A species in the genus RHADINOVIRUS, subfamily GAMMAHERPESVIRINAE, isolated from patients with AIDS-related and "classical" Kaposi sarcoma.
The type species of ROSEOLOVIRUS isolated from patients with AIDS and other LYMPHOPROLIFERATIVE DISORDERS. It infects and replicates in fresh and established lines of hematopoietic cells and cells of neural origin. It also appears to alter NK cell activity. HHV-6; (HBLV) antibodies are elevated in patients with AIDS, Sjogren's syndrome, sarcoidosis, chronic fatigue syndrome, and certain malignancies. HHV-6 is the cause of EXANTHEMA SUBITUM and has been implicated in encephalitis.
The type species of RHADINOVIRUS, in the subfamily GAMMAHERPESVIRINAE, isolated from squirrel monkeys. It produces malignant lymphomas (LYMPHOMA, MALIGNANT) in inoculated marmosets or owl monkeys.
A species of VARICELLOVIRUS causing abortion and respiratory disease in horses.
A family of enveloped, linear, double-stranded DNA viruses infecting a wide variety of animals. Subfamilies, based on biological characteristics, include: ALPHAHERPESVIRINAE; BETAHERPESVIRINAE; and GAMMAHERPESVIRINAE.
A species of VARICELLOVIRUS that causes INFECTIOUS BOVINE RHINOTRACHEITIS and other associated syndromes in CATTLE.
Virus diseases caused by the HERPESVIRIDAE.
A species in the genus ROSEOLOVIRUS, of the family HERPESVIRIDAE. It was isolated from activated, CD4-positive T-lymphocytes taken from the blood of a healthy human.
A species in the genus RHADINOVIRUS, subfamily GAMMAHERPESVIRINAE, infecting cattle.
A multicentric, malignant neoplastic vascular proliferation characterized by the development of bluish-red cutaneous nodules, usually on the lower extremities, most often on the toes or feet, and slowly increasing in size and number and spreading to more proximal areas. The tumors have endothelium-lined channels and vascular spaces admixed with variably sized aggregates of spindle-shaped cells, and often remain confined to the skin and subcutaneous tissue, but widespread visceral involvement may occur. Kaposi's sarcoma occurs spontaneously in Jewish and Italian males in Europe and the United States. An aggressive variant in young children is endemic in some areas of Africa. A third form occurs in about 0.04% of kidney transplant patients. There is also a high incidence in AIDS patients. (From Dorland, 27th ed & Holland et al., Cancer Medicine, 3d ed, pp2105-7) HHV-8 is the suspected cause.
A species of VARICELLOVIRUS virus that causes a disease in newborn puppies.
The type species of the genus MARDIVIRUS in the family HERPESVIRIDAE. It is the etiologic agent of MAREK DISEASE, infecting domestic fowl and wild birds.
A species of VARICELLOVIRUS that causes a fatal MENINGOENCEPHALITIS in calves.
A species of VARICELLOVIRUS and the chief cause of rhinopneumonitis in horses.
Infection with ROSEOLOVIRUS, the most common in humans being EXANTHEMA SUBITUM, a benign disease of infants and young children.
A species of SIMPLEXVIRUS that causes vesicular lesions of the mouth in monkeys. When the virus is transmitted to man it causes an acute encephalitis or encephalomyelitis, which is nearly always fatal.
Proteins found in any species of virus.
A subfamily of HERPESVIRIDAE characterized by a short replication cycle. The genera include: SIMPLEXVIRUS; VARICELLOVIRUS; MAREK'S DISEASE-LIKE VIRUSES; and ILTOVIRUS.
A species of VARICELLOVIRUS producing a respiratory infection (PSEUDORABIES) in swine, its natural host. It also produces an usually fatal ENCEPHALOMYELITIS in cattle, sheep, dogs, cats, foxes, and mink.
A subfamily of HERPESVIRIDAE characterized by variable reproductive cycles. The genera include: LYMPHOCRYPTOVIRUS and RHADINOVIRUS.
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.
The type species of LYMPHOCRYPTOVIRUS, subfamily GAMMAHERPESVIRINAE, infecting B-cells in humans. It is thought to be the causative agent of INFECTIOUS MONONUCLEOSIS and is strongly associated with oral hairy leukoplakia (LEUKOPLAKIA, HAIRY;), BURKITT LYMPHOMA; and other malignancies.
The type species of SIMPLEXVIRUS causing most forms of non-genital herpes simplex in humans. Primary infection occurs mainly in infants and young children and then the virus becomes latent in the dorsal root ganglion. It then is periodically reactivated throughout life causing mostly benign conditions.
The ability of a pathogenic virus to lie dormant within a cell (latent infection). In eukaryotes, subsequent activation and viral replication is thought to be caused by extracellular stimulation of cellular transcription factors. Latency in bacteriophage is maintained by the expression of virally encoded repressors.
A genus of the family HERPESVIRIDAE, subfamily ALPHAHERPESVIRINAE. Its species include those causing CHICKENPOX and HERPES ZOSTER in humans (HERPESVIRUS 3, HUMAN), as well as several animal viruses.
A species of VARICELLOVIRUS causing coital exanthema in horses.
Any of the processes by which cytoplasmic factors influence the differential control of gene action in viruses.
The mechanism by which latent viruses, such as genetically transmitted tumor viruses (PROVIRUSES) or PROPHAGES of lysogenic bacteria, are induced to replicate and then released as infectious viruses. It may be effected by various endogenous and exogenous stimuli, including B-cell LIPOPOLYSACCHARIDES, glucocorticoid hormones, halogenated pyrimidines, IONIZING RADIATION, ultraviolet light, and superinfecting viruses.
A subfamily of HERPESVIRIDAE characterized by a relatively long replication cycle. Genera include: CYTOMEGALOVIRUS; MUROMEGALOVIRUS; and ROSEOLOVIRUS.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
A sequence of successive nucleotide triplets that are read as CODONS specifying AMINO ACIDS and begin with an INITIATOR CODON and end with a stop codon (CODON, TERMINATOR).
A species in the genus MAREK'S DISEASE-LIKE VIRUSES, in the family HERPESVIRIDAE, infecting turkeys.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
The process of intracellular viral multiplication, consisting of the synthesis of PROTEINS; NUCLEIC ACIDS; and sometimes LIPIDS, and their assembly into a new infectious particle.
Substances elaborated by viruses that have antigenic activity.
Immunoglobulins produced in response to VIRAL ANTIGENS.
The complete genetic complement contained in a DNA or RNA molecule in a virus.
The functional hereditary units of VIRUSES.
A species in the family AOTIDAE, inhabiting the forested regions of Central and South America (from Panama to the Amazon). Vocalizations occur primarily at night when they are active, thus they are also known as Northern night monkeys.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
Proteins that are coded by immediate-early genes, in the absence of de novo protein synthesis. The term was originally used exclusively for viral regulatory proteins that were synthesized just after viral integration into the host cell. It is also used to describe cellular proteins which are synthesized immediately after the resting cell is stimulated by extracellular signals.
The type species of the genus ILTOVIRUS found on every continent and affecting mainly chickens and occasionally pheasants.
The type species of VARICELLOVIRUS causing CHICKENPOX (varicella) and HERPES ZOSTER (shingles) in humans.
An acute, short-lived, viral disease of infants and young children characterized by a high fever at onset that drops to normal after 3-4 days and the concomitant appearance of a macular or maculopapular rash that appears first on the trunk and then spreads to other areas. It is the sixth of the classical exanthematous diseases and is caused by HHV-6; (HERPESVIRUS 6, HUMAN). (From Dorland, 27th ed)
A species of the family HERPESVIRIDAE, whose genus is so far unassigned. It is probably the causative agent of ADENOMA or ADENOCARCINOMA in the kidneys of certain frogs.
Layers of protein which surround the capsid in animal viruses with tubular nucleocapsids. The envelope consists of an inner layer of lipids and virus specified proteins also called membrane or matrix proteins. The outer layer consists of one or more types of morphological subunits called peplomers which project from the viral envelope; this layer always consists of glycoproteins.
A transmissible viral disease of birds caused by avian herpesvirus 2 (HERPESVIRUS 2, GALLID) and other MARDIVIRUS. There is lymphoid cell infiltration or lymphomatous tumor formation in the peripheral nerves and gonads, but may also involve visceral organs, skin, muscle, and the eye.
Diseases of domestic and wild horses of the species Equus caballus.
A herpesvirus infection of CATTLE characterized by INFLAMMATION and NECROSIS of the mucous membranes of the upper RESPIRATORY TRACT.
A novel member of the tumor-necrosis factor receptor family that can also mediate HERPES SIMPLEX VIRUS TYPE 1 entry into cells. It has specificity for TUMOR NECROSIS FACTOR LIGAND SUPERFAMILY MEMBER 14 and the homotrimeric form of LYMPHOTOXIN-ALPHA. The receptor is abundantly expressed on T-LYMPHOCYTES and may play a role in regulating lymphocyte activation. Signaling by the activated receptor occurs through its association with TNF RECEPTOR-ASSOCIATED FACTORS.
A genus of the family HERPESVIRIDAE, subfamily ALPHAHERPESVIRINAE, consisting of herpes simplex-like viruses. The type species is HERPESVIRUS 1, HUMAN.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
Large, hoofed mammals of the family EQUIDAE. Horses are active day and night with most of the day spent seeking and consuming food. Feeding peaks occur in the early morning and late afternoon, and there are several daily periods of rest.
A subfamily in the family CEBIDAE that consists of four genera: CALLITHRIX (marmosets), CALLIMICO (Goeldi's monkey), LEONTOPITHECUS (lion tamarins), and SAGUINUS (long-tusked tamarins). The members of this family inhabit the tropical forests of South and Central America.
In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.
A herpesvirus infection of cattle characterized by catarrhal inflammation of the upper respiratory and alimentary epithelia, keratoconjunctivitis, encephalitis and lymph node enlargement. Syn: bovine epitheliosis, snotsiekte.
A species of SIMPLEXVIRUS associated with genital infections (HERPES GENITALIS). It is transmitted by sexual intercourse and close personal contact.
Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.
Large benign, hyperplastic lymph nodes. The more common hyaline vascular subtype is characterized by small hyaline vascular follicles and interfollicular capillary proliferations. Plasma cells are often present and represent another subtype with the plasma cells containing IgM and IMMUNOGLOBULIN A.
A genus of the family HERPESVIRIDAE, subfamily BETAHERPESVIRINAE, infecting the salivary glands, liver, spleen, lungs, eyes, and other organs, in which they produce characteristically enlarged cells with intranuclear inclusions. Infection with Cytomegalovirus is also seen as an opportunistic infection in AIDS.
Diseases of domestic cattle of the genus Bos. It includes diseases of cows, yaks, and zebus.
The infective system of a virus, composed of the viral genome, a protein core, and a protein coat called a capsid, which may be naked or enclosed in a lipoprotein envelope called the peplos.
A family of the New World monkeys inhabiting the forests of South and Central America. There is a single genus and several species occurring in this family, including AOTUS TRIVIRGATUS (Northern night monkeys).
Diffusible gene products that act on homologous or heterologous molecules of viral or cellular DNA to regulate the expression of proteins.
Viral proteins that are components of the mature assembled VIRUS PARTICLES. They may include nucleocapsid core proteins (gag proteins), enzymes packaged within the virus particle (pol proteins), and membrane components (env proteins). These do not include the proteins encoded in the VIRAL GENOME that are produced in infected cells but which are not packaged in the mature virus particle,i.e. the so called non-structural proteins (VIRAL NONSTRUCTURAL PROTEINS).
A group of acute infections caused by herpes simplex virus type 1 or type 2 that is characterized by the development of one or more small fluid-filled vesicles with a raised erythematous base on the skin or mucous membrane. It occurs as a primary infection or recurs due to a reactivation of a latent infection. (Dorland, 27th ed.)
A species in the genus MAREK'S DISEASE-LIKE VIRUSES, in the family HERPESVIRIDAE, infecting chickens.
Any of various ruminant mammals of the order Bovidae. They include numerous species in Africa and the American pronghorn.
A highly contagious herpesvirus infection affecting the central nervous system of swine, cattle, dogs, cats, rats, and other animals.
Common name for a number of different species of fish in the family Cyprinidae. This includes, among others, the common carp, crucian carp, grass carp, and silver carp.
Method for measuring viral infectivity and multiplication in CULTURED CELLS. Clear lysed areas or plaques develop as the VIRAL PARTICLES are released from the infected cells during incubation. With some VIRUSES, the cells are killed by a cytopathic effect; with others, the infected cells are not killed but can be detected by their hemadsorptive ability. Sometimes the plaque cells contain VIRAL ANTIGENS which can be measured by IMMUNOFLUORESCENCE.
An inheritable change in cells manifested by changes in cell division and growth and alterations in cell surface properties. It is induced by infection with a transforming virus.
Proteins found in the nucleus of a cell. Do not confuse with NUCLEOPROTEINS which are proteins conjugated with nucleic acids, that are not necessarily present in the nucleus.
Inflammation of brain parenchymal tissue as a result of viral infection. Encephalitis may occur as primary or secondary manifestation of TOGAVIRIDAE INFECTIONS; HERPESVIRIDAE INFECTIONS; ADENOVIRIDAE INFECTIONS; FLAVIVIRIDAE INFECTIONS; BUNYAVIRIDAE INFECTIONS; PICORNAVIRIDAE INFECTIONS; PARAMYXOVIRIDAE INFECTIONS; ORTHOMYXOVIRIDAE INFECTIONS; RETROVIRIDAE INFECTIONS; and ARENAVIRIDAE INFECTIONS.
Large woodland game BIRDS in the subfamily Meleagridinae, family Phasianidae, order GALLIFORMES. Formerly they were considered a distinct family, Melegrididae.
A CELL LINE derived from the kidney of the African green (vervet) monkey, (CERCOPITHECUS AETHIOPS) used primarily in virus replication studies and plaque assays.
A genus in the family HERPESVIRIDAE, subfamily ALPHAHERPESVIRINAE, associated with malignancy in birds.
Visible morphologic changes in cells infected with viruses. It includes shutdown of cellular RNA and protein synthesis, cell fusion, release of lysosomal enzymes, changes in cell membrane permeability, diffuse changes in intracellular structures, presence of viral inclusion bodies, and chromosomal aberrations. It excludes malignant transformation, which is CELL TRANSFORMATION, VIRAL. Viral cytopathogenic effects provide a valuable method for identifying and classifying the infecting viruses.
Infections produced by oncogenic viruses. The infections caused by DNA viruses are less numerous but more diverse than those caused by the RNA oncogenic viruses.
A species of CERCOPITHECUS containing three subspecies: C. tantalus, C. pygerythrus, and C. sabeus. They are found in the forests and savannah of Africa. The African green monkey (C. pygerythrus) is the natural host of SIMIAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS and is used in AIDS research.
EPIDEMIOLOGIC STUDIES based on the detection through serological testing of characteristic change in the serum level of specific ANTIBODIES. Latent subclinical infections and carrier states can thus be detected in addition to clinically overt cases.
Ribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.
A genus in the subfamily CALLITRICHINAE consisting of 12 species and found in Panama as well as South America. Species seen most frequently in the literature are S. oedipus (cotton-top marmoset), S. nigricollis, and S. fusicollis.
DNA sequences which are recognized (directly or indirectly) and bound by a DNA-dependent RNA polymerase during the initiation of transcription. Highly conserved sequences within the promoter include the Pribnow box in bacteria and the TATA BOX in eukaryotes.
An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of ATP and thymidine to ADP and thymidine 5'-phosphate. Deoxyuridine can also act as an acceptor and dGTP as a donor. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 2.7.1.21.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
The measurement of infection-blocking titer of ANTISERA by testing a series of dilutions for a given virus-antiserum interaction end-point, which is generally the dilution at which tissue cultures inoculated with the serum-virus mixtures demonstrate cytopathology (CPE) or the dilution at which 50% of test animals injected with serum-virus mixtures show infectivity (ID50) or die (LD50).
A large superfamily of transcription factors that contain a region rich in BASIC AMINO ACID residues followed by a LEUCINE ZIPPER domain.
Agents used in the prophylaxis or therapy of VIRUS DISEASES. Some of the ways they may act include preventing viral replication by inhibiting viral DNA polymerase; binding to specific cell-surface receptors and inhibiting viral penetration or uncoating; inhibiting viral protein synthesis; or blocking late stages of virus assembly.
DNA constructs that are composed of, at least, a REPLICATION ORIGIN, for successful replication, propagation to and maintenance as an extra chromosome in bacteria. In addition, they can carry large amounts (about 200 kilobases) of other sequence for a variety of bioengineering purposes.
The expelling of virus particles from the body. Important routes include the respiratory tract, genital tract, and intestinal tract. Virus shedding is an important means of vertical transmission (INFECTIOUS DISEASE TRANSMISSION, VERTICAL).
An inflammatory process involving the brain (ENCEPHALITIS) and meninges (MENINGITIS), most often produced by pathogenic organisms which invade the central nervous system, and occasionally by toxins, autoimmune disorders, and other conditions.
The interactions between a host and a pathogen, usually resulting in disease.
A simple organophosphorus compound that inhibits DNA polymerase, especially in viruses and is used as an antiviral agent.
An area showing altered staining behavior in the nucleus or cytoplasm of a virus-infected cell. Some inclusion bodies represent "virus factories" in which viral nucleic acid or protein is being synthesized; others are merely artifacts of fixation and staining. One example, Negri bodies, are found in the cytoplasm or processes of nerve cells in animals that have died from rabies.
Specific molecular components of the cell capable of recognizing and interacting with a virus, and which, after binding it, are capable of generating some signal that initiates the chain of events leading to the biological response.
Diseases of freshwater, marine, hatchery or aquarium fish. This term includes diseases of both teleosts (true fish) and elasmobranchs (sharks, rays and skates).
The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.
Process of growing viruses in live animals, plants, or cultured cells.
Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.
An unassigned genus in the family HERPESVIRIDAE, comprising one species Ictalurid herpesvirus 1 (Channel Catfish Virus).
The sequential correspondence of nucleotides in one nucleic acid molecule with those of another nucleic acid molecule. Sequence homology is an indication of the genetic relatedness of different organisms and gene function.
A general term for various neoplastic diseases of the lymphoid tissue.
A genus of the subfamily CALLITRICHINAE occurring in forests of Brazil and Bolivia and containing seventeen species.
The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.
A suborder of PRIMATES consisting of six families: CEBIDAE (some New World monkeys), ATELIDAE (some New World monkeys), CERCOPITHECIDAE (Old World monkeys), HYLOBATIDAE (gibbons and siamangs), CALLITRICHINAE (marmosets and tamarins), and HOMINIDAE (humans and great apes).
Genes that show rapid and transient expression in the absence of de novo protein synthesis. The term was originally used exclusively for viral genes where immediate-early referred to transcription immediately following virus integration into the host cell. It is also used to describe cellular genes which are expressed immediately after resting cells are stimulated by extracellular signals such as growth factors and neurotransmitters.
Test for tissue antigen using either a direct method, by conjugation of antibody with fluorescent dye (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, DIRECT) or an indirect method, by formation of antigen-antibody complex which is then labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, INDIRECT). The tissue is then examined by fluorescence microscopy.
Diseases of animals within the order PRIMATES. This term includes diseases of Haplorhini and Strepsirhini.
The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.
Conjugated protein-carbohydrate compounds including mucins, mucoid, and amyloid glycoproteins.
B-cell lymphoid tumors that occur in association with AIDS. Patients often present with an advanced stage of disease and highly malignant subtypes including BURKITT LYMPHOMA; IMMUNOBLASTIC LARGE-CELL LYMPHOMA; PRIMARY EFFUSION LYMPHOMA; and DIFFUSE, LARGE B-CELL, LYMPHOMA. The tumors are often disseminated in unusual extranodal sites and chromosomal abnormalities are frequently present. It is likely that polyclonal B-cell lymphoproliferation in AIDS is a complex result of EBV infection, HIV antigenic stimulation, and T-cell-dependent HIV activation.
A family of transcription factors that share an N-terminal HELIX-TURN-HELIX MOTIF and bind INTERFERON-inducible promoters to control GENE expression. IRF proteins bind specific DNA sequences such as interferon-stimulated response elements, interferon regulatory elements, and the interferon consensus sequence.
The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.
DNA-dependent DNA polymerases found in bacteria, animal and plant cells. During the replication process, these enzymes catalyze the addition of deoxyribonucleotide residues to the end of a DNA strand in the presence of DNA as template-primer. They also possess exonuclease activity and therefore function in DNA repair.
A member of tumor necrosis factor superfamily found on activated LYMPHOCYTES and MONOCYTES. It occurs as transmembrane protein that can be cleaved to release a secreted form that specifically binds to LYMPHOTOXIN BETA RECEPTOR and TUMOR NECROSIS FACTOR RECEPTOR SUPERFAMILY, MEMBER 14.
The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.
A genus of the family CEBIDAE consisting of four species: S. boliviensis, S. orstedii (red-backed squirrel monkey), S. sciureus (common squirrel monkey), and S. ustus. They inhabit tropical rain forests in Central and South America. S. sciureus is used extensively in research studies.
A family of hoofed MAMMALS consisting of HORSES, donkeys, and zebras. Members of this family are strict herbivores and can be classified as either browsers or grazers depending on how they feed.
Infection with human herpesvirus 4 (HERPESVIRUS 4, HUMAN); which may facilitate the development of various lymphoproliferative disorders. These include BURKITT LYMPHOMA (African type), INFECTIOUS MONONUCLEOSIS, and oral hairy leukoplakia (LEUKOPLAKIA, HAIRY).
Infection with CYTOMEGALOVIRUS, characterized by enlarged cells bearing intranuclear inclusions. Infection may be in almost any organ, but the salivary glands are the most common site in children, as are the lungs in adults.
Eukaryotic cell line obtained in a quiescent or stationary phase which undergoes conversion to a state of unregulated growth in culture, resembling an in vitro tumor. It occurs spontaneously or through interaction with viruses, oncogenes, radiation, or drugs/chemicals.
The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.
A genus of the subfamily CERCOPITHECINAE, family CERCOPITHECIDAE, consisting of five named species: PAPIO URSINUS (chacma baboon), PAPIO CYNOCEPHALUS (yellow baboon), PAPIO PAPIO (western baboon), PAPIO ANUBIS (or olive baboon), and PAPIO HAMADRYAS (hamadryas baboon). Members of the Papio genus inhabit open woodland, savannahs, grassland, and rocky hill country. Some authors consider MANDRILLUS a subgenus of Papio.
Use of restriction endonucleases to analyze and generate a physical map of genomes, genes, or other segments of DNA.
Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.
The outer protein protective shell of a virus, which protects the viral nucleic acid.
Sequences of DNA or RNA that occur in multiple copies. There are several types: INTERSPERSED REPETITIVE SEQUENCES are copies of transposable elements (DNA TRANSPOSABLE ELEMENTS or RETROELEMENTS) dispersed throughout the genome. TERMINAL REPEAT SEQUENCES flank both ends of another sequence, for example, the long terminal repeats (LTRs) on RETROVIRUSES. Variations may be direct repeats, those occurring in the same direction, or inverted repeats, those opposite to each other in direction. TANDEM REPEAT SEQUENCES are copies which lie adjacent to each other, direct or inverted (INVERTED REPEAT SEQUENCES).
A family of North American freshwater CATFISHES. It consists of four genera (Ameiurus, Ictalurus, Noturus, Pylodictis,) comprising several species, two of which are eyeless.
Premature expulsion of the FETUS in animals.
Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.
The entering of cells by viruses following VIRUS ATTACHMENT. This is achieved by ENDOCYTOSIS, by direct MEMBRANE FUSION of the viral membrane with the CELL MEMBRANE, or by translocation of the whole virus across the cell membrane.
Processes that stimulate the GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION of a gene or set of genes.
Suspensions of attenuated or killed viruses administered for the prevention or treatment of infectious viral disease.
A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.
Methods used by pathogenic organisms to evade a host's immune system.
The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.
Nucleotide sequences repeated on both the 5' and 3' ends of a sequence under consideration. For example, the hallmarks of a transposon are that it is flanked by inverted repeats on each end and the inverted repeats are flanked by direct repeats. The Delta element of Ty retrotransposons and LTRs (long terminal repeats) are examples of this concept.
The process by which a DNA molecule is duplicated.
A GUANOSINE analog that acts as an antimetabolite. Viruses are especially susceptible. Used especially against herpes.
Within a eukaryotic cell, a membrane-limited body which contains chromosomes and one or more nucleoli (CELL NUCLEOLUS). The nuclear membrane consists of a double unit-type membrane which is perforated by a number of pores; the outermost membrane is continuous with the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM. A cell may contain more than one nucleus. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)
The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.
A genus of the family Bovidae having two species: B. bison and B. bonasus. This concept is differentiated from BUFFALOES, which refers to Bubalus arnee and Syncerus caffer.
Inflammation, often mild, of the conjunctiva caused by a variety of viral agents. Conjunctival involvement may be part of a systemic infection.
Lymphocytes responsible for cell-mediated immunity. Two types have been identified - cytotoxic (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and helper T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, HELPER-INDUCER). They are formed when lymphocytes circulate through the THYMUS GLAND and differentiate to thymocytes. When exposed to an antigen, they divide rapidly and produce large numbers of new T cells sensitized to that antigen.
The quantity of measurable virus in a body fluid. Change in viral load, measured in plasma, is sometimes used as a SURROGATE MARKER in disease progression.
Opportunistic infections found in patients who test positive for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). The most common include PNEUMOCYSTIS PNEUMONIA, Kaposi's sarcoma, cryptosporidiosis, herpes simplex, toxoplasmosis, cryptococcosis, and infections with Mycobacterium avium complex, Microsporidium, and Cytomegalovirus.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
The semilunar-shaped ganglion containing the cells of origin of most of the sensory fibers of the trigeminal nerve. It is situated within the dural cleft on the cerebral surface of the petrous portion of the temporal bone and gives off the ophthalmic, maxillary, and part of the mandibular nerves.
Immune status consisting of non-production of HIV antibodies, as determined by various serological tests.
Diseases of the domestic cat (Felis catus or F. domesticus). This term does not include diseases of the so-called big cats such as CHEETAHS; LIONS; tigers, cougars, panthers, leopards, and other Felidae for which the heading CARNIVORA is used.
A subfamily in the family MURIDAE, comprising the hamsters. Four of the more common genera are Cricetus, CRICETULUS; MESOCRICETUS; and PHODOPUS.
Viruses whose nucleic acid is DNA.
An ACYCLOVIR analog that is a potent inhibitor of the Herpesvirus family including cytomegalovirus. Ganciclovir is used to treat complications from AIDS-associated cytomegalovirus infections.
A genus of tree shrews of the family TUPAIIDAE which consists of about 12 species. One of the most frequently encountered species is T. glis. Members of this genus inhabit rain forests and secondary growth areas in southeast Asia.
Lymphoid cells concerned with humoral immunity. They are short-lived cells resembling bursa-derived lymphocytes of birds in their production of immunoglobulin upon appropriate stimulation.
A genetic rearrangement through loss of segments of DNA or RNA, bringing sequences which are normally separated into close proximity. This deletion may be detected using cytogenetic techniques and can also be inferred from the phenotype, indicating a deletion at one specific locus.
A general term indicating inflammation of the BRAIN and SPINAL CORD, often used to indicate an infectious process, but also applicable to a variety of autoimmune and toxic-metabolic conditions. There is significant overlap regarding the usage of this term and ENCEPHALITIS in the literature.
Cell surface glycoproteins that bind to chemokines and thus mediate the migration of pro-inflammatory molecules. The receptors are members of the seven-transmembrane G protein-coupled receptor family. Like the CHEMOKINES themselves, the receptors can be divided into at least three structural branches: CR, CCR, and CXCR, according to variations in a shared cysteine motif.
Infections of the eye caused by minute intracellular agents. These infections may lead to severe inflammation in various parts of the eye - conjunctiva, iris, eyelids, etc. Several viruses have been identified as the causative agents. Among these are Herpesvirus, Adenovirus, Poxvirus, and Myxovirus.
Cultivation of natural faunal resources of water. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Microscopy using an electron beam, instead of light, to visualize the sample, thereby allowing much greater magnification. The interactions of ELECTRONS with specimens are used to provide information about the fine structure of that specimen. In TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen are imaged. In SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY an electron beam falls at a non-normal angle on the specimen and the image is derived from the reactions occurring above the plane of the specimen.
A genus of the family HYLOBATIDAE consisting of six species. The members of this genus inhabit rain forests in southeast Asia. They are arboreal and differ from other anthropoids in the great length of their arms and very slender bodies and limbs. Their major means of locomotion is by swinging from branch to branch by their arms. Hylobates means dweller in the trees. Some authors refer to Symphalangus and Nomascus as Hylobates. The six genera include: H. concolor (crested or black gibbon), H. hoolock (Hoolock gibbon), H. klossii (Kloss's gibbon; dwarf siamang), H. lar (common gibbon), H. pileatus (pileated gibbon), and H. syndactylus (siamang). H. lar is also known as H. agilis (lar gibbon), H. moloch (agile gibbon), and H. muelleri (silvery gibbon).
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
The assembly of VIRAL STRUCTURAL PROTEINS and nucleic acid (VIRAL DNA or VIRAL RNA) to form a VIRUS PARTICLE.
Proteins which bind to DNA. The family includes proteins which bind to both double- and single-stranded DNA and also includes specific DNA binding proteins in serum which can be used as markers for malignant diseases.
Widely used technique which exploits the ability of complementary sequences in single-stranded DNAs or RNAs to pair with each other to form a double helix. Hybridization can take place between two complimentary DNA sequences, between a single-stranded DNA and a complementary RNA, or between two RNA sequences. The technique is used to detect and isolate specific sequences, measure homology, or define other characteristics of one or both strands. (Kendrew, Encyclopedia of Molecular Biology, 1994, p503)
The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.
A form of fluorescent antibody technique commonly used to detect serum antibodies and immune complexes in tissues and microorganisms in specimens from patients with infectious diseases. The technique involves formation of an antigen-antibody complex which is labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody. (From Bennington, Saunders Dictionary & Encyclopedia of Laboratory Medicine and Technology, 1984)
DNA molecules capable of autonomous replication within a host cell and into which other DNA sequences can be inserted and thus amplified. Many are derived from PLASMIDS; BACTERIOPHAGES; or VIRUSES. They are used for transporting foreign genes into recipient cells. Genetic vectors possess a functional replicator site and contain GENETIC MARKERS to facilitate their selective recognition.
A ubiquitously expressed sequence-specific transcriptional repressor that is normally the target of signaling by NOTCH PROTEINS.
Viral infections of the brain, spinal cord, meninges, or perimeningeal spaces.
Mature LYMPHOCYTES and MONOCYTES transported by the blood to the body's extravascular space. They are morphologically distinguishable from mature granulocytic leukocytes by their large, non-lobed nuclei and lack of coarse, heavily stained cytoplasmic granules.
Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.
Serologic tests in which a positive reaction manifested by visible CHEMICAL PRECIPITATION occurs when a soluble ANTIGEN reacts with its precipitins, i.e., ANTIBODIES that can form a precipitate.
An antiviral agent used in the treatment of cytomegalovirus retinitis. Foscarnet also shows activity against human herpesviruses and HIV.
Common name for the species Gallus gallus, the domestic fowl, in the family Phasianidae, order GALLIFORMES. It is descended from the red jungle fowl of SOUTHEAST ASIA.
A species of the genus VESIVIRUS infecting cats. Transmission occurs via air and mechanical contact.
A benign tumor of fibrous or fully developed connective tissue.
Methods of maintaining or growing biological materials in controlled laboratory conditions. These include the cultures of CELLS; TISSUES; organs; or embryo in vitro. Both animal and plant tissues may be cultured by a variety of methods. Cultures may derive from normal or abnormal tissues, and consist of a single cell type or mixed cell types.
One of the Type II site-specific deoxyribonucleases (EC 3.1.21.4). It recognizes and cleaves the sequence A/AGCTT at the slash. HindIII is from Haemophilus influenzae R(d). Numerous isoschizomers have been identified. EC 3.1.21.-.
Body organ that filters blood for the secretion of URINE and that regulates ion concentrations.
Proteins which maintain the transcriptional quiescence of specific GENES or OPERONS. Classical repressor proteins are DNA-binding proteins that are normally bound to the OPERATOR REGION of an operon, or the ENHANCER SEQUENCES of a gene until a signal occurs that causes their release.
The clear, viscous fluid secreted by the SALIVARY GLANDS and mucous glands of the mouth. It contains MUCINS, water, organic salts, and ptylin.
Nuclear antigens encoded by VIRAL GENES found in HUMAN HERPESVIRUS 4. At least six nuclear antigens have been identified.
CELL LINES derived from the CV-1 cell line by transformation with a replication origin defective mutant of SV40 VIRUS, which codes for wild type large T antigen (ANTIGENS, POLYOMAVIRUS TRANSFORMING). They are used for transfection and cloning. (The CV-1 cell line was derived from the kidney of an adult male African green monkey (CERCOPITHECUS AETHIOPS).)
Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.
A genus of the family HERPESVIRIDAE, subfamily GAMMAHERPESVIRINAE, infecting B-cells in humans and new world primates. The type species human herpesvirus 4 (HERPESVIRUS 4, HUMAN) is better known as the Epstein-Barr virus.
One of the Type II site-specific deoxyribonucleases (EC 3.1.21.4). It recognizes and cleaves the sequence G/GATCC at the slash. BamHI is from Bacillus amyloliquefaciens N. Numerous isoschizomers have been identified. EC 3.1.21.-.
The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.
An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed.
A method (first developed by E.M. Southern) for detection of DNA that has been electrophoretically separated and immobilized by blotting on nitrocellulose or other type of paper or nylon membrane followed by hybridization with labeled NUCLEIC ACID PROBES.
A cell line generated from human embryonic kidney cells that were transformed with human adenovirus type 5.
The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.
A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.
Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.
Production of new arrangements of DNA by various mechanisms such as assortment and segregation, CROSSING OVER; GENE CONVERSION; GENETIC TRANSFORMATION; GENETIC CONJUGATION; GENETIC TRANSDUCTION; or mixed infection of viruses.

