Strong dependence, both physiological and emotional, upon heroin.
Agents that induce NARCOSIS. Narcotics include agents that cause somnolence or induced sleep (STUPOR); natural or synthetic derivatives of OPIUM or MORPHINE or any substance that has such effects. They are potent inducers of ANALGESIA and OPIOID-RELATED DISORDERS.
Analogs or derivatives of morphine.
A synthetic opioid that is used as the hydrochloride. It is an opioid analgesic that is primarily a mu-opioid agonist. It has actions and uses similar to those of MORPHINE. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p1082-3)
Administration of a drug or chemical by the individual under the direction of a physician. It includes administration clinically or experimentally, by human or animal.
A derivative of the opioid alkaloid THEBAINE that is a more potent and longer lasting analgesic than MORPHINE. It appears to act as a partial agonist at mu and kappa opioid receptors and as an antagonist at delta receptors. The lack of delta-agonist activity has been suggested to account for the observation that buprenorphine tolerance may not develop with chronic use.
Accidental or deliberate use of a medication or street drug in excess of normal dosage.
An opioid analgesic related to MORPHINE but with less potent analgesic properties and mild sedative effects. It also acts centrally to suppress cough.
Drugs obtained and often manufactured illegally for the subjective effects they are said to produce. They are often distributed in urban areas, but are also available in suburban and rural areas, and tend to be grossly impure and may cause unexpected toxicity.
Disorders related or resulting from use of cocaine.
Abuse, overuse, or misuse of a substance by its injection into a vein.
The observable, measurable, and often pathological activity of an organism that portrays its inability to overcome a habit resulting in an insatiable craving for a substance or for performing certain acts. The addictive behavior includes the emotional and physical overdependence on the object of habit in increasing amount or frequency.
Disorders related or resulting from abuse or mis-use of opioids.
Detection of drugs that have been abused, overused, or misused, including legal and illegal drugs. Urine screening is the usual method of detection.
Physiological and psychological symptoms associated with withdrawal from the use of a drug after prolonged administration or habituation. The concept includes withdrawal from smoking or drinking, as well as withdrawal from an administered drug.
Control of drug and narcotic use by international agreement, or by institutional systems for handling prescribed drugs. This includes regulations concerned with the manufacturing, dispensing, approval (DRUG APPROVAL), and marketing of drugs.
A specific opiate antagonist that has no agonist activity. It is a competitive antagonist at mu, delta, and kappa opioid receptors.
Medical treatment for opioid dependence using a substitute opiate such as METHADONE or BUPRENORPHINE.
The principal alkaloid in opium and the prototype opiate analgesic and narcotic. Morphine has widespread effects in the central nervous system and on smooth muscle.
Derivative of noroxymorphone that is the N-cyclopropylmethyl congener of NALOXONE. It is a narcotic antagonist that is effective orally, longer lasting and more potent than naloxone, and has been proposed for the treatment of heroin addiction. The FDA has approved naltrexone for the treatment of alcohol dependence.
An alkaloid ester extracted from the leaves of plants including coca. It is a local anesthetic and vasoconstrictor and is clinically used for that purpose, particularly in the eye, ear, nose, and throat. It also has powerful central nervous system effects similar to the amphetamines and is a drug of abuse. Cocaine, like amphetamines, acts by multiple mechanisms on brain catecholaminergic neurons; the mechanism of its reinforcing effects is thought to involve inhibition of dopamine uptake.
Disorders related to substance abuse.
A class of opioid receptors recognized by its pharmacological profile. Mu opioid receptors bind, in decreasing order of affinity, endorphins, dynorphins, met-enkephalin, and leu-enkephalin. They have also been shown to be molecular receptors for morphine.
People who take drugs for a non-therapeutic or non-medical effect. The drugs may be legal or illegal, but their use often results in adverse medical, legal, or social consequences for the users.
Compounds with activity like OPIATE ALKALOIDS, acting at OPIOID RECEPTORS. Properties include induction of ANALGESIA or NARCOSIS.
Learning situations in which the sequence responses of the subject are instrumental in producing reinforcement. When the correct response occurs, which involves the selection from among a repertoire of responses, the subject is immediately reinforced.
A violation of the criminal law, i.e., a breach of the conduct code specifically sanctioned by the state, which through its administrative agencies prosecutes offenders and imposes and administers punishments. The concept includes unacceptable actions whether prosecuted or going unpunished.
Collection of pleomorphic cells in the caudal part of the anterior horn of the LATERAL VENTRICLE, in the region of the OLFACTORY TUBERCLE, lying between the head of the CAUDATE NUCLEUS and the ANTERIOR PERFORATED SUBSTANCE. It is part of the so-called VENTRAL STRIATUM, a composite structure considered part of the BASAL GANGLIA.
The strengthening of a conditioned response.
Health facilities providing therapy and/or rehabilitation for substance-dependent individuals. Methadone distribution centers are included.
Organized efforts to insure obedience to the laws of a community.
A microanalytical technique combining mass spectrometry and gas chromatography for the qualitative as well as quantitative determinations of compounds.
A schedule prescribing when the subject is to be reinforced or rewarded in terms of temporal interval in psychological experiments. The schedule may be continuous or intermittent.
The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.
The procedure of presenting the conditioned stimulus without REINFORCEMENT to an organism previously conditioned. It refers also to the diminution of a conditioned response resulting from this procedure.
The presence of organisms, or any foreign material that makes a drug preparation impure.
The observable response an animal makes to any situation.
The units based on political theory and chosen by countries under which their governmental power is organized and administered to their citizens.
The purified, alkaloidal, extra-potent form of cocaine. It is smoked (free-based), injected intravenously, and orally ingested. Use of crack results in alterations in function of the cardiovascular system, the autonomic nervous system, the central nervous system, and the gastrointestinal system. The slang term "crack" was derived from the crackling sound made upon igniting of this form of cocaine for smoking.
An outbred strain of rats developed in 1915 by crossing several Wistar Institute white females with a wild gray male. Inbred strains have been derived from this original outbred strain, including Long-Evans cinnamon rats (RATS, INBRED LEC) and Otsuka-Long-Evans-Tokushima Fatty rats (RATS, INBRED OLETF), which are models for Wilson's disease and non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus, respectively.
The circumstances in which people are born, grow up, live, work, and age, as well as the systems put in place to deal with illness. These circumstances are in turn shaped by a wider set of forces: economics, social policies, and politics (
Usage of a single needle among two or more people for injecting drugs. Needle sharing is a high-risk behavior for contracting infectious disease.
A thioxanthene neuroleptic that, unlike CHLORPROMAZINE, is claimed to have CNS-activating properties. It is used in the treatment of psychoses although not in excited or manic patients. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p595)
Signals for an action; that specific portion of a perceptual field or pattern of stimuli to which a subject has learned to respond.
Injections made into a vein for therapeutic or experimental purposes.
The aperture in the iris through which light passes.
A barbiturate that is used as a sedative. Secobarbital is reported to have no anti-anxiety activity.
Activities performed to obtain licit or illicit substances.
The fluid excreted by the SWEAT GLANDS. It consists of water containing sodium chloride, phosphate, urea, ammonia, and other waste products.
A class of opioid receptors recognized by its pharmacological profile. Delta opioid receptors bind endorphins and enkephalins with approximately equal affinity and have less affinity for dynorphins.
An exaggerated feeling of physical and emotional well-being not consonant with apparent stimuli or events; usually of psychologic origin, but also seen in organic brain disease and toxic states.
Works containing information articles on subjects in every field of knowledge, usually arranged in alphabetical order, or a similar work limited to a special field or subject. (From The ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)
Infrequent or difficult evacuation of FECES. These symptoms are associated with a variety of causes, including low DIETARY FIBER intake, emotional or nervous disturbances, systemic and structural disorders, drug-induced aggravation, and infections.

Harm reduction in Bern: from outreach to heroin maintenance. (1/493)

In Switzerland, harm-reduction programs have the support of the national government and many localities, in congruence with much of the rest of Europe and in contrast with the United States, and take place in public settings. The threat of AIDS is recognized as the greater harm. This paper describes the overall national program and highlights the experience from one city; the program is noteworthy because it is aimed at gathering comparative data from controlled trials.  (+info)

Use of illicit drugs among high-school students in Jamaica. (2/493)

Reported are the results of a survey to assess the prevalence of illicit drug use among high-school students in Jamaica. A total of 2417 high-school students in 26 schools were covered: 1063 boys and 1354 girls of whom 1317 were grade-10 students (mean age 15.7 years) and 1100 were grade-11 students (mean age 16.8 years). Of the students, 1072 and 1345 were from rural and urban schools, respectively, while 1126 and 1291 were children of parents who were professionals and nonprofessionals, respectively. The following drugs were used by the students: marijuana (10.2%), cocaine (2.2%), heroin (1.5%) and opium (1.2%). Illicit drug use among males, urban students and children of professionals was higher than that among females, rural students and children of nonprofessionals, respectively.  (+info)

Methadone dosing, heroin affordability, and the severity of addiction. (3/493)

OBJECTIVES: This study sought to track changes in US heroin prices from 1988 to 1995 and to determine whether changes in the affordability of heroin were associated with changes in the use of heroin by users seeking methadone treatment, as indexed by methadone dose levels. METHODS: Data on the price of heroin were from the Drug Enforcement Administration; data on methadone doses were from surveys conducted in 1988, 1990, and 1995 of 100 methadone maintenance centers. Multivariable models that controlled for time and city effects were used to ascertain whether clinics in cities where heroin was less expensive had patients receiving higher doses of methadone, which would suggest that these patients had relatively higher physiological levels of opiate addiction owing to increased heroin use. RESULTS: The amount of pure heroin contained in a $100 (US) purchase has increased on average 3-fold between 1988 and 1995. The average dose of methadone in clinics was positively associated with the affordability of local heroin (P < .01). CONCLUSIONS: When heroin prices fall, heroin addicts require more methadone (a heroin substitute) to stabilize their addiction--evidence that they are consuming more heroin.  (+info)

Validity of drug use reporting in a high-risk community sample: a comparison of cocaine and heroin survey reports with hair tests. (4/493)

Hair specimens were collected from 322 subjects and analyzed as part of an experimental study administering household surveys during 1997 to a high-risk community sample of adults from Chicago, Illinois. Toxicologic results were compared with survey responses about recent and lifetime drug use. About 35% of the sample tested positive for cocaine, and 4% tested positive for heroin. Sample prevalence estimates of cocaine use based on toxicologic results were nearly five times the survey-based estimates of past month use and nearly four times the survey-based estimates of past year use. With the hair test results as the standard, cocaine and heroin use were considerably underreported in the survey. Underreporting was more of a problem for cocaine than for heroin. Among those who tested positive, survey disclosure of cocaine use was associated with higher levels of cocaine detected in hair. In general, when recent drug use was reported, it was usually detected in hair. When a drug was detected in hair, use was usually not reported in the survey. When heroin was detected in hair, cocaine was almost always detected as well.  (+info)

Comparison of intrathecal and epidural diamorphine for elective caesarean section using a combined spinal-epidural technique. (5/493)

To assess calculated equivalent doses of intrathecal and epidural opioids for elective Caesarean section in terms of quality and duration of analgesia, and incidence of side effects, we have compared 50 patients, allocated randomly to one of two groups to receive either diamorphine 0.25 mg intrathecally (group 1) or 5 mg epidurally (group 2), in addition to intrathecal bupivacaine 10 mg, using a combined spinal-epidural technique. There was no significant difference in duration of analgesia between groups (group 1 mean 14.6 (SD 5.9) h, group 2 14.2 (6.5) h; mean difference 0.8 h; 95% Cl -2.8-4.5; P = 0.65) or quality of analgesia (VAPS and VRS scores). The degree of pruritus was similar in both groups (80-88%) but the incidence of postoperative nausea and vomiting was significantly higher in the epidural group (24% vs 4%; P < 0.05). Intrathecal diamorphine 0.25 mg produced the same duration and quality of postoperative analgesia as epidural diamorphine 5 mg for elective Caesarean section but with significantly less nausea and vomiting.  (+info)

Detection of 6-acetylmorphine in vitreous humor and cerebrospinal fluid--comparison with urinary analysis for proving heroin administration in opiate fatalities. (6/493)

The concentrations of morphine and 6-acetylmorphine (6-AM) in urine, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), and vitreous humor (VH) and the morphine concentrations in blood were determined by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry for 29 fatalities after abuse of heroin either alone or in combination with alcohol and other drugs. 6-AM was found above a quantitation limit of 1 ng/mL in urine in 89% of the cases, in CSF in 68% of the cases, and in VH in 75% of the cases. The 6-AM concentrations in CSF (mean, 10 ng/mL) and VH (mean, 17 ng/mL) were in general much smaller than in urine (mean, 170 ng/mL); therefore, the different pharmacokinetic behavior of the fluids is discussed. There is no uniformity between the three fluids with respect to the presence or absence of 6-AM. Therefore, CSF or VH may be used as complementary or alternative materials to urine in order to prove heroin uptake in opiate fatalities.  (+info)

Rapid gas chromatographic analysis of drugs of forensic interest. (7/493)

High-speed gas chromatographic (GC) screening for drugs of forensic relevance is performed using a commercial Flash GC instrument in which the chromatographic column is resistively heated at rates of up to 30 degrees C/s. Temperature programming conditions are varied in an experiment designed to evaluate trade-offs between resolution and analysis time for a mixture of 19 drugs of abuse. All 19 components can be separated with excellent resolution in 90 s. Specific analytes can be analyzed even faster; for example, amphetamine analysis is completed in less than 20 s. Case studies of confiscated street drugs containing amphetamine, cocaine, and heroin are analyzed to evaluate the retention time repeatability. Ten replicate injections over a 2-day period for 3 different drug samples achieved retention time relative standard deviations in the range of 0.48 to 0.81%.  (+info)

Comparison of four derivatizing reagents for 6-acetylmorphine GC-MS analysis. (8/493)

The propionyl, trimethylsilyl, trifluroacetyl, and heptafluoroacyl derivatives of 6-acetylmorphine (6-AM) were evaluated with respect to optimal method performance, derivative stability, and methods characterization for use in gas chromatographic-mass spectrometric (GC-MS) analysis with electron ionization mode and selected ion monitoring. The most common potential interferences and compatibility with other derivatives when used on the same GC-MS were determined for the derivatizing reagents. The propionyl, trimethylsilyl, and trifluroacetyl derivatives produced adequate stability, accuracy, and precision for the method. The 6-AM derivatization with commercially available propionic anhydride generated a relatively small amount of 6-AM-propionyl derivative from the free morphine present in a specimen. The trimethylsilyl derivative obtained by the reaction with MSTFA did not require incubation, was the easiest to prepare, and had the highest potential for use on an automated sample-preparation device. An important advantage of derivatization with MSTFA is elimination of the possibility of heroin decomposition to 6-AM that is due to incubation at elevated temperature.  (+info)

Heroin dependence, also known as opioid use disorder related to heroin, is a chronic relapsing condition characterized by the compulsive seeking and use of heroin despite harmful consequences. It involves a cluster of cognitive, behavioral, and physiological symptoms including a strong desire or craving to take the drug, difficulty in controlling its use, persisting in its use despite harmful consequences, tolerance (needing to take more to achieve the same effect), and withdrawal symptoms when not taking it. Heroin dependence can cause significant impairment in personal relationships, work, and overall quality of life. It is considered a complex medical disorder that requires professional treatment and long-term management.

