Heroin Dependence: Strong dependence, both physiological and emotional, upon heroin.Narcotics: Agents that induce NARCOSIS. Narcotics include agents that cause somnolence or induced sleep (STUPOR); natural or synthetic derivatives of OPIUM or MORPHINE or any substance that has such effects. They are potent inducers of ANALGESIA and OPIOID-RELATED DISORDERS.Morphine Derivatives: Analogs or derivatives of morphine.Methadone: A synthetic opioid that is used as the hydrochloride. It is an opioid analgesic that is primarily a mu-opioid agonist. It has actions and uses similar to those of MORPHINE. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p1082-3)Self Administration: Administration of a drug or chemical by the individual under the direction of a physician. It includes administration clinically or experimentally, by human or animal.Buprenorphine: A derivative of the opioid alkaloid THEBAINE that is a more potent and longer lasting analgesic than MORPHINE. It appears to act as a partial agonist at mu and kappa opioid receptors and as an antagonist at delta receptors. The lack of delta-agonist activity has been suggested to account for the observation that buprenorphine tolerance may not develop with chronic use.Drug Overdose: Accidental or deliberate use of a medication or street drug in excess of normal dosage.Codeine: An opioid analgesic related to MORPHINE but with less potent analgesic properties and mild sedative effects. It also acts centrally to suppress cough.Street Drugs: Drugs obtained and often manufactured illegally for the subjective effects they are said to produce. They are often distributed in urban areas, but are also available in suburban and rural areas, and tend to be grossly impure and may cause unexpected toxicity.Cocaine-Related Disorders: Disorders related or resulting from use of cocaine.Substance Abuse, Intravenous: Abuse, overuse, or misuse of a substance by its injection into a vein.Behavior, Addictive: The observable, measurable, and often pathological activity of an organism that portrays its inability to overcome a habit resulting in an insatiable craving for a substance or for performing certain acts. The addictive behavior includes the emotional and physical overdependence on the object of habit in increasing amount or frequency.Opioid-Related Disorders: Disorders related or resulting from abuse or mis-use of opioids.Substance Abuse Detection: Detection of drugs that have been abused, overused, or misused, including legal and illegal drugs. Urine screening is the usual method of detection.Substance Withdrawal Syndrome: Physiological and psychological symptoms associated with withdrawal from the use of a drug after prolonged administration or habituation. The concept includes withdrawal from smoking or drinking, as well as withdrawal from an administered drug.Drug and Narcotic Control: Control of drug and narcotic use by international agreement, or by institutional systems for handling prescribed drugs. This includes regulations concerned with the manufacturing, dispensing, approval (DRUG APPROVAL), and marketing of drugs.Naloxone: A specific opiate antagonist that has no agonist activity. It is a competitive antagonist at mu, delta, and kappa opioid receptors.Opiate Substitution Treatment: Medical treatment for opioid dependence using a substitute opiate such as METHADONE or BUPRENORPHINE.Morphine: The principal alkaloid in opium and the prototype opiate analgesic and narcotic. Morphine has widespread effects in the central nervous system and on smooth muscle.Naltrexone: Derivative of noroxymorphone that is the N-cyclopropylmethyl congener of NALOXONE. It is a narcotic antagonist that is effective orally, longer lasting and more potent than naloxone, and has been proposed for the treatment of heroin addiction. The FDA has approved naltrexone for the treatment of alcohol dependence.Cocaine: An alkaloid ester extracted from the leaves of plants including coca. It is a local anesthetic and vasoconstrictor and is clinically used for that purpose, particularly in the eye, ear, nose, and throat. It also has powerful central nervous system effects similar to the amphetamines and is a drug of abuse. Cocaine, like amphetamines, acts by multiple mechanisms on brain catecholaminergic neurons; the mechanism of its reinforcing effects is thought to involve inhibition of dopamine uptake.Substance-Related Disorders: Disorders related to substance abuse.Receptors, Opioid, mu: A class of opioid receptors recognized by its pharmacological profile. Mu opioid receptors bind, in decreasing order of affinity, endorphins, dynorphins, met-enkephalin, and leu-enkephalin. They have also been shown to be molecular receptors for morphine.Drug Users: People who take drugs for a non-therapeutic or non-medical effect. The drugs may be legal or illegal, but their use often results in adverse medical, legal, or social consequences for the users.Analgesics, Opioid: Compounds with activity like OPIATE ALKALOIDS, acting at OPIOID RECEPTORS. Properties include induction of ANALGESIA or NARCOSIS.Conditioning, Operant: Learning situations in which the sequence responses of the subject are instrumental in producing reinforcement. When the correct response occurs, which involves the selection from among a repertoire of responses, the subject is immediately reinforced.Crime: A violation of the criminal law, i.e., a breach of the conduct code specifically sanctioned by the state, which through its administrative agencies prosecutes offenders and imposes and administers punishments. The concept includes unacceptable actions whether prosecuted or going unpunished.Nucleus Accumbens: Collection of pleomorphic cells in the caudal part of the anterior horn of the LATERAL VENTRICLE, in the region of the OLFACTORY TUBERCLE, lying between the head of the CAUDATE NUCLEUS and the ANTERIOR PERFORATED SUBSTANCE. It is part of the so-called VENTRAL STRIATUM, a composite structure considered part of the BASAL GANGLIA.Reinforcement (Psychology): The strengthening of a conditioned response.Substance Abuse Treatment Centers: Health facilities providing therapy and/or rehabilitation for substance-dependent individuals. Methadone distribution centers are included.Law Enforcement: Organized efforts to insure obedience to the laws of a community.Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry: A microanalytical technique combining mass spectrometry and gas chromatography for the qualitative as well as quantitative determinations of compounds.Reinforcement Schedule: A schedule prescribing when the subject is to be reinforced or rewarded in terms of temporal interval in psychological experiments. The schedule may be continuous or intermittent.Dose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.Extinction, Psychological: The procedure of presenting the conditioned stimulus without REINFORCEMENT to an organism previously conditioned. It refers also to the diminution of a conditioned response resulting from this procedure.Drug Contamination: The presence of organisms, or any foreign material that makes a drug preparation impure.Behavior, Animal: The observable response an animal makes to any situation.Political Systems: The units based on political theory and chosen by countries under which their governmental power is organized and administered to their citizens.Crack Cocaine: The purified, alkaloidal, extra-potent form of cocaine. It is smoked (free-based), injected intravenously, and orally ingested. Use of crack results in alterations in function of the cardiovascular system, the autonomic nervous system, the central nervous system, and the gastrointestinal system. The slang term "crack" was derived from the crackling sound made upon igniting of this form of cocaine for smoking.Rats, Long-Evans: An outbred strain of rats developed in 1915 by crossing several Wistar Institute white females with a wild gray male. Inbred strains have been derived from this original outbred strain, including Long-Evans cinnamon rats (RATS, INBRED LEC) and Otsuka-Long-Evans-Tokushima Fatty rats (RATS, INBRED OLETF), which are models for Wilson's disease and non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus, respectively.Social Determinants of Health: The circumstances in which people are born, grow up, live, work, and age, as well as the systems put in place to deal with illness. These circumstances are in turn shaped by a wider set of forces: economics, social policies, and politics (http://www.cdc.gov/socialdeterminants/).Needle Sharing: Usage of a single needle among two or more people for injecting drugs. Needle sharing is a high-risk behavior for contracting infectious disease.Flupenthixol: A thioxanthene neuroleptic that, unlike CHLORPROMAZINE, is claimed to have CNS-activating properties. It is used in the treatment of psychoses although not in excited or manic patients. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p595)Cues: Signals for an action; that specific portion of a perceptual field or pattern of stimuli to which a subject has learned to respond.Injections, Intravenous: Injections made into a vein for therapeutic or experimental purposes.Pupil: The aperture in the iris through which light passes.Secobarbital: A barbiturate that is used as a sedative. Secobarbital is reported to have no anti-anxiety activity.Drug-Seeking Behavior: Activities performed to obtain licit or illicit substances.Sweat: The fluid excreted by the SWEAT GLANDS. It consists of water containing sodium chloride, phosphate, urea, ammonia, and other waste products.Receptors, Opioid, delta: A class of opioid receptors recognized by its pharmacological profile. Delta opioid receptors bind endorphins and enkephalins with approximately equal affinity and have less affinity for dynorphins.New York CityExpert Testimony: Presentation of pertinent data by one with special skill or knowledge representing mastery of a particular subject.MP3-Player: Portable electronics device for storing and playing audio and or media files. MP3 for MPEG-1 audio layer 3, is a digital coding format.Sick Leave: An absence from work permitted because of illness or the number of days per year for which an employer agrees to pay employees who are sick. (Webster's New Collegiate Dictionary, 1981)Commerce: The interchange of goods or commodities, especially on a large scale, between different countries or between populations within the same country. It includes trade (the buying, selling, or exchanging of commodities, whether wholesale or retail) and business (the purchase and sale of goods to make a profit). (From Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed, p411, p2005 & p283)

