Heterotrimeric GTP-Binding Proteins: GTP-BINDING PROTEINS that contain three non-identical subunits. They are found associated with members of the seven transmembrane domain superfamily of G-PROTEIN-COUPLED RECEPTORS. Upon activation the GTP-BINDING PROTEIN ALPHA SUBUNIT of the complex dissociates leaving a dimer of a GTP-BINDING PROTEIN BETA SUBUNIT bound to a GTP-BINDING PROTEIN GAMMA SUBUNIT.GTP-Binding Protein alpha Subunits: The GTPase-containing subunits of heterotrimeric GTP-binding proteins. When dissociated from the heterotrimeric complex these subunits interact with a variety of second messenger systems. Hydrolysis of GTP by the inherent GTPase activity of the subunit causes it to revert to its inactive (heterotrimeric) form. The GTP-Binding protein alpha subunits are grouped into families according to the type of action they have on second messenger systems.GTP-Binding Protein beta Subunits: Heterotrimeric GTP-binding protein subunits that tightly associate with GTP-BINDING PROTEIN GAMMA SUBUNITS. A dimer of beta and gamma subunits is formed when the GTP-BINDING PROTEIN ALPHA SUBUNIT dissociates from the GTP-binding protein heterotrimeric complex. The beta-gamma dimer can play an important role in signal transduction by interacting with a variety of second messengers.GTP-Binding Proteins: Regulatory proteins that act as molecular switches. They control a wide range of biological processes including: receptor signaling, intracellular signal transduction pathways, and protein synthesis. Their activity is regulated by factors that control their ability to bind to and hydrolyze GTP to GDP. EC 3.6.1.-.GTP-Binding Protein alpha Subunits, Gi-Go: A family of heterotrimeric GTP-binding protein alpha subunits that were originally identified by their ability to inhibit ADENYLYL CYCLASES. Members of this family can couple to beta and gamma G-protein subunits that activate POTASSIUM CHANNELS. The Gi-Go part of the name is also spelled Gi/Go.GTP-Binding Protein gamma Subunits: Heterotrimeric GTP-binding protein subunits that tightly associate with GTP-BINDING PROTEIN BETA SUBUNITS. A dimer of beta and gamma subunits is formed when the GTP-BINDING PROTEIN ALPHA SUBUNIT dissociates from the GTP-binding protein heterotrimeric complex. The beta-gamma dimer can play an important role in signal transduction by interacting with a variety of second messengers.GTP-Binding Protein alpha Subunits, G12-G13: A ubiquitously expressed family of heterotrimeric GTP-binding protein alpha subunits that signal through interactions with a variety of second messengers as GTPASE-ACTIVATING PROTEINS; GUANINE NUCLEOTIDE EXCHANGE FACTORS; and HEAT SHOCK PROTEINS. The G12-G13 part of the name is also spelled G12/G13.RGS Proteins: A large family of evolutionarily conserved proteins that function as negative regulators of HETEROTRIMERIC GTP-BINDING PROTEINS. RGS PROTEINS act by increasing the GTPase activity of the G alpha subunit of a heterotrimeric GTP-binding protein, causing it to revert to its inactive (GDP-bound) form.GTP-Binding Protein alpha Subunits, Gq-G11: A family of heterotrimeric GTP-binding protein alpha subunits that activate TYPE C PHOSPHOLIPASES dependent signaling pathways. The Gq-G11 part of the name is also spelled Gq/G11.GTP-Binding Protein alpha Subunit, Gi2: A PERTUSSIS TOXIN-sensitive GTP-binding protein alpha subunit. It couples with a variety of CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS, has been implicated in INTERLEUKIN-12 production, and may play a role in INFLAMMATORY BOWEL DISEASES.GTP-Binding Protein alpha Subunits, Gs: A family of heterotrimeric GTP-binding protein alpha subunits that activate ADENYLYL CYCLASES.Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.Guanosine 5'-O-(3-Thiotriphosphate): Guanosine 5'-(trihydrogen diphosphate), monoanhydride with phosphorothioic acid. A stable GTP analog which enjoys a variety of physiological actions such as stimulation of guanine nucleotide-binding proteins, phosphoinositide hydrolysis, cyclic AMP accumulation, and activation of specific proto-oncogenes.Aluminum Compounds: Inorganic compounds that contain aluminum as an integral part of the molecule.Wasp Venoms: Venoms produced by the wasp (Vespid) family of stinging insects, including hornets; the venoms contain enzymes, biogenic amines, histamine releasing factors, kinins, toxic polypeptides, etc., and are similar to bee venoms.Receptors, G-Protein-Coupled: The largest family of cell surface receptors involved in SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION. They share a common structure and signal through HETEROTRIMERIC G-PROTEINS.Pertussis Toxin: One of the virulence factors produced by BORDETELLA PERTUSSIS. It is a multimeric protein composed of five subunits S1 - S5. S1 contains mono ADPribose transferase activity.Gastrin-Releasing Peptide: Neuropeptide and gut hormone that helps regulate GASTRIC ACID secretion and motor function. Once released from nerves in the antrum of the STOMACH, the neuropeptide stimulates release of GASTRIN from the GASTRIN-SECRETING CELLS.GTP-Binding Protein Regulators: Proteins that regulate the signaling activity of GTP-BINDING PROTEINS. They are divided into three categories depending upon whether they stimulate GTPase activity (GTPASE-ACTIVATING PROTEINS), inhibit release of GDP; (GUANINE NUCLEOTIDE DISSOCIATION INHIBITORS); or exchange GTP for GDP; (GUANINE NUCLEOTIDE EXCHANGE FACTORS).Guanosine Diphosphate: A guanine nucleotide containing two phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety.Virulence Factors, Bordetella: A set of BACTERIAL ADHESINS and TOXINS, BIOLOGICAL produced by BORDETELLA organisms that determine the pathogenesis of BORDETELLA INFECTIONS, such as WHOOPING COUGH. They include filamentous hemagglutinin; FIMBRIAE PROTEINS; pertactin; PERTUSSIS TOXIN; ADENYLATE CYCLASE TOXIN; dermonecrotic toxin; tracheal cytotoxin; Bordetella LIPOPOLYSACCHARIDES; and tracheal colonization factor.Guanosine Triphosphate: Guanosine 5'-(tetrahydrogen triphosphate). A guanine nucleotide containing three phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Phospholipase C beta: A phosphoinositide phospholipase C subtype that is primarily regulated by its association with HETEROTRIMERIC G-PROTEINS. It is structurally related to PHOSPHOLIPASE C DELTA with the addition of C-terminal extension of 400 residues.Protein Binding: The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.Guanine Nucleotide Exchange Factors: Protein factors that promote the exchange of GTP for GDP bound to GTP-BINDING PROTEINS.Rho Guanine Nucleotide Exchange Factors: Signaling proteins which function as master molecular switches by activating Rho GTPases through conversion of guanine nucleotides. Rho GTPases in turn control many aspects of cell behavior through the regulation of multiple downstream signal transduction pathways.Transducin: A heterotrimeric GTP-binding protein that mediates the light activation signal from photolyzed rhodopsin to cyclic GMP phosphodiesterase and is pivotal in the visual excitation process. Activation of rhodopsin on the outer membrane of rod and cone cells causes GTP to bind to transducin followed by dissociation of the alpha subunit-GTP complex from the beta/gamma subunits of transducin. The alpha subunit-GTP complex activates the cyclic GMP phosphodiesterase which catalyzes the hydrolysis of cyclic GMP to 5'-GMP. This leads to closure of the sodium and calcium channels and therefore hyperpolarization of the rod cells. EC 3.6.1.-.Fluorides: Inorganic salts of hydrofluoric acid, HF, in which the fluorine atom is in the -1 oxidation state. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed) Sodium and stannous salts are commonly used in dentifrices.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Enzyme Activation: Conversion of an inactive form of an enzyme to one possessing metabolic activity. It includes 1, activation by ions (activators); 2, activation by cofactors (coenzymes); and 3, conversion of an enzyme precursor (proenzyme or zymogen) to an active enzyme.Cell Membrane: The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.Adenylate Cyclase: An enzyme of the lyase class that catalyzes the formation of CYCLIC AMP and pyrophosphate from ATP. EC 4.6.1.1.Protein Subunits: Single chains of amino acids that are the units of multimeric PROTEINS. Multimeric proteins can be composed of identical or non-identical subunits. One or more monomeric subunits may compose a protomer which itself is a subunit structure of a larger assembly.Type C Phospholipases: A subclass of phospholipases that hydrolyze the phosphoester bond found in the third position of GLYCEROPHOSPHOLIPIDS. Although the singular term phospholipase C specifically refers to an enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of PHOSPHATIDYLCHOLINE (EC 3.1.4.3), it is commonly used in the literature to refer to broad variety of enzymes that specifically catalyze the hydrolysis of PHOSPHATIDYLINOSITOLS.COS Cells: CELL LINES derived from the CV-1 cell line by transformation with a replication origin defective mutant of SV40 VIRUS, which codes for wild type large T antigen (ANTIGENS, POLYOMAVIRUS TRANSFORMING). They are used for transfection and cloning. (The CV-1 cell line was derived from the kidney of an adult male African green monkey (CERCOPITHECUS AETHIOPS).)Hexanols: Isomeric forms and derivatives of hexanol (C6H11OH).Cyclic AMP: An adenine nucleotide containing one phosphate group which is esterified to both the 3'- and 5'-positions of the sugar moiety. It is a second messenger and a key intracellular regulator, functioning as a mediator of activity for a number of hormones, including epinephrine, glucagon, and ACTH.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.GTP Phosphohydrolases: Enzymes that hydrolyze GTP to GDP. EC 3.6.1.-.Recombinant Fusion Proteins: Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.Rhodopsin: A purplish-red, light-sensitive pigment found in RETINAL ROD CELLS of most vertebrates. It is a complex consisting of a molecule of ROD OPSIN and a molecule of 11-cis retinal (RETINALDEHYDE). Rhodopsin exhibits peak absorption wavelength at about 500 nm.Transfection: The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.GTPase-Activating Proteins: Proteins that activate the GTPase of specific GTP-BINDING PROTEINS.Peptides: Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.beta-Adrenergic Receptor Kinases: G-protein-coupled receptor kinases that mediate agonist-dependent PHOSPHORYLATION and desensitization of BETA-ADRENERGIC RECEPTORS.Recombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.Sequence Homology, Amino Acid: The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.Protein Prenylation: A post-translational modification of proteins by the attachment of an isoprenoid to the C-terminal cysteine residue. The isoprenoids used, farnesyl diphosphate or geranylgeranyl diphosphate, are derived from the same biochemical pathway that produces cholesterol.Protein Structure, Tertiary: The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.Fruiting Bodies, Fungal: The fruiting 'heads' or 'caps' of FUNGI, which as a food item are familiarly known as MUSHROOMS, that contain the FUNGAL SPORES.Pheromones: Chemical substances, excreted by an organism into the environment, that elicit behavioral or physiological responses from other organisms of the same species. Perception of these chemical signals may be olfactory or by contact.rhoA GTP-Binding Protein: A RHO GTP-BINDING PROTEIN involved in regulating signal transduction pathways that control assembly of focal adhesions and actin stress fibers. This enzyme was formerly listed as EC 3.6.1.47.G Protein-Coupled Inwardly-Rectifying Potassium Channels: A family of inwardly-rectifying potassium channels that are activated by PERTUSSIS TOXIN sensitive G-PROTEIN-COUPLED RECEPTORS. GIRK potassium channels are primarily activated by the complex of GTP-BINDING PROTEIN BETA SUBUNITS and GTP-BINDING PROTEIN GAMMA SUBUNITS.Macromolecular Substances: Compounds and molecular complexes that consist of very large numbers of atoms and are generally over 500 kDa in size. In biological systems macromolecular substances usually can be visualized using ELECTRON MICROSCOPY and are distinguished from ORGANELLES by the lack of a membrane structure.Dimerization: The process by which two molecules of the same chemical composition form a condensation product or polymer.Arabidopsis Proteins: Proteins that originate from plants species belonging to the genus ARABIDOPSIS. The most intensely studied species of Arabidopsis, Arabidopsis thaliana, is commonly used in laboratory experiments.Receptors, Muscarinic: One of the two major classes of cholinergic receptors. Muscarinic receptors were originally defined by their preference for MUSCARINE over NICOTINE. There are several subtypes (usually M1, M2, M3....) that are characterized by their cellular actions, pharmacology, and molecular biology.Arrestins: Regulatory proteins that down-regulate phosphorylated G-protein membrane receptors, including rod and cone photoreceptors and adrenergic receptors.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Coatomer Protein: A 700-kDa cytosolic protein complex consisting of seven equimolar subunits (alpha, beta, beta', gamma, delta, epsilon and zeta). COATOMER PROTEIN and ADP-RIBOSYLATION FACTOR 1 are principle components of COAT PROTEIN COMPLEX I and are involved in vesicle transport between the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM and the GOLGI APPARATUS.3T3 Cells: Cell lines whose original growing procedure consisted being transferred (T) every 3 days and plated at 300,000 cells per plate (J Cell Biol 17:299-313, 1963). Lines have been developed using several different strains of mice. Tissues are usually fibroblasts derived from mouse embryos but other types and sources have been developed as well. The 3T3 lines are valuable in vitro host systems for oncogenic virus transformation studies, since 3T3 cells possess a high sensitivity to CONTACT INHIBITION.Calcium: A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.Two-Hybrid System Techniques: Screening techniques first developed in yeast to identify genes encoding interacting proteins. Variations are used to evaluate interplay between proteins and other molecules. Two-hybrid techniques refer to analysis for protein-protein interactions, one-hybrid for DNA-protein interactions, three-hybrid interactions for RNA-protein interactions or ligand-based interactions. Reverse n-hybrid techniques refer to analysis for mutations or other small molecules that dissociate known interactions.Lysophospholipids: Derivatives of PHOSPHATIDIC ACIDS that lack one of its fatty acyl chains due to its hydrolytic removal.Receptors, Cell Surface: Cell surface proteins that bind signalling molecules external to the cell with high affinity and convert this extracellular event into one or more intracellular signals that alter the behavior of the target cell (From Alberts, Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2nd ed, pp693-5). Cell surface receptors, unlike enzymes, do not chemically alter their ligands.Adenosine Diphosphate Ribose: An ester formed between the aldehydic carbon of RIBOSE and the terminal phosphate of ADENOSINE DIPHOSPHATE. It is produced by the hydrolysis of nicotinamide-adenine dinucleotide (NAD) by a variety of enzymes, some of which transfer an ADP-ribosyl group to target proteins.Models, Molecular: Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.Cattle: Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.Receptors, Adrenergic, beta-2: A subclass of beta-adrenergic receptors (RECEPTORS, ADRENERGIC, BETA). The adrenergic beta-2 receptors are more sensitive to EPINEPHRINE than to NOREPINEPHRINE and have a high affinity for the agonist TERBUTALINE. They are widespread, with clinically important roles in SKELETAL MUSCLE; LIVER; and vascular, bronchial, gastrointestinal, and genitourinary SMOOTH MUSCLE.Cholera Toxin: An ENTEROTOXIN from VIBRIO CHOLERAE. It consists of two major protomers, the heavy (H) or A subunit and the B protomer which consists of 5 light (L) or B subunits. The catalytic A subunit is proteolytically cleaved into fragments A1 and A2. The A1 fragment is a MONO(ADP-RIBOSE) TRANSFERASE. The B protomer binds cholera toxin to intestinal epithelial cells, and facilitates the uptake of the A1 fragment. The A1 catalyzed transfer of ADP-RIBOSE to the alpha subunits of heterotrimeric G PROTEINS activates the production of CYCLIC AMP. Increased levels of cyclic AMP are thought to modulate release of fluid and electrolytes from intestinal crypt cells.Protein Transport: The process of moving proteins from one cellular compartment (including extracellular) to another by various sorting and transport mechanisms such as gated transport, protein translocation, and vesicular transport.Guanine NucleotidesCyclic AMP-Dependent Protein Kinases: A group of enzymes that are dependent on CYCLIC AMP and catalyze the phosphorylation of SERINE or THREONINE residues on proteins. Included under this category are two cyclic-AMP-dependent protein kinase subtypes, each of which is defined by its subunit composition.Arabidopsis: A plant genus of the family BRASSICACEAE that contains ARABIDOPSIS PROTEINS and MADS DOMAIN PROTEINS. The species A. thaliana is used for experiments in classical plant genetics as well as molecular genetic studies in plant physiology, biochemistry, and development.Protein Conformation: The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).Binding Sites: The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.Phosphorylation: The introduction of a phosphoryl group into a compound through the formation of an ester bond between the compound and a phosphorus moiety.Golgi Apparatus: A stack of flattened vesicles that functions in posttranslational processing and sorting of proteins, receiving them from the rough ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM and directing them to secretory vesicles, LYSOSOMES, or the CELL MEMBRANE. The movement of proteins takes place by transfer vesicles that bud off from the rough endoplasmic reticulum or Golgi apparatus and fuse with the Golgi, lysosomes or cell membrane. (From Glick, Glossary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1990)Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Luminescent Proteins: Proteins which are involved in the phenomenon of light emission in living systems. Included are the "enzymatic" and "non-enzymatic" types of system with or without the presence of oxygen or co-factors.ras Proteins: Small, monomeric GTP-binding proteins encoded by ras genes (GENES, RAS). The protooncogene-derived protein, PROTO-ONCOGENE PROTEIN P21(RAS), plays a role in normal cellular growth, differentiation and development. The oncogene-derived protein (ONCOGENE PROTEIN P21(RAS)) can play a role in aberrant cellular regulation during neoplastic cell transformation (CELL TRANSFORMATION, NEOPLASTIC). This enzyme was formerly listed as EC 3.6.1.47.Coated Vesicles: Vesicles formed when cell-membrane coated pits (COATED PITS, CELL-MEMBRANE) invaginate and pinch off. The outer surface of these vesicles are covered with a lattice-like network of coat proteins, such as CLATHRIN, coat protein complex proteins, or CAVEOLINS.CHO Cells: CELL LINE derived from the ovary of the Chinese hamster, Cricetulus griseus (CRICETULUS). The species is a favorite for cytogenetic studies because of its small chromosome number. The cell line has provided model systems for the study of genetic alterations in cultured mammalian cells.Cricetinae: A subfamily in the family MURIDAE, comprising the hamsters. Four of the more common genera are Cricetus, CRICETULUS; MESOCRICETUS; and PHODOPUS.Membrane Proteins: Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.Fungal Proteins: Proteins found in any species of fungus.Cloning, Molecular: The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.Precipitin Tests: Serologic tests in which a positive reaction manifested by visible CHEMICAL PRECIPITATION occurs when a soluble ANTIGEN reacts with its precipitins, i.e., ANTIBODIES that can form a precipitate.Fluorescence Resonance Energy Transfer: A type of FLUORESCENCE SPECTROSCOPY using two FLUORESCENT DYES with overlapping emission and absorption spectra, which is used to indicate proximity of labeled molecules. This technique is useful for studying interactions of molecules and PROTEIN FOLDING.DNA, Complementary: Single-stranded complementary DNA synthesized from an RNA template by the action of RNA-dependent DNA polymerase. cDNA (i.e., complementary DNA, not circular DNA, not C-DNA) is used in a variety of molecular cloning experiments as well as serving as a specific hybridization probe.Receptor, Muscarinic M2: A specific subtype of muscarinic receptor found in the lower BRAIN, the HEART and in SMOOTH MUSCLE-containing organs. Although present in smooth muscle the M2 muscarinic receptor appears not to be involved in contractile responses.rho GTP-Binding Proteins: A large family of MONOMERIC GTP-BINDING PROTEINS that are involved in regulation of actin organization, gene expression and cell cycle progression. This enzyme was formerly listed as EC 3.6.1.47.rac GTP-Binding Proteins: A sub-family of RHO GTP-BINDING PROTEINS that is involved in regulating the organization of cytoskeletal filaments. This enzyme was formerly listed as EC 3.6.1.47.Carbachol: A slowly hydrolyzed CHOLINERGIC AGONIST that acts at both MUSCARINIC RECEPTORS and NICOTINIC