Narcotics, in a medical context, are substances that induce sleep, relieve pain, and suppress cough. They are often used for anesthesia during surgical procedures. Narcotics are derived from opium or its synthetic substitutes and include drugs such as morphine, codeine, fentanyl, oxycodone, and hydrocodone. These drugs bind to specific receptors in the brain and spinal cord, reducing the perception of pain and producing a sense of well-being. However, narcotics can also produce physical dependence and addiction, and their long-term use can lead to tolerance, meaning that higher doses are required to achieve the same effect. Narcotics are classified as controlled substances due to their potential for abuse and are subject to strict regulations.

Morphine derivatives are substances that are synthesized from or structurally similar to morphine, a natural opiate alkaloid found in the opium poppy. These compounds share many of the same pharmacological properties as morphine and are often used for their analgesic (pain-relieving), sedative, and anxiolytic (anxiety-reducing) effects.

Examples of morphine derivatives include:

1. Hydrocodone: A semi-synthetic opioid that is often combined with acetaminophen for the treatment of moderate to severe pain.
2. Oxycodone: A synthetic opioid that is used for the management of moderate to severe pain, either alone or in combination with other medications.
3. Hydromorphone: A potent semi-synthetic opioid that is used for the treatment of severe pain, typically in a hospital setting.
4. Oxymorphone: A synthetic opioid that is similar to hydromorphone in its potency and use for managing severe pain.
5. Codeine: A naturally occurring opiate alkaloid that is less potent than morphine but still has analgesic, cough suppressant, and antidiarrheal properties. It is often combined with other medications for various therapeutic purposes.
6. Fentanyl: A synthetic opioid that is significantly more potent than morphine and is used for the management of severe pain, typically in a hospital or clinical setting.

It's important to note that while these derivatives can be beneficial for managing pain and other symptoms, they also carry a risk of dependence, addiction, and potentially life-threatening side effects such as respiratory depression. As a result, their use should be closely monitored by healthcare professionals and prescribed cautiously.

Methadone is a synthetic opioid agonist, often used as a substitute for heroin or other opiates in detoxification programs or as a long-term maintenance drug for opiate addiction. It works by changing how the brain and nervous system respond to pain signals. It also helps to suppress the withdrawal symptoms and cravings associated with opiate dependence.

Methadone is available in various forms, including tablets, oral solutions, and injectable solutions. It's typically prescribed and dispensed under strict medical supervision due to its potential for abuse and dependence.

In a medical context, methadone may also be used to treat moderate to severe pain that cannot be managed with other types of medication. However, its use in this context is more limited due to the risks associated with opioid therapy.

Self-administration, in the context of medicine and healthcare, refers to the act of an individual administering medication or treatment to themselves. This can include various forms of delivery such as oral medications, injections, or topical treatments. It is important that individuals who self-administer are properly trained and understand the correct dosage, timing, and technique to ensure safety and effectiveness. Self-administration promotes independence, allows for timely treatment, and can improve overall health outcomes.

Buprenorphine is a partial opioid agonist medication used to treat opioid use disorder. It has a lower risk of respiratory depression and other adverse effects compared to full opioid agonists like methadone, making it a safer option for some individuals. Buprenorphine works by binding to the same receptors in the brain as other opioids but with weaker effects, helping to reduce cravings and withdrawal symptoms. It is available in several forms, including tablets, films, and implants.

In addition to its use in treating opioid use disorder, buprenorphine may also be used to treat pain, although this use is less common due to the risk of addiction and dependence. When used for pain management, it is typically prescribed at lower doses than those used for opioid use disorder treatment.

It's important to note that while buprenorphine has a lower potential for abuse and overdose than full opioid agonists, it still carries some risks and should be taken under the close supervision of a healthcare provider.

A drug overdose occurs when a person ingests, inhales, or absorbs through the skin a toxic amount of a drug or combination of drugs. This can result in a variety of symptoms, depending on the type of drug involved. In some cases, an overdose can be fatal.

An overdose can occur accidentally, for example if a person mistakenly takes too much of a medication or if a child accidentally ingests a medication that was left within their reach. An overdose can also occur intentionally, such as when a person takes too much of a drug to attempt suicide or to achieve a desired high.

The symptoms of a drug overdose can vary widely depending on the type of drug involved. Some common symptoms of a drug overdose may include:

* Nausea and vomiting
* Abdominal pain
* Dizziness or confusion
* Difficulty breathing
* Seizures
* Unconsciousness
* Rapid heart rate or low blood pressure

If you suspect that someone has overdosed on a drug, it is important to seek medical help immediately. Call your local poison control center or emergency number (such as 911 in the United States) for assistance. If possible, try to provide the medical personnel with as much information as you can about the person and the drug(s) involved. This can help them to provide appropriate treatment more quickly.

Codeine is a opiate analgesic, commonly used for its pain-relieving and cough suppressant properties. It is typically prescribed for mild to moderately severe pain, and is also found in some over-the-counter cold and cough medications. Codeine works by binding to opioid receptors in the brain and spinal cord, which helps to reduce the perception of pain. Like other opiates, codeine can produce side effects such as drowsiness, constipation, and respiratory depression, and it carries a risk of dependence and addiction with long-term use. It is important to follow your healthcare provider's instructions carefully when taking codeine, and to inform them of any other medications you are taking, as well as any medical conditions you may have.

"Street drugs" is a colloquial term rather than medical jargon, but it generally refers to illegal substances or medications that are used without a prescription. These can include a wide variety of drugs such as marijuana, cocaine, heroin, methamphetamines, ecstasy, LSD, and many others. They are called "street drugs" because they are often bought and sold on the street or in clandestine settings, rather than through legitimate pharmacies or medical professionals. It's important to note that these substances can be highly dangerous and addictive, with serious short-term and long-term health consequences.

"Cocaine-Related Disorders" is a term used in the medical and psychiatric fields to refer to a group of conditions related to the use of cocaine, a powerful stimulant drug. These disorders are classified and diagnosed based on the criteria outlined in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5), published by the American Psychiatric Association.

The two main categories of Cocaine-Related Disorders are:

1. Cocaine Use Disorder: This disorder is characterized by a problematic pattern of cocaine use leading to clinically significant impairment or distress, as manifested by at least two symptoms within a 12-month period. These symptoms may include using larger amounts of cocaine over a longer period than intended, persistent desire or unsuccessful efforts to cut down or control cocaine use, spending a great deal of time obtaining, using, or recovering from the effects of cocaine, and continued use despite physical or psychological problems caused or exacerbated by cocaine.
2. Cocaine-Induced Disorders: These disorders are directly caused by the acute effects of cocaine intoxication or withdrawal. They include:
* Cocaine Intoxication: Presents with a reversible syndrome due to recent use of cocaine, characterized by euphoria, increased energy, and psychomotor agitation. It may also cause elevated heart rate, blood pressure, and body temperature, as well as pupillary dilation.
* Cocaine Withdrawal: Occurs when an individual who has been using cocaine heavily for a prolonged period abruptly stops or significantly reduces their use. Symptoms include depressed mood, fatigue, increased appetite, vivid and unpleasant dreams, and insomnia.

Cocaine-Related Disorders can have severe negative consequences on an individual's physical health, mental wellbeing, and social functioning. They often require professional treatment to manage and overcome.

Substance abuse, intravenous, refers to the harmful or hazardous use of psychoactive substances that are introduced directly into the bloodstream through injection, for non-medical purposes. This behavior can lead to a range of short- and long-term health consequences, including addiction, dependence, and an increased risk of infectious diseases such as HIV and hepatitis C. Intravenous substance abuse often involves drugs such as heroin, cocaine, and amphetamines, and is characterized by the repeated injection of these substances using needles and syringes. The practice can also have serious social consequences, including disrupted family relationships, lost productivity, and criminal behavior.

Addictive behavior is a pattern of repeated self-destructive behavior, often identified by the individual's inability to stop despite negative consequences. It can involve a variety of actions such as substance abuse (e.g., alcohol, drugs), gambling, sex, shopping, or using technology (e.g., internet, social media, video games).

These behaviors activate the brain's reward system, leading to feelings of pleasure and satisfaction. Over time, the individual may require more of the behavior to achieve the same level of pleasure, resulting in tolerance. If the behavior is stopped or reduced, withdrawal symptoms may occur.

Addictive behaviors can have serious consequences on an individual's physical, emotional, social, and financial well-being. They are often associated with mental health disorders such as depression, anxiety, and bipolar disorder. Treatment typically involves a combination of behavioral therapy, medication, and support groups to help the individual overcome the addiction and develop healthy coping mechanisms.

Opioid-related disorders is a term that encompasses a range of conditions related to the use of opioids, which are a class of drugs that include prescription painkillers such as oxycodone and hydrocodone, as well as illegal drugs like heroin. The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition (DSM-5) identifies the following opioid-related disorders:

1. Opioid Use Disorder: This disorder is characterized by a problematic pattern of opioid use that leads to clinically significant impairment or distress. The symptoms may include a strong desire to use opioids, increased tolerance, withdrawal symptoms when not using opioids, and unsuccessful efforts to cut down or control opioid use.
2. Opioid Intoxication: This disorder occurs when an individual uses opioids and experiences significant problematic behavioral or psychological changes, such as marked sedation, small pupils, or respiratory depression.
3. Opioid Withdrawal: This disorder is characterized by the development of a substance-specific withdrawal syndrome following cessation or reduction of opioid use. The symptoms may include anxiety, irritability, dysphoria, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, and muscle aches.
4. Other Opioid-Induced Disorders: This category includes disorders that are caused by the direct physiological effects of opioids, such as opioid-induced sexual dysfunction or opioid-induced sleep disorder.

It is important to note that opioid use disorder is a chronic and often relapsing condition that can cause significant harm to an individual's health, relationships, and overall quality of life. If you or someone you know is struggling with opioid use, it is essential to seek professional help from a healthcare provider or addiction specialist.

Substance abuse detection refers to the process of identifying the use or misuse of psychoactive substances, such as alcohol, illicit drugs, or prescription medications, in an individual. This can be done through various methods, including:

1. Physical examination: A healthcare professional may look for signs of substance abuse, such as track marks, enlarged pupils, or unusual behavior.
2. Laboratory tests: Urine, blood, hair, or saliva samples can be analyzed to detect the presence of drugs or their metabolites. These tests can provide information about recent use (hours to days) or longer-term use (up to several months).
3. Self-report measures: Individuals may be asked to complete questionnaires or interviews about their substance use patterns and behaviors.
4. Observational assessments: In some cases, such as in a treatment setting, healthcare professionals may observe an individual's behavior over time to identify patterns of substance abuse.

Substance abuse detection is often used in clinical, workplace, or legal settings to assess individuals for potential substance use disorders, monitor treatment progress, or ensure compliance with laws or regulations.

Substance Withdrawal Syndrome is a medically recognized condition that occurs when an individual who has been using certain substances, such as alcohol, opioids, or benzodiazepines, suddenly stops or significantly reduces their use. The syndrome is characterized by a specific set of symptoms that can be physical, cognitive, and emotional in nature. These symptoms can vary widely depending on the substance that was being used, the length and intensity of the addiction, and individual factors such as genetics, age, and overall health.

The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition (DSM-5), published by the American Psychiatric Association, provides the following diagnostic criteria for Substance Withdrawal Syndrome:

A. The development of objective evidence of withdrawal, referring to the specific physiological changes associated with the particular substance, or subjective evidence of withdrawal, characterized by the individual's report of symptoms that correspond to the typical withdrawal syndrome for the substance.

B. The symptoms cause clinically significant distress or impairment in social, occupational, or other important areas of functioning.

C. The symptoms are not better explained by co-occurring mental, medical, or other substance use disorders.

D. The withdrawal syndrome is not attributable to another medical condition and is not better accounted for by another mental disorder.

