a theory of psychology developed by Freud from his clinical experience with hysterical patients. (From Campbell, Psychiatric Dictionary, 1996).
The belief in or study of practices and knowledge of magical, mystical, or supernatural powers. ALCHEMY, astrology, and many RELIGIOUS PHILOSOPHIES are based upon occult principles.
Polysaccharides consisting of xylose units.
The study of CHEMICAL PHENOMENA and processes in terms of the underlying PHYSICAL PHENOMENA and processes.
Naturally occurring or synthetic substances that inhibit or retard the oxidation of a substance to which it is added. They counteract the harmful and damaging effects of oxidation in animal tissues.
Polyphenolic compounds with molecular weights of around 500-3000 daltons and containing enough hydroxyl groups (1-2 per 100 MW) for effective cross linking of other compounds (ASTRINGENTS). The two main types are HYDROLYZABLE TANNINS and CONDENSED TANNINS. Historically, the term has applied to many compounds and plant extracts able to render skin COLLAGEN impervious to degradation. The word tannin derives from the Celtic word for OAK TREE which was used for leather processing.
Gram-negative, non-motile, capsulated, gas-producing rods found widely in nature and associated with urinary and respiratory infections in humans.
Agents that prevent clotting.
A species of parasitic nematode widely distributed in tropical and subtropical countries. The females and their larvae inhabit the mucosa of the intestinal tract, where they cause ulceration and diarrhea.
NATIONAL LIBRARY OF MEDICINE service for health professionals and consumers. It links extensive information from the National Institutes of Health and other reviewed sources of information on specific diseases and conditions.
Information intended for potential users of medical and healthcare services. There is an emphasis on self-care and preventive approaches as well as information for community-wide dissemination and use.
Platforms that provide the ability and tools to create and publish information accessed via the INTERNET. Generally these platforms have three characteristics with content user generated, high degree of interaction between creator and viewer, and easily integrated with other sites.
Methods of delivering drugs into a joint space.
Differences of opinion or disagreements that may arise, for example, between health professionals and patients or their families, or against a political regime.
An acquired blood vessel disorder caused by severe deficiency of vitamin C (ASCORBIC ACID) in the diet leading to defective collagen formation in small blood vessels. Scurvy is characterized by bleeding in any tissue, weakness, ANEMIA, spongy gums, and a brawny induration of the muscles of the calves and legs.
A pair of glands located at the cranial pole of each of the two KIDNEYS. Each adrenal gland is composed of two distinct endocrine tissues with separate embryonic origins, the ADRENAL CORTEX producing STEROIDS and the ADRENAL MEDULLA producing NEUROTRANSMITTERS.
An enzyme involved in the metabolism of ASCORBIC ACID and aldarate. It catalyzes the oxidation of L-gulono-1,4-lactone to L-xylo-hex-3-ulonolactone.
Thickening and loss of elasticity of the walls of ARTERIES of all sizes. There are many forms classified by the types of lesions and arteries involved, such as ATHEROSCLEROSIS with fatty lesions in the ARTERIAL INTIMA of medium and large muscular arteries.
Lipid-protein complexes involved in the transportation and metabolism of lipids in the body. They are spherical particles consisting of a hydrophobic core of TRIGLYCERIDES and CHOLESTEROL ESTERS surrounded by a layer of hydrophilic free CHOLESTEROL; PHOSPHOLIPIDS; and APOLIPOPROTEINS. Lipoproteins are classified by their varying buoyant density and sizes.
A thickening and loss of elasticity of the walls of ARTERIES that occurs with formation of ATHEROSCLEROTIC PLAQUES within the ARTERIAL INTIMA.
A class of lipoproteins of small size (18-25 nm) and light (1.019-1.063 g/ml) particles with a core composed mainly of CHOLESTEROL ESTERS and smaller amounts of TRIGLYCERIDES. The surface monolayer consists mostly of PHOSPHOLIPIDS, a single copy of APOLIPOPROTEIN B-100, and free cholesterol molecules. The main LDL function is to transport cholesterol and cholesterol esters to extrahepatic tissues.
The principal sterol of all higher animals, distributed in body tissues, especially the brain and spinal cord, and in animal fats and oils.
Lipid-laden macrophages originating from monocytes or from smooth muscle cells.

Study of the response of a biofilm bacterial community to UV radiation. (1/801)

We have developed a bioluminescent whole-cell biosensor that can be incorporated into biofilm ecosystems. RM4440 is a Pseudomonas aeruginosa FRD1 derivative that carries a plasmid-based recA-luxCDABE fusion. We immobilized RM4440 in an alginate matrix to simulate a biofilm, and we studied its response to UV radiation damage. The biofilm showed a protective property by physical shielding against UV C, UV B, and UV A. Absorption of UV light by the alginate matrix translated into a higher survival rate than observed with planktonic cells at similar input fluences. UV A was shown to be effectively blocked by the biofilm matrix and to have no detectable effects on cells contained in the biofilm. However, in the presence of photosensitizers (i.e., psoralen), UV A was effective in inducing light production and cell death. RM4440 has proved to be a useful tool to study microbial communities in a noninvasive manner.  (+info)

The A modules of the Azotobacter vinelandii mannuronan-C-5-epimerase AlgE1 are sufficient for both epimerization and binding of Ca2+. (2/801)

The industrially important polysaccharide alginate is composed of the two sugar monomers beta-D-mannuronic acid (M) and its epimer alpha-L-guluronic acid (G). In the bacterium Azotobacter vinelandii, the G residues originate from a polymer-level reaction catalyzed by one periplasmic and at least five secreted mannuronan C-5-epimerases. The secreted enzymes are composed of repeats of two protein modules designated A (385 amino acids) and R (153 amino acids). The modular structure of one of the epimerases, AlgE1, is A1R1R2R3A2R4. This enzyme has two catalytic sites for epimerization, each site introducing a different G distribution pattern, and in this article we report the DNA-level construction of a variety of truncated forms of the enzyme. Analyses of the properties of the corresponding proteins showed that an A module alone is sufficient for epimerization and that A1 catalyzed the formation of contiguous stretches of G residues in the polymer, while A2 introduces single G residues. These differences are predicted to strongly affect the physical and immunological properties of the reaction product. The epimerization reaction is Ca2+ dependent, and direct binding studies showed that both the A and R modules bind this cation. The R modules appeared to reduce the Ca2+ concentration needed for full activity and also stimulated the reaction rate when positioned both N and C terminally.  (+info)

Modes of action of five different endopectate lyases from Erwinia chrysanthemi 3937. (3/801)

Five endopectate lyases from the phytopathogenic bacterium Erwinia chrysanthemi, PelA, PelB, PelD, PelI, and PelL, were analyzed with respect to their modes of action on polymeric and oligomeric substrates (degree of polymerization, 2 to 8). On polygalacturonate, PelB showed higher reaction rates than PelD, PelI, and PelA, whereas the reaction rates for PelL were extremely low. The product progression during polygalacturonate cleavage showed a typical depolymerization profile for each enzyme and demonstrated their endolytic character. PelA, PelI, and PelL released oligogalacturonates of different sizes, whereas PelD and PelB released mostly unsaturated dimer and unsaturated trimer, respectively. Upon prolonged incubation, all enzymes degraded the primary products further, to unsaturated dimer and trimer, except for PelL, which degraded the primary products to unsaturated tetramer and pentamer in addition to unsaturated dimer and trimer. The bond cleavage frequencies on oligogalacturonates revealed differences in the modes of action of these enzymes that were commensurate with the product progression profiles. The preferential products formed from the oligogalacturonates were unsaturated dimer for PelD, unsaturated trimer for PelB, and unsaturated tetramer for PelI and PelL. For PelA, preferential products were dependent on the sizes of the oligogalacturonates. Whereas PelB and PelD displayed their highest activities on hexagalacturonate and tetragalacturonate, respectively, PelA, PelI, and PelL were most active on the octamer, the largest substrate used. The bond cleavage frequencies and reaction rates were used to estimate the number of subsites of each enzyme.  (+info)

Biodegradable alginate microspheres as a delivery system for naked DNA. (4/801)

Sodium alginate is a naturally occurring polysaccharide that can easily be polymerized into a solid matrix to form microspheres. These biodegradable microspheres were used to encapsulate plasmid DNA containing the bacterial beta-galactosidase (LacZ) gene under the control of either the cytomegalovirus (CMV) immediate-early promoter or the Rous sarcoma virus (RSV) early promoter. Mice inoculated orally with microspheres containing plasmid DNA expressed LacZ in the intestine, spleen and liver. Inoculation of mice with microspheres containing both the plasmid DNA and bovine adenovirus type 3 (BAd3) resulted in a significant increase in LacZ expression compared to those inoculated with microspheres containing only the plasmid DNA. Our results suggest that adenoviruses are capable of augumenting transgene expression by plasmid DNA both in vitro and in vivo.  (+info)

Salt-resistant alpha-helical cationic antimicrobial peptides. (5/801)

Analogues based on the insect cecropin-bee melittin hybrid peptide (CEME) were studied and analyzed for activity and salt resistance. The new variants were designed to have an increase in amphipathic alpha-helical content (CP29 and CP26) and in overall positive charge (CP26). The alpha-helicity of these peptides was demonstrated by circular dichroism spectroscopy in the presence of liposomes. CP29 was shown to have activity against gram-negative bacteria that was similar to or better than those of the parent peptides, and CP26 had similar activity. CP29 had cytoplasmic membrane permeabilization activity, as assessed by the unmasking of cytoplasmic beta-galactosidase, similar to that of CEME and its more positively charged derivative named CEMA, whereas CP26 was substantially less effective. The activity of the peptides was not greatly attenuated by an uncoupler of membrane potential, carbonyl cyanide-m-chlorophenylhydrazone. The tryptophan residue in position 2 was shown to be necessary for interaction with cell membranes, as demonstrated by a complete lack of activity in the peptide CP208. Peptides CP29, CEME, and CEMA were resistant to antagonism by 0.1 to 0.3 M NaCl; however, CP26 was resistant to antagonism only by up to 160 mM NaCl. The peptides were generally more antagonized by 3 and 5 mM Mg2+ and by the polyanion alginate. It appeared that the positively charged C terminus in CP26 altered its ability to permeabilize the cytoplasmic membrane of Escherichia coli, although CP26 maintained its ability to kill gram-negative bacteria. These peptides are potential candidates for future therapeutic drugs.  (+info)

Atomic levers control pyranose ring conformations. (6/801)

