INFLAMMATION of the LIVER in humans caused by a member of the ORTHOHEPADNAVIRUS genus, HEPATITIS B VIRUS. It is primarily transmitted by parenteral exposure, such as transfusion of contaminated blood or blood products, but can also be transmitted via sexual or intimate personal contact.
INFLAMMATION of the LIVER in humans caused by HEPATITIS C VIRUS, a single-stranded RNA virus. Its incubation period is 30-90 days. Hepatitis C is transmitted primarily by contaminated blood parenterally, and is often associated with transfusion and intravenous drug abuse. However, in a significant number of cases, the source of hepatitis C infection is unknown.
INFLAMMATION of the LIVER in humans caused by a member of the HEPATOVIRUS genus, HUMAN HEPATITIS A VIRUS. It can be transmitted through fecal contamination of food or water.
The type species of the genus ORTHOHEPADNAVIRUS which causes human HEPATITIS B and is also apparently a causal agent in human HEPATOCELLULAR CARCINOMA. The Dane particle is an intact hepatitis virion, named after its discoverer. Non-infectious spherical and tubular particles are also seen in the serum.
Those hepatitis B antigens found on the surface of the Dane particle and on the 20 nm spherical and tubular particles. Several subspecificities of the surface antigen are known. These were formerly called the Australia antigen.
INFLAMMATION of the LIVER.
INFLAMMATION of the LIVER in humans that is caused by HEPATITIS C VIRUS lasting six months or more. Chronic hepatitis C can lead to LIVER CIRRHOSIS.
INFLAMMATION of the LIVER in humans caused by HEPATITIS B VIRUS lasting six months or more. It is primarily transmitted by parenteral exposure, such as transfusion of contaminated blood or blood products, but can also be transmitted via sexual or intimate personal contact.
INFLAMMATION of the LIVER in humans due to infection by VIRUSES. There are several significant types of human viral hepatitis with infection caused by enteric-transmission (HEPATITIS A; HEPATITIS E) or blood transfusion (HEPATITIS B; HEPATITIS C; and HEPATITIS D).
A species in the genus HEPATOVIRUS containing one serotype and two strains: HUMAN HEPATITIS A VIRUS and Simian hepatitis A virus causing hepatitis in humans (HEPATITIS A) and primates, respectively.
Vaccines or candidate vaccines containing inactivated hepatitis B or some of its component antigens and designed to prevent hepatitis B. Some vaccines may be recombinantly produced.
Antibodies to the HEPATITIS B ANTIGENS, including antibodies to the surface (Australia) and core of the Dane particle and those to the "e" antigens.
INFLAMMATION of the LIVER with ongoing hepatocellular injury for 6 months or more, characterized by NECROSIS of HEPATOCYTES and inflammatory cell (LEUKOCYTES) infiltration. Chronic hepatitis can be caused by viruses, medications, autoimmune diseases, and other unknown factors.
The hepatitis B antigen within the core of the Dane particle, the infectious hepatitis virion.
Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent infection with hepatitis A virus (HEPATOVIRUS).
Immunoglobulins raised by any form of viral hepatitis; some of these antibodies are used to diagnose the specific kind of hepatitis.
A genus of FLAVIVIRIDAE causing parenterally-transmitted HEPATITIS C which is associated with transfusions and drug abuse. Hepatitis C virus is the type species.
A closely related group of antigens found in the plasma only during the infective phase of hepatitis B or in virulent chronic hepatitis B, probably indicating active virus replication; there are three subtypes which may exist in a complex with immunoglobulins G.
Antigens of the virion of the HEPATITIS B VIRUS or the Dane particle, its surface (HEPATITIS B SURFACE ANTIGENS), core (HEPATITIS B CORE ANTIGENS), and other associated antigens, including the HEPATITIS B E ANTIGENS.
