A species in the genus RHADINOVIRUS, subfamily GAMMAHERPESVIRINAE, isolated from patients with AIDS-related and "classical" Kaposi sarcoma.
The type species of ROSEOLOVIRUS isolated from patients with AIDS and other LYMPHOPROLIFERATIVE DISORDERS. It infects and replicates in fresh and established lines of hematopoietic cells and cells of neural origin. It also appears to alter NK cell activity. HHV-6; (HBLV) antibodies are elevated in patients with AIDS, Sjogren's syndrome, sarcoidosis, chronic fatigue syndrome, and certain malignancies. HHV-6 is the cause of EXANTHEMA SUBITUM and has been implicated in encephalitis.
The type species of RHADINOVIRUS, in the subfamily GAMMAHERPESVIRINAE, isolated from squirrel monkeys. It produces malignant lymphomas (LYMPHOMA, MALIGNANT) in inoculated marmosets or owl monkeys.
A species of VARICELLOVIRUS causing abortion and respiratory disease in horses.
A family of enveloped, linear, double-stranded DNA viruses infecting a wide variety of animals. Subfamilies, based on biological characteristics, include: ALPHAHERPESVIRINAE; BETAHERPESVIRINAE; and GAMMAHERPESVIRINAE.
A species of VARICELLOVIRUS that causes INFECTIOUS BOVINE RHINOTRACHEITIS and other associated syndromes in CATTLE.
Virus diseases caused by the HERPESVIRIDAE.
A species in the genus ROSEOLOVIRUS, of the family HERPESVIRIDAE. It was isolated from activated, CD4-positive T-lymphocytes taken from the blood of a healthy human.
A species in the genus RHADINOVIRUS, subfamily GAMMAHERPESVIRINAE, infecting cattle.
A multicentric, malignant neoplastic vascular proliferation characterized by the development of bluish-red cutaneous nodules, usually on the lower extremities, most often on the toes or feet, and slowly increasing in size and number and spreading to more proximal areas. The tumors have endothelium-lined channels and vascular spaces admixed with variably sized aggregates of spindle-shaped cells, and often remain confined to the skin and subcutaneous tissue, but widespread visceral involvement may occur. Kaposi's sarcoma occurs spontaneously in Jewish and Italian males in Europe and the United States. An aggressive variant in young children is endemic in some areas of Africa. A third form occurs in about 0.04% of kidney transplant patients. There is also a high incidence in AIDS patients. (From Dorland, 27th ed & Holland et al., Cancer Medicine, 3d ed, pp2105-7) HHV-8 is the suspected cause.
A species of VARICELLOVIRUS virus that causes a disease in newborn puppies.
The type species of the genus MARDIVIRUS in the family HERPESVIRIDAE. It is the etiologic agent of MAREK DISEASE, infecting domestic fowl and wild birds.
A species of VARICELLOVIRUS that causes a fatal MENINGOENCEPHALITIS in calves.
A species of VARICELLOVIRUS and the chief cause of rhinopneumonitis in horses.
Infection with ROSEOLOVIRUS, the most common in humans being EXANTHEMA SUBITUM, a benign disease of infants and young children.
A species of SIMPLEXVIRUS that causes vesicular lesions of the mouth in monkeys. When the virus is transmitted to man it causes an acute encephalitis or encephalomyelitis, which is nearly always fatal.
Proteins found in any species of virus.
A subfamily of HERPESVIRIDAE characterized by a short replication cycle. The genera include: SIMPLEXVIRUS; VARICELLOVIRUS; MAREK'S DISEASE-LIKE VIRUSES; and ILTOVIRUS.
A species of VARICELLOVIRUS producing a respiratory infection (PSEUDORABIES) in swine, its natural host. It also produces an usually fatal ENCEPHALOMYELITIS in cattle, sheep, dogs, cats, foxes, and mink.
A subfamily of HERPESVIRIDAE characterized by variable reproductive cycles. The genera include: LYMPHOCRYPTOVIRUS and RHADINOVIRUS.
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.
The type species of LYMPHOCRYPTOVIRUS, subfamily GAMMAHERPESVIRINAE, infecting B-cells in humans. It is thought to be the causative agent of INFECTIOUS MONONUCLEOSIS and is strongly associated with oral hairy leukoplakia (LEUKOPLAKIA, HAIRY;), BURKITT LYMPHOMA; and other malignancies.
The type species of SIMPLEXVIRUS causing most forms of non-genital herpes simplex in humans. Primary infection occurs mainly in infants and young children and then the virus becomes latent in the dorsal root ganglion. It then is periodically reactivated throughout life causing mostly benign conditions.
The ability of a pathogenic virus to lie dormant within a cell (latent infection). In eukaryotes, subsequent activation and viral replication is thought to be caused by extracellular stimulation of cellular transcription factors. Latency in bacteriophage is maintained by the expression of virally encoded repressors.
A genus of the family HERPESVIRIDAE, subfamily ALPHAHERPESVIRINAE. Its species include those causing CHICKENPOX and HERPES ZOSTER in humans (HERPESVIRUS 3, HUMAN), as well as several animal viruses.
A species of VARICELLOVIRUS causing coital exanthema in horses.
Any of the processes by which cytoplasmic factors influence the differential control of gene action in viruses.
The mechanism by which latent viruses, such as genetically transmitted tumor viruses (PROVIRUSES) or PROPHAGES of lysogenic bacteria, are induced to replicate and then released as infectious viruses. It may be effected by various endogenous and exogenous stimuli, including B-cell LIPOPOLYSACCHARIDES, glucocorticoid hormones, halogenated pyrimidines, IONIZING RADIATION, ultraviolet light, and superinfecting viruses.
A subfamily of HERPESVIRIDAE characterized by a relatively long replication cycle. Genera include: CYTOMEGALOVIRUS; MUROMEGALOVIRUS; and ROSEOLOVIRUS.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
A sequence of successive nucleotide triplets that are read as CODONS specifying AMINO ACIDS and begin with an INITIATOR CODON and end with a stop codon (CODON, TERMINATOR).
A species in the genus MAREK'S DISEASE-LIKE VIRUSES, in the family HERPESVIRIDAE, infecting turkeys.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
The process of intracellular viral multiplication, consisting of the synthesis of PROTEINS; NUCLEIC ACIDS; and sometimes LIPIDS, and their assembly into a new infectious particle.
Substances elaborated by viruses that have antigenic activity.
Immunoglobulins produced in response to VIRAL ANTIGENS.
The complete genetic complement contained in a DNA or RNA molecule in a virus.
The functional hereditary units of VIRUSES.
A species in the family AOTIDAE, inhabiting the forested regions of Central and South America (from Panama to the Amazon). Vocalizations occur primarily at night when they are active, thus they are also known as Northern night monkeys.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
Proteins that are coded by immediate-early genes, in the absence of de novo protein synthesis. The term was originally used exclusively for viral regulatory proteins that were synthesized just after viral integration into the host cell. It is also used to describe cellular proteins which are synthesized immediately after the resting cell is stimulated by extracellular signals.
The type species of the genus ILTOVIRUS found on every continent and affecting mainly chickens and occasionally pheasants.
The type species of VARICELLOVIRUS causing CHICKENPOX (varicella) and HERPES ZOSTER (shingles) in humans.
An acute, short-lived, viral disease of infants and young children characterized by a high fever at onset that drops to normal after 3-4 days and the concomitant appearance of a macular or maculopapular rash that appears first on the trunk and then spreads to other areas. It is the sixth of the classical exanthematous diseases and is caused by HHV-6; (HERPESVIRUS 6, HUMAN). (From Dorland, 27th ed)
A species of the family HERPESVIRIDAE, whose genus is so far unassigned. It is probably the causative agent of ADENOMA or ADENOCARCINOMA in the kidneys of certain frogs.
Layers of protein which surround the capsid in animal viruses with tubular nucleocapsids. The envelope consists of an inner layer of lipids and virus specified proteins also called membrane or matrix proteins. The outer layer consists of one or more types of morphological subunits called peplomers which project from the viral envelope; this layer always consists of glycoproteins.
A transmissible viral disease of birds caused by avian herpesvirus 2 (HERPESVIRUS 2, GALLID) and other MARDIVIRUS. There is lymphoid cell infiltration or lymphomatous tumor formation in the peripheral nerves and gonads, but may also involve visceral organs, skin, muscle, and the eye.
Diseases of domestic and wild horses of the species Equus caballus.
A herpesvirus infection of CATTLE characterized by INFLAMMATION and NECROSIS of the mucous membranes of the upper RESPIRATORY TRACT.
A novel member of the tumor-necrosis factor receptor family that can also mediate HERPES SIMPLEX VIRUS TYPE 1 entry into cells. It has specificity for TUMOR NECROSIS FACTOR LIGAND SUPERFAMILY MEMBER 14 and the homotrimeric form of LYMPHOTOXIN-ALPHA. The receptor is abundantly expressed on T-LYMPHOCYTES and may play a role in regulating lymphocyte activation. Signaling by the activated receptor occurs through its association with TNF RECEPTOR-ASSOCIATED FACTORS.
A genus of the family HERPESVIRIDAE, subfamily ALPHAHERPESVIRINAE, consisting of herpes simplex-like viruses. The type species is HERPESVIRUS 1, HUMAN.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
Large, hoofed mammals of the family EQUIDAE. Horses are active day and night with most of the day spent seeking and consuming food. Feeding peaks occur in the early morning and late afternoon, and there are several daily periods of rest.
A subfamily in the family CEBIDAE that consists of four genera: CALLITHRIX (marmosets), CALLIMICO (Goeldi's monkey), LEONTOPITHECUS (lion tamarins), and SAGUINUS (long-tusked tamarins). The members of this family inhabit the tropical forests of South and Central America.
In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.
A herpesvirus infection of cattle characterized by catarrhal inflammation of the upper respiratory and alimentary epithelia, keratoconjunctivitis, encephalitis and lymph node enlargement. Syn: bovine epitheliosis, snotsiekte.
A species of SIMPLEXVIRUS associated with genital infections (HERPES GENITALIS). It is transmitted by sexual intercourse and close personal contact.
Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.
Large benign, hyperplastic lymph nodes. The more common hyaline vascular subtype is characterized by small hyaline vascular follicles and interfollicular capillary proliferations. Plasma cells are often present and represent another subtype with the plasma cells containing IgM and IMMUNOGLOBULIN A.
A genus of the family HERPESVIRIDAE, subfamily BETAHERPESVIRINAE, infecting the salivary glands, liver, spleen, lungs, eyes, and other organs, in which they produce characteristically enlarged cells with intranuclear inclusions. Infection with Cytomegalovirus is also seen as an opportunistic infection in AIDS.
Diseases of domestic cattle of the genus Bos. It includes diseases of cows, yaks, and zebus.
The infective system of a virus, composed of the viral genome, a protein core, and a protein coat called a capsid, which may be naked or enclosed in a lipoprotein envelope called the peplos.
A family of the New World monkeys inhabiting the forests of South and Central America. There is a single genus and several species occurring in this family, including AOTUS TRIVIRGATUS (Northern night monkeys).
Diffusible gene products that act on homologous or heterologous molecules of viral or cellular DNA to regulate the expression of proteins.
Viral proteins that are components of the mature assembled VIRUS PARTICLES. They may include nucleocapsid core proteins (gag proteins), enzymes packaged within the virus particle (pol proteins), and membrane components (env proteins). These do not include the proteins encoded in the VIRAL GENOME that are produced in infected cells but which are not packaged in the mature virus particle,i.e. the so called non-structural proteins (VIRAL NONSTRUCTURAL PROTEINS).
A group of acute infections caused by herpes simplex virus type 1 or type 2 that is characterized by the development of one or more small fluid-filled vesicles with a raised erythematous base on the skin or mucous membrane. It occurs as a primary infection or recurs due to a reactivation of a latent infection. (Dorland, 27th ed.)
A species in the genus MAREK'S DISEASE-LIKE VIRUSES, in the family HERPESVIRIDAE, infecting chickens.
Any of various ruminant mammals of the order Bovidae. They include numerous species in Africa and the American pronghorn.
A highly contagious herpesvirus infection affecting the central nervous system of swine, cattle, dogs, cats, rats, and other animals.
Common name for a number of different species of fish in the family Cyprinidae. This includes, among others, the common carp, crucian carp, grass carp, and silver carp.
Method for measuring viral infectivity and multiplication in CULTURED CELLS. Clear lysed areas or plaques develop as the VIRAL PARTICLES are released from the infected cells during incubation. With some VIRUSES, the cells are killed by a cytopathic effect; with others, the infected cells are not killed but can be detected by their hemadsorptive ability. Sometimes the plaque cells contain VIRAL ANTIGENS which can be measured by IMMUNOFLUORESCENCE.
An inheritable change in cells manifested by changes in cell division and growth and alterations in cell surface properties. It is induced by infection with a transforming virus.
Proteins found in the nucleus of a cell. Do not confuse with NUCLEOPROTEINS which are proteins conjugated with nucleic acids, that are not necessarily present in the nucleus.
Large woodland game BIRDS in the subfamily Meleagridinae, family Phasianidae, order GALLIFORMES. Formerly they were considered a distinct family, Melegrididae.
A CELL LINE derived from the kidney of the African green (vervet) monkey, (CERCOPITHECUS AETHIOPS) used primarily in virus replication studies and plaque assays.
A genus in the family HERPESVIRIDAE, subfamily ALPHAHERPESVIRINAE, associated with malignancy in birds.
Visible morphologic changes in cells infected with viruses. It includes shutdown of cellular RNA and protein synthesis, cell fusion, release of lysosomal enzymes, changes in cell membrane permeability, diffuse changes in intracellular structures, presence of viral inclusion bodies, and chromosomal aberrations. It excludes malignant transformation, which is CELL TRANSFORMATION, VIRAL. Viral cytopathogenic effects provide a valuable method for identifying and classifying the infecting viruses.
Infections produced by oncogenic viruses. The infections caused by DNA viruses are less numerous but more diverse than those caused by the RNA oncogenic viruses.
A species of CERCOPITHECUS containing three subspecies: C. tantalus, C. pygerythrus, and C. sabeus. They are found in the forests and savannah of Africa. The African green monkey (C. pygerythrus) is the natural host of SIMIAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS and is used in AIDS research.
EPIDEMIOLOGIC STUDIES based on the detection through serological testing of characteristic change in the serum level of specific ANTIBODIES. Latent subclinical infections and carrier states can thus be detected in addition to clinically overt cases.
Ribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.
A genus in the subfamily CALLITRICHINAE consisting of 12 species and found in Panama as well as South America. Species seen most frequently in the literature are S. oedipus (cotton-top marmoset), S. nigricollis, and S. fusicollis.
DNA sequences which are recognized (directly or indirectly) and bound by a DNA-dependent RNA polymerase during the initiation of transcription. Highly conserved sequences within the promoter include the Pribnow box in bacteria and the TATA BOX in eukaryotes.
An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of ATP and thymidine to ADP and thymidine 5'-phosphate. Deoxyuridine can also act as an acceptor and dGTP as a donor. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
The measurement of infection-blocking titer of ANTISERA by testing a series of dilutions for a given virus-antiserum interaction end-point, which is generally the dilution at which tissue cultures inoculated with the serum-virus mixtures demonstrate cytopathology (CPE) or the dilution at which 50% of test animals injected with serum-virus mixtures show infectivity (ID50) or die (LD50).
A large superfamily of transcription factors that contain a region rich in BASIC AMINO ACID residues followed by a LEUCINE ZIPPER domain.
Agents used in the prophylaxis or therapy of VIRUS DISEASES. Some of the ways they may act include preventing viral replication by inhibiting viral DNA polymerase; binding to specific cell-surface receptors and inhibiting viral penetration or uncoating; inhibiting viral protein synthesis; or blocking late stages of virus assembly.
DNA constructs that are composed of, at least, a REPLICATION ORIGIN, for successful replication, propagation to and maintenance as an extra chromosome in bacteria. In addition, they can carry large amounts (about 200 kilobases) of other sequence for a variety of bioengineering purposes.
The expelling of virus particles from the body. Important routes include the respiratory tract, genital tract, and intestinal tract. Virus shedding is an important means of vertical transmission (INFECTIOUS DISEASE TRANSMISSION, VERTICAL).
An inflammatory process involving the brain (ENCEPHALITIS) and meninges (MENINGITIS), most often produced by pathogenic organisms which invade the central nervous system, and occasionally by toxins, autoimmune disorders, and other conditions.
The interactions between a host and a pathogen, usually resulting in disease.
A simple organophosphorus compound that inhibits DNA polymerase, especially in viruses and is used as an antiviral agent.
An area showing altered staining behavior in the nucleus or cytoplasm of a virus-infected cell. Some inclusion bodies represent "virus factories" in which viral nucleic acid or protein is being synthesized; others are merely artifacts of fixation and staining. One example, Negri bodies, are found in the cytoplasm or processes of nerve cells in animals that have died from rabies.
Specific molecular components of the cell capable of recognizing and interacting with a virus, and which, after binding it, are capable of generating some signal that initiates the chain of events leading to the biological response.
Diseases of freshwater, marine, hatchery or aquarium fish. This term includes diseases of both teleosts (true fish) and elasmobranchs (sharks, rays and skates).
The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.
Process of growing viruses in live animals, plants, or cultured cells.
Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.
An unassigned genus in the family HERPESVIRIDAE, comprising one species Ictalurid herpesvirus 1 (Channel Catfish Virus).
The sequential correspondence of nucleotides in one nucleic acid molecule with those of another nucleic acid molecule. Sequence homology is an indication of the genetic relatedness of different organisms and gene function.
A general term for various neoplastic diseases of the lymphoid tissue.
A genus of the subfamily CALLITRICHINAE occurring in forests of Brazil and Bolivia and containing seventeen species.
The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.
A suborder of PRIMATES consisting of six families: CEBIDAE (some New World monkeys), ATELIDAE (some New World monkeys), CERCOPITHECIDAE (Old World monkeys), HYLOBATIDAE (gibbons and siamangs), CALLITRICHINAE (marmosets and tamarins), and HOMINIDAE (humans and great apes).
Genes that show rapid and transient expression in the absence of de novo protein synthesis. The term was originally used exclusively for viral genes where immediate-early referred to transcription immediately following virus integration into the host cell. It is also used to describe cellular genes which are expressed immediately after resting cells are stimulated by extracellular signals such as growth factors and neurotransmitters.
Test for tissue antigen using either a direct method, by conjugation of antibody with fluorescent dye (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, DIRECT) or an indirect method, by formation of antigen-antibody complex which is then labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, INDIRECT). The tissue is then examined by fluorescence microscopy.
Diseases of animals within the order PRIMATES. This term includes diseases of Haplorhini and Strepsirhini.
The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.
Conjugated protein-carbohydrate compounds including mucins, mucoid, and amyloid glycoproteins.
B-cell lymphoid tumors that occur in association with AIDS. Patients often present with an advanced stage of disease and highly malignant subtypes including BURKITT LYMPHOMA; IMMUNOBLASTIC LARGE-CELL LYMPHOMA; PRIMARY EFFUSION LYMPHOMA; and DIFFUSE, LARGE B-CELL, LYMPHOMA. The tumors are often disseminated in unusual extranodal sites and chromosomal abnormalities are frequently present. It is likely that polyclonal B-cell lymphoproliferation in AIDS is a complex result of EBV infection, HIV antigenic stimulation, and T-cell-dependent HIV activation.
A family of transcription factors that share an N-terminal HELIX-TURN-HELIX MOTIF and bind INTERFERON-inducible promoters to control GENE expression. IRF proteins bind specific DNA sequences such as interferon-stimulated response elements, interferon regulatory elements, and the interferon consensus sequence.
The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.
DNA-dependent DNA polymerases found in bacteria, animal and plant cells. During the replication process, these enzymes catalyze the addition of deoxyribonucleotide residues to the end of a DNA strand in the presence of DNA as template-primer. They also possess exonuclease activity and therefore function in DNA repair.
A member of tumor necrosis factor superfamily found on activated LYMPHOCYTES and MONOCYTES. It occurs as transmembrane protein that can be cleaved to release a secreted form that specifically binds to LYMPHOTOXIN BETA RECEPTOR and TUMOR NECROSIS FACTOR RECEPTOR SUPERFAMILY, MEMBER 14.
The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.
A genus of the family CEBIDAE consisting of four species: S. boliviensis, S. orstedii (red-backed squirrel monkey), S. sciureus (common squirrel monkey), and S. ustus. They inhabit tropical rain forests in Central and South America. S. sciureus is used extensively in research studies.
A family of hoofed MAMMALS consisting of HORSES, donkeys, and zebras. Members of this family are strict herbivores and can be classified as either browsers or grazers depending on how they feed.
Infection with human herpesvirus 4 (HERPESVIRUS 4, HUMAN); which may facilitate the development of various lymphoproliferative disorders. These include BURKITT LYMPHOMA (African type), INFECTIOUS MONONUCLEOSIS, and oral hairy leukoplakia (LEUKOPLAKIA, HAIRY).
Infection with CYTOMEGALOVIRUS, characterized by enlarged cells bearing intranuclear inclusions. Infection may be in almost any organ, but the salivary glands are the most common site in children, as are the lungs in adults.
Eukaryotic cell line obtained in a quiescent or stationary phase which undergoes conversion to a state of unregulated growth in culture, resembling an in vitro tumor. It occurs spontaneously or through interaction with viruses, oncogenes, radiation, or drugs/chemicals.
The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.
A genus of the subfamily CERCOPITHECINAE, family CERCOPITHECIDAE, consisting of five named species: PAPIO URSINUS (chacma baboon), PAPIO CYNOCEPHALUS (yellow baboon), PAPIO PAPIO (western baboon), PAPIO ANUBIS (or olive baboon), and PAPIO HAMADRYAS (hamadryas baboon). Members of the Papio genus inhabit open woodland, savannahs, grassland, and rocky hill country. Some authors consider MANDRILLUS a subgenus of Papio.
Use of restriction endonucleases to analyze and generate a physical map of genomes, genes, or other segments of DNA.
Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.
The outer protein protective shell of a virus, which protects the viral nucleic acid.
Sequences of DNA or RNA that occur in multiple copies. There are several types: INTERSPERSED REPETITIVE SEQUENCES are copies of transposable elements (DNA TRANSPOSABLE ELEMENTS or RETROELEMENTS) dispersed throughout the genome. TERMINAL REPEAT SEQUENCES flank both ends of another sequence, for example, the long terminal repeats (LTRs) on RETROVIRUSES. Variations may be direct repeats, those occurring in the same direction, or inverted repeats, those opposite to each other in direction. TANDEM REPEAT SEQUENCES are copies which lie adjacent to each other, direct or inverted (INVERTED REPEAT SEQUENCES).
A family of North American freshwater CATFISHES. It consists of four genera (Ameiurus, Ictalurus, Noturus, Pylodictis,) comprising several species, two of which are eyeless.
Premature expulsion of the FETUS in animals.
Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.
The entering of cells by viruses following VIRUS ATTACHMENT. This is achieved by ENDOCYTOSIS, by direct MEMBRANE FUSION of the viral membrane with the CELL MEMBRANE, or by translocation of the whole virus across the cell membrane.
Processes that stimulate the GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION of a gene or set of genes.
Suspensions of attenuated or killed viruses administered for the prevention or treatment of infectious viral disease.
A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.
Methods used by pathogenic organisms to evade a host's immune system.
The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.
Nucleotide sequences repeated on both the 5' and 3' ends of a sequence under consideration. For example, the hallmarks of a transposon are that it is flanked by inverted repeats on each end and the inverted repeats are flanked by direct repeats. The Delta element of Ty retrotransposons and LTRs (long terminal repeats) are examples of this concept.
The process by which a DNA molecule is duplicated.
A GUANOSINE analog that acts as an antimetabolite. Viruses are especially susceptible. Used especially against herpes.
Within a eukaryotic cell, a membrane-limited body which contains chromosomes and one or more nucleoli (CELL NUCLEOLUS). The nuclear membrane consists of a double unit-type membrane which is perforated by a number of pores; the outermost membrane is continuous with the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM. A cell may contain more than one nucleus. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)
The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.
A genus of the family Bovidae having two species: B. bison and B. bonasus. This concept is differentiated from BUFFALOES, which refers to Bubalus arnee and Syncerus caffer.
Inflammation, often mild, of the conjunctiva caused by a variety of viral agents. Conjunctival involvement may be part of a systemic infection.
Lymphocytes responsible for cell-mediated immunity. Two types have been identified - cytotoxic (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and helper T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, HELPER-INDUCER). They are formed when lymphocytes circulate through the THYMUS GLAND and differentiate to thymocytes. When exposed to an antigen, they divide rapidly and produce large numbers of new T cells sensitized to that antigen.
The quantity of measurable virus in a body fluid. Change in viral load, measured in plasma, is sometimes used as a SURROGATE MARKER in disease progression.
Opportunistic infections found in patients who test positive for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). The most common include PNEUMOCYSTIS PNEUMONIA, Kaposi's sarcoma, cryptosporidiosis, herpes simplex, toxoplasmosis, cryptococcosis, and infections with Mycobacterium avium complex, Microsporidium, and Cytomegalovirus.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
The semilunar-shaped ganglion containing the cells of origin of most of the sensory fibers of the trigeminal nerve. It is situated within the dural cleft on the cerebral surface of the petrous portion of the temporal bone and gives off the ophthalmic, maxillary, and part of the mandibular nerves.
Immune status consisting of non-production of HIV antibodies, as determined by various serological tests.
Diseases of the domestic cat (Felis catus or F. domesticus). This term does not include diseases of the so-called big cats such as CHEETAHS; LIONS; tigers, cougars, panthers, leopards, and other Felidae for which the heading CARNIVORA is used.
A subfamily in the family MURIDAE, comprising the hamsters. Four of the more common genera are Cricetus, CRICETULUS; MESOCRICETUS; and PHODOPUS.
Viruses whose nucleic acid is DNA.
An ACYCLOVIR analog that is a potent inhibitor of the Herpesvirus family including cytomegalovirus. Ganciclovir is used to treat complications from AIDS-associated cytomegalovirus infections.
A genus of tree shrews of the family TUPAIIDAE which consists of about 12 species. One of the most frequently encountered species is T. glis. Members of this genus inhabit rain forests and secondary growth areas in southeast Asia.
Lymphoid cells concerned with humoral immunity. They are short-lived cells resembling bursa-derived lymphocytes of birds in their production of immunoglobulin upon appropriate stimulation.
A genetic rearrangement through loss of segments of DNA or RNA, bringing sequences which are normally separated into close proximity. This deletion may be detected using cytogenetic techniques and can also be inferred from the phenotype, indicating a deletion at one specific locus.
A general term indicating inflammation of the BRAIN and SPINAL CORD, often used to indicate an infectious process, but also applicable to a variety of autoimmune and toxic-metabolic conditions. There is significant overlap regarding the usage of this term and ENCEPHALITIS in the literature.
Cell surface glycoproteins that bind to chemokines and thus mediate the migration of pro-inflammatory molecules. The receptors are members of the seven-transmembrane G protein-coupled receptor family. Like the CHEMOKINES themselves, the receptors can be divided into at least three structural branches: CR, CCR, and CXCR, according to variations in a shared cysteine motif.
Infections of the eye caused by minute intracellular agents. These infections may lead to severe inflammation in various parts of the eye - conjunctiva, iris, eyelids, etc. Several viruses have been identified as the causative agents. Among these are Herpesvirus, Adenovirus, Poxvirus, and Myxovirus.
Cultivation of natural faunal resources of water. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Microscopy using an electron beam, instead of light, to visualize the sample, thereby allowing much greater magnification. The interactions of ELECTRONS with specimens are used to provide information about the fine structure of that specimen. In TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen are imaged. In SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY an electron beam falls at a non-normal angle on the specimen and the image is derived from the reactions occurring above the plane of the specimen.
A genus of the family HYLOBATIDAE consisting of six species. The members of this genus inhabit rain forests in southeast Asia. They are arboreal and differ from other anthropoids in the great length of their arms and very slender bodies and limbs. Their major means of locomotion is by swinging from branch to branch by their arms. Hylobates means dweller in the trees. Some authors refer to Symphalangus and Nomascus as Hylobates. The six genera include: H. concolor (crested or black gibbon), H. hoolock (Hoolock gibbon), H. klossii (Kloss's gibbon; dwarf siamang), H. lar (common gibbon), H. pileatus (pileated gibbon), and H. syndactylus (siamang). H. lar is also known as H. agilis (lar gibbon), H. moloch (agile gibbon), and H. muelleri (silvery gibbon).
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
The assembly of VIRAL STRUCTURAL PROTEINS and nucleic acid (VIRAL DNA or VIRAL RNA) to form a VIRUS PARTICLE.
Proteins which bind to DNA. The family includes proteins which bind to both double- and single-stranded DNA and also includes specific DNA binding proteins in serum which can be used as markers for malignant diseases.
Widely used technique which exploits the ability of complementary sequences in single-stranded DNAs or RNAs to pair with each other to form a double helix. Hybridization can take place between two complimentary DNA sequences, between a single-stranded DNA and a complementary RNA, or between two RNA sequences. The technique is used to detect and isolate specific sequences, measure homology, or define other characteristics of one or both strands. (Kendrew, Encyclopedia of Molecular Biology, 1994, p503)
The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.
A form of fluorescent antibody technique commonly used to detect serum antibodies and immune complexes in tissues and microorganisms in specimens from patients with infectious diseases. The technique involves formation of an antigen-antibody complex which is labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody. (From Bennington, Saunders Dictionary & Encyclopedia of Laboratory Medicine and Technology, 1984)
DNA molecules capable of autonomous replication within a host cell and into which other DNA sequences can be inserted and thus amplified. Many are derived from PLASMIDS; BACTERIOPHAGES; or VIRUSES. They are used for transporting foreign genes into recipient cells. Genetic vectors possess a functional replicator site and contain GENETIC MARKERS to facilitate their selective recognition.
A ubiquitously expressed sequence-specific transcriptional repressor that is normally the target of signaling by NOTCH PROTEINS.
Viral infections of the brain, spinal cord, meninges, or perimeningeal spaces.
Mature LYMPHOCYTES and MONOCYTES transported by the blood to the body's extravascular space. They are morphologically distinguishable from mature granulocytic leukocytes by their large, non-lobed nuclei and lack of coarse, heavily stained cytoplasmic granules.
Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.
Serologic tests in which a positive reaction manifested by visible CHEMICAL PRECIPITATION occurs when a soluble ANTIGEN reacts with its precipitins, i.e., ANTIBODIES that can form a precipitate.
An antiviral agent used in the treatment of cytomegalovirus retinitis. Foscarnet also shows activity against human herpesviruses and HIV.
Common name for the species Gallus gallus, the domestic fowl, in the family Phasianidae, order GALLIFORMES. It is descended from the red jungle fowl of SOUTHEAST ASIA.
A species of the genus VESIVIRUS infecting cats. Transmission occurs via air and mechanical contact.
A benign tumor of fibrous or fully developed connective tissue.
Methods of maintaining or growing biological materials in controlled laboratory conditions. These include the cultures of CELLS; TISSUES; organs; or embryo in vitro. Both animal and plant tissues may be cultured by a variety of methods. Cultures may derive from normal or abnormal tissues, and consist of a single cell type or mixed cell types.
One of the Type II site-specific deoxyribonucleases (EC It recognizes and cleaves the sequence A/AGCTT at the slash. HindIII is from Haemophilus influenzae R(d). Numerous isoschizomers have been identified. EC 3.1.21.-.
Body organ that filters blood for the secretion of URINE and that regulates ion concentrations.
Proteins which maintain the transcriptional quiescence of specific GENES or OPERONS. Classical repressor proteins are DNA-binding proteins that are normally bound to the OPERATOR REGION of an operon, or the ENHANCER SEQUENCES of a gene until a signal occurs that causes their release.
The clear, viscous fluid secreted by the SALIVARY GLANDS and mucous glands of the mouth. It contains MUCINS, water, organic salts, and ptylin.
Nuclear antigens encoded by VIRAL GENES found in HUMAN HERPESVIRUS 4. At least six nuclear antigens have been identified.
CELL LINES derived from the CV-1 cell line by transformation with a replication origin defective mutant of SV40 VIRUS, which codes for wild type large T antigen (ANTIGENS, POLYOMAVIRUS TRANSFORMING). They are used for transfection and cloning. (The CV-1 cell line was derived from the kidney of an adult male African green monkey (CERCOPITHECUS AETHIOPS).)
Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.
A genus of the family HERPESVIRIDAE, subfamily GAMMAHERPESVIRINAE, infecting B-cells in humans and new world primates. The type species human herpesvirus 4 (HERPESVIRUS 4, HUMAN) is better known as the Epstein-Barr virus.
One of the Type II site-specific deoxyribonucleases (EC It recognizes and cleaves the sequence G/GATCC at the slash. BamHI is from Bacillus amyloliquefaciens N. Numerous isoschizomers have been identified. EC 3.1.21.-.
The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.
An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed.
A method (first developed by E.M. Southern) for detection of DNA that has been electrophoretically separated and immobilized by blotting on nitrocellulose or other type of paper or nylon membrane followed by hybridization with labeled NUCLEIC ACID PROBES.
A cell line generated from human embryonic kidney cells that were transformed with human adenovirus type 5.
The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.
A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.
Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.
Production of new arrangements of DNA by various mechanisms such as assortment and segregation, CROSSING OVER; GENE CONVERSION; GENETIC TRANSFORMATION; GENETIC CONJUGATION; GENETIC TRANSDUCTION; or mixed infection of viruses.