Atomic force microscope manipulations of single polysaccharide molecules have recently expanded conformational chemistry to include force-driven transitions between the chair and boat conformers of the pyranose ring structure. We now expand these observations to include chair inversion, a common phenomenon in the conformational chemistry of six-membered ring molecules. We demonstrate that by stretching single pectin molecules (1 --> 4-linked alpha-D-galactouronic acid polymer), we could change the pyranose ring conformation from a chair to a boat and then to an inverted chair in a clearly resolved two-step conversion: 4C1 right arrow over left arrow boat right arrow over left arrow 1C4. The two-step extension of the distance between the glycosidic oxygen atoms O1 and O4 determined by atomic force microscope manipulations is corroborated by ab initio calculations of the increase in length of the residue vector O1O4 on chair inversion. We postulate that this conformational change results from the torque generated by the glycosidic bonds when a force is applied to the pectin molecule. Hence, the glycosidic bonds act as mechanical levers, driving the conformational transitions of the pyranose ring. When the glycosidic bonds are equatorial (e), the torque is zero, causing no conformational change. However, when the glycosidic bond is axial (a), torque is generated, causing a rotation around C---C bonds and a conformational change. This hypothesis readily predicts the number of transitions observed in pyranose monomers with 1a-4a linkages (two), 1a-4e (one), and 1e-4e (none). Our results demonstrate single-molecule mechanochemistry with the capability of resolving complex conformational transitions.  (+info)

Mucoid conversion of Pseudomonas aeruginosa by hydrogen peroxide: a mechanism for virulence activation in the cystic fibrosis lung. (7/801)

The leading cause of mortality in patients with cystic fibrosis (CF) is respiratory failure due in large part to chronic lung infection with Pseudomonas aeruginosa strains that undergo mucoid conversion, display a biofilm mode of growth in vivo and resist the infiltration of polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs), which release free oxygen radicals such as H2O2. The mucoid phenotype among the strains infecting CF patients indicates overproduction of a linear polysaccharide called alginate. To mimic the inflammatory environment of the CF lung, P. aeruginosa PAO1, a typical non-mucoid strain, was grown in a biofilm. This was treated with low levels of H2O2, as if released by the PMNs, and the formation of mucoid variants was observed. These mucoid variants had mutations in mucA, which encodes an anti-sigma factor; this leads to the deregulation of an alternative sigma factor (sigma22, AlgT or AlgU) required for expression of the alginate biosynthetic operon. All of the mucoid variants tested showed the same mutation, the mucA22 allele, a common allele seen in CF isolates. The mucoid mucA22 variants, when compared to the smooth parent strain PA01, (i) produced 2-6-fold higher levels of alginate, (ii) exhibited no detectable differences in growth rate, (iii) showed an unaltered LPS profile, (iv) were approximately 72% reduced in the amount of inducible-beta-lactamase and (v) secreted little or no LasA protease and only showed 44% elastase activity. A characteristic approximately 54 kDa protein associated with alginate overproducing strains was identified as AlgE (Alg76) by N-terminal sequence analysis. Thus, the common phenotype of the mucoid variants, which included a genetically engineered mucA22 mutant, suggested that the only mutation incurred as a result of H2O2 treatment was in mucA. When a P. aeruginosa biofilm was repeatedly exposed to activated PMNs in vitro, mucoid variants were also observed, mimicking in vivo observations. Thus, PMNs and their oxygen by-products may cause P. aeruginosa to undergo the typical adaptation to the intractable mu- coid form in the CF lung. These findings indicate that gene activation in bacteria by toxic oxygen radicals, similar to that found in plants and mammalian cells, may serve as a defence mechanism for the bacteria. This suggests that mucoid conversion is a response to oxygen radical exposure and that this response is a mechanism of defence by the bacteria. This is the first report to show that PMNs and their oxygen radicals can cause this phenotypic and genotypic change which is so typical of the intractable form of P. aeruginosa in the CF lung. These findings may provide a basis for the development of anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory therapy for the early stages of infection in CF patients.  (+info)

Transfer and subsequent metabolism of lysolipids studied by immobilizing subcellular compartments in alginate beads. (8/801)

The transfer and subsequent metabolism of lysophosphatidylcholine between subcellular compartments were studied in vitro by embedding membranes in alginate beads. After several experiments to validate the process, it was demonstrated that lysophosphatidylcholine was transferred from microsomes embedded in alginate beads to immobilized chloroplasts, that this transfer involved the partition of this molecule, and that the imported lysophosphatidylcholine was further used as substrate for phosphatidylcholine biosynthesis. More generally, the technique used makes it possible to avoid any cross-contamination between compartments, to evidence a transfer of molecules, and to study the metabolism of the imported molecules in the acceptor compartment.  (+info)