Deletion of multiple immediate-early genes from herpes simplex virus reduces cytotoxicity and permits long-term gene expression in neurons. (1/3695)

Herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) has many attractive features that suggest its utility for gene transfer to neurons. However, viral cytotoxicity and transient transgene expression limit practical applications even in the absence of viral replication. Mutant viruses deleted for the immediate early (IE) gene, ICP4, an essential transcriptional transactivator, are toxic to many cell types in culture in which only the remaining IE genes are expressed. In order to test directly the toxicity of other IE gene products in neurons and develop a mutant background capable of longterm transgene expression, we generated mutants deleted for multiple IE genes in various combinations and tested their relative cytotoxicity in 9L rat gliosarcoma cells, Vero monkey kidney cells, and primary rat cortical and dorsal root neurons in culture. Viral mutants deleted simultaneously for the IE genes encoding ICP4, ICP22 and ICP27 showed substantially reduced cytotoxicity compared with viruses deleted for ICP4 alone or ICP4 in combination with either ICP22, ICP27 or ICP47. Infection of neurons in culture with these triple IE deletion mutants substantially enhanced cell survival and permitted transgene expression for over 21 days. Such mutants may prove useful for efficient gene transfer and extended transgene expression in neurons in vitro and in vivo.  (+info)

Herpes virus induced proteasome-dependent degradation of the nuclear bodies-associated PML and Sp100 proteins. (2/3695)

The PML protein is associated to nuclear bodies (NBs) whose functions are as yet unknown. PML and two other NBs-associated proteins, Sp100 And ISG20 are directly induced by interferons (IFN). PML and Sp100 proteins are covalently linked to SUMO-1, and ubiquitin-like peptide. PML NBs are disorganized in acute promyelocytic leukemia and during several DNA virus infections. In particular, the HSV-1 ICP0 protein is known to delocalize PML from NBs. Thus, NBs could play an important role in oncogenesis, IFN response and viral infections. Here, we show that HSV-1 induced PML protein degradation without altering its mRNA level. This degradation was time- and multiplicity of infection-dependent. Sp100 protein was also degraded, while another SUMO-1 conjugated protein, RanGAP1 and the IFN-induced protein kinase PKR were not. The proteasome inhibitor MG132 abrogated the HSV-1-induced PML and Sp100 degradation and partially restored their NB-localization. HSV-1 induced PML and Sp100 degradation constitutes a new example of viral inactivation of IFN target gene products.  (+info)

Imaging adenoviral-directed reporter gene expression in living animals with positron emission tomography. (3/3695)

We are developing quantitative assays to repeatedly and noninvasively image expression of reporter genes in living animals, using positron emission tomography (PET). We synthesized positron-emitting 8-[18F]fluoroganciclovir (FGCV) and demonstrated that this compound is a substrate for the herpes simplex virus 1 thymidine kinase enzyme (HSV1-TK). Using positron-emitting FGCV as a PET reporter probe, we imaged adenovirus-directed hepatic expression of the HSV1-tk reporter gene in living mice. There is a significant positive correlation between the percent injected dose of FGCV retained per gram of liver and the levels of hepatic HSV1-tk reporter gene expression (r2 > 0.80). Over a similar range of HSV1-tk expression in vivo, the percent injected dose retained per gram of liver was 0-23% for ganciclovir and 0-3% for FGCV. Repeated, noninvasive, and quantitative imaging of PET reporter gene expression should be a valuable tool for studies of human gene therapy, of organ/cell transplantation, and of both environmental and behavioral modulation of gene expression in transgenic mice.  (+info)

Characterization of the interaction between the herpes simplex virus type I Fc receptor and immunoglobulin G. (4/3695)

Herpes simplex virus type I (HSV-1) virions and HSV-1-infected cells bind to human immunoglobulin G (hIgG) via its Fc region. A complex of two surface glycoproteins encoded by HSV-1, gE and gI, is responsible for Fc binding. We have co-expressed soluble truncated forms of gE and gI in Chinese hamster ovary cells. Soluble gE-gI complexes can be purified from transfected cell supernatants using a purification scheme that is based upon the Fc receptor function of gE-gI. Using gel filtration and analytical ultracentrifugation, we determined that soluble gE-gI is a heterodimer composed of one molecule of gE and one molecule of gI and that gE-gI heterodimers bind hIgG with a 1:1 stoichiometry. Biosensor-based studies of the binding of wild type or mutant IgG proteins to soluble gE-gI indicate that histidine 435 at the CH2-CH3 domain interface of IgG is a critical residue for IgG binding to gE-gI. We observe many similarities between the characteristics of IgG binding by gE-gI and by rheumatoid factors and bacterial Fc receptors such as Staphylococcus aureus protein A. These observations support a model for the origin of some rheumatoid factors, in which they represent anti-idiotypic antibodies directed against antibodies to bacterial and viral Fc receptors.  (+info)

Macrophage control of herpes simplex virus type 1 replication in the peripheral nervous system. (5/3695)

After corneal infection, herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) invades sensory neurons with cell bodies in the trigeminal ganglion (TG), replicates briefly, and then establishes a latent infection in these neurons. HSV-1 replication in the TG can be detected as early as 2 days after corneal infection, reaches peak titers by 3-5 days after infection, and is undetectable by 7-10 days. During the period of HSV-1 replication, macrophages and gammadelta TCR+ T lymphocytes infiltrate the TG, and TNF-alpha, IFN-gamma, the inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) enzyme, and IL-12 are expressed. TNF-alpha, IFN-gamma, and the iNOS product nitric oxide (NO) all inhibit HSV-1 replication in vitro. Macrophage and gammadelta TCR+ T cell depletion studies demonstrated that macrophages are the main source of TNF-alpha and iNOS, whereas gammadelta TCR+ T cells produce IFN-gamma. Macrophage depletion, aminoguanidine inhibition of iNOS, and neutralization of TNF-alpha or IFN-gamma all individually and synergistically increased HSV-1 titers in the TG after HSV-1 corneal infection. Moreover, individually depleting macrophages or neutralizing TNF-alpha or IFN-gamma markedly reduced the accumulation of both macrophages and gammadelta TCR+ T cells in the TG. Our findings establish that after primary HSV-1 infection, the bulk of virus replication in the sensory ganglia is controlled by macrophages and gammadelta TCR+ T lymphocytes through their production of antiviral molecules TNF-alpha, NO, and IFN-gamma. Our findings also strongly suggest that cross-regulation between these two cell types is necessary for their accumulation and function in the infected TG.  (+info)

The herpes simplex virus type 1 regulatory protein ICP27 is required for the prevention of apoptosis in infected human cells. (6/3695)

The herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) ICP27 protein is an immediate-early or alpha protein which is essential for the optimal expression of late genes as well as the synthesis of viral DNA in cultures of Vero cells. Our specific goal was to characterize the replication of a virus incapable of synthesizing ICP27 in cultured human cells. We found that infection with an HSV-1 ICP27 deletion virus of at least three separate strains of human cells did not produce immediate-early or late proteins at the levels observed following wild-type virus infections. Cell morphology, chromatin condensation, and genomic DNA fragmentation measurements demonstrated that the human cells died by apoptosis after infection with the ICP27 deletion virus. These features of the apoptosis were identical to those which occur during wild-type infections of human cells when total protein synthesis has been inhibited. Vero cells infected with the ICP27 deletion virus did not exhibit any of the features of apoptosis. Based on these results, we conclude that while HSV-1 infection likely induced apoptosis in all cells, viral evasion of the response differed among the cells tested in this study.  (+info)

Visualization of tegument-capsid interactions and DNA in intact herpes simplex virus type 1 virions. (7/3695)

Herpes simplex virus type 1 virions were examined by electron cryomicroscopy, allowing the three-dimensional structure of the infectious particle to be visualized for the first time. The capsid shell is identical to that of B-capsids purified from the host cell nucleus, with the exception of the penton channel, which is closed. The double-stranded DNA genome is organized as regularly spaced ( approximately 26 A) concentric layers inside the capsid. This pattern suggests a spool model for DNA packaging, similar to that for some bacteriophages. The bulk of the tegument is not icosahedrally ordered. However, a small portion appears as filamentous structures around the pentons, interacting extensively with the capsid. Their locations and interactions suggest possible roles for the tegument proteins in regulating DNA transport through the penton channel and binding to cellular transport proteins during viral infection.  (+info)

Herpes simplex virus 1 blocks caspase-3-independent and caspase-dependent pathways to cell death. (8/3695)

Earlier reports have shown that herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) mutants induce programmed cell death and that wild-type HSV blocks the execution of the cell death program triggered by viral gene products, by the effectors of the immune system such as the Fas and tumor necrosis factor pathways, or by nonspecific stress agents such as either osmotic shock induced by sorbitol or thermal shock. A report from this laboratory showed that caspase inhibitors do not block DNA fragmentation induced by infection with the HSV-1 d120 mutant. To identify the events in programmed cell death induced and blocked by HSV-1, we examined cells infected with wild-type virus or the d120 mutant or cells infected and exposed to sorbitol. We report that: (i) the HSV-1 d120 mutant induced apoptosis by a caspase-3-independent pathway inasmuch as caspase 3 was not activated and DNA fragmentation was not blocked by caspase inhibitors even though the virus caused cytochrome c release and depolarization of the inner mitochondrial membrane. (ii) Cells infected with wild-type HSV-1 exhibited none of the manifestations associated with programmed cell death assayed in these studies. (iii) Uninfected cells exposed to osmotic shock succumbed to caspase-dependent apoptosis inasmuch as cytochrome c was released, the inner mitochondrial potential was lost, caspase-3 was activated, and chromosomal DNA was fragmented. (iv) Although caspase-3 was activated in cells infected with wild-type HSV-1 and exposed to sorbitol, cytochrome c outflow, depolarization of the inner mitochondrial membrane, and DNA fragmentation were blocked. We conclude that although d120 induces apoptosis by a caspase-3-independent pathway, the wild-type virus blocks apoptosis induced by this pathway and also blocks the caspase-dependent pathway induced by osmotic shock. The block in the caspase-dependent pathway may occur downstream of caspase-3 activation.  (+info)