The amino-terminal C/H1 domain of CREB binding protein mediates zta transcriptional activation of latent Epstein-Barr virus. (1/5808)

Latent Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is maintained as a nucleosome-covered episome that can be transcriptionally activated by overexpression of the viral immediate-early protein, Zta. We show here that reactivation of latent EBV by Zta can be significantly enhanced by coexpression of the cellular coactivators CREB binding protein (CBP) and p300. A stable complex containing both Zta and CBP could be isolated from lytically stimulated, but not latently infected RAJI nuclear extracts. Zta-mediated viral reactivation and transcriptional activation were both significantly inhibited by coexpression of the E1A 12S protein but not by an N-terminal deletion mutation of E1A (E1ADelta2-36), which fails to bind CBP. Zta bound directly to two related cysteine- and histidine-rich domains of CBP, referred to as C/H1 and C/H3. These domains both interacted specifically with the transcriptional activation domain of Zta in an electrophoretic mobility shift assay. Interestingly, we found that the C/H3 domain was a potent dominant negative inhibitor of Zta transcriptional activation function. In contrast, an amino-terminal fragment containing the C/H1 domain was sufficient for coactivation of Zta transcription and viral reactivation function. Thus, CBP can stimulate the transcription of latent EBV in a histone acetyltransferase-independent manner mediated by the CBP amino-terminal C/H1-containing domain. We propose that CBP may regulate aspects of EBV latency and reactivation by integrating cellular signals mediated by competitive interactions between C/H1, C/H3, and the Zta activation domain.  (+info)

Epstein-barr virus regulates c-MYC, apoptosis, and tumorigenicity in Burkitt lymphoma. (2/5808)

Loss of the Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) genome from Akata Burkitt lymphoma (BL) cells is coincident with a loss of malignant phenotype, despite the fact that Akata and other EBV-positive BL cells express a restricted set of EBV gene products (type I latency) that are not known to overtly affect cell growth. Here we demonstrate that reestablishment of type I latency in EBV-negative Akata cells restores tumorigenicity and that tumorigenic potential correlates with an increased resistance to apoptosis under growth-limiting conditions. The antiapoptotic effect of EBV was associated with a higher level of Bcl-2 expression and an EBV-dependent decrease in steady-state levels of c-MYC protein. Although the EBV EBNA-1 protein is expressed in all EBV-associated tumors and is reported to have oncogenic potential, enforced expression of EBNA-1 alone in EBV-negative Akata cells failed to restore tumorigenicity or EBV-dependent down-regulation of c-MYC. These data provide direct evidence that EBV contributes to the tumorigenic potential of Burkitt lymphoma and suggest a novel model whereby a restricted latency program of EBV promotes B-cell survival, and thus virus persistence within an immune host, by selectively targeting the expression of c-MYC.  (+info)

Virus infection leads to localized hyperacetylation of histones H3 and H4 at the IFN-beta promoter. (3/5808)

Transcriptional activation of the human interferon-beta (IFN-beta) gene by virus infection requires the assembly of a higher order nucleoprotein complex, the enhanceosome, which consists of the transcriptional activators NF-kappa B (p50/p65), ATF-2/c-jun, IRF-3 and IRF-7, architectural protein HMGI(Y), and the coactivators p300 and CBP. In this report, we show that virus infection of cells results in a dramatic hyperacetylation of histones H3 and H4 that is localized to the IFN-beta promoter. Furthermore, expressing a truncated version of IRF-3, which lacks a p300/CBP interaction domain, suppresses both histone hyperacetylation and activation of the IFN-beta gene. Thus, coactivator-mediated localized hyperacetylation of histones may play a crucial role in inducible gene expression.  (+info)

Microsatellite instability, Epstein-Barr virus, mutation of type II transforming growth factor beta receptor and BAX in gastric carcinomas in Hong Kong Chinese. (4/5808)

Microsatellite instability (MI), the phenotypic manifestation of mismatch repair failure, is found in a proportion of gastric carcinomas. Little is known of the links between MI and Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) status and clinicopathological elements. Examination of genes mutated through the MI mechanism could also be expected to reveal important information on the carcinogenic pathway. Seventy-nine gastric carcinomas (61 EBV negative, 18 EBV positive) from local Hong Kong Chinese population, an intermediate-incidence area, were examined. Eight microsatellite loci, inclusive of the A10 tract of type II transforming growth factor beta receptor (TbetaR-II), were used to evaluate the MI status. MI in the BAX and insulin-like growth factor II receptor (IGF-IIR) genes were also examined. High-level MI (>40% unstable loci) was detected in ten cases (12.7%) and low-level MI (1-40% unstable loci) in three (3.8%). High-level MI was detected in two EBV-associated cases (11%) and the incidence was similar for the EBV-negative cases (13%). The high-level MIs were significantly associated with intestinal-type tumours (P = 0.03) and a more prominent lymphoid infiltrate (P = 0.04). Similar associations were noted in the EBV-positive carcinomas. The high-level MIs were more commonly located in the antrum, whereas the EBV-associated carcinomas were mostly located in body. Thirteen cardia cases were negative for both high-level MI and EBV. All patients aged below 55 were MI negative (P = 0.049). Of the high-level MIs, 80% had mutation in TbetaR-II, 40% in BAX and 0% in IGF-IIR. Of low-level MIs, 33% also had TbetaR-II mutation. These mutations were absent in the MI-negative cases. Of three lymphoepithelioma-like carcinomas, two cases were EBV positive and MI negative, one case was EBV negative but with high-level MI. In conclusion, high-level MIs were present regardless of the EBV status, and were found in a particular clinicopathological subset of gastric carcinoma patient. Inactivation of important growth regulatory genes observed in these carcinomas confirms the importance of MI in carcinogenesis.  (+info)

Control of apoptosis in Epstein Barr virus-positive nasopharyngeal carcinoma cells: opposite effects of CD95 and CD40 stimulation. (5/5808)

The expression and function of CD95 and CD40 were investigated in malignant cells from EBV-positive undifferentiated nasopharyngeal carcinomas (NPCs). Large amounts of CD95 and CD40 expression were detected in 15 of 16 EBV-positive NPC specimens. In contrast, CD95 was not detected in two biopsies from patients with EBV-negative differentiated NPCs. We tested whether the CD95 apoptotic pathway was functional in NPC cells by treating two EBV-positive NPC tumor lines in vitro with a CD95 agonist. In both cases, NPC cells were extremely susceptible to CD95-mediated apoptosis, despite strong constitutive expression of Bcl-x. Combined CD40 and CD95 stimulation was used to investigate the possible anti-apoptotic activity mediated by CD40. The CD40 receptor was activated by incubating NPC cells with murine L cells producing CD154, the CD40 ligand. This treatment resulted in a strong inhibition of CD95-related cytotoxicity. Such an anti-apoptotic effect of CD40 is well known for B lymphocytes, but has not previously been reported for epithelial cells. These data suggest that NPC tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes, which often produce the CD40 ligand in situ, may increase the survival of malignant cells, thereby enhancing tumor growth in patients.  (+info)

Lymphomatoid granulomatosis following autologous stem cell transplantation. (6/5808)

Lymphomatoid granulomatosis (LYG) is a rare angio-destructive lymphoproliferative disorder (LPD) of uncertain etiology, with prominent pulmonary involvement. Recent studies indicate that LYG is an Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-associated B cell LPD with large numbers of background reactive T lymphocytes (T cell-rich B cell lymphoma). Although the disease frequently, but not exclusively, occurs in various immunodeficiency states, it has not been reported in association with the transient immunosuppression following autologous bone marrow/peripheral stem cell transplantation (ABM/PSCT). We describe a patient who developed lymphomatoid granulomatosis of the lung approximately 2 weeks after high-dose chemotherapy and autologous peripheral stem cell transplantation for multiple myeloma. Although molecular studies showed no evidence of EBV genome in the biopsy material, the serologic profile with high IgM titers was suggestive of primary EBV infection. Complete radiologic remission occurred following reconstitution of the patient's immune response after a 2-week course of ganciclovir treatment. Despite the apparently low frequency of LPD (both LYG and EBV-associated post-transplant lymphoma) in the ABMT setting, we believe that it should be considered in the differential diagnosis of patients whose clinical course following ABMT is complicated by fevers, in the absence of an identifiable infectious process.  (+info)

Rapid autologous marrow recovery and eradication of infectious mononucleosis despite severe immunosuppression following second transplantation for aplastic anemia. (7/5808)

A patient with aplastic anemia failed to respond to immunosuppressive therapy and first marrow transplantation (BMT). Recovery of autologous hematopoiesis was rapid following a second stem cell transplant with a non-myeloablative preparatory regimen. The autologous immune response to infectious mononucleosis (IM) 4 weeks post-transplant was normal despite recent and ongoing severe immunosuppression.  (+info)

Crossreactive recognition of viral, self, and bacterial peptide ligands by human class I-restricted cytotoxic T lymphocyte clonotypes: implications for molecular mimicry in autoimmune disease. (8/5808)

The immunodominant, CD8(+) cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) response to the HLA-B8-restricted peptide, RAKFKQLL, located in the Epstein-Barr virus immediate-early antigen, BZLF1, is characterized by a diverse T cell receptor (TCR) repertoire. Here, we show that this diversity can be partitioned on the basis of crossreactive cytotoxicity patterns involving the recognition of a self peptide-RSKFRQIV-located in a serine/threonine kinase and a bacterial peptide-RRKYKQII-located in Staphylococcus aureus replication initiation protein. Thus CTL clones that recognized the viral, self, and bacterial peptides expressed a highly restricted alphabeta TCR phenotype. The CTL clones that recognized viral and self peptides were more oligoclonal, whereas clones that strictly recognized the viral peptide displayed a diverse TCR profile. Interestingly, the self and bacterial peptides equally were substantially less effective than the cognate viral peptide in sensitizing target cell lysis, and also resulted only in a weak reactivation of memory CTLs in limiting dilution assays, whereas the cognate peptide was highly immunogenic. The described crossreactions show that human antiviral, CD8(+) CTL responses can be shaped by peptide ligands derived from autoantigens and environmental bacterial antigens, thereby providing a firm structural basis for molecular mimicry involving class I-restricted CTLs in the pathogenesis of autoimmune disease.  (+info)