Harm reduction in Bern: from outreach to heroin maintenance. (1/493)

In Switzerland, harm-reduction programs have the support of the national government and many localities, in congruence with much of the rest of Europe and in contrast with the United States, and take place in public settings. The threat of AIDS is recognized as the greater harm. This paper describes the overall national program and highlights the experience from one city; the program is noteworthy because it is aimed at gathering comparative data from controlled trials.  (+info)

Use of illicit drugs among high-school students in Jamaica. (2/493)

Reported are the results of a survey to assess the prevalence of illicit drug use among high-school students in Jamaica. A total of 2417 high-school students in 26 schools were covered: 1063 boys and 1354 girls of whom 1317 were grade-10 students (mean age 15.7 years) and 1100 were grade-11 students (mean age 16.8 years). Of the students, 1072 and 1345 were from rural and urban schools, respectively, while 1126 and 1291 were children of parents who were professionals and nonprofessionals, respectively. The following drugs were used by the students: marijuana (10.2%), cocaine (2.2%), heroin (1.5%) and opium (1.2%). Illicit drug use among males, urban students and children of professionals was higher than that among females, rural students and children of nonprofessionals, respectively.  (+info)

Methadone dosing, heroin affordability, and the severity of addiction. (3/493)

OBJECTIVES: This study sought to track changes in US heroin prices from 1988 to 1995 and to determine whether changes in the affordability of heroin were associated with changes in the use of heroin by users seeking methadone treatment, as indexed by methadone dose levels. METHODS: Data on the price of heroin were from the Drug Enforcement Administration; data on methadone doses were from surveys conducted in 1988, 1990, and 1995 of 100 methadone maintenance centers. Multivariable models that controlled for time and city effects were used to ascertain whether clinics in cities where heroin was less expensive had patients receiving higher doses of methadone, which would suggest that these patients had relatively higher physiological levels of opiate addiction owing to increased heroin use. RESULTS: The amount of pure heroin contained in a $100 (US) purchase has increased on average 3-fold between 1988 and 1995. The average dose of methadone in clinics was positively associated with the affordability of local heroin (P < .01). CONCLUSIONS: When heroin prices fall, heroin addicts require more methadone (a heroin substitute) to stabilize their addiction--evidence that they are consuming more heroin.  (+info)

Validity of drug use reporting in a high-risk community sample: a comparison of cocaine and heroin survey reports with hair tests. (4/493)