TY - JOUR. T1 - Identification of herpes simplex virus type 1 proteins encoded within the first 1.5 kb of the latency-associated transcript. AU - Henderson, Gail. AU - Jaber, Tareq. AU - Carpenter, Dale. AU - Wechsler, Steven L.. AU - Jones, Clinton. PY - 2009/12/12. Y1 - 2009/12/12. N2 - Expression of the first 1.5 kb of the latency-associated transcript (LAT) that is encoded by herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) is sufficient for wild-type (wt) levels of reactivation from latency in small animal models. Peptide-specific immunoglobulin G (IgG) was generated against open reading frames (ORFs) that are located within the first 1.5 kb of LAT coding sequences. Cells stably transfected with LAT or trigeminal ganglionic neurons of mice infected with a LAT expressing virus appeared to express the L2 or L8 ORF. Only L2 ORF expression was readily detected in trigeminal ganglionic neurons of latently infected mice.. AB - Expression of the first 1.5 kb of the latency-associated transcript (LAT) that is ...
The wild-type herpes simplex virus type-1 (HSV-1) is an enveloped, double-stranded DNA virus. Nearly half of its 152-kb viral genome sequence is nonessential for viral replication. Theoretically, a HSV-1 vector can be built to carry a 76-kb foreign DNA sequence without compromising viral replication. In the laboratory, recombinant HSV-1 vectors with a 38-kb packaging capacity have been generated (reviewed in (Burton et al. 2002; Glorioso et al. 1997; Goins et al. 2004; Huard et al. 1997b)). Early experimentation with HSV-1 vectors demonstrated quite efficient myoblast transduction in vitro. However, direct muscle injection only yielded transient, restricted expression (Akkaraju et al. 1999; Huard et al., 1995, 1996, 1997a).. A variant of the HSV-1 vector called an amplicon has also been investigated for gene transfer. HSV-1 amplicons only contain ~1% of the wild-type viral sequences encoding the HSV replication origin and the packaging signal (reviewed in (Hibbitt and Wade-Martins 2006; Link et ...
Laimbacher, A S; Fraefel, C (2014). HSV-1 Amplicon Vectors as Genetic Vaccines. In: Diefenbach, R J; Fraefel, C. Herpes Simplex Virus. New York: Springer, 99-115.. Melendez, M E; Fraefel, C; Epstein, A L (2014). Herpes Simplex Virus Type 1 (HSV-1)-Derived Amplicon Vectors. In: Diefenbach, R J; Fraefel, C. Herpes Simplex Virus. New York: Springer, 81-89.. Kelly, B J; Diefenbach, E; Fraefel, C; Diefenbach, R J (2012). Identification of host cell proteins which interact with herpes simplex virus type 1 tegument protein pUL37. Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications (BBRC), 417(3):961-965.. Kelly, B J; Mijatov, Branka; Fraefel, C; Cunningham, A L; Diefenbach, R J (2011). Identification of a single amino acid residue which is critical for the interaction between HSV-1 inner tegument proteins pUL36 and pUL37. Virology:1-9.. Kelly, B J; Fraefel, C; Cunningham, A L; Diefenbach, R J (2009). Functional roles of the tegument proteins of herpes simplex virus type 1. Virus Research, ...
Buy our Recombinant herpes simplex virus HHV8 ORF8+ORF65 protein. Ab67704 is an active protein fragment produced in Escherichia coli and has been validated in…
The work presented in this thesis is concerned with the characterisation of the UL32 gene of herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1). UL32 encodes an essential 596 amino acid cysteine-rich, zinc-binding protein that is highly conserved throughout the herpesviruses. The UL32 protein is essential for the cleavage of concatemeric viral DNA into monomeric genomes and their packaging into preformed capsids. Conservation is highest at the C-terminus and three CxxC motifs are present in almost all known herpesvirus UL32 sequences The UL32 antibodies available in the laboratory at the beginning of the project were incapable of detecting small amounts of UL32 protein and so new rabbit antisera were created. Soluble extracts from insect cells infected with a UL32-expressing baculovirus (AcUL32) were fractionated by anion exchange chromatography and the UL32-containing fractions used to immunise rabbits. The resultant antisera successfully recognised UL32 from transfected, HSV-1 infected and baculovirus ...
G207, a mutant herpes simplex virus (HSV) type 1, is safe when inoculated into recurrent malignant glioma. We conducted a phase 1 trial of G207 to demonstrate the safety of stereotactic intratumoral administration when given 24 hours prior to a single 5 Gy radiation dose in patients with recurrent m …
BioAssay record AID 85865 submitted by ChEMBL: Compound was tested for the antiviral activity against herpes simplex virus-1 (HSV-1) KOS strain.
1KI2: Exploring the active site of herpes simplex virus type-1 thymidine kinase by X-ray crystallography of complexes with aciclovir and other ligands.
1KI7: Exploring the active site of herpes simplex virus type-1 thymidine kinase by X-ray crystallography of complexes with aciclovir and other ligands.
Although many tegument proteins have been found to be important for viral replication, very little has been done to elucidate the network of interactions that connect them. Of the ∼20 HSV-1 proteins that constitute the tegument, only three capsid-tegument (26, 31, 40), four tegument-tegument (11, 36, 44), and two tegument-glycoprotein (30, 45) interactions have been identified. Similarly, very few interactions have been identified among the tegument proteins of other alphaherpesviruses, such as PRV (13, 20) and varicella-zoster virus (23, 38, 39). As a result, the structural organization and function of most herpesvirus virion proteins still remain a mystery.. The goal of the present study was to identify and characterize binding partners for membrane-bound tegument protein UL11. In addition to several minor protein species, an abundant 40-kDa protein appeared to strongly associate with UL11 in both immunoprecipitation and GST pull-down assays. Based only on its size and evidence that ...
Candidate tegument proteins.The tegument is a complex structure which contains at least 18 different viral proteins (32). The functions of most of these and their structural relationships within the tegument are still poorly defined; however, a number of them have been shown to be nonessential for virus replication and therefore seem unlikely to be candidates to form the major connection between tegument and capsid. Earlier morphological and biochemical studies provide some indications regarding which tegument protein is being resolved in our reconstruction of the intact virion.. Biochemically, the essential tegument protein VP1-3 has been shown to bind very tightly to the capsid. Thus, detergent treatment of virions removes the envelope and solubilizes some tegument proteins but leaves others (notably VP1-3) in an insoluble, capsid/tegument fraction (31, 36), while more vigorous treatment results in the loss of virtually all envelope and tegument proteins except for VP1-3 (14). Since it has ...
PubMed comprises more than 30 million citations for biomedical literature from MEDLINE, life science journals, and online books. Citations may include links to full-text content from PubMed Central and publisher web sites.
In the reproduction of HSV-1, the temporal profile of the viral gene expressions and the molecular mechanisms regulating the expressions are extensively studied. Functional roles of the temporally ordered gene expressions has not yet been clarified. We construct a simple mathematical model for the intracellular replication of HSV-1 to investigate the function of the ordered gene expressions. We obtain the condition for the explosion of the virus from our model. The expression ratio of the early gene to the late gene must be higher than the ratio of the reaction rate of the encapsidation to that of the viral DNA replication for viruses to reproduce successfully. The preceded accumulation of the early gene product prevents the growth arrest. Further, as promoter activity of the early gene becomes higher, the replication speed of virus becomes faster. The structure of early gene promoter that has many binding motif to transcription factor accelerates the replication speed of HSV-1. This structure ...
PubMed comprises more than 30 million citations for biomedical literature from MEDLINE, life science journals, and online books. Citations may include links to full-text content from PubMed Central and publisher web sites.
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The molecular modifications of Herpes Simplex Virus Type I (HSV-1) proteins represented by acetylation and phosphorylation are essential to its biological functions. The cellular chromatin-remodeling/ assembly is involved in HSV-1 associated gene transcriptional regulation in human cells harboring HSV-1 lytic or latent infections. Further investigation on these biological events would provide a better understanding of the mechanisms of HSV-1 viral gene transcriptional regulation
Metrick, C.M., Koenigsberg, A.L., Heldwein, E.E. (2020) Conserved outer-tegument component UL11 from herpes simplex virus type 1 is an intrinsically disordered, RNA-binding protein. mBio. https://mbio.asm.org/content/11/3/e00810-20.. ​. Koenigsberg, A.L., Pitts, J.D. and Heldwein, E.E. (2020). Identification of buffer conditions for optimal thermostability and solubility of herpesviral protein UL37 using the Thermofluor assay. Bio-protocol. 10: e3662. doi: 10.21769/BioProtoc.3662. ​. ​​​​. 2019. ​. Hilterbrand, A.T. and Heldwein, E.E. (2019) Go go gadget glycoprotein!: HSV-1 draws on its sizeable glycoprotein tool kit to customize its diverse entry routes. PLoS Pathog. 15(5), e1007660. PMC6508585.. ​. ​. 2018. ​. Koenigsberg, A.L., and Heldwein, E.E. (2018) The dynamic nature of the conserved tegument protein UL37 of herpesviruses. J. Biol Chem. 293(41), 15827-15839. PMC6187633.. ​. Cooper R.S, Georgieva E.R., Borbat P.P., Freed J.H., Heldwein E.E. (2018) Structural basis ...
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Antitumor effects of oncolytic herpes simplex virus type 2 against colorectal cancer in vitro and in vivo Lei Yin,1–3 Chunhong Zhao,3 Jixia Han,4 Zengjun Li,2 Yanan Zhen,3 Ruixue Xiao,3 Zhongfa Xu,3 Yanlai Sun2 1School of Medicine and Life Sciences, University of Jinan-Shandong Academy of Medical Sciences, Jinan, 2Department of Gastrointestinal Cancer Surgery, Shandong Cancer Hospital Affiliated to Shandong University, Shandong Academy of Medical Sciences, Jinan, 3Department of Gastrointestinal Surgery, The Affiliated Hospital of Shandong Academy of Medical Sciences, Jinan, 4Department of General Surgery, The Sixth People’s Hospital of Jinan, Jinan, People’s Republic of China Background: The incidence of colorectal cancer (CRC) is on the rise. Furthermore, late-stage diagnoses and limited efficacious treatment options make CRC a complex clinical challenge. Therefore, a new therapeutic regimen with a completely novel therapeutic mechanism is necessary for CRC. In the present study, the
TY - JOUR. T1 - Herpes simplex virus capsids are transported in neuronal axons without an envelope containing the viral glycoproteins. AU - Snyder, Aleksandra. AU - Wisner, Todd W.. AU - Johnson, David. PY - 2006/11. Y1 - 2006/11. N2 - Electron micrographic studies of neuronal axons have produced contradictory conclusions on how alpha-herpesviruses are transported from neuron cell bodies to axon termini. Some reports have described unenveloped capsids transported on axonal microtubules with separate transport of viral glycoproteins within membrane vesicles. Others have observed enveloped virions in proximal and distal axons. We characterized transport of herpes simplex virus (HSV) in human and rat neurons by staining permeabilized neurons with capsid- and glycoprotein-specific antibodies. Deconvolution microscopy was used to view 200-nm sections of axons. HSV glycoproteins were very rarely associated with capsids (3 to 5%) and vice versa. Instances of glycoprotein/capsid overlap frequently ...
Objectives: To document the natural history of herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) in relation to HIV and highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) in Africa, a longitudinal study was conducted of women in the placebo arms of two randomised controlled trials of HSV-suppressive therapy in Burkina Faso. Methods: 22 HIV-uninfected women (group 1), 30 HIV-1-infected women taking HAART (group 2), and 68 HIV-1-infected women not eligible for HAART (group 3) were followed over 24 weeks. HSV-2 DNA was detected on alternate weeks using real-time PCR from cervicovaginal lavages. Plasma HIV-1 RNA was measured every month. CD4 cell counts were measured at enrolment. Results: Ulcers occurred on 1.9%, 3.1% and 7.2% of visits in groups 1, 2 and 3 (p = 0.02). Cervicovaginal HSV-2 DNA was detected in 45.5%, 63.3% and 67.6% of women (p = 0.11), and on 4.3%, 9.7% and 15.5% of visits in the three groups (p ...
Herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) is a known biologic cofactor for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) transmission and acquisition. The Kenya AIDS Indicator Survey 2007 provided Kenyas first nationally representative estimate of HSV-2 prevalence and risk factors. METHODS: KAIS was a household serosurvey among women and men aged 15 to 64 years. The survey included a behavioral interview and serum testing for HSV-2, HIV, and syphilis infections. Results were weighted for sampling design and nonresponse. RESULTS: Of 19,840 eligible individuals, 90% completed an interview and 80% consented to testing. In all, 35% were infected with HSV-2, of which 42% were women and 26% were men. Between 15 and 24 years of age, HSV-2 prevalence increased from 7% to 34% in women and 3% to 14% in men. Among couples, 30% were HSV-2 concordant-positive, 21% were discordant, and 49% were concordant-negative. In all, 81% of HIV-infected persons were coinfected with HSV-2. HIV prevalence was 16% among those with HSV-2 ...
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TY - JOUR. T1 - Latent herpes simplex virus-1 infection in SCID mice transferred with immune CD4+T cells. T2 - A new model for latency. AU - Minagawa, H.. AU - Yanagi, Y.. PY - 2000. Y1 - 2000. N2 - In C.B-17 severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) mice, corneal challenge with herpes simplex virus-1 (HSV-1) KOS strain usually leads to fatal encephalitis. With the transfer of T cells from immunized BALB/c mice, these SCID mice developed a latent HSV-1 infection. In order to determine the responsible T cell subset, fractionated immune T cells were transferred. Those SCID mice transferred with immune CD4+T cell-enriched fraction developed latent HSV-1 infection in their trigeminal ganglia. Their splenocytes had an increased percentage of CD4+T cells and showed a proliferative response against HSV-1. The transfer of CD8+T cells increased survival in the acute infection, but their engraftment seemed less needed for latency than that of CD4+T cells. Mice that received immune serum survived without ...
Herpes simplex virus ICP27 protein. Computer model showing the structure of Herpes simplex virus 1 protein ICP27, a multifunctional regulatory protein (purple, magenta). - Stock Image C035/6254
Cyclic GMP-AMP synthase (cGAS) is a key DNA sensor capable of detecting microbial DNA and activating the adaptor protein stimulator of interferon genes (STING), leading to interferon (IFN) production and host antiviral responses. Cells exhibited reduced type I IFN production in response to cytosolic DNA in the absence of cGAS. Although the cGAS/STING-mediated DNA-sensing signal is crucial for host defense against many viruses, especially for DNA viruses, few viral components have been identified to specifically target this signaling pathway. Herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) is a DNA virus that has evolved multiple strategies to evade host immune responses. In the present study, we found that HSV-1 tegument protein UL41 was involved in counteracting the cGAS/STING-mediated DNA-sensing pathway. Our results showed that wild-type (WT) HSV-1 infection could inhibit immunostimulatory DNA-induced activation of the IFN signaling pathway compared with the UL41-null mutant virus (R2621), and ectopic expression of
After replication at sites of initial inoculation, herpes simplex virus type 1 and 2 (HSV-1 and HSV-2) establish lifelong latent infections of the sensory and autonomic neurons of the ganglia serving those sites. Periodically, the virus reactivates from these neurons, and travels centripetally along the neuronal axon to cause recurrent epithelial infection. The major clinically observed difference between infections with herpes simplex virus type 1 and type 2 is the anatomic site specificity of recurrence. HSV-1 reactivates most efficiently and frequently from trigeminal ganglia, causing recurrent ocular and oral-facial lesions, while HSV-2 reactivates primarily from sacral ganglia causing recurrent genital lesions. An intertypic recombinant virus was constructed and evaluated in animal models of recurrent ocular and genital herpes. Substitution of a 2.8-kbp region from the HSV-1 latency-associated transcript (LAT) for native HSV-2 sequences caused HSV-2 to reactivate with an HSV-1 phenotype in ...
Herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) is a human pathogen which belongs to the family Herpesviridae. HSV-1 encodes several genes, which serve to efficiently prevent apoptosis in most infected cell types, thereby ensuring successful virus replication. In contrast, HSV-1 infection of one central cell type of the immune system, immature dendritic cells (iDCs), results in apoptosis. This could be one aspect of HSV-1 immunevasion. So far, the mechanisms underlying apoptosis of HSV-1 infected iDCs were poorly defined. However, it has been shown that the antiapoptotic cellular protein c-FLIP is reduced in HSV-1 infected iDCs. In this work, the amount of c-FLIP was for the first time successfully reduced in iDCs by RNA interference. This confirmed the importance of c-FLIP for viability of iDCs. Therefore, it is likely that c-FLIP reduction after HSV-1 infection also sensitizes iDCs to apoptosis. HSV-1 induced c-FLIP reduction occurred at late stages of infection and was dependent on proper expression of ...
Varicella-zoster virus (VZV) gene 62 encodes a protein with a predicted M r of 140000 (VZV 140K) that shares considerable amino acid homology with the immediate early (IE) regulatory protein Vmw175 of herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) and is believed to be its functional equivalent. We have tested this hypothesis by insertion of VZV gene 62 (expressed from the HSV-1 IE3 promoter) into both IE3 gene loci in the short region repeats of the HSV-1 genome. The parent virus used for this manipulation was D30EBA, which is a variant of HSV-1 from which the majority of the Vmw175 coding sequences have been deleted. Like other HSV-1 viruses lacking Vmw175 function, D30EBA is able to grow only in cell lines which express Vmw175 constitutively. The resulting recombinant virus, HSV-140, is able to propagate (but unable to form obvious plaques) on normal cell lines. The properties of HSV-140 were studied by monitoring the time course of polypeptide expression and DNA replication during normal infection. We found
The human parvovirus Adeno-Associated Virus (AAV) type 2 can only replicate in cells co-infected with a helper virus, such as Adenovirus or Herpes Simplex Virus type 1 (HSV-1); whereas, in the absence of a helper virus, it establishes a latent infection. Previous studies demonstrated that the ternary HSV-1 helicase/primase (HP) complex (UL5/8/52) and the singlestranded DNA-Binding Protein (ICP8) were sufficient to induce AAV-2 replication in transfected cells. We independently showed that, in the context of a latent AAV-2 infection, the HSV-1 ICP0 protein was able to activate rep gene expression. The present study was conducted to integrate these observations and to further explore the requirement of other HSV-1 proteins during early AAV replication steps, i.e. rep gene expression and AAV DNA replication. Using a cellular model that mimics AAV latency and composite constructs coding for various sets of HSV-1 genes, we first confirmed the role of ICP0 for rep gene expression and demonstrated a ...
Background: Herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) is sexually transmitted, leading to blisters and ulcers in the genito-anal region. After primary infection the virus is present in a latent state in neurons in sensory ganglia. Reactivation and production of new viral particles can cause asymptomatic viral shedding or new lesions. Establishment of latency, maintenance and reactivation involve silencing of genes, continuous suppression of gene activities and finally gene activation and synthesis of viral DNA. The purpose of the present work was to study the genetic stability of the virus during these events.. Methods: HSV-2 was collected from 5 patients with true primary and recurrent infections, and the genes encoding glycoproteins B,G,E and I were sequenced.. Results: No nucleotide substitution was observed in any patient, indicating genetic stability. However, since the total number of nucleotides in these genes is only a small part of the total genome, we cannot rule out variation in other ...
Herpes simplex virus type-2 (HSV-2) is the primary cause of genital ulcers and one of the most prevalent sexually transmitted diseases worldwide. Consistently, over 30 studies have found HSV-2 infection to be a risk factor for HIV acquisition with an overall relative risk of 2.1 in the studies that demonstrated HSV-2 preceded HIV infection. A recent study of HIV-discordant couples from Rakai, Uganda, has shown that at all levels of HIV viral load in the HIV-positive partner, HSV-2 infection in the susceptible partner increased the per-contact risk of acquisition of HIV five-fold, and GUD in the HIV-source partner increased the per-contact risk of HIV transmission five-fold. As strong as these epidemiological data are, an intervention trial is required to define the clinical and public health significance of these findings.. This trial will directly answer the extent to which HSV-2 infection increases infectiousness of HIV/HSV-2 co-infected persons and the relative reduction in HIV transmission ...