The DSM-5 also specifies that the diagnosis of Substance Withdrawal Syndrome should be substance-specific, meaning that it should specify the particular class of substances (e.g., alcohol, opioids, benzodiazepines) responsible for the withdrawal symptoms. This is important because different substances have distinct withdrawal syndromes and require different approaches to management and treatment.

In general, Substance Withdrawal Syndrome can be a challenging and potentially dangerous condition that requires professional medical supervision and support during the detoxification process. The specific symptoms and their severity will vary depending on the substance involved, but they may include:

* For alcohol: tremors, seizures, hallucinations, agitation, anxiety, nausea, vomiting, and insomnia.
* For opioids: muscle aches, restlessness, lacrimation (tearing), rhinorrhea (runny nose), yawning, perspiration, chills, mydriasis (dilated pupils), piloerection (goosebumps), nausea or vomiting, diarrhea, and abdominal cramps.
* For benzodiazepines: anxiety, irritability, insomnia, restlessness, confusion, hallucinations, seizures, and increased heart rate and blood pressure.

It is essential to consult with a healthcare professional if you or someone you know is experiencing symptoms of Substance Withdrawal Syndrome. They can provide appropriate medical care, support, and referrals for further treatment as needed.

"Drug and narcotic control" refers to the regulation and oversight of drugs and narcotics, including their production, distribution, and use. This is typically carried out by governmental agencies in order to ensure public safety, prevent abuse and diversion, and protect the health of individuals. The goal of drug and narcotic control is to strike a balance between making sure that medications are available for legitimate medical purposes while also preventing their misuse and illegal sale.

Drug control policies may include measures such as licensing and registration of manufacturers, distributors, and pharmacies; tracking and monitoring of controlled substances; setting standards for prescription practices; and enforcement of laws and regulations related to drug use and trafficking. Narcotic control specifically refers to the regulation of drugs that have a high potential for abuse and are subject to international treaties, such as opioids.

It's important to note that while these regulations aim to protect public health and safety, they can also be controversial and have unintended consequences, such as contributing to drug shortages or creating barriers to access for people who need controlled substances for legitimate medical reasons.

Naloxone is a medication used to reverse the effects of opioids, both illicit and prescription. It works by blocking the action of opioids on the brain and restoring breathing in cases where opioids have caused depressed respirations. Common brand names for naloxone include Narcan and Evzio.

Naloxone is an opioid antagonist, meaning that it binds to opioid receptors in the body without activating them, effectively blocking the effects of opioids already present at these sites. It has no effect in people who have not taken opioids and does not reverse the effects of other sedatives or substances.

Naloxone can be administered via intranasal, intramuscular, intravenous, or subcutaneous routes. The onset of action varies depending on the route of administration but generally ranges from 1 to 5 minutes when given intravenously and up to 10-15 minutes with other methods.

The duration of naloxone's effects is usually shorter than that of most opioids, so multiple doses or a continuous infusion may be necessary in severe cases to maintain reversal of opioid toxicity. Naloxone has been used successfully in emergency situations to treat opioid overdoses and has saved many lives.

It is important to note that naloxone does not reverse the effects of other substances or address the underlying causes of addiction, so it should be used as part of a comprehensive treatment plan for individuals struggling with opioid use disorders.

Opiate Substitution Treatment (OST) is a medical, evidence-based treatment for opioid dependence that involves the use of prescribed, long-acting opioids to replace illicit substances such as heroin. The aim of OST is to alleviate the severe withdrawal symptoms and cravings associated with opioid dependence, while also preventing the harmful consequences related to illegal drug use, such as infectious diseases and criminal activity. By providing a stable and controlled dose of a substitute medication, OST can help individuals regain control over their lives, improve physical and mental health, and facilitate reintegration into society. Commonly used medications for OST include methadone, buprenorphine, and slow-release morphine.

Morphine is a potent opioid analgesic (pain reliever) derived from the opium poppy. It works by binding to opioid receptors in the brain and spinal cord, blocking the transmission of pain signals and reducing the perception of pain. Morphine is used to treat moderate to severe pain, including pain associated with cancer, myocardial infarction, and other conditions. It can also be used as a sedative and cough suppressant.

Morphine has a high potential for abuse and dependence, and its use should be closely monitored by healthcare professionals. Common side effects of morphine include drowsiness, respiratory depression, constipation, nausea, and vomiting. Overdose can result in respiratory failure, coma, and death.

Naltrexone is a medication that is primarily used to manage alcohol dependence and opioid dependence. It works by blocking the effects of opioids and alcohol on the brain, reducing the euphoric feelings and cravings associated with their use. Naltrexone comes in the form of a tablet that is taken orally, and it has no potential for abuse or dependence.

Medically, naltrexone is classified as an opioid antagonist, which means that it binds to opioid receptors in the brain without activating them, thereby blocking the effects of opioids such as heroin, morphine, and oxycodone. It also reduces the rewarding effects of alcohol by blocking the release of endorphins, which are natural chemicals in the brain that produce feelings of pleasure.

Naltrexone is often used as part of a comprehensive treatment program for addiction, along with counseling, behavioral therapy, and support groups. It can help individuals maintain abstinence from opioids or alcohol by reducing cravings and preventing relapse. Naltrexone is generally safe and well-tolerated, but it may cause side effects such as nausea, headache, dizziness, and fatigue in some people.

It's important to note that naltrexone should only be used under the supervision of a healthcare provider, and it is not recommended for individuals who are currently taking opioids or who have recently stopped using them, as it can cause withdrawal symptoms. Additionally, naltrexone may interact with other medications, so it's important to inform your healthcare provider of all medications you are taking before starting naltrexone therapy.

Cocaine is a highly addictive stimulant drug derived from the leaves of the coca plant (Erythroxylon coca). It is a powerful central nervous system stimulant that affects the brain and body in many ways. When used recreationally, cocaine can produce feelings of euphoria, increased energy, and mental alertness; however, it can also cause serious negative consequences, including addiction, cardiovascular problems, seizures, and death.

Cocaine works by increasing the levels of dopamine in the brain, a neurotransmitter associated with pleasure and reward. This leads to the pleasurable effects that users seek when they take the drug. However, cocaine also interferes with the normal functioning of the brain's reward system, making it difficult for users to experience pleasure from natural rewards like food or social interactions.

Cocaine can be taken in several forms, including powdered form (which is usually snorted), freebase (a purer form that is often smoked), and crack cocaine (a solid form that is typically heated and smoked). Each form of cocaine has different risks and potential harms associated with its use.

Long-term use of cocaine can lead to a number of negative health consequences, including addiction, heart problems, malnutrition, respiratory issues, and mental health disorders like depression or anxiety. It is important to seek help if you or someone you know is struggling with cocaine use or addiction.

Substance-related disorders, as defined in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5), refer to a group of conditions caused by the use of substances such as alcohol, drugs, or medicines. These disorders are characterized by a problematic pattern of using a substance that leads to clinically significant impairment or distress. They can be divided into two main categories: substance use disorders and substance-induced disorders. Substance use disorders involve a pattern of compulsive use despite negative consequences, while substance-induced disorders include conditions such as intoxication, withdrawal, and substance/medication-induced mental disorders. The specific diagnosis depends on the type of substance involved, the patterns of use, and the presence or absence of physiological dependence.

Opioid mu receptors, also known as mu-opioid receptors (MORs), are a type of G protein-coupled receptor that binds to opioids, a class of chemicals that include both natural and synthetic painkillers. These receptors are found in the brain, spinal cord, and gastrointestinal tract, and play a key role in mediating the effects of opioid drugs such as morphine, heroin, and oxycodone.

MORs are involved in pain modulation, reward processing, respiratory depression, and physical dependence. Activation of MORs can lead to feelings of euphoria, decreased perception of pain, and slowed breathing. Prolonged activation of these receptors can also result in tolerance, where higher doses of the drug are required to achieve the same effect, and dependence, where withdrawal symptoms occur when the drug is discontinued.

MORs have three main subtypes: MOR-1, MOR-2, and MOR-3, with MOR-1 being the most widely studied and clinically relevant. Selective agonists for MOR-1, such as fentanyl and sufentanil, are commonly used in anesthesia and pain management. However, the abuse potential and risk of overdose associated with these drugs make them a significant public health concern.

A "drug user" is a person who uses or consumes illegal drugs, such as heroin, cocaine, or methamphetamine, or misuses prescription medications for recreational purposes or to self-medicate. It's important to note that the term "drug user" can have stigmatizing connotations and may not accurately reflect the complexity of an individual's relationship with drugs. Many prefer terms like "person who uses drugs" or "substance user," which emphasize the personhood and agency of the individual rather than reducing them to their drug use.

It's also worth noting that there is a wide range of drug use behaviors, from occasional recreational use to heavy, dependent use. The medical community recognizes that problematic drug use can lead to negative health consequences, but it's important to approach individuals who use drugs with compassion and understanding rather than judgment. Providing access to evidence-based treatments and harm reduction services can help reduce the risks associated with drug use and support individuals in making positive changes in their lives.

Analgesics, opioid are a class of drugs used for the treatment of pain. They work by binding to specific receptors in the brain and spinal cord, blocking the transmission of pain signals to the brain. Opioids can be synthetic or natural, and include drugs such as morphine, codeine, oxycodone, hydrocodone, hydromorphone, fentanyl, and methadone. They are often used for moderate to severe pain, such as that resulting from injury, surgery, or chronic conditions like cancer. However, opioids can also produce euphoria, physical dependence, and addiction, so they are tightly regulated and carry a risk of misuse.

Operant conditioning is a type of learning in which behavior is modified by its consequences, either reinforcing or punishing the behavior. It was first described by B.F. Skinner and involves an association between a response (behavior) and a consequence (either reward or punishment). There are two types of operant conditioning: positive reinforcement, in which a desirable consequence follows a desired behavior, increasing the likelihood that the behavior will occur again; and negative reinforcement, in which a undesirable consequence is removed following a desired behavior, also increasing the likelihood that the behavior will occur again.

For example, if a child cleans their room (response) and their parent gives them praise or a treat (positive reinforcement), the child is more likely to clean their room again in the future. If a child is buckling their seatbelt in the car (response) and the annoying buzzer stops (negative reinforcement), the child is more likely to buckle their seatbelt in the future.

It's important to note that operant conditioning is a form of learning, not motivation. The behavior is modified by its consequences, regardless of the individual's internal state or intentions.

I am not a medical professional, but I can tell you that the term "crime" is typically not used in a medical context. A crime is a violation of laws or regulations established by a government and enforced by its authorities. It's a legal concept, not a medical one. However, there are some overlaps between criminal behavior and mental health, as certain mental health conditions may increase the risk of criminal behavior. But it's essential to understand that having a mental health condition does not automatically make someone a criminal.

The nucleus accumbens is a part of the brain that is located in the ventral striatum, which is a key region of the reward circuitry. It is made up of two subregions: the shell and the core. The nucleus accumbens receives inputs from various sources, including the prefrontal cortex, amygdala, and hippocampus, and sends outputs to the ventral pallidum and other areas.

The nucleus accumbens is involved in reward processing, motivation, reinforcement learning, and addiction. It plays a crucial role in the release of the neurotransmitter dopamine, which is associated with pleasure and reinforcement. Dysfunction in the nucleus accumbens has been implicated in various neurological and psychiatric conditions, including substance use disorders, depression, and obsessive-compulsive disorder.

Substance abuse treatment centers are healthcare facilities that provide a range of services for individuals struggling with substance use disorders (SUDs), including addiction to alcohol, illicit drugs, prescription medications, and other substances. These centers offer comprehensive, evidence-based assessments, interventions, and treatments aimed at helping patients achieve and maintain sobriety, improve their overall health and well-being, and reintegrate into society as productive members.

The medical definition of 'Substance Abuse Treatment Centers' encompasses various levels and types of care, such as:

1. **Medical Detoxification:** This is the first step in treating substance abuse, where patients are closely monitored and managed for withdrawal symptoms as their bodies clear the harmful substances. Medical detox often involves the use of medications to alleviate discomfort and ensure safety during the process.
2. **Inpatient/Residential Treatment:** This level of care provides 24-hour structured, intensive treatment in a controlled environment. Patients live at the facility and receive various therapeutic interventions, such as individual therapy, group counseling, family therapy, and psychoeducation, to address the underlying causes of their addiction and develop coping strategies for long-term recovery.
3. **Partial Hospitalization Programs (PHP):** Also known as day treatment, PHPs offer structured, intensive care for several hours a day while allowing patients to return home or to a sober living environment during non-treatment hours. This level of care typically includes individual and group therapy, skill-building activities, and case management services.
4. **Intensive Outpatient Programs (IOP):** IOPs provide flexible, less intensive treatment than PHPs, with patients attending sessions for a few hours per day, several days a week. These programs focus on relapse prevention, recovery skills, and addressing any co-occurring mental health conditions.
5. **Outpatient Treatment:** This is the least restrictive level of care, where patients attend individual or group therapy sessions on a regular basis while living at home or in a sober living environment. Outpatient treatment often serves as step-down care after completing higher levels of treatment or as an initial intervention for those with milder SUDs.
6. **Aftercare/Continuing Care:** Aftercare or continuing care services help patients maintain their recovery and prevent relapse by providing ongoing support, such as 12-step meetings, alumni groups, individual therapy, and case management.