Rheumatoid arthritis (RA), a form of inflammatory arthritis, is a chronic joint disease characterized by pain and inflammation that affects 0.5% to 1% of the population worldwide. The safety, efficacy, tolerability, and potency of β-D-mannuronic acid (M2000) as a novel NSAID with immunosuppressive property has been reported by several in vitro studies, experimental models and clinical trials phase I/II and III in ankylosing spondylitis and rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients This research is designed to study the therapeutic efficacy of oral administration of mannuronic acid in RA patients who had inadequate response to conventional drugs and to assess the effect of this drug on gene expression of the signal transducer and activator of transcription (STATs) protein (STAT1, STAT3, STAT4, and STAT6). The study has included 15 RA patients who had an insufficient response to the conventional therapy. The oral dose of mannuronic acid was 1000mg divided into two 500 mg doses per day for 3 months as an ...
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TY - JOUR. T1 - 3D porous chitosan-alginate scaffolds. T2 - A new matrix for studying prostate cancer cell-lymphocyte interactions in vitro. AU - Florczyk, Stephen J.. AU - Liu, Gang. AU - Kievit, Forrest M.. AU - Lewis, Allison M.. AU - Wu, Jennifer D.. AU - Zhang, Miqin. PY - 2012/9/1. Y1 - 2012/9/1. N2 - The treatment of castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC) remains palliative. Immunotherapy offers a potentially effective therapy for CRPC; however, its advancement into the clinic has been slow, in part because of the lack of representative in vitro tumor models that resemble the in vivo tumor microenvironment for studying interactions of CRPC cells with immune cells and other potential therapeutics. This study evaluates the use of 3D porous chitosan-alginate (CA) scaffolds for culturing human prostate cancer (PCa) cells and studying tumor cell interaction with human peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBLs) ex vivo. CA scaffolds and Matrigel matrix samples support in vitro tumor spheroid ...
Shop Probable exopolygalacturonase ELISA Kit, Recombinant Protein and Probable exopolygalacturonase Antibody at MyBioSource. Custom ELISA Kit, Recombinant Protein and Antibody are available.
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undecaprenyl phosphate-α-L-Ara4N: 4-amino-4-deoxy-β-L-arabinosyltransferase (EC 2.4.2.43); dodecaprenyl phosphate-β-galacturonic acid: lipopolysaccharide core α-galacturonosyl transferase (EC 2.4.1.- ...
undecaprenyl phosphate-α-L-Ara4N: 4-amino-4-deoxy-β-L-arabinosyltransferase (EC 2.4.2.43); dodecaprenyl phosphate-β-galacturonic acid: lipopolysaccharide core α-galacturonosyl transferase (EC 2.4.1.- ...
MUCE has (3) styles of walls available for rental for your art exhibit. Traditional gallery walls, foam walls & pallet walls for a rustic vibe.. [4x8] and [8x8] walls available ...
Grape juice can be easily contaminated with ochratoxin A (OTA), one of the known mycotoxins with the greatest public health significance. Among the different approaches to decontaminate juice from this mycotoxin, microbiological methods proved efficient, inexpensive and safe, particularly the use of yeast or yeast products. To ascertain whether immobilisation of the yeast biomass would lead to successful decontamination, alginate beads encapsulating Candida intermedia yeast cells were used in our experiments to evaluate their OTA-biosorption efficacy. Magnetic calcium alginate beads were also prepared by adding magnetite in the formulation to allow fast removal from the aqueous solution with a magnet. Calcium alginate beads were added to commercial grape juice spiked with 20μg/kg OTA and after 48h of incubation a significant reduction (,80%), of the total OTA content was achieved, while in the subsequent phases (72-120h) OTA was slowly released into the grape juice by alginate beads. ...
Calcium alginate is a water-insoluble, gelatinous, cream-coloured substance that can be created through the addition of aqueous calcium chloride to aqueous sodium alginate. Calcium alginate is also used for entrapment of enzymes and forming artificial seeds in plant tissue culture. Alginate is usually the salts of alginic acid, but it can also refer to derivatives of alginic acid and alginic acid itself; in some publications the term algin is used instead of alginate. Alginate is present in the cell walls of brown algae, as the calcium, magnesium and sodium salts of alginic acid. To extract the alginate, the seaweed is broken into pieces and stirred with a hot solution of an alkali, usually sodium carbonate. Over a period of about two hours, the alginate dissolves as sodium alginate to give a very thick slurry. This slurry also contains the part of the seaweed that does not dissolve, mainly cellulose. This insoluble residue must be removed from the solution. The solution is too thick ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - The effect of sodium alginate on physical and dissolution properties of Surelease®-matrix pellets prepared by a novel pelletizer. AU - Kim, Min Soo. AU - Kim, Jeong Soo. AU - Hwang, Sung Joo. PY - 2007/11/1. Y1 - 2007/11/1. N2 - The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of sodium alginate on the physical and dissolution properties of Surelease®-matrix pellets prepared by a novel pelletizer-equipped piston extruder and double-arm counter-rotating rollers. The mean values of the shape factor (eR) and the aspect ratio of Surelease®-matrix pellets were 0.615-0.625 and 1.06-1.070, respectively, indicating good sphericity of the pellets. The drug release rate increased as the amount of sodium alginate increased due to hydration, swelling, and erosion within the Surelease®-matrix pellets. In addition, the porosity of pellets also increased with increasing sodium alginate content. The results of this study show that sodium alginate has a greater effect on the drug release ...
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There have been few studies of the effect of alginate dressings on the processes of wound healing.. The healing of cutaneous ulcers requires the development of a vascularized granular tissue bed, filling of large tissue defects by dermal regeneration, and the restoration of a continuous epidermal keratinocyte layer. These processes were modeled in vitro in one study, utilizing human dermal fibroblast, microvascular endothelial cell (HMEC), and keratinocyte cultures to examine the effect of calcium alginate on the proliferation and motility of these cultures, and the formation of capillarylike structures by HMEC.. In the study, the calcium alginate increased the proliferation of fibroblasts but decreased the proliferation of HMEC and keratinocytes. In contrast, the calcium alginate decreased fibroblast motility but had no effect on keratinocyte motility. There was no significant effect of calcium alginate on the formation of capillarylike structures by HMEC. The effects of calcium alginate on ...
Like many natural polysaccharides, dried alginates are not stable to heat, oxygen, metallic ions, etc. Stored in such circumstances, alginates will be degraded naturally. The high-viscosity alginate is more rapidly degraded than the medium-or low- viscosity ones. The order of stability in storage is: sodium alginate , ammonium alginate , alginic acid.. Different kind of alginate salt gives different stability, so does the different grade product. The industrial grade alginate solution is more easily degraded by microbe in the air, because such products contain much algal particles and nitrogenous matter which offer plenty of nutrition for microbe. The pure sodium alginate solution can be kept at room temperature for several months without obvious change in viscosity. When temperature increases, all alginate solutions will depolymerize. Alginate solutions are stable in the pH range 5.5 - 10 at room temperature for a long time, but will form the gel below pH 5.5. Propylene glycol alginate solution ...
The two-phase model used previously to calculate the polymer-subphase volume of alginic acid was applied to interpret the dependence of apparent metal binding equilibrium on environmental conditions. In this model, the polymer subphase, a small aqueous region surrounding the polymer chain, was considered as a separate phase in the aqueous solution and as a protonation-deprotonation and metal binding reaction zone. Three factors were taken into account when treating experimental data: (1) the electric field due to the charged ligands on the polymer molecule, (2) the effective concentration of ligands based on polymer-subphase volume, and (3) the competition from hydrogen ions for the metal binding sites. The data of base titration of alginic acid in the presence of trace amounts of copper at different alginic acid concentrations and ionic strengths yielded unique intrinsic stability constants for complexes formed between a cupric ion and one or two binding ligands ...
Press Release issued Apr 30, 2019: There are several types of alginates available in the global market including sodium, calcium, and potassium out of which sodium alginates hold the highest share of the market. Sodium alginate is a type of natural polysaccharide which is extracted from the brown seaweed that grows in cold water regions. Sodium alginate market is expanding mainly on account of the increasing size of food industry. Sodium alginate is soluble in cold and hot water, and possesses thickening and binding properties. Sodium alginate forms a gel without being heated in the presence of calcium. Sodium alginate is generally used along with calcium salts in several cuisines to produce small and large spheres filled with liquid that burst in the mouth. Sodium Alginate is also used in the food industry as an emulsifier to increase viscosity. It is also used in indigestion tablets as it does not have any discernible flavor.
This study explores the utility of calcium-alginate hydrogels as a three-dimensional culture platform for hematopoietic cell culture. We investigate the effects of calcium concentration and alginate viscosity on the mechanical and physical properties of the gel, and their subsequent effects on cellular growth. Further, we have also explored the establishment of a co-culture system in the presence of stromal cells (HS-5) and using K562 cells as our hematopoietic model. Physical characterization of calcium alginate is conducted with mechanical testing and Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) scans to determine the relationship between the mechanical strength and the structure of calcium alginate with the variation of calcium concentration and alginate viscosity. The study on mechanical properties via compressive stress test reveals that increasing calcium concentration and alginate viscosity resulted in the formation of stiffer gels as showed by the higher elastic moduli. In addition, SEM scans ...
The high cost of soluble enzymes can limit their use for commercial and industrial purposes. Immobilization can enhance enzyme reusability, thereby reducing product isolation costs and overcoming this economic barrier. In the current study, two novel, purified lipases from Pseudomonas sp. (Pseudomonas reinekei and Pseudomonas brenneri) were entrapped in a calcium alginate matrix, with the aim of simultaneously enhancing enzyme reusability and stability. Following entrapment, the retained activity of the enzyme-alginate composite was verified by an enzymatic hydrolysis reaction of a p-nitrophenol palmitate substrate. The effect of the enzyme-alginate entrapment against various physiochemical parameters such as pH, temperature, metal ions, and solvents were subsequently examined. The entrapment was found to have minimal beneficial stability gains. However, enhanced enzyme reusability (up to 3 cycles) and stability (up to 18 days at 4°C) of the calcium alginate entrapped lipase, as indicated by
Sodium Alginate Market by Product (Food Grade Sodium Alginate, Pharmaceutical Grade Sodium Alginate, Technical Grade Sodium Alginate, Feed Grade Sodium Alginate), by Application (Food Additives, Pharmaceutical & Healthcare, Paper & Pulp, Personal Care & Cosmetics, Textile, Animal Feed, Industrial) and by Region, Trend, Forecast, Competitive Analysis, and Growth Opportunity 2019-2024 - Radiant Insights