Purchase Recombinant Epstein-Barr virus Latent membrane protein 1(LMP1),partial. It is produced in Yeast. High purity. Good price.
The Epstein-Barr Virus Capsid Antigen (VCA) IgM ELISA Kit is intended for the measurement of IgM antibodies to Epstein-Barr Virus Capsid Antigen (VCA) in a sample. This kit utilizes Epstein-Barr VCA antigen (P3H3 cell extract, cultured in human Burkitt lymphoma cells).
TY - JOUR. T1 - Value of combined approach with thallium-201 single-photon emission computed tomography and Epstein-Barr virus DNA polymerase chain reaction in CSF for the diagnosis of AIDS-related primary CNS lymphoma. AU - Antinori, Andrea. AU - De Rossi, G.. AU - Ammassari, A.. AU - Cingolani, A.. AU - Murri, R.. AU - Di Giuda, D.. AU - De Luca, A.. AU - Pierconti, F.. AU - Tartaglione, T.. AU - Scerrati, M.. AU - Larocca, L. M.. AU - Ortona, L.. PY - 1999/2. Y1 - 1999/2. N2 - Purpose: To determine the diagnostic capability of thallium-201 (201Tl) single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) combined with Epstein-Barr virus DNA (EBV-DNA) in CSF for the diagnosis of AIDS-related primary CNS lymphoma (PCNSL). Patients and Methods: All human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients with focal brain lesions observed between June 1996 and March 1998 underwent lumbar puncture and 201Tl SPECT. Each CSF sample was tested with polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for EBV-DNA. Results: ...
BioAssay record AID 288762 submitted by ChEMBL: Inhibition of TPA-induced Epstein-Barr virus early antigen activation assessed as EBV-EA induction in Raji cells at 3.2 nM after 48 hrs relative to TPA.
Epstein-Barr virus early antigen: synthesized before or in the absence of viral-progeny DNA replication & present only in infected cells
TY - JOUR. T1 - Synthetic peptides deduced from the amino acid sequence of Epstein‐Barr virus nuclear antigen 6 (EBNA 6). T2 - Antigenic properties, production of monoreactive reagents, and analysis of antibody responses in man. AU - Falk, K.. AU - Linde, A.. AU - Johnson, D.. AU - Lennette, E.. AU - Ernberg, I.. AU - Lundkvist, A.. PY - 1995/8. Y1 - 1995/8. N2 - Studies on the antibody responses to various Epstein‐Barr virus (EBV) antigens have been instrumental in the understanding of the seroepidemiology and diagnosis of this viral infection and the subsequent carrier state. While antibodies to the viral capsid antigen (VCA), early antigen (EA), and nuclear antigens 1 and 2 (EBNA 1 and 2) have been well characterized, the antibody response to the other nuclear antigens is not well understood. EBNA 6 is expressed by lymphoblasts during acute EBV infection and may be an important antigen for diagnosis and evaluation of the immune response. In order to analyze the antibody response to EBNA ...
The role of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) early antigen diffuse component (EA-D) and its relationship with EBV DNA polymerase in EBV genome-carrying cells are unclear, EBV-specified DNA polymerase was purified in a sequential manner from Raji cells treated with phorbol-12,13-dibutyrate and n-butyrate by phosphocellulose, DEAE-cellulose, double-stranded DNA-cellulose, and blue Sepharose column chromatography. Four polypeptides with molecular masses of 110,000, 100,000, 55,000, and 49,000 daltons were found to be associated with EBV-specified DNA polymerase activity. A monoclonal antibody which could neutralize the EBV DNA polymerase activity was prepared and found to recognize 55,000- and 49,000-dalton polypeptides. An EA-D monoclonal antibody, R3 (G. R. Pearson, V. Vorman, B. Chase, T. Sculley, M. Hummel, and E. Kieff, J. Virol. 47:183-201, 1983), was also able to recognize these same two polypeptides associated with EBV DNA polymerase activity. It was concluded that EBV EA-D polypeptides, as ...
Fingerprint Dive into the research topics of Retinoic acid inhibits IL-6-dependent but not constitutive STAT3 activation in Epstein-Barr virus-immortalized B lymphocytes.. Together they form a unique fingerprint. ...
Background aims. Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-associated post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorders (PTLD) belong to the most dreaded complications of immunosuppression. The efficacy of EBV-specific T-cell transfer for PTLD has been previously shown, yet the optimal choice of EBV-derived antigens inducing polyclonal CD4þ and CD8þ T cells that cover a wide range of human leukocyte antigen types and efficiently control PTLD remains unclear. Methods. A pool of 125 T-cell epitopes from seven latent and nine lytic EBV-derived proteins (EBVmix) and peptide pools of EBNA1, EBNA3c, LMP2a and BZLF1 were used to determine T-cell frequencies and to isolate T cells through the use of the interferon (IFN)-g cytokine capture system. We further evaluated the phenotype and functionality of the generated T-cell lines in vitro. Results. EBVmix induced significantly higher T-cell frequencies and allowed selecting more CD4þIFN-gþ and CD8þIFN-gþ cells than single peptide pools. T cells of all specificities ...
This study will examine the effects of long-term antiviral therapy with valaciclovir (Valtrex) on Epstein-Barr virus infection. This virus infects more
TY - JOUR. T1 - Treatment of Epstein-Barr virus-associated malignancies with specific T cells. AU - Gottschalk, Stephen. AU - Heslop, Helen. AU - Rooney, Cliona M.. PY - 2002. Y1 - 2002. N2 - Latent Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection is associated with a heterogeneous group of malignancies, including Burkitts lymphoma, Hodgkins disease, nasopharyngeal carcinoma, and lymphoproliferative disease (LPD). The development of adoptive immunotherapies for these malignancies is being fueled by the successful generation of allogeneic donor derived EBV-specific cytotoxic T cells (CTL) for the prevention and treatment of EBV-LPD after hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. This approach is being extended to EBV-LPD after solid organ transplantation by use of autologous and haploidentical EBV-specific CTL. For other EBV-associated malignancies, there is only limited clinical experience with EBV-specific CTL. With few exceptions, only patients with recurrent Hodgkins disease have been treated with ...
Epstein Barr - MedHelps Epstein Barr Center for Information, Symptoms, Resources, Treatments and Tools for Epstein Barr. Find Epstein Barr information, treatments for Epstein Barr and Epstein Barr symptoms.
TY - JOUR. T1 - Detection and quantification of Epstein-Barr virus EBER1 in EBV-infected cells by fluorescent in situ hybridization and flow cytometry. AU - Stowe, Raymond P.. AU - Cubbage, Michael L.. AU - Sams, Clarence F.. AU - Pierson, Duane L.. AU - Barrett, Alan D.T.. PY - 1998/11/1. Y1 - 1998/11/1. N2 - A rapid and highly sensitive fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) assay was developed to detect Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-infected cells in peripheral blood. Multiple fluorescein-labeled antisense oligonucleotide probes were designed to hybridize to the EBER1 transcript, which is highly expressed in latently infected cells. After a rapid (30 min) hybridization, the cells were analyzed by flow cytometry. EBER1 was detected in several positive control cell lines that have variable numbers of EBV genome copies. No EBER1 was detected in two known EBV-negative cell lines. Northern blot analyses confirmed the presence and quantity of EBER1 transcripts in each cell line. This method was used ...
Quality Epstein Barr Virus VCA IgM (EBV, VCA IgM) ELISA kit from ELISA kits manufacturer and elisa kits supplier: Epstein Barr Virus VCA IgG ELISA test kit. Our kits are FDA-CE and ISO certified.
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TY - JOUR. T1 - Characterization of Epstein-Barr virus-induced lymphoproliferation derived from human peripheral blood mononuclear cells transferred to severe combined immunodeficient mice. AU - Okano, M.. AU - Taguchi, Y.. AU - Nakamine, H.. AU - Pirruccello, S. J.. AU - Davis, J. R.. AU - Beisel, K. W.. AU - Kleveland, K. L.. AU - Sanger, W. G.. AU - Fordyce, R. R.. AU - Purtilo, D. T.. PY - 1990. Y1 - 1990. N2 - Mice with severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) received 6 × 107 fresh human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) intraperitoneally from Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-seropositive and -seronegative donors. B95-8 EBV was inoculated intraperitoneally and intravenously to the mice 6 weeks after transfer of seronegative PBMC. Three of four mice transferred with PBMC from two EBV-seropositive donors and two of four mice from two EBV-seronegative donors inoculated with EBV developed fatal EBV-induced lymphoproliferative disease within 6 to 10 weeks. These tumors were oligoclonal ...
Poly(ADP-ribosylation) is a post-translational modification of nuclear proteins involved in several cellular events as well as in processes that characterize the infective cycle of some viruses. In the present study, we investigated the role of poly(ADP-ribosylation) on Epstein-Barr Virus (EBV) lytic cycle activation. Inhibition of PARP-1 by 3-aminobenzamide (3-ABA) during EBV induction, diminished cell damage and apoptosis in the non-productive Raji cell line while markedly reducing the release of viral particles in the productive Jijoye cells. Furthermore, incubation with 3-ABA up-regulated the levels of LMP1 and EBNA2 latent viral proteins. At the same time, it slightly affected the expression of the immediate early BZLF1 gene, but largely down-regulated the levels of the early BFRF1 protein. The modulation of the expression of both latent and lytic EBV genes appeared to be post-transcriptionally regulated. Taken together the data indicate that PARP-1 plays a role in the progression of EBV lytic
Immunotherapy approaches targeting Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-encoded antigens induce objective clinical responses only in a fraction of patients with undifferentiated nasopharyngeal carcinoma (UNPC). In the present study, we have characterized the immunogenicity of the EBV-encoded BARF1 oncogene with the aim to assess whether this protein could constitute a new target antigen for immunotherapy in this setting. Spontaneous CD4+ and CD8+ T cell responses specific for the recombinant p29 BARF1 protein were detected by IFNγ-ELISPOT in both EBV-seropositive donors and UNPC patients, but not in EBV-seronegative individuals. Using immunoinformatic prediction tools, we have selected 5 different candidate BARF1 T cell epitopes presented by HLA-A*0201. Although only one of these peptides was able to bind HLA-A2 with low affinity in the T2 stabilization assay, all 5 BARF1 nonamers readily elicited specific CD8+ T cell responses in EBV-seropositive HLA-A*0201+ donors and UNPC patients. Notably, the ...
p,Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), or human herpesvirus 4 (HHV-4), infects the vast majority of adults worldwide, and establishes both nonproductive (latent) and productive (lytic) infections. Host immune responses directed against both the lytic and latent cycle-associated EBV antigens induce a diversity of clinical symptoms in patients with chronic active EBV infections who usually contain an oligoclonal pool of EBV-infected lymphocyte subsets in their blood. Episomal EBV genes in the latent infection utilize an array of evasion strategies from host immune responses: the minimized expression of EBV antigens targeted by host cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs), the down-regulation of cell adhesion molecule expression, and the release of virokines to inhibit the host CTLs. The oncogenic role of latent EBV infection is not yet fully understood, but latent membrane proteins (LMPs) expressed during the latency cycle have essential biological properties leading to cellular gene expression and immortalization, ...
EBV infection is primarily controlled by a delicate balance of B and T cells. Outgrowth of EBV-infected B cells is a direct consequence of inadequate EBV-specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes, hence the higher incidence of EBV-associated malignancy in immunocompromised hosts (12). While no vaccine is currently available for the disease, adoptive transfer of EBV-specific T lymphocytes that recognize EBV antigens have emerged as a promising therapeutic option. These ex vivo-manufactured donor T cells and patient-derived EBV-specific T cells have eradicated disease in patients with refractory EBV+ polymorphic and monomorphic PTLD (13-15). Thus, the role of T cells in controlling EBV in immunocompetent hosts and in eradicating EBV in immunocompromised hosts following ex vivo antigen-specific priming is clear and encourages the development and design of EBV vaccines. The quest for an EBV-directed vaccine has proven quite challenging, in large part because of the lack of preclinical models for vaccine ...
Background: Epstein Barr Virus (EBV) infection is closely associated with multiple sclerosis (MS), but the relationship between viral load and disease activity is unclear. This study tested the observed levels of salivary EBV in MS, as a first step in investigating this relationship. Methods: Real-time quantitative PCR (qPCR) was used to measure EBV DNA levels in saliva samples from three separate Multiple Sclerosis (MS) patient cohorts. Results: The qPCR assay was used to delineate EBV shedding, defined here as a reliably detectable level of extracellular EBV DNA in saliva. Frequency of EBV shedding was found to be similar across the groups, with 20-25% of subjects releasing virus on any given sampling date. Diurnal variation in EBV count was tested in one of the cohorts, in which 26% of subjects showed more than a 10-fold difference between the highest and lowest EBV levels on a single day. In the same cohort, elevated viral levels at one time point did not predict elevated viral levels at a ...
We investigated the seroepidemiology of infection due to Epstein Barr virus (EBV) in 181 south Indian subjects aged 0-25 years using the indirect immunofluorescence method to titrate antibodies to viral capsid antigen (VCA), nuclear antigen (EBNA), and early antigen (EA). The age-specific prevalence of IgG antibodies to VCA rose rapidly to 90% by the age of 5 years. The prevalence of VCA-specific IgM and the geometric mean titre of VCA-specific IgG antibodies were highest between the ages of 6 months and 2 years, the median age of primary infection being 1.4 years. Thus primary EBV infection occurs early in life. EA antibody prevalence was highest (55%) in the third year of life and remained between 30% and 40% thereafter. This pattern of EA antibody prevalence suggests that the latent EBV infection that persists lifelong after primary infection may be reactivated in many individuals. EBNA antibody prevalence was low until the age of 2 years but rose to 80% in the fourth year. Geometric mean ...
Epigenetic modifications leading to either transcriptional repression or activation, play an indispensable role in the development of human cancers. Epidemiological study revealed that approximately 20% of all human cancers are associated with tumor viruses. Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), the first human tumor virus, demonstrates frequent epigenetic alterations on both viral and host genomes in associated cancers-both of epithelial and lymphoid origin. The cell type-dependent different EBV latent gene expression patterns appear to be determined by the cellular epigenetic machinery and similarly viral oncoproteins recruit epigenetic regulators in order to deregulate the cellular gene expression profile resulting in several human cancers. This review elucidates the epigenetic consequences of EBV-host interactions during development of multiple EBV-induced B-cell lymphomas, which may lead to the discovery of novel therapeutic interventions against EBV-associated B-cell lymphomas by alteration of reversible
The initiation of cell-mediated immunity to Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) has been analyzed with cells from EBV-seronegative blood donors in culture. The addition of dendritic cells (DCs) is essential to prime naive T cells that recognize EBV-latent antigens in enzyme-linked immunospot assays for interferon γ secretion and eradicate transformed B cells in regression assays. In contrast, DCs are not required to control the outgrowth of EBV-transformed B lymphocytes from seropositive donors. Enriched CD4+ and CD8 + T cells mediate regression of EBV-transformed cells in seronegative and seropositive donors, but the kinetics of T-dependent regression occurs with much greater speed with seropositives. EBV infection of DCs cannot be detected by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction with primers specific for mRNA for the EBNA1 U and K exons. Instead, DCs capture B cell debris and generate T cells specific for EBV latency antigens. We suggest that the cross-presentation of EBV-latent antigens from
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Structure of a trimeric variant of the Epstein-Barr virus glycoprotein B. - Marija Backovic, Richard Longnecker, Theodore S Jardetzky
Clinical benefit rate (CBR, percent of patients experiencing complete response [CR], partial response [PR] or stable disease [SD] for at least 12 weeks from post cycle 2 to cycle 6 measurements) determined according to the Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumours (RECIST), or by immune-related Response criteria (irRC) in the absence of measurable disease ...
Clinical benefit rate (CBR, percent of patients experiencing complete response [CR], partial response [PR] or stable disease [SD] for at least 12 weeks from post cycle 2 to cycle 6 measurements) determined according to the Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumours (RECIST), or by immune-related Response criteria (irRC) in the absence of measurable disease ...
In this study, 63 (5.6%) of 1127 consecutive gastric carcinomas were EBV-positive, and this rate was similar to the findings of previous reports in the United Kingdom (3) , Italy (20) , and Japan (21) . Between January 1 and June 30, 1995, the EBV-positive rate was 5.6% (17 of 304), and between July 1, 1995, and December 31, 1996, the EBV-positive rate was also 5.6% (46 of 823). The former 17 EBV-positive gastric carcinomas had a similar protein expression profile to that of the total of 63 EBV-positive carcinomas (data not shown). The clinicopathological characteristics of these 63 EBV-positive gastric carcinomas, such as rich lymphoid stroma, proximal location, and predominance in males, were also in agreement with the results of other investigations (22 , 23) .. The role of EBV in carcinogenesis of the stomach is not completely understood. The latency type of EBV in gastric adenocarcinomas is distinct from the known EBV latency types, e.g., in Burkitts lymphomas and nasopharyngeal ...
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Designing proteins or peptides that bind native protein targets can aid the development of novel reagents and/or therapeutics. Rational design also tests our understanding of the principles underlying protein recognition. This article describes several strategies used to design peptides that bind to the basic region leucine zipper (bZIP) domain of the viral transcription factor BZLF1, which is encoded by the Epstein-Barr virus. BZLF1 regulates the transition of the Epstein-Barr virus from a latent state to a lytic state. It shares some properties in common with the more studied human bZIP transcription factors, but also includes novel structural elements that pose interesting challenges to inhibitor design. In designing peptides that bind to BZLF1 by forming a coiled-coil structure, we considered both affinity for BZLF1 and undesired self-association, which can weaken the effectiveness of an inhibitor. Several designed peptides exhibited different degrees of target-binding affinity and ...
Adoptive transfer of polyclonal Epstein-Barr-virus (EBV)-specific T cell lines has been used as prophylaxis and therapy in patients with EBV-associated malignancies. This approach, however, is limited by the difficult expansion of polyclonal T cells directed mainly against dominant EBV antigens presented on EBV-transformed B cell lines (LCLs). Isolating EBV-specific T cell receptors (TCRs) for transduction of T cells is an alternative strategy to confer T cell immunity against EBV antigens including subdominant EBV antigens. In this study, we have used peptide-pulsed DCs to selectively expand EBV-specific CD4+ T cell clones against an EBNA2-derived epitope. Data suggested that peptide-pulsed DCs are particularly effective in stimulating T cells specific for subdominant EBV antigens. TCR genes from one of these clones as well as from two CD8+ T cell clones were identified by RACE PCR. TCR alpha and beta chains where then cloned into retroviral vectors for transduction of T cells to equip them ...
Int J Cancer 1988,42(3):329-338.PubMedCrossRef 11. Young LS, Dawson CW, Clark D, Rupani H, Busson P, Tursz T, Johnson A, Rickinson AB: Epstein-Barr virus gene expression in nasopharyngeal carcinoma. J Gen Virol 1988,69(Pt 5):1051-1065.PubMedCrossRef 12. Lin SY, Tsang NM, Kao SC, Hsieh YL, Chen YP, Tsai CS, Kuo TT, Hao SP, Chen IH, Hong JH: Presence of Epstein-Barr virus latent membrane protein. 1 gene in the nasopharyngeal swabs from patients with nasopharyngeal carcinoma. Head Neck 2001,23(3):194-200.PubMedCrossRef 13. Pathmanathan R, Prasad U, Sadler R, Flynn K, Raab-Traub N: Clonal proliferations Sorafenib of cells infected with Epstein-Barr virus in preinvasive lesions related to nasopharyngeal carcinoma. N Engl J Med 1995,333(11):693-698.PubMedCrossRef 14. Tsao SW, Tramoutanis G, Dawson CW, Lo AK, Huang DP: The significance of LMP1 expression in nasopharyngeal carcinoma. Semin Cancer Biol 2002,12(6):473-487.PubMedCrossRef 15. Lin X, Tang M, Tao Y, Li L, Liu S, Guo L, Peptide 17 Li Z, Ma X, ...
We have recently developed a culture system in which 90% of B cells from human peripheral blood or spleen are induced to strongly proliferate and generate short-term clones of a mean of about 400 antibody-secreting cells. B cells are stimulated by mutant EL-4 thymoma cells in conjunction with T cell supernatant. In the present study, we first investigated whether the frequency of B cell immortalization by EBV would be higher in this system than in a conventional system by using PBMC as fillers. The results showed that the EBV-dependent cloning frequency (0.7%) was not increased compared with the system with the use of PBMC (2.1%). However, the short term proliferation of EBV-infected B cells was 20 times increased in the EL-4 system and EBV nuclear Ag-positive cells participated in this response. Recent reports showed that transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta) inhibited the growth of normal B cells, whereas the growth of EBV-immortalized (lymphoblastoid) cells was not inhibited. We have ...
Epstein Barr Virus (EBV) is an insidious virus that can cause many debilitating conditions. The insidious part comes from the viruses ability to camouflage
Epstein Barr Virus (EBV) is creating a silent pandemic of mystery illness. Thanks to Anthony William we now have a better understanding of whats going wrong with us and how to put things right. I am kinesiologist and nutritional therapist working in London and St Albans, helping people to take their health back into their own hands..
pathogen (EBV) latent membrane proteins 2A (LMP2A) is certainly widely portrayed in EBV-infected cells inside the contaminated individual host and EBV-associated malignancies suggesting that LMP2A is essential for EBV latency persistence and EBV-associated tumorigenesis. B lymphocytes contaminated in vitro with EBV become immortalized building lymphoblastoid cell lines DMH-1 (LCLs). This technique constitutes an in vitro model for the contribution of EBV to B lymphoid disease. EBV gene appearance in LCLs is fixed to six nuclear antigens (EBNA1 -2 -3 -3 -3 and -LP) three essential membrane protein (latent membrane proteins 1 DMH-1 [LMP-1] -2 and -2B) two nonpolyadenylated RNAs. ...
Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) load monitoring after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) enables earlier detection of EBV replication and often serves as a trigger for preemptive therapies aimed at reducing EBV-related diseases. Our institutional strategy is to treat patients with clinical signs of EBV-related disease accompanied by a rising viral load, rather than to intervene based solely on viral load. This affords an opportunity to study the natural history of EBV replication and to assess whether our strategy reduces overtreatment without compromising outcomes. The objectives of the present study were to assess the natural history of untreated EBV replication in patients who underwent an alemtuzumab-based allogeneic HSCT and to examine whether our clinical strategy reduced overtreatment without compromising patient outcomes. In this retrospective single-center observational study of 515 consecutive patients (age ≥18 years) undergoing T cell-depleted allogeneic HSCT incorporating
1. GalluzziL. BrennerC. MorselliE. TouatZ. KroemerG. 2008 Viral control of mitochondrial apoptosis. PLoS Pathog 4 e1000018. 2. CuconatiA. WhiteE. 2002 Viral homologs of BCL-2: role of apoptosis in the regulation of virus infection. Genes and Development 16 2465 2478. 3. CuconatiA. DegenhardtK. SundararajanR. AnschelA. WhiteE. 2002 Bak and Bax function to limit adenovirus replication through apoptosis induction. J Virol 76 4547 4558. 4. MarchiniA. TomkinsonB. CohenJI. KieffE. 1991 BHRF1, the Epstein-Barr virus gene with homology to Bc12, is dispensable for B-lymphocyte transformation and virus replication. J Virol 65 5991 6000. 5. HendersonS. HuenD. RoweM. DawsonC. JohnsonG. 1993 Epstein-Barr virus-coded BHRF1 protein, a viral homologue of Bcl-2, protects human B cells from programmed cell death. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 90 8479 8483. 6. Thorley-LawsonDA. GrossA. 2004 Persistence of the Epstein-Barr virus and the origins of associated lymphomas. N Engl J Med 350 1328 1337. 7. ...