Hair specimens were collected from 322 subjects and analyzed as part of an experimental study administering household surveys during 1997 to a high-risk community sample of adults from Chicago, Illinois. Toxicologic results were compared with survey responses about recent and lifetime drug use. About 35% of the sample tested positive for cocaine, and 4% tested positive for heroin. Sample prevalence estimates of cocaine use based on toxicologic results were nearly five times the survey-based estimates of past month use and nearly four times the survey-based estimates of past year use. With the hair test results as the standard, cocaine and heroin use were considerably underreported in the survey. Underreporting was more of a problem for cocaine than for heroin. Among those who tested positive, survey disclosure of cocaine use was associated with higher levels of cocaine detected in hair. In general, when recent drug use was reported, it was usually detected in hair. When a drug was detected in hair, use was usually not reported in the survey. When heroin was detected in hair, cocaine was almost always detected as well.  (+info)

Comparison of intrathecal and epidural diamorphine for elective caesarean section using a combined spinal-epidural technique. (5/493)

To assess calculated equivalent doses of intrathecal and epidural opioids for elective Caesarean section in terms of quality and duration of analgesia, and incidence of side effects, we have compared 50 patients, allocated randomly to one of two groups to receive either diamorphine 0.25 mg intrathecally (group 1) or 5 mg epidurally (group 2), in addition to intrathecal bupivacaine 10 mg, using a combined spinal-epidural technique. There was no significant difference in duration of analgesia between groups (group 1 mean 14.6 (SD 5.9) h, group 2 14.2 (6.5) h; mean difference 0.8 h; 95% Cl -2.8-4.5; P = 0.65) or quality of analgesia (VAPS and VRS scores). The degree of pruritus was similar in both groups (80-88%) but the incidence of postoperative nausea and vomiting was significantly higher in the epidural group (24% vs 4%; P < 0.05). Intrathecal diamorphine 0.25 mg produced the same duration and quality of postoperative analgesia as epidural diamorphine 5 mg for elective Caesarean section but with significantly less nausea and vomiting.  (+info)

Detection of 6-acetylmorphine in vitreous humor and cerebrospinal fluid--comparison with urinary analysis for proving heroin administration in opiate fatalities. (6/493)

The concentrations of morphine and 6-acetylmorphine (6-AM) in urine, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), and vitreous humor (VH) and the morphine concentrations in blood were determined by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry for 29 fatalities after abuse of heroin either alone or in combination with alcohol and other drugs. 6-AM was found above a quantitation limit of 1 ng/mL in urine in 89% of the cases, in CSF in 68% of the cases, and in VH in 75% of the cases. The 6-AM concentrations in CSF (mean, 10 ng/mL) and VH (mean, 17 ng/mL) were in general much smaller than in urine (mean, 170 ng/mL); therefore, the different pharmacokinetic behavior of the fluids is discussed. There is no uniformity between the three fluids with respect to the presence or absence of 6-AM. Therefore, CSF or VH may be used as complementary or alternative materials to urine in order to prove heroin uptake in opiate fatalities.  (+info)

Rapid gas chromatographic analysis of drugs of forensic interest. (7/493)

High-speed gas chromatographic (GC) screening for drugs of forensic relevance is performed using a commercial Flash GC instrument in which the chromatographic column is resistively heated at rates of up to 30 degrees C/s. Temperature programming conditions are varied in an experiment designed to evaluate trade-offs between resolution and analysis time for a mixture of 19 drugs of abuse. All 19 components can be separated with excellent resolution in 90 s. Specific analytes can be analyzed even faster; for example, amphetamine analysis is completed in less than 20 s. Case studies of confiscated street drugs containing amphetamine, cocaine, and heroin are analyzed to evaluate the retention time repeatability. Ten replicate injections over a 2-day period for 3 different drug samples achieved retention time relative standard deviations in the range of 0.48 to 0.81%.  (+info)

Comparison of four derivatizing reagents for 6-acetylmorphine GC-MS analysis. (8/493)

The propionyl, trimethylsilyl, trifluroacetyl, and heptafluoroacyl derivatives of 6-acetylmorphine (6-AM) were evaluated with respect to optimal method performance, derivative stability, and methods characterization for use in gas chromatographic-mass spectrometric (GC-MS) analysis with electron ionization mode and selected ion monitoring. The most common potential interferences and compatibility with other derivatives when used on the same GC-MS were determined for the derivatizing reagents. The propionyl, trimethylsilyl, and trifluroacetyl derivatives produced adequate stability, accuracy, and precision for the method. The 6-AM derivatization with commercially available propionic anhydride generated a relatively small amount of 6-AM-propionyl derivative from the free morphine present in a specimen. The trimethylsilyl derivative obtained by the reaction with MSTFA did not require incubation, was the easiest to prepare, and had the highest potential for use on an automated sample-preparation device. An important advantage of derivatization with MSTFA is elimination of the possibility of heroin decomposition to 6-AM that is due to incubation at elevated temperature.  (+info)