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The influence of the mixture of water and alcohols on the solubility and properties of alginate and its calcium-induced gels is of interest for the food, wound care and pharmaceutical industries. The solvent quality of water with increasing amounts of ethanol (0-20%) on alginate was studied using intrinsic viscosity. The effect of ethanol addition on the rheological and mechanical properties of calcium alginate gels was determined. Small-angle X-ray scattering and transmission electron microscopy were used to study the network structure. It is shown that the addition of ethanol up to 15% (wt) increases the extension of the alginate chain, which correlates with increased moduli and stress being required to fracture the gels. The extension of the polymer chain is reduced at 20% (wt) ethanol, which is followed by reduced moduli and stress at breakage of the gels. The network structure of gels at high ethanol concentrations (24%) is characterized by thick and poorly connected network strands.. ...
Alginic acid, also called algin or alginate, is an anionic polysaccharide distributed widely in the cell walls of brown algae, where through binding with water it forms a viscous gum. It is also a significant component of the biofilms produced by the bacterium Pseudomonas aeruginosa, the major pathogen in cystic fibrosis, that confer it a high resistance to antibiotics and killing by macrophages. Its colour ranges from white to yellowish-brown. It is sold in filamentous, granular or powdered forms. Alginic acid is a linear copolymer with homopolymeric blocks of (1-4)-linked β-D-mannuronate (M) and its C-5 epimer α-L-guluronate (G) residues, respectively, covalently linked together in different sequences or blocks. The monomers can appear in homopolymeric blocks of consecutive G-residues (G-blocks), consecutive M-residues (M-blocks) or alternating M and G-residues (MG-blocks). Alginates are refined from brown seaweeds. A wide variety of brown seaweeds of the phylum Phaeophyceae are harvested ...
Figure 1, a) 3D pore 100 µm droplet chip junction, b) 80 µm, c) 100 µm alginate beads.. The Dolomite Team is using microfluidics to produce small (80-120 µm) alginate beads suitable for cell encapsulation. A 2 % alginate solution was dissolved in water overnight with subsequent addition of Ca-EDTA. For the oil phase, 1 % Fluosurf in HFE 7500 was used with 0.05 % acetic acid to release the chelated calcium in the Ca-EDTA complex and allow alginate crosslinking from within. Both solutions were introduced into a 100 µm 3D pore fluorophilic single junction chip (figure 1a) to form spherical monodispersed beads. Depending on flow rates (Qd 16 µlmin-1 Qc 10 µlmin-1 and Qd 10 µlmin-1 Qc 18 µlmin-1) 80 µm (figure 1b) and 100 µm (figure 1c) alginate beads were produced respectively.. DOWNLOAD APPLICATION NOTE HERE. If you are interested in producing alginate beads for your applications, please contact us at [email protected], and keep an eye out for our alginate bead application ...
Alginate is a biodegradable, immunocompatible biopolymer that is capable of immobilizing viable cells and bioactive factors. Few investigations have analyzed the efficacy of alginate gels as substrata for cell attachment and proliferation. Here we have compared the adhesion and subsequent growth of human and rat bone marrow stromal fibroblastic cells on unmodified alginate hydrogel surfaces. It was found that, in contrast to rat cells, human cells did not readily attach or proliferate on unmodified alginates. In attempts to enhance these features, or collagen type I was incorporated into the gels, with no significant improvements in prolonged human cell adherence. However, alginate gels containing both collagen type I and beta-tricalcium phosphate were found to enhance human cell adherence and proliferation. Furthermore, interactions between the collagen and beta-tricalcium phosphate prevented loss of the protein from the hydrogels. These results indicate that alginate gels containing collagen have
The report on the Global Sodium Alginate market offers complete data on the Sodium Alginate market. Components, for example, main players, analysis, size, situation of the business, SWOT analysis, and best patterns in the market are included in the report. In addition to this, the report sports numbers, tables, and charts that offer a clear viewpoint of the Sodium Alginate market. The top contenders SNP, KIMICA, SNAP Natural & Alginate Products, IRO Alginate Industry, NovaMatrix, Bright Moon Seaweed, Lianyungang Tiantian Seaweed Industrial, Unikem of the global Sodium Alginate market are further covered in the report .. Access to the sample pages of the report at: http://www.extentresearch.com/request-for-sample.html?repid=19657. The report also segments the global Sodium Alginate market based on product mode and segmentation Industrial Grade, Food Grade, Pharma Grade. The study includes a profound summary of the key sectors and the segments Papermaking, Paper Coatings, Textiles, Food & ...
Alginate is used in various pharmaceutical preparations. Chemically, it is a linear copolymer with homopolymeric blocks of (1-4)-linked ?-D-mannuronate (M) and its C-5 epimer ?-L-guluronate (G) residues, respectively, covalently linked together in different sequences or blocks. Alginic acid can be separated from benzoate, citric acid and saccharin by mixed-mode chromatography on Primesep C HPLC column. This method can be used to quantitate alginic acid, citric acid or saccharin in complex mixtures. Various detection technique can be used (UV, ELSD, LC/MS), based on mobile phase selection. ...
Lists the various brand names available for medicines containing alginic acid. Find information on alginic acid use, treatment, drug class and molecular formula.
Objective(s): In this study, effects of encapsulated umbilical cord stem cells (UCSCs)-derived hepatocyte-like cells (HLCs) in high mannuronic alginate scaffolds was investigated on CCl4-induced acute liver failure (ALF) in rats. Material and Methods: UCSCs were encapsulated in high mannuronic alginate scaffolds. Then the UCSCs differentiated into HLCs for treatment of CCl4-induced ALF in rats. Thirty rats randomly divided into 5 groups: Intoxicated group received only CCl4 to induce ALF. In other groups including cell-free, UCSCs and HLCs, alginate scaffolds were transplanted into the liver 4 days after CCl4 injection. Biochemical markers including albumin (ALB), blood urea nitrogen (BUN), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) were evaluated. Histological changes and gene expression of ALB, alpha-fetoprotein (AFP), and cytokeratin 18 (CK-18) were also assessed.Results: Expression of CK-18 significantly increased in HLCs compared to the UCSCs
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Humidity: sunny, mild humidity Using our observations from Experiment #2, we decided to start with a 1:24 ratio of sodium alginate to Future floor polish because this ratio produced a solution with the right combination of fluidity and thickness for a ground.. To begin the experiment we mixed ½ tbs of Sodium alginate and ¾ cup of Zea Mays Stop out to achieve a 1:24 ratio.. This mixture was not fluid like we expected. It immediately started clumping up and became thicker than we anticipated. We hypothesized the different results were due to addition of Gac 100, which is part of the stop out mixture. The Gac 100 was not included in our first test with a 1:24 ratio. In the first test, just future floor polish was mixed with sodium alginate. We let the sodium alginate and stop out mixture sit for three hours to see if over time the clumps would dissolve. After three hours of sitting with periodic stirring, the mixture was still very lumpy and thick. This ratio,1 part sodium alginate to 24 parts ...
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Dolomite Microfluidics systems are enabling reliable, reproducible production of monodisperse alginate beads, overcoming the challenges associated with traditional batch techniques. Controlled and reproducible generation of alginate gel beads is crucial for biomedical science and engineering applications that require biologically and chemically inert polymers, such as the encapsulation of drugs or cells. However, this can be difficult to achieve with batch synthesis, which produces large beads with a wide size distribution and minimal control over bead size. The reproducibility and throughput of the technique are also low. Microfluidic synthesis of alginate beads overcomes these difficulties, allowing precise control of bead formation and enabling rapid production of particles with well-defined sizes, shapes and morphologies ...
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The analysts forecast the global sodium alginate market to exhibit a CAGR of 5.43% during the period 2019-2024. The report covers the present scenario and the growth prospects of the global sodium alginate for 2019-2024. To calculate the market size, the report considers the sodium alginate sales volume and revenue.. The projections featured in the report have been derived using proven research methodologies and assumptions. By doing so, the research report serves as a repository of analysis and information for every facet of the market, including but not limited to: regional markets, product, and application.. Download Free Sample Report @ https://www.radiantinsights.com/research/sodium-alginate-market/request-sample. Geographically, the global sodium alginate market is segmented into North America, Asia Pacific, Europe, Middle East & Africa and South America. This report forecasts revenue growth at a global, regional & country level, and provides an analysis of the market trends in each of the ...
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SODIUM ALGINATE is part of manufacturing ingredient used in FDA Database. When you consume you prescription drug make sure that you are not allergic to this SODIUM ALGINATE. This will change the way your body absorbs prescription drug your doctor provided you with. SODIUM ALGINATE is used in manufacturing process of pharmaceutical products. List bellow has SODIUM ALGINATE as ingredient during manufacturing.. As some Prescription Drugs might have same name but they are classified by FDA with uniq ID.. ...
The reconstruction of adipose tissue defects is often challenged by the complications that may occur following plastic and reconstructive surgery, including donor-site morbidity, implant migration and foreign body reaction. To overcome these problems, adipose tissue engineering (ATE) using stem cell-based regeneration strategies has been widely explored in the last years. Mounting evidence has shown that adipose-derived stem cells (ADSCs) represent a promising cell source for ATE. In the context of a small number of reports concerning adipose tissue regeneration using three-dimensional (3-D) systems, the present study was designed to evaluate the biological performance of a novel alginate matrix that incorporates human ADSCs (hADSCs). Culture-expanded cells isolated from the stromal vascular fraction (SVF), corresponding to the third passage which showed the expression of mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) markers, were used in the 3-D culture systems. The latter represented a calcium alginate hydrogel,
Alginate hydrogel made from alginate and crosslinking divalent ions is a natural biomaterial that is biocompatible, has low toxicity, is relatively cheap and has mild gelation chemistry. It is a porous material that allows diffusion of small molecules. Alginate hydrogel is a polymeric network that contains 95-99% water and it does in many ways resemble the natural extracellular matrix (ECM) that surrounds cells in the body. It is also hydrophilic, which reduces friction in body fluids and minimizes protein adsorption and it is easily stored and sterilized.Alginate is produced by both algae and bacteria, and it is initially synthesized as mannuronan (M) with 100% M-residues. Guluronic acid residues (G) are introduced in a post-polymerization step by enzymes called mannuronan C-5 epimerases that catalyze conversion of M into G without breaking the glycosidic bond. Seven different mannuronan C-5 epimerases have been sequenced, cloned and produced recombinantly, and these enzymes introduce ...
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Puritan Calgiswab Sterile Calcium Alginate Mini-Tip (Nasopharyngeal) Swabs with Flexible Aluminum Shaft offer better culture isolation from areas such as the eyes, ears, nasopharynx, urethra and pediatric ENT Nasopharyngeal Tip Swabs. Non-irritating & non-sensitizing tips. Made in USA. Save at Harmony.