Herpes simplex virus type-2 (HSV-2) is the primary cause of genital ulcers and one of the most prevalent sexually transmitted diseases worldwide. Consistently, over 30 studies have found HSV-2 infection to be a risk factor for HIV acquisition with an overall relative risk of 2.1 in the studies that demonstrated HSV-2 preceded HIV infection. A recent study of HIV-discordant couples from Rakai, Uganda, has shown that at all levels of HIV viral load in the HIV-positive partner, HSV-2 infection in the susceptible partner increased the per-contact risk of acquisition of HIV five-fold, and GUD in the HIV-source partner increased the per-contact risk of HIV transmission five-fold. As strong as these epidemiological data are, an intervention trial is required to define the clinical and public health significance of these findings.. This trial will directly answer the extent to which HSV-2 infection increases infectiousness of HIV/HSV-2 co-infected persons and the relative reduction in HIV transmission ...
Summary We have determined the DNA sequence of the herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) gene encoding the immediate early protein IE110, which is involved in transcriptional activation of later virus genes. The locations of the 5′ and 3′ termini of IE110 mRNA, together with the positions of two introns, were identified. Examination of the DNA sequence suggested that translation starts at the first ATG after the 5′ terminus of the mRNA, and that both introns occur in protein-coding sequence. The predicted IE110 polypeptide contains 775 amino acids, and has a molecular weight of 78452. It contains a cysteine-rich region resembling regions found in several proteins which interact functionally with DNA. An antiserum was raised to the predicted C terminal amino acid sequence of the IE110 polypeptide and was shown to immunoprecipitate the native protein from HSV-1-infected cell extracts. The functional importance of regions of the protein was evaluated by construction of frameshift and deletion mutants
Herpes Simplex Virus Type 1 (HSV-1) Antibody Test Kit - IgM,Inverness Medical Professional Diagnostics is a leading provider of immunofluorescence assays, with an extensive IFA and DFA test menu that includes kits for autoimmune diseases, infectious diseases and STDs as well as miscellaneous conjugates and components. Our Impact IFA Test Systems give you a,medicine,medical supply,medical supplies,medical product
Abcam provides general protocols for Human Anti-Herpes simplex virus Type 1 and 2 IgM ELISA Kit (HSV1+2) (ab108742). Please download our pdf protocol booklet
In this study, we present inhibitor- and siRNA-based strategies to interfere with autophagic flux in Herpes simplex virus type-1...
Abstract: : Purpose:We have demonstrated that CD8+ T cells that are present in herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) latently infected mouse trigeminal ganglia (TG) can block HSV-1 reactivation from latency, at least in part through the production of interferon gamma (IFN-g). Here we define the epitope specificity of these CD8+ T cells. Methods:At 14 and 34 days after corneal infection with the RE strain of HSV-1, the latently infected TG were removed, digested with collagenase, and the phenotype and function of CD8+ T cells in the TG cell suspension was determined by flow cytometry. The cells were stained for CD8, HSV-1 glycoprotein B (gB [aa 498-505]) tetramer, or HSV-1 ribonucleotide reductase (RR1 [aa 822-829]) tetramer, and/or intracellular IFN-g. Staining was performed on CD8 cells freshly isolated from the TG or following 5 hours of stimulation with syngeneic epithelial cells that were uninfected, HSV-1 infected, gB peptide pulsed, or RR1 peptide pulsed. Results:CD8 T cells in day 14 TG: ...
Oral and genital herpes are caused by the herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) and the herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2), which both cause lifelong infection. HSV-2 infection is associated with increased risk for HIV infection. HSV2-infected women pose a risk of transmitting this dangerous infection to newborn babies; therefore, avoiding herpes infection during pregnancy is very important. In this issue of JCI Insight, researchers from the Albert Einstein College of Medicine report a promising vaccine strategy for immunizing against both HSV-1 and HSV-2 infections. Led by Betsy Herold and William Jacobs Jr., the researchers expanded upon previous work from their group indicating that a vaccine made from an engineered HSV-2 virus that lacks expression of glycoprotein D could protect against infection with a single strain of HSV-2 in mice. The current report shows that vaccination protects mice from multiple clinical isolates of HSV-1 and HSV-2 infection. Mice rapidly cleared virus after ...
BioAssay record AID 66011 submitted by ChEMBL: Antiviral activity (to reduce virus-induced cytopathogenicity) against Herpes simplex virus-1(KOS) in E6SM cell cultures.
ContextHerpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) is one of the most common sexually transmitted infections in the United States. No prospective study has shown the
Antigen slides are well suited for IFA and IHC. Infected cells are mixed with uninfected cells so that each well of the slide has built in negative control ...
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Thymidine Kinase from human Herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV1-TK) in combination with specific substrate prodrug nucleotide analogue ganciclovir (GCV) has been widely used as suicidal therapeutic gene for cancer gene therapy. HSV1, and its mutant (HSV1-sr39TK) with improved substrate specificity, were used as reporter genes for PET-imaging of various biological functions in small animals, by combining with radiolabeled substrates such as 18F-FHBG and 124I-FIAU. 3H-Penciclovir (PCV) uptake assay is a method of choice used to determine the expression level of HSV1-TK in mammalian cells and tissues. HSV1-TK phosphorylate PCV and result in the formation of penciclovir monophosphate, and its subsequent phopsphorylation by cellular TK lead to the formation of penciclovir triphosphate, which is trapped selectively in cells express HSV-TK. 3H-Penciclovir enables the detection of penciclovir uptake of mammalian cells and tissues by radioactive procedures such as scintillation counting. Here we describe the
Herpes Simplex Virus Type 2 Herpes simplex virus type 2 is one of the two types of herpes viruses; it may also be called HSV-2. This virus is the cause of genital herpes wherein the infected person develops sores around his genitals or the skin surrounding his rectum or anal area. HSV-2 sores may also […]. ...
Herpes Simplex Virus Type 2 Herpes simplex virus type 2 is one of the two types of herpes viruses; it may also be called HSV-2. This virus is the cause of genital herpes wherein the infected person develops sores around his genitals or the skin surrounding his rectum or anal area. HSV-2 sores may also […]. ...
After DNA viruses enter the nucleus, they initiate a transcriptional cascade which is followed by replication. We investigated whether these processes take place at specific nuclear sites or, as suggested by the mode of entry, randomly throughout the nucleus. Three distinct nuclear domains, nuclear factor-1 sites, coiled bodies, and nuclear domain 10 (ND10), were used as markers to investigate the relative position of DNA virus replication sites. We found that all three nuclear domains had a very high spatial correlation with each other in uninfected cells. After adenoviral infection, nuclear factor 1 and coiled bodies were found associated with some viral replication domains. Simian virus 40 begins replication adjacent to ND10 but adenovirus 5 and herpes simplex type 1 modified ND10s before replication. Adenovirus E4orf 3 gene deletion mutants retain ND10 and begin replication at the peripheries of ND10. The same was found for the herpes simplex virus type 1 immediate early gene 1 mutants. That ...
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The virion host shutoff protein (Vhs) is a herpes simplex virus (HSV) protein involved in early shutoff of the host cell. It is a component of the infecting virion, located in the tegument region, that works by rapidly ...
Faculty advisor: Dr. Brian Lenzmeier. Human herpes simplex viruses cause serious damage to mucosal tissue in the mouth (HHV-1) and genitals (HHV-2). They can infect and establish latency in neurons and then reactivate and re-infect the original mucosal tissues. We are interested in determining host cell proteins that are used by Herpes viruses during the course of a neuronal infection. The assay we are using is the yeast two-hybrid where we co-express both the viral gE protein and a host cell protein inside of S. cerevisiae cells. If the two proteins interact, the yeast cell gains the ability to grow on agar plates lacking uracil, tryptophan, histidine and adenine. If the proteins do not interact, the cells will die on those same agar plates. We have used this assay to identify approximately two hundred proteins that potentially interact with the herpes virus gE protein. The neuronal proteins we have identified serve a variety of important functions, many of which are suggestive of a possible ...
Researchers at the University of California, San Diego School of Medicine have identified the evolutionary origins of human herpes simplex virus (HSV) -1 and -2, reporting that the former infected hominids before their evolutionary ...
Among his journalistic honors was a 1954 George Polk award, which is named after a CBS reporter who was killed while covering the Greek Civil War. Weller was a good friend of Polk and had served as his best man, said Jeff Donovan, a U.S. journalist who interviewed and befriended Weller about a decade ago while living in Rome.. ...
Herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) induces a profound host shut-off during lytic infection. The virion host shut-off (vhs) protein plays a key role in this process by efficiently cleaving host and viral mRNAs. Furthermore, the onset of viral DNA replication is accompanied by a rapid decline in host transcriptional activity. To dissect relative contributions of both mechanisms and elucidate gene-specific host transcriptional responses throughout the first 8h of lytic HSV-1 infection, we employed RNA-seq of total, newly transcribed (4sU-labelled) and chromatin-associated RNA in wild-type (WT) and Δvhs infection of primary human fibroblasts. Following virus entry, vhs activity rapidly plateaued at an elimination rate of around 30% of cellular mRNAs per hour until 8h p.i. In parallel, host transcriptional activity dropped to 10-20%. While the combined effects of both phenomena dominated infection-induced changes in total RNA, extensive gene-specific transcriptional regulation was observable in ...
A viral tegument or tegument, more commonly known as a viral matrix, is a cluster of proteins that lines the space between the envelope and nucleocapsid of all herpesviruses. The tegument generally contains proteins that aid in viral DNA replication and evasion of the immune response, typically with inhibition of signalling in the immune system and activation of interferons. The tegument is usually[citation needed] released shortly after infection into the cytoplasm. These proteins are usually[citation needed] formed within the late phase of the viral infectious cycle, after viral genes have been replicated. Much information regarding viral teguments has been gathered from studying Herpes simplex virus. Viral teguments can be symmetrically arranged via structural and scaffolding protein or can also be asymmetrically arranged, depending on the virus.[citation needed] Teguments are rarely[citation needed] haphazardly placed and usually involve scaffolding proteins in their formation around the ...
Our recent efforts have been directed at the development of selective inhibitors of different classes of viruses, including adeno, pox, and herpesviruses [herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) and type 2 (HSV-2), varicella-zoster (VZV), cytomegalovirus (CMV), Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)], (+/-)RNA viruse …
Rates of herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) infection were much higher in teens with HIV or with a high risk of HIV than in the general population, ...
Virus-specific CD8+ T cells traffic to infected tissues to promote clearance of infection. We used herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) as a model system to investigate CD8+ T cell trafficking to the skin in humans. Using ...
Virus-specific CD8+ T cells traffic to infected tissues to promote clearance of infection. We used herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) as a model system to investigate CD8+ T cell trafficking to the skin in humans. Using ...
"Pityriasis Rosea is Associated with Systemic Active Infection with Both Human Herpesvirus-7 and Human Herpesvirus-6". Journal ... Black, Jodi B.; Pellett, Philip E. (1999). "Human herpesvirus 7". Reviews in Medical Virology. 9 (4): 245-262. doi:10.1002/( ... Her dissertation was titled Human herpesvirus 6 strain Z29: Growth characteristics, virion specific protein identification and ... Black, Jodi Beth (1990). "Human herpesvirus 6 strain Z29: Growth characteristics, virion specific protein identification and ...
... human herpesvirus 6 and human betaherpesvirus 7). It is also related to other herpesviruses within the Alphaherpesvirinae ... It is thus longer than all other human herpesviruses and one of the longest genomes of all human viruses in general. It has the ... Herpesviruses have some of the largest genomes among human viruses, often encoding hundreds of proteins. For instance, the ... Humans and monkeys serve as natural hosts. The eight species in this genus include the type species, human betaherpesvirus 5 ( ...
There is currently speculation that chromothripsis might be driven by viruses such as γ-herpes viruses which cause cancer, ... Thompson SL, Compton DA (2011). "Proliferation of aneuploid human cells is limited by a p53-dependent mechanism". The Journal ... Carcinogenesis Chromoplexy Kataegis Maher CA, Wilson RK (2012). "Chromothripsis and Human Disease: Piecing Together the ... Human Genetics. 71 (3): 187-191. doi:10.1007/BF00284570. PMID 4065890. Tischkowitz MD, Hodgson SV (2003). "Fanconi anaemia". ...
Davidson AJ (2007-08-16). "Comparative analysis of the genomes". Human Herpesviruses. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0- ... Play media Animal herpes viruses all share some common properties. The structure of herpes viruses consists of a relatively ... There exist commonly used vaccines to some herpesviruses, but only veterinary, such as HVT/LT (Turkey herpesvirus vector ... Research using flow cytometry on another member of the herpes virus family, Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus, indicates ...
There are nine known human herpesviruses. Of these, roseola has been linked to two: human herpesvirus 6 (HHV-6) and human ... It is caused by human herpesvirus 6 (HHV-6A, HHV-6B) or human herpesvirus 7 (HHV-7). Spread is usually through the saliva of ... Between the two types of human herpesvirus 6, HHV-6B has been detected much more frequently in hosts. HHV-6B has been shown to ... Stoeckle MY (2000). "The spectrum of human herpesvirus 6 infection: from roseola infantum to adult disease". Annu. Rev. Med. 51 ...
Jordan MC, Jordan GW, Stevens JG, Miller G (June 1984). "Latent herpesviruses of humans". Annals of Internal Medicine. 100 (6 ... Herpesviruses for example can become latent after infecting the host and after years activate again if the host is under stress ... 5 (1): 33-36. doi:10.1016/S1369-5266(01)00219-9. hdl:11858/00-001M-0000-0012-36A6-C. ISSN 1369-5266. PMID 11788305. Fuchigami, ... 156 (1-2): 183-194. Bibcode:2014APS..MARJ16002P. doi:10.1016/j.cell.2013.11.028. PMC 3956598. PMID 24361104. ...
"High levels of human herpesvirus 8 viral load, human interleukin-6, interleukin-10, and C reactive protein correlate with ... HHV-8-associated MCD is known to be caused by infection with human herpesvirus-8. The HHV-8 virus is commonly found in healthy ... Human herpesvirus 8 associated multicentric Castleman disease (HHV-8-associated MCD) is a subtype of Castleman disease (also ... People with human herpesvirus 8 associated multicentric Castelman disease (HHV-8-associated MCD) have enlarged lymph nodes in ...
Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV), also known as Human herpesvirus 5 (HHV-5), Human herpesvirus 6A and 6B (HHV-6A and HHV-6B), which ... Both human herpesvirus 6B (HHV-6B) and human herpesvirus 7 (HHV-7), as well as other viruses, can cause a skin condition in ... Human herpesvirus 7 (HHV-7) Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV, HHV-5) "seems to have a large impact on immune parameters in later ... De Bolle, L.; Van Loon, J.; De Clercq, E.; Naesens, Lieve (2005). "Quantitative analysis of human herpesvirus 6 cell tropism". ...
November 2000). "Mucosal shedding of human herpesvirus 8 in men". N. Engl. J. Med. 343 (19): 1369-77. doi:10.1056/ ... Human Sexuality: An Encyclopedia states that "the inner third of the anal canal is less sensitive to touch than the outer two- ... Human sexuality portal LGBT portal Anal eroticism Ass to mouth Coprophilia Creampie (sexual act) Felching Gay bowel syndrome ... Most cases of anal cancer are related to infection with the human papilloma virus (HPV). Anal sex alone does not cause anal ...
November 2012). "Human herpesvirus 6 latent infection in patients with glioma". The Journal of Infectious Diseases. 206 (9): ... September 2009). "Detection of human herpesvirus-6 variants in pediatric brain tumors: association of viral antigen in low ... Vilchez RA, Kozinetz CA, Arrington AS, Madden CR, Butel JS (June 2003). "Simian virus 40 in human cancers". The American ... on human glioma cell lines". The Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics. 308 (3): 838-45. doi:10.1124/jpet. ...
September 2018). Sandri-Goldin RM (ed.). "Human MxB Protein Is a Pan-herpesvirus Restriction Factor". Journal of Virology. 92 ( ... May 2018). "MxB is an interferon-induced restriction factor of human herpesviruses". Nature Communications. 9 (1): 1980. doi: ... October 2013). "Human MX2 is an interferon-induced post-entry inhibitor of HIV-1 infection". Nature. 502 (7472): 559-62. doi: ... March 1988). "cDNA cloning and assignment to chromosome 21 of IFI-78K gene, the human equivalent of murine Mx gene". Somatic ...
While the cause is not entirely clear, it is believed to be related to human herpesvirus 6 (HHV6) or human herpesvirus 7 (HHV7 ... "Evidence of human herpesvirus-6 and -7 reactivation in miscarrying women with pityriasis rosea". Journal of the American ... "Pityriasis rosea is not associated with human herpesvirus 7". Archives of Dermatology. 135 (9): 1070-2. doi:10.1001/archderm. ... Some believe it to be a reactivation of herpes viruses 6 and 7, which cause roseola in infants, though some investigations have ...
eds.). Human herpesviruses : biology, therapy, and immunoprophylaxis. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0-521- ... Human Herpesviruses: Biology, Therapy, and Immunoprophylaxis, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, ISBN 978-0-521-82714-0, ... Humans are the only known species that the disease affects naturally. However, chickenpox has been caused in other primates, ... Belshe, Robert B. (1984). Textbook of human virology (2nd ed.). Littleton, MA: PSG. p. 829. ISBN 978-0-88416-458-6. Teri Shors ...
Human Herpesviruses: Biology, Therapy, and Immunoprophylaxis. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 9780521827140. PMID 21348106 - ... One example is herpes virus family, Herpesviridae, all of which establish latent infection. Herpes virus include chicken-pox ... This is also seen with infections of the human papilloma virus in which persistent infection may lead to cervical cancer as a ... These viruses have incorporated into the human genome in the distant past, and are now transmitted through reproduction. ...
Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus and human T-lymphotropic virus. The most recently discovered human cancer virus is a ... Jordan MC, Jordan GW, Stevens JG, Miller G (June 1984). "Latent herpesviruses of humans". Annals of Internal Medicine. 100 (6 ... ISBN 978-0-7817-8215-9. Komaroff AL (December 2006). "Is human herpesvirus-6 a trigger for chronic fatigue syndrome?". Journal ... Infection by human T-lymphotropic virus can lead to tropical spastic paraparesis and adult T-cell leukaemia. Human ...
De Bolle L, Naesens L, De Clercq E (January 2005). "Update on human herpesvirus 6 biology, clinical features, and therapy". ... The first human virus to be identified was the yellow fever virus. In 1881, Carlos Finlay (1833-1915), a Cuban physician, first ... Epstein-Barr virus is important in the history of viruses for being the first virus shown to cause cancer in humans. The second ... Thorley-Lawson DA (August 2005). "EBV the prototypical human tumor virus-just how bad is it?". The Journal of Allergy and ...
... herpesvirus entry mediator) (PCID1), is a protein that in humans is encoded by the EIF3M gene. HFLB5 encodes a broadly ... 2003). "Generation and initial analysis of more than 15,000 full-length human and mouse cDNA sequences". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci ... Lehner B, Sanderson CM (2004). "A protein interaction framework for human mRNA degradation". Genome Res. 14 (7): 1315-23. doi: ... 2007). "Large-scale mapping of human protein-protein interactions by mass spectrometry". Mol. Syst. Biol. 3 (1): 89. doi: ...
... human herpesvirus 6, human herpesvirus 7, and cytomegalovirus. Individuals suffering the DRESS syndrome may exhibit sequential ... While these viral reactivations, particularly of human herpes virus 6, have been suggested to be an important factor in the ... Since the human population expresses some 13,000 different HLA serotypes while an individual expresses only a fraction of them ... Viruses known to do so include certain members of the Herpesviridae family of Herpes viruses viz., Epstein-Barr virus, ...
... human herpesvirus 6, human herpesvirus 7, and cytomegalovirus. Individuals suffering the DRESS syndrome may exhibit sequential ... While these viral reactivations, particularly of human herpes virus 6, have been suggested to be an important factor in the ... Rare case reports have associated the SJS/TEN spectrum of SCARs with reactivation of human herpesvirus 6; reactivation of ... Humans, it is estimated, express more than 10,000 different HLA class I proteins, 3,000 different HLA class II proteins, and ...
"The latent human herpesvirus-6A genome specifically integrates in telomeres of human chromosomes in vivo and in vitro". ... Human Herpesvirus HHV-6A, HHV-6B AND HHV-7, L. Flamand, I. Lautenschlager, G.R.F. Krueger, D.V. Ablashi. Published by Elsevier ... Human Herpesvirus-6. G.R.F.Krueger and D.V. Ablashi (editors), 2006. Published by Elsevier Science Publishers, B.V.Amsterdam - ... Human Herpesvirus-6: Epidemiology, Molecular Biology, and Clinical Pathology, D.V. Ablashi, G.R.F. Krueger, and S.Z. Salahuddin ...