RECEPTORS.Receptors, Neurotransmitter: Cell surface receptors that bind signalling molecules released by neurons and convert these signals into intracellular changes influencing the behavior of cells. Neurotransmitter is used here in its most general sense, including not only messengers that act to regulate ion channels, but also those which act on second messenger systems and those which may act at a distance from their release sites. Included are receptors for neuromodulators, neuroregulators, neuromediators, and neurohumors, whether or not located at synapses.Cercopithecus aethiops: A species of CERCOPITHECUS containing three subspecies: C. tantalus, C. pygerythrus, and C. sabeus. They are found in the forests and savannah of Africa. The African green monkey (C. pygerythrus) is the natural host of SIMIAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS and is used in AIDS research.Sequence Alignment: The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.Protein Structure, Quaternary: The characteristic 3-dimensional shape and arrangement of multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).Microscopy, Fluorescence: Microscopy of specimens stained with fluorescent dye (usually fluorescein isothiocyanate) or of naturally fluorescent materials, which emit light when exposed to ultraviolet or blue light. Immunofluorescence microscopy utilizes antibodies that are labeled with fluorescent dye.Isoenzymes: Structurally related forms of an enzyme. Each isoenzyme has the same mechanism and classification, but differs in its chemical, physical, or immunological characteristics.Dictyostelium: A genus of protozoa, formerly also considered a fungus. Its natural habitat is decaying forest leaves, where it feeds on bacteria. D. discoideum is the best-known species and is widely used in biomedical research.Caveolins: The main structural proteins of CAVEOLAE. Several distinct genes for caveolins have been identified.Adenylate Cyclase Toxin: One of the virulence factors produced by virulent BORDETELLA organisms. It is a bifunctional protein with both ADENYLYL CYCLASES and hemolysin components.Receptors, Peptide: Cell surface receptors that bind peptide messengers with high affinity and regulate intracellular signals which influence the behavior of cells.Receptor, Muscarinic M3: A subclass of muscarinic receptor that mediates cholinergic-induced contraction in a variety of SMOOTH MUSCLES.Immunoprecipitation: The aggregation of soluble ANTIGENS with ANTIBODIES, alone or with antibody binding factors such as ANTI-ANTIBODIES or STAPHYLOCOCCAL PROTEIN A, into complexes large enough to fall out of solution.Spodoptera: A genus of owlet moths of the family Noctuidae. These insects are used in molecular biology studies during all stages of their life cycle.ADP-Ribosylation Factors: MONOMERIC GTP-BINDING PROTEINS that were initially recognized as allosteric activators of the MONO(ADP-RIBOSE) TRANSFERASE of the CHOLERA TOXIN catalytic subunit. They are involved in vesicle trafficking and activation of PHOSPHOLIPASE D. This enzyme was formerly listed as EC 3.6.1.47Protein Kinase C: An serine-threonine protein kinase that requires the presence of physiological concentrations of CALCIUM and membrane PHOSPHOLIPIDS. The additional presence of DIACYLGLYCEROLS markedly increases its sensitivity to both calcium and phospholipids. The sensitivity of the enzyme can also be increased by PHORBOL ESTERS and it is believed that protein kinase C is the receptor protein of tumor-promoting phorbol esters.Inositol Phosphates: Phosphoric acid esters of inositol. They include mono- and polyphosphoric acid esters, with the exception of inositol hexaphosphate which is PHYTIC ACID.Guanine Nucleotide Dissociation Inhibitors: Protein factors that inhibit the dissociation of GDP from GTP-BINDING PROTEINS.Protein Multimerization: The assembly of the QUATERNARY PROTEIN STRUCTURE of multimeric proteins (MULTIPROTEIN COMPLEXES) from their composite PROTEIN SUBUNITS.Cell Division: The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases: A superfamily of PROTEIN-SERINE-THREONINE KINASES that are activated by diverse stimuli via protein kinase cascades. They are the final components of the cascades, activated by phosphorylation by MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASE KINASES, which in turn are activated by mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinases (MAP KINASE KINASE KINASES).Calcium-Calmodulin-Dependent Protein Kinases: A CALMODULIN-dependent enzyme that catalyzes the phosphorylation of proteins. This enzyme is also sometimes dependent on CALCIUM. A wide range of proteins can act as acceptor, including VIMENTIN; SYNAPSINS; GLYCOGEN SYNTHASE; MYOSIN LIGHT CHAINS; and the MICROTUBULE-ASSOCIATED PROTEINS. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992, p277)Mutagenesis, Site-Directed: Genetically engineered MUTAGENESIS at a specific site in the DNA molecule that introduces a base substitution, or an insertion or deletion.Spores, Fungal: Reproductive bodies produced by fungi.Brefeldin A: A fungal metabolite which is a macrocyclic lactone exhibiting a wide range of antibiotic activity.ADP Ribose Transferases: Enzymes that transfer the ADP-RIBOSE group of NAD or NADP to proteins or other small molecules. Transfer of ADP-ribose to water (i.e., hydrolysis) is catalyzed by the NADASES. The mono(ADP-ribose)transferases transfer a single ADP-ribose. POLY(ADP-RIBOSE) POLYMERASES transfer multiple units of ADP-ribose to protein targets, building POLY ADENOSINE DIPHOSPHATE RIBOSE in linear or branched chains.Immunoblotting: Immunologic method used for detecting or quantifying immunoreactive substances. The substance is identified by first immobilizing it by blotting onto a membrane and then tagging it with labeled antibodies.Peptide Fragments: Partial proteins formed by partial hydrolysis of complete proteins or generated through PROTEIN ENGINEERING techniques.Protein Structure, Secondary: The level of protein structure in which regular hydrogen-bond interactions within contiguous stretches of polypeptide chain give rise to alpha helices, beta strands (which align to form beta sheets) or other types of coils. This is the first folding level of protein conformation.Palmitic Acid: A common saturated fatty acid found in fats and waxes including olive oil, palm oil, and body lipids.Glutathione Transferase: A transferase that catalyzes the addition of aliphatic, aromatic, or heterocyclic FREE RADICALS as well as EPOXIDES and arene oxides to GLUTATHIONE. Addition takes place at the SULFUR. It also catalyzes the reduction of polyol nitrate by glutathione to polyol and nitrite.Botulinum Toxins: Toxic proteins produced from the species CLOSTRIDIUM BOTULINUM. The toxins are synthesized as a single peptide chain which is processed into a mature protein consisting of a heavy chain and light chain joined via a disulfide bond. The botulinum toxin light chain is a zinc-dependent protease which is released from the heavy chain upon ENDOCYTOSIS into PRESYNAPTIC NERVE ENDINGS. Once inside the cell the botulinum toxin light chain cleaves specific SNARE proteins which are essential for secretion of ACETYLCHOLINE by SYNAPTIC VESICLES. This inhibition of acetylcholine release results in muscular PARALYSIS.Ligands: A molecule that binds to another molecule, used especially to refer to a small molecule that binds specifically to a larger molecule, e.g., an antigen binding to an antibody, a hormone or neurotransmitter binding to a receptor, or a substrate or allosteric effector binding to an enzyme. Ligands are also molecules that donate or accept a pair of electrons to form a coordinate covalent bond with the central metal atom of a coordination complex. (From Dorland, 27th ed)Amino Acid Motifs: Commonly observed structural components of proteins formed by simple combinations of adjacent secondary structures. A commonly observed structure may be composed of a CONSERVED SEQUENCE which can be represented by a CONSENSUS SEQUENCE.Cytosol: Intracellular fluid from the cytoplasm after removal of ORGANELLES and other insoluble cytoplasmic components.Green Fluorescent Proteins: Protein analogs and derivatives of the Aequorea victoria green fluorescent protein that emit light (FLUORESCENCE) when excited with ULTRAVIOLET RAYS. They are used in REPORTER GENES in doing GENETIC TECHNIQUES. Numerous mutants have been made to emit other colors or be sensitive to pH.Phosphatidylinositols: Derivatives of phosphatidic acids in which the phosphoric acid is bound in ester linkage to the hexahydroxy alcohol, myo-inositol. Complete hydrolysis yields 1 mole of glycerol, phosphoric acid, myo-inositol, and 2 moles of fatty acids.Chemotaxis: The movement of cells or organisms toward or away from a substance in response to its concentration gradient.Phospholipase D: An enzyme found mostly in plant tissue. It hydrolyzes glycerophosphatidates with the formation of a phosphatidic acid and a nitrogenous base such as choline. This enzyme also catalyzes transphosphatidylation reactions. EC 3.1.4.4.Blotting, Western: Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.Receptors, Adrenergic, alpha-2: A subclass of alpha-adrenergic receptors found on both presynaptic and postsynaptic membranes where they signal through Gi-Go G-PROTEINS. While postsynaptic alpha-2 receptors play a traditional role in mediating the effects of ADRENERGIC AGONISTS, the subset of alpha-2 receptors found on presynaptic membranes signal the feedback inhibition of NEUROTRANSMITTER release.Protein Processing, Post-Translational: Any of various enzymatically catalyzed post-translational modifications of PEPTIDES or PROTEINS in the cell of origin. These modifications include carboxylation; HYDROXYLATION; ACETYLATION; PHOSPHORYLATION; METHYLATION; GLYCOSYLATION; ubiquitination; oxidation; proteolysis; and crosslinking and result in changes in molecular weight and electrophoretic motility.Proteins: Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.Saccharomyces cerevisiae: A species of the genus SACCHAROMYCES, family Saccharomycetaceae, order Saccharomycetales, known as "baker's" or "brewer's" yeast. The dried form is used as a dietary supplement.PhosphoproteinsReceptors, Lysophosphatidic Acid: A subfamily of lysophospholipid receptors with specificity for LYSOPHOSPHATIDIC ACIDS.Detergents: Purifying or cleansing agents, usually salts of long-chain aliphatic bases or acids, that exert cleansing (oil-dissolving) and antimicrobial effects through a surface action that depends on possessing both hydrophilic and hydrophobic properties.Hydrolysis: The process of cleaving a chemical compound by the addition of a molecule of water.Colforsin: Potent activator of the adenylate cyclase system and the biosynthesis of cyclic AMP. From the plant COLEUS FORSKOHLII. Has antihypertensive, positive inotropic, platelet aggregation inhibitory, and smooth muscle relaxant activities; also lowers intraocular pressure and promotes release of hormones from the pituitary gland.Dose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.Gene Expression Regulation, Plant: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in plants.Baculoviridae: Family of INSECT VIRUSES containing two subfamilies: Eubaculovirinae (occluded baculoviruses) and Nudibaculovirinae (nonoccluded baculoviruses). The Eubaculovirinae, which contain polyhedron-shaped inclusion bodies, have two genera: NUCLEOPOLYHEDROVIRUS and GRANULOVIRUS. Baculovirus vectors are used for expression of foreign genes in insects.Rod Cell Outer Segment: The portion of a retinal rod cell situated between the ROD INNER SEGMENT and the RETINAL PIGMENT EPITHELIUM. It contains a stack of photosensitive disk membranes laden with RHODOPSIN.Gene Expression Regulation, Fungal: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in fungi.Caveolin 1: A tyrosine phosphoprotein that plays an essential role in CAVEOLAE formation. It binds CHOLESTEROL and is involved in LIPIDS transport, membrane traffic, and SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION.Isoproterenol: Isopropyl analog of EPINEPHRINE; beta-sympathomimetic that acts on the heart, bronchi, skeletal muscle, alimentary tract, etc. It is used mainly as bronchodilator and heart stimulant.Caenorhabditis elegans Proteins: Proteins from the nematode species CAENORHABDITIS ELEGANS. The proteins from this species are the subject of scientific interest in the area of multicellular organism MORPHOGENESIS.Receptors, Adrenergic, beta: One of two major pharmacologically defined classes of adrenergic receptors. The beta adrenergic receptors play an important role in regulating CARDIAC MUSCLE contraction, SMOOTH MUSCLE relaxation, and GLYCOGENOLYSIS.Receptors, Formyl Peptide: A family of G-protein-coupled receptors that was originally identified by its ability to bind N-formyl peptides such as N-FORMYLMETHIONINE LEUCYL-PHENYLALANINE. Since N-formyl peptides are found in MITOCHONDRIA and BACTERIA, this class of receptors is believed to play a role in mediating cellular responses to cellular damage and bacterial invasion. However, non-formylated peptide ligands have also been found for this receptor class.Cell Compartmentation: A partitioning within cells due to the selectively permeable membranes which enclose each of the separate parts, e.g., mitochondria, lysosomes, etc.DNA Primers: Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Carrier Proteins: Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.HEK293 Cells: A cell line generated from human embryonic kidney cells that were transformed with human adenovirus type 5.Abscisic Acid: Abscission-accelerating plant growth substance isolated from young cotton fruit, leaves of sycamore, birch, and other plants, and from potatoes, lemons, avocados, and other fruits.Proto-Oncogene Proteins: Products of proto-oncogenes. Normally they do not have oncogenic or transforming properties, but are involved in the regulation or differentiation of cell growth. They often have protein kinase activity.Caenorhabditis elegans: A species of nematode that is widely used in biological, biochemical, and genetic studies.Protein Isoforms: Different forms of a protein that may be produced from different GENES, or from the same gene by ALTERNATIVE SPLICING.Protein-Serine-Threonine Kinases: A group of enzymes that catalyzes the phosphorylation of serine or threonine residues in proteins, with ATP or other nucleotides as phosphate donors.Aspergillus nidulans: A species of imperfect fungi from which the antibiotic nidulin is obtained. Its teleomorph is Emericella nidulans.Neuropeptides: Peptides released by NEURONS as intercellular messengers. Many neuropeptides are also hormones released by non-neuronal cells.Saccharomyces cerevisiae Proteins: Proteins obtained from the species SACCHAROMYCES CEREVISIAE. The function of specific proteins from this organism are the subject of intense scientific interest and have been used to derive basic understanding of the functioning similar proteins in higher eukaryotes.Protein-Tyrosine Kinases: Protein kinases that catalyze the PHOSPHORYLATION of TYROSINE residues in proteins with ATP or other nucleotides as phosphate donors.Biological Transport: The movement of materials (including biochemical substances and drugs) through a biological system at the cellular level. The transport can be across cell membranes and epithelial layers. It also can occur within intracellular compartments and extracellular compartments.Actins: Filamentous proteins that are the main constituent of the thin filaments of muscle fibers. The filaments (known also as filamentous or F-actin) can be dissociated into their globular subunits; each subunit is composed of a single polypeptide 375 amino acids long. This is known as globular or G-actin. In conjunction with MYOSINS, actin is responsible for the contraction and relaxation of muscle.Gene Expression: The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.Radioligand Assay: Quantitative determination of receptor (binding) proteins in body fluids or tissue using radioactively labeled binding reagents (e.g., antibodies, intracellular receptors, plasma binders).Amino Acid Substitution: The naturally occurring or experimentally induced replacement of one or more AMINO ACIDS in a protein with another. If a functionally equivalent amino acid is substituted, the protein may retain wild-type activity. Substitution may also diminish, enhance, or eliminate protein function. Experimentally induced substitution is often used to study enzyme activities and binding site properties.Point Mutation: A mutation caused by the substitution of one nucleotide for another. This results in the DNA molecule having a change in a single base pair.Gene Expression Regulation: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.Intracellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins: Proteins and peptides that are involved in SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION within the cell. Included here are peptides and proteins that regulate the activity of TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS and cellular processes in response to signals from CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS. Intracellular signaling peptide and proteins may be part of an enzymatic signaling cascade or act through binding to and modifying the action of other signaling factors.Structure-Activity Relationship: The relationship between the chemical structure of a compound and its biological or pharmacological activity. Compounds are often classed together because they have structural characteristics in common including shape, size, stereochemical arrangement, and distribution of functional groups.Genes, Dominant: Genes that influence the PHENOTYPE both in the homozygous and the heterozygous state.Mutagenesis: Process of generating a genetic MUTATION. It may occur spontaneously or be induced by MUTAGENS.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Enzyme Inhibitors: Compounds or agents that combine with an enzyme in such a manner as to prevent the normal substrate-enzyme combination and the catalytic reaction.Oryza sativa: Annual cereal grass of the family POACEAE and its edible starchy grain, rice, which is the staple food of roughly one-half of the world's population.Cholecystokinin: A peptide, of about 33 amino acids, secreted by the upper INTESTINAL MUCOSA and also found in the central nervous system. It causes gallbladder contraction, release of pancreatic exocrine (or digestive) enzymes, and affects other gastrointestinal functions. Cholecystokinin may be the mediator of satiety.Mice, Knockout: Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.Cytoplasm: The part of a cell that contains the CYTOSOL and small structures excluding the CELL NUCLEUS; MITOCHONDRIA; and large VACUOLES. (Glick, Glossary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1990)Proto-Oncogene Proteins p21(ras): Cellular proteins encoded by the H-ras, K-ras and N-ras genes. The proteins have GTPase activity and are involved in signal transduction as monomeric GTP-binding proteins. Elevated levels of p21 c-ras have been associated with neoplasia. This enzyme was formerly listed as EC 3.6.1.47.Protein Kinases: A family of enzymes that catalyze the conversion of ATP and a protein to ADP and a phosphoprotein.Organelles: Specific particles of membrane-bound organized living substances present in eukaryotic cells, such as the MITOCHONDRIA; the GOLGI APPARATUS; ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM; LYSOSOMES; PLASTIDS; and VACUOLES.Brain: The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.Kidney: Body organ that filters blood for the secretion of URINE and that regulates ion concentrations.PC12 Cells: A CELL LINE derived from a PHEOCHROMOCYTOMA of the rat ADRENAL MEDULLA. PC12 cells stop dividing and undergo terminal differentiation when treated with NERVE GROWTH FACTOR, making the line a useful model system for NERVE CELL differentiation.Chemotactic Factors: Chemical substances that attract or repel cells. The concept denotes especially those factors released as a result of tissue injury, microbial invasion, or immunologic activity, that attract LEUKOCYTES; MACROPHAGES; or other cells to the site of infection or insult.Tumor Cells, Cultured: Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.Phenotype: The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.Cell Movement: The movement of cells from one location to another. Distinguish from CYTOKINESIS which is the process of dividing the CYTOPLASM of a cell.Plant Proteins: Proteins found in plants (flowers, herbs, shrubs, trees, etc.). The concept does not include proteins found in vegetables for which VEGETABLE PROTEINS is available.Microscopy, Confocal: A light microscopic technique in which only a small spot is illuminated and observed at a time. An image is constructed through point-by-point scanning of the field in this manner. Light sources may be conventional or laser, and fluorescence or transmitted observations are possible.Neurons: The basic cellular units of nervous tissue. Each neuron consists of a body, an axon, and dendrites. Their purpose is to receive, conduct, and transmit impulses in the NERVOUS SYSTEM.Intracellular Membranes: Thin structures that encapsulate subcellular structures or ORGANELLES in EUKARYOTIC CELLS. They include a variety of membranes associated with the CELL NUCLEUS; the MITOCHONDRIA; the GOLGI APPARATUS; the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM; LYSOSOMES; PLASTIDS; and VACUOLES.