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Alginic acid, an aa cried algin or alginate, is an anionic polysaccharide distributit widely in the cell walls o broun algae, whaur through bindin wi watter it furms a viscous gum. In extractit furm it absorbs watter quickly; it is capable o absorbin 200-300 times its ain wicht in watter.[1] Its colour ranges frae white tae yellaeish-broun. It is sauld in filamentous, granular or poudered furms.. ...
The characteristic of immobilization technique in alginate gels was described. The environmental factors which determine physiological state of entrapped cells were presented. The possibility of using the system of different yeast strains (coimmobilization) for bioconversion of starch to ethanol was considered. (original abstract ...
alginic acid definition: An insoluble colloidal acid by means of a carboxylated polysaccharide thats abundant in the mobile wall space of brown algae.; A gum (a carboxylated polysaccharide), obtained…
Alginate can be produced by a microbial fermentation using bacteria such as Azobacter Vinelandii and Pseudomonas Aeruginosa (Linker and Jones 1964, Gorin and Spencer 1966). These bacteria produce a polysaccharide with a structure resembling alginate, differing only in that there are acetyl groups on a portion of the C2 and C3 hydroxyls. It is believed that the acetate groups are associated mainly with the D-mannuronic acid residues (Davidson 1977, Sutherland 1983, Paul 1986). The level of acetylation is variable as is the mannuronic and guluronic acid content. However the level of guluronic acid in the final polymer can be controlled to some extent by altering the level of calcium in the fermentation broth (Haug and Larsen 1971). The sequence structures and acetylation patterns of bacterial alginate, from different sources, have been studied with 2D COSY proton NMR techniques. The acetyl residues were found to be exclusively associated with the mannuronic acid residues with degrees of ...
In 2018, Top exporters of Polymers, natural and modified natural; in primary forms (excluding alginic acid, its salts and esters) to Malaysia were China ($7,405.93K , 2,809,180 Kg), European Union ($3,725.35K , 428,946 Kg), United States ($2,763.77K , 321,455 Kg), France ($1,509.86K , 41,303 Kg), Italy ($932.94K , 230,380 Kg ...
China exported Polymers, natural and modified natural; in primary forms (excluding alginic acid, its salts and esters) to United States ($93,713.83K , 17,550,500 Kg), Russian Federation ($31,158.16K , 14,335,000 Kg), Germany ($29,060.01K , 4,706,130 Kg), Saudi Arabia ($25,211.82K , 16,195,600 Kg), Japan ($23,263.07K , 1,778,580 Kg ...
More information is available on alginic acid + magaldrate + bicarbonate including side effects, age restrictions, food interactions, whether the medicine is available at a government subsidised price on the pharmaceutical benefits scheme (PBS) as well as other useful information.
A detailed qualitative analysis of the factors responsible for driving and restraining growth of the Global Alginic Acid Industry Market and future...
Sodium and potassium alginate are intended to be used as technological additives (functional groups: emulsifiers, stabilisers, thickeners, gelling agents and binders). Sodium alginate is intended to be used in feedingstuffs for pets, other non food-producing animals and fish, with no maximum recommended use level. Potassium alginate is intended to be used in feedingstuffs for cats and dogs at levels up to 40,000 mg/kg feed (on dry matter). Since the functional properties of the additives are determined by the alginate content, sodium and potassium alginate were considered equivalent. The maximum dose considered safe for cats, dogs, other non food-producing animals, salmonids and other fish is 40,000 mg alginates (sodium and potassium salts)/kg complete feed. The use of alginates in feedingstuffs for fish is of no concern for the consumer. Alginates are reported not to be irritant to the skin but mildly irritant to the eyes. They are considered as potential sensitisers to the skin and the ...
Injection of a biomaterial scaffold into the infarcted myocardium can replace the injured extracellular matrix and improve the mechanical strength of the scar. The present study aimed to determine and compare the effect of novel injectable alginate scaffold, with or without staged cardiomyocyte transplantation, with injectable collagen scaffold, or saline on left ventricular (LV) remodeling and function after myocardial infarction (MI) in rat. We developed a novel injectable, absorbable biomaterial composed of a calcium cross-linked alginate solution, which displays low viscosity and undergoes phase transition into hydrogel after injection into the infarct. Rats (n=58) were subjected to anterior MI and subsequently treated with injection of alginate biomaterial (n=22), collagen (n=12), or saline (n=12) into the infarct. One week later, 10 of 22 biomaterial-treated rats and 10 MI rats received rat fetal cardiomyocyte transplantation (1×10 6 cells) into the scar. Hemodynamic studies, performed ...
Feb 24, 2016 ... Propylene glycol alginate (PGA) is an emulsifier, stabilizer, and thickener used as a food additive with E number 405. Chemically speaking, propylene glycol alginate is an ester of alginic acid, which is ... Sodium Alginate.. Read More ...
In this work an enzyme encapsulation general approach, based on the use of calcium alginate hydrogels, is reported. Alginate gels are biodegradable and low cost and have been found to provide a good matrix for the entrapment of sensitive biomolecules. Alginate is an anionic polymer whose gelation occurs by an exchange of sodium ions from the polymer chains with multivalent cations, resulting in the formation of a three dimensional gel network. For gelation alginate is dripped into a calcium chloride solution. The cations diffuse from the continuous phase to the interior of the alginate droplets and form a gelled matrix. By means of this
His research involved isolating an organic acid, which he then called "hexuronic acid", from adrenal gland tissue. He accepted ... There Szent-Györgyi and his research fellow Joseph Svirbely found that "hexuronic acid" was actually the thus far unidentified ... He is credited with first isolating vitamin C and discovering the components and reactions of the citric acid cycle. He was ... identifying fumaric acid and other steps in what would become known as the Krebs cycle. In Szeged he also met Zoltán Bay, ...
US 2985664, Krebs, Ernst T. & Ernst T. Krebs, Jr., "Hexuronic acid derivatives" Carpenter D (2010). Reputation and Power: ... and prussic acid; while hydrochloric acid gives mandelic acid, D-glucose, and ammonia. In 1845 amygdalin was used as a cancer ... Ernst T. Krebs (not to be confused with Hans Adolf Krebs, the discoverer of the citric acid cycle) branded laetrile as a ... J. W. Walker; V. K. Krieble (1909). "The hydrolysis of amygdalin by acids. Part I". Journal of the Chemical Society. 95 (11): ...
... "hexuronic acid".[65] Szent-Györgyi suspected hexuronic acid, which he had isolated from adrenal glands, to be the antiscorbutic ... Because of this, hexuronic acid was subsequently renamed ascorbic acid. 21st century[edit]. Rates of scurvy in most of the ... In 1932, the connection between hexuronic acid and scurvy was finally proven by American researcher Charles Glen King of the ... King's laboratory was given some hexuronic acid by Szent-Györgyi and soon established that it was the sought-after anti- ...
Wykazał, że wyodrębniony związek ma właściwości przeciwszkorbutowe i nadał mu nazwę „kwas heksauronowy" (hexuronic acid). W ... Oxalic acid excretion after intravenous ascorbic acid administration. „Metabolism". 58 (2), s. 263-269, 2009. DOI: 10.1016/j. ... Effect of large intake of ascorbic acid on urinary and plasma oxalic acid levels. „International Journal of Vitamin and ... a b Nutrients: Vitamin C, total ascorbic acid(mg). Food Groups: Finfish and Shellfish Products (ang.). W: USDA Food Composition ...
... focusing on hexuronic acid. The chemical identity of King's active substance was almost identical to Szent-Györgyi's hexuronic ... acid, but the research of S.S. Silva had declared the hexuronic acid was not vitamin C. However, within two weeks of each other ... published articles declaring that vitamin C and hexuronic acid were indeed the same compound. Szent-Györgyi would later win a ...
It is made of repeat disaccharide units (comprising hexosamine and hexuronic acid), and is similar to glycosaminoglycans ... PSGAG inhibits many of the catabolic enzymes that degrade cartilage, proteoglycans, and hyaluronic acid. The enzymes that are ... PSGAG also stimulates the synthesis of glycosaminoglycans, hyaluronic acid, and collagen, which increase synovial viscosity. It ... where hyaluronic acid is the stem and the side chains are the bristles. When pressure is exerted on the joint, fluids move ...
The L-xylo-hex-3-gulonolactone (2-keto-gulono-gamma-lactone) is able to convert to hexuronic acid (ascorbic acid) spontaneously ... Ascorbic acid/Vitamin C Oxidoreductase Scurvy GULOP Archived 2007-09-27 at the Wayback Machine - iHOP Nishikimi M, Koshizaka T ... However, the tissues of animal models with a GULO gene generally have high levels of ascorbic acid and so are often only ... There exists a wide discrepancy between the amounts of ascorbic acid other primates consume and what is recommended as " ...
... hexose or hexuronic acid unit they contain (e.g. glucuronic acid, iduronic acid, galactose, galactosamine, glucosamine). ... Distinguished from chondroitin sulfate by the presence of iduronic acid, although some hexuronic acid monosaccharides may be ... Hexuronic acid / Hexose. Hexosamine. Linkage geometry between predominant monomeric units. Unique features ... Hyaluronic acid[edit]. The fourth class of GAG, hyaluronan (or hyaluronic acid), is not sulfated and is synthesized by three ...
... "hexuronic acid", from adrenal gland tissue.. He accepted a position at the University of Szeged in 1930.[7] There, Szent- ... "hexuronic acid" was actually the thus far unidentified antiscorbutic factor, known as vitamin C. After Walter Norman Haworth ... He received his PhD from Fitzwilliam College, Cambridge in 1927 for work on isolating an organic acid, which he then called " ... vitamin C, discovering the components and reactions of the citric acid cycle. ...
... catalysing the transfer of sulfate to the C2-position of selected hexuronic acid residues within the nascent HS chain. Mice ...
... which may be oxidized to glucaric acid, or isomerized to another hexuronic acid, so there is no reasonable toxicity mechanism. ... "Effect of D-glucuronic acid and D-glucuronolactone on ascorbic acid levels in blood and urine of man and dog". Am J Clin Nutr. ... and humans may also be able to use glucuronolactone as a precursor for ascorbic acid synthesis. Glucuronic acid Glucono delta- ... Free glucuronic acid (or its self-ester glucuronolactone) has less effect on detoxification than glucose,[citation needed] ...
In 1931, Albert Szent-Györgyi and a fellow researcher Joseph Svirbely suspected that "hexuronic acid" was actually vitamin C, ... "Pantothenic Acid". Dietary Reference Intakes for Thiamin, Riboflavin, Niacin, Vitamin B6, Folate, Vitamin B12, Pantothenic Acid ... Niacin deficiency is a consequence of a diet low in both niacin and the amino acid tryptophan, a precursor for the vitamin. ... Pantothenic acid (Vitamine B5) deficiency is extremely rare. Symptoms include irritability, fatigue, and apathy. Vitamin B6 ...
Haworth and Szent-Györgyi proposed that L-hexuronic acid be named a-scorbic acid, and chemically L-ascorbic acid, in honor of ... Ascorbic acid is a weak sugar acid structurally related to glucose. In biological systems, ascorbic acid can be found only at ... The biosynthesis of ascorbic acid in vertebrates starts with the formation of UDP-glucuronic acid. UDP-glucuronic acid is ... E304 fatty acid esters of ascorbic acid such as ascorbyl palmitate (approved for use as a food additive in the EU,[88] U.S.[89] ...
... hexuronic acids MeSH D09.811.922.400.500 - iduronic acid MeSH D09.853.329.225 - erythrityl tetranitrate MeSH D09.853.400.350 - ... n-acetylneuraminic acid MeSH D09.811.922.325 - glucuronic acids MeSH D09.811.922.325.300 - glucuronic acid MeSH D09.811.922.325 ... sialic acids MeSH D09.067.687.668.250 - cytidine monophosphate n-acetylneuraminic acid MeSH D09.067.687.668.550 - n- ... sialic acids MeSH D09.811.589.668.250 - cytidine monophosphate n-acetylneuraminic acid MeSH D09.811.589.668.550 - ...