  • Unless there is a compelling medical or social contraindication, results of extended treatment in the Dutch heroin prescribing trials suggest treatment should be continued as long as possible for heroin-addicted patients who have been failed by methadone but benefit from being prescribed heroin. (findings.org.uk)
  • The featured study tracked for a further three years the progress of patients prescribed heroin (mostly in smokable form) as well as methadone in Dutch trials who responded well to the treatment and then deteriorated when it was stopped, leading to its reinstatement. (findings.org.uk)
  • All were long-term heroin users who used heroin daily or near daily and evidenced poor physical, mental, or social functioning, despite having been treated repeatedly with oral methadone at doses of at least 60mg (50mg for heroin smokers) and being currently enrolled in a methadone programme. (findings.org.uk)
  • In separate studies for heroin injectors and smokers, patients were randomly allocated for six or 12 months to oral methadone only, versus to this plus a corresponding form of heroin (injected or smoked) consumed under supervision at a clinic three times a day. (findings.org.uk)
  • At the end of the trials, about half the patients allocated to heroin had responded well, 24% more than on oral methadone only. (findings.org.uk)
  • Improvements on heroin were evident across physical, mental, and social functioning but on methadone were much more limited. (findings.org.uk)
  • Patients who had completed their initial six or 12 months on heroin were then transferred to oral methadone. (findings.org.uk)
  • Bradenton man arrested in Collier on heroin, fentanyl trafficking charges An innocuous traffic stop for following too closely and tinted windows led to a drug trafficking arrest Sunday by Florida Highway Patrol troopers. (naplesnews.com)
  • Bradenton-resident Christopher Barton, 33, faces 11 criminal charges, including trafficking, possession and the intent to sell heroin and fentanyl. (naplesnews.com)
  • Troopers found a blue backpack under the front passenger seat containing white and brown powders that tested positive for fentanyl and heroin. (naplesnews.com)
  • In total, 93 grams of fentanyl and 38 grams of heroin were recovered from the scene. (naplesnews.com)
  • Among several such trials in the UK and continental Europe, the Dutch trials of prescribing heroin to heroin addicts involved 549 patients treated in six cities between 1998 and 2001. (findings.org.uk)
  • 1 Drugs of abuse like toluene, ethanol, cocaine, methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA or "ecstasy") and heroin have been associated with toxic leukoencephalopathies. (appliedradiology.com)
  • Some investigators have hypothesized that the neurotoxicity of heroin may be due to contamination by or addition of another substance. (appliedradiology.com)
  • For the authors, the findings meant heroin prescribing should be continued as long as possible for treatment-resistant, heroin-addicted patients who benefit, unless there is a compelling medical or social contraindication. (findings.org.uk)
  • Findings from elsewhere were seen as supporting this conclusion, justifying the extra cost and risk of heroin prescribing for the substantial minority of patients not attracted into or who do badly in optimised programmes using orally administered drugs. (findings.org.uk)
  • Nevertheless, a study 5 failed to clearly identify a neurotoxic contaminant or additive in the heroin users responsible for the inflicted white matter damage. (appliedradiology.com)
  • Summary The featured study documents the progress four years after they first started treatment of patients prescribed heroin in the Netherlands, focusing on those who, having done well, deteriorated when prescribing stopped at the end of the trials, and who as a result were offered resumed heroin prescribing. (findings.org.uk)
  • Two months later over 80% who had responded well to heroin had seriously deteriorated, on average to their poor pre-treatment levels of functioning. (findings.org.uk)
  • These 149 patients - the subjects of the featured study - were offered reinstatement of heroin-assisted treatment. (findings.org.uk)
  • Two of the 149 did not resume heroin-based treatment and by the four-year follow-up, another 64 had left. (findings.org.uk)
  • East Liverpool, Ohio police shared photos of parents found overdosed on heroin in a car with their child to highlight the dangers of the drug. (heavy.com)
  • most were smoking heroin and were prescribed a corresponding form of the drug. (findings.org.uk)
  • The East Liverpool, Ohio Police Department shared two photos of a couple found in a car after both overdosed on heroin. (heavy.com)
  • Police decided to make the photos and police report public in an effort to highlight the growing heroin addiction problem in Ohio. (heavy.com)
  • A 64-year-old normotensive female with a history of inhaled heroin use was brought to the emergency department with the chief complaint of altered mental status. (appliedradiology.com)
  • Heroin is a synthetic opiate drug that is highly addictive. (thebody.com)
  • In September 2009, preliminary results were reported from the British Randomised Injectable Opiate Treatment Trial (RIOTT) on supervised heroin assisted treatment for patients who are dependent on heroin but do not respond to conventional methadone substitution treatment. (bmj.com)
  • Jenna Morrison: Very, because I didn't realize at the time that heroin is an opiate. (cbsnews.com)
  • The abuse of opiate pills and heroin are both taking a tremendous toll on the United States. (cnn.com)
  • With the recent heroin and opiate epidemic making its way through the East Coast, more and more lives have been saved thanks to Narcan, a drug that comes in a nasal spray format. (prweb.com)
  • For those who are allready addicted to it, or morphine or other opiate drugs, and for others who are "underserved" by the medical mainstream, having a legal supply of Heroin would, as the results show, really help make Canada a better place. (rabble.ca)
  • There's this perception that heroin is a more natural opiate and is somehow less bad for you. (lasvegassun.com)
  • citation needed] "Is Heroin An Opiate? (wikipedia.org)
  • The tragic deaths illuminate the race-against-time dilemma for local police battling a nationwide opioid and heroin overdose epidemic, a crisis that is now killing more people than car crashes: Grab the dealer now or take the riskier route with the bigger payoff and work your way slowly to his suppliers? (ajc.com)
  • Staten Island, long a blue-collar bastion of police officers and other New York City workers, is confronting a heroin epidemic. (nytimes.com)