*Neuromedin B

... the heterotrimeric G protein that is attached to the receptor is activated. The G-protein is called heterotrimeric because it ... Mammalian bombesin receptors: nomenclature, distribution, pharmacology, signaling, and functions in normal and disease states ... This receptor is a G protein-coupled receptor with seven transmembrane spanning regions, hence the receptor is also denoted as ... cAMP activates of the enzyme Protein Kinase A (PKA). PKA enters the nucleus and activates the cAMP response element-binding ...

*G protein-coupled receptor

G proteins are subsequently inactivated by GTPase activating proteins, known as RGS proteins. GPCRs include: receptors for ... When the receptor is inactive, the GEF domain may be bound to an also inactive α-subunit of a heterotrimeric G-protein. These " ... sensory signal mediators (e.g., light and olfactory stimulatory molecules); adenosine, bombesin, bradykinin, endothelin, γ- ... 7TM receptors, heptahelical receptors, serpentine receptor, and G protein-linked receptors (GPLR), constitute a large protein ...

*List of MeSH codes (D12.644)

... jnk mitogen-activated protein kinases MeSH D12.644.360.450.340.500 --- mitogen-activated protein kinase 8 MeSH D12.644.360.450. ... smad6 protein MeSH D12.644.360.024.334.200.700 --- smad7 protein MeSH D12.644.360.024.334.500 --- smad proteins, receptor- ... heterotrimeric gtp-binding proteins MeSH D12.644.360.375.100 --- gtp-binding protein alpha subunits MeSH D12.644.360.375. ... bombesin MeSH D12.644.400.090 --- bradykinin MeSH D12.644.400.095 --- calcitonin MeSH D12.644.400.097 --- calcitonin gene- ...
Previously we used mass spectrometry to show that the yeast G protein alpha subunit Gpa1 is ubiquitinated at Lys-165, located within a subdomain not present in other G alpha proteins (Marotti, L. A., Jr., Newitt, R., Wang, Y., Aebersold, R., and Dohlman, H. G. (2002) Biochemistry 41, 5067-5074). Here we describe the functional role of Gpa1 ubiquitination. We find that Gpa1 expression is elevated in mutants deficient in either proteasomal or vacuolar protease function. Vacuolar protease pep4 mutants accumulate monoubiquitinated Gpa1, and much of the protein is localized within the vacuolar compartment. In contrast, proteasome-defective rpt6/cim3 mutants accumulate polyubiquitinated Gpa1, and in this case the protein exhibits cytoplasmic localization. Cells that lack Ubp12 ubiquitin-processing protease activity accumulate both mono- and polyubiquitinated forms of Gpa1. In this case, Gpa1 accumulates in both the cytoplasm and vacuole. Finally, ...
Regulator of G protein signaling (RGS) proteins accelerate GTP hydrolysis by Gα subunits and thus facilitate termination of signaling initiated by G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs). RGS proteins hold great promise as disease intervention points, given their signature role as negative regulators of GPCRs-receptors to which the largest fraction of approved medications are currently directed. RGS proteins share a hallmark RGS domain that interacts most avidly with Gα when in its transition state for GTP hydrolysis; by binding and stabilizing switch regions I and II of Gα, RGS domain binding consequently accelerates Gα-mediated GTP hydrolysis. The human genome encodes more than three dozen RGS domain-containing proteins with varied Gα substrate specificities. To facilitate their exploitation as drug-discovery targets, we have taken a systematic structural biology approach ...
The Arabidopsis thaliana heterotrimeric G protein complex is encoded by single canonical Galpha and Gbeta subunit genes and two Ggamma subunit genes (AGG1 and AGG2), raising the possibility that the two potential G protein complexes mediate different cellular processes. Mutants with reduced expression of one or both Ggamma genes revealed specialized roles for each Ggamma subunit. AGG1-deficient mutants, but not AGG2-deficient mutants, showed impaired resistance against necrotrophic pathogens, reduced induction of the plant defensin gene PDF1.2, and decreased sensitivity to methyl jasmonate. By contrast, both AGG1- and AGG2-deficient mutants were hypersensitive to auxin-mediated induction of lateral roots, suggesting that Gbetagamma1 and Gbetagamma2 synergistically inhibit auxin-dependent lateral root initiation. However, the involvement of each Ggamma subunit in this root response differs, with Gbetagamma1 acting within the central cylinder, attenuating ...
The carboxyl terminal of heterotrimeric G protein alpha subunits binds both G protein-coupled receptors and mastoparan (MP), a tetradecapeptide allostere. Moreover, peptides corresponding to the carboxyl domains of G(i)3 alpha and G(t) display intrinsic biological activities in cell-free systems. Thus, the purpose of this study was to develop a cell penetrant delivery system to further investigate the biological properties of a peptide mimetic of the G(i)3 alpha carboxyl terminal (G(i)3 alpha(346-355); H-KNNLKECGLY-NH2). Kinetic studies, using a CFDA-conjugated analogue of G(i)3 alpha(346-355), confirmed the rapid and efficient intracellular translocation of TP10-G(i)3 alpha(346-355) (t(0.5) = 3 min). Translocated G(i)3 alpha(346-355), but not other bioactive cargoes derived from PKC and the CB1 cannabinoid receptor, promoted the dual phosphorylation of p42/p44 MAPK without adverse changes in cellular viability. The relative specificity of ...
Cells usually activate the cyclic AMP (cAMP, or adenosine 3′,5′-monophosphate)-dependent protein kinase through G protein (heterotrimeric guanine nucleotide-binding protein)-coupled receptors, which activate G proteins, which in turn control the activity of adenylyl cyclase, the enzyme that makes cAMP. Peeters et al., however, report that in yeast, and just maybe in mammalian cells as well, there appears to be a more direct route to activation of the cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA). Peeters et al. studied the roles of Krh1 (kelch-repeat homologue 1, also called Gpb2) and Krh2 (also called Gpb1). Krh1 and Krh2 associate with the yeast G protein α subunit Gpa2, which appears not to interact with canonical G protein β-γ subunits. Interestingly, the Krh1 and Krh2 proteins have the seven-bladed β-propeller structure characteristic of Gβ ...
We identified the transcription factor E2F8 in the course of a screen for novel activators of heterotrimeric G proteins. In S. cerevisiae, E2F8 was able to activate a G protein/MAP kinase reporter pathway; this activity was specific for particular G protein isoforms, mapped epistatically to the level of heterotrimers, and was antagonized by a GTPase-accelerating protein. The amino-terminus of the protein appeared to be most important for G protein activation. The most parsimonious interpretation of these results is that E2F8 stimulates nucleotide exchange on the α subunit of heterotrimeric G proteins. Since E2F8 did not reduce the maximal receptor-mediated signal (Figure 2), but rather caused a left-shift in the receptors dose-response curve, E2F8 does not compete with receptors for G proteins. Instead, E2F8 and ...
The phosphorylation of heptahelical receptors by heterotrimeric guanine nucleotide-binding protein (G protein)-coupled receptor kinases (GRKs) is a universal regulatory mechanism that leads to desensitization of G protein signaling and to the activation of alternative signaling pathways.We determined the crystallographic structure of bovine GRK2 in complex with G protein beta1gamma2 subunits.Our results show how the three domains of GRK2-the RGS (regulator of G protein signaling) homology, protein kinase, and pleckstrin homology domains-integrate their respective activities and recruit the enzyme to the cell membrane in an orientation that not only facilitates receptor phosphorylation, but also allows for the simultaneous inhibition of signaling by Galpha and Gbetagamma subunits ...
Guanine nucleotide-binding protein G(olf) subunit alpha is a protein that in humans is encoded by the GNAL gene. GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ENSG00000141404 - Ensembl, May 2017 GRCm38: Ensembl release 89: ENSMUSG00000024524 - Ensembl, May 2017 "Human PubMed Reference:". "Mouse PubMed Reference:". Wilkie TM, Gilbert DJ, Olsen AS, Chen XN, Amatruda TT, Korenberg JR, Trask BJ, de Jong P, Reed RR, Simon MI, et al. (Jun 1993). "Evolution of the mammalian G protein alpha subunit multigene family". Nat Genet. 1 (2): 85-91. doi:10.1038/ng0592-85. PMID 1302014. "Entrez Gene: GNAL guanine nucleotide binding protein (G protein), alpha activating activity polypeptide, olfactory type". Zigman JM, Westermark GT, LaMendola J, et al. (1994). "Human G(olf) alpha: complementary deoxyribonucleic acid structure and expression in pancreatic islets and other tissues outside the olfactory neuroepithelium and central nervous system". Endocrinology. ...
Complete information for GNAL gene (Protein Coding), G Protein Subunit Alpha L, including: function, proteins, disorders, pathways, orthologs, and expression. GeneCards - The Human Gene Compendium
heterotrimeric G-protein complex, G protein-coupled receptor binding, G-protein beta/gamma-subunit complex binding, GTPase activity, adenylate cyclase-modulating G protein-coupled receptor signaling pathway, phospholipase C-activating dopamine receptor signaling pathway
In the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, the G protein beta gamma subunits are essential for pheromone signaling. The Galpha subunit Gpa1 can also promote signaling, but the effectors in this pathway are not well characterized. To identify candidate Gpa1 effectors, we expressed the constitutively active Gpa1(Q323L) mutant in each of nearly 5000 gene-deletion strains and measured mating-specific responses. Our analysis reveals a requirement for both the catalytic (Vps34) and regulatory (Vps15) subunits of the sole phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase in yeast. We demonstrate that Gpa1 is present at endosomes, where it interacts directly with both Vps34 and Vps15 and stimulates increased production of phosphatidylinositol 3-phosphate. Notably, Vps15 binds to GDP-bound Gpa1 and is predicted to have a seven-WD repeat structure similar to that of known G protein beta subunits. These findings reveal two new components of the pheromone signaling pathway. More remarkably, these ...
Ric-8A and Ric-8B are positive regulators of heterotrimeric G protein a subunit function. We have recently defined the cellular action of Ric-8 proteins towards...
Heterotrimeric guanine nucleotide-binding proteins (G proteins), which integrate signals between receptors and effector proteins, are composed of an alpha, a beta, and a gamma subunit. These subunits are encoded by families of related genes. This gene encodes a beta subunit which belongs to the WD repeat G protein beta family. Beta subunits are important regulators of alpha subunits, as well as of certain signal transduction receptors and effectors. A single-nucleotide polymorphism (C825T) in this gene is associated with essential hypertension and obesity. This polymorphism is also associated with the occurrence of the splice variant GNB3-s, which appears to have increased activity. GNB3-s is an example of alternative splicing caused by a nucleotide change outside of the splice donor and acceptor sites. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. Additional alternatively ...
The Ran GTPase Activating Protein 2 (RanGAP2) was first described as a regulator of mitosis and nucleocytoplasmic trafficking. It was then found to interact with the Coiled-Coil domain of the Rx and GPA2 resistance proteins, which confer resistance to Potato Virus X (PVX) and potato cyst nematode Globodera pallida, respectively. RanGAP2 is thought to mediate recognition of the avirulence protein GP-RBP-1 by GPA2. However, the Gpa2-induced hypersensitive response appears to be relatively weak and Gpa2 is limited in terms of spectrum of efficiency as it is effective against only two nematode populations. While functional and evolutionary analyses of Gp-Rbp-1 and Gpa2 identified key residues in both the resistance and avirulence proteins that are involved in recognition determination, whether variation in RanGAP2 also plays a role in pathogen recognition has not been investigated. We amplified a total of 147 RanGAP2 sequences from 55 accessions ...
Guanine nucleotide-binding protein G(I)/G(S)/G(T) subunit beta-3 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the GNB3 gene. Heterotrimeric guanine nucleotide-binding proteins ( G proteins), which integrate signals between receptors and effector proteins, are composed of an alpha, a beta, and a gamma subunit. These subunits are encoded by families of related genes. This gene encodes a beta subunit. Beta subunits are important regulators of alpha subunits, as well as of certain signal transduction receptors and effectors. A single-nucleotide polymorphism (C825T) in this gene is associated with essential hypertension and obesity. This polymorphism is also associated with the occurrence of the splice variant GNB3-s, which appears to have increased activity. GNB3-s is an example of alternative splicing caused by a nucleotide change outside of the splice donor and acceptor sites. ...
Resistance to inhibitors of cholinesterase (Ric-8) proteins are ∼60-kDa positive regulators of heterotrimeric G protein α subunits found in animals and some fungi. Ric-8 was discovered in the Caenorhabditis elegans ric genetic screen that was conducted to find mutants with reduced neurotransmitter release. ric mutants live by circumventing the neurotoxic effects of cholinesterase inhibitor-induced synaptic acetylcholine accumulation (Miller et al., 1996). Wild-type RIC genes positively influence neurotransmission and include components of G protein signaling pathways: Gαq/egl-30, RGS/egl-10, and unc-13, which encodes a protein that regulates synaptic vesicle priming in response to diacylglycerol. RIC-8 encoded an uncharacterized protein also called synembryn in some databases. ric-8 mutants were epistatic to egl-30 (Gαq) mutants, indicating that RIC-8 protein action was likely manifested ...
Complete information for GPA33 gene (Protein Coding), Glycoprotein A33, including: function, proteins, disorders, pathways, orthologs, and expression. GeneCards - The Human Gene Compendium
Chemokines orchestrate cell migration for development, immune surveillance, and disease by binding to cell surface heterotrimeric guanine nucleotide-binding protein (G protein)-coupled receptors (GPCRs). The array of interactions between the nearly 50 chemokines and their 20 GPCR targets generates an extensive signaling network to which promiscuity and biased agonism add further complexity. The receptor CXCR4 recognizes both monomeric and dimeric forms of the chemokine CXCL12, which is a distinct example of ligand bias in the chemokine family. We demonstrated that a constitutively monomeric CXCL12 variant reproduced the G protein-dependent and β-arrestin-dependent responses that are associated with normal CXCR4 signaling and lead to cell migration. In addition, monomeric CXCL12 made specific contacts with CXCR4 that are not present in the structure of the receptor in complex with a dimeric form of CXCL12, a biased agonist ...
The guanine nucleotide exchange factor p63RhoGEF is an effector of the heterotrimeric guanine nucleotide-binding protein (G protein) Gαq and thereby links Gαq-coupled receptors (GPCRs) to the activation of the small-molecular-weight G protein RhoA. We determined the crystal structure of the Gαq-p63RhoGEF-RhoA complex, detailing the interactions of Gαq with the Dbl and pleckstrin homology (DH and P ...