Acute INFLAMMATION of the LIVER in humans; caused by HEPATITIS E VIRUS, a non-enveloped single-stranded RNA virus. Similar to HEPATITIS A, its incubation period is 15-60 days and is enterically transmitted, usually by fecal-oral transmission.
Antibodies to the HEPATITIS C ANTIGENS including antibodies to envelope, core, and non-structural proteins.
A positive-stranded RNA virus species in the genus HEPEVIRUS, causing enterically-transmitted non-A, non-B hepatitis (HEPATITIS E).
Antibodies to the HEPATITIS A ANTIGENS including antibodies to envelope, core, and non-structural proteins.
INFLAMMATION of the LIVER in animals due to viral infection.
A chronic self-perpetuating hepatocellular INFLAMMATION of unknown cause, usually with HYPERGAMMAGLOBULINEMIA and serum AUTOANTIBODIES.
A strain of HEPATITIS A VIRUS which causes hepatitis in humans. The virus replicates in hepatocytes and is presumed to reach the intestine via the bile duct. Transmission occurs by the fecal-oral route.
Any of the viruses that cause inflammation of the liver. They include both DNA and RNA viruses as well viruses from humans and animals.
A defective virus, containing particles of RNA nucleoprotein in virion-like form, present in patients with acute hepatitis B and chronic hepatitis. It requires the presence of a hepadnavirus for full replication. This is the lone species in the genus Deltavirus.
INFLAMMATION of the LIVER in humans caused by HEPATITIS DELTA VIRUS, a defective RNA virus that can only infect HEPATITIS B patients. For its viral coating, hepatitis delta virus requires the HEPATITIS B SURFACE ANTIGENS produced by these patients. Hepatitis D can occur either concomitantly with (coinfection) or subsequent to (superinfection) hepatitis B infection. Similar to hepatitis B, it is primarily transmitted by parenteral exposure, such as transfusion of contaminated blood or blood products, but can also be transmitted via sexual or intimate personal contact.
INFLAMMATION of the LIVER in non-human animals.
Any vaccine raised against any virus or viral derivative that causes hepatitis.
Agents used in the prophylaxis or therapy of VIRUS DISEASES. Some of the ways they may act include preventing viral replication by inhibiting viral DNA polymerase; binding to specific cell-surface receptors and inhibiting viral penetration or uncoating; inhibiting viral protein synthesis; or blocking late stages of virus assembly.
A species of the CORONAVIRUS genus causing hepatitis in mice. Four strains have been identified as MHV 1, MHV 2, MHV 3, and MHV 4 (also known as MHV-JHM, which is neurotropic and causes disseminated encephalomyelitis with demyelination as well as focal liver necrosis).
Antigens of the virions of HEPACIVIRUS, their surface, core, or other associated antigens.
A genus of PICORNAVIRIDAE causing infectious hepatitis naturally in humans and experimentally in other primates. It is transmitted through fecal contamination of food or water. HEPATITIS A VIRUS is the type species.
Ribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.
Liver disease in which the normal microcirculation, the gross vascular anatomy, and the hepatic architecture have been variably destroyed and altered with fibrous septa surrounding regenerated or regenerating parenchymal nodules.
One of the type I interferons produced by peripheral blood leukocytes or lymphoblastoid cells. In addition to antiviral activity, it activates NATURAL KILLER CELLS and B-LYMPHOCYTES, and down-regulates VASCULAR ENDOTHELIAL GROWTH FACTOR expression through PI-3 KINASE and MAPK KINASES signaling pathways.
Antigens produced by various strains of HEPATITIS A VIRUS such as the human hepatitis A virus (HEPATITIS A VIRUS, HUMAN).
Antigens produced by various strains of HEPATITIS D VIRUS.
Antigens from any of the hepatitis viruses including surface, core, and other associated antigens.
INFLAMMATION of the LIVER due to ALCOHOL ABUSE. It is characterized by NECROSIS of HEPATOCYTES, infiltration by NEUTROPHILS, and deposit of MALLORY BODIES. Depending on its severity, the inflammatory lesion may be reversible or progress to LIVER CIRRHOSIS.