  • Federal and local authorities nationwide now consider heroin to be the biggest drug epidemic in the country. (cbsnews.com)
  • Is heroin the next drug epidemic? (cnn.com)
  • Part of a documentary from 1979 about the heroin epidemic during the late 70s in Italy,at that time this particular sequence caused controversy because for the first time a person was seen on televison injecting heroin.Heroin consumption spiked throughout the 1980s with 1.000 overdose deaths each year until eventually going out of fashion for the younger generations in the early 1990s. (liveleak.com)
  • It makes an injector device that is suddenly in demand because of the nation's epidemic use of opioids, a class of drugs that includes heavy painkillers and heroin. (washingtonpost.com)
  • Heroin is a child of that original epidemic," he said. (foxnews.com)
  • Heroin, formerly considered a back-alley drug favored by syringe-toting junkies, quietly crept into the mainstream when the prescription drug epidemic soared this decade. (lasvegassun.com)
  • Heroin is an illegal, highly addictive opioid drug. (cdc.gov)
  • Heroin is a very addictive chemical called diacetylmorphine. (news-medical.net)
  • Heroin is one of the most potent and potentially addictive opioids. (news-medical.net)
  • Heroin is so addictive because it activates many region s of the brain particularly the regions that are responsible for producing both the pleasurable sensation of "reward" and physical dependence . (everything2.com)
  • The chief reason for the rise in heroin use includes the new restrictions on attaining addictive prescription painkillers. (prweb.com)
  • Whether someone suffering from a drug dependency is taking heroin or another addictive drug, it is highly important to seek the professional counseling and assistance found at a qualified detox center such as Harbor Village . (prweb.com)
  • Hannah says the heroin was so addictive that rather quickly she and several other students went from smoking it at parties to shooting it up at high school. (cbsnews.com)
  • Heroin was often prescribed to relieve cough and pain and for sedation, even as its addictive properties became well-known. (poison.org)
  • this can also be very addictive but is generally safer than staying on heroin. (thersa.org)
  • Another thing is that heroin and morphine are physically addictive, and the one thing that must not happen is that those drugs are restricted. (rabble.ca)
  • And, it could be that the case that Heroin is so valuable, and addictive, that it creates a huge market, so the various agencies of the US government are using heroin as an alternate source of money for projects and activites that cannot be funded through regular government budgets, and THATS the reason heroin is prohibited. (rabble.ca)
  • Heroin is so addictive, though, that it's only a matter of time until users inject it. (courant.com)
  • There's this kind of weird paradoxical appeal of heroin because prescription opiates (such as hydrocodone and morphine) have gotten so much attention and there's such a bad rap in the media about them being so highly addictive and dangerous," said UNLV psychology professor Laurel Pritchard. (lasvegassun.com)
  • From 1898-1910, Heroin, named for the German heroisch or heroic was originally created - and then marketed -as a non-addictive substitute for morphine and as a cough suppressant. (timesunion.com)
  • About 250 people attended the New York State Senate Task Force on Heroin and Opioid Addiction's forum, the fourth of 14 public hearings planned statewide to solicit ideas for ways to address rampant use of heroin, a highly addictive, cheap and deadly drug that treatment providers and law enforcement officials said is more difficult to squelch than other abused substances. (timesunion.com)
  • Science has taught us that when medication treatment is integrated with other supportive services, patients are often able to stop using heroin (or other opiates) and return to stable and productive lives. (thebody.com)
  • Unspecified opiates-which could include heroin-were involved in an additional 4 percent of drug-related visits. (urbandictionary.com)
  • Most of the prescription pain pills are opiates and so is heroin. (selfgrowth.com)
  • They were most likely from low-income neighborhoods, and when they turned to opiates, heroin was their first choice. (cnn.com)
  • We see kids skipping right over prescription opiates and jumping right into heroin. (courant.com)
  • The amount of heroin seized by the Police Department on Staten Island has jumped more than 300 percent from 2011 to 2013, and this year shows no sign of abating: Through April 13, officers seized roughly 1,700 glassine bags of heroin, up from about 1,200 bags over the same period in 2013. (nytimes.com)
  • You can obtain the equivalent amount of heroin for about one-tenth the price . (cnn.com)
  • We got a tip-off from community members and officers went to the house and found this large amount of heroin," police spokesman Thulani Zwane said. (reuters.com)
  • The International Narcotics Control Board, in its annual survey, says there appears to be an increasing amount of heroin being processed internally in Afghanistan. (rferl.org)
  • Infante F, Domínguez E, Trujillo D, Luna A. Metal contamination in illicit samples of heroin. (medscape.com)
  • The number of heroin users is a quarter of illicit drug users and second only to marijuana. (mapinc.org)
  • While heroin is illicit and opioid pills such as oxycontin are FDA-approved, each is derived from the poppy plant. (cnn.com)
  • In its latest report, the International Narcotics Control Board (INCB) says there is growing concern over illicit trafficking in Central Asia of acetic anhydride, a chemical used in the manufacture of heroin. (rferl.org)
  • The interventions for whether it's heroin or other illicit substances are different than, for example, if they are prescription drugs," he says. (npr.org)
  • Although the Government has given £70m to Afghanistan over three years to fight the drugs trade, the INCB revealed that 75 per cent of heroin in western Europe still originated in Afghanistan, where nearly two million people earn their living from growing illicit drugs. (rense.com)
  • Since then, "kompot"/"Polish heroin" has all but disappeared, except in a few rural areas where cheaper, purer, more potent drugs have not overwhelmed the illicit marketplace. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, also in 2018, heroin-involved overdose death rates showed a decline, decreasing 4.1% from 2017 to 2018. (cdc.gov)
  • The highest heroin-involved death rate in 2018 was in Vermont (12.5 per 100,000). (cdc.gov)
  • Reported heroin use in the past year also decreased from an estimated 886,000 people in 2017 to an estimated 808,000 people in 2018. (cdc.gov)