GNAQ mutations at codon 209 have been recently identified in approximately 50% of uveal melanomas (UM) and are reported to be oncogenic through activating the MAPK/Erk1/2 pathway. Protein kinase C (PKC) is a component of signaling from GNAQ to Erk1/2. Inhibition of PKC might regulate GNAQ mutation-induced Erk1/2 activation, resulting in growth inhibition of UM cells carrying GNAQ mutations. UM cells carrying wild type or mutant GNAQ were treated with the PKC inhibitor enzastaurin. Effects on proliferation, apoptosis, and signaling events were evaluated. Enzastaurin downregulated the expression of several PKC isoforms including PKCβII PKCθ, PKCε and/or their phosphorylation in GNAQ mutated cells. Downregulation of these PKC isoforms in GNAQ mutated cells by shRNA resulted in reduced viability. Enzastaurin exhibited greater antiproliferative effect on GNAQ mutant cells than wild type cells through induction of G1 arrest and apoptosis. Enzastaurin-induced G1 arrest was associated with ...
Introduction. G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) form the largest family of integral membrane receptors. These receptors are seven transmembrane-spanning proteins that respond to a wide variety of stimuli including light, odour, taste, hormones and neurotransmitters. Activation of a GPCR results in the modulation of intracellular second messenger levels and/or ionic conductances via the coupling of receptors to a wide variety of effector systems via heterotrimeric guanine nucleotide-binding proteins (G proteins). Agonist activation of a GPCR induces the isomerization of the receptor to a high-affinity agonist-binding conformation catalyzing the exchange of GDP for GTP on the G protein a-subunit (1). This exchange of GDP for GTP allows the dissociation of the Ga-subunit from the Gßg-subunits, which when dissociated from one another regulate ...
The lipoglycoproteins of the WNT family act on seven transmembrane-spanning Class Frizzled receptors. Here, we show that WNT-5A evokes a proliferative response in a mouse microglia-like cell line (N13), which is sensitive to pertussis toxin, thus implicating the involvement of heterotrimeric G proteins of the G(i/o) family. We continue to show that WNT-5A stimulation of N13 membranes and permeabilized cells evokes the exchange of GDP for GTP of pertussis toxin-sensitive G proteins employing [gamma-(35)S]GTP assay and activity state-specific antibodies to GTP-bound G(i) proteins. Our functional analysis of the PTX-sensitivity of WNT-induced G protein activation and PCR analysis of G protein and FZD expression patterns suggest that WNT-5A stimulation leads to the activation of G(i2/3) proteins in N13 cells possibly mediated by FZD(5), the predominant FZD ...
Gene Information Heterotrimeric guanine nucleotide-binding proteins (G proteins) which integrate signals between receptors and effector proteins are composed of an alpha a beta and a gamma subunit. These subunits are encoded by families of related genes. This gene encodes a beta subunit. Beta subunits are important regulators of alpha subunits as well as of certain signal transduction receptors and effectors. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding different isoforms exist. [provided by RefSeq Jul 2008]. ...
G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) relay diverse extracellular signals into cells by catalyzing nucleotide release from heterotrimeric G proteins, but the mechanism underlying this quintessential molecular signaling event has remained unclear. Here we use atomic-level simulations to elucidate the nucleotide-release mechanism. We find that the G protein α subunit Ras and helical domains-previously observed to separate widely upon receptor binding to expose the nucleotide-binding site-separate spontaneously and frequently even in the absence of a receptor. Domain separation is necessary but not sufficient for rapid nucleotide release. Rather, receptors catalyze nucleotide release by favoring an internal structural rearrangement of the Ras domain that weakens its nucleotide affinity. We use double electron-electron resonance spectroscopy and protein engineering to confirm predictions of our ...
We studied the effects of various beta-adrenoceptor (beta AR) antagonists and local anesthetics (LAs), i.e. substances possessing one basic and one lipophilic domain each, on activation of regulatory heterotrimeric guanine nucleotide-binding proteins (G-proteins). In membranes of differentiated HL-60 cells, propranolol activated high-affinity GTP hydrolysis with a half-maximal effect at 0.19 mM and a maximum at 1 mM. There was a close correlation between the log Q values (logarithm of the octanol: water partition coefficient) of beta AR antagonists and the logarithm of their effectiveness at activating GTPase (EC 3.6.1.-) in HL-60 membranes. The lipophilic LA, tetracaine, was also an effective activator of GTPase in HL-60 membranes, whereas more hydrophilic LAs were less stimulatory (bupivacaine and lidocaine) or even inhibitory (procaine). Propranolol and tetracaine also stimulated binding of guanosine 5-O-[3-thio]triphosphate (GTP[gamma S]) to HL-60 ...
Information transfer from activated heterotrimeric guanine nucleotide-binding proteins (G proteins) to downstream effectors occurs through noncovalent protein-protein interactions. Such interactions involve multiple regions of contact between the G protein and the effector. Some of these regions mediate information transfer, as defined by their ability to change the activity of their downstream binding partners, whereas other interactions appear to contribute solely to binding affinity. Such modular configurations occur in functionally diverse proteins such as myosin and a regulator of the double-stranded DNA stimulated protein kinase (PKR) called PACT. In most cases, it appears that both charge complementarity and the architecture of the interacting surfaces provide the appropriate balance between specificity of interactions and their reversibility. Information transfer ...
The ability of morphine to alleviate pain is mediated through a heterotrimeric guanine nucleotide binding protein (G protein)-coupled heptahelical receptor (GPCR), the mu opioid receptor (muOR). The efficiency of GPCR signaling is tightly regulated and ultimately limited by the coordinated phosphorylation of the receptors by specific GPCR kinases and the subsequent interaction of the phosphorylated receptors with beta-arrestin 1 and beta-arrestin 2. Functional deletion of the beta-arrestin 2 gene in mice resulted in remarkable potentiation and prolongation of the analgesic effect of morphine, suggesting that muOR desensitization was impaired. These results provide evidence in vivo for the physiological importance of beta-arrestin 2 in regulating the function of a specific GPCR, the muOR. Moreover, they suggest that inhibition of beta-arrestin 2 function might lead to enhanced analgesic effectiveness of morphine and provide ...
Methods and results Two patients were identified with melanocytoma, one of which had transformed to melanoma. In the latter case, the melanocytoma exhibited an immunophenotype that featured nuclear p27 and no HMB45 staining, with very low Cyclin D1 expression compared with the melanoma that featured little nuclear but more cytoplasmic p27 positivity, much higher Cyclin D1 expression and HMB45 positivity. The melanocytomas were negative for CD68 allowing distinction from melanophages. Both melanocytomas and the melanoma harboured mutations in GNAQ, with no mutations of GNA11 or BRAF V600E.. ...
Heptahelical G protein-coupled receptors are the most diverse and therapeutically important family of receptors in the human genome. Ligand binding activates heterotrimeric G proteins that transmit intracellular signals by regulating effector enzymes or ion channels. G protein signaling is terminated, in large part, by arrestin binding, which uncouples the receptor and G protein and targets the receptor for internalization. It is clear, however, that heptahelical receptor signaling does not end with desensitization. Arrestins bind a host of catalytically active proteins and serve as ligand-regulated scaffolds that recruit protein and lipid kinase, phosphatase, phosphodiesterase, and ubiquitin ligase activity into the receptor-arrestin complex. Although many of these arrestin-bound effectors serve to modulate G protein ...
G protein alpha Inhibitor 2兔多克隆抗体(ab20392)可与大鼠, 人样本反应并经WB, IP, ICC/IF实验严格验证,被2篇文献引用并得到1个独立的用户反馈。
Genomes and Genes, Scientific Experts, Publications, Species, Research Topics, Research Grants about gq g11 gtp binding protein alpha subunits
Summary is not available for the mouse gene. This summary is for the human ortholog.] Regulator of G protein signaling (RGS) family members are regulatory molecules that act as GTPase activating proteins (GAPs) for G alpha subunits of heterotrimeric G proteins. RGS proteins are able to deactivate G protein subunits of the Gi alpha, Go alpha and Gq alpha subtypes. They drive G proteins into their inactive GDP-bound forms. Regulator of G protein signaling 4 belongs to this family. All RGS proteins share a conserved 120-amino acid sequence termed the RGS domain. Regulator of G protein signaling 4 protein is 37% identical to RGS1 and 97% identical to rat Rgs4. This protein negatively regulate signaling upstream or at the level of the heterotrimeric G protein and is localized in ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - The active role of βγ in signal transduction. AU - Sternweis, Paul C.. PY - 1994. Y1 - 1994. N2 - Many receptors that sense the environment effect intracellular regulation through stimulation of heterotrimeric G proteins and the consequences thereof. While prominence was originally given to the α-subunits of G proteins as the pathway for downstream regulation, very active roles for the βγ-subunits have emerged in the past year. Recent experiments highlight the versatility of βγ-subunits in these regulatory pathways, but also emphasize some fundamental questions that remain.. AB - Many receptors that sense the environment effect intracellular regulation through stimulation of heterotrimeric G proteins and the consequences thereof. While prominence was originally given to the α-subunits of G proteins as the pathway for downstream regulation, very active roles ...
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Recently Peeters and colleagues (2006) discovered a mechanism in yeast by which the G alfa protein Gpa2 activates PKA through two kelch-repeat proteins, Krh1 and Krh2, bypassing adenylate cyclase stimulation. Hence, Gpa2 regulates PKA activity via two distinct pathways: through stimulation of adenylate cyclase and through inhibition of the Krh proteins. We investigated if the C. glabrata homologues of ScKrh1 and ScKrh2 can complement the respective deletion mutants of S. cerevisiae. By measuring the trehalose content of the respective deletions mutants, transformed with CgKrh1 and CgKrh2 cloned into pBEVY-vectors, after 12, 24 and 48 hours, we showed that ChKrh1 and ChKrh2 can complement the function of ScKrh1 and ScKrh2. We will also investigate the expression of STRE-controlled genes and the formation of pseudohyphae in these transformed deletion mutants ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Cryo-EM structure of oxysterol-bound human Smoothened coupled to a heterotrimeric Gi. AU - Qi, Xiaofeng. AU - Liu, Heng. AU - Thompson, Bonne. AU - McDonald, Jeffrey. AU - Zhang, Cheng. AU - Li, Xiaochun. PY - 2019/1/1. Y1 - 2019/1/1. N2 - The oncoprotein Smoothened (SMO), a G-protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) of the Frizzled-class (class-F), transduces the Hedgehog signal from the tumour suppressor Patched-1 (PTCH1) to the glioma-associated-oncogene (GLI) transcription factors, which activates the Hedgehog signalling pathway1,2. It has remained unknown how PTCH1 modulates SMO, how SMO is stimulated to form a complex with heterotrimeric G proteins and whether G-protein coupling contributes to the activation of GLI proteins3. Here we show that 24,25-epoxycholesterol, which we identify as an endogenous ligand of PTCH1, can stimulate Hedgehog signalling in cells ...
Diversity of G-Protein-Coupled Receptor Signal Transduction Pathways
Receptors coupled to heterotrimeric GTP-binding proteins (G-proteins) are integral transmembrane proteins that transduce extracellular signals to the cell interior. G-protein-coupled receptors exhibit a common structural motif consisting of seven membrane spanning regions. Receptor occupation promotes interaction between the receptor and the G-protein on the interior surface of the membrane. This induces an exchange of GDP for GTP on the G-protein α subunit and dissociation of the α subunit from the β γ heterodimer. Depending on its isoform, the GTP α subunit complex mediates intracellular signaling either indirectly by acting on effector molecules such as adenylate cyclase (AC) or phospholipase C (PLC), or directly by regulating ion channel or kinase function. ...
By using MT1 homodimers and MT1/MT2 heterodimers as model GPCRs, we are extending here two emerging concepts: the pre‐assembly of GPCR‐interacting complexes and the asymmetric function and organization of GPCR dimers. In addition, we are providing a new functional justification for GPCR dimerization that applies to homo‐ and heterodimers, namely the possibility of simultaneous and direct binding of GPCR‐interacting proteins (GIPs) to the same GPCR dimer composed of two asymmetric protomers. Heterotrimeric G proteins are central, although not exclusive signal transducers of GPCRs. An increasing number of reports suggests the formation of pre‐assembled receptor-G‐protein complexes, which rearrange upon agonist activation of the receptor (Bunemann et al, 2003; Galés et al, 2006; Audet et al, 2008). This central complex is surrounded by a number of other GIPs that might either compete with the G protein for receptor binding, as ...
S. cerevisiae has membrane proteins that act as glucose receptors. Glucose binds to these receptors and generates an intracellular signal. In the Rgt2/Snf3 pathway, these two proteins act as glucose receptors. The Rgt2 and Snf3 proteins resemble hexose transporters in structure but have long cytoplasmic tails that are required for signal transduction [7]. Glucose binding to these transmembrane proteins initiates signals that activate a pathway that allows hexose transporter gene expression by repressing Rgt1 function [8].. An additional pathway that involves transcriptional changes in response to glucose is the stimulation of adenylyl cyclase and the increase in intracellular cyclic AMP. This pathway includes a G-protein coupled receptor (Gpr1) and two G proteins Gpa1 and 2, necessary for the glucose-specific increase in cAMP [9,10]. Finally, glucose ...
Members of the G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) family, such as GPR85, have a similar structure characterized by 7 transmembrane domains. Activation of GPCRs by extracellular stimuli, such as neurotransmitters, hormones, or light, induces an intracellular signaling cascade mediated by heterotrimeric GTP-binding proteins, or G proteins (Matsumoto et al., 2000 [PubMed 10833454]).[supplied by OMIM, Aug 2008 ...
Human immunodeficiency virus-type 1 (HIV-1) entry requires fusion cofactors on the CD4+ target cell. Fusin, a heterotrimeric GTP-binding protein (G protein)-coupled receptor, serves as a cofactor for T cell line-tropic isolates. The chemokines RANTES, MIP-1α, and MIP-1β, which suppress infection by macrophage-tropic isolates, selectively inhibited cell fusion mediated by the corresponding envelope glycoproteins (Envs). Recombinant CC CKR5, a G protein-coupled receptor for these chemokines, rendered CD4-expressing nonhuman cells fusion-competent preferentially with macrophage-tropic Envs. CC CKR5 messenger RNA was detected selectively in cell types susceptible to macrophage-tropic isolates. CC CKR5 is thus a fusion cofactor for macrophage-tropic HIV-1 strains. ...