A nucleoside antimetabolite antiviral agent that blocks nucleic acid synthesis and is used against both RNA and DNA viruses.
A DNA virus that closely resembles human hepatitis B virus. It has been recovered from naturally infected ducks.
An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of L-alanine and 2-oxoglutarate to pyruvate and L-glutamate. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 2.6.1.2.
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.
Proteins encoded by a VIRAL GENOME that are produced in the organisms they infect, but not packaged into the VIRUS PARTICLES. Some of these proteins may play roles within the infected cell during VIRUS REPLICATION or act in regulation of virus replication or VIRUS ASSEMBLY.
A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.
A primary malignant neoplasm of epithelial liver cells. It ranges from a well-differentiated tumor with EPITHELIAL CELLS indistinguishable from normal HEPATOCYTES to a poorly differentiated neoplasm. The cells may be uniform or markedly pleomorphic, or form GIANT CELLS. Several classification schemes have been suggested.
An ORTHOHEPADNAVIRUS causing chronic liver disease and hepatocellular carcinoma in woodchucks. It closely resembles the human hepatitis B virus.
Tumors or cancer of the LIVER.
A reverse transcriptase inhibitor and ZALCITABINE analog in which a sulfur atom replaces the 3' carbon of the pentose ring. It is used to treat HIV disease.
The process of intracellular viral multiplication, consisting of the synthesis of PROTEINS; NUCLEIC ACIDS; and sometimes LIPIDS, and their assembly into a new infectious particle.
Polymers of ETHYLENE OXIDE and water, and their ethers. They vary in consistency from liquid to solid depending on the molecular weight indicated by a number following the name. They are used as SURFACTANTS, dispersing agents, solvents, ointment and suppository bases, vehicles, and tablet excipients. Some specific groups are NONOXYNOLS, OCTOXYNOLS, and POLOXAMERS.
Proteins found mainly in icosahedral DNA and RNA viruses. They consist of proteins directly associated with the nucleic acid inside the NUCLEOCAPSID.
The genetic constitution of the individual, comprising the ALLELES present at each GENETIC LOCUS.
INFLAMMATION of the LIVER in humans caused by HEPATITIS DELTA VIRUS in conjunction with HEPATITIS B VIRUS and lasting six months or more.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
A genus of Sciuridae consisting of 14 species. They are shortlegged, burrowing rodents which hibernate in winter.
EPIDEMIOLOGIC STUDIES based on the detection through serological testing of characteristic change in the serum level of specific ANTIBODIES. Latent subclinical infections and carrier states can thus be detected in addition to clinically overt cases.
The transference of a part of or an entire liver from one human or animal to another.
The quantity of measurable virus in a body fluid. Change in viral load, measured in plasma, is sometimes used as a SURROGATE MARKER in disease progression.
The condition of harboring an infective organism without manifesting symptoms of infection. The organism must be readily transmissible to another susceptible host.
The complete genetic complement contained in a DNA or RNA molecule in a virus.
The main structural component of the LIVER. They are specialized EPITHELIAL CELLS that are organized into interconnected plates called lobules.
A family of RNA viruses, many of which cause disease in humans and domestic animals. There are three genera FLAVIVIRUS; PESTIVIRUS; and HEPACIVIRUS, as well as several unassigned species.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
Blood tests that are used to evaluate how well a patient's liver is working and also to help diagnose liver conditions.
Pathological processes of the LIVER.
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
The total number of cases of a given disease in a specified population at a designated time. It is differentiated from INCIDENCE, which refers to the number of new cases in the population at a given time.
The common chimpanzee, a species of the genus Pan, family HOMINIDAE. It lives in Africa, primarily in the tropical rainforests. There are a number of recognized subspecies.
Disease having a short and relatively severe course.
Therapy with two or more separate preparations given for a combined effect.