Each treatment modality has its unique benefits and is tailored to meet the specific needs of individuals at various stages of addiction and recovery. It's essential to consult with a healthcare professional or an addiction specialist to determine the most appropriate level of care for each person's situation.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Law Enforcement" is a term that refers to the system or agencies responsible for enforcing laws and maintaining public order and safety. It is not a medical term. However, I can provide you with some related terms that are used in the medical field:

* Forensic science: The application of scientific methods and techniques to investigations by law enforcement agencies or courts of law.
* Forensic psychiatry: A medical subspecialty that deals with the application of clinical psychiatric knowledge to legal issues, such as determining competency to stand trial or assessing criminal responsibility.
* Forensic psychology: The application of psychological principles and methods to legal issues, such as evaluating a defendant's mental state at the time of an offense.
* Medical examiner/Coroner: A physician who investigates and determines the cause and manner of death in cases of sudden, unexpected or violent death. They are often called upon by law enforcement agencies to assist in death investigations.

Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS) is a powerful analytical technique that combines the separating power of gas chromatography with the identification capabilities of mass spectrometry. This method is used to separate, identify, and quantify different components in complex mixtures.

In GC-MS, the mixture is first vaporized and carried through a long, narrow column by an inert gas (carrier gas). The various components in the mixture interact differently with the stationary phase inside the column, leading to their separation based on their partition coefficients between the mobile and stationary phases. As each component elutes from the column, it is then introduced into the mass spectrometer for analysis.

The mass spectrometer ionizes the sample, breaks it down into smaller fragments, and measures the mass-to-charge ratio of these fragments. This information is used to generate a mass spectrum, which serves as a unique "fingerprint" for each compound. By comparing the generated mass spectra with reference libraries or known standards, analysts can identify and quantify the components present in the original mixture.

GC-MS has wide applications in various fields such as forensics, environmental analysis, drug testing, and research laboratories due to its high sensitivity, specificity, and ability to analyze volatile and semi-volatile compounds.

A reinforcement schedule is a concept in behavioral psychology that refers to the timing and pattern of rewards or reinforcements provided in response to certain behaviors. It is used to shape, maintain, or strengthen specific behaviors in individuals. There are several types of reinforcement schedules, including:

1. **Fixed Ratio (FR):** A reward is given after a fixed number of responses. For example, a salesperson might receive a bonus for every 10 sales they make.
2. **Variable Ratio (VR):** A reward is given after an unpredictable number of responses. This schedule is commonly used in gambling, as the uncertainty of when a reward (winning) will occur keeps the individual engaged and motivated to continue the behavior.
3. **Fixed Interval (FI):** A reward is given after a fixed amount of time has passed since the last reward, regardless of the number of responses during that time. For example, an employee might receive a paycheck every two weeks, regardless of how many tasks they completed during that period.
4. **Variable Interval (VI):** A reward is given after an unpredictable amount of time has passed since the last reward, regardless of the number of responses during that time. This schedule can be observed in foraging behavior, where animals search for food at irregular intervals.
5. **Combined schedules:** Reinforcement schedules can also be combined to create more complex patterns, such as a fixed ratio followed by a variable interval (FR-VI) or a variable ratio followed by a fixed interval (VR-FI).

Understanding reinforcement schedules is essential for developing effective behavioral interventions in various settings, including healthcare, education, and rehabilitation.

A dose-response relationship in the context of drugs refers to the changes in the effects or symptoms that occur as the dose of a drug is increased or decreased. Generally, as the dose of a drug is increased, the severity or intensity of its effects also increases. Conversely, as the dose is decreased, the effects of the drug become less severe or may disappear altogether.

The dose-response relationship is an important concept in pharmacology and toxicology because it helps to establish the safe and effective dosage range for a drug. By understanding how changes in the dose of a drug affect its therapeutic and adverse effects, healthcare providers can optimize treatment plans for their patients while minimizing the risk of harm.

The dose-response relationship is typically depicted as a curve that shows the relationship between the dose of a drug and its effect. The shape of the curve may vary depending on the drug and the specific effect being measured. Some drugs may have a steep dose-response curve, meaning that small changes in the dose can result in large differences in the effect. Other drugs may have a more gradual dose-response curve, where larger changes in the dose are needed to produce significant effects.

In addition to helping establish safe and effective dosages, the dose-response relationship is also used to evaluate the potential therapeutic benefits and risks of new drugs during clinical trials. By systematically testing different doses of a drug in controlled studies, researchers can identify the optimal dosage range for the drug and assess its safety and efficacy.

"Extinction, Psychological" refers to the process by which a conditioned response or behavior becomes weakened and eventually disappears when the behavior is no longer reinforced or rewarded. It is a fundamental concept in learning theory and conditioning.

In classical conditioning, extinction occurs when the conditioned stimulus (CS) is repeatedly presented without the unconditioned stimulus (US), leading to the gradual weakening and eventual disappearance of the conditioned response (CR). For example, if a person learns to associate a tone (CS) with a puff of air to the eye (US), causing blinking (CR), but then the tone is presented several times without the puff of air, the blinking response will become weaker and eventually disappear.

In operant conditioning, extinction occurs when a reinforcer is no longer provided following a behavior, leading to the gradual weakening and eventual disappearance of that behavior. For example, if a child receives candy every time they clean their room (reinforcement), but then the candy is withheld, the child may eventually stop cleaning their room (extinction).

It's important to note that extinction can be a slow process and may require multiple trials or repetitions. Additionally, behaviors that have been extinguished can sometimes reappear in certain circumstances, a phenomenon known as spontaneous recovery.

Drug contamination refers to the presence of impurities or foreign substances in a pharmaceutical drug or medication. These impurities can include things like bacteria, chemicals, or other drugs that are not intended to be present in the final product. Drug contamination can occur at any stage during the production, storage, or distribution of a medication and can potentially lead to reduced effectiveness, increased side effects, or serious health risks for patients. It is closely monitored and regulated by various health authorities to ensure the safety and efficacy of medications.

'Animal behavior' refers to the actions or responses of animals to various stimuli, including their interactions with the environment and other individuals. It is the study of the actions of animals, whether they are instinctual, learned, or a combination of both. Animal behavior includes communication, mating, foraging, predator avoidance, and social organization, among other things. The scientific study of animal behavior is called ethology. This field seeks to understand the evolutionary basis for behaviors as well as their physiological and psychological mechanisms.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Political Systems" is not a term used in medical definitions. Political systems refer to the institutions, procedures, and mechanisms through which a society makes decisions on political matters. Examples include democracies, monarchies, and dictatorships. If you have any questions related to medical terminology or health sciences, I'd be happy to help!

Crack cocaine is a potent and highly addictive form of the drug cocaine, which is made into a rock crystal that can be smoked. The term "crack" refers to the crackling sound heard when it is heated and vaporized. Crack cocaine is abused for its euphoric effects, which are intensified and more immediate than those of powdered cocaine. Its use can lead to severe health consequences, including addiction, cardiovascular complications, respiratory problems, and neurological damage.

"Long-Evans" is a strain of laboratory rats commonly used in scientific research. They are named after their developers, the scientists Long and Evans. This strain is albino, with a brownish-black hood over their eyes and ears, and they have an agouti (salt-and-pepper) color on their backs. They are often used as a model organism due to their size, ease of handling, and genetic similarity to humans. However, I couldn't find any specific medical definition related to "Long-Evans rats" as they are not a medical condition or disease.

Social determinants of health (SDOH) refer to the conditions in which people are born, grow, live, work, and age that have an impact on their health and quality of life. These factors include but are not limited to:

* Economic stability (e.g., poverty, employment, food security)
* Education access and quality
* Health care access and quality
* Neighborhood and built environment (e.g., housing, transportation, parks and recreation)
* Social and community context (e.g., discrimination, incarceration, social support)

SDOH are responsible for a significant portion of health inequities and can have a greater impact on health than genetic factors or individual behaviors. Addressing SDOH is critical to improving overall health and reducing disparities in health outcomes.

Needle sharing is the reuse of needles or syringes by more than one person, often in the context of injecting drugs. This behavior is considered high-risk as it can lead to the transmission of bloodborne pathogens such as HIV, Hepatitis B, and Hepatitis C. It's a significant public health concern due to its association with intravenous drug use.

Flupenthixol is an antipsychotic medication that belongs to the chemical class of diphenylbutylpiperidines. It has potent dopamine D2 receptor blocking activity and moderate serotonin 5-HT2A receptor blocking activity, which makes it effective in managing various psychiatric disorders.

Flupenthixol is primarily used for the treatment of chronic schizophrenia and other related psychotic disorders. It can help alleviate symptoms such as hallucinations, delusions, thought disorders, and hostility. Additionally, flupenthixol may also be used off-label to manage depression, anxiety, and aggression in individuals with developmental disabilities or dementia.

The medication is available in two forms: immediate-release tablets (Flupenthixol decanoate) for short-term use and a long-acting depot injection (Flupenthixol dihydrochloride) that can be administered every 2-4 weeks, providing sustained therapeutic levels of the drug.

As with any medication, flupenthixol should be used under the close supervision of a healthcare professional due to potential side effects and interactions with other drugs. Common side effects include extrapyramidal symptoms (involuntary muscle movements), sedation, weight gain, and sexual dysfunction. Rare but serious adverse reactions may include neuroleptic malignant syndrome, tardive dyskinesia, and metabolic disorders.

In the context of medicine, "cues" generally refer to specific pieces of information or signals that can help healthcare professionals recognize and respond to a particular situation or condition. These cues can come in various forms, such as:

1. Physical examination findings: For example, a patient's abnormal heart rate or blood pressure reading during a physical exam may serve as a cue for the healthcare professional to investigate further.
2. Patient symptoms: A patient reporting chest pain, shortness of breath, or other concerning symptoms can act as a cue for a healthcare provider to consider potential diagnoses and develop an appropriate treatment plan.
3. Laboratory test results: Abnormal findings on laboratory tests, such as elevated blood glucose levels or abnormal liver function tests, may serve as cues for further evaluation and diagnosis.
4. Medical history information: A patient's medical history can provide valuable cues for healthcare professionals when assessing their current health status. For example, a history of smoking may increase the suspicion for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) in a patient presenting with respiratory symptoms.
5. Behavioral or environmental cues: In some cases, behavioral or environmental factors can serve as cues for healthcare professionals to consider potential health risks. For instance, exposure to secondhand smoke or living in an area with high air pollution levels may increase the risk of developing respiratory conditions.

Overall, "cues" in a medical context are essential pieces of information that help healthcare professionals make informed decisions about patient care and treatment.

Intravenous injections are a type of medical procedure where medication or fluids are administered directly into a vein using a needle and syringe. This route of administration is also known as an IV injection. The solution injected enters the patient's bloodstream immediately, allowing for rapid absorption and onset of action. Intravenous injections are commonly used to provide quick relief from symptoms, deliver medications that are not easily absorbed by other routes, or administer fluids and electrolytes in cases of dehydration or severe illness. It is important that intravenous injections are performed using aseptic technique to minimize the risk of infection.

A pupil, in medical terms, refers to the circular opening in the center of the iris (the colored part of the eye) that allows light to enter and reach the retina. The size of the pupil can change involuntarily in response to light intensity and emotional state, as well as voluntarily through certain eye exercises or with the use of eye drops. Pupillary reactions are important in clinical examinations as they can provide valuable information about the nervous system's functioning, particularly the brainstem and cranial nerves II and III.

Secobarbital is a barbiturate medication that is primarily used for the treatment of short-term insomnia and as a preoperative sedative. It works by depressing the central nervous system, producing a calming effect and helping to induce sleep. Secobarbital has a rapid onset of action and a relatively short duration of effect.

It is available in various forms, including capsules and injectable solutions, and is typically prescribed for use on an as-needed basis rather than as a regular medication. Secobarbital can be habit-forming and carries a risk of dependence and withdrawal, so it should only be used under the close supervision of a healthcare provider.

It's important to note that Secobarbital is not commonly prescribed in modern medical practice due to its high potential for abuse and the availability of safer and more effective sleep aids.

Drug-seeking behavior is a term used in the medical field to describe a pattern of actions taken by a person who is trying to obtain drugs, typically prescription medications, for non-medical reasons or in a manner that is considered inappropriate or abusive. This can include behaviors such as:

* Exaggerating symptoms or faking illness to obtain drugs
* Visiting multiple doctors or pharmacies to obtain multiple prescriptions (a practice known as "doctor shopping")
* Using false names or identities to obtain drugs
* Stealing, forging, or altering prescriptions
* Offering to sell or trade prescription medications

Drug-seeking behavior can be a sign of a substance use disorder, such as addiction, and may require medical intervention and treatment. It is important for healthcare providers to be aware of the signs of drug-seeking behavior and to take appropriate measures to ensure that patients are receiving the care and treatment they need while also protecting the integrity of the healthcare system.

Sweat, also known as perspiration, is the fluid secreted by the sweat glands in human skin. It's primarily composed of water, with small amounts of sodium chloride, potassium, and other electrolytes. Sweat helps regulate body temperature through the process of evaporation, where it absorbs heat from the skin as it turns from a liquid to a gas.

There are two types of sweat glands: eccrine and apocrine. Eccrine glands are found all over the body and produce a watery, odorless sweat in response to heat, physical activity, or emotional stress. Apocrine glands, on the other hand, are mainly located in the armpits and groin area and become active during puberty. They produce a thicker, milky fluid that can mix with bacteria on the skin's surface, leading to body odor.

It is important to note that while sweating is essential for maintaining normal body temperature and overall health, excessive sweating or hyperhidrosis can be a medical condition requiring treatment.

Opioid delta receptors, also known as delta opioid receptors (DORs), are a type of G protein-coupled receptor found in the nervous system and other tissues throughout the body. They belong to the opioid receptor family, which includes mu, delta, and kappa receptors. These receptors play an essential role in pain modulation, reward processing, and addictive behaviors.