The effect of endogenous RGS proteins on receptor-mediated signaling has been studied in various systems by expressing RGS-insensitive or -sensitive Gαo (Jeong and Ikeda, 2000; Boutet-Robinet et al., 2003; Clark et al., 2003). Insensitivity of Gαo to endogenous RGS proteins increases receptor signaling to some, but not all, pathways that have been studied. In this work we have expressed RGS-insensitive and -sensitive Gαo in C6 glioma cells expressing the rat μ-opioid receptor. This allowed us to test two hypotheses, namely, that coupling of the μ-opioid receptor to Gαo can provide for adenylyl supersensitization and that RGS proteins decrease the degree of supersensitization because of their effect in shortening the lifetime of the active signaling molecule Gαo-GTP and its Gβγ counterpart. The results show the presence of active Gαo alone allows for the development of μ-opioid agonist-mediated adenylyl cyclase supersensitization and that this effect is ...
Press Release issued Sep 14, 2012: G protein coupled receptors which are also known by other names such as heptahelical receptors, G protein-linked receptors (GPLR), serpentine receptor and 7TM receptors comprises of a large family of protein. They are found in eukaryotes and choanoflagellates. GPCRs are targeted by approximately 45% to 50% of medicinal drugs.The major factors which are driving the growth of the GPCRs market include: growing researcher interest in targeting GPCR for medicinal drugs, development in indentifying new membrane structure and newer structures and the advancement in technologies used.
Heterotrimeric guanosine triphosphate (GTP)-binding proteins (G proteins) determine tissue and cell polarity in a variety of organisms. In yeast, cells orient polarized growth toward the mating partner along a pheromone gradient by a mechanism that requires Far1p and Cdc24p. Far1p bound Gβγ and interacted with polarity establishment proteins, which organize the actin cytoskeleton. Cells containing mutated Far1p unable to bind Gβγ or polarity establishment proteins were defective for orienting growth toward their mating partner. In response to pheromones, Far1p moves from the nucleus to the cytoplasm. Thus, Far1p functions as an adaptor that recruits polarity establishment proteins to the site of extracellular signaling marked by Gβγ to polarize assembly of the cytoskeleton in a morphogenetic gradient. ...
Exposure to external stimuli promotes a variety of cellular responses including changes in morphology, gene expression and cell division status. These responses are promoted by signaling pathways composed of modules that are conserved from lower to higher eukaryotes. In Saccharomyces cerevisiae response to the external stimuli provided by mating pheromone is governed by the pheromone response pathway. This pathway is composed of a G protein coupled receptor/heterotrimeric G protein (Gαβγ) module and a MAP kinase cascade. Activation of this pathway allows the heterotrimeric G protein βγ dimer (Gβγ) to recruit polarity proteins to promote changes in cell morphology and to activate signaling through the MAP kinase cascade. Here we investigate the regulation of these pheromone-induced responses. We first examine how an asymmetric polarization response is generated. Normally, a gradient of pheromone serves as a ...
G protein alpha S兔多克隆抗体(ab97629)可与人样本反应并经WB实验严格验证。中国75%以上现货,所有产品均提供质保服务,可通过电话、电邮或微信获得本地专属技术支持。
Heterotrimeric guanine nucleotide binding proteins (G proteins) transmit a variety of extracellular signals from cell surface G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) to intracellular effector molecules. Heterotrimeric G proteins are classified according to the α subunit into four subfamilies: Gs, Gi, Gq, and G12. The G12 subfamily, which is comprised of two members, Gα12 (GNA12) and Gα13 (GNA13), has been implicated in cancer cell invasion and metastasis. G12 signaling promotes prostate, breast and ovarian cancer cell invasion in vitro, and these proteins are highly expressed in metastatic cancer tissues. As part of a program to elucidate the mechanisms by which GNA12 and GNA13 expression is upregulated in cancer cells, we assessed the potential involvement of micro-RNAs (miRNAs) in post-transcriptional control of GNA13 expression. The initial focus was on prostate cancer; LnCAP ...
Eight heptahelical receptors have been characterized for prostaglandin (PG) D2, PGE2, PGF2α, prostacyclin and thromboxane A2. They share a sequence identity of 40%. All of them have potential N-glycosylation sites. The current study analysed the role of the two N-glycosylation sites in the rat EP3β-subtype PGE2 receptor for protein folding and sorting. The N-glycosylation consensus sequences were eliminated by site-directed mutagenesis and receptors expressed in HEK-293 cells. Both potential N-glycosylation sites were used. Their joint elimination resulted in the synthesis of a receptor protein with full binding competence, biological activity and no reduction of affinity; however, the half-life of the non-glycosylated receptor was slightly reduced. Ligand binding to intact stably transfected cells and confocal laser microscopic immunocytochemistry showed that the glycosylated receptor was correctly inserted into the plasma membrane to a ...
Frizzleds (FZDs) are unconventional G protein-coupled receptors, which activate diverse intracellular signaling pathways via the phosphoprotein Disheveled (DVL) and heterotrimeric G proteins. The Interaction interplay of FZDs with DVL and G proteins is complex, involves different regions of FZD and the potential dynamics are poorly understood. In the present study, we aimed to characterize the function of a highly conserved tyrosine (Y2502.39) in the intracellular loop 1 (ILl) of human FZD4. We have found Y2502.39 to be crucial for DVL2 interaction and DVL2 translocation to the plasma membrane. Mutant FZD4-Y2502.39F, impaired in DVL2 binding, was defective in both beta-catenin-dependent and beta-catenin-independent WNT signaling induced in Xenopus laevis embryos. The same mutant maintained interaction with the heterotrimeric G proteins Gan and G alpha13 and was able to ...
Heterotrimeric G proteins are quintessential signalling switches activated by nucleotide exchange on Galpha. Although activation is predominantly carried out by G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs), non-receptor guanine-nucleotide exchange factors (GEFs) have emerged as critical signalling molecules and therapeutic targets. Here we characterize the molecular mechanism of G-protein activation by a family of non-receptor GEFs containing a Galpha-binding and -activating (GBA) motif. We combine NMR spectroscopy, computational modelling and biochemistry to map changes in Galpha caused by binding of GBA proteins with residue-level resolution. We find that the GBA motif binds to the SwitchII/alpha3 cleft of Galpha and induces changes in the G-1/P-loop and G-2 boxes (involved in phosphate binding), but not in the G-4/G-5 boxes (guanine binding). Our findings reveal that G-protein-binding and ...
Cytoskeletal signaling complexes include G-protein complexes, focal adhesions, and adherens junctions. Focal adhesions and adherens junctions link the cell exterior to the plasma membrane and the actin cytoskeleton, acting as key initiators of signaling pathways in response to cell adhesion.
There are no specific protocols for Recombinant Rat G protein alpha (mutated Q212 L + D280 N) (ab90410). Please download our general protocols booklet
Regulator of G protein signaling (RGS) family members are regulatory molecules that act as GTPase activating proteins (GAPs) for G alpha subunits of heterotrimeric G proteins. RGS proteins are able to deactivate G protein subunits of the Gi alpha, Go alpha and Gq alpha subtypes. They drive G proteins into their inactive GDP-bound forms. Regulator of G protein signaling 4 belongs to this family. All RGS proteins share a conserved 120-amino acid sequence termed the RGS domain. Regulator of G protein signaling 4 protein is 37% identical to RGS1 and 97% identical to rat Rgs4. This protein negatively regulate signaling upstream or at the level of the heterotrimeric G protein and is localized in the cytoplasm. Alternatively spliced transcript variants have been found for this gene ...
G proteins, also known as guanine nucleotide-binding proteins, are a family of proteins that act as molecular switches inside cells, and are involved in transmitting signals from a variety of stimuli outside a cell to its interior. Their activity is regulated by factors that control their ability to bind to and hydrolyze guanosine triphosphate (GTP) to guanosine diphosphate (GDP). When they are bound to GTP, they are on, and, when they are bound to GDP, they are off. G proteins belong to the larger group of enzymes called GTPases.. There are two classes of G proteins. The first function as monomeric small GTPases, while the second function as heterotrimeric G protein complexes. The latter class of complexes is made up of alpha (α), beta (β) and gamma (γ) subunits.[1] In addition, the beta and gamma subunits can form a stable dimeric complex referred to as the beta-gamma complex.. G ...
Opioids are potent analgesic drugs prescribed to treat pain that ranges from moderate to severe. They have unwanted side effects, can lead to tolerance and dependence, and display addictive properties. Opioids function by acting on mu opioid receptors (MORs) located throughout the CNS. MOR is coupled to inhibitory heterotrimeric G proteins of the Gαi/o family, which have many downstream signaling effects, including inhibition of adenylyl cyclase. Regulators of G protein signaling (RGS) proteins negatively modulate this receptor-mediated G protein signaling. One of the remaining questions regarding the effects of RGS proteins on MOR signaling is which, if any, Gαi/o protein subtype serves as the site of action for RGS protein inhibition of opioid signaling. To evaluate the role of one Gα subunit, Gαo, in the effects of RGS proteins on opioid ...
Upon ligand binding, G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) impart the transmission to heterotrimeric G proteins composed of , , and subunits, leading to dissociation of the G subunit from your G subunit. and its deletion mutants were cloned into pEGFP-C1 (Clontech, Mountain View, CA) to fuse with an enhanced green fluorescence protein (EGFP) at the N terminus (21). The GFP-tagged bovine GRK2 was kindly provided by Marc G. Caron (Duke School INFIRMARY, Durham, NC). The Flag-tagged GRK2ct that spans proteins (aa) 501 to 689 on the C-terminal part of GRK2 was subcloned from GFP-tagged GRK2. The RKTG brief hairpin RNA (shRNA) build was generated utilizing a lentiviral program as previously reported (27). In a nutshell, an annealed little interfering RNA (siRNA) cassette using a concentrating on series of GGACAACCCGUACAUCACC for RKTG was placed in to the pBS-SKII-hU6 vector downstream from the hU6 promoter. The ...
Heart failure (HF) has been described as the inability of the myocardium to deliver oxygen and nutrients to a degree commensurate with the metabolic requirements of the body.1 Myocardial dysfunction induces compensatory neurohumoral mechanisms, including the sympathetic nervous system (SNS), as an attempt to preserve contractile performance. Mediators of the SNS consist predominantly of 2 catecholamines, namely epinephrine and norepinephrine (NE), released by cardiac sympathetic nerve terminals or secreted directly into the circulation by the adrenal medulla. Effects of these neurotransmitters are mediated through cell surface adrenergic receptors (ARs), members of the G protein-coupled receptor superfamily. Stimulation of the β-AR promotes a conformational change to activate the heterotrimeric G protein Gα and Gβγ subunits, promoting positive inotropic and chronotropic effects culminating in improved myocardial function.2. Article, see p ...
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GPA 2145-09 Rev 1 GEQ GHV summary factors.xlsx. The Gas Producers Association, now known as the GPA Midstream Association (www.gpaglobal.org ), has a issued a revised standard GPA-2145-16 - Table of Physical Properties of Hydrocarbons and Other Compounds effective 1 January 2017. This latest standard now becomes GPA Midstream 2145-16, which replaces GPA 2145-09.. The update is based on revised test methods and a merger with the physical property data within the GPA Engineering Data Book. The update can be found here: GPA 2145 16 Publication.. A summary of the [few] changes can be found in the attached excel sheet (courtesy Al McCue). The only changes to either the G.Equiv or GHV factors is that G.Equiv factors for both hydrogen (H2) and helium (HE) changed slightly. As these components are only present in trace quantities in most gas mixtures and are not listed on liquid analyses - these new factors should only affect gas allocations and cascade allocations very minutely, if at all. Some of the ...
Cellular membranes act as signaling platforms and control solute transport. Membrane receptors, transporters, and enzymes communicate with intracellular processes through protein-protein interactions. Using a split-ubiquitin yeast two-hybrid screen that covers a test-space of 6.4 × 106 pairs, we identified 12,102 membrane/signaling protein interactions from Arabidopsis. Besides confirmation of expected interactions such as heterotrimeric G protein subunit interactions and aquaporin oligomerization, >99% of the interactions were previously unknown. Interactions were confirmed at a rate of 32% in orthogonal in planta split-green flourescent protein interaction assays, which was statistically indistinguishable from the confirmation rate for known interactions collected from literature (38%). Regulatory associations in membrane protein trafficking, turnover, and phosphorylation ...
Cellular membranes act as signaling platforms and control solute transport. Membrane receptors, transporters, and enzymes communicate with intracellular processes through protein-protein interactions. Using a split-ubiquitin yeast two-hybrid screen that covers a test-space of 6.4 × 10(6) pairs, we identified 12,102 membrane/signaling protein interactions from Arabidopsis. Besides confirmation of expected interactions such as heterotrimeric G protein subunit interactions and aquaporin oligomerization, >99% of the interactions were previously unknown. Interactions were confirmed at a rate of 32% in orthogonal in planta split-green flourescent protein interaction assays, which was statistically indistinguishable from the confirmation rate for known interactions collected from literature (38%). Regulatory associations in membrane protein trafficking, turnover, and ...
For directional movement, eukaryotic cells depend on the proper organization of their actin cytoskeleton. This engine of motility is made up of highly dynamic nonequilibrium actin structures such as flashes, oscillations, and traveling waves. In Dictyostelium, oscillatory actin foci interact with signals such as Ras and phosphatidylinositol 3,4,5-trisphosphate (PIP3) to form protrusions. However, how signaling cues tame actin dynamics to produce a pseudopod and guide cellular motility is a critical open question in eukaryotic chemotaxis. Here, we demonstrate that the strength of coupling between individual actin oscillators controls cell polarization and directional movement. We implement an inducible sequestration system to inactivate the heterotrimeric G protein subunit Gβ and find that this acute perturbation triggers persistent, high-amplitude cortical oscillations of F-actin. Actin oscillators that are normally weakly coupled to one another in wild-type cells become ...
Gnaq - mouse gene knockout kit via CRISPR, 1 kit. |dl||dt|Kit Component:|/dt||dd|- |strong|KN307067G1|/strong|, Gnaq gRNA vector 1 in |a href=http://www.origene.com/CRISPR-CAS9/Detail.