In 1931, Albert Szent-Györgyi and a fellow researcher Joseph Svirbely suspected that "hexuronic acid" was actually vitamin C, ... folic acid or folate), vitamin B12 (cobalamins), vitamin C (ascorbic acid), vitamin D (calciferols), vitamin E (tocopherols and ... For example, B9 is folic acid and five of the folates are in the range B11 through B16. Others, such as PABA (formerly B10), ... Recommendations for folic acid supplementation during pregnancy reduced risk of infant neural tube defects. The term vitamin is ...
Haworth had been given his initial reference sample of "water-soluble vitamin C" or "hexuronic acid" (the previous name for the ... In honour of the compound's antiscorbutic properties, Haworth and Szent-Györgyi now proposed the new name of "a-scorbic acid" ... for the molecule, with L-ascorbic acid as its formal chemical name. During World War II, he was a member of the MAUD Committee ... was a British chemist best known for his groundbreaking work on ascorbic acid (vitamin C) while working at the University of ...
... is a precursor of ascorbic acid (vitamin C, formerly called as L-hexuronic acid). Ascorbate can be ... Gluconic acid Isosaccharinic acid Uronic acid D-Glucuronic acid at Sigma-Aldrich Ohno, Shuji; Nakajin, Shizuo (2008-10-06). " ... Glucuronic acid is a sugar acid derived from glucose, with its sixth carbon atom oxidized to a carboxylic acid. In living ... Glucuronic acid (from Greek γλυκύς "sweet" and οὖρον "urine") is a uronic acid that was first isolated from urine (hence the ...
Gluconic acid Glucuronic acid Isosaccharinic acid "Hexuronic acid". encyclopedia.com. Uronic+Acids at the US National Library ... the uronic acid analog of glucose is glucuronic acid. Uronic acids derived from hexoses are known as hexuronic acids and uronic ... Uronic acids (/ʊˈrɒnɪk/) are a class of sugar acids with both carbonyl and carboxylic acid functional groups. They are sugars ... while oxidation of both the terminal hydroxyl group and the aldehyde yields an aldaric acid. The names of uronic acids are ...
... is any uronic acid derived from a hexose. These include fructuronic acids, galacturonic acids, glucuronic acids ... mannuronic acids, and tagaturonic acids. In the early 1900s, ascorbic acid (vitamin C) was also known as hexuronic acid. This ... "hexuronic acid (CHEBI:24592)". www.ebi.ac.uk. Retrieved 31 March 2018. HERBERT, R. W.; HIRST, E. L. (6 August 1932). "The ... Absorption Spectrum of Hexuronic Acid". Nature. 130 (3275): 205. doi:10.1038/130205a0. ISSN 1476-4687. This set index page ...
It is also a uronic acid or hexuronic acid. Naturally occurring uronic acids are d-glucuronic acid, d-galacturonic acid, l- ... Other oxidized forms of d-galactose are d-galactonic acid (carboxylic group at C1) and meso-galactaric acid (mucic acid) ( ... d-Galacturonic acid is a sugar acid, an oxidized form of d-galactose. It is the main component of pectin, in which it exists as ... iduronic acid and d-mannuronic acid. Debra Mohnen "Pectin structure and biosynthesis" Current Opinion in Plant Biology 2008, 11 ...
Ascorbic acid is an organic compound with formula C 6H 8O 6, originally called hexuronic acid. It is a white solid, but impure ... Colour retention agent Erythorbic acid: a diastereomer of ascorbic acid. Mineral ascorbates: salts of ascorbic acid Acids in ... xylonic acid, threonic acid and oxalic acid. Reactive oxygen species are damaging to animals and plants at the molecular level ... Between 1928 and 1932, Albert Szent-Györgyi isolated a candidate for this substance, which he called it "hexuronic acid", first ...
... hexuronic acid) ಎಂಬುದಾಗಿ ನಾಮಕರಣ ಮಾಡಿದರು. ಸ್ವಾರಸ್ಯವೆಂದರೆ ಝೆಂಟ್-ಗಿಯೋಗ್ರ್ಯಿಯವರು ಸಿ-ಜೀವಸತ್ವವನ್ನು ಹೊಂದಿರುದ ಕೋಸುಗಳು ಮತ್ತು ... ಕೊನೆಗೆ ಆ ಆಮ್ಲಕ್ಕೆ ಕಅಸ್ಕಾರ್ಬಿಕ್ ಆಮ್ಲಕಿ (ascorbic acid) ಎಂದು ಕರೆಯಲಾಯಿತು.ಝೆಂಟ್-ಗಿಯೋಗ್ರ್ಯಿಯವರ ಈ ಸಂಶೋಧನೆ ಮುಂದೆ ಇತರ ವಿಜ್ಞಾನಿಗಳಾದ ...
Haworth and Szent-Györgyi proposed that L-hexuronic acid be named a-scorbic acid, and chemically l-ascorbic acid, in honor of ... Ascorbic acid is a weak sugar acid structurally related to glucose. In biological systems, ascorbic acid can be found only at ... to produce ascorbic acid. l-Ascorbic acid has a negative feedback on l-galactose dehydrogenase in spinach. Ascorbic acid efflux ... The biosynthesis of ascorbic acid in vertebrates starts with the formation of UDP-glucuronic acid. UDP-glucuronic acid is ...
Haworth and Szent-Györgyi proposed that L-hexuronic acid be named a-scorbic acid, and chemically l-ascorbic acid, in honor of ... Ascorbic acid is a weak sugar acid structurally related to glucose. In biological systems, ascorbic acid can be found only at ... The biosynthesis of ascorbic acid in vertebrates starts with the formation of UDP-glucuronic acid. UDP-glucuronic acid is ... Vitamin C, also known as ascorbic acid and l-ascorbic acid, is a vitamin found in various foods and sold as a dietary ...
Hexuronic acid is any uronic acid derived from a hexose. These include fructuronic acids, galacturonic acids, glucuronic acids ... mannuronic acids, and tagaturonic acids. In the early 1900s, ascorbic acid (vitamin C) was also known as hexuronic acid. This ... "hexuronic acid (CHEBI:24592)". www.ebi.ac.uk. Retrieved 31 March 2018. HERBERT, R. W.; HIRST, E. L. (6 August 1932). "The ... Absorption Spectrum of Hexuronic Acid". Nature. 130 (3275): 205. doi:10.1038/130205a0. ISSN 1476-4687. This set index page ...
THE ISOLATION OF HEXURONIC ACID. By E. K. Nelson. Science. 14 Oct 1932. : 345 Full AccessRestricted Access ...
Influence of Sulfate Cooking on Residual Lignin Content and Groups of Hexuronic Acid in Hardwood Pulp. ... Influence of Sulfate Cooking on Residual Lignin Content and Groups of Hexuronic Acid in Hardwood Pulp ...
Alternative Titles: ascorbic acid, cevitamic acid, hexuronic acid. Vitamin C, also called ascorbic acid, water-soluble, ... folic acid. folate, folacin, pteroylglutamic acid. component of coenzymes in DNA synthesis, metabolism of amino acids; required ... cofactor for enzymes in metabolism of amino acids (including folic acid) and fatty acids; required for new cell synthesis, ... ascorbic acid. antioxidant; synthesis of collagen, carnitine, amino acids, and hormones; immune function; enhances absorption ...
Utilization of the hexuronic acids D-galacturonic acid (abundant in pectin-rich waste streams such as peels and pulps) and D- ... Heterologous expression of the genes for both uptake and catabolism of D-galacturonic acid and D-glucuronic acid was required ... Neither aldohexuronic acid supported growth of C. glutamicum as sole or combined carbon source, although its genome encodes a ... Corynebacterium glutamicum, which is used in industrial amino acid production at a million-ton scale, has been engineered ...
hexuronic acid. ISPD. isoprenoid synthase domain containing. KO. knockout. LC. liquid chromatography. HexNAc. N-acetyl ... formic acid, and 50% acetonitrile/1% formic acid, dried down, and then redissolved in 0.1% formic acid for further cleaned up ... formic acid) in 60 min. Solvent A was 0.1% formic acid in water. The parameters used for MS and MS/MS data acquisition under ... glucuronic acid. Gro. glycerol. GroP. glycerol phosphate. HCD. higher-energy collisional dissociation. HRP. horseradish ...
Glucuronic Acid / pharmacology * Hexuronic Acids / pharmacology * Hydrodynamics * Hydrogel, Polyethylene Glycol Dimethacrylate ...
Glucuronic Acid / chemistry * Hexuronic Acids / chemistry * Mannans / chemistry * Plant Gums / chemistry * Protoplasts / ...
... hexuronic acids; N-acetyl neuraminic acid, phosphate, or 2-keto-3-deoxyoctonic acid (KDO) as acidic components; a higher charge ... an acidic component usually consisting of hexuronic acid or pyruvate, a low charge density and electrophoretic mobility, and ... Nucleotide sequence and deduced amino acid sequence ofkps K54 D,kps K54 M,kps K54 T, andkps K54 E. Arrows identify putative ... CLUSTAL alignment of the predicted amino acid sequences of E. coli kps K54 D (this study),kps K1 D, andkps K5 D. The boxed ...
Haworth and Szent-Györgyi proposed that L-hexuronic acid be named a-scorbic acid, and chemically l-ascorbic acid, in honor of ... Ascorbic acid is a weak sugar acid structurally related to glucose. In biological systems, ascorbic acid can be found only at ... The biosynthesis of ascorbic acid in vertebrates starts with the formation of UDP-glucuronic acid. UDP-glucuronic acid is ... Vitamin C, also known as ascorbic acid and l-ascorbic acid, is a vitamin found in various foods and sold as a dietary ...
Glucuronic Acid. Gum Arabic / analysis. Hexuronic Acids. Ice Cream* / analysis. Karaya Gum / analysis. Mannans / analysis. Milk ... 0/Alginates; 0/Galactans; 0/Hexuronic Acids; 0/Mannans; 0/Plant Gums; 576-37-4/Glucuronic Acid; 9000-01-5/Gum Arabic; 9000-30-0 ... Previous Document: Protein digestibility using corrected amino acid score method (PDCAAS) of four types of mushrooms gr.... ...
Glucuronic Acid. Hexuronic Acids. Immunohistochemistry. Intervertebral Disk / cytology*, metabolism*. Peptides*. Plant Proteins ... 0/Alginates; 0/Culture Media, Serum-Free; 0/Hexuronic Acids; 0/Kunitz-type protease inhibitor, plant; 0/Peptides; 0/Plant ... Proteins; 0/Serine Proteinase Inhibitors; 0/Trypsin Inhibitors; 576-37-4/Glucuronic Acid; 9005-32-7/alginic acid; 9087-70-1/ ...
0 (Alginates); 0 (Hexuronic Acids); 0 (Hydrogels); 0 (Ions); 0 (Magnetite Nanoparticles); 0 (Solutions); 0 (Uranium Compounds ... 0 (Alginates); 0 (Arsenates); 0 (Arsenites); 0 (Hexuronic Acids); 0 (Powders); 0 (Water Pollutants, Chemical); 0 (sericite); ... 0 (Water Pollutants, Chemical); 789U1901C5 (Copper); 8A5D83Q4RW (Glucuronic Acid); 8C3Z4148WZ (alginic acid); 9012-76-4 ( ... 7631-86-9 (Silicon Dioxide); 8A5D83Q4RW (Glucuronic Acid); 8C3Z4148WZ (alginic acid); E1UOL152H7 (Iron). ...
Hexuronic Acids); 0 (Sclerosing Solutions); 339NCG44TV (Phenol); 8A5D83Q4RW (Glucuronic Acid); 8C3Z4148WZ (alginic acid). ... These adverse effects have brought forward the use of chemical agents such as sodium hydroxide and trichloroacetic acid for ... The Effectiveness of Matrix Cauterization With Bichloracetic Acid in the Treatment of Ingrown Toenails.. ... bichloracetic acid (BCA) in the treatment of the ingrown nails. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 30 patients with 58 ingrown ...
Biology · Biomedical Research · alginic acid · cysteine · methionine · collagen · glucuronic acid · hexuronic acid · messenger ... Glucuronic Acid · Hexuronic Acids · Kinetics · Metacarpophalangeal Joint · Methionine · Protein Biosynthesis · Protein ... Glucuronic Acid, 576-37-4; Hexuronic Acids; Methionine, 63-68-3; Protein Synthesis Inhibitors; RNA, Messenger; Sulfur ... 5 methyltetrahydrofolic acid · caffeine · folate binding protein · folic acid · mannitol · article · cell growth · cell ...
Hexuronic Acids. 1. 2014. 167. 0.040. Why? HLA-A1 Antigen. 1. 2014. 11. 0.040. Why? ...
Gluconic acid Glucuronic acid Isosaccharinic acid "Hexuronic acid". encyclopedia.com. Uronic+Acids at the US National Library ... the uronic acid analog of glucose is glucuronic acid. Uronic acids derived from hexoses are known as hexuronic acids and uronic ... Uronic acids (/ʊˈrɒnɪk/) are a class of sugar acids with both carbonyl and carboxylic acid functional groups. They are sugars ... while oxidation of both the terminal hydroxyl group and the aldehyde yields an aldaric acid. The names of uronic acids are ...
On the basis of these results Szent-Györgyi and Haworth changed the name hexuronic acid to ascorbic acid. ... He found that the reducing agent had the empirical composition C6H8O6, and he called it provisionally hexuronic acid. As the ... He had long thought that hexuronic acid was vitamin C, and he was now joined by J. Svirbely, who was experienced in the ... In 1929 he returned to Cambridge with 25 grams of hexuronic acid. Most of this he gave to (Sir) Norman Haworth of the ...
Xylan obtained exhibited total antioxidant activity corresponding to 48.5 mg of ascorbic acid equivalent/g of xylan. ... Dische, Z. A new specific color reactions of hexuronic acids. J. Biol. Chem 1974, 167, 189-198. [Google Scholar] ... Xyl: Xylose; Ara: Arabinose; Glc: Glucose; Gal: Galactose; Man: Mannose; Glu A: Glucuronic acid;aAnalyzed by HPLC after acid ... The antioxidant capacity was expressed as mg of ascorbic acid/g of polysaccharide, described as an ascorbic acid equivalent. ...
Hexuronic acids d-galacturonic (d-GalA) and d-glucuronic acid (d-GlcA) are commonly found in all three domains of life. d-GalA ... d-Glucaric acid and meso-galactaric acid (also known as mucic acid) are natural products found in a variety of plants, ... The expanded GguR regulon is in agreement with reconstructed hexuronic acid catabolic pathways that have aldaric acids as ... Hexuronic and aldaric acids are naturally abundant six-carbon sugar acids that are often utilized as carbon and energy sources ...