Delta opioid receptors are activated by endogenous opioid peptides such as enkephalins and exogenous opioids like synthetic drugs. Once activated, they trigger a series of intracellular signaling events that can lead to inhibition of neuronal excitability, reduced neurotransmitter release, and ultimately, pain relief.

Delta opioid receptors have also been implicated in various physiological processes, including immune function, respiratory regulation, and gastrointestinal motility. However, their clinical use as therapeutic targets has been limited due to the development of tolerance and potential adverse effects such as sedation and respiratory depression.

In summary, delta opioid receptors are a type of opioid receptor that plays an essential role in pain modulation and other physiological processes. They are activated by endogenous and exogenous opioids and trigger intracellular signaling events leading to various effects, including pain relief. However, their clinical use as therapeutic targets is limited due to potential adverse effects.

Euphoria is a medical term that refers to an state of intense happiness and well-being, often exaggerated or irrational in context. It is a heightened state of pleasure or excitement, sometimes reaching levels of ecstasy. Euphoria can be a symptom of certain medical conditions, such as manic episodes associated with bipolar disorder, or it can be a side effect of certain drugs, including some prescription medications and illegal substances.

In a clinical setting, euphoria is often assessed using rating scales to help diagnose and monitor the severity of various mental health disorders. It's important to note that while euphoria can be a positive experience for some individuals, it can also have negative consequences, particularly when it leads to impaired judgment or risky behaviors.

An encyclopedia is a comprehensive reference work containing articles on various topics, usually arranged in alphabetical order. In the context of medicine, a medical encyclopedia is a collection of articles that provide information about a wide range of medical topics, including diseases and conditions, treatments, tests, procedures, and anatomy and physiology. Medical encyclopedias may be published in print or electronic formats and are often used as a starting point for researching medical topics. They can provide reliable and accurate information on medical subjects, making them useful resources for healthcare professionals, students, and patients alike. Some well-known examples of medical encyclopedias include the Merck Manual and the Stedman's Medical Dictionary.

Constipation is a condition characterized by infrequent bowel movements or difficulty in passing stools that are often hard and dry. The medical definition of constipation varies, but it is generally defined as having fewer than three bowel movements in a week. In addition to infrequent bowel movements, other symptoms of constipation can include straining during bowel movements, feeling like you haven't completely evacuated your bowels, and experiencing hard or lumpy stools.

Constipation can have many causes, including a low-fiber diet, dehydration, certain medications, lack of physical activity, and underlying medical conditions such as irritable bowel syndrome or hypothyroidism. In most cases, constipation can be treated with lifestyle changes, such as increasing fiber intake, drinking more water, and getting regular exercise. However, if constipation is severe, persistent, or accompanied by other symptoms, it's important to seek medical attention to rule out any underlying conditions that may require treatment.