Kaposi Sarcoma is related to the Kaposi Sarcoma Herpes Virus (KSHV) or Human Herpes Virus (HHV-8) viral infection (3). ... Each human herpes virus may present differently within the oral cavity. They are more likely to affect immunocompromised ... glands are only present in their paws The majority of viral infections affecting the oral cavity are caused by the human Herpes Virus ... 6. Papillomas and warts/ verrucae They are caused by various strains of the Human Papilloma Virus (HPV) of which there are more ...
Human herpesvirus 8 (HHV8) is found in the lesions of all those who are affected. Risk factors include poor immune function, ... Ablashi DV, Chatlynne LG, Whitman JE, Cesarman E (July 2002). "Spectrum of Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus, or human ... "Mucosal shedding of human herpesvirus 8 in men". The New England Journal of Medicine. 343 (19): 1369-77. doi:10.1056/ ... "Transmission of human herpesvirus 8 by blood transfusion". The New England Journal of Medicine. 355 (13): 1331-8. doi:10.1056/ ...
"The seroepidemiology of human herpesvirus 8 (Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus): distribution of infection in KS risk ... "Sexual transmission and the natural history of human herpesvirus 8 infection". N Engl J Med. 338 (14): 948-54. doi:10.1056/ ... Duesberg P (1989). "Human immunodeficiency virus and acquired immunodeficiency syndrome: correlation but not causation". Proc ... Duesberg rejects a role in cancer for numerous viruses, including leukemia viruses, Epstein-Barr virus, human papilloma virus, ...
2007). "Association of Human Herpesvirus-6B with Mesial Temporal Lobe Epilepsy". PLOS Med. 4 (5): e180. doi:10.1371/journal. ... 2003). "Detection of human herpesvirus-6 in mesial temporal lobe epilepsy surgical brain resections". Neurology. 61 (10): 1405- ... In the mid 1980s, human herpesvirus 6 (HHV-6) was suggested as a possible causal link between febrile convulsions and mesial ... This was noted in human tissue in 1974 and in animal models in 1985. In TLE, the sprouting mossy fibres are larger than in the ...
Similar observations have been made in the herpesvirus family; for example, Epstein-Barr virus encodes an interleukin protein ... with high sequence identity to the human interleukin-10, suggesting a recent evolutionary origin. McFadden, Grant (June 2000 ... 144 (1-2): 233-49. doi:10.1016/j.virusres.2009.05.006. PMC 2779260. PMID 19464330. Fickenscher, H; Hör, S; Küpers, H; Knappe, A ... 3 (1): 36-50. doi:10.1038/nri980. PMID 12511874. Lucas, A; McFadden, G (15 October 2004). "Secreted immunomodulatory viral ...
Jordan MC, Jordan GW, Stevens JG, Miller G (June 1984). "Latent herpesviruses of humans". Ann. Intern. Med. 100 (6): 866-80. ... For example, the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infects only human T cells, because its surface protein, gp120, can only ... Viral infections can cause disease in humans, animals and plants. In healthy humans and animals, infections are usually ... Alwine JC (2008). "Modulation of host cell stress responses by human cytomegalovirus". Human Cytomegalovirus. Curr. Top. ...
Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus and human T-lymphotropic virus. The most recently discovered human cancer virus is a ... Is human herpesvirus-6 a trigger for chronic fatigue syndrome?. Journal of Clinical Virology. 2006;37 Suppl 1:S39-46. doi: ... Jordan MC, Jordan GW, Stevens JG, Miller G. Latent herpesviruses of humans. Annals of Internal Medicine. 1984;100(6):866-80. ... The complete set of viruses in an organism or habitat is called the virome; for example, all human viruses constitute the human ...
"Assignment1 of herpesvirus-associated ubiquitin-specific protease gene HAUSP to human chromosome band 16p13.3 by in situ ... Additionally, human USP7 was also shown to form a complex with GMPS and this complex is recruited to EBV genome sequences. USP7 ... More recently, an interaction between USP7 and the EBNA1 protein of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) (another herpesvirus) was also ... Puente XS, Sánchez LM, Overall CM, López-Otín C (Jul 2003). "Human and mouse proteases: a comparative genomic approach". Nature ...
"Psittacid Herpesviruses and Mucosal Papillomas of birds in Australia" (PDF). Wildlife Health Australia. 2017. Retrieved 24 May ... Although there is no exact route of transmission, Pacheco's disease is not transmissible by humans. It is also not ... However, due to the short and lack of severe clinical signs indicating a presence of the herpesvirus, the birds that experience ... This makes it essential for all recently imported psittacine birds to be tested for the presence of the herpesvirus before ...
Genus Lymphocryptovirus (mit Species Human herpesvirus 4, en. Human gammaherpesvirus 4 (HHV-4), syn. Epstein-Barr-Virus (EBV)) ... Human metapneumovirus (HMPV), sowie Avianes Metapneumovirus - en. Avian metapneumovirus (AMPV). *Genus Orthopneumovirus, mit ... Genus Mastadenovirus (mit den Species Human mastadenovirus (Humane Adenoviren) A bis G) ... Human orthopneumovirus (HRSV), Bovines Respiratorisches Syncytialvirus - en. Bovine orthopneumovirus(BRSV), sowie Murines ...
U.S. Department of Health & Human Services.. *^ a b c Kaplan YC, Ozsarfati J, Etwel F, Nickel C, Nulman I, Koren G (November ... Retrieved 1 January 2019.. *^ a b c d e f g h i j Barbieri JS, Spaccarelli N, Margolis DJ, James WD (February 2019). " ... U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Office of Public Health and Science, Office on Women's Health. July 2009. ... Milk and Milk Products in Human Nutrition. Nestle Nutrition Workshop Series. Paediatric Programme. Nestlé Nutrition Institute ...
... such as oral hygiene and human herpesviruses. This condition can develop into necrotizing ulcerative periodontitis. This is an ... Li, X; Lei, L; Tan, D; Jiang, L; Zeng, X; Dan, H; Liao, G; Chen, Q (May 2013). "Oropharyngeal Candida colonization in human ... The global human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS) pandemic has been an important factor in ... About 35-50% of humans possess C. albicans as part of their normal oral microbiota. With more sensitive detection techniques, ...
... human leukocyte antigens (HLA) - human papilloma virus (HPV) - human T cell lymphotropic virus type I (HTLV-I) - human T cell ... herpes viruses - highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) - histocompatibility testing - histoplasmosis - HIV disease - HIV ... human growth hormone (HGH) - human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) - human immunodeficiency virus type 2 (HIV-2) - ... Department of Health and Human Services (DHHS/HHS or DHHS) - desensitization - diabetes mellitus (DM) - diagnosis - diarrhea - ...
Shiratori I., Yamaguchi M., Suzukawa M. et al. Down-regulation of basophil function by human CD200 and human herpesvirus-8 ... Douglas J., Albertson D.G., Barclay A.N. et al. RFLP and mapping of human MOX-1 gene on chromosome 3 (англ.) // Nucleic Acids ... Strausberg R.L., Feingold E.A., Grouse L.H. et al. Generation and initial analysis of more than 15,000 full-length human and ... McCaughan G.W., Clark M.J., Barclay A.N. Characterization of the human homolog of the rat MRC OX-2 membrane glycoprotein (англ ...
Herpesvirus: Cytomegalovirus,[17] Epstein Barr virus,[18] Varicella zoster virus, Human herpesvirus 6, Human herpesvirus 7 ve ... Arcay L (May 2001). "[Human microsporidiosis]". Invest Clin (Spanish; Castilian). 42 (Suppl 1), s. 3-42. PMID 11416983.. KB1 ... Atías A (June 1995). "[Update on microsporidiosis in humans]". Rev Med Chil (Spanish; Castilian). 123 (6), s. 762-72. PMID ... Pokora Z (2001). "[Role of gastropods in epidemiology of human parasitic diseases]". Wiad Parazytol (Polish). 47 (1), s. 3-24. ...
"Human herpesvirus-6 entry into the central nervous system through the olfactory pathway". Proceedings of the National Academy ... doi:10.1007/s00018-011-0893-1. hdl:2445/36438. PMID 22205212.. *^ a b c d e f Silva NA, Cooke MJ, Tam RY, Sousa N, Salgado AJ, ... 1] OECs and astrocytes interact with each other to form a new glia limitans.[1] OECs are distinct from other glia in their ... 1] After reaching the telencephalic vesicle, a small layer of cells and axons cover the vesicle. Olfactory axons invade the ...
Herpes virus cause a dendritic ulcer, which can recur and relapse over the lifetime of an individual. ... Corneal ulcers are a common human eye disease. They are caused by trauma, particularly with vegetable matter, as well as ... It is a common condition in humans particularly in the tropics and the agrarian societies. In developing countries, children ... Viral corneal ulceration caused by herpes virus may respond to antivirals like topical acyclovir ointment instilled at least ...
IL-17 je visoko homologan sa IL-17 kodiranim sa otvoreno čitajućim okvirom T limfotropnog rhadinovirusa Herpesvirus saimiri.[1] ... "Human IL-17: a novel cytokine derived from T cells". J. Immunol. 155 (12): 5483-6. PMID 7499828 ... IL-1 • IL-2 • IL-3 • IL-4 • IL-5 • IL-6 • IL-7 • IL-8 • IL-9 • IL-10 • IL-11 • IL-12 (B) • IL-13 • IL-14 • IL-15 • IL-16 • IL- ... proinflamatorni citokin (IL-1, TNF-alfa) • Th1 (INF-gama i TNF-beta) • Th2 (IL-4, IL-5, IL-6, IL-10, IL-13) • Th17 (IL-17,IL-22 ...
Human Herpesviruses: Biology, Therapy, and Immunoprophylaxis. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0-521-82714-0. Handsfield HH ... Fatahzadeh M, Schwartz RA (2007). "Human herpes simplex virus infections: epidemiology, pathogenesis, symptomatology, diagnosis ... HSV-1 causes 66.3% of genital herpes in the Tel Aviv area. Syria- Genital herpes infection from HSV-2 is predicted to be low in ... About 1 in 6 Americans (16.2%) aged 14 to 49 is infected with HSV-2. HSV-2 prevalence was nearly twice as high among women ( ...
"Medical Dictionary - Dictionary of Medicine and Human Biology. Archived from the original on 2013-02-05. Retrieved 2013-01-24. ... 22 (1): 90-3. doi:10.3171/2014.9.SPINE14159. PMID 25343407.. *^ a b Malik, Ali Irqam; Nelson, Richard L; Tou, Samson; Malik, ... 1% per year (United States)[5]. An abscess is a collection of pus that has built up within the tissue of the body.[1] Signs and ... 13 (1): 89-92. PMID 24385125.. *^ Ladde JG, Baker S, Rodgers CN, Papa L (2015). "The LOOP technique: a novel incision and ...
The human IL-15 gene comprises nine exons (1 - 8 and 4A) and eight introns, four of which (exons 5 through 8) code for the ... or after infection of monocytes herpes virus, Mycobacterium tuberculosis and Candida albicans (Figure 2).[14] ... IL-15 is 14-15 kDa glycoprotein encoded by the 34 kb region of chromosome 4q31 in humans, and at the central region of ... In humans with history of acute infectious mononucleosis (the syndrome associated with primary Epstein-Barr virus infection), ...
Human herpesvirus 3 (HHV-3). Virus varicella-zoster adalah virus penyebab cacar air dan cacar ular (herper zoster).[1] Inang ... 1]. Referensi[sunting , sunting sumber]. *^ a b c d e (Inggris) Ann M. Arvin (Juli 1996). "Varicella-Zoster Virus" (PDF). ... 1] Virion terdiri dari glikoprotein, kapsid, amplop (selubung) virus, dan nukleokapsid yang melindungi bagian inti berisi DNA ... genom utas ganda.[1] Bagian nukleokapsid berbentuk ikosahedral, berdiameter 100-110 nm, dan terdiri dari 162 protein yang ...
Four orthopoxviruses cause infection in humans: variola, vaccinia, cowpox, and monkeypox. Variola virus infects only humans in ... If the mutation rate is assumed to be similar to that of the herpesviruses, the divergence date of variola from Taterapox has ... p. Chapter 1. ISBN 978-3-642-76200-0. .. *^ a b c d e f g h Fenner, F. (1988). "The History of Smallpox and its Spread Around ... Hays, J.N. (2005). Epidemics and Pandemics: Their Impacts on Human History. ABC-CLIO. pp. 151-52. ISBN 978-1-85109-658-9. .. ...
This onshore time is important to the lifecycle, and can be disturbed when substantial human presence occurs.[14] The timing of ... including analysis of phocine herpesvirus.[20] In the San Francisco Bay, some harbor seals are fully or partially reddish in ... Harbor seals are sometimes reluctant to haul out in the presence of humans, so shoreline development and access must be ... The transmission of phocine herpesvirus-1 in rehabilitating and free-ranging Pacific harbor seals (Phoca vitulina) in ...
Several human activities have led to the emergence of zoonotic human pathogens, including viruses, bacteria, protozoa, and ... A typical example is the herpes virus, which tends to hide in nerves and become reactivated when specific circumstances arise. ... Many of the most common primary pathogens of humans only infect humans, however, many serious diseases are caused by organisms ... Krauss H, Weber A, Appel M (2003). Zoonoses: Infectious Diseases Transmissible from Animals to Humans (3rd ed.). Washington, D. ...
Cervical cancer, vulvar cancer & Genital warts (condyloma), Penile cancer, Anal cancer (Human papillomavirus (HPV)) ... Unlike herpesviruses, which can remain inactive in the body for months or years before reappearing, molluscum contagiosum does ... Wart (caused by the Human papillomavirus; also similar in appearance to molluscum) ... 7 (1): 57-62. PMID 10359957.. *^ a b Torbeck R, Pan M, DeMoll E, Levitt J (June 2014). "Cantharidin: a comprehensive review of ...
"Human Molecular Genetics. 20 (R1): R21-7. doi:10.1093/hmg/ddr137. PMC 3095054. PMID 21459775.. ... Other functions for RNAi in mammalian viruses also exist, such as miRNAs expressed by the herpes virus that may act as ... 10 (1): 1-12. doi:10.1016/j.ajps.2014.08.011.. *^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m Whitehead KA, Dahlman JE, Langer RS, Anderson DG ( ... 45,000 miRNA target sites within human mRNA 3'UTRs are conserved above background levels, and ,60% of human protein-coding ...
... human papillomavirus infection, Epstein-Barr virus and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV).[2] These factors act, at least ... Kaposi's sarcoma herpesvirus (Kaposi's sarcoma and primary effusion lymphomas), hepatitis B and hepatitis C viruses ( ... Molecular Pathology: The Molecular Basis of Human Disease. Amsterdam: Elsevier Academic Press. p. 66. ISBN 978-0-12-374419-7.. ... In non-humans, a few types of transmissible cancer have been described, wherein the cancer spreads between animals by ...
Aphthous-like ulceration also occurs in conditions involving systemic immuno-dysregulation, e.g. cyclic neutropenia and human ... herpetiform ulceration is not caused by herpes viruses. As with all types of aphthous stomatitis, it is not contagious. Unlike ... 978-1-4160-3435-3. .. *^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah Brocklehurst P, Tickle M, ... 13 (7): 1-4. PMID 18839042.. *^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z Neville BW, Damm DD, Allen CM, Bouquot JE ( ...
Jeang, K. T. (1996) In: Human Retroviruses and AIDS: "A Compilation and Analysis of Nucleic Acid and Amino Acid Sequences". Los ... Green M, Loewenstein PM (December 1988). "Autonomous functional domains of chemically synthesized human immunodeficiency virus ... "Direct interaction of human TFIID with the HIV-1 transactivator Tat". Nature. 367 (6460): 295-9. Bibcode:1994Natur.367..295K. ... "NMR structure of a biologically active peptide containing the RNA-binding domain of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 Tat". ...
... human (Homo sapiens). miR-181 may have a regulatory role with tumor suppressors genes of the human chromosome 1. It has been ... Cai X, Lu S, Zhang Z, Gonzalez CM, Damania B, Cullen BR (April 2005). "Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus expresses an ... In humans, this microRNA is involved in the mechanisms of immunity, and in many different cancers (see below) it was found to ... Human miR-181a1 and miR-181b1 are clustered together and located on the chromosome 1 (37.p5), miR-181a2 and miR-181b2 are ...
Human vaccines[edit]. Viral diseases[edit]. Virus. Diseases or conditions. Vaccine(s). Brands ... Talimogene laherparepvec (T-VEC), - Herpes virus engineered to produce immune-boosting molecule. Vaccine components[edit]. * ... "Human Vaccines. 7 (11): 1192-1197. doi:10.4161/hv.7.11.17017. PMC 3323497 . PMID 22048120.. ... "Human Vaccines. 7 (11): 1225-1233. doi:10.4161/hv.7.11.18203. PMC 3323498 . PMID 22205439.. ...
... human-to-human) or xenograft (animal-to-human), but it is helpful scientifically (for those searching or reading the scientific ... Examples of viruses carried by pigs include porcine herpesvirus, rotavirus, parvovirus, and circovirus. Porcine herpesviruses ... Human organs have been transplanted into animals as a powerful research technique for studying human biology without harming ... This technique has also been proposed as an alternative source of human organs for future transplantation into human patients.[ ...
Human herpesvirus 5/Herpesvirus 5 humano (HHV-5) Cercopithecine herpesvirus 5/Herpesvirus 5 cercopitecino (CeHV-5) ... Panine herpesvirus 2/Herpesvirus 2 panino (PoHV-2) Pongine herpesvirus 4/Herpesvirus 5 ponxino (PoHV-4) Aotine herpesvirus 1/ ... O Citomegalovirus humano (Human cytomegalovirus) ou HCMV, tamén chamado Herpesvirus 5 humano (Human herpesvirus 5) ou HHV-5.[2] ... Panine herpesvirus 2, PaHV-2) coma Herpesvirus 4 ponxino (Pongine herpesvirus 4, PoHV-4). O SCCMV denomínase Herpesvirus 5 ...
It is a vector for Avipoxvirus, Newcastle disease virus, Falconid herpesvirus 1 (and possibly other Herpesviridae), and some ... In many parts of its range, peregrines now also nest regularly on tall buildings or bridges; these human-made structures used ... 978-0-9619839-0-1. .. *^ a b c d e f Potter, M. (2002). ""Falco peregrinus" (On-line)". Animal Diversity Web. University of ... 50 (11): 1-793.. *^ a b c d "All about the Peregrine falcon". U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. 1999. Archived from the original ...
Humans can be infected by viruses from five of the eight genera in the subfamily Parvovirinae: i) Bocaparvovirus (e.g. human ... Dependoviruses require helper viruses (e.g. herpesviruses) to replicate. They are also perfect candidates as gene vectors. They ... human parv4 G1). As of 2014, there were no known human viruses in the remaining three recognized genera: vi) Amdoparvovirus (e. ... experiments showed that both human cells and HeLa cells have transferrin receptors but there is no evidence of humans ...
Rask-Andersen M, Olszewski PK, Levine AS, Schiöth HB (2009). «Molecular mechanisms underlying anorexia nervosa: Focus on human ... Cercopithecine herpesvirus 1) in clinical samples». Journal of Virological Methods. 109 (2): 245-51. PMID 12711069. doi:10.1016 ... ISBN 978-1-85775-698-2. OCLC 84150452.. *^ Kaye W (2008). «Neurobiology of anorexia and bulimia nervosa». Physiology & Behavior ... 12 (1): 1. PMID 12567219. doi:10.1007/s00787-003-1111-y.. Bruk av ,besøksdato=. krever at ,url=. også er angitt. (hjelp) ...
"American Journal of Human Genetics. 71 (5): 1060-1071. doi:10.1086/344289. ISSN 0002-9297. PMC 385085. PMID 12373647.. ... A study called BLISS-76 tested the drug belimumab, a fully human monoclonal anti-BAFF (or anti-BLyS) antibody.[85] BAFF ... Micrograph of a section of human skin prepared for direct immunofluorescence using an anti-IgG antibody. The skin is from a ... ISBN 978-1-58333-445-4.. *^ a b c d Talbott, John H. (1966). "Historical Background of Discoid and Systemic Lupus Erythematosus ...
Human herpesvirus 2 (HHV-2) (Human herpes simplex virus 2). Human herpesvirus 1 (strain F) (HHV-1) (Human herpes simplex virus ... Human herpesvirus 2 (HHV-2) (Human herpes simplex virus 2). Human herpesvirus 1 (strain Angelotti) (HHV-1) (Human herpes ... Human herpesvirus 2 (HHV-2) (Human herpes simplex virus 2). 394. UniRef100_Q69091. Cluster: Envelope glycoprotein D. 32. ... Human herpesvirus 1 (HHV-1) (Human herpes simplex virus 1)Imported. ,p>Information which has been imported from another ...
1997 Nov-Dec;1(1):19-29. Research Support, Non-U.S. Govt ... Human herpesvirus 8 (HHV-8) is strongly associated with all ... in the human herpesvirus 8 genome.. Kellam P1, Boshoff C, Whitby D, Matthews S, Weiss RA, Talbot SJ. ... 1. Institute of Cancer Research, Chester Beatty Laboratories, London, United Kingdom.. Abstract. OBJECTIVES: ... KS patients sera were used to screen a cDNA expression library derived from a PEL cell line (BCP-1) latently infected with HHV ...
To summarize the seroprevalence of human herpesvirus 8 (HHV-8) in mainland China, we conducted a systematic review and meta- ... Dilnur P, Katano H, Wang ZH, Osakabe Y, Kudo M, Sata T, Classic type of Kaposis sarcoma and human herpesvirus 8 infection in ... Hladik W, Dollard SC, Mermin J, Fowlkes AL, Downing R, Amin MM, Transmission of human herpesvirus 8 by blood transfusion. N ... Hoffman LJ, Bunker CH, Pellett PE, Trump DL, Patrick AL, Dollard SC, Elevated seroprevalence of human herpesvirus 8 among men ...
sp,P28987,EV45_HHV1K Envelope protein UL45 OS=Human herpesvirus 1 (strain KOS) OX=10306 GN=UL45 PE=3 SV=1 ... Human herpesvirus 1 (strain KOS) (HHV-1) (Human herpes simplex virus 1). ... Human herpesvirus 1 (strain KOS) (HHV-1) (Human herpes simplex virus 1) ... P28987-1 [UniParc]FASTAAdd to basketAdded to basket. « Hide. 10 20 30 40 50. MPLRASEHAY RPLGPGTPPM RARLPAAAWV GVGTIIGGVV ...
Recently, the possible correlation between genital infection by human herpesviruses (HHVs) and male infertility has attracted ... These findings suggest the possibility that a similar process occurs within HHV‐infected human germ cells. ... They infect a variety of animal hosts, including humans and cause complex clinical outcomes. ... rats and its possible correlation with infertility in human males. Ectopic expression of HHV‐1 thymidine kinase (TK) in the ...
Human herpesvirus 1 UL9 protein: necessary for viral DNA synthesis; amino acid sequence has been determined; has helicase ... UL9 protein, Human herpesvirus 1; UL9 protein, herpes simplex virus type 1; herpes simplex virus type 1 origin-binding protein ... Human herpesvirus 1 UL9 protein. Subscribe to New Research on Human herpesvirus 1 UL9 protein ... UL9; herpes simplex virus type 1 protein UL9; origin-binding protein UL9, Human herpesvirus 1 ...
Members of the human Herpesviridaefamily are candidates for representing the macroenvironmental factors associated with ... human cytomegalovirus (HCMV), human herpesvirus 6 (HHV-6), human herpesvirus 7 (HHV-7) and human herpesvirus 8 (HHV-8) was ... Association of human herpesvirus 6 and human herpesvirus 7 with demyelinating diseases of the nervous system. J Neurovirol 7: ... Huang LM, Lee CY, Lee PI, Chen JM, Wang PJ (1991) Meningitis caused by human herpesvirus-6. Arch Dis Child 66:1443-1444PubMed ...
Association of Active Human Herpesvirus-6, -7 and Parvovirus B19 Infection with Clinical Outcomes in Patients with Myalgic ... Association of Active Human Herpesvirus-6, -7 and Parvovirus B19 Infection with Clinical Outcomes in Patients with Myalgic ... Table 1. Frequency of Active HHV-6, HHV-7 and B19 Infection in ME/CFS Patients and Practically Health Persons. ...