The human organism employs G protein coupled receptors (GPCRs), cell surface receptors in the plasma membrane, to transmit extracellular signals such as hormones, neurotransmitters, gustatory and olfactory signals into the interior of the cell. Specific binding of these extracellular ligands induces a conformational change in GPCRs, which allows the interaction with heterotrimeric G proteins and the catalysis of GDP/GTP nucleotide exchange in the G protein. The G protein then transmits the signal by protein-protein interaction to intracellular effector proteins. The publications summarized here on the rhodopsin/transducin system of photoreceptor cells, a model system for GPCRs/G proteins, cover three topics: 1. Methodology developments for biophysical monitoring of the interaction between rhodopsin and transducin by light ...
The family of WD-repeat proteins comprises over 30 different proteins that share a highly conserved repeating motif [Neer, E. J., Schmidt, C. J., Nambudripad, R., & Smith, T. F. (1994) Nature 371, 297-300]. Members of this family include the signal-transducing G protein beta subunit, as well as other proteins that regulate signal transduction, transcription, pre-mRNA splicing, cytoskeletal organization, and vesicular fusion. The crystal structure of one WD-repeat protein (G beta) has now been solved (Wall et al., 1995; Sondek et al, 1996) and reveals that the seven repeating units form a circular, propeller-like structure with seven blades each made up of four beta strands. It is very likely that all WD-repeat proteins form a similar structure. If so, it will be possible to use information about important surface regions of one family member to predict properties of another. If WD proteins ...
Research interests. Dr. Botellas research has two major foci: basic cell biology and applied biotechnology. In cell biology he is interested in studying the function of the Heterotrimeric G proteins in plants. This family of proteins is extremely important in humans but their role in pant systems is still largely unknown. Dr. Botellas research has strongly contributed to the current body of knowledge available in plants with critical contributions such as the discovery and characterization of the first plant gamma subunits and the establishment of these subunits as the critical element conferring function specificity to all plant G proteins. Dr. Botellas team has also discovered the important role that these proteins play in defense against pathogens. New and unpublished data has now revealed that G proteins are important yield enhancing factors in crops such as rice. Another research interest resides in the ...
Detail záznamu - Long-term adaptation to high doses of morphine causes desensitization of micro-OR- and delta-OR-stimulated G-protein response in forebrain cortex but does not decrease the amount of G-protein alpha subunits - Detail záznamu - Knihovna Akademie věd České republiky
Figure 12. GPCR and heterotrimeric G-protein signalling.. The ligand bound to the GPCR is shown in red. Binding allows the exchange of GDP for GTP by the associated G protein, and dissociation of the protein into Gα and Gβγ subunits. These then have downstream effects on a range of proteins, thereby propagating the signal from the bound ligand. Yellow arrows indicate either activation (up arrow) or inhibition (down arrow) of the targets. Regulators of G-protein signalling (RGS) proteins aid the GTPase activity of the G protein to turn off the signal. Arrestin can bind the receptor following GPCR phosphorylation by G-protein receptor kinase (GRK), desensitizing the receptor to further signalling. Reproduced from Berridge, M.J. (2012) Cell Signalling Biology; doi:10.1042/csb0001002, with permission. ...
G protein G(alpha)o is essential for vomeronasal function and aggressive behavior in mice.s profile, publications, research topics, and co-authors
Discovery identifies elaborate g-protein network in plants - posted in Wetenschappelijk Nieuws: http://www.scienceda...10421104514.htmScienceDaily (Apr. 20, 2011) The most elaborate heterotrimeric G-protein network known to date in the plant kingdom has been identified by Dr. Sona Pandey, principal investigator at the Danforth Plant Science Center. The results of this research are published in the recent article, An elaborate heterotirmeric G-protein family from soybean expands the...
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The protein encoded by this gene catalyzes the formation of inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate and diacylglycerol from phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate. This reaction uses calcium as a cofactor and plays an important role in the intracellular transduction of many extracellular signals. This gene is activated by two G-protein alpha subunits, alpha-q and alpha-11. Two transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008 ...
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Guanine nucleotide-binding proteins (G proteins) are involved as modulators or transducers in various transmembrane signaling systems. The G(s) protein is involved in hormonal regulation of adenylate cyclase: it activates the cyclase (By similarity).
This gene is a member of the guanine nucleotide-binding protein (G protein) gamma family and encodes a lipid-anchored, cell membrane protein. As a member of the heterotrimeric G protein complex, this protein plays a role in this transmembrane signaling system. This protein is also subject to carboxyl-terminal processing. Decreased expression of this gene is associated with splenic marginal zone lymphomas ...
Predicted to have G-protein alpha-subunit binding activity; G-protein beta-subunit binding activity; and GTPase activator activity. Involved in G protein-coupled receptor signaling pathway; regulation of G protein-coupled receptor signaling pathway; and regulation of postsynaptic membrane potential. Localizes to several cellular components, including the dendrite terminus; glutamatergic synapse; and postsynaptic membrane. Is expressed in bone; foot mesenchyme; nervous system; pelvic girdle skeleton; and sensory organ. Orthologous to human RGS7 (regulator of G protein signaling 7 ...
The family of WD-repeat proteins comprises over 30 different proteins that share a highly conserved repeating motif [Neer, E. J., Schmidt, C. J., Nambudripad, R., & Smith, T. F. (1994) Nature 371, 297-300]. Members of this family include the signal-transducing G protein beta subunit, as well as other proteins that regulate signal transduction, transcription, pre-mRNA splicing, cytoskeletal organization, and vesicular fusion. The crystal structure of one WD-repeat protein (G beta) has now been solved (Wall et al., 1995; Sondek et al, 1996) and reveals that the seven repeating units form a circular, propeller-like structure with seven blades each made up of four beta strands. It is very likely that all WD-repeat proteins form a similar structure. If so, it will be possible to use information about important surface regions of one family member to predict properties of another. If WD proteins ...
The family of WD-repeat proteins comprises over 30 different proteins that share a highly conserved repeating motif [Neer, E. J., Schmidt, C. J., Nambudripad, R., & Smith, T. F. (1994) Nature 371, 297-300]. Members of this family include the signal-transducing G protein beta subunit, as well as other proteins that regulate signal transduction, transcription, pre-mRNA splicing, cytoskeletal organization, and vesicular fusion. The crystal structure of one WD-repeat protein (G beta) has now been solved (Wall et al., 1995; Sondek et al, 1996) and reveals that the seven repeating units form a circular, propeller-like structure with seven blades each made up of four beta strands. It is very likely that all WD-repeat proteins form a similar structure. If so, it will be possible to use information about important surface regions of one family member to predict properties of another. If WD proteins ...
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can be an opportunistic human being pathogenic fungus causing severe infections in immunocompromised individuals. corresponding transmission via the cyclic AMP (cAMP) signaling cascade perform an essential part in the virulence of a variety of human being and flower pathogenic fungi, including (1, 9, 19). They enable the fungus to adapt to changing environmental conditions, 156722-18-8 e.g., after invasion of the sponsor cells, by activation of factors which protect the pathogen against defense mechanisms of the sponsor immune system. In eukaryotes, exogenous signals are sensed by defined transmembrane receptors on the NGFR surface of the cell, resulting in activation of receptor-bound heterotrimeric G proteins. In their inactive state, these G proteins consist of three subunits, designated G, G, and G. The G subunit binds GDP. After binding of a signal molecule to the receptor, GDP is definitely exchanged with GTP. Subsequently, the G ...
The G Protein is involved in production of Cyclic AMP or cAMP from ATP. This is the major process behind the G Protein. cAMP is actually a second messenger and goes ahead to perform its function ...
Gradients of morphogens (in the embryo), pheromones (in yeast) or chemoattractants in prospective migrating cells provide spatial cues that generate cellular asymmetry[6] by activating specific receptors. These receptors often belong to the G-protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) superfamily[12], members of which are distributed homogeneously in the cellular membrane[13],[14]. Asymmetric activation of these receptors is amplified through the asymmetric recruitment and activation of signaling adaptors in a process that magnifies very shallow differences in the gradient as perceived by the front and the rear of the cell[6].. Among the effectors that are asymmetrically recruited and activated by the membrane receptors are heterotrimeric G proteins, which activate - among other enzymes - phospholipase C (PLC) and different isoforms of protein kinase C (PKC), inducing the local ...
Vision provides a critical interface with the physical world. This work examines visual development and vision loss in mice to glean the influence of the retinal state on visual connections. I first assessed the impact of retinal activity on the eye-specific segregation of retinal afferents in the lateral geniculate nucleus (LGN) of young Gβ5 -/- mice. Gβ5 is the fifth member of the β subfamily of heterotrimeric G proteins. Gβ5 binds and stabilizes the R7 family of regulators of G-protein signaling (RGS), which accelerate Gi/o GTP hydrolysis. Gβ5 -/- mice, which lack R7RGS activity, have malformed synapses in the outer plexiform layer (OPL) and impaired OPL transmission. Altered spontaneous retinal activity in Gβ5-/- mice at P7, P12, P14, and P28 correlates with impaired eye-specific segregation of retinal afferents in the LGN at corresponding timepoints. However, Gβ5-/- mice exhibit a normal transition from cholinergic to glutamatergic drive that ...
ウサギ・ポリクローナル抗体 ab3522 交差種: Ms,Rat,Hu 適用: WB,IP,IHC-P…G Protein alpha Inhibitor 1+2抗体一覧…画像、プロトコール、文献などWeb上の情報が満載のアブカムの Antibody…
Increasing evidence suggests that RGS proteins play an integral role in G-protein signaling. To date, however, information regarding the functional roles of RGS proteins is limited primarily to in vitro biochemical assays and heterologous overexpression experiments. Thus, the role played by natively expressed RGS proteins in G-protein signaling remains unclear. A reason for this void in our knowledge is the lack of experimental tools for uncoupling endogenous RGS proteins from G-protein signaling pathways. Thus, the development of the better tools represents a major challenge for understanding the physiological roles subserved by RGS proteins. In this regard, several potential strategies are apparent. First, genetically ablating specific RGS proteins, either acutely (e.g., antisense techniques) or stably (e.g., knock-out mice), might lend insight into ...
Growing evidence shows that sensory cells which enable us to taste sweetness, bitterness and savoriness (umami) are not limited to the tongue. These so-called Trpm5-expressing chemosensory cells are also found in the respiratory ...
PE anti-human CD294 (CRTH2) Antibody - CD294, also known as CRTH2, is a seven-transmembrane protein coupled with heterotrimeric G proteins.
This resource is meant to serve as a centralized repository of information for modeling the pheromone response pathway, and contains an embedded computational model of the pheromone response pathway that anybody in the community can use. As a community resource, anyone can sign up for an account and contribute. ...
Definition of GNB in the Financial Dictionary - by Free online English dictionary and encyclopedia. What is GNB? Meaning of GNB as a finance term. What does GNB mean in finance?
We have used a constitutively active mutant of the α2A-AR stably expressed in CHO-K1 cells to examine mechanisms of α2A-AR signaling. From these studies, at least three new conclusions can be drawn. First, the α2A-AR T373K has enhanced signaling to both Gi and Gs. Second, the inverse efficacy of a series of α2-AR antagonists is examined, and a novel difference between idazoxan and methyl-idazoxan (RX821002) has been found. This point is important for interpreting physiological studies that use these two compounds. Finally, the fraction of active α2A-AR for the T373K CAM mutant is approximately 50% for our whole cell cAMP accumulation assay, whereas the WT receptor appears to have a very low percentage of receptor active in the absence of agonist.. The effects of constitutively active receptor mutants on different G proteins are not always concordant as reported for the α1-AR by Perez et al. (1996). Ren et al. (1993)previously showed for the α2A-AR that the T373K mutation adjacent to TM6 ...
Molecular model of G protein bound to guanine triphosphate (GTP). G proteins, or guanine nucleotide binding proteins, are molecular switches involved in signal transduction. - Stock Image C025/1605
Complete information for GNA13 gene (Protein Coding), G Protein Subunit Alpha 13, including: function, proteins, disorders, pathways, orthologs, and expression. GeneCards - The Human Gene Compendium
Reaktivität: Rind (Kuh), Pferd, Human and more. 68 verschiedene SIRPG Antikörper vergleichen. Alle direkt auf antikörper-online bestellbar!
Regulation of low-voltage activated T-type Ca2+ channel activity by kinases and heterotrimeric G-proteins and their roles in physiological responses.. ...
We are interested in learning how small molecules in the blood stream can cause cells to react in specific ways, such as growing, dividing or migrating. While there are many agents that can stimulate or inhibit cell behavior, we are most interested in the ability of certain hormones and neurotransmitters to activate a family of proteins called "G Proteins". G proteins can simulate an enzyme called phospholipase Cbeta (PLCbeta). Activation of PLCbeta raises the level of calcium in the cell, which changes the activity of many other proteins. Additionally, PLCbeta can also affect the ability of a cell to control the transcription of specific genes into proteins by changing the stability of their messenger RNA. ...
Order GNB2 ELISA Kits for many Reactivities. and more. Compare GNB2 ELISA Kits and find the right product on antibodies-online.com.
Laminin. Some people think it shows the way to God, others think it looks like a wilted flower. What is laminin. It is a heterotrimeric (has three units) glycoprotein (proteins that have chains attached to chains). In other words it is a protein made up of three units sticking together. It has an a chain, B…
レニショーは多種多様な産業オートメーションのご要望に合致する磁気、光学の各方式のコンパクトなエンコーダを提供しています。この製品カタログでは、頑丈な磁気式リニア/リング/ロータリーエンコーダ、光学式インクリメンタルリニア/ロータリーエンコーダ、レーザー干渉計、そして新シリーズの光学式アブソリュートリニア/ロータリーエンコーダと幅広く詳細に説明しています。 ...
G-Protein Coupled Receptors (GPCRs) Market-Global Industry Analysis, Size, Share, Growth, Trends and Forecast 2014-2022. The global GPCRs market is to reach an estimated value of USD 3,533.4 million in 2022
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Reactome | BRS3 [plasma membrane]Reactome | BRS3 [plasma membrane]