Lee et al (87), used a high-throughput genotyping platform to determine the mutation status of 474 hotspots in 41 genes using 237 gastric adenocarcinomas, which included 58 EBVaGCs. Among these, 34 cases (14.3%) harbored somatic mutations, 6 of which concomitantly had two different mutations. Fourteen EBVaGC cases had mutations; 6 in PIK3CA (10.3%), 1 in p53 (1.7%), 2 in APC (3.4%), 1 in STK11 (1.7%), 3 in CTNNB1 (5.2%) and 1 in CDKN2A (1.7%). CTNNB1 mutations were significantly more frequent in EBVaGC than in EBV-negative gastric carcinomas (one of 179 cases, 0.6%). Frequent PIK3CA mutations were also reported in two subsequent studies; 16.7% (of 18 EBVaGCs) in a report by Sukawa et al (88), and 80% (of 28 EBVaGCs) in a report by The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) Research Network (89). A recent report by Liang et al (90), showed several newly identified mutations in EBVaGC, including mutations in MAP3K4 (20.8%), TGFBR1 (25.0%), CCNA1 (25.0%) and AKT2 (38.2%). Among these, an AKT2 mutation was ...
The various antigen complexes of the Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) are broadly classified as the viral capsid antigen (VCA), diffuse early antigen (EA-D), restricted early antigen (EA-R), membrane antigen (MA) and the Epstein-Barr nuclear antigen (EBNA). The different EBV-related diseases may be differentiated according to the reactivity of these different classes of antibodies towards the various classes of antigen complexes. However, with the recent development of molecular biology, it is now known that the individual polypeptides of the different EBV antigen complexes can be used as serological markers for the detection of nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC). Among the useful serological markers which have been used in enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for the detection of NPC are the gp125 from the VCA complex (IgA), pp58 from the EA-D complex (IgG), ribonucleotide reductase (IgG and IgA), DNase (IgA) and thymidine kinase (IgA) from the EA-R complex, gp 250/200 from the MA complex (IgA) and ...
The CD8+ T cell response to Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is well characterized. Much less is known about the evolution of the CD4+ T cell response. Here we show that EBV stimulates a primary burst of effector CD4+ T cells and this is followed by a period of down-regulation. A small population of EBV-specific effector CD4+ T cells survives during the lifelong persistent phase of infection. The EBV-specific effector CD4+ T cells accumulate within a CD27+ CD28+ differentiation compartment during primary infection and remain enriched within this compartment throughout the persistent phase of infection. Analysis of CD4+ T cell responses to individual epitopes from EBV latent and lytic cycle proteins confirms the observation that the majority of the effector cells express both CD27 and CD28, although CD4+ T cells specific for lytic cycle antigens have a greater tendency to express CD45RA than those specific for the latent antigens. In clear contrast, effector CD4+ T cells specific for cytomegalovirus (CMV)
According to the Ann Arbor staging method, advanced disease (defined as stages IIB-IV) was present in 19 patients and the frequency of EBV DNA was higher in this group (63% versus 9%, p = 0.006, 95% CI = 0.26-0.81). Plasma EBV DNA was found in all HIV-positive patients (100% versus 29%, p = 0.0007). When only the 24 HIV-negative patients were analyzed, the frequency of EBV DNA remained higher in the 13 patients with advanced disease (54% versus 9%, p = 0.03). DISCUSSION. The presence of tumor-derived DNA in the plasma and serum of cancer patients opens up new possibilities for detecting and monitoring cancer.. In the present study, 43% of the patients with Hodgkin s disease had EBV DNA that was detectable by conventional PCR in the plasma prior to treatment, whereas only one healthy individual (8%) was positive for plasma EBV DNA (p = 0.03). Moreover, plasma EBV DNA was present in almost every patient (10/11, 91%) with proven LMP-1 in the lymph nodes, and also in 3/19 patients (16%) without ...
Immobilization of Raji cells on surface coated with anti-lymphocyte globulin (ALG) at low cell densities lead to the synthesis of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) early antigen (EA) in up to 5% of the cells. At higher cell densities the percentage of antigen-positive cells decreased and at confluency no antigen synthesis was observed. Addition of iododeoxyuridine (IdUrd) to low density cultures increased the expression of EA to 20%, whereas in confluent cultures the cells could not be induced to synthesize EA. Treatment of cells in suspension with ALG failed to induced EA synthesis and did not potentiate the effect of IdUrd. Immobilized Raji cells proved to be suitable targets for superinfection with EBV derived from P3HR1 cultures. ...
Sigma-Aldrich offers abstracts and full-text articles by [Sharada Ramasubramanyan, Kay Osborn, Rajaei Al-Mohammad, Ijiel B Naranjo Perez-Fernandez, Jianmin Zuo, Nicolae Balan, Anja Godfrey, Harshil Patel, Gordon Peters, Martin Rowe, Richard G Jenner, Alison J Sinclair].
Question 24: Is there a history of EBV infection? Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is one of the human herpes viruses (Herpesviridae family). It is the virus that causes...
EBI-3 has an induced expression in B lymphocytes in reaction to Epstein-Barr virus infection. EBI- 3 encodes a secreted glycoprotein belonging to the hematopoietin receptor family, and heterodimerizes with a 28 kDa protein to form IL-27. EBI-3 drives rapid clonal expansion of naive cd4(+) T-cells. EBI-3 strongly synergizes with IL-12 to activate IFN-gamma production of naive cd4(+) T-cells. EBI-3 mediates its biologic effects through the cytokine receptor WSX-1/TCCR. Human recombinant EBI-3 produced in E. coli is a single, non-glycosylated, polypeptide chain containing 209 amino acids fragment (21-229) having a molecular weight of 34 kDa and fused with a 4.5 kDa amino-terminal hexahistidine tag ...
People react differently when they are diagnosed with a disease of chronic Epstein-Barr virus. Some depressed people, while others remain positive and hopeful. In fact, some people find that EBV disease using grow emotionally, making them stronger and more tolerant, more understanding.. Here are some methods that can help you better cope with the disease of chronic Epstein-Barr virus.. First, it is important that the expression of emotions. Be honest and admit your health, instead of pretending not to exist. People who communicate their feelings tend to need less treatment, and offers fewer symptoms and keep more independence and physical performance.. The next thing to do is to control. And more people to actively manage chronic Epstein-Barr virus themselves, the better they do. Set goals, such as what you eat, and how they stay fit, and how it will be easier to manage your stress, what supplements to take and what is much better than the passive acceptance of what the treatment is given for ...
An adenovirus type-2 was isolated from peripheral blood lymphocytes and throat washings from a patient with severe chronic active Epstein-Barr virus infection. Despite the Epstein-Barr virus reactivation, attempts to establish spontaneous lymphoblastoid cell lines from peripheral blood lymphocytes and to immortalize cord lymphocytes with throat washings were unsuccessful due to a marked cytopathic effect. The supernatants from the cultures induced cytopathic effect in cultured cord lymphocytes, MRC-5 cells, A-549 cells, or Vero cells. Virus particles with adenovirus morphology were seen by electron microscopy. Using type-specific antisera, the isolate was identified as adenovirus type-2. In addition, both Epstein-Barr virus and adenovirus type-2 genomes were seen in the colonic tissues and spleen. These results suggest that the combination of Epstein-Barr virus and adenovirus type-2 may be etiologic agents in the development of chronic active Epstein-Barr virus infection in this patient. ...
Chronic active Epstein-Barr virus infection (CAEBV) is characterised by chronic or recurrent infectious mononucleosis-like symptoms, such as fever, hepatosplenomegaly, persistent hepatitis and extensive lymphadenopathy. Patients with CAEBV have high viral loads in their peripheral blood and/or an un …
We report the case of a 35-year-old woman with chronic active Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection (CAEBV). She underwent allogeneic bone marrow transplantation (BMT) from an unrelated male donor and achieved a complete response. However, her CAEBV relapsed one year after BMT. EBV-infected cells proliferated clonally and revealed a 46XY karyotype. In addition, the infecting EBV strain differed from that detected before BMT. These findings indicated that her disease had developed from donor cells. This is the first report of donor cell-derived CAEBV that recurred after transplantation, suggesting that host factors may be responsible for the development of this disease.. ...
General practitioners encounter the vast majority of patients with Epstein-Barr virus-related disease, i.e. infectious mononucleosis in children and adolescents. With the expanding knowledge regarding the multifaceted role of Epstein-Barr virus in both benign and malignant disease we chose to focus this review on Epstein-Barr virus-related conditions with relevance to the general practitioners. A PubMed and Google Scholar literature search was performed using PubMeds MeSH terms of relevance to Epstein-Barr virus/infectious mononucleosis in regard to complications and associated conditions. In the present review, these included three early complications; hepatitis, splenic rupture and airway compromise, as well as possible late conditions; lymphoproliferative cancers, multiple sclerosis, rheumatoid arthritis, and chronic active Epstein-Barr virus infection. This review thus highlights recent advances in the understanding of Epstein-Barr virus pathogenesis, focusing on management, acute complications,
摘要BACKGROUND: Nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) is prevalent in Southeast Asia. Over the last decade, plasma Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) DNA has been developed as a tumor marker for NPC. In this study, the authors investigated whether plasma EBV DNA analysis is useful for NPC surveillance. METHODS: In total, 1318 volunteers ages 40 to 60 years were prospectively recruited. Plasma EBV DNA and serology for viral capsid antigen immunoglobulin A (IgA) were measured. Participants who had detectable plasma EBV DNA or positive IgA serology underwent nasal endoscopic examination and a follow-up plasma EBV DNA analysis in approximately 2 weeks. All participants were followed for 2 years to record the development of NPC. RESULTS: Three individuals with NPC were identified at enrolment. All of them were positive for EBV DNA and remained positive in follow-up analysis. Only 1 of those patients was positive for EBV serology. In 1 patient who had NPC with a small tumor confined to the mucosa, the tumor was not ...
Epstein-Barr virus latent membrane protein 1 (LMP1) is an Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) protein that regulates its own expression and the expression of human genes. LMP1 has a molecular weight of approximately 63 kDa, and its expression induces many of the changes associated with EBV infections and activation of primary B cells. LMP1 is the best-documented oncoprotein of the EBV latent gene products, as it is expressed in most EBV-related human cancers. The structure of LMP1 consists of a short cytoplasmic N-terminus tail, six trans-membrane domains, and a long cytoplasmic C-terminus, which contains three activating domains: CTARt, CTAR2, and CTAR3. Each CTAR domain contains an amino acid sequence that serves as a recognition site for cellular adaptors to bind and trigger a series of signal transduction pathways that can lead to a change in gene expression. LMP-1 is a functional homologue of tumor necrosis factor and mediates signaling through the nuclear factor-κB pathway, mimicking CD40 receptor ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Cell cycle arrest induced by engagement of B7-H4 on Epstein-Barr virus-positive B-cell lymphoma cell lines. AU - Park, Ga Bin. AU - Song, Hyunkeun. AU - Kim, Yeong Seok. AU - Sung, Minjung. AU - Ryu, Jeoung W.. AU - Lee, Hyun Kyung. AU - Cho, Dae Ho. AU - Kim, Daejin. AU - Lee, Wang J.. AU - Hur, Dae Y.. N1 - Copyright: Copyright 2010 Elsevier B.V., All rights reserved.. PY - 2009/11. Y1 - 2009/11. N2 - Summary B7-H4 is a recently discovered B7 family member that has inhibitory effects on T-cell immunity. However, the reverse signalling mechanism of the B7-H4-expressing cells remains unclear. Previous work has shown that B7-H4 expression was enhanced on B cells following Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection, and engagement of cell-surface-expressed B7-H4 induces cell death of EBV-transformed B cells. Here we found that B7-H4 was constitutively expressed on EBV-positive lymphoma cells, Raji and IM-9 cells, but was not expressed on EBV-negative lymphoma cells (Ramos). Engagement of ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Host cell-dependent expression of latent Epstein-Barr virus genomes. T2 - Regulation by DNA methylation. AU - Li, Hui. AU - Mináróvits, J.. PY - 2003. Y1 - 2003. N2 - Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is a ubiquitous human gammaherpesvirus associated with a wide spectrum of malignant neoplasms. Expression of latent (growth transformation-associated) EBV genes is host cell specific. Transcripts for EBV-encoded nuclear antigens (EBNAs) are initiated at one of the alternative promoters: Wp, Cp (for EBNA1-6), or Qp (for EBNA1 only). Wp is active shortly after EBV infection of human B cells in vitro but is progressively methylated and silenced in established lymphoblastoid cell lines (LCLs). In parallel Cp, an unmethylated, lymphoid-specific promoter is switched on. In contrast, Cp is methylated and silent in Burkitts lymphoma (BL) cell lines, which keep the phenotype of BL biopsy cells (group I BL lines). These cells use Qp for the initiation of EBNA1 messages. Qp is unmethylated both in ...
The prognostic value of pre-treatment and post-treatment plasma EBV DNA levels has been validated in nonmetastatic NPC patients treated with radiotherapy16 and locally advanced NPC patients treated with concurrent chemoradiotherapy.17, 18 In our present study of a relatively large group of metastatic/recurrent NPC patients, we first demonstrated that both pre-treatment and post-treatment plasma EBV DNA were strong predictors of PFS and OS in metastatic/recurrent NPC treated with palliative chemotherapy.. Our results demonstrated that patients with a pre-treatment plasma EBV DNA level less than the median value had significantly better PFS and OS compared with those with a pre-treatment plasma EBV DNA level equal to or above the median value. These results were inconsistent with the most recently published study by Wang et al,14 which showed that the clearance rates of plasma EBV DNA during the first month of chemotherapy rather than baseline plasma EBV DNA level could predict tumor response and ...
The importance of cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) in the immunosurveillance of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-infected B cells is firmly established, and the viral antigens of CTL recognition in latent infection are well defined. The epitopes targeted by CTLs during primary infection have not been identified, however, and there is only limited information about T cell receptor (TCR) selection. In the present report, we have monitored the development of memory TCR-beta clonotypes selected in response to natural EBV infection in a longitudinal study of an HLA-B8+ individual with acute infectious mononucleosis (IM). By stimulating peripheral blood lymphocytes with HLA-B8+ EBV-transformed B lymphoblastoid cells, the primary virus-specific CTL response was shown to include specificities for two HLA-B8-restricted antigenic determinants, FLRGRAYGL and QAKWRLQTL, which are encoded within the latent EBV nuclear antigen EBNA-3. TCR-beta sequence analysis of CTL clones specific for each epitope showed polyclonal ...
Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), a human herpes virus with oncogenic potential, persists in B lymphoid tissues and is controlled by virus-specific cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) surveillance. On reactivation in vitro, these CTLs recognize EBV-transformed lymphoblastoid cell lines (LCLs) in an HLA class I antigen-restricted fashion, but the viral antigens providing target epitopes for such recognition remain largely undefined. Here we have tested EBV-induced polyclonal CTL preparations from 16 virus-immune donors on appropriate fibroblast targets in which the eight EBV latent proteins normally found in LCLs (Epstein-Barr nuclear antigen [EBNA] 1, 2, 3A, 3B, 3C, leader protein [LP], and latent membrane protein [LMP] 1 and 2) have been expressed individually from recombinant vaccinia virus vectors. Most donors gave multicomponent responses with two or more separate reactivities against different viral antigens. Although precise target antigen choice was clearly influenced by the donors HLA class I type, a ...
Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) latent membrane protein 2 (LMP2) are two viral proteins of the Epstein-Barr virus. LMP2A/LMP2B are transmembrane proteins that act to block tyrosine kinase signaling. LMP2A is a transmembrane protein that inhibits normal B-cell signal transduction by mimicking an activated B-cell receptor (BCR). The N-terminus domain of LMP2A is tyrosine phosphorylated and associates with Src family protein tyrosine kinases (PTKs) as well as spleen tyrosine kinase (Syk). PTKs and Syk are associated with BCR signal transduction. Latent Membrane Protein 2 (LMP2) is a rightward transcribing gene. LMP2s transcript originates across the fused terminal repeats in sequences at opposite ends of the genome. 16‍-‍24 hours after infection, the genome circularizes and the open reading frame is created. 1.7 kb and 2.0 kb messages are created by alternative promoter usage and differ only in the sequences of the first exon. These messages are expressed in Epstein-Barr Virus transformed ...
Sequence Variations of Latent Membrane Protein 2A in Epstein-Barr Virus-Associated Gastric Carcinomas from Guangzhou, Southern China. . Biblioteca virtual para leer y descargar libros, documentos, trabajos y tesis universitarias en PDF. Material universiario, documentación y tareas realizadas por universitarios en nuestra biblioteca. Para descargar gratis y para leer online.
Nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) is an epithelial malignancy, which commonly occurs in Southern China, Taiwan, North Africa and Southeast Asia. Nasopharyngeal carcinoma is strongly associated with Epstein-Barr virus infection. The p53 tumour suppressor protein is rarely mutated in NPC suggesting that the inactivation of p53 pathway in NPC could be due to the presence of EBV proteins. The aim of this work was to determine the effects of EBV proteins namely LMP1 and LMP2A on the expression levels of p53 protein. In this work we found that LMP1, but not LMP2A, decreased p53 protein levels. Overexpression of LMP1 resulted in increased ubiquitination of p53 suggesting that the decreased p53 protein levels by LMP1 was due to increased degradation of the protein. The reduction of p53 protein levels was independent of the PI3K-Akt pathway. LMP1, but not LMP2A, reduced p53 protein levels through the increase in the polyubiquitination of p53 protein and was independent of the PI3K-Akt pathway.
The characteristics of adult patients with chronic active Epstein-Barr virus infection (adult-onset CAEBV) are poorly recognized, hindering early diagnosis and an improved prognosis. Adult-onset CAEBV (n = 54) diagnosed between 2005 and 2015 were conducted. Adult-onset was defined as an estimated age of onset ≥15 years. To characterize the clinical features of adult-onset CAEBV, we compared them to those of pediatric-onset (estimated age of onset ...
Summary The mol. wt. of the polymorphic Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) nuclear antigen (EBNA) molecule (EBNA 1) encoded by the BamHI K fragment of the EBV DNA has been determined in 14 EBV-carrying lymphoblastoid and Burkitt's lymphoma cell lines. There is no obvious correlation between the size of this polypeptide and any properties of the cells from which it is derived, other than those related to the strain of transforming virus. We confirm that the polymorphic region of this molecule is the glycine-alanine copolymer encoded by the third internal repeat of the EBV genome (IR3) and we consider the significance of this domain.
Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is a ubiquitous human herpesvirus which causes acute infectious mononucleosis and is etiologically associated with malignant lymphoproliferative disorders including Burkitts lymphoma, nasopharyngeal carcinoma, B-cell lymphomas in immunocompromised hosts, Hodgkins disease, T cell lymphomas, and smooth muscle tumors in allograft recipients. The medical significance of EBV is underscored by its potent growth transforming effects on human B-lymphocytes in-vitro and the potentially oncogenic consequences of infection in-vivo. The majority of EBV-associated malignancies occur in the setting of chronic infection and strong virus-specific humoral immunity, suggesting that cellular immunity is primarily responsible for preventing the outgrowth of EBV-transformed B cells in-vivo. Similarly, primary EBV infection in adolescents and adults stimulates an intense cytotoxic-T-lymphocyte (CTL) response which coincides with a marked reduction in the number of infected B cells in the peripheral
TY - JOUR. T1 - Monitoring and Preemptive Rituximab Therapy for Epstein-Barr Virus Reactivation after Antithymocyte Globulin Containing Nonmyeloablative Conditioning for Umbilical Cord Blood Transplantation. AU - Blaes, Anne H.. AU - Cao, Qing. AU - Wagner, John E.. AU - Young, Jo Anne H. AU - Weisdorf, Daniel J.. AU - Brunstein, Claudio G.. N1 - Funding Information: Financial disclosure: This work was supported in part by grants from the National Cancer Institute PO1-CA65493 (J.E.W., C.G.B) and the Childrens Cancer Research Fund (J.E.W.). PY - 2010/2. Y1 - 2010/2. N2 - Epstein Barr viremia (EBV) and posttransplantation lymphoproliferative disorder (PTLD) are complications of hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). The use of antithymocyte globulin (ATG) in recipients of umbilical cord HSCT is a known risk factor for the development of PTLD. In this high-risk population, we implemented an EBV monitoring program with preemptive therapy with rituximab (375 mg/m2 intravenously [i.v.]) for ...
|strong|Rat anti Epstein-Barr Virus LMP2A antibody, clone 15F9|/strong| recognizes latent membrane protein 2A (LMP2A) of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV). EBV is a human herpesvirus, which is associated with …
Preface -- EBV latency -- Chap. 1. EBNA1 � Lori Frappier, University of Toronto, Canada -- Chap. 2. EBNA2 and its coactivator EBNA-LP � Bettina Kempkes, Helmholtz Center Munich, Germany, and Paul D. Ling, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, USA -- Chap. 3. The EBNA3 family: two oncoproteins and a tumour suppressor that are central to the biology of EBV in B cells� Martin J. Allday, Quentin Bazot and Robert E. White, Imperial College London, UK. Chap. 4. The latent membrane protein 1 (LMP1) � Arnd Kieser and Kai R. Sterz, Helmholtz Center Munich, Germany. Chap. 5. Latent membrane protein 2 (LMP2) � Osman Cen and Richard Longnecker, Northwestern University, Chicago, USA. Chap. 6. EBV non-coding RNAs � Rebecca L. Skalsky and Bryan R. Cullen, Duke University, Durham, USA -- E. Lytic EBV infection -- 7. Viral entry � Liudmila S. Chesnokova, Ru Jiang1 and Lindsey M. Hutt-Fletcher, Louisiana State University, Shreveport, USA -- Chap. 8. Epstein Barr virus lytic cycle reactivation � ...
Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) has been causally associated with at least five human malignancies. The exact contributions made by EBV to these cancers remain unknown. We demonstrate that one viral protein found in all EBV-associated malignancies, Epstein-Barr nuclear antigen 1 (EBNA-1), is required for survival of one of these cancers, EBV-positive Burkitts lymphoma. Inhibition of EBNA-1 decreases survival of these tumor cells by inducing apoptosis. Expression of EBNA-1 in uninfected cells also can inhibit apoptosis induced by expression of p53 in the absence of the EBV genome. Our findings demonstrate that EBNA-1 is critical for the continued survival of EBV-associated Burkitts lymphoma, and, by extension, for the other B cell tumors with which EBV is associated. Efficient inhibitors of EBNA-1s functions would likely prove useful in the therapy of EBV-associated malignancies.
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TY - JOUR. T1 - Heterophil-negative infectious mononucleosis and mononucleosis-like illnesses. Laboratory confirmation of 43 cases. AU - Horwitz, Charles A.. AU - Henle, Werner. AU - Henle, Gertrude. AU - Polesky, Herbert. AU - Balfour, Henry H.. AU - Siem, Robert A.. AU - Borken, Stuart. AU - Ward, Patrick C.J.. PY - 1977/12. Y1 - 1977/12. N2 - During a 50-month period the diagnosis of heterophil antibody negative infectious mononucleosis or of a mononucleosis-like illness was made in 43 patients with a variable clinical picture and significant numbers of atypical lymphocytes. Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-related serologic tests revealed that seven patients had primary EBV infections based on the detection of immunoglobulin M (IgM) antibodies to EB-viral capsid antigens (IgM-VCA) and the absence of anti-Epstein-Barr virus associated nuclear antigen (EBNA) on most initial specimens (six of seven cases). Thirty cases were due to active cytomegalovirus (CMV) infections and both detectable ...