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1-TRACK PROMO (Capitol) "Heroin Girl" UK MAXI-SINGLE (Fire Records) "Heroin Girl" "Annabella's Song" "Nehalem (alternate mix ... "Heroin Girl" is a rock song by the band Everclear from their 1995 album Sparkle and Fade. This song is generally agreed to be ... Songs about heroin, Songs written by Art Alexakis, Songs written by Greg Eklund, Songs written by Craig Montoya, 1995 songs, ... "American Girl" (Tom Petty and the Heartbreakers cover) UK 7-INCH (Fire Records) "Heroin Girl" "American Girl" "Everclear ...
1997 Heroin CD - (Gravity Records) Heroin at Paul Kott, Heroin at Allmusic Aaron Burgess, "Heroin" in "Blood Runs ... Heroin was a pioneer of the screamo genre. They were noted for the psychological intensity of their songs, which tended to be ... Heroin only released a handful of vinyl EPs and singles, primarily on San Diego record label Gravity Records; the group's debut ... Heroin was an American hardcore punk band formed in San Diego in 1989 within the underground Californian punk scene. They ...
"allmusic ((( Heroin Man > Review )))". Allmusic. Retrieved January 31, 2015. "Review: 'Heroin Man'". Sputnikmusic. September 14 ... Heroin Man is the second album by American noise rock band Cherubs, released in 1994 through Trance Syndicate. The album's ... Heroin Man at Discogs (list of releases) (Articles with short description, Short description is different from Wikidata, ... The band would eventually reunite in 2014, two whole decades after the release of Heroin Man. Amphetamine Reptile Records later ...
... on Netflix Heroin(e) at IMDb (Articles with short description, Short description is different from Wikidata, Use mdy ... Heroin(e) has an approval rating of 100% on review aggregator website Rotten Tomatoes, based on 10 reviews, and an average ... Heroin(e) is a 2017 American short documentary film directed by Elaine McMillion Sheldon and produced by Elaine McMillion ... "Heroin(e) (2017)" - via "Review: In the Oscar-Nominated Documentary Shorts, Moving Portraits and ...
... at IMDb Shooting Heroin at Rotten Tomatoes (Wikipedia articles without plot summaries from July 2023, Articles ... "Shooting Heroin". Rotten Tomatoes. Retrieved July 7, 2023. Gleiberman, Owen (April 3, 2020). "'Shooting Heroin': Film Review". ... "Shooting Heroin"". WJAC-TV. Retrieved July 7, 2023. Scheck, Frank (April 13, 2020). "'Shooting Heroin': Film Review". The ... Shooting Heroin is a 2019 American action thriller drama film written and directed by Spencer T. Folmar and starring Alan ...
... was director Enzo G. Castellari's last crime film of the 1970s. The film was shot in Rome, Genoa, Cartagena ... The Heroin Busters at IMDb v t e v t e (Articles with short description, Short description is different from Wikidata, 1977 ... The Heroin Busters (Italian: La via della droga) is a 1977 Italian crime film directed by Enzo G. Castellari and starring Fabio ... the boss The Heroin Busters was released in Italy on August 13, 1977. It was distributed by Titanus and grossed 1,308,550,110 ...
... may refer to: The Heroin Diaries: A Year in the Life of a Shattered Rock Star, a book by Nikki Sixx The ... Heroin Diaries Soundtrack, an album by Sixx's band Sixx:A.M. The Heroin Diaries - X-Mas In Hell, an EP by Sixx:A.M. "Heroin ... Diaries", a song by Ligeia from Bad News This disambiguation page lists articles associated with the title The Heroin Diaries. ...
Thus, patients in heroin-assisted treatment are relieved from the major complex of problems that defines illicit heroin use. ... In the case of heroin-assisted treatment however, users are provided with a form of pharmaceutical-grade heroin injection ... the incidence of heroin abuse in Switzerland has declined sharply since the introduction of heroin-assisted treatment. As a ... heroin-assisted treatment has proven superior in improving their social and health situation. Heroin-assisted treatment is ...
It is common for heroin users in Australia to transition to smoking to injecting heroin throughout their heroin careers. Heroin ... The rate of heroin deaths for male heroin users are much higher than for females, and have been since 2001, with the rate of ... The use of heroin in Australia saw a sharp increase during the 1990s, which is now known as the Australian heroin epidemic. ... Heroin is classified as an opioid drug produced from the opium poppy. The illicit use of heroin in Australia emerged during the ...
... , also known as black dragon, is a form of heroin that is sticky like tar or hard like coal. Its dark color is ... Pure morphine and heroin are both fine powders. Black tar heroin's unique appearance and texture are due to its acetylation ... The price per kilogram of black tar heroin has increased from one-tenth that of South American powder heroin in the mid-1990s ... Black tar heroin is impure diacetylmorphine. Other forms of heroin require additional steps of purification post acetylation. ...
... is the first remix album by Norwegian solo artist Mortiis. The album is a collection of remixes of songs ... Some Kind of Heroin'". Earache. February 21, 2007. v t e (Articles with short description, Short description is different from ...
Heroin". HipHopDX. Retrieved March 22, 2020. T, Pete (June 29, 2010). "Z-Ro :: Heroin - RapReviews". RapReviews. Retrieved ... Heroin is the fourteenth solo studio album by American rapper Z-Ro. It was released on June 21, 2010, via Rap-A-Lot 4 Life/J. ... Z-Ro - Heroin at Discogs (list of releases) (Articles with short description, Short description is different from Wikidata, ...
"Heroin" is the thirteenth single by the Japanese rock band Buck Tick, released on November 12, 1997. "Buck-Tick - Heroin CD ...
... , often referred to as simply The Heroin Diaries, is the debut studio album by Sixx:A.M., a side ... Designed to be an accompaniment to The Heroin Diaries: A Year in the Life of a Shattered Rock Star, the autobiography of Mötley ... The concept album serves as the companion soundtrack to Sixx's autobiography, The Heroin Diaries: A Year in the Life of a ... "Heroin Diaries Soundtrack Review". Sputnikmusic. Retrieved October 23, 2007. Titus, Christa. "Sixx:A.M. Redefines Beauty on ' ...
Black Tar Heroin: The Dark End of the Street is a 1999 television documentary film directed by Steven Okazaki. Filmed from 1995 ... Jake overcame his heroin addiction and began methadone treatment. Shortly after stopping his methadone and the break-up with ... She has written one book already and has a second one "The Big Fix: Hope After Heroin" on the way. Tracey works in the ... The Heroine of Heroin". Upvoted by Reddit (Podcast). Reddit. Archived from the original on 2016-02-19. Retrieved 2015-08-25. ...
The Anti-Heroin Act of 1924 is a United States federal law prohibiting the importation and possession of opium for the chemical ... "History of Heroin". United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime. January 1, 1953. "Narcotics Policy - The Troubled 1920s and 1930s ... Derivatives of Heroin Narcotic Elixirs Opium Poppy Cultivation & Production Sectors "Smoking Opium Exclusion Act of 1909 - P.L ... Heroin, All stub articles, United States federal legislation stubs). ...
"Heroin", on the Clipland database. "Heroin" (V.R. Heroin mix), Chrysalis Records, SingingFool. (Articles with short description ... "Heroin" and I said "Hey I got something for ya." They said, "Never gonna happen, never gonna happen." "Heroin" was among a ... Another version of "Heroin" was with Lou Reed, Sterling Morrison and John Cale at the band's Ludlow Street loft in July 1965. ... Pere Ubu performed "Heroin" live with Peter Laughner on vocals, a recording that was released on The Shape of Things. Denis ...
... is a 1972 non-fiction book on heroin trafficking in Southeast Asia and the CIA ... Politics of Heroin documents CIA complicity and aid to the Southeast Asian opium/heroin trade. The book explained that most of ... The heroin supply was partially responsible for the perilous state of US Army morale in Vietnam. "By mid 1971 Army medical ... The Politics of Heroin" (PDF). The New York Times. Forbes, Andrew; Henley, David (2001). Traders of the Golden Triangle. Chiang ...
... ending with Sixx's near-death from a heroin overdose in late 1987, which inspires the band to quit heroin altogether. Themes ... The Heroin Diaries: A Year in the Life of a Shattered Rock Star is a book co-written by Nikki Sixx, bassist of the rock band ... Sixx's band Sixx:A.M. recorded The Heroin Diaries Soundtrack, an album of music inspired by the book. The album was released ... With his other band Sixx:A.M., Sixx recorded a concept album titled The Heroin Diaries Soundtrack as a musical accompaniment ...
The majority of heroin imported into Australia comes from Burma. However there are suggestions that due to the continuing ... "Heroin". Archived from the original on 2 April 2011. Retrieved 3 June 2011. AIC. "Cocaine". Archived from the ... Unlike the Mafia, the Vietnamese were heavily into drug trafficking, and were known to be the largest traffickers of Heroin in ... Research also indicated an increase in use of methamphetamine, which occurred around the same time as the heroin shortage in ...
Heroin is an opioid with a rapid onset of action after intravenously administration. Once being injected, it binds to the Mu ... Hosztafi S (2011). "[Heroin addiction]". Acta Pharmaceutica Hungarica. 81 (4): 173-183. PMID 22329304. Archived from the ... As with other drug-related problems, patients should be evaluated for other heroin-related sequelae and be referred accordingly ... Nguyen HV, North VS, Oellers P, Husain D (2018-06-01). "Saturday Night Retinopathy After Intranasal Heroin". Journal of ...
"Heroin". National Institute on Drug Abuse. July 2017. Retrieved 29 November 2017. Al-Hasani R, Bruchas MR (December 2011). " ... Of these, about 27 million people had opioid dependence, with the majority-but a decreasing number-using illicit heroin. In ... Synthetic opioids like fentanyl and carfentanil are much more potent than prescription opioids and heroin. There is some debate ... An opioid overdose is toxicity due to excessive consumption of opioids, such as morphine, codeine, heroin, fentanyl, tramadol, ...
1. Baak6 fan2 (白粉) - Literally means White Powder; Heroin. 2. Baau3 gaak3 (爆格) - Sound like English word, "burglar"; Burglary. ... especially for Heroin. 19. Tong1 sei2 ngau4 (劏死牛) - Literally to butcher a dead cow; To rob somebody in quiet place, especially ...
... of all opioid overdose deaths in 2019 involved heroin. Nearly all people who use heroin also use at least one other drug. ... Heroin is typically injected but is also smoked and snorted. When people inject heroin, they are at risk of serious, long-term ... Heroin is an illegal, highly addictive opioid drug.. *A heroin overdose can cause slow and shallow breathing, coma, and death. ... Vital Signs: Heroin Epidemic - More People at Risk, Multiple Drugs Abused. *Press Release: Heroin overdose deaths increased in ...
Heroin is a highly addictive drug made from morphine. It can be injected, snorted, or smoked. Learn about withdrawal symptoms ... Can a person overdose on heroin?. Its possible to overdose on heroin. This happens when a person uses so much heroin that it ... How do people use heroin?. People inject, sniff, snort, or smoke heroin. Some people mix heroin with crack cocaine, which is ... How can a heroin overdose be treated?. A medicine called naloxone can treat a heroin (or other opioid) overdose if it is given ...
Heroin (diacetylmorphine) is a semisynthetic narcotic derived from the opium poppy Papaver somniferum. It was first synthesized ... The initial rush is likely due to heroins high lipid solubility and rapid penetration to the brain. The half-life of heroin is ... Because 6-MAM can originate only from heroin, its detection in the urine can mean only that the patient used either heroin or 6 ... Darke S, Hall W, Weatherburn D, Lind B. Fluctuations in heroin purity and the incidence of fatal heroin overdose. Drug Alcohol ...
... heroin - Featured Topics from the National Center for Health Statistics ... Categories Drug use (illegal), heroin. Tags death rate, drug poisoning, National Vital Statistics System, opioid analgesics, ... QuickStats: Rates of Drug Overdose Deaths Involving Heroin by Selected Age Groups - United States, 2006-2015. The rate of drug ... Drug-poisoning Deaths Involving Heroin: United States, 2000-2013. Drug poisoning (overdose) is the number one cause of injury- ...
... of all opioid overdose deaths in 2019 involved heroin. Nearly all people who use heroin also use at least one other drug. ... Heroin is typically injected but is also smoked and snorted. When people inject heroin, they are at risk of serious, long-term ... Heroin is an illegal, highly addictive opioid drug.. *A heroin overdose can cause slow and shallow breathing, coma, and death. ... Vital Signs: Heroin Epidemic - More People at Risk, Multiple Drugs Abused. *Press Release: Heroin overdose deaths increased in ...
Look up heroin in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. Heroin at Curlie NIDA InfoFacts on Heroin ONDCP Drug Facts U.S. National ... A number of European countries prescribe heroin for treatment of heroin addiction. The initial Swiss HAT (Heroin-assisted ... A heroin overdose may be treated with naloxone. An estimated 17 million people as of 2015[update] use opiates, of which heroin ... Heroin is classified as a hard drug in terms of drug harmfulness. Like most opioids, unadulterated heroin may lead to adverse ...
Ringertz SH, Hoiby EA, Jensenius M, Maehlen J, Caugant DA, Myklebust A, Injectional anthrax in a heroin skin-popper. Lancet. ... Grunow R, Klee SR, Beyer W, George M, Grunow D, Barduhn A, Anthrax among heroin users in Europe possibly caused by same ... Holzmann T, Frangoulidis D, Simon M, Noll P, Schmoldt S, Hanczaruk M, Fatal anthrax infection in a heroin user from southern ... In June 2012, after a 20-month gap, 2 new cases of injectional anthrax in heroin consumers were reported in Bavaria (5,6). ...
Wendell woman charged with giving heroin to 13-year-old. A Wendell woman was charged with giving heroin to a 13-year-old, ... A 1-year-old boy is recovering from what investigators say was an overdose of heroin. His father, an admitted regular heroin ... A 1-year-old boy is recovering from what investigators say was an overdose of heroin. His father, an admitted regular heroin ... 2 arrested after more than 2,100 heroin bags found during search. Over 2,100 bags of heroin were located after Wilmington ...
Heroin use may lead to intermittent or constant exotropia and withdrawal may result in intermittent or constant esotropia. ... Aims: To describe the eye misalignments that occur during heroin use and heroin detoxification and to give an overview of the ... Heroin and diplopia Addiction. 2005 Jan;100(1):46-50. doi: 10.1111/j.1360-0443.2005.00915.x. ... Conclusions: Heroin use may lead to intermittent or constant exotropia and withdrawal may result in intermittent or constant ...
The role of all four couriers arrested with 8.2 kilograms of heroin at Denpasar airport on April 17 was similar, the judges ... claims of being forced by threats against themselves and their families into smuggling heroin from Bali. ... jailing a stunned Renae Lawrence for life along with fellow heroin courier Scott Rush. ...
Early results of a programme of supervised injecting for heroin addicts suggest it reduces drug use. ... Initial results from a London pilot scheme where addicts inject themselves with heroin in a clinic suggest it has reduced drug ... Similar heroin injection schemes in Holland and Switzerland have reported some users turning away from crime. E-mail this to a ... He said that, although these were very early days, there had been a dramatic effect on the lives of people for whom heroin had ...
Afghanistan: Most Of Heroin Consumed In Canada Is Of Afghan .... Tue, 22 Aug 2017. 129. ... US HI: Heroin Use Skyrockets On Kauai After Prescription .... Mon, 12 Mar 2018. 60. ... US MD: Heroin Is Vanishing As Fentanyl Swamps Streets. Sun, 19 May 2019. 195. ... US: Crack vs Heroin: 2 Races, 2 Results. Fri, 13 Dec 2019. Excerpt. ...
Singapore executed Australian heroin trafficker Nguyen Tuong Van early Friday in a case that triggered an outcry in his country ... Singapore executed Australian heroin trafficker Nguyen Tuong Van early Friday in a case that triggered an outcry in his country ... The Home Affairs Ministry statement said the amount was enough to supply 26,000 doses of heroin, and had a street value of 1.3 ... He received a mandatory death sentence after being caught with 396 grams (14 ounces) of heroin at the city-states Changi ...
Police seized 203 bags of heroin along with some cocaine Saturday night and arrested two people after searching an Oak Hill ... Fowle said the heroin was worth about $6,000 to $7,000.. Somerset County Sheriffs Lt. Carl Gottardi II and Kennebec Deputy ... Bourget also said Sounier denied that the heroin was his. The owner of the house is in jail, Bourget said, and he rented it out ... The police are going to have a hard time pinning ownership of the heroin on Sounier, Bourget said.. Fowle said Souniers prior ...
A field test of the substance tested positive for heroin, OLeary noted. The deputy added that he conducted a second test at ... JANUARY 29--A man arrested on a felony heroin trafficking charge spent six weeks in jail before investigators determined that ... A story detailing Crulls arrest in the local newspaper was headlined "Accused heroin trafficker jailed in Martin County." ... Crull was locked up in the county jail in lieu of a $100,000 bond for the heroin count (and two $500 bonds for possession of ...
"In different parts of the United States there has been a resurgence in the consumption of heroin, and Afghan heroin has an ... As much as 90% of the worlds heroin has come from Afghan opium, and the UN Office on Drug and Crime reported that the country ... Eradication has been close to zero in the worlds biggest producer of heroin. Christopher Woody ... Likewise, we know a great production of heroin is coming from Mexico, and now Afghanistan is looking for the market of the ...
This massive load of heroin was destined for NYC streets and is a reminder that heroin trafficking organizations are targeting ... "Heroin is like a monster in a horror movie, just when you think it is gone, it reemerges with a vengeance. ... Heres What $30 Million in Heroin Looks Like. By Victoria Bekiempis On 9/28/15 at 3:35 PM EDT. ... Combined with the above photo, the heroin seized on Saturday, Sept. 26 2015 has a street value of 30 million, according to law ...
Blogging is to heroin as....: Bo Weevil is soliciting SAT questions. I nominate: Blogger : Journalist :: Caterpillar : ... Blogging is to heroin as….. : Bo Weevil is soliciting SAT questions. I nominate: Blogger : Journalist :: Caterpillar : ...
... voice actor had paraphernalia around consistent with possible heroin use. ... Jason Davis Death Case Looks Like Possible Heroin Overdose. Recess Voice Actor Jason Davis Death Looks Like Possible Heroin ... Jason Davis death has authorities thinking he mightve overdosed on heroin -- a drug hed been addicted to in the past and ... Were told there were items nearby that were consistent with heroin or opioid use -- including burnt tin foil and other ...