A clinical manifestation of HYPERBILIRUBINEMIA, characterized by the yellowish staining of the SKIN; MUCOUS MEMBRANE; and SCLERA. Clinical jaundice usually is a sign of LIVER dysfunction.
Abuse, overuse, or misuse of a substance by its injection into a vein.
Enzymes of the transferase class that catalyze the conversion of L-aspartate and 2-ketoglutarate to oxaloacetate and L-glutamate. EC 2.6.1.1.
A spectrum of clinical liver diseases ranging from mild biochemical abnormalities to ACUTE LIVER FAILURE, caused by drugs, drug metabolites, and chemicals from the environment.
In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.
Any DNA sequence capable of independent replication or a molecule that possesses a REPLICATION ORIGIN and which is therefore potentially capable of being replicated in a suitable cell. (Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)
Layers of protein which surround the capsid in animal viruses with tubular nucleocapsids. The envelope consists of an inner layer of lipids and virus specified proteins also called membrane or matrix proteins. The outer layer consists of one or more types of morphological subunits called peplomers which project from the viral envelope; this layer always consists of glycoproteins.
Proteins secreted by vertebrate cells in response to a wide variety of inducers. They confer resistance against many different viruses, inhibit proliferation of normal and malignant cells, impede multiplication of intracellular parasites, enhance macrophage and granulocyte phagocytosis, augment natural killer cell activity, and show several other immunomodulatory functions.
A condition characterized by the presence of abnormal quantities of CRYOGLOBULINS in the blood. Upon cold exposure, these abnormal proteins precipitate into the microvasculature leading to restricted blood flow in the exposed areas.
An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.
Diseases which have one or more of the following characteristics: they are permanent, leave residual disability, are caused by nonreversible pathological alteration, require special training of the patient for rehabilitation, or may be expected to require a long period of supervision, observation, or care. (Dictionary of Health Services Management, 2d ed)
Carbon-containing phosphonic acid compounds. Included under this heading are compounds that have carbon bound to either OXYGEN atom or the PHOSPHOROUS atom of the (P=O)O2 structure.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
Includes the spectrum of human immunodeficiency virus infections that range from asymptomatic seropositivity, thru AIDS-related complex (ARC), to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS).
Severe inability of the LIVER to perform its normal metabolic functions, as evidenced by severe JAUNDICE and abnormal serum levels of AMMONIA; BILIRUBIN; ALKALINE PHOSPHATASE; ASPARTATE AMINOTRANSFERASE; LACTATE DEHYDROGENASES; and albumin/globulin ratio. (Blakiston's Gould Medical Dictionary, 4th ed)
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.
The ability of viruses to resist or to become tolerant to chemotherapeutic agents or antiviral agents. This resistance is acquired through gene mutation.
Removal and pathologic examination of specimens in the form of small pieces of tissue from the living body.
Simultaneous infection of a host organism by two or more pathogens. In virology, coinfection commonly refers to simultaneous infection of a single cell by two or more different viruses.
Tetraspanin proteins that are involved in a variety of cellular functions including BASEMENT MEMBRANE assembly, and in the formation of a molecular complexes on the surface of LYMPHOCYTES.
Immunoglobulins produced in response to VIRAL ANTIGENS.
Administration of vaccines to stimulate the host's immune response. This includes any preparation intended for active immunological prophylaxis.
A family of hepatotropic DNA viruses which contains double-stranded DNA genomes and causes hepatitis in humans and animals. There are two genera: AVIHEPADNAVIRUS and ORTHOHEPADNAVIRUS. Hepadnaviruses include HEPATITIS B VIRUS, duck hepatitis B virus (HEPATITIS B VIRUS, DUCK), heron hepatitis B virus, ground squirrel hepatitis virus, and woodchuck hepatitis B virus (HEPATITIS B VIRUS, WOODCHUCK).
The presence of viruses in the blood.