HHV-8 infection and any risk factors that may be associated with HHV-8, including human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) type 1 ... HHV-8 infection among infants was not associated with HHV-8 or HIV-1 infection in the mother. Among the HHV-8-positive infants ... The specific route and timing of human herpesvirus (HHV) 8 infection in regions where Kaposi sarcoma is endemic are not known. ... Postnatal Human Herpesvirus 8 and Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 Infection in Mothers and Infants from Zambia ...
... Sundén, Birgitta ... MDA satisfactorily amplified viral DNA in the absence of human nucleic acids, but showed poor amplification capacity for viral ... from 373 patients lacking typical symptoms of viral CNS infection were analysed by real-time PCR targeting herpesviruses or ... DNA in CSF samples, and did not increase the sensitivity for herpes virus-detection with our methodology. ...
The human herpesvirus 8/Kaposi Sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (HHV-8/KSHV) may be the causal factor in Kaposi sarcoma, AIDS- ... 1999) Unique properties of a second human herpesvirus 8-encoded interferon regulatory factor (vIRF-2). J. Hum. Virol. 2:19-32. ... 1998) Human herpesvirus 8 encodes an interferon regulatory factor (IRF) homolog that represses IRF-1-mediated transcription. J ... Human herpesvirus 8/Kaposi sarcoma-associated virus (HHV-8/KSHV) contains, in addition to genes required for viral replication ...
Human herpesvirus type 1 (HHV-1) has a large double-stranded DNA genome of approximately 152 kbp that is structurally complex ... This makes the assembly of HHV-1 whole genomes from short-read sequencing data technically challenging. ... Human herpesvirus type 1 (HHV-1) has a large double-stranded DNA genome of approximately 152 kbp that is structurally complex ... De Novo Assembly of Human Herpes Virus Type 1 (HHV-1) Genome, Mining of Non-Canonical Structures and Detection of Novel Drug- ...
"Human herpesvirus type 1 and type 2 disrupt mitochondrial dynamics in human keratinocytes, Archives of Virology" on DeepDyve, ... Human herpesvirus type 1 and type 2 disrupt mitochondrial dynamics in human keratinocytes. Chodkowski, Marcin; Serafińska, ... Human herpesvirus type 1 and type 2 disrupt mitochondrial dynamics in human keratinocytes. Human herpesvirus type 1 and type 2 ... lp/springer_journal/human-herpesvirus-type-1-and-type-2-disrupt-mitochondrial-dynamics-in-BjLw75Ym3Y ...
View Human Herpes Virus Type 8 HHV-8 Culture Fluid from ZeptoMetrix. ... Human Herpes Virus Type 8 HHV-8, an enveloped icosahedral virus that contains a nucleocapsid and double-stranded linear DNA, is ... Human Herpes Virus Type 8 (HHV-8) Culture Fluid (1 mL) - Log in for Price ... Human Herpes Virus Type 8 (HHV-8) Culture Fluid (1 mL). Catalog# 0810104CF ...
Human herpes viruses are a family of double-stranded DNA viruses that cause opportunistic infections in solid organ and ... Primary human herpesvirus 7 infection: a comparison of human herpesvirus 7 and human herpesvirus 6 infections in children. J ... Beta-herpes viruses, discussed in this chapter such as human herpes viruses 6 and 7, may rarely cause a febrile illness and a ... Vieira J, Huang ML, Koelle DM, Corey L. Transmissible Kaposis sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (human herpesvirus 8) in saliva ...
Co-infection of human herpesvirus type 2 (HHV-2) and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) among pregnant women from Rio de ... Co-infection of human herpesvirus type 2 (HHV-2) and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) among pregnant women from Rio de ... Diagnosis of human herpes virus 1 and 2 (HHV-1 and HHV-2): use of a synthetic standard curve for absolute quantification by ... Diagnosis of human herpes virus 1 and 2 (HHV-1 and HHV-2): use of a synthetic standard curve for absolute quantification by ...
... varicella zoster virus and human herpesvirus 6 in patients with recurrent aphthous stomatitis. Download Prime PubMed App to ... HumanHerpesvirus 6, HumanHumansImmunoglobulin GImmunoglobulin MLichen Planus, OralMaleMiddle AgedMouth MucosaPrevalence ... Search for human herpesvirus 6, human cytomegalovirus and varicella zoster virus DNA in recurrent aphthous stomatitis tissue. ... TY - JOUR T1 - Detection of serum antibodies against cytomegalovirus, varicella zoster virus and human herpesvirus 6 in ...
The viruses are known by numbers as human herpes virus 1 through 8 (HHV1 - HHV8). Human herpes virus 1 Human herpes virus 1 ( ... The herpes family of viruses includes 8 different viruses that affect human beings. ... HHV1) is also known as herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV1). It is typically the cause of cold sores around the mouth. ... Human herpes virus 4. Human herpes virus 4 (HHV4) is also known as the Epstein-Barr virus. It is the major cause of infectious ...
Compared to other β-herpesviruses, HHV-6B exhibits high similarity in capsid structure but organizational differences in its ... belongs to the β-herpesvirus subfamily of the Herpesviridae. To understand capsid assembly and capsid-tegument interactions, ... Human herpesvirus 6B (HHV-6B) belongs to the β-herpesvirus subfamily of the Herpesviridae. To understand capsid assembly and ... Variant-specific tropism of human herpesvirus 6 in human astrocytes. J. Virol. 79, 9439-9448 (2005). ...
Here we describe the ways that human herpesviruses interact and interfere with the cellular autophagy machinery in order to ... Here we describe the ways that human herpesviruses interact and interfere with the cellular autophagy machinery in order to ... Recent research on the human herpesvirus Epstein-Barr Virus (EBV) suggesting that localisation within the nucleus can shelter ... Recent research on the human herpesvirus Epstein-Barr Virus (EBV) suggesting that localisation within the nucleus can shelter ...
Human" by people in this website by year, and whether "Herpesvirus 1, Human" was a major or minor topic of these publications. ... "Herpesvirus 1, Human" is a descriptor in the National Library of Medicines controlled vocabulary thesaurus, MeSH (Medical ... The type species of SIMPLEXVIRUS causing most forms of non-genital herpes simplex in humans. Primary infection occurs mainly in ... Below are the most recent publications written about "Herpesvirus 1, Human" by people in Profiles. ...
... human herpesvirus-3 pronunciation, human herpesvirus-3 translation, English dictionary definition of human herpesvirus-3. n. ... CMV Any of a group of herpesviruses that attack and enlarge epithelial cells. Such viruses also cause a disease of infants ... Related to human herpesvirus-3: Human herpesvirus 8, human herpesvirus 7. cy·to·meg·a·lo·vi·rus. (sī′tə-mĕg′ə-lō-vī′rəs). n. ... Human herpesvirus-3 - definition of human herpesvirus-3 by The Free Dictionary https://www.thefreedictionary.com/human+ ...
... herpesvirus 2, human/immunology/isolation & purification, humans, immunoglobulin G/blood, male, middle aged, prevalence, ... herpesvirus 1 Serum antibodies to Toxoplasma gondii and Herpesvidae family viruses in individuals with schizophrenia and ... A total of 495 serum samples were analysed for the presence and level of immunoglobulin G (IgG) to T. gondii, CMV HSV-1, and ... OBJECTIVE: To determine the magnitude of T. gondii, cytomegalovirus (CMV), herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) and herpes ...
NV1020 is an oncolytic herpes virus initially developed by Medigene Inc. and licensed for development by Catherex Inc. in 2010 ... Human Gene Therapy. 23 (1): 91-7. doi:10.1089/hum.2011.141. PMID 21895536. "Amgen, Form 8-K, Current Report, Filing Date Jan 26 ... Mohr I, Gluzman Y (September 1996). "A herpesvirus genetic element which affects translation in the absence of the viral GADD34 ... Human Gene Therapy. 21 (9): 1119-28. doi:10.1089/hum.2010.020. PMC 3733135. PMID 20486770. Clinical trial number NCT00149396 ...
Human herpesvirus 6 (HHV-6) is the common collective name for human betaherpesvirus 6A (HHV-6A) and human betaherpesvirus 6B ( ... Media related to Human herpesvirus 6 at Wikimedia Commons Data related to Human herpesvirus 6 at Wikispecies. ... herpesvirus-inflammatory cytokine syndrome in an AIDS patient reveals co-infection of human herpesvirus 8 and human herpesvirus ... Human herpesvirus 6 lives primarily on humans and, while variants of the virus can cause mild to fatal illnesses, can live ...
One human-to-human transmission has been identified (6). The incubation period in humans has been as short as 2 days but more ... B virus (Herpesvirus simiae) infection in humans: epidemiologic investigation of a cluster. Ann Intern Med 1990;112:833-9. ... Editorial Note: C. herpesvirus 1 (B virus) causes persistent latent infections in greater than or equal to 70% of captive adult ... Previously reported human infections usually have been attributed to macaque bites or scratches, injuries from needles used ...
ICP 10-AG-4 antigen, Human herpesvirus 2. Known as: ICP 10-AG-4 protein, Human herpesvirus 2, antigen ICP 10-AG-4, Herpes ...
... was the sixth herpesvirus discovered. Isolated in 1986 during attempts to find novel viruses in patients with ... encoded search term (Human Herpesvirus 6 (HHV-6) Infection) and Human Herpesvirus 6 (HHV-6) Infection What to Read Next on ... Influence of ganciclovir prophylaxis on citomegalovirus, human herpesvirus 6, and human herpesvirus 7 viremia in renal ... Human Herpesvirus 6 (HHV-6) Infection Medication. Updated: Aug 16, 2019 * Author: John L Kiley, MD; Chief Editor: Burke A Cunha ...
Publications] 岡田 賢司: Human herpesvirus-6(HHV-6)感染症の臨床像-突発性発疹との関係- 小児科. 31(1). 105-111 (1990). *. Description. 「研究成果報告書概要(和文)」 ... Publications] 岡田賢司: Human herpesvirus-6(HHV-6)感染症の臨床像 小児科. 31. 105-111 (1990). *. Related Report. 1989 Annual Research Report ... Serological studies on mother-to-child transmission and virulence as an opportunistic pathogen of human herpesvirus-6 (HHV-6). ... Human
Human herpesvirus 8 (HHV-8), also called Kaposi sarcoma (KS)-associated herpesvirus (KSHV), is a gamma human herpesvirus most ... A Review of Human Herpesvirus 8, the Kaposis Sarcoma-Associated Herpesvirus, in the Pediatric Population. J Pediatric Infect ... Blood-borne and sexual transmission of human herpesvirus 8 in women with or at risk for human immunodeficiency virus infection ... Human herpesvirus 8-associated hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis in human immunodeficiency virus-infected patients. Clin ...
  • Recently, the possible correlation between genital infection by human herpesviruses (HHVs) and male infertility has attracted considerable attention. (intechopen.com)
  • Bello-Morales R, Fedetz M, Alcina A, Tabares E, Lopez-Guerrero JA (2005) High susceptibility of a human oligodendroglial cell line to herpes simplex type 1 infection. (springer.com)
  • The specific route and timing of human herpesvirus (HHV) 8 infection in regions where Kaposi sarcoma is endemic are not known. (unl.edu)
  • HHV-8 infection and any risk factors that may be associated with HHV-8, including human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) type 1 infection, were monitored during the 12-month post-delivery period for 416 mothers and 485 infants from Lusaka, Zambia. (unl.edu)
  • HHV-8 infection among infants was not associated with HHV-8 or HIV-1 infection in the mother. (unl.edu)
  • Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) samples from 373 patients lacking typical symptoms of viral CNS infection were analysed by real-time PCR targeting herpesviruses or enteroviruses with or without prior MDA. (diva-portal.org)
  • Here, we show that the ubiquitous human pathogens HHV-1 and HHV-2 induce changes in the mitochondrial morphology and distribution in the early and late phases of productive infection in human keratinocytes (HaCaT cells). (deepdyve.com)
  • Moreover, we found that mitochondria migrated to the perinuclear area, where HHV-1 and HHV-2 antigens were also observed, mainly in the early stages of infection. (deepdyve.com)
  • Immune surveillance by CD8αα+ skin-resident T cells in human herpes virus infection. (springer.com)
  • Genital infection with herpes simplex virus types 1 and 2 in women from natal, Brazil. (fiocruz.br)
  • 06. Lima LR, Fernandes LE, Villela DA, Morgado MG, Pilotto JH, de Paula VS. Co-infection of human herpesvirus type 2 (HHV-2) and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) among pregnant women from Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. (fiocruz.br)
  • Impact of HIV-1 infection on herpes simplex virus type 2 genetic variability among co-infected individuals. (fiocruz.br)
  • Vaccine-induced antibodies target sequestered viral antigens to prevent ocular HSV-1 pathogenesis, preserve vision, and preempt productive neuronal infection. (ouhsc.edu)
  • Colony Stimulating Factor-1 Receptor Expressing Cells Infiltrating the Cornea Control Corneal Nerve Degeneration in Response to HSV-1 Infection. (ouhsc.edu)
  • Herpes simplex virus-1 infects the olfactory bulb shortly following ocular infection and exhibits a long-term inflammatory profile in the form of effector and HSV-1-specific T cells. (ouhsc.edu)
  • Fibroblast growth factor-2 drives and maintains progressive corneal neovascularization following HSV-1 infection. (ouhsc.edu)
  • Defining nervous system susceptibility during acute and latent herpes simplex virus-1 infection. (ouhsc.edu)
  • OBJECTIVE: To determine the magnitude of T. gondii, cytomegalovirus (CMV), herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) and herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) infection in individuals with schizophrenia, bipolar disorder and healthy controls by using serologic diagnostic methods. (cuni.cz)
  • On December 10, 1997, a 22-year-old female worker at a primate center died from Cercopithecine herpesvirus 1 (B virus) infection 42 days after biologic material (possibly fecal) from a rhesus macaque (Macaca mulatta) splashed into her right eye. (cdc.gov)
  • This investigation documented the hazard of ocular splashes and indicated that dendritic corneal lesions, such as herpetic skin vesicles, are not always present in B virus infection (1). (cdc.gov)
  • Drug therapy specific to the infection is not currently a component of the standard of care for human herpesvirus 6 (HHV-6) infection. (medscape.com)
  • Human herpesvirus-6 infection in children. (medscape.com)
  • The clinical findings of 47 patients with exanthema subitum (ES) serologically confirmed human herpesvirus-6 (HHV-6) infection were analyzed. (nii.ac.jp)
  • Sudden high fever is a distinctive feature of human herpesvirus 6 infection, which is spread by contact with an infected person's saliva. (livestrong.com)
  • Human herpesvirus 6 stays in the body long after the initial infection. (livestrong.com)
  • Consultation with a health-care provider should be sought for concerns about reactivation symptoms in a person with a weak immune system or about children who appear to have severe symptoms from human herpesvirus 6 infection. (livestrong.com)
  • A recently identified gammaherpesvirus, human herpesvirus 8 (HHV8), may be the causative agent of Kaposi's sarcoma (KS), a tumor commonly associated with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection ( 1 , 4 , 19 , 21 ). (asm.org)
  • Treatment of human herpesvirus 6 (HHV-6) infection varies according to the presenting clinical situation. (medscape.com)
  • Long-term effects of human herpesvirus 6 infection. (medscape.com)
  • Humans are hosts for infection by nine herpesviruses, and the nine are listed below. (virginia.edu)
  • In recent years, epidemiological and experimental studies have strengthened the link between this lymphotropic herpesvirus and KS by showing that HHV8 infection precedes development of tumors, tracks tightly with KS risk, and targets spindle cells ( 3 )( 4 )( 5 ). (rupress.org)
  • Virus production can be reactivated using chemical inducing agents, including tetradecanoyl phorbol acetate and n -butyrate, suggesting that the infection in human A549 cells is latent. (asm.org)
  • Nine human herpesviruses are known so far, and each of them causes a variety of diseases in both primary infection and reactivation. (springer.com)
  • Human herpesviruses (HHV) cause a variety of clinically relevant conditions upon primary infection of typically young and immunocompetent hosts. (jenner.ac.uk)
  • Herpesvirus latency requires the virus to establish a persistent infection in cells without destruction by the immune system. (jci.org)
  • However, zoonotic infection with B virus in humans usually results in fatal encephalomyelitis or severe neurologic impairment. (elsevier.com)
  • Huff, JL & Barry, PA 2003, ' B-virus (Cercopithecine herpesvirus 1) infection in humans and macaques: Potential for zoonotic disease ', Emerging Infectious Diseases , vol. 9, no. 2, pp. 246-250. (elsevier.com)
  • Researchers at the University of California, San Diego (UCSD) Skaggs School of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences have patented a strategy for developing a human vaccine to prevent against Human Cytomegalovirus (hCMV) infection and disease. (bio-medicine.org)
  • During local small measles outbreak in Japan, 3 adolescents with febrile skin rash suspected as having measles were diagnosed with primary human herpesvirus (HHV)-7 infection. (medworm.com)
  • However, HHV-8-infected patients with diverse immunologic abnormalities [ 3 , 4 ], such as those with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection, can develop KS. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Researchers from Instituto de Medicina Molecular (iMM) Lisboa have created a chimera virus that allows the study of molecules to treat cancers caused by human herpes virus infection in mice models of disease. (medicalxpress.com)
  • Stress can directly stimulate SGK1 levels as well as stimulate bovine herpesvirus 1 (BoHV-1) and herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) productive infection and reactivation from latency suggesting SGK1 can stimulate productive infection. (selleckchem.com)
  • Proteins encoded by the three BoHV-1 immediate early genes (bICP0, bICP4, and bICP22) and two late proteins (VP16 and gE) were consistently reduced by GSK650394 during early stages of productive infection. (selleckchem.com)
  • Association of human herpesvirus 6 infection with drug reaction with eosinophilia and systemic symptoms," Archives of Dermatology , vol. 157, pp. 934-940, 2007. (hindawi.com)
  • and 6, 9, and 12 months in order to compare the proportion of infants acquiring HIV-1 by 12 months in the two study arms and determine the timing of HIV-1 infection. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • The results of this study will help guide the design of a multi-site clinical trial with adequate power to determine the effect of HSV-2 suppression on vertical (MTCT) transmission of HIV-1 infection. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • About a week after HHV-7 has infected a cell, it begins to downregulate CD4 transcription, which interferes with HIV-1 infection but may reactivate HHV-6 infection. (wikipedia.org)
  • These results suggest that Sendai virus and HSV-1 can be added to the list of viruses causing apoptosis, which appears to be a general mechanism occurring during viral infection. (elsevier.com)
  • Infection with T. gondii in humans can occur in various ways. (merckmanuals.com)
  • Which of the following is the most common mode of infection in humans? (merckmanuals.com)
  • After initial infection, all herpesviruses remain latent within specific host cells and may subsequently reactivate. (merckmanuals.com)
  • It is concluded that HHV-1 causes widespread fatal infection in marmosets . (bvsalud.org)
  • For this purpose, we used human microvascular endothelial cells (HMEC-1) to establish an ET-1-producing model of infection with HHV-8. (elsevier.com)
  • Viral particles purified from BCBL-1 cells were used to infect HMEC-1 monolayer, and infection was assessed by polymerase chain reaction, reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction, and confocal microscopy. (elsevier.com)
  • In contrast, 1 week after infection, HHV-8-positive cells showed higher mitochondrial functionality. (elsevier.com)
  • The levels of endothelin precursor big endothelin-1 was increased 3 days after infection, although big ET-1 and ET-1 production did not differ significantly between infected and uninfected cells. (elsevier.com)
  • The aim of this study was to investigate the associations between HHV-8 infection and human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1), and between B-19 and HIV-1 among MSM and IDUs patients. (elsevier.com)
  • The contrasting risks of HHV-8 and B19 infections between different HIV-1/AIDS groups suggest that the efficiency of viral infection is affected by their distinct transmission routes. (elsevier.com)
  • Patient group 1 included samples from 167 patients that were sent to the clinical microbiological laboratory at the Linköping University Hospital, for bacterial culture because of a suspected bacterial infection in the CNS. (springer.com)
  • HSV type 1 is a very common infection and about 80% of the population carry the HSV type 1 virus. (healthtestingcenters.com)
  • Identifying human herpesvirus 8 infection: performance characteristics of serological assays. (cdc.gov)
  • Latent class analysis of human herpesvirus 8 assay performance and infection prevalence in sub-Saharan Africa and Malta. (cdc.gov)
  • After the primary infection, the human alphaherpesvirinae sub-family remains quiescent in the nerve ganglia from which it can periodically reactivate, causing clinical manifestations. (intechopen.com)
  • To date a total of 8 human HVs are known, having the characteristic of establishing a life-long latent infection: a state from which the virus can be reactivated and result in recurring disease. (intechopen.com)
  • Seventeen additional cases of B virus infection in humans were described through 1973 (2)* and four cases, including the first known case of person-to-person transmission of the virus, occurred in Pensacola, Florida, in 1987 (5). (cdc.gov)
  • This extreme degree of morbidity and mortality has given the impression that B virus infection in humans nearly always results in severe or fatal disease. (cdc.gov)
  • The purpose of the working group was to supplement existing methods with specific guidelines intended to minimize transmission of B virus infection from macaque monkeys to humans. (cdc.gov)
  • As with herpes simplex virus I infection in humans, primary infection with B virus in macaques may result in gingivostomatitis with characteristic buccal mucosal lesions, but it probably occurs frequently without such signs. (cdc.gov)