Ligand:GPCR complexes that activate Gq/11 [plasma membrane] (Gallus gallus) * Bombesin-like receptor:bombesin-like peptide [ ... Ligand:GPCR complexes that activate Gq/11:Heterotrimeric G-protein Gq (active) [plasma membrane] (Gallus gallus) * Ligand:GPCR ... Peptide ligand-binding receptors (Gallus gallus) * Bombesin-like receptors bind bombesin homologues (Gallus gallus) * Bombesin- ... Bombesin-like receptor:bombesin-like peptide [plasma membrane] (Gallus gallus) * Bombesin-like receptor [plasma membrane] ( ...
more infohttps://reactome.org/content/detail/R-GGA-947694

Neuromedin B - WikipediaNeuromedin B - Wikipedia

... the heterotrimeric G protein that is attached to the receptor is activated. The G-protein is called heterotrimeric because it ... Mammalian bombesin receptors: nomenclature, distribution, pharmacology, signaling, and functions in normal and disease states ... This receptor is a G protein-coupled receptor with seven transmembrane spanning regions, hence the receptor is also denoted as ... cAMP activates of the enzyme Protein Kinase A (PKA). PKA enters the nucleus and activates the cAMP response element-binding ...
more infohttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Neuromedin_B

G protein-coupled receptor - WikipediaG protein-coupled receptor - Wikipedia

G proteins are subsequently inactivated by GTPase activating proteins, known as RGS proteins. GPCRs include: receptors for ... When the receptor is inactive, the GEF domain may be bound to an also inactive α-subunit of a heterotrimeric G-protein. These " ... sensory signal mediators (e.g., light and olfactory stimulatory molecules); adenosine, bombesin, bradykinin, endothelin, γ- ... 7TM receptors, heptahelical receptors, serpentine receptor, and G protein-linked receptors (GPLR), constitute a large protein ...
more infohttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/G_protein%E2%80%93coupled_receptor

Prkd1 - Serine/threonine-protein kinase D1 - Mus musculus (Mouse) - Prkd1 gene & proteinPrkd1 - Serine/threonine-protein kinase D1 - Mus musculus (Mouse) - Prkd1 gene & protein

May be involved in pain transmission by directly modulating TRPV1 receptor. Plays a role in activated KRAS-mediated ... Acts downstream of the heterotrimeric G-protein beta/gamma-subunit complex to maintain the structural integrity of the Golgi ... May potentiate mitogenesis induced by the neuropeptide bombesin or vasopressin by mediating an increase in the duration of ... May act by activating the lipid kinase phosphatidylinositol 4-kinase beta (PI4KB) at the TGN for the local synthesis of ...
more infohttp://www.uniprot.org/uniprot/Q62101

Neuromedin BNeuromedin B

... the heterotrimeric G-protein that is attached to the receptor gets activated. The G-protein is called heterotrimeric because it ... Neuromedin B (NMB) is a bombesin-related peptide in mammals. It was originally purified from pig spinal cord, and later shown ... This receptor is a G protein-coupled receptor with seven transmembrane spanning regions, hence the receptor is also denoted as ... NMB exerts its effects by binding to a cell surface receptor. A high affinity receptor called the neuromedin B receptor (NMBR ...
more infohttps://www.bionity.com/en/encyclopedia/Neuromedin_B.html

Pharmacology - Wilkie Lab - Research Output
     - University of Texas Southwestern Medical CenterPharmacology - Wilkie Lab - Research Output - University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center

GTPase-activating proteins for heterotrimeric G proteins: Regulators of G Protein Signaling (RGS) and RGS-like proteins. Ross, ... Regulators of G-protein signaling in receptor complexes. Sierra, D. A., Popov, S. & Wilkie, T. M., 2000, In : Trends in ... GAIP and RGS4 are GTPase-activating proteins for the G(i) subfamily of G protein α subunits. Berman, D. M., Wilkie, T. M. & ... The regulators of G protein signaling (RGS) domains of RGS4, RGS10, and GAIP retain GTPase activating protein activity in vitro ...
more infohttps://utsouthwestern.pure.elsevier.com/en/organisations/pharmacology-wilkie-lab-2/publications/?type=%2Fdk%2Fatira%2Fpure%2Fresearchoutput%2Fresearchoutputtypes%2Fcontributiontojournal%2Farticle

Frontiers | Neurobehavioral phenotyping of Gαq knockout mice reveals impairments in motor functions and spatial working memory...Frontiers | Neurobehavioral phenotyping of Gαq knockout mice reveals impairments in motor functions and spatial working memory...

... the benzazepine D1 receptor agonists SKF83822 and SKF83959, and the NMDA receptor antagonist MK-801. We observed significant ... the benzazepine D1 receptor agonists SKF83822 and SKF83959, and the NMDA receptor antagonist MK-801. We observed significant ... Lastly, use of the Y-maze revealed spatial memory deficits in Gaq knockout mice, indicating that receptors signaling through ... hormones and sensory stimuli elicit their cellular responses through the targeted activation of receptors coupled to Gq family ...
more infohttps://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fnbeh.2012.00029/full

G Proteins in Cancer: The Prostate Cancer Paradigm | Science SignalingG Proteins in Cancer: The Prostate Cancer Paradigm | Science Signaling

Activation cycle of heterotrimeric G proteins. An agonist-bound receptor catalytically activates the G protein, leading to ... A. G. Aprikian, L. Tremblay, K. Han, S. Chevalier, Bombesin stimulates the motility of human prostate-carcinoma cells through ... J. S. Gutkind, Regulation of mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling networks by G protein-coupled receptors. Sci. STKE 2000 ... Pleiotropic coupling of G protein-coupled receptors to the mitogen-activated protein kinase cascade. Role of focal adhesions ...
more infohttps://stke.sciencemag.org/content/2004/216/re2?ijkey=988baedbfd16eac70122e88014ff10a64c0ebeca&keytype2=tf_ipsecsha

Molecular cloning of a high-affinity receptor for the growth factor-like lipid mediator lysophosphatidic acid from Xenopus...Molecular cloning of a high-affinity receptor for the growth factor-like lipid mediator lysophosphatidic acid from Xenopus...

... and ATP and the coupling of these receptors to the Gq, G12/13, and Gi subtypes of heterotrimeric G proteins, a search for ... β1-adrenergic receptor, histamine type 2 receptor, α2-adrenergic receptor, and the bombesin receptor showed the highest degree ... platelet-activating factor; PAFR, platelet-activating factor receptor. ... characteristic of G-protein-coupled receptors. Computer-assisted sequence analysis predicts a G-protein-binding site between ...
more infohttps://www.pnas.org/content/93/25/14367?ijkey=c4cec15c8e35789c9a83f596e981f6510ce91932&keytype2=tf_ipsecsha

G protein-coupled receptor - WikipediaG protein-coupled receptor - Wikipedia

... α subunit of the heterotrimeric G protein via protein domain dynamics. The activated Gα subunit exchanges GTP in place of GDP ... bombesin, bradykinin, endothelin, γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA), hepatocyte growth factor (HGF), melanocortins, neuropeptide Y, ... transmembrane domain receptors, 7TM receptors, heptahelical receptors, serpentine receptor, and G protein-linked receptors ( ... protein kinase A) are activated by the signal chain coming from the G protein (that was activated by the receptor) via ...
more infohttps://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/G_protein-coupled_receptors

PI3 kinase is important for Ras, MEK and Erk activation of Epo-stimulated human erythroid progenitors | BMC Biology | Full TextPI3 kinase is important for Ras, MEK and Erk activation of Epo-stimulated human erythroid progenitors | BMC Biology | Full Text

Activation of the mitogen-activated protein kinases Erk1/2 by erythropoietin receptor via a G(i )protein beta gamma-subunit- ... Coupling of heterotrimeric Gi proteins to the erythropoietin receptor. J Biol Chem. 2001, 276: 2007-2014. 10.1074/jbc. ... Posern G, Weber CK, Rapp UR, Feller SM: Activity of Rap1 is regulated by bombesin, cell adhesion, and cell density in NIH3T3 ... had shown that PI3Kγ functions in the signal transmission of the Gβγ subunits of heterotrimeric G protein-linked receptors to ...
more infohttps://preview-bmcbiol.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/1741-7007-2-7

G protein-coupled receptor - Mashpedia Free Video EncyclopediaG protein-coupled receptor - Mashpedia Free Video Encyclopedia

... α subunit of the heterotrimeric G protein via protein domain dynamics. The activated Gα subunit exchanges GTP in place of GDP ... GPCRs include: receptors for sensory signal mediators (e.g., light and olfactory stimulatory molecules); adenosine, bombesin, ... 7TM receptors, heptahelical receptors, serpentine receptor, and G protein-linked receptors (GPLR), constitute a large protein ... protein kinase A) are activated by the signal chain coming from the G protein (that was activated by the receptor) via ...
more infohttp://www.mashpedia.com/G-protein_coupled_receptor

Dosage‐dependent switch from G protein‐coupled to G protein‐independent signaling by a GPCR | The EMBO JournalDosage‐dependent switch from G protein‐coupled to G protein‐independent signaling by a GPCR | The EMBO Journal

AT1 receptor mutant lacking heterotrimeric G protein coupling activates the Src-Ras-ERK pathway without nuclear translocation ... Rodriguez‐Fernandez JL, Rozengurt E (1996) Bombesin, bradykinin, vasopressin, and phorbol esters rapidly and transiently ... G‐protein‐coupled receptors (GPCRs) mostly signal through heterotrimeric G proteins. Increasing evidence suggests that GPCRs ... Crespo P, Cachero TG, Xu N, Gutkind JS (1995) Dual effect of beta‐adrenergic receptors on mitogen‐activated protein kinase. ...
more infohttp://emboj.embopress.org/content/26/1/53

Angiotensin II Activates RhoA in Cardiac Myocytes | Circulation ResearchAngiotensin II Activates RhoA in Cardiac Myocytes | Circulation Research

Sadoshima J, Izumo S. The heterotrimeric Gq protein-coupled angiotensin II receptor activates p21 ras via the tyrosine kinase- ... bombesin,3 endothelin,26 43 and norepinephrine,25 were shown to activate Rho. However, the mechanism of Rho activation by these ... The small GTP-binding protein rho activates c-Jun N-terminal kinases/stress-activated protein kinases in human kidney 293T ... Angiotensin II and other hypertrophic stimuli mediated by G protein-coupled receptors activate tyrosine kinase, mitogen- ...
more infohttp://circres.ahajournals.org/content/82/6/666

Protein kinase D2 mediates lysophosphatidic acid-induced interleukin 8 production in nontransformed human colonic epithelial...Protein kinase D2 mediates lysophosphatidic acid-induced interleukin 8 production in nontransformed human colonic epithelial...