The introduction of whole blood or blood component directly into the blood stream. (Dorland, 27th ed)
Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.
Unassigned species, in the family PICORNAVIRIDAE, causing high mortality in ducklings 3 days to 3 weeks old.
A country in northern Africa, bordering the Mediterranean Sea, between Libya and the Gaza Strip, and the Red Sea north of Sudan, and includes the Asian Sinai Peninsula Its capital is Cairo.
A purine base and a fundamental unit of ADENINE NUCLEOTIDES.
The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.
The return of a sign, symptom, or disease after a remission.
Virus diseases caused by the HEPADNAVIRIDAE.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed.
The indelible marking of TISSUES, primarily SKIN, by pricking it with NEEDLES to imbed various COLORING AGENTS. Tattooing of the CORNEA is done to colorize LEUKOMA spots.
Proteins found in any species of virus.
A form of rapid-onset LIVER FAILURE, also known as fulminant hepatic failure, caused by severe liver injury or massive loss of HEPATOCYTES. It is characterized by sudden development of liver dysfunction and JAUNDICE. Acute liver failure may progress to exhibit cerebral dysfunction even HEPATIC COMA depending on the etiology that includes hepatic ISCHEMIA, drug toxicity, malignant infiltration, and viral hepatitis such as post-transfusion HEPATITIS B and HEPATITIS C.
Any of the processes by which cytoplasmic factors influence the differential control of gene action in viruses.
A country spanning from central Asia to the Pacific Ocean.
A contagious disease caused by canine adenovirus (ADENOVIRUSES, CANINE) infecting the LIVER, the EYE, the KIDNEY, and other organs in dogs, other canids, and bears. Symptoms include FEVER; EDEMA; VOMITING; and DIARRHEA.
The co-occurrence of pregnancy and an INFECTION. The infection may precede or follow FERTILIZATION.
Diagnostic procedures involving immunoglobulin reactions.
Inhibitors of reverse transcriptase (RNA-DIRECTED DNA POLYMERASE), an enzyme that synthesizes DNA on an RNA template.
A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.
The infective system of a virus, composed of the viral genome, a protein core, and a protein coat called a capsid, which may be naked or enclosed in a lipoprotein envelope called the peplos.
Substances elaborated by viruses that have antigenic activity.
A species of virus (unassigned to a genus) in the family FLAVIVIRIDAE. It is genetically heterogeneous, of human origin, and transmitted by blood or blood products. Despite its alternate name (Hepatitis G virus), its pathogenicity remains controversial.
The sequence at the 5' end of the messenger RNA that does not code for product. This sequence contains the ribosome binding site and other transcription and translation regulating sequences.
Infections with viruses of the family FLAVIVIRIDAE.
The functional hereditary units of VIRUSES.
The transmission of infectious disease or pathogens from one generation to another. It includes transmission in utero or intrapartum by exposure to blood and secretions, and postpartum exposure via breastfeeding.
A class of immunoglobulin bearing mu chains (IMMUNOGLOBULIN MU-CHAINS). IgM can fix COMPLEMENT. The name comes from its high molecular weight and originally being called a macroglobulin.
A bile pigment that is a degradation product of HEME.
Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.
A subclass of enzymes of the transferase class that catalyze the transfer of an amino group from a donor (generally an amino acid) to an acceptor (generally a 2-keto acid). Most of these enzymes are pyridoxyl phosphate proteins. (Dorland, 28th ed) EC 2.6.1.
Infectious organisms in the BLOOD, of which the predominant medical interest is their contamination of blood-soiled linens, towels, gowns, BANDAGES, other items from individuals in risk categories, NEEDLES and other sharp objects, MEDICAL WASTE and DENTAL WASTE, all of which health workers are exposed to. This concept is differentiated from the clinical conditions of BACTEREMIA; VIREMIA; and FUNGEMIA where the organism is present in the blood of a patient as the result of a natural infectious process.