That was all derailed, however, when she dropped out and began stealing from her family to buy heroin. Find out how Claire went ... That was all derailed, however, when she dropped out and began stealing from her family to buy heroin. Find out how Claire went ... From Star Athlete to Heroin Addict. Season 1 Episode 101. Aired on 03/09/2014 , CC tv-14 ...
An Experience with Heroin. Dope F(r)iend by Marsupial ... He death was heroin related. I was interrogated for 2 hours ... Im hoping that I can stay off heroin, for my own life and to honor my friend, Josh. RIP man, well meet again. Peace. Exp Year ... Ill go 3 weeks without giving heroin a single though, just living my life as if I never heard of it. Then one day, craving for ... One thing about sleeping after a night of heroin use... its great! I slept maybe 6 or 8 hours that night, yet it felt more like ...
We analyzed 198 illicit heroin samples from Andalusia (southern Spain) to determine the contents of various metals (cadmium, ... Only cadmium and, to a lesser extent, zinc, copper, and iron, are among the metals detected in heroin that can increase the ... We analyzed 198 illicit heroin samples from Andalusia (southern Spain) to determine the contents of various metals (cadmium, ... which can be ascribed to adulteration of the heroin by addicts with thinners and excipients containing salts of this metal such ...
But in the case of heroin, the desirability of some sortof prescription approach, on the model of the Swiss heroin-maintenance ... For one thing, even if the average harm caused to societyby an incident of cocaine or heroin use were much reduced (as it very ... Due to a weak research design, its not clear from the Swiss trial if theimprovement in patients was due to heroin maintenance ... Addicts could choose the heroin dose they needed and couldinject up to three times daily, 365 days of the year, a regimen ...
A preliminary analysis of data compiled in the first half of 2015 shows deaths related to heroin and fentanyl in Maine are on ... Often, heroin is diluted, or cut, with fentanyl, the most potent opioid available, 30 to 50 times more potent than heroin. ... Maine alone saw 57 overdose deaths from heroin in 2014, up from 34 the year before, Mills said in May. Those who died of heroin ... You do not take heroin, it takes you," Mills said.. According to the Maine Drug Enforcement Agency, heroin accounted for 32 ...
If President Obama created a cabinet position for a Department of Heroin, he would no doubt appoint Jerry Stahl to run it. ... If President Obama created a cabinet position for a Department of Heroin, he would no doubt appoint Jerry Stahl to run it. ... Im not saying these stories arent often dark, but they stretch the imagination of your typical torrid tale of heroin users. ... Stahl confirms this pattern with a quote from William Burroughs stating "its not the heroin thats the problem, its the ...
Pennsylvaniawoman is facing several charges after allegedly providing more heroin to her heroin-addicted 16-year-old daughter. ... A Dauphin County, Pennsylvania woman is facing several charges after allegedly providing more heroin to her heroin-addicted 16- ... She allegedly spoke to the relative, who confirmed that she was providing heroin to the girl to prevent her from being "sick," ... At times, Gutierrez would provide the heroin, but her daughter often had drugs of her own, according to the criminal complaint. ...
The amount of heroin seized annually along Americas southwestern border has increased nearly four-fold between 2008 and 2012 ...
Rand Paul Says Employed People Dont Do Heroin Things you buy through our links may earn Vox Media a commission. ... Rand Paul Says Employed People Dont Have Time for Heroin. By Margaret Hartmann, senior editor for Intelligencer who has worked ... "People always come up to me and say, We got heroin problems and all these other problems. You know what? If you work all day ... Speaking in New Hampshire on Wednesday, Paul suggested another more unconventional solution to the heroin epidemic, and Clinton ...
The police departments newly created heroin task force has increased heroin-related arrests by 33 percent in its first three ... Levy touts new heroin task force for boosting arrests. By RICK [email protected]. April 13, 2010. ... What weve seen with heroin is really scary, Levy said, noting abusers often go from a $100-a-week habit to one that is $100 ... Police Tuesday displayed seven shotguns confiscated in arrests as well as thousands of tiny bags of heroin that were taken ...
Customer: "Why the f*** did you think it was a good idea to say heroin while I was on a call? What the f*** are you going to ... regular stories -> Youre My Hero-in Call Center, Tech Support , Right , September 9, 2016 ...
  • Repeated use of heroin often leads to heroin use disorder, sometimes called addiction. (
  • Treatment of heroin addiction often includes behavioral therapy and medications. (
  • Short-term addiction studies by the same researchers demonstrated that tolerance developed at a similar rate to both heroin and morphine. (
  • And earlier this year the number of people treated for heroin addiction in Scotland reached record levels, with about 21,000 people said to be using heroin substitute methadone - 10% more than previously thought. (
  • Bridget G. Brennan, New York City's special narcotics prosecutor, said,"Reducing the supply of heroin is critical to reining in the scourge of addiction. (
  • Sometime later, I happened to find out that he was nursing a healthy heroin addiction, which spoke volumes about his aformentioned reputation among my friends. (
  • I'd like to say that the things people do while maintaining a heroin addiction are just cliches, and don't happen to 'normal' people. (
  • A decade of study presented in our book, Drug War Heresies: Learningfrom Other Vices, Times, and Places has convinced us that legalization ofcocaine, marijuana, and heroin would lead to large reductions in drug-relatedcrime and mortality, but also to large increases in drug use and addiction. (
  • The state response is one of many efforts to curb heroin use, from training for high school coaches in DuPage County to the development of an addiction hotline in Lake County. (
  • With the country experiencing a rising heroin addiction problem, teens need to be informed about the risks and dangers of this incredibly addictive drug. (
  • 4: How Is Heroin Addiction Treated? (
  • Heroin Anonymous (HA) is a fellowship of people who share their experience, strength and hope with each other that they may solve their common problem and help others recover from heroin addiction. (
  • In substitution therapy for treatment of heroin addiction, methadone is the synthetic opioid agonist of first choice. (
  • It studied a group of 82 patients both male and female, aged between 19 and 47 years, residing in Bucharest, with diagnosis of heroin addiction. (
  • The study group was characterized in detail, taking into account demographic, comorbid and addiction characteristics, heroin use history, treatment history, and clinical and paraclinical evaluation. (
  • Kamenicky was finally able to quit for good a few years ago after the death of his wife,who passed away due to medical complications from her own addiction to heroin. (
  • How long your symptoms last depends on the severity of your addiction, how you consumed heroin, and how long you were on the drug. (
  • If you are ready to take the first step toward recovery from heroin addiction, then Liberty Bay can help. (
  • To find out more about our heroin addiction treatment services , call us today at 855.607.8758 . (
  • LA JOLLA, CA- A monoclonal antibody that targets heroin is effective in blocking the psychoactive and lethal effects of this drug of abuse in mice-offering a new strategy for heroin addiction and overdose treatment, according to a new study from Scripps Research. (
  • According to data released Tuesday by the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, heroin overdose deaths nearly quadrupled in the U.S. from 2002 to 2013, the most recent year for which data are available. (
  • Body packers, also called "mules," are people who swallow and pack their GI tracts with bags of heroin in order to smuggle the illegal drug from one country to another. (
  • FAYETTE - Police seized 203 bags of heroin along with some cocaine Saturday night and arrested two people after searching an Oak Hill Road home. (
  • Police Tuesday displayed seven shotguns confiscated in arrests as well as thousands of tiny bags of heroin that were taken before they could be sold. (
  • When compared to the opioids hydromorphone, fentanyl, oxycodone, and pethidine (meperidine), former addicts showed a strong preference for heroin and morphine, suggesting that heroin and morphine are particularly susceptible to misuse and causing dependence. (
  • Initial results from a London pilot scheme where addicts inject themselves with heroin in a clinic suggest it has reduced drug use and crime. (
  • The injecting clinics, intended for hardened heroin addicts for whom conventional treatment has failed, have operated for about two years. (
  • During the trial, a third of addicts are using heroin substitute methadone orally and a third will inject methadone under supervision. (
  • BBC correspondent Danny Shaw said initial results suggested the experiment was having a profound effect on hardened heroin addicts. (
  • Last year, Howard Roberts, the deputy chief constable of Nottinghamshire, said heroin should be prescribed to drug addicts to curb crime. (
  • We analyzed 198 illicit heroin samples from Andalusia (southern Spain) to determine the contents of various metals (cadmium, calcium, copper, iron, manganese and zinc) with a view to investigating a new aspect of the drug purity and the conditions under which the drugs are used by addicts. (
  • Calcium was found in 93.4% of the samples and always at high concentrations, which can be ascribed to adulteration of the heroin by addicts with thinners and excipients containing salts of this metal such as calcium bicarbonate. (
  • Most heroin addicts who die, die during their first year of sobriety because relapse after a brief period of sobriety runs up against the rapidity with which tolerance to opioids recedes once the addict puts down the drug. (
  • And that's when I realized that I am officially: jealous of heroin addicts. (
  • You'd never think that his steady stream of guests are heroin addicts looking for the supplies that can keep them safe from diseases and accidental overdoses. (
  • A descriptive study was carried out to identify social, health and drug abuse characteristics of heroin addicts under treatment in CARISMA, from January 2003 till June 2008. (
  • Speaking in New Hampshire on Wednesday, Paul suggested another more unconventional solution to the heroin epidemic, and Clinton might not be onboard with this one. (
  • The lawmakers on Monday met with law enforcement officials, health care advocates and others to discuss the growing heroin epidemic. (
  • I'm glad the White House is finally moving on the heroin/opioid epidemic in this country, and I think what they're going to announce tomorrow morning is a good start, for the most part. (
  • Forty years out from the last major national epidemic, heroin is no doubt making a comeback - and it's harming communities all over New York state. (
  • Steve Kamenicky, known on the street as "Ponytail Steve," is fully aware of the harsh truths about the opioid epidemic having been a heroin addict for four decades. (
  • We derive a discretized heroin epidemic model with delay by applying a nonstandard finite difference scheme. (
  • Xamxinur Abdurahman, Ling Zhang, Zhidong Teng "Global Dynamics of a Discretized Heroin Epidemic Model with Time Delay," Abstract and Applied Analysis, Abstr. (
  • Heroin poisoning occurs most commonly when an individual unintentionally overdoses on the drug. (
  • In 2014 , 208 people died of overdoses, 57 primarily attributable to heroin and 43 primarily attributable to fentanyl. (
  • Those who died of heroin overdoses ranged in age from 18 to 88. (
  • 270 people died last year all across Connecticut from just heroin overdoses, nevermind all the people that died from other drug overdoses," Murphy told Schneidau. (
  • Last year, 33 people died in DuPage County from heroin overdoses, helping prompt a response from state lawmakers. (
  • Over 11% of all opioid overdose deaths in 2021 involved heroin 1 . (
  • Factors that may contribute to the decrease in heroin-involved deaths include fewer people initiating heroin use 3 , shifts from a heroin-based market to a fentanyl-based market 4 , increased treatment provision for people using heroin, and expansion of naloxone access 5 . (
  • The rate of drug overdose deaths involving heroin increased slightly during 2006-2010 but more than tripled during 2010-2015 for all age groups shown. (
  • While much attention has been given to deaths involving opioid analgesics, in recent years there has been a steady increase in the number of drug-poisoning deaths involving heroin. (
  • An estimated 17 million people as of 2015[update] use opiates, of which heroin is the most common, and opioid use resulted in 122,000 deaths. (
  • AUGUSTA, Maine - A preliminary analysis of data compiled in the first half of 2015 shows deaths related to heroin and fentanyl in Maine are on the rise, while the overall number of drug overdose deaths is on track to be similar to 2014, which was the worst year on record, the state's attorney general said Thursday. (
  • Of that, 37 deaths were primarily attributable to heroin and 26 primarily to fentanyl, according to an analysis of case files conducted for the attorney general's office by the state medical examiner's office. (
  • Maine alone saw 57 overdose deaths from heroin in 2014, up from 34 the year before, Mills said in May. (
  • Sen. Chris Murphy said the number of deaths among heroin users has doubled. (
  • Murphy said many of those deaths are due to the fact that drug pushers are adding the highly potent drug fentanyl to the heroin . (
  • Sen. Richard Blumenthal called the increase in heroin deaths "a burgeoning, exploding crisis that requires immediate, substantial attention - from law enforcement, from medical and mental health professionals, and from our communities. (
  • It also would have required all police and fire departments in the state to stock a heroin antidote that has been shown to save people from overdose deaths, plus train personnel on how to administer it. (
  • A staggering 478 people in New York overdosed on heroin in 2012 - a more than twofold increase from the 215 deaths seen just four years earlier. (
  • Springfield narcotics detectives have announced the seizure of 9,000 bags of the deadly heroin cited by law enforcement as the reason behind several recent overdose deaths in the region. (
  • Authorities said the heroin recovered Wednesday does not appear to be related to the fentanyl-laced heroin blamed for 22 overdose deaths in southwestern Pennsylvania. (
  • The great majority of these deaths involved opioids such as heroin and fentanyl. (
  • Bryant WK, Galea S, Tracy M, Markham Piper T, Tardiff KJ, Vlahov D. Overdose deaths attributed to methadone and heroin in New York City, 1990-1998. (
  • Increases in Heroin Overdose Deaths - 28 States, 2010 to 2012. (
  • Drug overdose deaths involving heroin are identified using the International Classification of Diseases, 10th Revision underlying cause of death codes X40-X44, X60-X64, X85, and Y10-Y14, with a multiple cause of death code of T40.1. (
  • In 2015, the rate of drug overdose deaths involving heroin was highest for persons aged 25-34. (
  • The cost of the treatment, including providing heroin, is between 9,000 and 15,000 per patient - about three times as much as a year's course of methadone. (
  • Methadone also has a brutal withdrawal, which many people describe as longer and more intense than heroin withdrawal. (
  • The outcomes resulting from the study design on 82 heroin addict patients enrolled into a methadone maintenance program highlighted: lowering of the onset age of heroin use, HVC infection comorbidity, and the extension of the treatment period due to the relapses. (
  • So I'm basically freaking out and scratching at imaginary bugs under my skin like a heroin addict coming down off the horse, except without the whole being-tied-to-the-bed-and-forced-to-take-methadone part. (
  • Not only are people using heroin, but they are also using multiple other substances, including cocaine and prescription opioids. (
  • Some people mix heroin with crack cocaine , which is called "speedballing. (
  • Also, most toxicology reports reveal the decedent's blood contained numerous substances - cocaine, alcohol, fentanyl, heroin and other opioids or over-the-counter medications. (
  • Passive multistate surveillance for neutropenia after use of cocaine or heroin possibly contaminated with levamisole. (
  • A medicine called naloxone can treat a heroin (or other opioid) overdose if it is given in time. (
  • A heroin overdose may be treated with naloxone. (
  • For those addicted to heroin or other opiates, naloxone can mean the difference between life and death. (
  • Current treatments, which include the small-molecule drug naloxone, are far from being completely effective, and heroin-use relapse after treatment is common. (
  • Titan Goodson stands accused in the 2017 heroin overdose death of Plant High senior Katie Golden. (
  • Treatments for heroin use disorder include medicines to treat withdrawal symptoms, medicine to block the effects of opioids, and behavioral treatments. (
  • Illegal heroin is often mixed with other substances such as sugar, starch, caffeine, quinine, or other opioids like fentanyl. (
  • Morphine and heroin were also much more likely to produce euphoria and other "positive" subjective effects when compared to these other opioids. (
  • But the withdrawal from Suboxone is worse than the withdrawal from heroin, which means that you have to suffer eventually unless you want to be addicted to opioids for the rest of your life without even the compensation of getting high. (
  • The team also has been developing, in parallel with their anti-heroin efforts, a human monoclonal antibody that neutralizes the synthetic opioids fentanyl, carfentanil and closely related compounds. (
  • Heroin is an illegal, highly addictive opioid drug. (
  • All these ways of taking heroin send it to the brain very quickly, which makes it highly addictive. (
  • Heroin is a highly addictive semisynthetic opioid that is derived from morphine. (
  • FRIDAY, Feb. 2, 2024 (HealthDay News) -- It's known by the street name "gas station heroin," but a new government report finds the highly addictive supplement Neptune's Fix may also contain synthetic pot. (
  • They all eventually switch to heroin,' said Mike O'Reilly, a former methamphetamine addict who runs a treatment center in Orem. (
  • As much as 90% of the world's heroin has come from Afghan opium, and the UN Office on Drug and Crime reported that the country "accounted for almost two-thirds of the total area under illicit opium cultivation" in 2015. (