A) Characteristic disaccharide of HS consisting of a hexuronic acid and a glucosamine residue. The positions within the HS ... All identified HS6ST1 variants change amino acids that are perfectly conserved in HS6ST1s (Fig. 1B). The amino acids R296 and ... The occurrence of three isoforms of heparan sulfate 6-O-sulfotransferase having different specificities for hexuronic acid ... First, all identified mutations affect amino acid residues that are highly conserved in HS6ST1 (Fig. 1B) and are absent from ...
... hexuronic acid; VEGF, vascular endothelial growth factor; ΔUA, Δ-4,5-unsaturated UA ... Abbreviations: dp, degree of depolymerization; E, embryonic day; FGF, fibroblast growth factor; GlcA, glucuronic acid; GlcNAc, ... N-acetylglucosamine; GlcNS, N-sulfoglucosamine; HGF, hepatocyte growth factor; HS, heparan sulfate; IdoA, iduronic acid; m, ...
... "hexuronic acid".[65] Szent-Györgyi suspected hexuronic acid, which he had isolated from adrenal glands, to be the antiscorbutic ... Because of this, hexuronic acid was subsequently renamed ascorbic acid. 21st century[edit]. Rates of scurvy in most of the ... In 1932, the connection between hexuronic acid and scurvy was finally proven by American researcher Charles Glen King of the ... Kings laboratory was given some hexuronic acid by Szent-Györgyi and soon established that it was the sought-after anti- ...
Wykazał, że wyodrębniony związek ma właściwości przeciwszkorbutowe i nadał mu nazwę „kwas heksauronowy" (hexuronic acid). W ... Oxalic acid excretion after intravenous ascorbic acid administration. „Metabolism". 58 (2), s. 263-269, 2009. DOI: 10.1016/j. ... Effect of large intake of ascorbic acid on urinary and plasma oxalic acid levels. „International Journal of Vitamin and ... a b Nutrients: Vitamin C, total ascorbic acid(mg). Food Groups: Finfish and Shellfish Products (ang.). W: USDA Food Composition ...
At the Mayo clinic, Szent-Györgyi had isolated the chemical hexuronic acid from animal adrenal glands. ... English: This category contains pictures of ascorbic acid (vitamin C is L-ascorbic acid) and its derivatives (isoascorbic acid ... Ascorbic-acid-vs-erythorbic-acid-2D-skeletal.png 2,000 × 1,879; 94 KB. ... Media in category "Ascorbic acid". The following 109 files are in this category, out of 109 total. ...
Contents are given in micrograms of hexuronic acid per milligram of dry, defatted tissue. Hexuronic acid content in total ... About 200 μg (as hexuronic acid) of aortic dermatan sulfate+chondroitin 4/6-sulfate, purified by Mono Q-FPLC (see Fig 2⇑), was ... Eluted fractions were analyzed by their metachromatic property29 and by their hexuronic acid content.28 On a control column, ... About 200 μg (as hexuronic acid) of the dermatan sulfate+chondroitin 4/6-sulfate-rich aortic proteoglycans (see Fig 7A⇑) (A) or ...
In certain fruits and developmental conditions, an alternative pathway from D-galacturonic acid might be also relevant. We here ... a number of animals including humans have lost the ability to synthesize ascorbic acid (ascorbate, vitamin C), an essential ... a number of animals including humans have lost the ability to synthesize ascorbic acid (ascorbate, vitamin C), an essential ... Thus, that molecule, previously called hexuronic acid, was renamed as ascorbic acid. One of the main symptoms in scurvy is skin ...
Abbreviations: HexA, hexuronic acid (either glucuronic acid or iduronic acid); GlcNAc, N-acetyl-glucosamine; GlcN, glucosamine. ... HexA, hexuronic acid (either glucuronic or iduronic acid); GalNAc, N-acetyl-galactosamine (*p ≤ 0.05, **p ≤ 0.01, ***p ≤ 0.001 ... Heparin/HS is built up by repeating glucuronic acid (GlcUA)/iduronic acid (IdoUA)-N-acteylglucosamine (GlcNAc) disaccharide ... glucuronic acid; IdoUA, iduronic acid; GlcNAc, N-acteylglucosamine; GalNAc, N-acetylgalactosamine. ...
  • In the early 1900s, ascorbic acid (vitamin C) was also known as hexuronic acid. (wikipedia.org)
  • Vitamin C , also called ascorbic acid , water-soluble, carbohydrate-like substance that is involved in certain metabolic processes of animals. (britannica.com)
  • l -ascorbic acid , is a vitamin found in various foods and sold as a dietary supplement . (wikipedia.org)
  • Ascorbate and ascorbic acid are both naturally present in the body, since the forms interconvert according to pH . (wikipedia.org)
  • Oxidized forms of the molecule such as dehydroascorbic acid are converted back to ascorbic acid by reducing agents. (wikipedia.org)
  • Xylan obtained exhibited total antioxidant activity corresponding to 48.5 mg of ascorbic acid equivalent/g of xylan. (mdpi.com)
  • Scurvy is a disease resulting from a lack of vitamin C (ascorbic acid). (wikipedia.org)
  • [6] Ascorbic acid is needed for a variety of biosynthetic pathways, by accelerating hydroxylation and amidation reactions. (wikipedia.org)
  • In the synthesis of collagen , ascorbic acid is required as a cofactor for prolyl hydroxylase and lysyl hydroxylase . (wikipedia.org)
  • Throughout evolution, a number of animals including humans have lost the ability to synthesize ascorbic acid (ascorbate, vitamin C), an essential molecule in the physiology of animals and plants. (frontiersin.org)
  • L-Ascorbic Acid (L-threo-hex-2-enono-1,4-lactone, ascorbate), also called vitamin C, is an essential antioxidant molecule in plant and animal metabolism and also functioning as a cofactor in many enzymes. (frontiersin.org)
  • Vitamin C, also known as L-ascorbic acid, is a water-soluble vitamin that is naturally present in some foods, added to others, and available as a dietary supplement. (nih.gov)
  • In vitro studies have found that oxidized vitamin C, or dehydroascorbic acid, enters cells via some facilitated glucose transporters and is then reduced internally to ascorbic acid. (nih.gov)
  • However, at doses above 1 g/day, absorption falls to less than 50% and absorbed, unmetabolized ascorbic acid is excreted in the urine [ 4 ]. (nih.gov)
  • Results from pharmacokinetic studies indicate that oral doses of 1.25 g/day ascorbic acid produce mean peak plasma vitamin C concentrations of 135 micromol/L, which are about two times higher than those produced by consuming 200-300 mg/day ascorbic acid from vitamin C-rich foods [ 10 ]. (nih.gov)
  • Pharmacokinetic modeling predicts that even doses as high as 3 g ascorbic acid taken every 4 hours would produce peak plasma concentrations of only 220 micromol/L [ 10 ]. (nih.gov)
  • Ascorbic acid is a water soluble antioxidant. (naturalremedies.org)
  • Ascorbic acid is also referred to as vitamin C. The sugar acid, ascorbic acid, is white or pale yellow. (naturalremedies.org)
  • The name ascorbic acid originates from the word "scorbutus," which means "scurvy" and "a," which means "no. (naturalremedies.org)
  • Walter Haworth discovered the ascorbic acid structure in 1937. (naturalremedies.org)
  • At that time, ascorbic acid was referred to as hexuronic acid. (naturalremedies.org)
  • Later, Albert Szent-Gyorgyi was awarded a prize in Medicine for his findings related to the functionality of L-ascorbic acid. (naturalremedies.org)
  • Ascorbic acid is responsible for producing a protein in the body called collagen. (naturalremedies.org)
  • Ascorbic acid aids the body in the healing of wounds, cuts, and abrasions. (naturalremedies.org)
  • Ascorbic acid assists with these diseases by enlarging the blood vessels when consumed. (naturalremedies.org)
  • Vitamin C or ascorbic acid comes in a variety of forms. (naturalremedies.org)
  • While working at the University of Cambridge (1927, 1929) and at the Mayo Foundation, Rochester, Minn., U.S. (1928), Szent-Györgyi found and isolated an organic reducing agent, which he called hexuronic acid (now known as ascorbic acid), from plant juices and adrenal gland extracts. (britannica.com)
  • In 1928 he isolated what he at first called "hexuronic acid," but is now called "ascorbic acid" or vitamin C. He also "discovered" the muscle protein actin, actomyosin and their relationship to ATP. (healthy.net)
  • [7] There, Szent-Györgyi and his research fellow Joseph Svirbely found that "hexuronic acid" was actually the thus far unidentified antiscorbutic factor, known as vitamin C . After Walter Norman Haworth had determined the structure of vitamin C, and in honour of its antiscorbutic properties, it was given the formal chemical name of L-ascorbic acid . (wikipedia.org)
  • For example, ascorbic acid functions as vitamin C for some animals but not others, and vitamins D and K are required in the human diet only in certain circumstances. (wikidoc.org)
  • For example, ascorbic acid functions as vitamin C for some animals but not others. (thefullwiki.org)
  • ಕೊನೆಗೆ ಆ ಆಮ್ಲಕ್ಕೆ ಕಅಸ್ಕಾರ್ಬಿಕ್ ಆಮ್ಲಕಿ (ascorbic acid) ಎಂದು ಕರೆಯಲಾಯಿತು.ಝೆಂಟ್-ಗಿಯೋಗ್ರ್ಯಿಯವರ ಈ ಸಂಶೋಧನೆ ಮುಂದೆ ಇತರ ವಿಜ್ಞಾನಿಗಳಾದ ವಾಲ್ಟರ್ ಹಾವರ್ತ್ (1883-1950) ಮತ್ತು ಪಾಲ್ ಕರೆರ್ (1889-1971) ಅವರುಗಳು ಅಸ್ಕಾರ್ಬಿಕ್ ಆಮ್ಲ ಅಥವಾ ಸಿ-ಜೀವಸತ್ವವನ್ನು (vitamin C) ಸಂಶ್ಲೇಷಿಸಲು ಸಾಧ್ಯವಾಯಿತು. (wikipedia.org)
  • It was successfully synthesized, and the name was changed to ascorbic acid. (emailbliss.com)
  • Vitamin C exists in nature in both its reduced form, l-ascorbic acid, and in its oxidized form, l-dehydroascorbic acid. (emailbliss.com)
  • L-ascorbic acid is the most active form. (emailbliss.com)
  • Utilization of the hexuronic acids D-galacturonic acid (abundant in pectin-rich waste streams such as peels and pulps) and D-glucuronic acid (a component of the side-chains of plant xylans) for growth and production with C. glutamicum has not yet been studied. (springeropen.com)
  • Heterologous expression of the genes for both uptake and catabolism of D-galacturonic acid and D-glucuronic acid was required to enable growth of C. glutamicum with either aldohexuronic acid as the sole carbon source. (springeropen.com)
  • The names of uronic acids are generally based on their parent sugars, for example, the uronic acid analog of glucose is glucuronic acid. (wikipedia.org)
  • We used comparative genomics to reconstruct d -galacturonic and d -glucuronic acid catabolic pathways and associated transcriptional regulons involving the tripartite ATP-independent periplasmic (TRAP) family transporters that bind hexuronates in proteobacteria. (asm.org)
  • Hexuronic acids d -galacturonic ( d -GalA) and d -glucuronic acid ( d -GlcA) are commonly found in all three domains of life. (asm.org)
  • Heparin/HS is built up by repeating glucuronic acid (GlcUA)/iduronic acid (IdoUA)- N -acteylglucosamine (GlcNAc) disaccharide units whereas CS is built up by repeating GlcUA- N -acetylgalactosamine (GalNAc) disaccharide units ( 10 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • d -glucuronic acid (GlcA) and l -iduronic acid (IdoA). (rupress.org)
  • HS consists of repeating disaccharides, each of which is composed of hexuronic acid (glucuronic acid or iduronic acid) and N -acetylglucosamine. (nature.com)
  • Naturally occurring uronic acids are D-glucuronic acid, D-galacturonic acid, L-iduronic acid and D-mannuronic acid. (rnrmarketresearch.com)
  • Uronic acid residues can be either glucuronic or iduronic acid and substituted with 2- O -sulfo groups ( 3 , 4 ). (mcponline.org)
  • Distinguishing glucuronic from iduronic acid in glycosaminoglycan tetrasaccharides by using electron detachment dissociation. (nih.gov)
  • Distinguishing the epimers iduronic acid (IdoA) and glucuronic acid (GlcA) has been a long-standing challenge for the mass spectrometry analysis of glycosaminoglycan (GAG) oligosaccharides. (nih.gov)
  • CS/DS polysaccharides are unbranched polymers consisting of repeated alternating hexuronic acid [either glucuronic acid (GlcA) or iduronic acid (IdoA)] and N -acetyl-galactosamime (GalNAc). (aacrjournals.org)
  • All three enzymes catalyzed 6- O -sulfation of both N -acetylated (GlcNAc) as well as N -sulfated (GlcNS) glucosamines next to a nonreducing iduronic acid (IdoA) or glucuronic acid (GlcA). (diva-portal.org)
  • Heparan sulfate (HS) chains attached to a core protein consist of alternating glucuronic acid and N-acetylglucosamine residues, which undergo a series of modifications, including sulfation, to produce mature long, unbranched HS chains. (biologists.org)
  • Heparan sulphate (HS), one of the most abundant GAGs, is synthesised as a repeated disaccharide of glucosamine and glucuronic acid, which is modified by a variable series of reactions including sulphation. (biologists.org)