Rey O, Yuan J, Rozengurt E. Intracellular redistribution of protein kinase D2 in response to G-protein-coupled receptor ... Activation of protein kinase D3 by signaling through Rac and the α subunits of the heterotrimeric G proteins G(12) and G(13). ... Zhukova E, Sinnett-Smith J, Rozengurt E. Protein kinase D potentiates DNA synthesis and cell proliferation induced by bombesin ... Protein kinase D regulates vesicular transport by phosphorylating and activating phosphatidylinositol-4 kinase IIIβ at the ...
more infohttp://ajpcell.physiology.org/content/292/2/C767

Methods and Compositions for Detecting Receptor-Ligand Interactions in     Single Cells - Patent applicationMethods and Compositions for Detecting Receptor-Ligand Interactions in Single Cells - Patent application

... activated receptor element. As used herein, a receptor element with protein kinase activity may refer to a receptor element ... G-protein-coupled receptor, and grammatical equivalents thereof, refers to the family of receptors that bind to heterotrimeric ... bombesin and related peptides, endothelins, cholecystokinin, gastrin, neurokinin b (nk3), invertebrate tachykinin-like peptides ... receptor, thromboxane A2 receptor, platelet-activating factor (PAF) receptor, C5a anaphylatoxin receptor, CXCR1 (IL-8 receptor ...
more infohttp://www.patentsencyclopedia.com/app/20110201019

Molecular mechanisms mediating the G protein-coupled receptor regulation of cell cycle progressionMolecular mechanisms mediating the G protein-coupled receptor regulation of cell cycle progression

Heterotrimeric G proteins. GPCRs predominantly, although not exclusively [8], exert their effects by activating heterotrimeric ... the proliferation of Swiss 3T3 cells in response to the activation of Gq-coupled bombesin or vasopressin receptors is greatly ... The platelet-activating factor receptor activates the extracellular signal-regulated kinase mitogen-activated protein kinase ... Luttrell, LM (2002). Activation and targeting of mitogen-activated protein kinases by G-protein-coupled receptors. Can J ...
more infohttps://www.jmolecularsignaling.com/articles/10.1186/1750-2187-2-2/

Role of Mitogen-activated Protein Kinase/Extracellular Signal-regulated Kinase Cascade in Gonadotropin-releasing Hormone...Role of Mitogen-activated Protein Kinase/Extracellular Signal-regulated Kinase Cascade in Gonadotropin-releasing Hormone...

It has been shown that GnRH induces interaction of the receptor with the heterotrimeric Gq protein that leads to elevation of ... Pang L., Decker S. J., Saltiel A. R. Bombesin and epidermal growth factor stimulate the mitogen-activated protein kinase ... Receptor tyrosine kinase-mediated mitogenic signaling involves a series of SH2- and SH3-dependent protein-protein interactions ... Kunliang Guan (71) . PD98059 and the stress-activated protein kinase/JNK assay kit including N-terminal c-Jun fusion protein ...
more infohttp://cancerres.aacrjournals.org/content/59/20/5133

G protein-coupled receptorG protein-coupled receptor

... α subunit of the heterotrimeric G protein via protein domain dynamics. The activated Gα subunit exchanges GTP in place of GDP ... GPCRs include: receptors for sensory signal mediators (e.g., light and olfactory stimulatory molecules); adenosine, bombesin, ... 7TM receptors, heptahelical receptors, serpentine receptor, and G protein-linked receptors (GPLR), constitute a large protein ... protein kinase A) are activated by the signal chain coming from the G protein (that was activated by the receptor) via ...
more infohttps://ipfs.io/ipfs/QmXoypizjW3WknFiJnKLwHCnL72vedxjQkDDP1mXWo6uco/wiki/G-protein_coupled_receptor.html

Inositol 1,4,5,-tris-phosphate receptorInositol 1,4,5,-tris-phosphate receptor

G protein-coupled receptors activate phospholipase Cbeta while receptor tyrosine kinases stimulate phospholipase Cgamma to ... In fact, RGS proteins differentially interact with the muscarinic, CCK, and bombesin receptors in pancreatic acini. (2) The ... The second class of mutants are in genes that encode (1) the α subunit of the heterotrimeric G-protein Gαq and (2) ... Two receptor classes (the G protein-coupled receptor class of seven transmembrane-spanning receptors and the receptor tyrosine ...
more infohttps://www.sdbonline.org/sites/FLY/dbzhnsky/ino3pr1.htm

Angiotensin II Signal Transduction in Vascular Smooth Muscle | Circulation ResearchAngiotensin II Signal Transduction in Vascular Smooth Muscle | Circulation Research

Sadoshima J, Izumo S. The heterotrimeric Gq protein-coupled angiotensin II receptor activates p21ras via the tyrosine kinase- ... Faure et al115 showed that the α subunit of transducin failed to block ERK1/2 activation by the Gq-coupled bombesin receptor. ... Similar to G protein-coupled receptors, such as the α1-adrenergic receptor, Gq activated by angiotensin II may stimulate PLC-β ... Protein kinases that phosphorylate activated G protein-coupled receptors. FASEB J.. 1995;9:175-182. ...
more infohttp://circres.ahajournals.org/content/80/5/607

GPR34 - WikipediaGPR34 - Wikipedia

These proteins mediate signals to the interior of the cell via activation of heterotrimeric G proteins that in turn activate ... G-protein coupled purinergic nucleotide receptor activity. • G-protein coupled receptor activity. • signal transducer activity ... G-protein coupled receptor signaling pathway. • signal transduction. • G-protein coupled purinergic nucleotide receptor ... Probable G-protein coupled receptor 34 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the GPR34 gene.[5][6][7] ...
more infohttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/GPR34

ReviewReview

3.18 Interleukin-2 Receptor: The interleukin-2 receptor (IL-2R) is heterotrimeric protein expressed on the surface of certain ... Hamel et al., Phenotype and Function of Bone Marrow-Derived T- and Non-TCells Activated In Vitro by AlphaFetoprotein, In: ... Said JW, Vimadalal S, Nash G. Immunoreactive neuron specific enolase, bombesin and Chromogranin as markers for neuroendocrine ... such as tissue-bound receptors that must be measured in a biopsy from the solid tumor or proteins that are secreted into the ...
more infohttp://spotidoc.com/doc/23503/review

Ligand interactions with family A B and C receptors - Adrenergic ReceptorsLigand interactions with family A B and C receptors - Adrenergic Receptors

Reprinted from Biochimica Biophysica Acta, 1422, Flower, D. R., Modelling G protein-coupled receptors for drug design, 207-234 ... protease-activated pituitary adenylyl cyclase-activating peptide, PTHrP, secretin, somatostatin, tachykinin, thyrotropin- ... bombesin, C3a, C5a, calcitonin, chemokines (MIP-Ia, -ip, -2, -3a. -3P; eotaxin; IP-IO; RANTES; MCP-l, -2, -3, -; 4, -5; ... Different Classes Heterotrimeric G * Fatty Acid Biosurfactant Bacillus * Jane S Murray Peter Politzer ...
more infohttps://www.pharmacologicalsciences.us/adrenergic-receptors/ligand-interactions-with-family-a-b-and-c-receptors.html

DNA, RNA and Protein Synthesis - Cell MetabolismDNA, RNA and Protein Synthesis - Cell Metabolism

Bombesin Receptor - Peptides. *Bradykinin Receptor - Peptides. *Calcium-Activated Potassium (KCa) Channel - Peptides ... ETA Receptor - Peptides. *ETB Receptor - Peptides. *Formyl Peptide Receptor - Peptides. *G Proteins (Heterotrimeric) - Peptides ... Homoharringtonine is an inhibitor of protein synthesis which blocks elongation phase of translation by binding to the 60-S ... which inhibits group I intron splicing and prokaryotic protein synthesis. Learn More ...
more infohttps://www.emmx.com/dna-rna-and-protein-synthesis.html
  • Oocytes expressing cRNA prepared from this clone showed no response to other lipid mediators including prostaglandins, leukotrienes, sphingosine 1-phosphate, sphingosylphosphorylcholine, and platelet-activating factor, suggesting that the receptor is highly selective for LPA. (pnas.org)
  • For example, in HEK‐293 cells, it was reported that, after ligand stimulation of transfected β 2 ‐AR, β‐arrestin formed a complex with Src and brought Src to the β 2 ‐AR, leading to receptor desensitization/internalization, which initiates a second wave of signaling including the ERK MAPK pathway ( Luttrell et al , 1999 ). (embopress.org)
  • 18. The method of claim 14, wherein said determining further comprises contacting said cell with a third phosphorylation state-specific antibody specific to a phosphorylation state of a third protein within the MAPK, AKT, STAT, NFkB, PKC or WNT signaling pathways and simultaneously detecting the presence or absence of binding of said first, second and/or third phosphorylation state-specific antibodies to said first, second, and/or third proteins. (patentsencyclopedia.com)
  • Based on sequence homologies and functional similarities of their α subunits, these G proteins are grouped into four families: G s , G i , G q , and G 12 ( Simon et al , 1991 ). (embopress.org)
  • The Gβγ subunits released from Gi activated Src leading to Ras/c‐Raf1/MEK/ERK activation ( Daaka et al , 1997 ). (embopress.org)
  • There are several classes of α-subunits, one of which, the Gαs family, is able to activate all nine transmembrane AC isoforms, whereas others of the Gαi family, are able to inhibit AC. (pancreapedia.org)
  • Figure 18.10 Presumed interaction of estrogens and EGF-like factors in normal breast tissue It is thought that estrogen-independent breast cancers lose estrogen receptor a, increase production of EGF-like peptides and their responsiveness to them by increased expression of receptors and specifically the co-receptor ERBB2. (pharmacologicalsciences.us)
  • An antisense oligonucleotide derived from the first 5-11 predicted amino acids, selectively inhibited the expression of the endogenous high-affinity LPA receptors in Xenopus oocytes, whereas the same oligonucleotide did not affect the low-affinity LPA receptor. (pnas.org)
  • Review A Dictionary to Tumor Markers and The Methods of Estimation Rahul R Nair, Jerin K Johnson protein(AFP), Carcinoembryonic antigen(CEA), Pancreatic oncofetal antigen) Abstract Tumor markers are substances produced by tumor cells or by other cells of the body in response to cancer or certain benign (noncancerous) conditions. (spotidoc.com)
  • The human beta-2 adrenergic receptor in complex with the partial inverse agonist carazolol . (wikipedia.org)
  • By the mid-1960s, it had become apparent from pharmacologic studies that opiate drugs were likely to exert their actions at specific receptor sites, and that there were likely to be multiple such sites. (wikipedia.org)
  • 2006). "A neuropeptide ligand of the G protein-coupled receptor GPR103 regulates feeding, behavioral arousal, and blood pressure in mice" . (wikidoc.org)
  • Many neurotransmitters, hormones, and sensory stimuli elicit their cellular responses through the targeted activation of receptors coupled to the G αq family of heterotrimeric G proteins. (frontiersin.org)
  • Estrogens and the estrogen receptors are key regulators of growth in the normal breast, together with a number of other hormones acting through nuclear or membrane receptors. (pharmacologicalsciences.us)
  • A major contribution was the elaboration of the concept of hormone receptors, and of the properties of specificity and selectivity of response, how target cells are defined, how responses are modulated, how signals are transduced from the outside of a cell to its interior, and how hormones can be classified according to their mechanism of action. (wordpress.com)
  • Herein we report the identification of a complementary DNA from Xenopus that encodes a functional high-affinity LPA receptor. (pnas.org)
  • Herein we report the molecular cloning of a complementary DNA that encodes a functional LPA receptor in Xenopus oocytes. (pnas.org)
  • Src‐family tyrosine kinases are another major group of cellular signal transducers and have been demonstrated to directly relay signals from membrane receptors ( Thomas and Brugge, 1997 ). (embopress.org)
  • We then assessed the contribution of the basal ganglia motor loops to these impairments, using open field testing and analysis of drug-induced locomotor responses to the psychostimulant cocaine, the benzazepine D 1 receptor agonists SKF83822 and SKF83959, and the NMDA receptor antagonist MK-801. (frontiersin.org)
  • Compounds such as tamoxifen and raloxifene are partial agonists/antagonists (SERMs) that interfere with estrogen binding and with some interactions of the receptor with co-activators. (pharmacologicalsciences.us)
  • Lastly, use of the Y-maze revealed spatial memory deficits in G αq knockout mice, indicating that receptors signaling through G αq are necessary in these circuits for proficiency in this task. (frontiersin.org)
  • Reverse transcription-PCR assays confirmed mRNA for GnRH receptor in Caov-3 cells. (aacrjournals.org)
  • This inhibitor canceled the antiproliferative effect of GnRHa and apparently reversed the GnRH-induced dephosphorylation of the retinoblastoma protein, the hyperphosphorylation of which is a hallmark of G 1 -S transition in the cell cycle. (aacrjournals.org)
  • The initial phase of GnRH action involves G protein-mediated stimulation of phospholipase C, leading to the formation of inositol 1,4,5-triphosphate and diacylglycerol. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Most drugs used in therapy are GnRH receptor agonistic and induce an initial burst of LH. (pharmacologicalsciences.us)
  • It was also suggested that, after β 2 ‐AR activation of Gs and adenylyl cyclase (AC), PKA phosphorylated β 2 ‐AR and enhanced β 2 ‐AR's coupling to Gi protein. (embopress.org)
  • There is now a growing body of evidence examining the mechanisms by which G protein-coupled receptors are able to regulate the expression, activity, localization and stability of cell cycle regulatory proteins that either promote or inhibit the initiation of DNA synthesis. (jmolecularsignaling.com)
  • Expression of the full-length cRNA in oocytes led to an increase in maximal Cl − current due to increased expression of the high-affinity LPA receptor, but activation of the low-affinity receptor was, again, unaffected. (pnas.org)
  • Phosphorylates the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) on dual threonine residues, which leads to the suppression of epidermal growth factor (EGF)-induced MAPK8/JNK1 activation and subsequent JUN phosphorylation. (uniprot.org)