  • Soon after its introduction, heroin was realized to be clearly as addictive as morphine, prompting the US government to institute measures to control its use. (
  • Similar to morphine, heroin and its metabolites have mu, kappa, and delta receptor activity. (
  • Heroin, similar to morphine and other narcotics, reduces the brain's responsiveness to changes in carbon dioxide levels and hypoxia, thus resulting in respiratory depression. (
  • Black tar heroin is a variable admixture of morphine derivatives-predominantly 6-MAM (6-monoacetylmorphine), which is the result of crude acetylation during clandestine production of street heroin. (
  • When given by injection into a vein, heroin has two to three times the effect of a similar dose of morphine. (
  • Heroin was first made by C. R. Alder Wright in 1874 from morphine, a natural product of the opium poppy. (
  • The results also suggested that heroin itself is the best target for such therapies, whereas researchers in the past have targeted heroin's two major metabolites, morphine and 6-acetylmorphine. (
  • In the new study, Janda and his team inoculated mice with their proprietary heroin-mimicking molecule that can elicit antibody responses to heroin, 6-acetylmorphine and morphine. (
  • Scientists for decades have believed that morphine and 6-acetylmorphine-into which heroin is rapidly converted by enzymes in the blood-were the better targets. (
  • Development of an effective monoclonal antibody against heroin and its metabolites reveals therapies have mistargeted 6-monoacetylmorphine and morphine over heroin " was co-authored by Jinny Claire Lee, Lisa M. Eubanks, Bin Zhou and Kim D. Janda. (
  • When people inject heroin, they are at risk of serious, long-term viral infections such as HIV, Hepatitis C, and Hepatitis B, as well as bacterial infections of the skin, bloodstream, and heart 6 . (
  • Pictured above is one of the many people who visits Kamenicky for clean needles, syringes, and the accompanying paraphernalia needed to inject heroin. (
  • The most recent state budget includes just $2.45 million in anti-heroin efforts. (
  • Nearly all people who use heroin also use at least one other drug 2 . (
  • All heroin users are at risk of an overdose because they never know the actual strength of the drug they are taking or what may have been added to it. (
  • Heroin, also known as diacetylmorphine and diamorphine among other names, is a morphinan opioid substance synthesized from the dried latex of the Papaver somniferum plant and is mainly used as a recreational drug for its euphoric effects. (
  • When people die from overdosing on a drug, the drug is usually an opioid and often heroin. (
  • Anthropologist Michael Agar once described heroin as "the perfect whatever drug. (
  • This reemergence of drug-related anthrax in Europe strengthens the view that heroin may provide a continuing route of entry for B. anthracis into Western Europe ( 2 ). (
  • Crull was locked up in the county jail in lieu of a $100,000 bond for the heroin count (and two $500 bonds for possession of pot and drug paraphernalia). (
  • A report earlier this year from the UN's International Narcotics Control Board (INCB) found that heroin consumed in the US comes mainly from Mexico and Afghanistan, and that Afghan producers were angling to increase their share of the growing US market for the drug. (
  • A drug bust in New York City yielded 101 pounds (46 kilograms) of heroin, law enforcement officials announced Monday. (
  • The Saturday seizure, described as "one of the largest" Drug Enforcement Administration heroin busts in New York, started at about 3:40 p.m. near 2830 Sedgewick Ave. in the Bronx borough, officials said. (
  • This massive load of heroin was destined for NYC streets and is a reminder that heroin trafficking organizations are targeting NYC for retail distribution and transshipments throughout the Eastern Seaboard," James J. Hunt, acting special agent in charge of the U.S. Drug Enforcement Administration's New York Division, said in a press release. (
  • Only cadmium and, to a lesser extent, zinc, copper, and iron, are among the metals detected in heroin that can increase the inherent toxicity of the drug while always taking into account the maximum values. (
  • According to the Maine Drug Enforcement Agency, heroin accounted for 32 percent of all arrests the agency made last year , Cmdr. (
  • Jon Bon Jovi 's 19-year-old daughter, Stephanie, was arrested for drug possession Wednesday morning after she is believed to have suffered an overdose on heroin. (
  • A small amount of heroin, marijuana and drug paraphernalia were found on the scene, leading to the arrest of another student, Ian S. Grant , while the rocker's daughter was rushed to a nearby hospital. (
  • In fact, more than a third of nationwide heroin seizures by the Drug Enforcement Administration took place in New York state since October 2013. (
  • Users can build up tolerances to the drug very quickly, but first-time users are being introduced to heroin in doses too high for their bodies to handle. (
  • Utah's heroin is being transported directly from Mexico, according to the Utah Drug Threat Assessment, published in 2003 by the federal National Drug Intelligence Center. (
  • In one of the biggest caches of 2019, the sleuths of special cell have busted an international drug cartel with the arrest of 10 accused, including Afghan and Nigerian nationals and a woman drug lord, and seized 83 kg of heroin worth rs 332 crore in international market. (
  • In the first incident, police arrested three persons including the woman kingpin who used to operate international drug syndicate from North-east region in the country and recovered 44.5 kg of heroin worth Rs 180 crore in international market from the possession of the trio. (
  • Pramod Kushwaha, DCP (special cell south), said members of this cartel, who were involved in getting supply of heroin from Myanmar through Manipur and further supply this drug to Delhi, Rajasthan, Assam, Bihar and West Bengal, were narrowed down. (
  • In the second raid, three Afghan nationals and one Nigerian were arrested for allegedly supplying drug in the national capital and 2.5 kg heroin worth Rs 10 crore in international market was recovered from their possession. (
  • The Ithaca Police Department issued a plea to heroin users Tuesday, asking users of the opioid drug to reach out for treatment. (
  • Xylazine Adulteration of the Heroin-Fentanyl Drug Supply : A Narrative Review. (
  • Heroin can be a white or brown powder, or a black sticky substance known as black tar heroin. (
  • Wound botulism among black tar heroin users--Washington, 2003. (
  • The Utah County Major Crimes Task Force is seeing a rise in the amount of heroin it is seizing. (
  • What are the short-term effects of heroin? (
  • What are the long-term effects of heroin? (
  • She was unconscious, not breathing, her body succumbing to the effects of heroin. (
  • To provide some context for the scale of this crisis: New York state has seen a 67 percent increase in heroin seizures in the last four years. (
  • Often, heroin is diluted, or cut, with fentanyl , the most potent opioid available, 30 to 50 times more potent than heroin. (
  • Sometimes, Arno said, people end up buying pure fentanyl with no heroin in it without realizing it - dramatically increasing the risk of an overdose. (
  • But if you put the wrong amount of fentanyl in the heroin, it could kill people," Murphy said. (
  • Because of these impurities and additives, street heroin samples have different purities and may appear in various hues, ranging from white to dark brown. (
  • and in 2011, he was even arrested and charged for allegedly having heroin on him. (
  • A Dauphin County, Pennsylvania woman is facing several charges after allegedly providing more heroin to her heroin-addicted 16-year-old daughter, according to a criminal complaint. (
  • She allegedly spoke to the relative, who confirmed that she was providing heroin to the girl to prevent her from being "sick," the complaint states. (
  • Gutierrez and her daughter allegedly used heroin together on these visits, the criminal complaint says. (
  • On July 1, Gutierrez and her daughter allegedly used heroin together, and the girl suffered an overdose. (
  • An employee allegedly sold heroin out of the restaurant's drive-thru window to any customer who said, "I'd like to order a toy. (
  • Under the generic name diamorphine, heroin is prescribed as a strong pain medication in the United Kingdom, where it is administered via oral, subcutaneous, intramuscular, intrathecal, intranasal or intravenous routes. (
  • The remaining third, observed by nurses, are injecting themselves with diamorphine - unadulterated heroin - imported from Switzerland and provided by the clinic. (
  • Janda and his team isolated a series of unique antibodies that were able to distinguish between heroin and its major psychoactive metabolites. (
  • In the study, published on October 6, 2022 in ACS Central Science , the researchers isolated several distinct variants (or "clones") of antibodies that bind tightly to heroin and its major metabolites. (
  • Active vaccines against heroin, which use immune-stimulating proteins that mimic heroin or its metabolites to elicit the patient's own antibodies, have so far not been effective enough for clinical trials. (
  • Our findings suggest that a monoclonal antibody-based therapy will be more effective than a vaccine and should be targeted to heroin itself rather than its psychoactive metabolites," says study senior author Kim Janda, PhD , the Ely R. Callaway, Jr. Professor of Chemistry, and director of the Worm Institute for Research & Medicine at Scripps Research. (
  • This allowed them to select four distinct antibody clones for their superior abilities in binding heroin or one of the metabolites-and they found that one clearly outperformed the rest. (
  • Heroin remains one of the most frequently abused narcotics in the United States. (
  • By 1914, the Harrison Narcotics Act prohibited the use of heroin without a prescription. (
  • SALT LAKE CITY (AP) -- Utah teenagers and young adults are getting into heroin, narcotics officers say. (
  • Leong was out of custody on bail from his January arrest when Sheriff's Narcotics Detectives received information that he was selling heroin again. (
  • Churchgoers, returned missionaries and youths who have never touched alcohol or marijuana are shooting, snorting and smoking heroin. (
  • Heroin (diacetylmorphine) is a semisynthetic narcotic derived from the opium poppy Papaver somniferum . (
  • Finally, heroin decreases gastric motility, inhibits the effect of acetylcholine on the small intestine, and diminishes the colonic propulsive waves, resulting in prolongation of gastric emptying time by as much as 12 hours, with consequent constipation in habitual users. (
  • The total number of heroin users worldwide as of 2015 is believed to have increased in Africa, the Americas, and Asia since 2000. (
  • Ideally, this unfortunate deadly incident could offer an opportunity to sensitize heroin users to the risks for severe infection and to educate public health officials to be vigilant for this rare disease. (
  • A tendency towards a divergence of the visual axes appears to be present in heroin users, although when present it may not always lead to diplopia. (
  • Similar heroin injection schemes in Holland and Switzerland have reported some users turning away from crime. (
  • I'm not saying these stories aren't often dark, but they stretch the imagination of your typical torrid tale of heroin users. (
  • Young users think it' not as bad as heroin, said Sgt. (
  • He said his center, Clear Living, has been forced to turn away at least six heroin users because they were under 18. (
  • OxyContin sells on the street for about $1 per milligram, or $80 per 80 mg pill, while users can buy enough heroin to shoot up once for $20 to $40, Atack said. (
  • Combined with the above photo, the heroin seized on Saturday, Sept. 26 2015 has a street value of 30 million, according to law enforcement officials. (
  • Part of his effort involves building a heroin-tracking database to assist in law enforcement efforts to destroy the regional traffic. (
  • However, from 2020 to 2021, the heroin overdose death rate decreased by nearly 32% 1 . (
  • Between 2011 and 2021, the volume of heroin seized by the Police in Norway fluctuated from 13.6 to 99.2 kilograms. (
  • If someone who is dependent on heroin stops using it, they have withdrawal symptoms. (
  • A literature review using Medline and the search terms strabismus, heroin and substance withdrawal syndrome is presented. (
  • Heroin use may lead to intermittent or constant exotropia and withdrawal may result in intermittent or constant esotropia. (
  • Some go through withdrawal even after one heroin hit. (
  • If you have been on heroin for a long time, your body will go through some severe withdrawal symptoms that you may not be able to handle on your own. (
  • Atack said young people often move from OxyContin to heroin within two weeks, mainly because heroin costs less, and some believe it gives them a more-intense high. (
  • Two doses of Probuphine were evaluated in 12 heroin-dependent volunteers switched from daily sublingual buprenorphine dosing to either two or four Probuphine implants based upon their buprenorphine daily maintenance dose of 8 mg or 16 mg respectively, and were monitored for 6 months. (
  • Internationally, heroin is controlled under Schedules I and IV of the Single Convention on Narcotic Drugs, and it is generally illegal to make, possess, or sell without a license. (
  • Some who become addicted to prescription opiods may turn to heroin and other illegal drugs. (
  • Fowle said Sounier set the room on fire in an attempt to conceal the heroin as deputies were searching the house. (
  • Lewis said deputies found 173 capsules of heroin, 340 oxycodone pills, several suboxone strips and nearly $3,000 in cash inside her 2016 Nissan Rogue. (
  • People getting treatment for heroin use disorder should work with their health care providers to come up with a treatment plan that fits their needs. (
  • The issue comes up frequently on the campaign trail in New Hampshire, where the number of people admitted to state-funded treatment programs for heroin use increased 90 percent in the last decade. (
  • For medical reasons and your safety, you need to enter a heroin detox center under the supervision of treatment professionals if you are going to try to quit cold turkey. (
  • We offer 24/7 detox monitoring, treatment, and support if you decide to quit heroin cold turkey. (
  • At higher doses over time, the body becomes dependent on heroin. (
  • For instance, in Portugal, you can possess 1 gram of heroin without penalty. (
  • Emmanuel was arrested from Maidangarhi and 550 gram heroin along with over 4000 medicines of different kinds recovered from his possession," said Mr Kushwaha. (
  • In different parts of the United States there has been a resurgence in the consumption of heroin, and Afghan heroin has an enormous production," Alejandro Mohar, a member of the INCB , told a news conference in March . (
  • To describe the eye misalignments that occur during heroin use and heroin detoxification and to give an overview of the management of persisting diplopia (double vision) which results from eye misalignment. (
  • When your body goes through detoxification, it is simultaneously readjusting to functioning without heroin and ridding itself of the toxins at the same time. (
  • This funding represents the next step in PCCD's efforts to combat the heroin crisis in our Commonwealth," said PCCD Chairman Josh Shapiro. (
  • They completed a search of his car which yielded the prepackaged heroin. (
  • Last January, Leong was found in possession of over one ounce of heroin after a search warrant was served on him and his car. (
  • While acknowledging possession of an open container of alcohol and a pot pipe, Crull denied ownership of the three ounces of purported heroin. (
  • On their instance, Banu was arrested from her house and 23.5 kg of heroin was seized from her possession. (
  • The charge of conspiracy to distribute and possession with the intent to distribute heroin provides for a maximum sentence of 20 years in prison, a minimum of three years and up to a lifetime of supervised release, and a fine of $1 million. (
  • Monica Snee, 51, faces multiple heroin-related charges, including possession and distribution on school property, according to the Wicomico County Sheriff's Office. (
  • Heroin samples from South America appear to have the highest purity, reaching at times more than 70% purity. (
  • Darke S, Hall W, Weatherburn D, Lind B. Fluctuations in heroin purity and the incidence of fatal heroin overdose. (
  • People often use heroin along with other drugs or alcohol. (
  • How do people use heroin? (
  • People who use heroin report feeling a "rush" (a surge of pleasure). (
  • People who use heroin over the long term may develop many different health problems. (
  • In the United States, approximately 1.6 percent of people have used heroin at some point. (
  • He said that, although these were very early days, there had been a dramatic effect on the lives of people for whom heroin had been a daily part of their lives for 20 or 30 years. (
  • People always come up to me and say, 'We got heroin problems and all these other problems. (
  • In a news conference in Hauppauge , Levy said the task force arrested 279 people from Jan. 6 to April 12, compared with 209 heroin-related arrests for the same first quarter of last year. (
  • Likewise, we know a great production of heroin is coming from Mexico, and now Afghanistan is looking for the market of the United States for the distribution and consumption of heroin," Mohar added . (
  • After questioning the men, agents and officers searched the SUV and found 22 "brick-shaped packages of powder consistent with [48 pounds] of heroin. (
  • Then, they searched an apartment at that address and found "two concealed compartments," in the floor of the bedroom and in a wall, in which were secreted 13 pounds and 31 pounds of heroin, respectively. (
  • Authorities then searched a storage unit belonging to one of the men and discovered an additional nine pounds of heroin. (
  • Police in southeastern Turkey captured more than 54 kilograms (119 pounds) of heroin, local authorities said on Friday. (
  • The county executive, joined by Suffolk County Police Commissioner Richard Dormer, said the concentrated effort is crucial because costly heroin use increases the number of burglaries and robberies, and fuels violent gang activity. (
  • The role of all four couriers arrested with 8.2 kilograms of heroin at Denpasar airport on April 17 was similar, the judges said, as was their degree of co-operation with investigators. (
  • JANUARY 29--A man arrested on a felony heroin trafficking charge spent six weeks in jail before investigators determined that the narcotic he was alleged to have possessed was actually laundry detergent. (