  • The HS copolymer is attached to a core protein via a tetrasaccharide linkage and extended by alternate transfer from UDP-sugar donors of N-acetyl-D-glucosamine and D-glucuronic acid monomers. (biologists.org)
  • Additionally, glucuronic acid may be modified by epimerisation of carbon 5 (C-5) to form iduronic acid. (biologists.org)
  • The invention is also directed to the use of the receptor for diagnostics of Helicobacter pylori, to a method of producing chondroitin oligosaccharides from chondroitin sulphates, and a method for production of amidated glucuronic acid comprising oligosaccharides and monosaccharides from glucuronic acid comprising polysaccharides. (sumobrain.com)
  • It is also present in heparan sulfate although here in a minor amount relative to its carbon-5 epimer glucuronic acid . (chemeurope.com)
  • Hexuronic acid is any uronic acid derived from a hexose. (wikipedia.org)
  • It is also a uronic acid or hexuronic acid. (rnrmarketresearch.com)
  • Heparin (Hp) 1 and heparan sulfate (HS) are linear, polydisperse, and highly sulfated glycosaminoglycans (GAGs), with a repeating disaccharide building block composed of a 1-4-linked glucosamine and a uronic acid residue ( 1 ). (mcponline.org)
  • L- Iduronic acid (IdoA) is the major uronic acid component of the glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) dermatan sulfate and heparin . (chemeurope.com)
  • During biosynthesis, its sugar backbone undergoes extensive sulfation at some of the 2- O -positions of iduronic acids and the 3- O -, 6- O -, and N -positions of glucosamine residues. (nature.com)
  • In contrast, HS from glucuronyl C5-epimerase mutants, which is extensively N- and 6- O- sulfated, but lacks 2- O -sulfated L-iduronic acid residues, retained PDGF-BB in vitro, and pericyte recruitment in vivo was only transiently delayed. (diva-portal.org)
  • Alginate is a linear, anionic polysaccharide consisting of two form of 1, 4-linked hexuronic acid residues, β-d-mannuronopyranosyl (M) and α-l- guluronopyranosyl (G) residues. (chemicalbook.com)
  • Sodium alginate consists mainly of the sodium salt of alginic acid, which is a mixture of polyuronic acids composed of residues of D-mannuronic acid and L-guluronic acid. (steunmijnclub.nl)
  • This bacterium is capable of utilizing various sugars as well as organic acids [ 2 ]. (springeropen.com)
  • They are sugars in which the terminal carbon's hydroxyl group has been oxidized to a carboxylic acid. (wikipedia.org)
  • Surface analysis with XPS revealed no significant changes in the surface structure of the dried MFC cakes but the filtrates after the hydrothermal treatment were complex mixtures of sugars, organic acids and furans. (springer.com)
  • It contains sugars such as 2-keto-3-deoxy-d-lyxo-heptulosaric acid (Dha) and 2-keto-3-deoxy-d-manno-octulosonic acid (Kdo), and within the wall RG-II is mostly found as a dimer via a borate diester cross-link. (jove.com)
  • The human body is made up of chemical compounds such as water, amino acids (proteins), fatty acids (lipids), nucleic acids (DNA/RNA), and carbohydrates (e.g. sugars and fiber). (consumersresearchcncl.org)
  • In carbohydrate science , Sugar Acids , as an acyclic acid , are acidic sugars. (wellnessadvocate.com)
  • [3] Doing so converts vitamin C to an oxidized state - either as semidehydroascorbic acid or dehydroascorbic acid . (wikipedia.org)
  • He had long thought that hexuronic acid was vitamin C, and he was now joined by J. Svirbely, who was experienced in the necessary animal tests. (encyclopedia.com)
  • The physiologic importance of dehydroascorbic acid uptake and its contribution to overall vitamin C economy is unknown. (nih.gov)
  • Hungarian-American biochemist who was awarded the 1937 Nobel Prize for Physiology or Medicine for his discoveries in connection with the biological combustion processes, with special reference to vitamin C and the catalysis of fumaric acid. (todayinsci.com)
  • Four years later, as a professor at the University of Szeged, Hungary (1931-45), he helped prove that the acid is identical to the antiscurvy vitamin C, which had been discovered in 1907 by Axel Holst and Alfred Fröhlich. (britannica.com)
  • He was awarded the Nobel Prize in Medicine in 1937 for his discovery of the biological oxidation process with special regard to vitamin C and fumaric acid catalysis. (healthy.net)
  • [1] He is credited with first isolating vitamin C and discovering the components and reactions of the citric acid cycle . (wikipedia.org)
  • In some experiments they used paprika as the source for their vitamin C. Also during this time, Szent-Györgyi continued his work on cellular respiration, identifying fumaric acid and other steps in what would become known as the Krebs cycle . (wikipedia.org)
  • The term vitamin does not include other essential nutrients such as dietary minerals , essential fatty acids , or essential amino acids , nor does it encompass the large number of other nutrients that promote health but that are not essential for life. (wikidoc.org)
  • The unique feature that distinguishes DS from CS is the presence of iduronic acid (IdoA) in DS. (aacrjournals.org)
  • IdoA may be modified by the addition of a O-sulfate group at carbon position 2 to form 2-O-sulfo-L-iduronic acid (IdoA2S). (chemeurope.com)
  • The major GIPC has one hexose residue, one hexuronic acid residue, inositol phosphate, and a ceramide moiety with a C18 trihydroxylated mono-unsaturated long-chain base and a C24 monohydroxylated saturated fatty acid. (jove.com)
  • and confirming that the tetrasaccharide repeating unit of Escherichia coli serotype K9 is composed of two hexoses, one acetamido hexose and one N-acetyl neuraminic acid. (ubc.ca)
  • Breaks down alginate or alginic acid to smaller molecules and reduces viscosity. (steunmijnclub.nl)
  • Sodium alginate is the sodium salt of alginic acid, which is a polyuronide made up of a sequence of two hexuronic acids: beta-D mannuronic acid and alpha-L guluronic acid. (steunmijnclub.nl)
  • The chemical compound Sodium Alginate is the sodium salt of alginic acid. (steunmijnclub.nl)
  • Changes in the content of hyaluronic acid and heparan sulfate are less noticeable. (ahajournals.org)
  • 1996 ). An animal cell mutant defective in heparan sulfate hexuronic acid 2-0-sulfation. (biologists.org)
  • For example, folic acid carries various forms of carbon group - methyl , formyl and methylene - in the cell. (wikidoc.org)
  • folinic acid (foh- lin -ik) n. a derivative of folic acid involved in purine synthesis. (encyclopedia.com)
  • more stable to oxidation than folic acid itself, and commonly used in pharmaceutical preparations. (encyclopedia.com)
  • For example, biotin is part of enzymes involved in making fatty acids . (wikidoc.org)
  • The white bar represents the signal peptide, corresponding to amino acids 1-68. (prolekare.cz)
  • At the Mayo clinic, Szent-Györgyi had isolated the chemical hexuronic acid from animal adrenal glands. (wikimedia.org)
  • It was first isolated by Albert Szent-Gyorgyi in 1928 from pork adrenal glands and called hexuronic acid. (emailbliss.com)
  • He received his PhD from Fitzwilliam College, Cambridge in 1927 for work on isolating an organic acid , which he then called "hexuronic acid", from adrenal gland tissue. (wikipedia.org)
  • In organic chemistry , Acyclic Acids (Ethanoic Acids) , as organic compounds are 2 carbon straight-chain saturated carboxylic acids , that have an open-chain molecular structures as opposed to ring-shaped structures. (wellnessadvocate.com)
  • The changes in the concentrations of sugar, alcohol, organic acids, and flavor compounds were analyzed using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and high pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC). (bvsalud.org)
  • A ) Characteristic disaccharide of HS consisting of a hexuronic acid and a glucosamine residue. (pnas.org)
  • We found that only mutations in sugar pathways affected colonization, not phospholipid and amino acid catabolism, not gluconeogenesis, not the tricarboxylic acid cycle, and not the pentose phosphate pathway. (pnas.org)
  • Corynebacterium glutamicum , which is used in industrial amino acid production at a million-ton scale, has been engineered towards utilization of alternative carbon sources. (springeropen.com)
  • Protein digestibility using corrected amino acid score method (PDCAAS) of four types of mushrooms gr. (biomedsearch.com)
  • In protein science , an Imino Acid (Secondary Amino Acid) is a molecule, related to amino acids (differing in the bonding to the nitrogen), that contains both an imino (>C=NH) and a carboxyl (-C(=O)-OH) functional group, which occurs as either an acyclic acid or a cyclic imino acid . (wellnessadvocate.com)
  • Aly-SJ02 showed activities toward both polyG (α-l-guluronic acid) and polyM (β-D-mannuronic acid), indicating that it is a bifunctional alginate lyase. (nih.gov)
  • Oxidation of the terminal aldehyde instead yields an aldonic acid, while oxidation of both the terminal hydroxyl group and the aldehyde yields an aldaric acid. (wikipedia.org)
  • AJOU Open Repository: Mechanical stimulation by ultrasound enhances chondrogenic differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells in a fibrin-hyaluronic acid hydrogel. (ajou.ac.kr)
  • Serum Levels of glycosaminoglycans and chondroitin sulfate/hyaluronic acid disaccharides as diagnostic markers for liver diseases. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • This study investigated whether or not fibrin-hyaluronic acid (HA) coupled with low-intensity ultrasound (LIUS), a mechanical stimulation, produces an additive or synergistic effect on the chondrogenesis of rabbit mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) derived from bone marrow. (ajou.ac.kr)
  • The HS polysaccharide is composed of alternating hexuronic acid and d -glucosamine units and is substituted with sulfate groups in various positions. (rupress.org)
  • Aspinall , G. O.: The methyl ethers of hexuronic acids. (springer.com)
  • Uronic acids (/ʊˈrɒnɪk/) are a class of sugar acids with both carbonyl and carboxylic acid functional groups. (wikipedia.org)
  • In April 1932 they announced that they had, by the administration of one milligram of hexuronic acid daily, protected guinea pigs from scurvy for 56 days. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Uronic acids derived from hexoses are known as hexuronic acids and uronic acids derived from pentoses are known as penturonic acids. (wikipedia.org)
  • This fine technology brings more sensitive, specific, and reliable methods than the previous biochemical ones for the analysis of urinary glycosaminoglycans, oligosaccharides, and sialic acid. (springer.com)
  • Glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) are linear polymers of repeated disaccharides, in most cases containing an O-sulphated N-acetylhexosamine and an hexuronic acid, commonly expressed in a variety of tissues. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • 2. Soaking the particulate collagen in dilute acetic acid. (google.com)
  • These HS chains are linear glycosaminoglycan polysaccharides of variable length ( n = 50-150) composed of hexuronic acid and glucosamine repeat units. (genetics.org)
  • To address their structure, the nature of the hexuronic acids and the position of sulfate groups must be determined. (infona.pl)
  • 1] In its open form, it has an aldehyde group at C1 and a carboxylic acid group at C6. (rnrmarketresearch.com)
  • Among the sugar constituents of plant cell wall are the hexuronic acids D-galacturonate and D-glucuronate found in pectin. (springeropen.com)
  • It is the main component of pectin, in which it exists as the polymer polygalacturonic acid. (rnrmarketresearch.com)
  • On analyzing the chemical composition of reed fibers, extractives of lignin, carbohydrates, uronic acids and minerals were reported. (scielo.br)
  • Amino acids 1-68 represent an atypical signal peptide and direct the pre-pro-proteins to the Sec apparatus, where they are cleaved by signal peptidase I [18] . (prolekare.cz)
  • The resulting pro-proteins are targeted to the HMW1B and HMW2B outer membrane translocators and undergo cleavage between amino acids 441 and 442, removing the pro-pieces and generating mature species that are 125 kDa and 120 kDa, respectively [18] - [21] ( Figure 1A ). (prolekare.cz)
  • 100,000), an acidic component usually consisting of hexuronic acid or pyruvate, a low charge density and electrophoretic mobility, and stability at pH 5 to 6 at 100°C. Group I capsules may protect against desiccation and may contribute to adherence in enteric disease-producing isolates of E. coli ( 17 , 27 , 30 ). (asm.org)