Epstein-Barr Virus (EBV) is associated with hematopoietic malignancies, such as Burkitts lymphoma, post-transplantation lymphoproliferative disorder, and diffuse large B-cell lymphoma. The current approach for EBV-associated lymphoma involves chemotherapy to eradicate cancer cells, however, normal cells may be injured and organ dysfunction may occur with currently employed regimens. This research is focused on employing arsenic trioxide (ATO) as EBV-specific cancer therapy takes advantage of the fact the EBV resides within the malignant cells. Our research reveals that low ATO inhibits EBV gene expression and genome replication. EBV spontaneous reactivation starts as early as 6 h after re-suspending EBV-positive Mutu cells in RPMI media in the absence of ATO, however this does not occur in Mutu cells cultured with ATO. ATOs inhibition of EBV spontaneous reactivation is dose dependent. The expression of the EBV immediate early gene Zta and early gene BMRF1 is blocked with low concentrations of ATO (0.5
There is increasing interest in formulating an effective vaccine against EBV, designed to not only limit the outgrowth of latently infected B cells in healthy individuals but to also block the development of many EBV-associated malignancies such as Burkitts lymphoma, nasopharyngeal carcinoma, and Hodgkins disease. In western societies, the principle aim of such a vaccine would be to protect from IM. In this context, virus load (a large dose of orally transmitted virus and/or overexpansion of the virus-transformed B cell pool beyond a critical threshold) may be a critical determinant of disease risk 1 . Therefore, a vaccine capable of either blocking primary EBV infection or significantly reducing the EBV load during primary infection may be adequate to avert clinical symptoms. A similar vaccine will also be able to reduce the immediate risk of lymphoproliferative disease in transplant patients receiving immunosuppressive therapy. On the other hand, EBV-associated malignancies such as Burkitts ...
Semantic Scholar extracted view of Absence of infectious Epstein-Barr virus in blood in acute infectious mononucleosis. by Alan B. Rickinson et al.
The experiments reported here investigate the role of NIK, IKKα, IKKβ, and IKKγ in LMP1-induced p100 processing, the relative contributions of the LMP1 TRAF and death domain-binding sites to p100 processing and p52/RelB nuclear translocation, and the dependence of LMP1-induced gene expression on IKKα, IKKβ, and IKKγ. We now find that LMP1 induces p100 processing in a NIK/IKKα-dependent, IKKβ/IKKγ-independent manner similar to CD40, LTβR, TIRs, and BAFF-R (15-18, 20, 21, 24-26). Because EBV transformed LCLs have sustained p52 levels as well as RelA containing NF-κB complexes, LMP1-induced NF-κB activation likely has substantial canonical and noncanonical components. Because NF-κB is required for LCL survival (56), NIK and IKKα may have a role in LCL survival, and inhibitors of their activity may precipitate cell death or arrest cell growth.. Another important aspect of these data are the identification of the dominant role of the LMP1 TRAF1/2 and TRAF3/5-binding site in p100 ...
C.B-17 scid/scid (severe combined immunodeficiency [SCID]) mice inoculated with peripheral blood lymphocytes from Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-seropositive donors, or with EBV-transformed lymphoblastoid B cell lines (EBV-LCL), develop lethal human EBV+ B cell lymphoproliferative disorders (EBV-LPD) with characteristics similar to those arising in immunodeficient patients. Using this model, we examined the capacity of human effector cells to control human EBV-LPD. SCID mice received rabbit anti-asialo GM1 antiserum to abrogate endogenous natural killer-cell function. Preliminary experiments showed that adoptive transfer of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC), purified T cells, interleukin (IL) 2-activated PBMC or anti-CD3-activated T cells derived from EBV-seropositive donors did not result in improved survival of treated mice (in vivo effector/target ratio 2:1 to 1:1). In contrast, EBV-specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL), derived from EBV-seropositive donors and expanded in vitro, exhibited ...
Epstein-Barr virus protein and DNA. Molecular model of the DNA-binding domain of a viral protein (pink-blue) bound to a lytic gene promoter element (viral strand of DNA, left). The viral protein is the Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) transcription factor ZEBRA (Zta, Z, EB1), also known as BZLF1 trans-activator protein. EBV is a herpesvirus (it is also called human herpesvirus 4 or HHV-4). It is the cause of glandular fever (also called infectious mononucleosis). The DNA strand is viral DNA that forms during the lytic phase of the virus life cycle, where the viral DNA exists within the host cell separately from the host cells DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid). - Stock Image C015/4303
This study was conducted in Hong Kong between 2013-2016 with the participation of 20 349 men between the ages of 40-62 years. Participants were excluded if they had a prior history of cancer or autoimmune conditions, or were receiving any form of corticosteroid or immunosuppressive treatment. Blood samples were taken and real-time polymerase-chain-reaction (PCR) assessed samples for EBV. Any patient with a positive EBV signal was reevaluated in 4 weeks, and those with two EBV positive samples were deemed screen-positive. Screen-positive patients were referred for nasopharynx evaluation by endoscopy and MRI, and biopsies were taken for diagnosis of nasopharyngeal carcinoma. Of 20 174 eligible men, 5.5% (n = 1112) had EBV detectable at baseline, and 27.8% (n = 309) of those men were screen-positive. Nasopharyngeal carcinoma was detected in 34 men, 11% (34/300) of men undergoing follow-up endoscopy and/or MRI. Stage I or II nasopharyngeal cancer was detected in a higher proportion of patients than ...
Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is a ubiquitous herpesvirus, and most people have serological evidence of previous viral infection at adult age. EBV is associated with infectious mononucleosis and human cancers, including some lymphomas and gastric carcinomas. Although EBV was first reported in lymphoepithelioma-like gastric carcinoma, the virus was also found in conventional adenocarcinomas. In the present study, 53 gastric carcinomas diagnosed in Sao Paulo State, Brazil, were evaluated for EBV infection by non-isotopic in situ hybridization with a biotinylated probe (Biotin-AGACACCGTCCTCACCACCCGGGACTTGTA) directed to the viral transcript EBER-I, which is actively expressed in EBV latently infected cells. EBV infection was found in 6 of 53 (11.32%) gastric carcinomas, mostly from male patients (66.7%), with a mean age of 59 years old. Most EBV-positive tumors were in gastric antrum. Two EBV-positive tumors (33.3%) were conventional adenocarcinomas, whereas four (66.7%) were classified as ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - An outbreak of infectious mononucleosis among the personnel of an outpatient clinic. AU - Ginsburg, Charles M.. AU - Henle, Gertrude. AU - Henle, Werner. PY - 1976/11. Y1 - 1976/11. N2 - During a four-week period, nine current or recent primary Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infections were identified among 29 staff members of an obstetrics and gynecology outpatient clinic of an air force base hospital by EBV-specific serologic tests; i.e., early detection of IgM antibodies to EB viral capsid antigen (VCA), high titers of IgG antibodies to VCA, presence of antibodies to the D (diffuse) component of the EBV-induced early antigen (EA) complex and initial absence and later development of antibodies to the EBV-associated nuclear antigen (EBNA). Five of these individuals showed classical signs and symptoms of infectious mononucleosis (IM) so that the ratio between overt and silent infections was 1.25:1. All but one of these nine individuals gave positive monospot reactions. Three additional ...
Chang KC*(co-corresponding author), Chen PC, Chang Y, Wu YH, Chen YP, Lai CH, Medeiros LJ, Su IJ, Wang HW*. Epstein-Barr virus latent membrane protein-1 upregulates cytokines and correlates with older age and poorer prognosis in Hodgkin lymphoma. Histopathology. 2017 Feb 8;70(3):442-455 ...
Purpose: To investigate the inter-correlation of tumor spread, volume and quantitative plasma Epstein-Barr virus DNA level (pEBV DNA), and to further assess the prognostic efficacy of a novel risk stratification combining anatomic, volumetric and biological features in nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC).. Methods and Materials: One hundred and twelve patients with non-metastatic NPC were prospectively enrolled. Correlation of pEBV DNA with tumor invasiveness, lymph node (LN) metastasis, tumor volume and classification was tested by univariate and multivariate analyses. 5-year distant metastasis free survival (DMFS) was evaluated using Kaplan-Meier method and Cox proportional hazards model.. Results: Tumor volume, TNM stage and pEBV DNA were strongly inter-correlated to each other. Nodal volume, skull base invasion and LN metastasis to supraclavicular fossa were determined to be independent predictors for pEBV DNA level. To exclude collinearity, a risk stratification based on combination of EBV DNA, ...
Interleukin 10 (IL-10) is a pleiotropic factor that enhances proliferation of activated human B lymphocytes and induces them to secrete high amounts of immunoglobulins. Here we show that several human B cell lines were able to constitutively secrete human (h)IL-10. Whereas none of the pre-B nor the plasmocytic cell lines tested produced hIL-10, 25 of the 36 tested mature B cell lines (lymphoblastoid and Burkitt lymphoma cell lines) secreted hIL-10. Moreover, 24 of these 25 hIL-10-producing B cell lines contained the Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) genome, suggesting a relationship between hIL-10 production by human B cell lines and EBV expression. Accordingly, whereas polyclonal activation via triggering of surface immunoglobulins or CD40 antigen induced highly purified normal human B lymphocytes to produce only low (0.3-0.4 ng/ml) but significant amounts of hIL-10, EBV infection induced them to secrete high amounts of hIL-10 (4-9 ng/ml). Furthermore, addition of exogenous hIL-10, simultaneously to EBV ...
Epstein-Barr virus and HLA-DPB1-*0301 in young adult Hodgkins disease: Evidence for inherited susceptibility to Epstein-Barr virus in cases that are EBV+ve. Cases of Hodgkins disease (HD) may be distinguished by whether they do [EBV-positive ((+ve)) cases] or do not [EBV-negative ((-ve)) cases] have evidence of EBV DNA in the Reed-Sternberg cells. Only one study has attempted to distinguish epidemiological risk factors for EBV+ve and EBV-ve HD, and none have compared inherited susceptibility. The present study involves a population-based case series of HD, diagnosed in patients between 16-24 years of age in the United Kingdom (n = 118), of whom 87% were classified by EBV status (EBV+ve, 19, EBV-ve, 84). History of infectious illness, EBV antibody titers, and HLA-DPB1 type have been compared in EBV+ve and EBV- ve cases. Reported infectious mononucleosis was more frequent in EBV+ve cases (odds ratio (OR), 5.10; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.12-24.4). EBV antibody titers to viral capsid antigen ...
Epstein-Barr virus EBNA1 protein regulates viral latency through effects on let-7 microRNA and dicer.: The EBNA1 protein of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) contributes
Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is a gamma-herpes virus that widely infects human populations predominantly at an early age but remains mostly asymptomatic. EBV has been linked to a wide spectrum of human malignancies, including nasopharyngeal carcinoma and other hematologic cancers, like Hodgkins lymphoma, Burkitts lymphoma (BL), B-cell immunoblastic lymphoma in HIV patients, and posttransplant-associated lymphoproliferative diseases. EBV has the unique ability to establish life-long latent infection in primary human B lymphocytes. During latent infection, EBV expresses a small subset of genes, including 6 nuclear antigens (EBNA-1, -2, -3A, -3B, -3C, and -LP), 3 latent membrane proteins (LMP-1, -2A, and -2B), 2 small noncoding RNAs (EBER-1 and 2). On the basis of these latent gene expression, three different latency patterns associated with the types of cancers are recognized ...
Description of the Results/Findings of the Project: This project led directly to the writing of the manuscript Mechanisms and timing of the activation of the EBI2 gene by Epstein-Barr Virus which is slated for submission to Journal of Virology before the end of 2014. Our work with EBV also lead to an invitation to author a book chapter, Epstein-Barr Virus in the upcoming scholarly book Viral Arthritis. The drafts for this book chapter are due by Nov 30th, 2014. The funding from the MEG also allowed for the publication of three other journal articles with student co- authors. These works were finishing up our previous work on IRF5 in lupus, and a review article dealing with how pathogens, such as Epstein-Barr virus, contribute to the spreading of immunity and autoimmune disease. We had several unexpected findings during this project. We found that EBI2 expression is transient after infection with EBV, and that long-term infected cells actually express this gene at very low levels. We ...
Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is a method to treat cancer or non-cancer diseases by activation of the light-sensitive photosensitizers. Epstein Barr virus (EBV) has been implicated in the development of certain cancers such as nasopharyngeal carcinoma and B cell lymphoma. This study aims to examine the effects of EBV infection on the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines and chemokines in cells after the photosensitizer Zn-BC-AM PDT treatment. Epithelial tumor cell lines HONE-1 and latent EBV-infected HONE-1 (EBV-HONE-1) cells were used in this study. Cells were treated with the photosensitizer Zn-BC-AM for 24 hours before light irradiation. RT-PCR and quantitative ELISA methods were used for the evaluation of mRNA expression and production of cytokines, respectively. Results show that Zn-BC-AM PDT increases the production of IL-1a and IL-1b in EBV-HONE-1. Over a 10-fold increase in the production of IL-6 was observed in the culture supernatant of Zn-BC-AM PDT-treated HONE-1 cells. PDT-induced ...
Infection of humans with Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) may cause infectious mononucleosis (IM). Analysis of single EBV-infected cells from tonsils of IM patients for rearranged immunoglobulin genes revealed two strategies of EBV for rapid and massive spread in the B cell compartment: the direct infection …
A research team at LKS Faculty of Medicine, The University of Hong Kong (HKUMed) discovered that exosomes derived from Vδ2-T cells (Vδ2-T-Exos) can effectively control Epstein-Barr virus-associated tumours and induce T-cell anti-tumour immunity. The novel findings of Vδ2-T-Exos provide insights into new therapeutic approach for Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-associated tumours. The ground-breaking findings have been published in the leading academic journal, Science Translational Medicine. [Link to the publication]. Background. EBV infects about 95% of the human population and causes more than 200,000 cases of cancer each year and that around 2% of all cancer deaths are due to EBV-attributable malignancies. EBV-associated tumours include Burkitt lymphoma, Hodgkin lymphoma, nasopharyngeal carcinoma, gastric tumour and post-transplant lymphoproliferative disease, etc. Current treatment options for EBV-associated tumours are limited with considerably unwanted off-target toxicities and incomplete ...
Infectious Mononucleosis in Adolescents What is infectious mononucleosis? Infectious mononucleosis, also known as mononucleosis, mono, or glandular fever, is characterized by swollen lymph glands and chronic fatigue. What causes infectious mononucleosis? Infectious mononucleosis is either caused by the Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) or the cytomegalovirus, both of which are members of the herpes simplex virus family. Consider the following statistics: In the US, almost 95 percent of adults between 35 and 40...
This topic contains 47 study abstracts on Epstein-Barr Virus Infections indicating that the following substances may be helpful: Curcumin, Licorice, and Turmeric
Read Epstein-Barr virus-mediated protection against etoposide-induced apoptosis in BJA-B B cell lymphoma cells: role of Bcl-2 and caspase proteins, Archives of Virology on DeepDyve, the largest online rental service for scholarly research with thousands of academic publications available at your fingertips.
Infectious Mononucleosis. Also known as mononucleosis or mono Pfeiffers disease or glandular fever, infectious mononucleosis can be identified by inflamed lymph glands and constant fatigue. The disease is named so as the amount of mononuclear leukocytes which belong to white cells increase in number. The cause of the disease is EBV (Epstein - Barr virus) or in some cases cytomegalovirus. Both these viruses belong to the family of herpes simplex. According to statistic majority of the adults in the United States are exposed to the virus Epstein - Barr, a very widespread virus. Although the virus does not show any visible affects in children but it does in adolescents which can lead to infectious mononucleosis in nearly fifty percent of cases of exposure to the virus.. The other virus called cytomegalovirus which also belongs to the family of herpes simplex causes the cells to become enlarged. According to statistics, about eighty percent of adolescents infected with this virus generally dont ...
Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is a ubiquitous human herpesvirus that is associated with oncogenesis. EBV infection to primary human B lymphocytes leads to induction of EBV-specific HLA-restricted cytotoxic T cells, causing infectious mononucleosis during adolescence. Primary infection with EBV is followed by latent infection in which the reservoir B cells are immortalized. EBV tumorigenic potential in Burkitt lymphoma, nasopharyngeal carcinoma, Hodgkin lymphoma, and post-transplant B cell lymphomas has been well-documented. Distinct forms of EBV latency and patterns of latent gene expression can contribute to the different tumours ...
Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) establishes a persistent latent infection in B lymphocytes and is associated with the development of numerous human tumors. (EBV) is a potent transforming agent of resting B lymphocytes, promoting cell cycle entry and subsequent continuous proliferation. EBV is associated with the pathogenesis of numerous lymphoid tumors, including Burkitts lymphoma (BL), Hodgkins disease, posttransplant lymphomas, and certain T-cell and natural killer cell lymphomas, in addition to the epithelial cell tumor nasopharyngeal carcinoma (reviewed in reference 54). Like other members of the herpesvirus family, EBV has a biphasic life cycle involving a latent and a lytic phase. In infected B cells, EBV establishes a latent infection where the Ntrk3 172-kb double-stranded DNA viral genome is maintained as a closed circular episome and expresses a limited set of latent genes. These include the Epstein-Barr nuclear antigens (EBNAs) 1, 2, 3A, 3B, 3C, and -LP and latent membrane proteins (LMPs) ...
Epstein-Barr Virus (EBV)-BamHI-A Rightward Transcript (BART)-6 and Cellular MicroRNA-142 Synergistically Compromise Immune Defense of Host Cells in EBV-Positive Burkitt Lymphoma - Get your full text copy in PDF #897306
"Pityriasis Rosea is Associated with Systemic Active Infection with Both Human Herpesvirus-7 and Human Herpesvirus-6". Journal ... Black, Jodi B.; Pellett, Philip E. (1999). "Human herpesvirus 7". Reviews in Medical Virology. 9 (4): 245-262. doi:10.1002/( ... Her dissertation was titled Human herpesvirus 6 strain Z29: Growth characteristics, virion specific protein identification and ... Black, Jodi Beth (1990). "Human herpesvirus 6 strain Z29: Growth characteristics, virion specific protein identification and ...
"The latent human herpesvirus-6A genome specifically integrates in telomeres of human chromosomes in vivo and in vitro". ... Human Herpesvirus HHV-6A, HHV-6B AND HHV-7, L. Flamand, I. Lautenschlager, G.R.F. Krueger, D.V. Ablashi. Published by Elsevier ... Human Herpesvirus-6. G.R.F.Krueger and D.V. Ablashi (editors), 2006. Published by Elsevier Science Publishers, B.V.Amsterdam - ... Human Herpesvirus-6: Epidemiology, Molecular Biology, and Clinical Pathology, D.V. Ablashi, G.R.F. Krueger, and S.Z. Salahuddin ...
Davidson AJ (2007-08-16). "Comparative analysis of the genomes". Human Herpesviruses. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0- ... also known by their taxonomical names Human alphaherpesvirus 1 and Human alphaherpesvirus 2, are two members of the human ... Play media Animal herpes viruses all share some common properties. The structure of herpes viruses consists of a relatively ... There exist commonly used vaccines to some herpesviruses, but only veterinary, such as HVT/LT (Turkey herpesvirus vector ...
There are nine known human herpesviruses. Of these, roseola has been linked to two: human herpesvirus 6 (HHV-6) and human ... It is caused by human herpesvirus 6 (HHV-6A, HHV-6B) or human herpesvirus 7 (HHV-7). Spread is usually through the saliva of ... "Contributions of neurotropic human herpesviruses herpes simplex virus 1 and human herpesvirus 6 to neurodegenerative disease ... Between the two types of human herpesvirus 6, HHV-6B has been detected much more frequently in hosts. HHV-6B has been shown to ...
November 2000). "Mucosal shedding of human herpesvirus 8 in men". N. Engl. J. Med. 343 (19): 1369-77. doi:10.1056/ ... Human Sexuality: An Encyclopedia states that "the inner third of the anal canal is less sensitive to touch than the outer two- ... Human sexuality portal LGBT portal Anal eroticism Ass to mouth Coprophilia Creampie (sexual act) Felching Gay bowel syndrome ... Most cases of anal cancer are related to infection with the human papilloma virus (HPV). Anal sex alone does not cause anal ...
... is the only identified old-world-monkey herpesvirus that displays severe pathogenicity in humans. The last identified ... Cercopithecine herpesvirus 1, CHV-1), Herpesvirus simiae, or Herpes virus B) is the Simplexvirus infecting macaque monkeys. B ... In the natural host, the virus exhibits pathogenesis similar to that of cold sores in humans. Conversely, when humans are ... Human Herpesviruses: Biology, Therapy, and Immunoprophylaxis, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, ISBN 978-0-521-82714-0, ...
... is one of the nine known human herpesvirus types in the herpes family, and is one of the most common viruses in humans. EBV is ... a property shared with Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus, another of the eight human herpesviruses). Although many ... The development of an effective vaccine could prevent up to 200,000 cancers globally per year.[14] Like other human herpesvirus ... Human polyomavirus 2 Progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy. RNA virus. MeV Subacute sclerosing panencephalitis. LCV ...
Human herpesvirus 8 (HHV-8), also known as Kaposi sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) has been found in some cases of ... "Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus: a lymphotropic human herpesvirus associated with Kaposi's sarcoma, primary effusion ... PMID 10666218.CS1 maint: uses authors parameter (link) Malnati MS, Dagna L, Ponzoni M, Lusso P (2003). "Human herpesvirus 8 ( ... 2014). "Unique expression pattern of viral proteins in human herpesvirus 8-positive plasmablastic lymphoma: a case report". Int ...
A description of human papillomavirus (HPV) by electron microscopy was given in 1949, and HPV-DNA was identified in 1963. It ... Herpes viruses were also implicated in other malignant diseases, including Burkitt's lymphoma, Nasopharyngeal carcinoma, ... Human papillomavirus infection (HPV) causes more than 90% of cases; most people who have had HPV infections, however, do not ... Tiro JA, Meissner HI, Kobrin S, Chollette V (February 2007). "What do women in the U.S. know about human papillomavirus and ...
Di Luca, D; Zorzenon, M; Mirandola, P; Colle, R; Botta, GA; Cassai, E (1995). "Human herpesvirus 6 and human herpesvirus 7 in ... JC Virus and Simian Virus 40 Infection in Humans, and Association with Human Tumors". Polyomaviruses and Human Diseases. ... 2007). "Association of Human Herpesvirus-6B with Mesial Temporal Lobe Epilepsy". PLOS Medicine. 4 (5): e180. doi:10.1371/ ... Chapenko, S; Krumina, A; Kozireva, S; Nora, Z; Sultanova, A; Viksna, L; Murovska, M (2006). "Activation of human herpesviruses ...
2007). "Association of Human Herpesvirus-6B with Mesial Temporal Lobe Epilepsy". PLOS Med. 4 (5): e180. doi:10.1371/journal. ... 2003). "Detection of human herpesvirus-6 in mesial temporal lobe epilepsy surgical brain resections". Neurology. 61 (10): 1405- ... In the mid 1980s, human herpesvirus 6 (HHV-6) was suggested as a possible causal link between febrile convulsions and mesial ... This was noted in human tissue in 1974 and in animal models in 1985. In TLE, the sprouting mossy fibres are larger than in the ...
IL-10 is highly similar to the Human herpesvirus 4 (Epstein-Barr virus) BCRF1 protein, which inhibits the synthesis of gamma- ... interferon and to Equid herpesvirus 2 (Equine herpesvirus 2) protein E7. It is also similar, but to a lesser degree, with human ... "Role of IL-15 on monocytic resistance to human herpesvirus 6 infection". The New Microbiologica. 23 (2): 105-12. PMID 10872679 ... "Disulfide structures of human interleukin-6 are similar to those of human granulocyte colony stimulating factor". Archives of ...
Thyreos Inc was founded to develop a herpesvirus vaccine platform based on the R2 design with targeted applications in human ... However, the human trial was conducted without approval from the FDA or from the SIU Institutional Review Board.[1] David M. ... Kitts in 20 human volunteers. All 20 of the participants self-reported an improvement in symptoms, but only 17 received and ... "Herpes Virus Mutant Points Towards New Vaccine Strategy". Halford WP, Püschel R, Gershburg E, Wilber A, Gershburg S, Rakowski B ...
Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus and human T-lymphotropic virus. The most recently discovered human cancer virus is a ... Jordan MC, Jordan GW, Stevens JG, Miller G (June 1984). "Latent herpesviruses of humans". Annals of Internal Medicine. 100 (6 ... ISBN 978-0-7817-8215-9. Komaroff AL (December 2006). "Is human herpesvirus-6 a trigger for chronic fatigue syndrome?". Journal ... Infection by human T-lymphotropic virus can lead to tropical spastic paraparesis and adult T-cell leukaemia. Human ...
"Human herpesvirus-6 entry into the central nervous system through the olfactory pathway". Proceedings of the National Academy ... 77 (4): 718-725. doi:10.1002/jbm.a.30638. PMID 16555267.CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link) Crompton, K. E.; Goud, J ... 25 (4): 258-267. doi:10.1002/micr.20127. PMID 15934044.CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link) Stang, F.; Fansa, H.; ... 30 (4): 556-564. doi:10.1016/j.biomaterials.2008.10.004. PMID 18977025. Yang, F.; Murugan, R.; Wang, S. & Ramakrishna, S. (May ...
The mir-BHRF1-3 microRNA precursor found in Human herpesvirus 4 (Epstein-Barr virus). In Epstein-Barr virus, mir-BHRF1-3 is ...
"Human herpesvirus-6-associated suppression of growth factor-induced macrophage maturation in human bone marrow cultures" (PDF ... Knox's work on the role of human herpesvirus six (HHV-6) in chronic diseases also led her to be named the 1995 Distinguished ... Knox, KK; Brewer, JH; Henry, JM; Harrington, DJ; Carrigan, DR (Oct 2000). "Human herpesvirus 6 and multiple sclerosis: systemic ... "Human herpesvirus 6 and multiple sclerosis: systemic active infections in patients with early disease". Clin Infect Dis. 31 (4 ...
Except for human herpesvirus 8-positive diffuse large B-cell lymphoma, not otherwise specified, these lymphoid neoplasms are ... 6) Human herpesvirus 8-positive diffuse large B-cell lymphoma, not otherwise specified: This lymphoid neoplasm usually arises ... 3) Primary effusion lymphoma, human herpes virus-positive: Also termed primary effusion lymphoma, type I; it is usually ... human herpes virus-negative: Also termed primary effusion lymphoma, type II; it is characterized by having effusions in body ...
Genus Lymphocryptovirus (mit Species Human herpesvirus 4, en. Human gammaherpesvirus 4 (HHV-4), syn. Epstein-Barr-Virus (EBV)) ... Human metapneumovirus (HMPV), sowie Avianes Metapneumovirus - en. Avian metapneumovirus (AMPV). *Genus Orthopneumovirus, mit ... Genus Mastadenovirus (mit den Species Human mastadenovirus (Humane Adenoviren) A bis G) ... Human orthopneumovirus (HRSV), Bovines Respiratorisches Syncytialvirus - en. Bovine orthopneumovirus(BRSV), sowie Murines ...
Human herpesvirus-8 infection can potentiate the effects of HPV-16. Risk factors include a high number of sexual partners (25% ... IARC Working Group on the Evaluation of Carcinogenic Risks to Humans (2007). "Human papillomaviruses". IARC Monographs on the ... IARC Working Group on the Evaluation of Carcinogenic Risks to Humans (2012). "Human Papilloviruses". Biological Agents. IARC ... "Human papillomaviruses". IARC Monographs on the Evaluation of Carcinogenic Risks to Humans. 64: 1-378. PMC 5366848. PMID ...
Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus and human T-lymphotropic virus. The most recently discovered human cancer virus is a ... Is human herpesvirus-6 a trigger for chronic fatigue syndrome?. Journal of Clinical Virology. 2006;37 Suppl 1:S39-46. doi: ... Jordan MC, Jordan GW, Stevens JG, Miller G. Latent herpesviruses of humans. Annals of Internal Medicine. 1984;100(6):866-80. ... The complete set of viruses in an organism or habitat is called the virome; for example, all human viruses constitute the human ...
"Stress as a predictor of symptomatic genital herpes virus recurrence in women with human immunodeficiency virus". Journal of ... Studies of non-human primates also show that social stress clogs arteries. Although humans cannot be randomized to receive ... In human research, the Trier Social Stress Task (TSST) is widely used to induce social stress in the laboratory. In the TSST, ... Humans are social beings by nature, as they typically have a fundamental need and desire to maintain positive social ...
Human herpesviruses have been treated as an exception (human rather than hominid). Following the host-derived term, species in ... The genus Herpesvirus was established in 1971 in the first report of the International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses (ICTV ... All herpesviruses described since this system was adopted have been named in accordance with it. The recommended naming system ... A number of virus names (e.g. Epstein-Barr virus, also known as Human gammaherpesvirus 4) are so widely used that it may be ...
The less-common human herpesviruses are human herpesvirus 6A and 6B (HHV-6A and HHV-6B), human herpesvirus 7 (HHV-7), and ... Herpesviruses can cause both latent or lytic infections. Nine herpesvirus types are known to primarily infect humans, at least ... In addition to the herpesviruses considered endemic in humans, some viruses associated primarily with animals may infect humans ... Herpesviruses have many different ways of evading the immune system. One such way is by encoding a protein mimicking human ...
The expression of transcription activators by human herpesvirus-6 DNA is believed to be regulated by viral miRNA. miRNAs can ... The human homolog of miR-712 was found on the RN45s homolog gene, which maintains similar miRNAs to mice. MiR-205 of humans ... Wright MW, Bruford EA (January 2011). "Naming 'junk': human non-protein coding RNA (ncRNA) gene nomenclature". Human Genomics. ... "Small RNA deep sequencing identifies microRNAs and other small noncoding RNAs from human herpesvirus 6B". Journal of Virology. ...
The mir-BART2 microRNA precursor found in Human herpesvirus 4 (Epstein-Barr virus) and Cercopithicine herpesvirus 15. mir-BART2 ...
Herpesviruses are ubiquitous pathogens infecting a variety of animals, including humans. Hosts include many economically ... They are the cause of a wide range of diseases in cats, dog, pigs, rodents, cattle and humans. Transmission is by the faecal- ... Therefore, outbreaks of herpesviruses in livestock cause significant financial losses and are an important area of study in ... Veterinary virology is the study of viruses in non-human animals. It is an important branch of veterinary medicine. ...
Anatid herpesvirus 1 (AnHV-1) (Duck enteritis virus) (Duck plague virus) [EU082088 = NC_013036] Fenner, Frank J.; Gibbs, E. ... Genomic evidence shows that APV-1 is genetically similar to Human alphaherpesvirus 1 and 2 (HSV-1 and HSV-2), Suid ... Three of the genes have no homologs to other herpesviruses, and are unique to AHV-1. Unique long (UL), unique (US), unique ... The latency sites of APV-1 is similar to other herpesviruses. Vaccination for duck viral enteritis is now routine in the United ...
"Assignment1 of herpesvirus-associated ubiquitin-specific protease gene HAUSP to human chromosome band 16p13.3 by in situ ... Additionally, human USP7 was also shown to form a complex with GMPS and this complex is recruited to EBV genome sequences. USP7 ... More recently, an interaction between USP7 and the EBNA1 protein of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) (another herpesvirus) was also ... Puente XS, Sánchez LM, Overall CM, López-Otín C (Jul 2003). "Human and mouse proteases: a comparative genomic approach". Nature ...
U.S. Department of Health & Human Services.. *^ a b c Kaplan YC, Ozsarfati J, Etwel F, Nickel C, Nulman I, Koren G (November ... U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Office of Public Health and Science, Office on Women's Health. July 2009. ... Milk and Milk Products in Human Nutrition. Nestle Nutrition Workshop Series. Paediatric Programme. Nestlé Nutrition Institute ... A vaccine against inflammatory acne has shown promising results in mice and humans.[50][196] Some have voiced concerns about ...
... such as oral hygiene and human herpesviruses. This condition can develop into necrotizing ulcerative periodontitis. This is an ... Li, X; Lei, L; Tan, D; Jiang, L; Zeng, X; Dan, H; Liao, G; Chen, Q (May 2013). "Oropharyngeal Candida colonization in human ... The global human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS) pandemic has been an important factor in ... About 35-50% of humans possess C. albicans as part of their normal oral microbiota. With more sensitive detection techniques, ...
... human leukocyte antigens (HLA) - human papilloma virus (HPV) - human T cell lymphotropic virus type I (HTLV-I) - human T cell ... herpes viruses - highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) - histocompatibility testing - histoplasmosis - HIV disease - HIV ... human growth hormone (HGH) - human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) - human immunodeficiency virus type 2 (HIV-2) - ... Department of Health and Human Services (DHHS/HHS or DHHS) - desensitization - diabetes mellitus (DM) - diagnosis - diarrhea - ...
Shiratori I., Yamaguchi M., Suzukawa M. et al. Down-regulation of basophil function by human CD200 and human herpesvirus-8 ... Douglas J., Albertson D.G., Barclay A.N. et al. RFLP and mapping of human MOX-1 gene on chromosome 3 (англ.) // Nucleic Acids ... Strausberg R.L., Feingold E.A., Grouse L.H. et al. Generation and initial analysis of more than 15,000 full-length human and ... McCaughan G.W., Clark M.J., Barclay A.N. Characterization of the human homolog of the rat MRC OX-2 membrane glycoprotein (англ ...
Herpesvirus: Cytomegalovirus,[17] Epstein Barr virus,[18] Varicella zoster virus, Human herpesvirus 6, Human herpesvirus 7 ve ... Arcay L (May 2001). "[Human microsporidiosis]". Invest Clin (Spanish; Castilian). 42 (Suppl 1), s. 3-42. PMID 11416983.. KB1 ... Atías A (June 1995). "[Update on microsporidiosis in humans]". Rev Med Chil (Spanish; Castilian). 123 (6), s. 762-72. PMID ... Pokora Z (2001). "[Role of gastropods in epidemiology of human parasitic diseases]". Wiad Parazytol (Polish). 47 (1), s. 3-24. ...
"Human herpesvirus-6 entry into the central nervous system through the olfactory pathway". Proceedings of the National Academy ... 4 Role in spinal cord injuries *4.1 Peptide-modified gellan gum and OECs ... The mammalian olfactory system is unusual in that it has the ability to continuously regenerate its neurons during adulthood.[4 ... 4] Regardless, OECs have been investigated thoroughly in relation to spinal cord injuries, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, and ...
IL-17 je visoko homologan sa IL-17 kodiranim sa otvoreno čitajućim okvirom T limfotropnog rhadinovirusa Herpesvirus saimiri.[1] ... "Human IL-17: a novel cytokine derived from T cells". J. Immunol. 155 (12): 5483-6. PMID 7499828 ... IL-1 • IL-2 • IL-3 • IL-4 • IL-5 • IL-6 • IL-7 • IL-8 • IL-9 • IL-10 • IL-11 • IL-12 (B) • IL-13 • IL-14 • IL-15 • IL-16 • IL- ... proinflamatorni citokin (IL-1, TNF-alfa) • Th1 (INF-gama i TNF-beta) • Th2 (IL-4, IL-5, IL-6, IL-10, IL-13) • Th17 (IL-17,IL-22 ...
Human Herpesviruses: Biology, Therapy, and Immunoprophylaxis. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0-521-82714-0. Handsfield HH ... Fatahzadeh M, Schwartz RA (2007). "Human herpes simplex virus infections: epidemiology, pathogenesis, symptomatology, diagnosis ... 37 (4): 307-9. PMID 17278662. Dolar N, Serdaroglu S, Yilmaz G, Ergin S (2006). "Seroprevalence of herpes simplex virus type 1 ... 28 (4): 187-94. doi:10.1097/00007435-200104000-00001. PMID 11318248. Kaur R, Gupta N, Baveja UK (2005). "Seroprevalence of HSV1 ...
"Medical Dictionary - Dictionary of Medicine and Human Biology. Archived from the original on 2013-02-05. Retrieved 2013-01-24. ... 29 (4): 361-66. doi:10.1016/j.ajem.2009.10.004. PMID 20825801. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2015-07-22.. ... Culturing the wound is not needed if standard follow-up care can be provided after the incision and drainage.[4] Performing a ... Standard treatment for most skin or soft tissue abscesses is cutting it open and drainage.[4] There appears to be some benefit ...
The human IL-15 gene comprises nine exons (1 - 8 and 4A) and eight introns, four of which (exons 5 through 8) code for the ... or after infection of monocytes herpes virus, Mycobacterium tuberculosis and Candida albicans (Figure 2).[14] ... IL-15 is 14-15 kDa glycoprotein encoded by the 34 kb region of chromosome 4q31 in humans, and at the central region of ... In humans with history of acute infectious mononucleosis (the syndrome associated with primary Epstein-Barr virus infection), ...
Four orthopoxviruses cause infection in humans: variola, vaccinia, cowpox, and monkeypox. Variola virus infects only humans in ... If the mutation rate is assumed to be similar to that of the herpesviruses, the divergence date of variola from Taterapox has ... Hays, J.N. (2005). Epidemics and Pandemics: Their Impacts on Human History. ABC-CLIO. pp. 151-52. ISBN 978-1-85109-658-9. .. ... The fact that humans are the only reservoir for smallpox infection, and that carriers did not exist, played a significant role ...
This onshore time is important to the lifecycle, and can be disturbed when substantial human presence occurs.[14] The timing of ... including analysis of phocine herpesvirus.[20] In the San Francisco Bay, some harbor seals are fully or partially reddish in ... Harbor seals are sometimes reluctant to haul out in the presence of humans, so shoreline development and access must be ... The transmission of phocine herpesvirus-1 in rehabilitating and free-ranging Pacific harbor seals (Phoca vitulina) in ...
Several human activities have led to the emergence of zoonotic human pathogens, including viruses, bacteria, protozoa, and ... A typical example is the herpes virus, which tends to hide in nerves and become reactivated when specific circumstances arise. ... Many of the most common primary pathogens of humans only infect humans, however, many serious diseases are caused by organisms ... Krauss H, Weber A, Appel M (2003). Zoonoses: Infectious Diseases Transmissible from Animals to Humans (3rd ed.). Washington, D. ...
Cervical cancer, vulvar cancer & Genital warts (condyloma), Penile cancer, Anal cancer (Human papillomavirus (HPV)) ... Unlike herpesviruses, which can remain inactive in the body for months or years before reappearing, molluscum contagiosum does ... Wart (caused by the Human papillomavirus; also similar in appearance to molluscum) ... Molluscum contagiosum virus spread by direct contact or contaminated objects[4]. Risk factors. Weak immune system, atopic ...
"Human Molecular Genetics. 20 (R1): R21-7. doi:10.1093/hmg/ddr137. PMC 3095054. PMID 21459775.. ... Other functions for RNAi in mammalian viruses also exist, such as miRNAs expressed by the herpes virus that may act as ... 45,000 miRNA target sites within human mRNA 3'UTRs are conserved above background levels, and ,60% of human protein-coding ... It has been estimated from studying the genomes of humans, C. elegans and S. pombe that about 10% of possible siRNAs have ...
... human papillomavirus infection, Epstein-Barr virus and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV).[2] These factors act, at least ... Kaposi's sarcoma herpesvirus (Kaposi's sarcoma and primary effusion lymphomas), hepatitis B and hepatitis C viruses ( ... Molecular Pathology: The Molecular Basis of Human Disease. Amsterdam: Elsevier Academic Press. p. 66. ISBN 978-0-12-374419-7.. ... In non-humans, a few types of transmissible cancer have been described, wherein the cancer spreads between animals by ...
Aphthous-like ulceration also occurs in conditions involving systemic immuno-dysregulation, e.g. cyclic neutropenia and human ... herpetiform ulceration is not caused by herpes viruses. As with all types of aphthous stomatitis, it is not contagious. Unlike ... 13 (7): 1-4. PMID 18839042.. *^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z Neville BW, Damm DD, Allen CM, Bouquot JE ( ... 978-0-7020-4948-4. .. *^ a b c d e f Treister JM, Bruch NS (2010). Clinical oral medicine and pathology. New York: Humana Press ...
Jeang, K. T. (1996) In: Human Retroviruses and AIDS: "A Compilation and Analysis of Nucleic Acid and Amino Acid Sequences". Los ... Green M, Loewenstein PM (December 1988). "Autonomous functional domains of chemically synthesized human immunodeficiency virus ... "Direct interaction of human TFIID with the HIV-1 transactivator Tat". Nature. 367 (6460): 295-9. Bibcode:1994Natur.367..295K. ... October 2005). "4-Phenylcoumarins as HIV transcription inhibitors". Bioorg. Med. Chem. Lett. 15 (20): 4447-50. doi:10.1016/j. ...
... human (Homo sapiens). miR-181 may have a regulatory role with tumor suppressors genes of the human chromosome 1. It has been ... Cai X, Lu S, Zhang Z, Gonzalez CM, Damania B, Cullen BR (April 2005). "Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus expresses an ... In humans, this microRNA is involved in the mechanisms of immunity, and in many different cancers (see below) it was found to ... Human miR-181a1 and miR-181b1 are clustered together and located on the chromosome 1 (37.p5), miR-181a2 and miR-181b2 are ...
eds.). Human herpesviruses : biology, therapy, and immunoprophylaxis. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0-521- ... Retrieved 4 February 2015.. *^ a b c d e f g h i j k Atkinson, William (2011). Epidemiology and Prevention of Vaccine- ... Belshe, Robert B. (1984). Textbook of human virology (2nd ed.). Littleton MA: PSG. p. 829. ISBN 978-0-88416-458-6. .. ... Humans are the only known species that the disease affects naturally.[7] However, chickenpox has been caused in other animals, ...
Human vaccines[edit]. Viral diseases[edit]. Virus. Diseases or conditions. Vaccine(s). Brands ... Talimogene laherparepvec (T-VEC), - Herpes virus engineered to produce immune-boosting molecule. Vaccine components[edit]. * ... "Human Vaccines. 7 (11): 1192-1197. doi:10.4161/hv.7.11.17017. PMC 3323497 . PMID 22048120.. ... "Human Vaccines. 7 (11): 1225-1233. doi:10.4161/hv.7.11.18203. PMC 3323498 . PMID 22205439.. ...
... human-to-human) or xenograft (animal-to-human), but it is helpful scientifically (for those searching or reading the scientific ... Examples of viruses carried by pigs include porcine herpesvirus, rotavirus, parvovirus, and circovirus. Porcine herpesviruses ... Human organs have been transplanted into animals as a powerful research technique for studying human biology without harming ... This technique has also been proposed as an alternative source of human organs for future transplantation into human patients.[ ...
Human herpesvirus 5/Herpesvirus 5 humano (HHV-5) Cercopithecine herpesvirus 5/Herpesvirus 5 cercopitecino (CeHV-5) ... O Citomegalovirus humano (Human cytomegalovirus) ou HCMV, tamén chamado Herpesvirus 5 humano (Human herpesvirus 5) ou HHV-5.[2] ... Cercopithecine herpesvirus 8/Herpesvirus 8 cercopitecino (CeHV-8) Panine herpesvirus 2/Herpesvirus 2 panino (PoHV-2) Pongine ... Aotine herpesvirus 1/Herpesvirus 1 aotino (AoHV-1)-clas. provisoria Aotine herpesvirus 3/Herpesvirus 3 aotino (AoHV-3)-clas. ...
It is a vector for Avipoxvirus, Newcastle disease virus, Falconid herpesvirus 1 (and possibly other Herpesviridae), and some ... In many parts of its range, peregrines now also nest regularly on tall buildings or bridges; these human-made structures used ... Raptors in Human Landscapes. London: Academic Press. pp. 3-13. ISBN 978-0-12-100130-8. .. ... on tall human-made structures.[14] The peregrine falcon became an endangered species in many areas because of the widespread ...
Humans can be infected by viruses from five of the eight genera in the subfamily Parvovirinae: i) Bocaparvovirus (e.g. human ... Dependoviruses require helper viruses (e.g. herpesviruses) to replicate. They are also perfect candidates as gene vectors. They ... human parv4 G1). As of 2014, there were no known human viruses in the remaining three recognized genera: vi) Amdoparvovirus (e. ... experiments showed that both human cells and HeLa cells have transferrin receptors but there is no evidence of humans ...
Rask-Andersen M, Olszewski PK, Levine AS, Schiöth HB (2009). «Molecular mechanisms underlying anorexia nervosa: Focus on human ... Cercopithecine herpesvirus 1) in clinical samples». Journal of Virological Methods. 109 (2): 245-51. PMID 12711069. doi:10.1016 ... 11 (4): e109-11. PMID 17272939.. [død lenke] *^ Ayton AK, Azaz A, Horrobin DF (2004). «Rapid improvement of severe anorexia ... 14 (4): 345-50. PMID 15916509. doi:10.1089/jwh.2005.14.345.. *^ Mikami AY, Hinshaw SP, Arnold LE; m.fl. (2010). «Bulimia ...
"American Journal of Human Genetics. 71 (5): 1060-1071. doi:10.1086/344289. ISSN 0002-9297. PMC 385085. PMID 12373647.. ... A study called BLISS-76 tested the drug belimumab, a fully human monoclonal anti-BAFF (or anti-BLyS) antibody.[85] BAFF ... Micrograph of a section of human skin prepared for direct immunofluorescence using an anti-IgG antibody. The skin is from a ... Human Molecular Genetics. 13 Spec No 1: R143-148. doi:10.1093/hmg/ddh076. ISSN 0964-6906. PMID 14764622.. ...
... (KSHV) is the ninth known human herpesvirus; its formal name according to the ... Schulz, T. F. (2000). "Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (human herpesvirus 8): Epidemiology and pathogenesis". The ... "Human herpesvirus 8 - A novel human pathogen". Virology Journal. 2: 78. doi:10.1186/1743-422X-2-78. PMC 1243244. PMID 16138925. ... "Postnatal human herpesvirus 8 and human immunodeficiency virus type 1 infection in mothers and infants from Zambia". The ...
Neilson J.R.; Sharp P.A. (April 2005). "Herpesviruses Throw a Curve Ball: New Insights into microRNA Biogenesis and Evolution ... he studied gene expression in human cells at the Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory as a senior scientist under James Dewey Watson.[ ... "Regulation of Divalent Metal Transporter Expression in Human Intestinal Epithelial Cells Following Exposure to Non-haem Iron". ... 2 (4): 252-4. doi:10.1038/nmeth0405-252. PMID 15782215.. *. Grishok A.; Sinskey J.L.; Sharp P.A. (15 March 2005). " ...
Simultaneous Quantification of Epstein-Barr Virus, Cytomegalovirus, and Human Herpesvirus 6 DNA in Samples from Transplant ... Lining Fluid and Plasma of Lung Transplant Recipients and Analysis of Coinfection with Epstein-Barr Virus and Human Herpesvirus ... Correlation between Infections with Different Genotypes of Human Cytomegalovirus and Epstein-Barr Virus in Subgingival Samples ... Correlation between Infections with Different Genotypes of Human Cytomegalovirus and Epstein-Barr Virus in Subgingival Samples ...
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Jun Wan, Luguo Sun, Jennifer Woo Mendoza, Yiu Loon Chui, Dolly P. Huang, Zhijian J. Chen, Nobutaka Suzuki, Shinobu Suzuki, Wen-Chen Yeh, Shizuo Akira, Kunihiro Matsumoto, Zheng-gang Liu, Zhenguo Wu ...
We report the case of human herpesvirus 6 (HHV-6) encephalomyelitis in an immunocompetent patient, which was confirmed by viral ... Desachy A, Ranger-Rogez S, François B, Venot C, Traccard I, Gastinne H, Reactivation of human herpesvirus type-6 in multiple ... Suga S, Yoshikawa T, Asano Y, Nakashima T, Yazaki T, Fukuda M, IgM neutralizing antibody responses to human herpesvirus-6 in ... Torre D, Speranza F, Martegani R, Ferrante P, Omodeo-Zorini E, Mancuso R, Meningoencephalitis caused by human herpesvirus-6 in ...
Human Exposure to Herpesvirus B-Seropositive Macaques, Bali, Indonesia Gregory A. Engel*, Lisa Jones-Engel*. , Michael ... Human Exposure to Herpesvirus B-Seropositive Macaques, Bali, Indonesia. ... Department of Health and Human Services, the Public Health Service, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, or the ... Table 4. Prevalence and prevalence ratios for exposure to monkey bites or scratches by different variables, Sangeh, Bali ...
Bovine herpesvirus 4-based vector delivering a hybrid rat/human HER-2 oncoantigen efficiently protects mice from autochthonous ... Bovine herpesvirus 4-based vector delivering a hybrid rat/human HER-2 oncoantigen efficiently protects mice from autochthonous ... Bovine herpesvirus 4-based vector delivering a hybrid rat/human HER-2 oncoantigen efficiently protects mice from autochthonous ... Bovine herpesvirus 4-based vector delivering a hybrid rat/human HER-2 oncoantigen efficiently protects mice from autochthonous ...
Human herpesvirus 8 type P (isolate GK18) (HHV-8) (Kaposis sarcoma-associated herpesvirus). ... Human herpesvirus 8 type P (isolate GK18) (HHV-8) (Kaposis sarcoma-associated herpesvirus) ... sp,Q2HR73,VIRF4_HHV8P Viral IRF4-like protein OS=Human herpesvirus 8 type P (isolate GK18) OX=868565 GN=vIRF-4 PE=1 SV=1 ... "Kaposis sarcoma-associated herpesvirus viral interferon regulatory factor 4 targets MDM2 to deregulate the p53 tumor ...
Human herpesvirus 2. Known as: ICP 10-AG-4 protein, Human herpesvirus 2, antigen ICP 10-AG-4, Herpes simplex virus type 2 ...
Fatal human herpesvirus 6-associated multifocal meningoencephalitis in an adult female patient. Scand J Infect Dis 2001;33:942- ... Fatal encephalitis due to variant B human herpesvirus-6 infection in a bone marrow-transplant recipient. N Engl J Med 1994;330: ... Successful treatment of human herpesvirus 6 encephalomyelitis in immunocompetent patient. Emerg Infect Dis 2004;10:729-31. ... Successful treatment of human herpesvirus-6 encephalitis after bone marrow transplantation. Bone Marrow Transplant 1999;24:1245 ...
en] In contrast to most gammaherpesviruses, Bovine herpesvirus 4 (BoHV-4) has a broad range of host species both in vitro and ... Our results demonstrate that human sera from naïve individuals, in contrast to the sera of naïve subjects from various animal ... The data obtained in this study demonstrates that human serum neutralizes BoHV-4 in a complement dependent manner activated by ... Several in vitro studies demonstrated that some human cell lines are sensitive or even permissive to BoHV-4. These observations ...
"Human herpesvirus 4" virus name. The additional filters enable you with creating a sub-selection of items of this list. The ... For other human viruses of medical importance. The Charité University Berlin (CUB) is in charge of our hotline dedicated to ... In the event of a major biological incident regarding tropical (exotic) viruses or Risk Group 4 viruses, contact. Bernard Nocht ...