  • Black tar heroin is a free base form of heroin that is sticky like tar or hard like coal. (wikipedia.org)
  • Despite its name, black tar heroin can also be dark orange or dark brown in appearance. (wikipedia.org)
  • Black tar heroin is impure morphine diacetate. (wikipedia.org)
  • Black tar heroin is often produced in Latin America , and is most commonly found in the western and southern parts of the United States, while also being occasionally found in Western Africa. (wikipedia.org)
  • The price per kilogram of black tar heroin has increased from one-tenth that of South American powder heroin in the mid-1990s to between one-half and three-quarters in 2003 due to increased distributional acumen combined with increased demand in black tar's traditional realm of distribution. (wikipedia.org)
  • People who intravenously inject black tar heroin are at higher risk of venous sclerosis than those injecting powder heroin. (wikipedia.org)
  • At least one study has drawn attention to lower rates of HIV infection amongst drug injectors in which black tar heroin is the major form of street-available heroin, suggesting that this may be due to the need to heat black tar heroin to dissolve it (which also inactivates any HIV present in the solution). (wikipedia.org)
  • However, black tar heroin injectors can be at increased risk of life-threatening bacterial infections, in particular necrotizing soft tissue infection. (wikipedia.org)
  • The black tar heroin is put into some sort of blender and mixed in with lactose. (wikipedia.org)
  • Heroin usually appears as a white or brown powder or as a black sticky substance, known as 'black tar heroin. (thebody.com)
  • Black tar heroin, commonly found in western United States, comes from the Sinaloa cartel and imported in privately-owned vehicles through the El Centro and San Diego corridors, the DEA official said. (mapinc.org)
  • In the late 1990s, two years of my life as a heroin addict were chronicled in the HBO film Black Tar Heroin: The Dark End of the Street . (healthline.com)
  • It is a white or brown powder or a black, sticky substance (black tar heroin). (rexhealth.com)
  • The DEA's document said law enforcement agencies and healthcare providers are reporting all over the country an increase in heroin use by those who began with prescription drugs, which are either found at the family medicine cabinet or are accessible through a friend. (mapinc.org)
  • However, about the same time we saw a substantial increase in heroin-related admissions," she added. (medicinenet.com)
  • It's a very new development [in] the last two to three years,' Cicero said of the dramatic increase in heroin use by people who were abusing prescription drugs. (courant.com)
  • These two regions produce the vast majority of the world's heroin - Afghanistan alone accounts for roughly 75 percent of the world's supply - due to a combination of political instability, widespread corruption, and the ideal mixture of climate, soil, and terrain to cultivate opium poppy, the plant from which the drug is made. (foreignpolicy.com)
  • Britain faces a flood of cheap heroin following two years of bumper opium poppy harvests in Afghanistan, the United Nations warned last night. (rense.com)
  • When people inject heroin, they are at risk of serious, long-term viral infections such as HIV, Hepatitis C, and Hepatitis B, as well as bacterial infections of the skin, bloodstream, and heart. (cdc.gov)
  • It will effectively mean a diplomatic immunity to inject heroin in a safe, secure, passionate environment," he said. (yahoo.com)
  • Most of them shared a common story: "We used to take pills, but now we inject heroin. (cnn.com)
  • A spokeswoman with the National Institute on Drug Abuse told us recently that nearly half of young people who inject heroin say they abused prescription opioids before turning to the illegal drug. (cnn.com)
  • The Associated Press on the arrival of "deadly, ultra-pure heroin. (erowid.org)
  • According to the New York Times article on 7/18, Heroin in New England, More Abundant and Deadly , heroin use is increasing rapidly in the small towns of New England states such as Maine, Vermont and New Hampshire. (prweb.com)
  • The emergence of AIDS, which was first identified in 1981 created an urgent need for an effective way to treat those addicted to heroin since one of the main ways the deadly disease is spread is via contaminated needles which are common amongst heroin IV users. (selfgrowth.com)
  • It can be mixed with heroin with deadly results. (nhpr.org)
  • Because withdrawal is not directly deadly, most insurance companies won't pay for inpatient heroin detoxification or rehab, said Anthony Rizzuto, a provider relations representative at Seafield Center, a rehabilitation clinic on Long Island. (dailyherald.com)
  • The hand-held auto-injector is designed for family and caregivers to administer a single dose of a drug called naloxone, which rapidly reverses the effects of heroin and other opioids. (cnn.com)
  • Once injected, the naloxone stops heroin and other opioids from slowing a person's breathing down to the point that it stops. (cnn.com)
  • If you are worried that you or someone you know will take too much heroin, talk to your doctor about a naloxone rescue kit. (rexhealth.com)
  • She believes this is the real story behind the rise in heroin availability across the U.S. (mercola.com)
  • Officers seized 347 bags of heroin Wednesday from an auto-body shop and a home on the island. (nytimes.com)
  • A state police dog, named 'Frankie' found the bags of heroin, according to a Massachusetts State Police Facebook post . (csmonitor.com)
  • Bags of heroin, like the ones shown here, typically hold about a tenth of a gram of the drug and are often sold for $10. (timesunion.com)
  • Investigator Gene Duda of the Albany County Sheriff's Department unfolds one of the bags of heroin that a confidential informant bought. (timesunion.com)
  • The San Diego Field Office for the Customs and Border Protection Agency reported 1,617 pounds of heroin seized at California's Ports of Entry for fiscal year 2015. (mapinc.org)
  • In the last week of March, drug task forces in Southern Nevada recovered about 14 pounds of heroin in one seizure and about four pounds in another. (lasvegassun.com)
  • Eighteen pounds might seem like a paltry amount given that authorities routinely snare thousands of pounds of marijuana, but consider this: In all of 2011, authorities seized about 20 pounds of heroin in Clark and Washoe counties combined, according to reports from a Nevada-based interagency drug task force. (lasvegassun.com)