  • Except for one instance of person-to-person transmission, however, all cases of B virus infection in humans have occurred in persons exposed to monkeys or monkey tissues. (cdc.gov)
  • The presence of DNA of herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) and type 2 (HSV-2), varicella zoster virus (VZV), Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), human cytomegalovirus (HCMV), human herpesvirus 6 (HHV-6), human herpesvirus 7 (HHV-7) and human herpesvirus 8 (HHV-8) was searched by specific nested polymerase chain reaction. (springer.com)
  • Infections with cytomegalovirus and other herpesviruses in 121 liver transplant recipients: transmission by donated organ and the effect of OKT3 antibodies. (springer.com)
  • In this study, sera from 22 patients with RAS, 24 patients with oral lichen planus (OLP) and 15 healthy controls were screened for IgG and IgM class antibodies to human cytomegalovirus (HCMV), varicella zoster virus (VZV) and human herpesvirus 6 (HHV-6). (unboundmedicine.com)
  • Human herpes virus 5 (HHV5) is the official name of cytomegalovirus (CMV). (medbroadcast.com)
  • 180 "VΛ"-shaped CATCs are observed in HHV-6B, distinguishing from the 255 "Λ"-shaped dimeric CATCs observed in murine cytomegalovirus and the 310 "Δ"-shaped CATCs in human cytomegalovirus. (nature.com)
  • This methodology represents a low-cost, high-throughput technology that allows simultaneous measurement of specific antibodies against five HHV species: Herpes simplex viruses 1 and 2, Varicella zoster virus, Epstein-Barr virus, and Cytomegalovirus. (jenner.ac.uk)
  • For Ovid we used: exp Burns/ AND (exp Herpes Zoster/ or exp Encephalitis, Herpes Simplex/ or exp Herpes Simplex/ or exp Herpes Simples Virus Vaccines/), exp Burns/ AND (exp Cytomegalovirus/ or exp Cytomegalovirus Infections/), exp Burns/ AND (exp Chickenpox/ or Herpesvirus 3. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Three human betaherpesviruses, human cytomegalovirus (HCMV), human herpesvirus-6 (HHV-6), and HHV-7, establish latency in mononuclear cells and can reactivate to cause visceral disease. (jci.org)
  • The herpesviruses, herpes simplex virus (HSV) type 1 (HSV-1), HSV type 2 (HSV-2), varicella-zoster virus (VZV), cytomegalovirus (CMV), and Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) can cause mild to severe diseases in humans. (springer.com)
  • More than 60 percent of the world's population is infected with a type of herpes virus called human cytomegalovirus. (medicalxpress.com)
  • Proteasome-independent disruption of PML oncogenic domains (PODs), but not covalent modification by SUMO-1, is required for human cytomegalovirus immediate-early protein IE1 to inhibit PML-mediated transcriptional repression. (qxmd.com)
  • The Human Cytomegalovirus IE1 Protein Antagonizes PML Nuclear Body-Mediated Intrinsic Immunity via the Inhibition of PML De Novo SUMOylation. (qxmd.com)
  • Expression of Human Cytomegalovirus IE1 Leads to Accumulation of Mono-SUMOylated PML That Is Protected from Degradation by Herpes Simplex Virus 1 ICP0. (qxmd.com)
  • The ND10 Component Promyelocytic Leukemia Protein Acts as an E3 Ligase for SUMOylation of the Major Immediate Early Protein IE1 of Human Cytomegalovirus. (qxmd.com)
  • Ability of the human cytomegalovirus IE1 protein to modulate sumoylation of PML correlates with its functional activities in transcriptional regulation and infectivity in cultured fibroblast cells. (qxmd.com)
  • Revisiting promyelocytic leukemia protein targeting by human cytomegalovirus immediate-early protein 1. (qxmd.com)
  • Herpes Simplex virus Type 1 (HSV1) Herpes Simplex virus Type 2 (HSV2) Epstein Barr virus (EBV) Cytomegalovirus (CMV) Varicella Zoster virus (VZV) Human Herpes virus 6 Human Herpes virus 8 Herpes Simplex Virus (HSV) These are very large viruses and their genome encodes at least 80 proteins. (coursehero.com)
  • Human herpesvirus 8 (HHV-8) is strongly associated with all forms of Kaposi's sarcoma (KS) and with primary effusion lymphomas (PEL). (nih.gov)
  • The gamma-herpesvirus, HHV-8, causes Kaposi's sarcoma and body cavity lymphoma, among other rare diseases mostly seen in patients with HIV/AIDS. (springer.com)
  • Human herpes virus 8 (HHV8) was recently discovered in the tumours called Kaposi's Sarcoma (KS). (medbroadcast.com)
  • The presence of P4 antibodies in a panel of 61 human serum specimens was highly correlated with biopsy-confirmed Kaposi's sarcoma. (asm.org)
  • Human herpesvirus 8 (HHV8, also known as Kaposi's sarcoma [KS]-associated herpesvirus) has been implicated as an etiologic agent for KS, an angiogenic tumor composed of endothelial, inflammatory, and spindle cells. (rupress.org)
  • Kaposi's sarcoma (KS), which was first described by Moriz Kaposi in 1872, may be clinically divided into four distinct forms: rare classical KS, more common posttransplant and AIDS-associated KS, and endemic KS, which is common in equatorial Africa ( 1 ). (rupress.org)
  • it has significant homology to the human gammaherpesviruses Kaposi's sarcoma-associated virus and Epstein-Barr virus and the murine gammaherpesvirus murine herpesvirus 68. (asm.org)
  • Two human gammaherpesviruses, EBV and Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV), establish latency in B cells. (jci.org)
  • Identified a decade ago as the causative agent of KS, human herpesvirus 8 (HHV-8), also known as Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus, has an approximately 165-kb genome encoding about 90 gene products ( 21 ). (asm.org)
  • BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Primary effusion lymphomas (PELs) containing Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (human herpesvirus 8/HHV-8) DNA sequences represent a distinct but heterogeneous group of rare non-Hodgkin's lymphomas of null-cell phenotype/B-cell origin. (haematologica.org)
  • We aimed to describe the clinicopathologic features of two human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-related PELs occurring in homosexual men with Kaposi's sarcoma (KS). (haematologica.org)
  • A prospective study of Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus and Epstein-Barr virus in adults with human immunodeficiency virus-1. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Antibody titres against Kaposi's sarcoma associated herpesvirus (KSHV or human herpesvirus 8 (HHV-8)) and Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) were examined in people who subsequently developed Kaposi's sarcoma and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, within randomised controlled trials of antiretroviral therapy in adults infected with the human immunodeficiency virus-1 (HIV). (ox.ac.uk)
  • Lytic antibodies against KSHV were detectable among 33% (61 out of 187) of Kaposi's sarcoma cases and 19% (36 out of 187) of their controls (OR=2.0, 95% CI 1.2-3.4, P=0.003) and the OR for Kaposi's sarcoma increased with increasing antilytic KSHV antibody titre (chi(2)(1) for trend=6.2, P=0.02). (ox.ac.uk)
  • In conclusion, among human immunodeficiency virus infected people, high levels of antibodies against KSHV latent and lytic antigens are strongly associated with subsequent risk of Kaposi's sarcoma but not non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus K-Rta exhibits SUMO-targeting ubiquitin ligase (STUbL) like activity and is essential for viral reactivation. (qxmd.com)
  • Background/Purpose: Human herpesvirus 8 (HHV-8), the causal agent of Kaposi's sarcoma (KS), is transmitted sexually among men who have sex with men (MSM), but little is known of its transmission among injection drug users (IDUs). (elsevier.com)
  • abstract = "Nonhuman primates are widely used in biomedical research because of their genetic, anatomic, and physiologic similarities to humans. (elsevier.com)
  • abstract = "Endothelin (ET)-1 is an angiogenic factor that, among others, is secreted by endothelial cells during development of several neoplasias. (elsevier.com)
  • Human herpesvirus 8 (HHV-8) is the infectious etiologic agent associated with Kaposi sarcoma, primary effusion lymphoma, and multicentric Castleman disease. (cdc.gov)
  • Human herpesvirus 8/Kaposi sarcoma-associated virus (HHV-8/KSHV) contains, in addition to genes required for viral replication, a unique set of nonstructural genes which may be part of viral mimicry and contribute to viral replication and pathogenesis in vivo. (asm.org)
  • The human herpesvirus 8/Kaposi Sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (HHV-8/KSHV) may be the causal factor in Kaposi sarcoma, AIDS-associated body cavity-based lymphoma or pleural effusion lymphoma, and multicentric Castelman's disease. (asm.org)
  • Human herpesvirus 8 (HHV-8), also called Kaposi sarcoma (KS)-associated herpesvirus (KSHV), is a gamma human herpesvirus most closely related to Epstein-Barr virus. (nih.gov)
  • Kaposi sarcoma (KS) is an opportunistic disease in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) patients and the most common cancer associated with AIDS worldwide ( 12 ). (asm.org)
  • In contrast to other herpesviruses which are not associated with malignancy, Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) and human herpesvirus type 8 (HHV-8), also known as Kaposi sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV), can cause certain cancers. (merckmanuals.com)
  • In particular, Kaposi sarcoma (KS) skin lesions show overexpression of the ET-1 system. (elsevier.com)
  • 2 ) discovered a novel human herpesvirus (human herpesvirus 8 [HHV8], or KS-associated herpesvirus [KSHV]) during systematic DNA screening of KS lesions. (rupress.org)
  • By measuring production of infectious virus, we demonstrate that Rta, but not the cellular transactivator Notch Intracellular Domain name (NICD)-1, is sufficient to reactivate KSHV from latency. (bx-795.com)
  • Introduction Kaposis sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV), or human herpesvirus 8 (HHV8), is the causative agent of Kaposis sarcoma (KS) (Chang et al. (bx-795.com)
  • Herpesviruses belong to a family of double‐stranded DNA (dsDNA) viruses commonly causing herpes in animals. (intechopen.com)
  • Human herpes viruses are a family of double-stranded DNA viruses that cause opportunistic infections in solid organ and hematopoietic stem cell transplant recipients. (springer.com)
  • VL - 28 IS - 1 N2 - There has recently been renewed interest in the possible role of viruses in recurrent aphthous stomatitis (RAS). (unboundmedicine.com)
  • The herpes family of viruses includes 8 different viruses that affect human beings. (medbroadcast.com)
  • The viruses are known by numbers as human herpes virus 1 through 8 (HHV1 - HHV8). (medbroadcast.com)
  • Like other human herpes viruses, HHV6 and HHV7 are so common that most of humankind has been infected at some point, usually early in life. (medbroadcast.com)
  • The herpesviruses are a family of double-stranded DNA viruses that infect a wide variety of organisms. (frontiersin.org)
  • Here we describe recent research on the human herpesviruses that has contributed to our understanding of, and interactions between, viruses, autophagy, and the immune system. (frontiersin.org)
  • These closely related viruses are two of the nine herpesviruses known to have humans as their primary host. (wikipedia.org)
  • Order Herpesvirales contains three families, the Herpesviridae, which contains the long-recognized herpesviruses of mammals, birds, and reptiles, plus two new families - the family Alloherpesviridae which incorporates herpes viruses of bony fish and frogs, and the family Malacoherpesviridae which contains viruses of molluscs. (wikipedia.org)
  • During maturation of HHV-6 virions, human cell membranes are used to form viral lipid envelopes (as is characteristic of all enveloped viruses). (wikipedia.org)
  • However, the precise role of human herpesvirus 6 in these problems is still being determined as the interplay with other viruses complicate the picture. (livestrong.com)
  • A detailed text on human-infecting viruses of the family Herpesviridae, but the introductory chapter provides a wider setting with its summary of viruses of primary interest for infections in other species. (annals.org)
  • Viruses harbored by bats and rodents, considered high-risk reservoirs, are no more likely to infect humans than viruses carried by other hosts, a study suggests. (pnas.org)
  • Taxonomic assignment of viruses to the herpesvirus family is determined by virion morphology and composition. (virginia.edu)
  • Three human alphaherpesviruses, herpes simplex viruses 1 and 2 (HSV-1 and HSV-2) and VZV, establish latency in sensory neurons and reactivate from neurons to infect epithelial cells in the mucosa or skin, resulting in a vesicular rash. (jci.org)
  • These genes which are also found in other herpes viruses such as chicken pox or herpes simplex have the same or very similar sequence, structure and function whether in human or mouse viruses, and present a novel target for the hosts T-cells to muster forces and attack the virus. (bio-medicine.org)
  • 1 ' 2 In addition to causing clinically apparent disease due to lytic virus replication, this group of viruses has been shown to be harbored in the human population in persistent and latent forms. (springer.com)
  • Although the herpesviruses have several biological characteristics in common, the individual viruses differ in multiple parameters. (springer.com)
  • Many viruses and bacteria infect humans through mucosal surfaces, such as those in the lungs, gastrointestinal tract and reproductive tract. (medicalxpress.com)
  • Recent reports suggest that several viruses, besides human immunodeficiency virus, induce apoptosis in infected cells. (elsevier.com)
  • Human herpesvirus 6A (HHV-6A) and human herpesvirus 6B (HHV-6B), collectively termed HHV-6A/B, are neurotropic viruses that permanently infect most humans from an early age. (asm.org)
  • It was found that the Human Immunodeficiency Viruses (HIV-1) are RNA viruses at the origin of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS). (benthamopen.com)
  • SIV became Human Immune Deficiency viruses (HIV-1). (benthamopen.com)
  • The DNA and RNA viruses, herpes with HIV-1 viruses, are correlated to Sub- Saharan AIDS infections. (benthamopen.com)
  • Herpes viruses are neurotropic and may cause encephalitis, a serious condition with mortality rates around 10-20% overall mortality and up to 20-30% for untreated Herpes simplex-1 (HSV-1) encephalitis. (springer.com)
  • Herpesvirus simiae (B virus) is a member of the herpes group of viruses that is enzootic in rhesus (Macaca mulatta), cynomolgus (M. fascicularis) and other Asiatic monkeys of the genus Macaca. (cdc.gov)
  • Herpes viruses - Human Herpes Viruses Latent Viruses. (coursehero.com)
  • This encases the tegument, a protein coat that surrounds the icosahedral nucleocapsid containing the viral linear DNA genome ( Figure 1 ) [ 1 ]. (intechopen.com)
  • MDA satisfactorily amplified viral DNA in the absence of human nucleic acids, but showed poor amplification capacity for viral DNA in CSF samples, and did not increase the sensitivity for herpes virus-detection with our methodology. (diva-portal.org)
  • The ORF K9, viral IRF 1 (vIRF-1), has been cloned, and it was shown that, when overexpressed, it down modulates the interferon-mediated transcriptional activation of the interferon-stimulated gene 15 (ISG 15) promoter, and the role of vIRF-1 in viral mimicry was implied. (asm.org)
  • The assembly of accurate, full-length HHV-1 genomes will be useful in determining genetic determinants of drug resistance, virulence, pathogenesis and viral evolution. (nanoporetech.com)
  • A vital part of the normal mechanism of HSV-1, the ICP34.5 protein has been proposed to condition post-mitotic cells for viral replication. (wikipedia.org)
  • Molecular and virological evidence of viral activation from chromosomally integrated human herpesvirus 6A in a patient with X-linked severe combined immunodeficiency. (medscape.com)
  • Human herpesvirus 6 chromosomal integration in immunocompetent patients results in high levels of viral DNA in blood, sera, and hair follicles. (medscape.com)
  • This product is a preparation of viral nucleic acids, including virus genomic DNA, in total DNA isolated from Vero cells (ATCC ® CCL-81™) infected with Human herpesvirus 2 (HSV-2) strain G. It is supplied at 100 µL per vial, shipped frozen. (atcc.org)
  • Fatal pulmonary failure attributable to viral pneumonia with human herpes virus 6 (HHV6) in a young immunocompetent woman. (medscape.com)
  • These include U RNA homologues, antiapoptotic proteins (ORF16/vBcl2 and ORF71/vFLIP), a cyclin D homologue (ORF72/vCyclin), complement control inhibitory proteins (ORF4/CCPH and ORF15/vCD59), nucleotide metabolism enzymes (ORF2/DHFR and ORF70/TS), a viral superantigen (ORF14/vSag), and cytokine homologues (ORF13/vIL-17 and ORF74/vGCR) ( 1 ). (asm.org)
  • In HIV-1-seropositive women, there was no association between detection of HHV8 and either CD4 count or HIV-1 viral load. (ac.ke)
  • A imuno-histoquímica anti-HHV-1 confirmou a presença do antígeno viral em associação às lesões em encéfalo , mucosa oral e lingual, pele da face , glândula adrenal e plexo mioentérico. (bvsalud.org)
  • The use of quantitative real time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) for herpesvirus detection has improved the sensitivity and specificity of diagnosis , as it is able to detect shedding episodes in the absence of clinical lesions and diagnose clinical specimens that have low viral loads. (bvsalud.org)
  • Keratinocytes serve as the r fi st line of defense during Human herpesviruses types 1 and 2 (HHV-1 and HHV-2) skin infections. (deepdyve.com)
  • Prospective study of prevalence, incidence, and source of herpesvirus infections in patients with renal allografts. (springer.com)
  • Prevention of herpesvirus infections in renal allograft recipients by low-dose oral acyclovir. (springer.com)
  • Agut H. Deciphering the clinical impact of acute human herpesvirus 6 (HHV-6) infections. (medscape.com)
  • Initial human herpesvirus 6 infections were recognized years ago and named roseola, sixth disease or exantham subitum. (livestrong.com)
  • Review of the Medline database (PubMed and Ovid interface) for human herpes virus infections in burns as well as Web of Science interface. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Prevalence of Human Herpes Virus (HHV) Infections [ Time Frame: Participants will be followed for the duration of hospital stay, an expected average of 3 months. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Improved diagnostic reagents and testing are currently needed for the serological detection of human herpesvirus 8 (HHV-8) infections. (asm.org)
  • This discreet at home test kit may be used to detect HSV type 1 and type 2 infections through vaginal swab. (healthtestingcenters.com)
  • While vIRF-1 is unable to bind DNA with the same specificity as cellular IRFs, we demonstrate by in vitro binding assay that it can associate with the family of cellular IRFs, such as IRF-1 and the interferon consensus sequence binding protein. (asm.org)
  • Culture supernatants were harvested at 72 h after cell is dynamin-related protein 1 (Drp1), which has GTPase virus challenge, and after three cycles of freezing (-80 °C) activity. (deepdyve.com)
  • it shows that pp150, a β-herpesvirus subfamily-specific tegument protein, forms a " △ "-shaped group-of-three structure on each of the 320 triplexes in a capsid, leading to a net that encloses the capsid. (nature.com)
  • Given that HHV-6B has a genome size of 162 kb-much smaller than that of HCMV-the question arises whether its β-herpesvirus-specific tegument protein, pU11, binds capsids in the same way as HCMV's homologous protein pp150/pUL32 does. (nature.com)
  • A dominant epitope within the human herpesvirus 8 (HHV8) ORF 65-encoded protein was mapped to an 8-amino-acid (aa) sequence (RKPPSGKK [aa 162 to 169]) by an amino acid replacement method. (asm.org)
  • In this study, we identified the dominant continuous epitope of the ORF 65-encoded protein and developed a peptide-based EIA for the detection of HHV8 antibodies in human sera. (asm.org)
  • We detected a 341-nucleotide fragment that was 99.4% identical to the major DNA binding protein gene of human herpesvirus 6 (HHV-6). (pnas.org)
  • After herpesviruses infect a cell, their genomes are assembled into specialized protein structures called nucelosomes. (medicalxpress.com)
  • Here we show that a cellular protein, the promyelocytic leukemia protein (PML) that forms nuclear bodies (PML-NBs), associates with the HHV-6B immediate early 1 (IE1) protein at telomeres. (qxmd.com)
  • Analysis of the human herpesvirus-6 immediate-early 1 protein. (qxmd.com)
  • SUMO Ligase Protein Inhibitor of Activated STAT1 (PIAS1) Is a Constituent Promyelocytic Leukemia Nuclear Body Protein That Contributes to the Intrinsic Antiviral Immune Response to Herpes Simplex Virus 1. (qxmd.com)
  • Identification of a major latent nuclear antigen, LNA-1, in the human herpesvirus 8 genome. (nih.gov)
  • Human herpesvirus type 1 (HHV-1) has a large double-stranded DNA genome of approximately 152 kbp that is structurally complex and GC-rich. (nanoporetech.com)
  • To improve the assembly of HHV-1 genomes we have employed a hybrid genome assembly protocol using data from two sequencing technologies: the short-read Roche 454 and the long-read Oxford Nanopore MinION sequencers. (nanoporetech.com)
  • The numerous, complex repeat regions of the HHV-1 genome currently remain a barrier towards this goal. (nanoporetech.com)
  • All herpesviruses have a dsDNA genome contained in an icosahedral capsid composed of 162 capsomers. (virginia.edu)
  • The HSV-1 genome is a single, linear molecule of double stranded DNA 152,261 base pairs in length. (virginia.edu)
  • 7,8 The herpesviruses contain a double-stranded DNA genome enclosed in an icosahedral capsid structure surrounded by a lipid envelope, and replicate virus DNA in the cell nucleus. (springer.com)
  • As well as the almost universal postnatal acquisition of HHV-6B, in approximately 1% of humans the complete genome of HHV-6A or HHV-6B is integrated into a chromosomal telomere in every nucleated cell in the body and is transmitted through Mendelian inheritance. (haematologica.org)
  • Human herpesvirus 6B (HHV-6B) is a betaherpesvirus capable of integrating its genome into the telomeres of host chromosomes. (qxmd.com)
  • Latency, Integration, and Reactivation of Human Herpesvirus-6. (medscape.com)
  • In order to obtain basic data concerning the virulence of HHV-6 in the immunocompromised state, we evaluated whether or not reactivation or reinfection of HHV-6 occurs as other herpesviruses. (nii.ac.jp)