Compared to other β-herpesviruses, HHV-6B exhibits high similarity in capsid structure but organizational differences in its ... belongs to the β-herpesvirus subfamily of the Herpesviridae. To understand capsid assembly and capsid-tegument interactions, ... Human herpesvirus 6B (HHV-6B) belongs to the β-herpesvirus subfamily of the Herpesviridae. To understand capsid assembly and ... First discovered in 1986 as a member of the β-herpesvirus subfamily of Herpesviridae1, human herpesvirus 6 (HHV-6) is now ...
Human herpesvirus 6 (HHV-6) is the common collective name for human betaherpesvirus 6A (HHV-6A) and human betaherpesvirus 6B ( ... Media related to Human herpesvirus 6 at Wikimedia Commons Data related to Human herpesvirus 6 at Wikispecies. ... herpesvirus-inflammatory cytokine syndrome in an AIDS patient reveals co-infection of human herpesvirus 8 and human herpesvirus ... Human herpesvirus 6 lives primarily on humans and, while variants of the virus can cause mild to fatal illnesses, can live ...
Members of the human Herpesviridaefamily are candidates for representing the macroenvironmental factors associated with ... human cytomegalovirus (HCMV), human herpesvirus 6 (HHV-6), human herpesvirus 7 (HHV-7) and human herpesvirus 8 (HHV-8) was ... Association of human herpesvirus 6 and human herpesvirus 7 with demyelinating diseases of the nervous system. J Neurovirol 7: ... Huang LM, Lee CY, Lee PI, Chen JM, Wang PJ (1991) Meningitis caused by human herpesvirus-6. Arch Dis Child 66:1443-1444PubMed ...
Furthermore, human herpesvirus 6 (HHV-6) infection has long been suspected to play a role in the pathogenesis of MS and ... Induction of Proinflammatory Multiple Sclerosis-Associated Retrovirus Envelope Protein by Human Herpesvirus-6A and CD46 ... Induction of Proinflammatory Multiple Sclerosis-Associated Retrovirus Envelope Protein by Human Herpesvirus-6A and CD46 ... Induction of Proinflammatory Multiple Sclerosis-Associated Retrovirus Envelope Protein by Human Herpesvirus-6A and CD46 ...
Dewhurst, S (2004). "Human Herpesvirus Type 6 and Human Herpesvirus Type 7 Infections of the Central Nervous System". Herpes: ... Clark, DA (2002). "Human Herpesvirus 6 and Human Herpesvirus 7: Emerging Pathogens in Transplant Patients". International ... "Human herpesvirus 7 is a T-lymphotropic virus and is related to, but significantly different from, human herpesvirus 6 and ... "Reactivation of human herpesvirus 6 by infection of human herpesvirus 7". Journal of Medical Virology. Wiley InterScience. 60 ( ...
Association of Active Human Herpesvirus-6, -7 and Parvovirus B19 Infection with Clinical Outcomes in Patients with Myalgic ... Association of Active Human Herpesvirus-6, -7 and Parvovirus B19 Infection with Clinical Outcomes in Patients with Myalgic ...
... herpesvirus/human herpesvirus. by IARC Working Group on the Evaluation of Carcinogenic Risks to Humans : Epstein-Barr Virus and ... Herpesvirus/Human Herpesvirus 8 Lyon, France) (1997: , International Agency for Research on Cancer ... Viruses and human cancer / edited by J. R. Arrand and D. R. Harper.. by Arrand, John R , Harper, David R ...
Role of Human Herpesvirus in Alzheimers Disease. Speaker. Joel Dudley, PhD ** Webinar Participation Pending ... Studies using novel 3-dimensional engineered human cerebral vessels show that HDL, especially the fraction of HDL enriched in ... However, molecular and imaging data from both animal models and humans strongly suggest that this neuronal hyperactivity ... the human experience of cardiac arrest, and transformational experiences of death. ...
Aplastic Anemia Following Hepatitis Associated With Human Herpesvirus 6. Schenke, Carolus; Alejandre-Alcázar, Miguel A; Holter ... Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition October 2010, Volume 51, Issue 4;. ... Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition. 51(4):378-379, October 2010. ... Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition. 51(4):380-401, October 2010. ...
Publications] 岡田 賢司: Human herpesvirus-6(HHV-6)感染症の臨床像-突発性発疹との関係- 小児科. 31(1). 105-111 (1990). *. Description. 「研究成果報告書概要(和文)」 ... Publications] 岡田賢司: Human herpesvirus-6(HHV-6)感染症の臨床像 小児科. 31. 105-111 (1990). *. Related Report. 1989 Annual Research Report ... Serological studies on mother-to-child transmission and virulence as an opportunistic pathogen of human herpesvirus-6 (HHV-6). ... Human
Human herpesvirus 2 (strain HG52) (HHV-2) (Human herpes simplex virus 2). ... Human herpesvirus 2 (strain HG52) (HHV-2) (Human herpes simplex virus 2) ... sp,P89449,SCAF_HHV2H Capsid scaffolding protein OS=Human herpesvirus 2 (strain HG52) OX=10315 GN=UL26 PE=3 SV=1 ... Homo sapiens (Human) [TaxID: 9606]. ,p>This subsection of the ,a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/names%5Fand%5Ftaxonomy% ...
Human herpesvirus 6 stays in the body long after the initial infection. In situations that diminish the strength of a persons ... Initial human herpesvirus 6 infections were recognized years ago and named roseola, sixth disease or exantham subitum. Of the 2 ... The human herpesvirus 6, according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, infects nearly 100 percent of Americans. ... Symptoms of Human Herpesvirus 6 by DIANE HELENTJARIS Last Updated: Aug 14, 2017. ...
Frequent detection of Kaposis sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (human herpesvirus 8) DNA in saliva of human immunodeficiency ... Presence of human herpesvirus 8 variants in the oral tissues of human immunodeficiency virus-infected persons.J. Infect. Dis. ... The seroepidemiology of human herpesvirus 8 (Kaposis sarcoma-associated herpesvirus): distribution of infection in KS risk ... The prevalence of serum antibody to human herpesvirus 8 (Kaposi sarcoma-associated herpesvirus) among HIV-seropositive and high ...
The unique region of the human herpesvirus 6 genomes is essentially collinear with the UL segment of human cytomegalovirus ... Diverse tropism of human B-lymphotropic virus (human herpesvirus 6) LUSSO P. ... A case of human herpesvirus-6 lymphadenitis with infectious mononucleosis-like syndrome * * SUMIYOSHI Yoshiaki ... IgG antibodies to human herpesvirus-6 in children and adults both in primary Epstein-Barr virus and cytomegalovirus infections ...
... was the sixth herpesvirus discovered. Isolated in 1986 during attempts to find novel viruses in patients with ... encoded search term (Human Herpesvirus 6 (HHV-6) Infection) and Human Herpesvirus 6 (HHV-6) Infection What to Read Next on ... Influence of ganciclovir prophylaxis on citomegalovirus, human herpesvirus 6, and human herpesvirus 7 viremia in renal ... Human Herpesvirus 6 (HHV-6) Infection Medication. Updated: Aug 16, 2019 * Author: John L Kiley, MD; Chief Editor: Burke A Cunha ...
... was the sixth herpesvirus discovered. Isolated in 1986 during attempts to find novel viruses in patients with ... Influence of ganciclovir prophylaxis on citomegalovirus, human herpesvirus 6, and human herpesvirus 7 viremia in renal ... encoded search term (Human%20Herpesvirus%206%20Infection) and Human Herpesvirus 6 Infection What to Read Next on Medscape. ... Human herpesvirus-6 and sudden death in infancy: report of a case and review of the literature. J Forensic Sci. 1999 Mar. 44(2 ...
Genomic DNA from Human herpesvirus 1 (HSV-1) Strain McIntyre [ATCC® VR-539™] (ATCC® VR-539D™) ATCC® Number: VR-539D™ Product ... Human herpesvirus 1 (ATCC® VR-1493™) ATCC® Number: VR-1493™ Classification: Herpesviridae, Simplexvirus ... Human herpesvirus 1 (ATCC® VR-1778™) ATCC® Number: VR-1778™ Classification: Herpesviridae, Simplexvirus ... Human herpesvirus 1 (ATCC® VR-1789™) ATCC® Number: VR-1789™ Classification: Herpesviridae, Simplexvirus ...
... Real-time Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) CMI, Molecular Infectious Disease. DNA copies/mL and ...
Encephalitis associated with human herpesvirus-7 infection in an immunocompetent adult Authors: Mónica Parra, Adoración Alcala ... The original article was published in International Journal for Equity in Health 2017 16:4 ...
  • CSF PCR was negative for herpes simplex virus (HSV), cytomegalovirus (CMV), varicella-zoster virus (HZV), enterovirus, and human herpesvirus 8. (ajnr.org)
  • 180 "VΛ"-shaped CATCs are observed in HHV-6B, distinguishing from the 255 "Λ"-shaped dimeric CATCs observed in murine cytomegalovirus and the 310 "Δ"-shaped CATCs in human cytomegalovirus. (nature.com)
  • The presence of DNA of herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) and type 2 (HSV-2), varicella zoster virus (VZV), Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), human cytomegalovirus (HCMV), human herpesvirus 6 (HHV-6), human herpesvirus 7 (HHV-7) and human herpesvirus 8 (HHV-8) was searched by specific nested polymerase chain reaction. (springer.com)
  • Human herpesvirus 6 (HHV-6) belongs to the subfamily Betaherpesvirinae ( 30 ), which is represented by Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV). (asm.org)
  • Human herpesvirus 6 (HHV-6) is a ubiquitous pathogen of the betaherpesvirus family, which includes cytomegalovirus and HHV-7, that primarily infects CD4 + T cells ( 26 , 38 ). (asm.org)
  • Researchers at the University of California, San Diego (UCSD) Skaggs School of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences have patented a strategy for developing a human vaccine to prevent against Human Cytomegalovirus (hCMV) infection and disease. (bio-medicine.org)
  • Infections with cytomegalovirus and other herpesviruses in 121 liver transplant recipients: transmission by donated organ and the effect of OKT3 antibodies. (springer.com)
  • To establish a practical monitoring system of human herpesviruses reactivation in patients undergoing stem cell transplantation, we developed a new, very rapid, highly sensitive, and quantitative PCR assay for accurate measurement of human cytomegalovirus (CMV), human herpesvirus 6 (HHV-6) and Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) DNA using LightCycler. (nih.gov)
  • The open reading frame encodes a protein of 830 amino acids (93.2K) with the characteristics of a transmembrane glycoprotein and close similarity to the gp58/116 complex of human cytomegalovirus (HCMV). (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • Less common causes include herpes simplex viruses 1 and 2 (HSV-1 and HSV-2), varicella-zoster virus, cytomegalovirus, Epstein-Barr virus and human herpesviruses 6, 7 and 8. (mja.com.au)
  • Human herpesvirus 6 ( HHV6 ) was the most common (24%) whereas HHV7, Epstein-Barr virus ( EBV ) and cytomegalovirus (CMV) were present in 9%, 3% and 2% of the patients , respectively. (bvsalud.org)
  • The molecular structure of BMRF1-DeltaC shares structural similarity with other processivity factors, such as herpes simplex virus UL42, cytomegalovirus UL44, and human proliferating cell nuclear antigen. (rcsb.org)
  • To date, the mechanism of the association of human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) capsids with the NEC, which in turn initiates the specific steps of nuclear capsid budding, remains undefined. (readbyqxmd.com)
  • Human herpesvirus 8 (HHV-8), also called Kaposi sarcoma (KS)-associated herpesvirus (KSHV), is a gamma human herpesvirus most closely related to Epstein-Barr virus. (nih.gov)
  • The seroprevalence of human herpesvirus-8 (HHV-8)-also known as Kaposi sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV)-varies worldwide and is estimated to be 1% to 5% in the general U.S. population 1,2 compared with 10% to 20% in certain Mediterranean countries and 30% to 80% in parts of sub-Saharan Africa. (nih.gov)
  • Mice with reconstituted human immune systems can mount cell-mediated immune responses against the human tumor viruses Epstein Barr virus (EBV) and Kaposi sarcoma associated herpesvirus (KSHV). (frontiersin.org)
  • This review will summarize similarities and differences between EBV and KSHV associated pathologies and their immune control in patients and mice with reconstituted human immune systems. (frontiersin.org)
  • The two human γ-herpesviruses Epstein Barr virus (EBV) and Kaposi sarcoma associated herpesvirus (KSHV) are WHO class I carcinogens ( 1 - 3 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • They are associated with lymphomas, Hodgkin's and Burkitt's in the case of EBV, and primary effusion lymphoma (PEL), and multicentric Castleman's disease (MCD) for KSHV ( 4 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • Fortunately, these malignancies are rare with incidence rates of less than 1 in 10 4 individuals, even so more than 95% of the human adult population is persistently infected with EBV, and more than 50% of the Sub-Saharan African population with KSHV ( 3 , 6 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • However, EBV and KSHV associated lymphomas as well as Kaposi sarcoma develop at increased frequencies after immune suppression, due to for example human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection or iatrogenic treatment after transplantation ( 7 , 8 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • Even so EBV and KSHV are closely related γ-herpesviruses, the requirements for their immune control seem to be quite dissimilar. (frontiersin.org)
  • KS, PEL, and MCD: morphology and immunohistochemistry for viral antigens and detection of latent and lytic antigens to KSHV by IFA, with human sera and monoclonal antibody. (asm.org)
  • The genome of the Kaposi sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV or HHV8) was mapped with cosmid and phage genomic libraries from the BC-1 cell line. (pnas.org)
  • KS-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) was discovered in an AIDS-KS lesion by representational difference analysis and shown to be present in almost all AIDS-KS lesions ( 4 ). (pnas.org)
  • KSHV is the eighth presumed human herpesvirus (HHV8) identified to date. (pnas.org)
  • Subsequent sequencing of a 21-kb AIDS-KS genomic library fragment (KS5) hybridizing to KS330Bam demonstrated that KSHV is a gamma-herpesvirus related to herpesvirus saimiri (HVS) belonging to the genus Rhadinovirus ( 10 ). (pnas.org)
  • Colinear homology (synteny) of genes in this region is maintained between KSHV and HVS, as well as Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) and equine herpesvirus 2. (pnas.org)
  • In contrast to other herpesviruses which are not associated with malignancy, Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) and human herpesvirus type 8 (HHV-8), also known as Kaposi sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV), can cause certain cancers. (merckmanuals.com)
  • Kaposi sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) is etiologically linked to Kaposi sarcoma (KS), a tumor genetically akin to lymphatic endothelial cells (LECs). (bloodjournal.org)
  • 4 KS-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) is linked to the etiopathogenesis of KS 5 , 6 and certain lymphoproliferations, including primary effusion lymphoma (PEL) 7 and a plasmablastic variant of multicentric Castleman disease (MCD). (bloodjournal.org)
  • Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) causes Kaposi's sarcoma, a cancer that commonly affects patients with AIDS and which is endemic in sub-Saharan Africa. (readbyqxmd.com)
  • The KSHV capsid is highly pressurized by its double-stranded DNA genome, as are the capsids of the eight other human herpesviruses. (readbyqxmd.com)
  • Little is known about the prevalence and distribution of Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) infection in the Caribbean. (scielosp.org)
  • Human herpesvirus 8 (HHV-8, also called Kaposi sarcoma [KS]-associated herpesvirus) is the infectious cause of KS ( 1 ) and is prevalent in Africa ( 2 ). (cdc.gov)
  • Also called Kaposi sarcoma-associated herpesvirus or Human herpesvirus 8 (HHV-8). (cancer.ca)
  • Among all new cancer cases in 2012, on average, 15.4% were caused by Helicobacter pylori or oncoviruses, including Epstein-Barr virus, human papillomavirus, hepatitis B virus , hepatitis C viruses , Kaposi sarcoma-associated herpesvirus and human T-lymphotropic virus. (bioscience.org)
  • Se sabe poco acerca de la prevalencia y distribución en el Caribe de la infección por el herpesvirus asociado con el sarcoma de Kaposi (HVSK). (scielosp.org)
  • Abaitua F, Zia R, Hollinshead M, O'Hare P. Polarised cell migration during cell-to-cell transmission of herpes simplex virus in human skin keratinocytes. (springer.com)
  • The capacity of human fibroblasts to support plaque formation by Herpes simplex virus following treatment of the cells with gilvocarcin V, a polyaromatic C-glycoside, plus near ultraviolet radiation (UVA, 320-400 nm) was examined. (nih.gov)
  • As with herpes simplex virus I infection in humans, primary infection with B virus in macaques may result in gingivostomatitis with characteristic buccal mucosal lesions, but it probably occurs frequently without such signs. (cdc.gov)
  • Infection with human herpesvirus 6 (HHV-6) was found to up-regulate expression of human immuno-deficiency virus and human T cell leukaemia virus type I (HTLV-I) long terminal repeat sequence (LTR), and herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) gD chloramphenicol acetyltransferase (CAT) constructs transfected into the T cell line, J. Jhan. (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • These observations led to the hypothesis that cross-species transmission of BoHV-4 could lead to human infections. (ac.be)
  • Initial human herpesvirus 6 infections were recognized years ago and named roseola, sixth disease or exantham subitum. (livestrong.com)
  • Agut H. Deciphering the clinical impact of acute human herpesvirus 6 (HHV-6) infections. (medscape.com)
  • Herpesvirus infections of the nervous system. (springer.com)
  • Human herpes viruses are a family of double-stranded DNA viruses that cause opportunistic infections in solid organ and hematopoietic stem cell transplant recipients. (springer.com)
  • Prospective study of prevalence, incidence, and source of herpesvirus infections in patients with renal allografts. (springer.com)
  • Prevention of herpesvirus infections in renal allograft recipients by low-dose oral acyclovir. (springer.com)
  • Today, there is only one class of antiviral medicines against herpesviruses-a family of viruses that cause mononucleosis, herpes, and shingles, among other illnesses - meaning options for treating these infections are limited. (medicalxpress.com)
  • In a search for new drugs to treat viral infections , scientists from the University of Utah School of Medicine found that a medicine routinely used to treat heart failure, spironolactone, has an unexpected ability to block infection by Epstein Barr virus (EBV), a herpesvirus that causes mono and is associated with several human cancers. (medicalxpress.com)
  • Herpesvirus infections could be one contributing factor for maturation toward balanced Th1-Th2 responses. (jimmunol.org)
  • Nearly all documented B virus infections in humans involved exposures in laboratories or animal facilities ( 4 ). (cdc.gov)
  • Even in the face of functional antiviral immune responses, herpesviruses are capable of establishing lifelong persistent infections in their hosts. (jimmunol.org)
  • In that sense, 100% of human cells contain viral infections. (marginalrevolution.com)
  • We report the case of human herpesvirus 6 (HHV-6) encephalomyelitis in an immunocompetent patient, which was confirmed by viral amplification from cerebrospinal fluid. (cdc.gov)
  • In BALB-neuT mice, instead, only the viral construct expressing the membrane-bound chimeric form of Her-2 protein (BoHV-4-RHuT-gD) elicited a humoral immune response that was more intense and earlier-appearing than that induced by DNA vaccination. (nih.gov)
  • In the present study, we investigate the sensitivity of BoHV-4 to neutralization by naïve human sera in order to determine if humans exhibit innate anti-viral activities against this virus. (ac.be)
  • During maturation of HHV-6 virions, human cell membranes are used to form viral lipid envelopes (as is characteristic of all enveloped viruses). (wikipedia.org)
  • Molecular and virological evidence of viral activation from chromosomally integrated human herpesvirus 6A in a patient with X-linked severe combined immunodeficiency. (medscape.com)
  • Human herpesvirus 6 chromosomal integration in immunocompetent patients results in high levels of viral DNA in blood, sera, and hair follicles. (medscape.com)
  • Fatal pulmonary failure attributable to viral pneumonia with human herpes virus 6 (HHV6) in a young immunocompetent woman. (medscape.com)
  • At 4 weeks postinfection, no macrophages showed signs of viral replication, such as viral protein expression or infectious-virus production. (asm.org)
  • They find that the drug 's antiviral properties stem from its ability to block a key step in viral infection that is common to all herpesviruses. (medicalxpress.com)
  • Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) samples from 373 patients lacking typical symptoms of viral CNS infection were analysed by real-time PCR targeting herpesviruses or enteroviruses with or without prior MDA. (diva-portal.org)
  • MDA satisfactorily amplified viral DNA in the absence of human nucleic acids, but showed poor amplification capacity for viral DNA in CSF samples, and did not increase the sensitivity for herpes virus-detection with our methodology. (diva-portal.org)
  • A novel viral lineage distantly related to herpesviruses discovered within fish genome sequence data. (springer.com)
  • Background: Bovine herpesvirus 1 (BoHV1) is a member of the viral subfamily of Alphaherpesvirinae that infects various species, including cattle, sheep, and goats. (ebscohost.com)
  • Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), the first human tumor virus, demonstrates frequent epigenetic alterations on both viral and host genomes in associated cancers-both of epithelial and lymphoid origin. (mdpi.com)
  • The cell type-dependent different EBV latent gene expression patterns appear to be determined by the cellular epigenetic machinery and similarly viral oncoproteins recruit epigenetic regulators in order to deregulate the cellular gene expression profile resulting in several human cancers. (mdpi.com)
  • Equine Herpesvirus (EHV) is a viral disease of horses and other equidae. (michigan.gov)
  • Human herpesvirus 8 (HHV-8) encodes four viral interferon regulatory factors (vIRFs 1-4) that likely function to suppress innate immune and cellular stress responses through inhibitory interactions with various cellular proteins involved in these activities. (readbyqxmd.com)
  • A particular attention has been given to Epstein-Barr and Kaposi's sarcoma associated Herpesvirus, viruses studied for many years in our laboratory. (hindawi.com)
  • We report the evolution of MR imaging findings and clinical course in 4 patients with limbic encephalitis probably related to HHV6. (ajnr.org)
  • We describe the serial MR imaging findings in 4 patients undergoing HSCT who exhibited acute onset of anterograde amnesia and were diagnosed with HHV6-associated encephalitis on the basis of positive CSF polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for HHV6 at the time of presentation and the lack of other identifiable cause. (ajnr.org)
  • Ogata M, Fukuda T, Teshima T. Human herpesvirus-6 encephalitis after allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation: what we do and do not know. (medscape.com)
  • Fida M, Hamdi AM, Bryson A, Razonable RR, Abu Saleh O. Long-term Outcomes of Patients With Human Herpesvirus 6 Encephalitis. (medscape.com)
  • The report of a case of encephalitis caused by B virus in a monkey handler in 1932 indicated that B virus can be highly pathogenic for humans (1). (cdc.gov)
  • Of the two human herpesvirus 6 (HHV-6) species, human herpesvirus 6B (HHV-6B) encephalitis is an important cause of morbidity and mortality after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplant. (haematologica.org)
  • Over the past ten years, it has been recognized that human herpesvirus 6A (HHV-6A) and HHV-6B are distinct species, 1 HHV-6B not HHV-6A is the most frequent cause of encephalitis post-hematopoietic stem cell transplant (HSCT) and that chromosomally integrated HHV-6 (CIHHV-6) is clinically significant. (haematologica.org)
  • These closely related viruses are two of the nine herpesviruses known to have humans as their primary host. (wikipedia.org)
  • This genus consisted of 23 viruses among 4 groups. (wikipedia.org)
  • Order Herpesvirales contains three families, the Herpesviridae, which contains the long-recognized herpesviruses of mammals, birds, and reptiles, plus two new families - the family Alloherpesviridae which incorporates herpes viruses of bony fish and frogs, and the family Malacoherpesviridae which contains viruses of molluscs. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, the precise role of human herpesvirus 6 in these problems is still being determined as the interplay with other viruses complicate the picture. (livestrong.com)
  • Ranid herpesvirus 1, along with Ranid herpesvirus 2 and 3, are the only herpes viruses known to infect amphibians. (wikipedia.org)
  • The herpesviruses are a family of double-stranded DNA viruses that infect a wide variety of organisms. (frontiersin.org)
  • Here we describe recent research on the human herpesviruses that has contributed to our understanding of, and interactions between, viruses, autophagy, and the immune system. (frontiersin.org)
  • Herpes simplex viruses types 1 and 2 (HSV-1 and HSV-2) are human neurotropic viruses that establish latent infection in dorsal root ganglia (DRG) for the entire life of the host. (springer.com)
  • These genes which are also found in other herpes viruses such as chicken pox or herpes simplex have the same or very similar sequence, structure and function whether in human or mouse viruses, and present a novel target for the hosts T-cells to muster forces and attack the virus. (bio-medicine.org)
  • These two viruses belong to γ -Herpesvirus subfamily and are associated with several human cancers. (hindawi.com)