  • Ten kilograms of heroin worth over Rs.100 million was taken into custody from Kotikawatte based on the information revealed by the drug dealer Makandure Madhush, said the. (dailynews.lk)
  • Sixteen kilograms of heroin valued at Rs 160 million in the international market was recovered by BSF personnel from the Punjab border. (hindustantimes.com)
  • The Bensenville arrests follow a heroin bust in Antioch earlier this week that resulted in two arrests and the recent seizure of 20 kilograms of heroin and more than $1 million during a federal investigation that lead to a Des Plaines home. (dailyherald.com)
  • Nearly one-third of students who reported misusing prescription opioids as high school seniors between 1997 and 2000, but did not have a history of medical use, later used heroin by age 35, according to a University of Michigan study. (news-medical.net)
  • According to the National Institute on Drug Abuse , 15,446 Americans died from heroin overdose between 2000 and 2016, and the mortality rates are increasing. (scripps.edu)
  • In 2012, 156,000 people tried heroin for the first time, according to the National Institute on Drug Abuse. (foxnews.com)
  • What causes heroin toxicity? (medscape.com)
  • Which physical findings are characteristic of heroin toxicity? (medscape.com)
  • According to The Associated Press , an administrator at the chief medical examiner's office announced that Brockie's cause of death was acute heroin toxicity. (ew.com)
  • As a former school principal in Dublin's north inner city, where there is a severe heroin problem, O Riordain said he was acutely aware of the devastating consequences of drug abuse. (yahoo.com)
  • Heroin abuse is associated with serious health conditions, including fatal overdose, spontaneous abortion, and -- particularly in users who inject the drug -- infectious diseases, including HIV/AIDS and hepatitis. (thebody.com)
  • Heroin abuse during pregnancy, together with related factors like poor nutrition and inadequate prenatal care, has been associated with adverse consequences including low birthweight, an important risk factor for later developmental delay. (thebody.com)
  • The short-term effects of heroin abuse appear soon after a single dose and disappear in a few hours. (urbandictionary.com)
  • The Drug Abuse Warning Network* reports that eight percent of drug-related emergency department (ED) visits in the third and fourth quarters of 2003 involved heroin abuse. (urbandictionary.com)
  • Data from the National Household Survey on Drug Abuse estimates that nearly 3 million U.S. residents aged 12 and older have used heroin at least once in their lifetime. (news-medical.net)
  • The Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (SAMHSA) reported that in 2014 approximately 435,000 Americans reported heroin consumption for the last month before being surveyed. (mapinc.org)
  • Heroin use - like most drug abuse - is a very secretive affair. (healthline.com)
  • These along with current efforts will be extremely beneficial for thwarting heroin abuse. (selfgrowth.com)
  • The face of heroin abuse in America is changing. (cnn.com)
  • In neighboring Indiana, Republican Gov. Mike Pence linked the spike in children moving through the child-welfare system- 18,925 as of July-to drug abuse, especially of heroin, and hired 113 new caseworkers this year to help handle the load. (governing.com)
  • Abuse of heroin continued, though now it was illegal. (poison.org)
  • And, abuse of heroin has continued since then. (poison.org)
  • Nov. 1, 2010 -- Alcohol abuse is more harmful than crack or heroin abuse, according to a new study by a former British government drug advisor and other experts. (webmd.com)
  • Toxic leukoencephalopathy is an important complication of heroin abuse and has mostly been described after inhaling heroin vapor, known as "chasing the dragon syndrome" or heroin inhalation leukoencephalopathy (HIL). (scirp.org)
  • Heroin abuse has been further fueled by a rise in prescription opioid abuse-studies show that opioid pain reliever users are 40 times more likely to abuse heroin. (scripps.edu)
  • Now, many areas are struggling with an unprecedented heroin crisis. (theatlantic.com)
  • Vermont Gov. Peter Shumlin devoted most of his state of the state address in January to Vermont's heroin problem, which he called an 'immediate health crisis. (courant.com)
  • Until it launches, Pennsylvania, like so many other states, will have to rely on a patchwork of statistics to figure out exactly how deep the heroin crisis cuts. (npr.org)
  • Retrieved on September 18, 2020 from https://www.news-medical.net/health/What-is-Heroin.aspx. (news-medical.net)
  • Since 1999, 55 Anoka County residents have died from heroin-related causes. (yahoo.com)
  • Some of the greatest increases occurred in demographic groups with historically low rates of heroin use, including women, people who are privately insured, and people with higher incomes. (cdc.gov)
  • Nearly all people who use heroin also use at least 1 other drug. (cdc.gov)
  • Could people home-brew heroin? (cnn.com)
  • Heroin and painkillers killed more than 28,000 people in 2014-how many of them could have been saved had there been someone watching out for them? (thedailybeast.com)
  • There would be some structure: To be accepted into the club, people addicted to opioids would have to undergo a medical evaluation, and once admitted to the club, they would still have to buy their own heroin, but with many advantages over buying black market dope. (stopthedrugwar.org)
  • There were two populations: people largely in big port cities who were using heroin. (biztimes.com)
  • Some people believe that heroin is just as safe as other opioids, because it is metabolized to morphine, but that is not true. (poison.org)
  • Some 1,250 packets of heroin labeled 'Obamacare,' were confiscated by Massachusetts state police troopers during a traffic stop in Hatfield, Mass. Four people were charged with heroin trafficking. (csmonitor.com)
  • Massachusetts state police say they've stopped a car carrying 1,250 packets of heroin stamped " Obamacare " and " Kurt Cobain " and arrested the four people inside the car. (csmonitor.com)
  • The four arrested people have been charged with heroin trafficking. (csmonitor.com)
  • An estimated 10 million people worldwide are heroin dependent, including 74,000 Australians, incurring enormous health, social and economic costs. (edu.au)
  • The drug, usually used to treat problems such as heroin and alcohol addictions, can help to block the overproduction in the brain of endogenous opioids and to assist people to control their impulses. (telegraph.co.uk)
  • Thousands of people are involved, yet-despite the massive resources at our disposal-heroin keeps flowing at record levels. (americanfreepress.net)