  • Mathematical models for HSV ( 1 ) and EBV ( 2 ) reactivation from chronic carriers estimate that reactivation is a frequent event, but only a very small percentage of latently infected cells reactivate at any one time. (jci.org)
  • strong class="kwd-title" Keywords: Kaposis sarcoma-associated herpesvirus, Human herpesvirus-8, Vero rKSHV.294 cells, Replication and transcriptional activator (Rta), Reactivation, Infectious reporter virus quantitation 1. (bx-795.com)
  • Ogata M, Fukuda T, Teshima T. Human herpesvirus-6 encephalitis after allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation: what we do and do not know. (medscape.com)
  • Fida M, Hamdi AM, Bryson A, Razonable RR, Abu Saleh O. Long-term Outcomes of Patients With Human Herpesvirus 6 Encephalitis. (medscape.com)
  • Human herpesvirus 6 (HHV-6) was detected in specimens from patients hospitalized with symptoms of encephalitis or meningitis. (asm.org)
  • There are several reports of HHV-6 involvement in immunocompetent patients with acute encephalitis ( 1 , 27 , 36 , 41 ) and meningitis ( 24 ). (asm.org)
  • Of the two human herpesvirus 6 (HHV-6) species, human herpesvirus 6B (HHV-6B) encephalitis is an important cause of morbidity and mortality after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplant. (haematologica.org)
  • Over the past ten years, it has been recognized that human herpesvirus 6A (HHV-6A) and HHV-6B are distinct species, 1 HHV-6B not HHV-6A is the most frequent cause of encephalitis post-hematopoietic stem cell transplant (HSCT) and that chromosomally integrated HHV-6 (CIHHV-6) is clinically significant. (haematologica.org)
  • The report of a case of encephalitis caused by B virus in a monkey handler in 1932 indicated that B virus can be highly pathogenic for humans (1). (cdc.gov)
  • This makes the assembly of HHV-1 whole genomes from short-read sequencing data technically challenging. (nanoporetech.com)
  • Full-length human immunodeficiency virus type 1 genomes from subtype C-infected seroconverters in India, with evidence of intersubtype recombination. (fiocruz.br)
  • This trend in CATC quantity correlates with the increasing genomes sizes of these β-herpesviruses. (nature.com)
  • Human herpesvirus-6A and B (HHV-6A, HHV-6B) have recently defined endogenous genomes, resulting from integration into the germline: chromosomally-integrated "CiHHV-6A/B". These affect approximately 1.0% of human populations, giving potential for virus gene expression in every cell. (mdpi.com)
  • Regional distribution of pooled human herpesvirus 8 (HHV-8) prevalence in A) the general population and B) immunocompromised patients, China. (cdc.gov)
  • To verify the possible role of human herpesviruses (HHVs) as triggering or aggravating factors in relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis clinical outcome, we studied the prevalence of all eight human herpesviruses in whole blood samples collected from 51 MS patients and from 51 healthy controls. (springer.com)
  • Âlvarez-Lafuente R, Martín-Estefanía C, De las Heras V, Castrillo C, Cour I, Picazo JJ, Varelade Seijas E, Arroyo R (2002) Prevalence of herpesvirus DNA in MS patients and healthy blood donors. (springer.com)
  • MATERIAL AND METHODS: Serologic diagnostic method was used to determine the prevalence and level of antibodies to T gondii, CMV HSV-1 and HSV-2 in individuals with schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, and unaffected controls recruited from Butajira, Ethiopia. (cuni.cz)
  • Polymerase chain reaction was used to determine the prevalence and correlates of human herpesvirus 8 (HHV8) in saliva, mouth, cervical, vaginal, plasma, and peripheral-blood mononuclear cell (PBMC) samples from 174 HHV8-seropositive female prostitutes in Mombasa, Kenya. (ac.ke)
  • After induction of lytic replication of HHV-8 in BCP-1 cells with n-butyrate, we observed a major reduction in the expression of an ORF 73-specific 6.6-kb mRNA, indicating that this region is under latent control. (nih.gov)
  • In that study it was suggested that vIRF-1 plays an important role in the regulation of HHV-8 replication cycle. (asm.org)
  • HHV-1 and HHV-2 target keratinocytes during their replication. (deepdyve.com)
  • The ability of autophagy to degrade proteins located within the nucleus, the site of herpesvirus latency and replication, is also considered. (frontiersin.org)
  • Foscarnet is an organic analogue of inorganic pyrophosphate that inhibits replication of known herpesviruses. (medscape.com)
  • HSV-1 replication begins when virus membrane glycoproteins recognize specific receptors on the cell surface. (virginia.edu)
  • For the first time, we provide evidence that a specific SGK inhibitor (GSK650394) significantly reduced BoHV-1 and HSV-1 replication in cultured cells. (selleckchem.com)
  • The type species of SIMPLEXVIRUS causing most forms of non-genital herpes simplex in humans. (ouhsc.edu)
  • With the exception of varicella-zoster virus (VZV), all human herpesviruses spread through saliva, mucosal or skin lesions, or genital secretions and infect oropharyngeal or genital tract mucosal epithelial cells or skin. (jci.org)
  • The frequent shedding of most herpesviruses in salivary or genital secretions indicates that despite neutralizing antibody and potent cellular immunity, most of the herpesviruses have evolved mechanisms to evade these immune responses. (jci.org)
  • In this study, we will determine whether treating pregnant and breastfeeding women co-infected with human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) and herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) with daily valacyclovir will reduce HIV-1 levels in plasma, genital, and breast milk and will decrease the risk of mother-to-child HIV-1 transmission (MTCT). (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Each year over 500,000 children become HIV-1-infected in sub-Saharan Africa after exposure to maternal virus in blood, genital secretions, and breast milk. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Maternal blood, genital, and breast milk specimens obtained at follow-up visits will be used to determine the effect of valacyclovir suppressive therapy on plasma and breast milk HIV-1 RNA levels. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • A 2017 study looking at the human blood virome in 8,240 humans between the ages of 2 months to 102 years found that 20.37% of them were positive for HHV-7. (wikipedia.org)
  • On December 15, 2016 Human Herpesvirus 8 and Microsporidiosis were updated. (nih.gov)
  • The herpesvirus family comprises several widespread infectious pathogens. (intechopen.com)
  • They infect a variety of animal hosts, including humans and cause complex clinical outcomes. (intechopen.com)
  • Ferrante P, Mancuso R, Pagani E, Guerini FR, Calvo MG, Saresella M, Speciale L, Caputo D (2000) Molecular evidences for a role of HSV-1 in multiple sclerosis clinical acute attack. (springer.com)
  • We sequenced 18 HHV-1 cell culture-isolated clinical specimens collected from immunocompromised patients undergoing antiviral therapy. (nanoporetech.com)
  • De Bolle L, Naesens L, De Clercq E. Update on human herpesvirus 6 biology, clinical features, and therapy. (medscape.com)
  • Is there an indication for serologic testing for human herpesvirus 8 (HHV-8) in asymptomatic HIV-infected children (compared with not testing) to guide clinical management? (nih.gov)
  • Since the discovery of each human herpesvirus, an abundance of findings related to them has accumulated in basic research and clinical medicine. (springer.com)
  • The aim of this review is to point out the clinical differences between these human herpes virus subtypes, to outline established therapy approaches, and to provide evidence for virus related morbidity and mortality in burns. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Knowledge of the clinical signs and risk factors for human B-virus disease allows early initiation of antiviral therapy and prevents severe disease or death. (elsevier.com)
  • Researchers at UCSD hope to begin pre-clinical work on development of a human vaccine. (bio-medicine.org)
  • We propose a randomized clinical trial to determine whether incorporating HSV-2 suppression with valacyclovir into standard prevention of mother-to-child HIV-1 transmission regimens will reduce plasma, cervical, and breast milk HIV-1 RNA levels and risk of transmission among HIV-1-infected and HSV-2-seropositive women. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Despite the fact that the herpesviruses are genetically and structurally similar, they cause a wide array of generally non-overlapping clinical syndromes. (merckmanuals.com)
  • Simultaneous detection of seven sexually transmitted agents in human immunodeficiency virus-infected Brazilian women by multiplex polymerase chain reaction. (fiocruz.br)
  • Detection of a new variant of herpes simplex virus type 2 among HIV-1-infected individuals. (fiocruz.br)
  • Epstein-Barr Virus and Human Herpesvirus 6 Detection in a non-Hodgkin's Diffuse Large B-Cell Lymphoma Cohort using RNA-Seq. (medscape.com)
  • With an aim to improve the detection and quantification of herpesvirus by qPCR, synthetic standard curves for human herpesvirus 1 and 2 ( HHV-1 and HHV-2 ) targeting regions gD and gG, respectively, were designed and evaluated. (bvsalud.org)
  • Here, we extend this observation and show that vIRF-1 also downregulates the transcriptional activity of IFNA gene promoter in infected cells by interfering with the transactivating activity of cellular IRFs, including IRF-1 and IRF-3. (asm.org)
  • However, the molecular mechanism by which vIRF-1 downmodulates IFN-stimulated activation of IFN-stimulated gene (ISG) promoters or confers to NIH 3T3 cells the ability to grow in soft agar and in nude mice has not been clarified. (asm.org)
  • 1% to 53% of amino acids in each gene exhibiting at least one substitution within the pool of samples. (nanoporetech.com)
  • G207 was constructed as a second-generation vector from HSV-1 laboratory strain F, with ICP34.5 deleted and the ICP6 gene inactivated by insertion of the E. coli LacZ gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • Identification of the thymidine kinase gene of feline herpesvirus: use of degenerate oligonucleotides in the polymerase chain reaction to isolate herpesvirus gene homologs. (wikigenes.org)
  • Many of these gene products allow the virus to evade the human immune system ( 8 ). (asm.org)
  • Human Herpesvirus 6B Induces Hypomethylation on Chromosome 17p13.3, Correlating with Increased Gene Expression and Virus Integration. (qxmd.com)
  • Postnatal Human Herpesvirus 8 and Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 " by Brad P. Brayfield, Saul Phiri et al. (unl.edu)
  • Cercopithecine herpesvirus 1 (B virus), an alphaherpesvirus endemic in Asian macaques, is closely related to herpes simplex virus (HSV). (elsevier.com)
  • Herpesvirus B (Cercopithecine herpesvirus 1) has been implicated as the cause of approximately 40 cases of meningoencephalitis affecting persons in direct or indirect contact with laboratory macaques. (cdc.gov)
  • Each Feline Herpes Virus Type 1 Antibody is fully covered by our Guarantee+, to give you complete peace of mind and the support when you need it. (novusbio.com)
  • Antibody reactivity to latent and lytic antigens to human herpesvirus-8 in longitudinally followed homosexual men. (cdc.gov)
  • 1 Division of Molecular Immunology, La Jolla Institute for Allergy and Immunology, San Diego, California 92121, USA. (nih.gov)
  • 14. Lima LRP, da Silva AP, Schmidt-Chanasit J, de Paula VS. Diagnosis of human herpes virus 1 and 2 (HHV-1 and HHV-2): use of a synthetic standard curve for absolute quantification by real time polymerase chain reaction. (fiocruz.br)
  • HHV-1 -specific polymerase chain reaction ( PCR ) analysis of the brain was carried out and the virus was detected in 7/8 infected marmosets . (bvsalud.org)
  • HHV-8 is a gammaherpesvirus, such as Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) ( 4 ) and herpesvirus saimiri, which are oncogenic ( 1 ). (asm.org)
  • Herpesviruses infect virtually all humans and establish lifelong latency and reactivate to infect other humans. (jci.org)
  • The success of the herpesviruses is largely due to their ability to establish latency and reactivate. (jci.org)
  • These data identify a region of HHV-8 encoding for a major immunoreactive latent nuclear antigen (LNA-1), analogous to the Epstein-Barr virus latent nuclear antigens. (nih.gov)
  • The human herpesvirus 6, according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, infects nearly 100 percent of Americans. (livestrong.com)
  • The conclusions, findings, and opinions expressed by authors contributing to this journal do not necessarily reflect the official position of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, the Public Health Service, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, or the authors' affiliated institutions. (cdc.gov)
  • A total of 495 serum samples were analysed for the presence and level of immunoglobulin G (IgG) to T. gondii, CMV HSV-1, and HSV-2. (cuni.cz)
  • GSK650394 is a serum- and glucocorticoid-regulated kinase-1 inhibitor with IC50 of 62 nM and 103 nM for SGK1 and SGK2 , respectively. (selleckchem.com)
  • Immunohistochemistry confirmed the presence of the HHV-1 antigen in association with lesions in the brain , oral and lingual mucosa , facial skin , adrenal gland and myoenteric plexus. (bvsalud.org)
  • Ferrante P, Omodeo-Zorini E, Zuffolato MR, Mancuso R, Caldarelli-Stefano R, Puricelll S, Mediati M, Losciale I, Caput (1997) Human T-cell lymphotropic virus tax and Epstein-Barr virus DNA in peripheral blood of multiple sclerosis patients during acute attack. (springer.com)
  • In a transient-transfection assay, vIRF-2 inhibits the virus-mediated induction of promoters of IFN genes as well as RelA-stimulated activity of the human immunodeficiency virus long terminal repeat. (asm.org)
  • To produce the virus for the experiments, proteins results in lethality to embryos and mitochondrial the Vero cells were infected with HHV-1 or HHV-2 at 0.001 dysfunction. (deepdyve.com)
  • National seroprevalence and trends in herpes simplex virus type 1 in the United States, 1976-1994. (springer.com)
  • 07. Haarr L, Skulstad S. The herpes simplex virus type 1 particle: structure and molecular functions. (fiocruz.br)
  • Human herpes virus 1 (HHV1) is also known as herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV1). (medbroadcast.com)
  • Human herpes virus 2 (HHV2) is also called herpes simplex virus 2 (HSV2). (medbroadcast.com)
  • Human herpes virus 6 (HHV6) is a recently observed agent found in the blood cells of a few patients with a variety of diseases. (medbroadcast.com)
  • Human herpes virus 7 (HHV7) is even more recently observed and is closely related to HHV6. (medbroadcast.com)
  • Reply to "Highly Efficacious Novel Vaccine, Humoral Immunity, and Ocular Herpes Simplex Virus 1: Reality or Myth? (ouhsc.edu)
  • Herpes Simplex Virus 1, Macrophages, and the Cornea. (ouhsc.edu)
  • Impact of Type I Interferon on the Safety and Immunogenicity of an Experimental Live-Attenuated Herpes Simplex Virus 1 Vaccine in Mice. (ouhsc.edu)
  • It is based on the herpes simplex virus (HSV-1). (wikipedia.org)
  • Electron microscopy revealed a novel virus that they named Human B-Lymphotrophic Virus (HBLV). (wikipedia.org)
  • What's new in human herpes-virus-6? (nii.ac.jp)
  • Human herpesvirus 6 (HHV-6) belongs to the betaherpes virus subfamily of the family Herpesviridae ( 14 ). (asm.org)
  • Virus isolated from marmoset liver in primary cells then passaged in BS-C-1 cells. (atcc.org)
  • 70% of MS cases and controls and is thus a commensal virus of the human brain. (pnas.org)
  • Other herpesviruses, retroviruses, and measles virus were detected infrequently or not at all. (pnas.org)
  • The membrane, tegument and capsid can be seen in the electron micrograph of herpes simplex virus type 1 shown. (virginia.edu)
  • In addition, HVS can stably transduce a variety of human cell lines where the virus persists as a nonintegrating circular episome. (asm.org)
  • We offer Feline Herpes Virus Type 1 Antibodies for use in common research applications: ELISA, Western Blot. (novusbio.com)
  • Our Feline Herpes Virus Type 1 Antibodies can be used in a variety of model species: Virus. (novusbio.com)
  • Choose from our Feline Herpes Virus Type 1 monoclonal antibodies. (novusbio.com)
  • Herpes simplex virus (HSV) 1 and 2 infect activated T lymphocytes by attachment of the HSV envelope glycoprotein D (gD) to the cellular herpesvirus entry mediator (HVEM), an orphan member of the tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily. (nih.gov)
  • Human Vaccine for Herpes Virus on the Anvil ( Researchers at the University of Califo. (bio-medicine.org)
  • Human herpes virus, commonly known as herpes simplex virus 1 and 2 (HSV-1 and HSV-2), is like that friend who ends up crashing on your couch and never leaves. (medicalxpress.com)
  • We report here that Sendai virus or Herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1), two potent inducers of interferon-α, caused cell death in a consistent number of human peripheral blood mononuclear cells. (elsevier.com)
  • Sendai virus was more apoptogenic than HSV-1, and it was further studied to understand the mechanism(s) by which it induced apoptosis. (elsevier.com)
  • It is speculated that a varicella virus (HHV-3) immune defect could originate HSV- 1/HSV-2 recurrent herpes diseases that can be cured by varicella vaccine (2012). (benthamopen.com)
  • HSV or Herpes Simplex Virus type 1 typically affects oral tissue appearing as cold sore or blisters around or in the mouth. (healthtestingcenters.com)
  • Kinetic and crystallographic analyses of wild-type Herpes simplex virus type 1 thymidine kinase (TK(HSV1)) and its Y101F-mutant [TK(HSV1)(Y101F)] acting on the potent antiviral drug 2'-exo-methanocarba-thymidine (MCT) have been performed. (rcsb.org)
  • This test measures total antibodies (IgM) for Human Herpes Virus 6 (HHV-6). (lifeextension.com)
  • The Herpes Virus (HV) are a members of the family Herpesviridae widely spread in nature that can infect a wide variety of species of at least two animal phyla, the Chordata and the Mollusca [ 1 ]. (intechopen.com)
  • B virus-related disease is characterized by a variety of symptoms, which generally occur within 1 month of exposure. (cdc.gov)
  • Many patients with tuberculosis (TB) are seropositive for human herpesvirus type 8 (HHV-8), and many patients with primary effusion lymphoma have high levels of HHV-8 DNA in their effusions. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Human herpesvirus type 8 (HHV-8) is hyperendemic in Amerindian populations, but its modes of transmission are unknown. (www.gov.uk)
  • Almost any human cell type can be affected by HSV. (coursehero.com)
  • HHV-6 infects nearly all human beings by the age of three and often results in fever, diarrhea, and the roseola rash. (nature.com)
  • Roseola infantum is a childhood disease caused by herpesvirus 6 (and sometimes 7). (merckmanuals.com)
  • HHVs are divided into three subfamilies (α‐, β‐ and γ‐herpesviruses) based on their unique properties ( Table 1 ) [ 2 ]. (intechopen.com)
  • Our results offer insights into HHV-6B capsid assembly and the roles of its tegument proteins, including not only the β-herpesvirus-specific pU11 and pU14, but also those conserved across all subfamilies of Herpesviridae . (nature.com)
  • As of 2012, this order currently has 3 families, 4 subfamilies (1 unassigned), 18 genera (4 unassigned) and 97 species. (wikipedia.org)
  • First discovered in 1986 as a member of the β-herpesvirus subfamily of Herpesviridae 1 , human herpesvirus 6 (HHV-6) is now understood to be a set of two closely related herpesvirus species known as HHV-6A and HHV-6B. (nature.com)
  • Each infects a particular species of vertebrate animal for which the herpesvirus is named and for which it is usually quite selective. (virginia.edu)
  • Military Institute of Hygiene and Epidemiology, Kozielska 4, The main proteins responsible for fusion are Mfn-1, Mfn-2 01-163 Warsaw, Poland Vol.:(0123456789) 1 3 2664 M. Chodkowski et al. (deepdyve.com)
  • By contrast, human parvovirus B19 (B19), a causative agent for anemia, is most frequently detected in IDUs. (elsevier.com)
  • Identification and characterization of a bovine herpesvirus-1 (BHV-1) glycoprotein gL which is required for proper antigenicity, processing, and transport of BHV-1 glycoprotein gH. (wikigenes.org)
  • Global diversity within and between human herpesvirus 1 and 2 glycoproteins. (fiocruz.br)
  • Members of the human Herpesviridae family are candidates for representing the macroenvironmental factors associated with multiple sclerosis (MS) pathogenesis. (springer.com)
  • Alvarez-Lafuente R, De Las Heras V, Bartolome M, Garcia-Montojo M, Arroyo R (2006) Human herpesvirus 6 and multiple sclerosis: a one-year follow-up study. (springer.com)
  • Alvarez-Lafuente R, de las Heras V, Garcia-Montojo M, Bartolome M, Arroyo R (2007) Human herpesvirus-6 and multiple sclerosis: relapsing-remitting versus secondary progressive. (springer.com)
  • the presence of vIRF-1 antisense RNA reduced the expression of several HHV-8 lytic genes, including interleukin-6 (IL-6) in TPA-treated BCBL-1 cells ( 26 ). (asm.org)
  • Nucleation defines the site for the autophagic membrane to begin to form in the cytoplasm and depends on the oligomerization of Beclin-1 that acts as a platform for recruitment of multiple other autophagy-related proteins. (frontiersin.org)
  • Ectopic expression of HHV‐1 thymidine kinase (TK) in the testis of Tg rats increased male infertility. (intechopen.com)
  • We further show that ectopic expression of vIRF-1 in NIH 3T3 cells confers resistance to tumor necrosis factor alpha-induced apoptosis. (asm.org)
  • Spindle cells, which characterize tumor lesions, are of endothelial origin and during disease are infected by human herpesvirus 8 (HHV-8). (elsevier.com)
  • also called Human being herpesvirus (HHV)-8) from latency can be associated with development to disease. (bx-795.com)
  • These findings suggest the possibility that a similar process occurs within HHV‐infected human germ cells. (intechopen.com)
  • In this setting, human contact directly with macaques or with their tissues and fluids sometimes occurs. (elsevier.com)
  • Although it is commonly believed that transmission to humans occurs by exposure to contaminated monkey saliva through bites or scratches, such exposure has not been consistently documented. (cdc.gov)
  • Alpha-herpesviruses cause localized ulcerative mucosal and vesicular cutaneous lesions, with the tendency to disseminate if not treated early and aggressively. (springer.com)