  • Viruses and human cancer / edited by J. R. Arrand and D. R. Harper. (who.int)
  • Herpesvirus simiae (B virus) is a member of the herpes group of viruses that is enzootic in rhesus (Macaca mulatta), cynomolgus (M. fascicularis) and other Asiatic monkeys of the genus Macaca. (cdc.gov)
  • It suggests that genetically engineered viruses may have a significant impact on the outcomes of angioplasty performed in humans. (bio-medicine.org)
  • The viruses EBV and CMV belong to the herpesvirus family and are widely spread in human populations. (jimmunol.org)
  • The Epstein-Barr virus ( EBV ), formally called Human gammaherpesvirus 4 , is one of the nine known human herpesvirus types in the herpes family , and is one of the most common viruses in humans. (wikipedia.org)
  • Viruses lacking the gp42 portion are able to bind to human B cells, but unable to infect. (wikipedia.org)
  • Epidemiological study revealed that approximately 20% of all human cancers are associated with tumor viruses. (mdpi.com)
  • What about reports that a non-trivial fraction of human DNA consists of remnants of viruses? (marginalrevolution.com)
  • In addition to translocations of genetic material, Burkitt's lymphoma is also associated with oncogenic viruses - the Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) in endemic Burkitt's and human immunodeficiency virus ( HIV ) in the sporadic form. (encyclopedia.com)
  • it shows that pp150, a β-herpesvirus subfamily-specific tegument protein, forms a " △ "-shaped group-of-three structure on each of the 320 triplexes in a capsid, leading to a net that encloses the capsid. (nature.com)
  • Given that HHV-6B has a genome size of 162 kb-much smaller than that of HCMV-the question arises whether its β-herpesvirus-specific tegument protein, pU11, binds capsids in the same way as HCMV's homologous protein pp150/pUL32 does. (nature.com)
  • Induction of Proinflammatory Multiple Sclerosis-Associated Retrovirus Envelope Protein by Human Herpesvirus-6A and CD46 Receptor Engagement. (nih.gov)
  • The aberrant expression of human endogenous retrovirus (HERV) elements of the HERV-W family has been associated with different diseases, including multiple sclerosis (MS). In particular, the expression of the envelope protein (Env) from the multiple sclerosis-associated retrovirus (MSRV), a member of HERV-W family and known for its potent proinflammatory activity, is repeatedly detected in the brain lesions and blood of MS patients. (nih.gov)
  • A dominant epitope within the human herpesvirus 8 (HHV8) ORF 65-encoded protein was mapped to an 8-amino-acid (aa) sequence (RKPPSGKK [aa 162 to 169]) by an amino acid replacement method. (asm.org)
  • In this study, we identified the dominant continuous epitope of the ORF 65-encoded protein and developed a peptide-based EIA for the detection of HHV8 antibodies in human sera. (asm.org)
  • The nuclear phase of herpesvirus replication is regulated through the formation of regulatory multi-component protein complexes. (readbyqxmd.com)
  • In order to obtain basic data concerning the virulence of HHV-6 in the immunocompromised state, we evaluated whether or not reactivation or reinfection of HHV-6 occurs as other herpesviruses. (nii.ac.jp)
  • Consultation with a health-care provider should be sought for concerns about reactivation symptoms in a person with a weak immune system or about children who appear to have severe symptoms from human herpesvirus 6 infection. (livestrong.com)
  • Latency, Integration, and Reactivation of Human Herpesvirus-6. (medscape.com)
  • Furthermore, lymphocyte activation creates an environment favorable to the reactivation and replication of lymphotropic herpesviruses. (asm.org)
  • In the present study, the reactivation of beta herpesviruses is associated with the occurrence of thrombotic microangiopathy (TMA) in two patients undergoing allogeneic BMT. (nih.gov)
  • Human Herpesvirus-6B Reactivation Is a Risk Factor for Grades II to IV Acute Graft-versus-Host Disease after Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis. (prolekare.cz)
  • Taking advantage of the favorable properties of bovine herpesvirus 4 (BoHV-4) in terms of safety and ease of manipulation as well as its previously documented ability to transduce and confer immunogenicity to heterologous antigens, we tested the ability of different recombinant HER-2-BoHV-4 immunogens to 8break tolerance and elicit a protective, anti-mammary tumor antibody response in HER-2 transgenic BALB-neuT mice. (nih.gov)
  • Detection of four human herpesviruses DNA and Virus-specific IgM antibody in blood specimens of infants. (springer.com)
  • Antibody reactivity to latent and lytic antigens to human herpesvirus-8 in longitudinally followed homosexual men. (cdc.gov)
  • HHV-6 Early Antigen antibody LS-C654808 is a PE-conjugated mouse monoclonal antibody to human herpesvirus 6 HHV-6 Early Antigen. (lsbio.com)
  • Human herpesvirus 6B (HHV-6B) belongs to the β-herpesvirus subfamily of the Herpesviridae . (nature.com)
  • First discovered in 1986 as a member of the β-herpesvirus subfamily of Herpesviridae 1 , human herpesvirus 6 (HHV-6) is now understood to be a set of two closely related herpesvirus species known as HHV-6A and HHV-6B. (nature.com)
  • The type species of LYMPHOCRYPTOVIRUS, subfamily GAMMAHERPESVIRINAE, infecting B-cells in humans. (bioportfolio.com)
  • Foscarnet is an organic analogue of inorganic pyrophosphate that inhibits replication of known herpesviruses. (medscape.com)
  • The ability of autophagy to degrade proteins located within the nucleus, the site of herpesvirus latency and replication, is also considered. (frontiersin.org)
  • Ferrante P, Omodeo-Zorini E, Zuffolato MR, Mancuso R, Caldarelli-Stefano R, Puricelll S, Mediati M, Losciale I, Caput (1997) Human T-cell lymphotropic virus tax and Epstein-Barr virus DNA in peripheral blood of multiple sclerosis patients during acute attack. (springer.com)
  • Epstein-Barr Virus and Human Herpesvirus 6 Detection in a non-Hodgkin's Diffuse Large B-Cell Lymphoma Cohort using RNA-Seq. (medscape.com)
  • Epstein-Barr virus and Kaposi's sarcoma, herpesvirus/human herpesvirus. (who.int)
  • Crystal Structures of HLA-B*1501 in Complex with Peptides from Human UbcH6 and Epstein-Barr Viru. (expasy.org)
  • To verify the possible role of human herpesviruses (HHVs) as triggering or aggravating factors in relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis clinical outcome, we studied the prevalence of all eight human herpesviruses in whole blood samples collected from 51 MS patients and from 51 healthy controls. (springer.com)
  • Âlvarez-Lafuente R, Martín-Estefanía C, De las Heras V, Castrillo C, Cour I, Picazo JJ, Varelade Seijas E, Arroyo R (2002) Prevalence of herpesvirus DNA in MS patients and healthy blood donors. (springer.com)
  • Latent class analysis of human herpesvirus 8 assay performance and infection prevalence in sub-Saharan Africa and Malta. (cdc.gov)
  • The presence of P4 antibodies in a panel of 61 human serum specimens was highly correlated with biopsy-confirmed Kaposi's sarcoma. (asm.org)
  • This test looks for antibodies to Human Herpesvirus 6 (HHV-6) in the blood. (requestatest.com)
  • Glycoprotein D (gD) of bovine herpesvirus-1 (BoHV-1) is essential for attachment and penetration of cells during infection and is a major target for neutralizing antibodies during an adaptive immune response. (ebscohost.com)
  • Outsource the entire localization process without having to worry about finding and characterizing target specific antibodies, sourcing and validating difficult-to-find tissues, and having the ability to interpret the resulting immunostaining in relation to complex human pathologies. (lsbio.com)
  • Test your therapeutic antibodies in immunohistochemistry against a broad panel of normal frozen human tissue types in order to determine potential unintended binding. (lsbio.com)
  • EBV that are made in the B cells have low numbers of gHgLgp42 complexes, because these three-part complexes interact with Human-leukocyte-antigen class II molecules present in B cells in the endoplasmic reticulum and are degraded. (wikipedia.org)
  • Application of Taenia saginata metacestodes as an alternative antigen for the serological diagnosis of human neurocysticercosis. (ebscohost.com)
  • Herpes Virus Type 6, Human, early antigen (HHV 6EA). (lsbio.com)
  • The neurological form of the disease is called Equine herpesvirus myeloencephalopathy (EHM). (albertafarmexpress.ca)
  • The neurologic form of type 1, also called Equine Herpesvirus Myeloencephalopathy, and the respiratory form of type 1 and type 4, called Rhinopneumonitis, are reportable in the State of Michigan. (michigan.gov)
  • The biology of their ability to establish latency, maintain it for the entire life of the host, reactivate, and cause primary and recurrent disease is being studied in animal models and in humans. (springer.com)
  • Latency-associated transcripts of human herpesvirus 6 (H6LTs) (K. Kondo et al. (asm.org)
  • Like other herpesviruses, HHV-6 establishes latency after the initial productive infection ( 35 ) and thus is never cleared from its host. (asm.org)
  • In mice, herpesvirus latency causes systemic innate activation and protection from bacterial coinfection, implying the importance of herpesviruses in skewing immune responses during latent infection. (jimmunol.org)
  • A recently identified gammaherpesvirus, human herpesvirus 8 (HHV8), may be the causative agent of Kaposi's sarcoma (KS), a tumor commonly associated with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection ( 1 , 4 , 19 , 21 ). (asm.org)
  • However, HHV-8-infected patients with diverse immunologic abnormalities [ 3 , 4 ], such as those with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection, can develop KS. (biomedcentral.com)
  • and conditions associated with human immunodeficiency virus such as hairy leukoplakia and central nervous system lymphomas . (wikipedia.org)
  • The gamma-herpesvirus, HHV-8, causes Kaposi's sarcoma and body cavity lymphoma, among other rare diseases mostly seen in patients with HIV/AIDS. (springer.com)
  • A 2017 study looking at the human blood virome in 8,240 humans between the ages of 2 months to 102 years found that 20.37% of them were positive for HHV-7. (wikipedia.org)
  • Date:4/6/2017). (bio-medicine.org)
  • Date:4/4/2017). (bio-medicine.org)
  • Bovine herpesvirus 4-based vector delivering a hybrid rat/human HER-2 oncoantigen efficiently protects mice from autochthonous Her-2+ mammary cancer. (nih.gov)
  • en] In contrast to most gammaherpesviruses, Bovine herpesvirus 4 (BoHV-4) has a broad range of host species both in vitro and in vivo. (ac.be)
  • Compared to other β-herpesviruses, HHV-6B exhibits high similarity in capsid structure but organizational differences in its CATC (pU11 tetramer). (nature.com)
  • Our results offer insights into HHV-6B capsid assembly and the roles of its tegument proteins, including not only the β-herpesvirus-specific pU11 and pU14, but also those conserved across all subfamilies of Herpesviridae . (nature.com)
  • Capsid assembly and genome packaging of herpesviruses are prone to interruption and can therefore be targeted for the structure-guided development of antiviral agents. (readbyqxmd.com)
  • Swaminathan's team uncovered spironolactone's antiviral properties in a screen to identify drugs that work through a mechanism that is different from that of existing anti-herpesvirus drugs. (medicalxpress.com)
  • EBV persists for life in the human host while facing vigorous antiviral responses that are induced upon primary infection. (jimmunol.org)
  • The past decade has provided ample evidence that herpesviruses have acquired gene products that thwart host antiviral responses ( 5 , 6 , 7 , 8 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • This indicates that the HHV-6 gB homologue is probably processed by proteolytic cleavage similar to its equivalents in HCMV and various other herpesviruses. (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • HSV 4 or EBV: causes infectious mononucleosis and Burkitt's lymphoma. (sciencephoto.com)
  • EBV, or human herpesvirus 4, is the virus that causes infectious mononucleosis . (encyclopedia.com)
  • The conclusions, findings, and opinions expressed by authors contributing to this journal do not necessarily reflect the official position of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, the Public Health Service, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, or the authors' affiliated institutions. (cdc.gov)
  • The human herpesvirus 6, according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, infects nearly 100 percent of Americans. (livestrong.com)
  • OBJECTIVES The new human herpesvirus type 8 (HHV-8) has been detected in all types of Kaposi's sarcomas, as well as in body-cavity lymphomas and Castleman's disease. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Roseola infantum is a childhood disease caused by herpesvirus 6 (and sometimes 7). (merckmanuals.com)
  • This extreme degree of morbidity and mortality has given the impression that B virus infection in humans nearly always results in severe or fatal disease. (cdc.gov)
  • Although the risk for human B virus disease from macaque exposure in these settings is considered low, precautions are indicated given the severe consequences of infection. (cdc.gov)
  • To date a total of 8 human HVs are known, having the characteristic of establishing a life-long latent infection: a state from which the virus can be reactivated and result in recurring disease. (intechopen.com)
  • EHV-4 typically causes respiratory disease but has also been known to cause abortions. (albertafarmexpress.ca)
  • The disease is not spread from horse to horse or from a horse to a human. (michigan.gov)
  • The disease can be caused by several different strains, but most commonly type 1 which causes respiratory disease, abortions, and/or neurologic disease, type 3 which causes coital exanthema, a venereal disease resulting in vesicles/pustules on the genital area of both male and female equidae, and type 4 which causes respiratory disease, especially in weanlings, but can rarely cause abortions, too. (michigan.gov)
  • Equine Herpesvirus-1, EHV-1, (strain 1) has been an emerging disease as of late, especially in the neurologic form. (michigan.gov)
  • In addition, oxidative stress has been found to precede amyloid deposition in sporadic and familial AD (5-7), and one cannot completely exclude the possibility that the involvement of HSV1, like amyloid (4,8), is a response to disease. (alzforum.org)
  • The clinical findings of 47 patients with exanthema subitum (ES) serologically confirmed human herpesvirus-6 (HHV-6) infection were analyzed. (nii.ac.jp)
  • De Bolle L, Naesens L, De Clercq E. Update on human herpesvirus 6 biology, clinical features, and therapy. (medscape.com)
  • Treatment of human herpesvirus 6 (HHV-6) infection varies according to the presenting clinical situation. (medscape.com)
  • Is there an indication for serologic testing for human herpesvirus 8 (HHV-8) in asymptomatic HIV-infected children (compared with not testing) to guide clinical management? (nih.gov)
  • Although they vary, in part, in the clinical disorders they cause, and in their molecular structure, they share several features that govern the biology of their infection of the human nervous system. (springer.com)
  • Researchers at UCSD hope to begin pre-clinical work on development of a human vaccine. (bio-medicine.org)
  • Despite the fact that the herpesviruses are genetically and structurally similar, they cause a wide array of generally non-overlapping clinical syndromes. (merckmanuals.com)
  • Therefore, it may contribute in clarifying the pathological potential of human herpesviruses using a large number of clinical samples. (nih.gov)
  • After the primary infection, the human alphaherpesvirinae sub-family remains quiescent in the nerve ganglia from which it can periodically reactivate, causing clinical manifestations. (intechopen.com)
  • Five different populations were studied: (1) 45 AIDS patients with Kaposi's sarcoma (AIDS-KS), (2) 154 HIV-1-infected patients without clinical evidence of KS, (3) 171 HIV-negative blood donors, (4) 27 consecutive kidney transplant recipients, who were HIV-negative, and (5) 13 contacts (sexual contacts or relatives) of the AIDS-KS-affected patients. (scielosp.org)
  • Briefly, peripheral blood macrophages were cultured in RPMI 1640 supplemented with 25% horse serum on plastic plates coated with collagen (Sumitomo Bakelite Co., Ltd.). Macrophages were infected with HHV-6 strain HST on day 7 and were cultured for 4 weeks. (asm.org)
  • The gene for the homologue of herpesvirus glycoprotein B (gB) has been identified in the genome of human herpesvirus 6 (HHV-6), strain U1102, and the nucleotide sequence was determined. (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • This trend in CATC quantity correlates with the increasing genomes sizes of these β-herpesviruses. (nature.com)
  • The genomes of the human herpesviruses: contents, relationships, and evolution. (springer.com)
  • We have performed a screen aimed at identifying human herpesvirus 6 (HHV-6)-encoded proteins that modulate immune recognition. (asm.org)
  • Whereas herpesviruses devote a large fraction of their coding potential to immune evasion ( 33 , 41 ), only a few HHV-6 proteins involved in immune evasion have been characterized so far. (asm.org)
  • But because all herpesviruses depend on SM-like proteins to spread infection, the work also has broader implications. (medicalxpress.com)
  • However, herpesvirus capsids-comprising nearly 3,000 proteins and over 1,300 Å in diameter-present a formidable challenge to atomic structure determination and functional mapping of molecular interactions. (readbyqxmd.com)
  • Using a case-control design and the polymerase chain reaction with site-specific primers, we screened newborn and childhood blood samples for the presence of eight human herpesviruses. (springer.com)
  • The aim of this study has been to examine patients presenting with fever and maculopapular rash without respiratory symptoms for human herpesviruses infection by using multiplex nested- polymerase chain reaction . (bvsalud.org)
  • HHV-6 infects nearly all human beings by the age of three and often results in fever, diarrhea, and the roseola rash. (nature.com)
  • A frequent etiology seen in this context is human herpesvirus-6 (HHV6) infection. (ajnr.org)
  • Human herpesvirus-6 (HHV6) is a ubiquitous neurotropic virus latent in most adults. (ajnr.org)
  • In keeping with this observation, two administrations of BoHV-4-RHuT-gD effectively protected BALB-neuT mice from tumor formation, with 50% of vaccinated animals tumor-free after 30 weeks from immunization compared to 100% of animals exhibiting at least one palpable tumor in the case of animals vaccinated with the other BoHV-4-HER-2 constructs. (nih.gov)
  • Ranid herpesvirus 1 (RaHV-1), also known as the Lucké tumor herpesvirus (LTHV), is a double-stranded DNA virus within the order Herpesvirales. (wikipedia.org)
  • Each of the following patients had undergone myeloablative conditioning with cyclophosphamide and total-body irradiation before transplantation and was receiving oral acyclovir for herpesvirus prophylaxis at the time of presentation. (ajnr.org)
  • Members of the human Herpesviridae family are candidates for representing the macroenvironmental factors associated with multiple sclerosis (MS) pathogenesis. (springer.com)
  • Alvarez-Lafuente R, De Las Heras V, Bartolome M, Garcia-Montojo M, Arroyo R (2006) Human herpesvirus 6 and multiple sclerosis: a one-year follow-up study. (springer.com)
  • Alvarez-Lafuente R, de las Heras V, Garcia-Montojo M, Bartolome M, Arroyo R (2007) Human herpesvirus-6 and multiple sclerosis: relapsing-remitting versus secondary progressive. (springer.com)
  • HHV-6A has been implicated in the etiology of several other pathologies ( 4 , 42 ), but this remains to be confirmed. (asm.org)
  • Human herpesvirus 6B genome sequence: coding content and comparison with human herpesvirus 6A. (prolekare.cz)
  • At least 81 ORFs, including 66 with homology to herpesvirus saimiri ORFs, and 5 internal repeat regions are present in the long unique region. (pnas.org)
  • A diagnosis of Neurotropic equine herpesvirus (nEHV-1) in a horse displaying neurological symptoms has recently been confirmed in Saskatchewan. (albertafarmexpress.ca)
  • Equine herpesvirus (EHV) is a common contagious virus of horses. (albertafarmexpress.ca)
  • Visit the USDA's Equine Herpesvirus (EHV) website to learn more. (michigan.gov)
  • As of 2012, this order currently has 3 families, 4 subfamilies (1 unassigned), 18 genera (4 unassigned) and 97 species. (wikipedia.org)
  • This hallmark is shared by all members of the herpesvirus family, classified into α-, β-, and γ-subfamilies. (jimmunol.org)
  • Electron microscopy revealed a novel virus that they named Human B-Lymphotrophic Virus (HBLV). (wikipedia.org)
  • What's new in human herpes-virus-6? (nii.ac.jp)
  • Ranid herpesvirus 1 is a double-stranded DNA virus approximately 217kbp in size. (wikipedia.org)
  • This is due to the fact that it shares many of its genomic and pathogenic characteristics with Ictalurid herpesvirus 1, another virus within the family Alloherpesviridae. (wikipedia.org)
  • Human Herpes Virus 6 (HHV-6) is a virus which especially causes infection in CD4 + T lymphocytes and ranks among the herpes group that is widely seen all over the world. (omicsonline.org)
  • Human Vaccine for Herpes Virus on the Anvil ( Researchers at the University of Califo. (bio-medicine.org)
  • Immune surveillance by CD8αα+ skin-resident T cells in human herpes virus infection. (springer.com)
  • The virus was initially identified from two herpesvirus DNA fragments, KS330Bam and KS631Bam ( 4 ). (pnas.org)
  • Seventeen additional cases of B virus infection in humans were described through 1973 (2)* and four cases, including the first known case of person-to-person transmission of the virus, occurred in Pensacola, Florida, in 1987 (5). (cdc.gov)
  • The purpose of the working group was to supplement existing methods with specific guidelines intended to minimize transmission of B virus infection from macaque monkeys to humans. (cdc.gov)
  • Except for one instance of person-to-person transmission, however, all cases of B virus infection in humans have occurred in persons exposed to monkeys or monkey tissues. (cdc.gov)
  • Persons who have handled macaques since B virus infection was first reported in humans number in the thousands, yet only 22 well-documented cases of infection have been described. (cdc.gov)
  • The Telomeric Repeats of Human Herpesvirus 6A (HHV-6A) Are Required for Efficient Virus Integration. (prolekare.cz)
  • Upon learning about the macaque bite, the local health department contacted OPHD, where staff members expressed concern about possible exposure to Macacine herpesvirus 1 (B virus). (cdc.gov)
  • This virus, commonly found in macaques,* can, in rare cases, cause severe encephalitic infection in humans if not treated promptly ( 1 ). (cdc.gov)
  • Because B virus can establish a lifelong latent infection with possible subsequent illness ( 3 ), the patient was advised always to carry a Medical Alert card** in case symptoms occur despite her initial negative tests ( 4 ). (cdc.gov)
  • Symptomatic B virus infection in humans is rare. (cdc.gov)
  • The virus poses no human health risk. (albertafarmexpress.ca)
  • Herpesvirus DNA was detected in 4 of 225 ASD individuals and 2 of 235 controls, with the most frequently detected virus being HHV-6B. (springer.com)
  • Through their TCRs, CD8 + CTLs scrutinize body cells for the presence of intracellular foreign invaders reflected at the cell surface by virus-derived peptides bound to host MHC class I molecules (HLA in humans). (jimmunol.org)
  • Among its related pathways are Preimplantation Embryo and Human T-cell leukemia virus 1 infection . (genecards.org)
  • Chromosomally integrated human herpesvirus 6: questions and answers. (medscape.com)
  • HHV-6A and HHV-6B infect almost all of the human populations that have been tested. (wikipedia.org)
  • Reflects diff in evolutionary history of these populations 4. (coursehero.com)
  • Many patients with tuberculosis (TB) are seropositive for human herpesvirus type 8 (HHV-8), and many patients with primary effusion lymphoma have high levels of HHV-8 DNA in their effusions. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Burkitt's lymphoma is one of the most rapidly growing forms of human cancer. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Transmission from macaques to humans in public settings, such as parks, has not been documented. (cdc.gov)
  • Bello-Morales R, Fedetz M, Alcina A, Tabares E, Lopez-Guerrero JA (2005) High susceptibility of a human oligodendroglial cell line to herpes simplex type 1 infection. (springer.com)
  • Human herpesvirus type 8 in HIV-infected patients with interstitial pneumonitis. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Immunohistochemical and molecular assessment of human herpesvirus type 8 in gastrointestinal tumours. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Although factors like IL-4, IL-13, and thymic stromal lymphopoietin (TSLP) are thought to be instrumental for the development of this type of skin disorder, other cytokines may be critical. (readbyqxmd.com)
  • Herpesvirus was established as a genus in 1971 in the first report of the ICTV. (wikipedia.org)
  • Genus Tequatrovirus ( T4virus , T4-ähnliche Viren , en. (wikipedia.org)
  • On December 15, 2016 Human Herpesvirus 8 and Microsporidiosis were updated. (nih.gov)
  • Our results demonstrate that human sera from naïve individuals, in contrast to the sera of naïve subjects from various animal species, neutralize BoHV-4 efficiently. (ac.be)
  • Ranid herpesvirus 1 has not yet been isolated within cell lines, despite multiple efforts utilizing various cells from amphibian, mammalian, and piscine species. (wikipedia.org)
  • Human herpesvirus-6 infection in children. (medscape.com)
  • Human herpesvirus infection in children with fever and maculopapular rash. (bvsalud.org)