  • In Pennsylvania, it's estimated opioids like heroin killed at least 1,300 people last year. (npr.org)
  • A Nevada drug report issued in September 2010 warned that "young people are turning to heroin when they run into problems getting the opium based pharmaceuticals that they have become addicted to. (lasvegassun.com)
  • While heroin use is on the rise, destroying the lives of young people and their families, treatment is inconsistent and difficult to access - and there's neither a strategy nor adequate funding to address the burgeoning problem. (timesunion.com)
  • We believe that a heroin vaccine would be tremendously beneficial for people who have a heroin substance use disorder but have found difficulty in trying to quit," says Hwang. (scripps.edu)
  • Although heroin withdrawal is considered less dangerous than alcohol or barbiturate withdrawal, sudden withdrawal by heavily dependent users who are in poor health is occasionally fatal. (thebody.com)
  • She called one more place and told them her brother was using heroin and also drinking alcohol. (dailyherald.com)
  • It is true that, unlike withdrawal from dependencies on alcohol or benzodiazepines like Xanax, heroin withdrawal does not kill. (dailyherald.com)
  • Newser) - Alcohol is more dangerous for humans than crack or heroin, according to a surprising assessment by a British drug expert. (newser.com)
  • Alcohol is more dangerous for humans than crack or heroin? (newser.com)
  • Since the U.S. occupation of Afghanistan, heroin production in the region has skyrocketed, making the country the number-one producer in the world by a large margin. (hbo.com)
  • Heroin makes its way into the United States primarily from China, India, Afghanistan and Mexico. (poison.org)
  • Afghanistan now supplies over 90 percent of the world's heroin, generating nearly $200 billion in revenue. (americanfreepress.net)
  • Within two years of the onslaught of the CIA operation in Afghanistan, the Pakistan-Afghanistan borderlands became the world's top heroin producer. (americanfreepress.net)
  • It has determined that drug lords in Afghanistan are importing large amounts of the precursor to produce heroin and morphine. (rferl.org)
  • But the narcotics board's report expresses concern over what it calls a lack of control for prohibited goods entering Pakistan via the port of Karachi en route to Afghanistan. (rferl.org)
  • Soldiers returning from Afghanistan are being subjected to rigorous security checks amid claims that some are involved in heroin trafficking. (infowars.com)
  • Hwang notes that the best vaccine formulation showed protection against lethal doses of heroin. (scripps.edu)
  • Besides, the report said heroin users now are younger and more ethnically and geographically diverse than ever. (mapinc.org)
  • SAMHSA reported that 80 percent of new heroin users began their drug journey by previously consuming prescription pain relievers non-medically. (mapinc.org)
  • There are now more than one million heroin users and some use it recreationally but more than 200,000 use it regularly. (selfgrowth.com)
  • Currently, the number of heroin users continues to rise. (selfgrowth.com)
  • Back in the 1960s, heroin users were usually young men, who started using around an average age of 16. (cnn.com)
  • There is a prevailing myth, though not entirely unfounded, that heroin users are self-destructive. (thedailybeast.com)
  • Most heroin users, in fact, go to great lengths to ensure their survival . (thedailybeast.com)
  • Gill walks to a hot spot - an area where heroin users typically go to shoot up - along the Ajnala-Amritsar Highway. (foreignpolicy.com)
  • Over time, heroin users have suffered countless toxic effects from contaminants and countless infectious diseases from unsanitary injections, ranging from skin infections to hepatitis to HIV/AIDS. (poison.org)
  • In 2007, there were an estimated 373,000 heroin users in the U.S. By 2012, the number was 669,000, with the greatest increases among those 18 to 25. (yahoo.com)
  • Experts note that many users turned to heroin after a crackdown on prescription drug "pill mills" made painkillers such as OxyContin harder to find and more costly. (yahoo.com)
  • Users turned to heroin. (yahoo.com)
  • Despite its gradual decline amongst users, especially younger ones, who have swapped to novel psychoactive substances (commonly known as legal-highs), the UK still has a heroin problem and the dangers of overdose and needle-sharing still plague this population. (thersa.org)
  • Derived from poppy plants, heroin gives users a euphoric rush followed by drowsiness that's similar to the effects of prescription painkillers, such as OxyContin and Vicodin, which are synthetic opioids. (lasvegassun.com)
  • Crystal Meth is worse than heroin. (yahoo.com)
  • New Hampshire is another state struggling with a severe heroin problem. (mercola.com)
  • Operating covertly over the next two months, they repeatedly bought heroin from Ramirez, methodically gathering intelligence they said helped them dismantle a massive drug ring with ties to Mexico. (ajc.com)
  • A Bellerose man was arrested early Sunday after undercover officers repeatedly bought heroin from him, Nassau County police said. (newsday.com)
  • Take Scott, 25, who goes to such lengths-however futile in practice-to ensure he does not die from an accidental heroin overdose. (thedailybeast.com)
  • Dave Brockie, frontman of the theatrical metal band GWAR , died of an accidental heroin overdose, the Virginia coroner's office said Tuesday. (ew.com)
  • Theodore J. Cicero, a professor of neuropharmacology in psychiatry at Washington University in St. Louis, and a team of researchers noted the migration of prescription drug abusers to heroin in 2012 as a result of the reformulation of prescription narcotics. (courant.com)
  • And the driver, Cicero said his research shows, is prescription drug abusers no longer able to get their hands on oxycodone who have moved on to heroin. (courant.com)
  • Controlled prescription drug abusers who begin using heroin do so chiefly because of price differences, but also because of availability and the reformulation of OxyContin. (mercola.com)
  • How Bad is Heroin Withdrawal? (erowid.org)
  • The doctors shook their heads: Heroin withdrawal is not life-threatening, they said, and we can't admit you. (dailyherald.com)
  • Advocates say they are not, partly because the insurance industry has not come to grips with the dangers of heroin withdrawal and its aftermath. (dailyherald.com)
  • If I am an addict on Vicodin or Percocet now experiencing withdrawal, an alternative is heroin because it works on the same receptors [in the brain],' Ibrahim said. (courant.com)