A genus in the subfamily CALLITRICHINAE consisting of 12 species and found in Panama as well as South America. Species seen most frequently in the literature are S. oedipus (cotton-top marmoset), S. nigricollis, and S. fusicollis.
Measurable and quantifiable biological parameters (e.g., specific enzyme concentration, specific hormone concentration, specific gene phenotype distribution in a population, presence of biological substances) which serve as indices for health- and physiology-related assessments, such as disease risk, psychiatric disorders, environmental exposure and its effects, disease diagnosis, metabolic processes, substance abuse, pregnancy, cell line development, epidemiologic studies, etc.
The worsening of a disease over time. This concept is most often used for chronic and incurable diseases where the stage of the disease is an important determinant of therapy and prognosis.
Schedule giving optimum times usually for primary and/or secondary immunization.
The number of new cases of a given disease during a given period in a specified population. It also is used for the rate at which new events occur in a defined population. It is differentiated from PREVALENCE, which refers to all cases, new or old, in the population at a given time.
Virus diseases caused by the CORONAVIRUS genus. Some specifics include transmissible enteritis of turkeys (ENTERITIS, TRANSMISSIBLE, OF TURKEYS); FELINE INFECTIOUS PERITONITIS; and transmissible gastroenteritis of swine (GASTROENTERITIS, TRANSMISSIBLE, OF SWINE).
Studies in which subsets of a defined population are identified. These groups may or may not be exposed to factors hypothesized to influence the probability of the occurrence of a particular disease or other outcome. Cohorts are defined populations which, as a whole, are followed in an attempt to determine distinguishing subgroup characteristics.
Studies which start with the identification of persons with a disease of interest and a control (comparison, referent) group without the disease. The relationship of an attribute to the disease is examined by comparing diseased and non-diseased persons with regard to the frequency or levels of the attribute in each group.
Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)
Sites on an antigen that interact with specific antibodies.
The major immunoglobulin isotype class in normal human serum. There are several isotype subclasses of IgG, for example, IgG1, IgG2A, and IgG2B.
Sudden increase in the incidence of a disease. The concept includes EPIDEMICS and PANDEMICS.
A family of the order Rodentia which contains 49 genera. Some of the more common genera are MARMOTA, which includes the marmot and woodchuck; Sciurus, the gray squirrel, S. carolinensis, and the fox squirrel, S. niger; Tamias, the eastern and western chipmunk; and Tamiasciurus, the red squirrel. The flying squirrels, except the scaly-tailed Anomaluridae, also belong to this family.
The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.
Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.
Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.
An enzyme that catalyses RNA-template-directed extension of the 3'- end of an RNA strand by one nucleotide at a time, and can initiate a chain de novo. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992, p293)
Organized services to administer immunization procedures in the prevention of various diseases. The programs are made available over a wide range of sites: schools, hospitals, public health agencies, voluntary health agencies, etc. They are administered to an equally wide range of population groups or on various administrative levels: community, municipal, state, national, international.
A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.
A syndrome characterized by central nervous system dysfunction in association with LIVER FAILURE, including portal-systemic shunts. Clinical features include lethargy and CONFUSION (frequently progressing to COMA); ASTERIXIS; NYSTAGMUS, PATHOLOGIC; brisk oculovestibular reflexes; decorticate and decerebrate posturing; MUSCLE SPASTICITY; and bilateral extensor plantar reflexes (see REFLEX, BABINSKI). ELECTROENCEPHALOGRAPHY may demonstrate triphasic waves. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp1117-20; Plum & Posner, Diagnosis of Stupor and Coma, 3rd ed, p222-5)
Genotypic differences observed among individuals in a population.
Viral diseases which are transmitted or propagated by sexual conduct.
The entering of cells by viruses following VIRUS ATTACHMENT. This is achieved by ENDOCYTOSIS, by direct MEMBRANE FUSION of the viral membrane with the CELL MEMBRANE, or by translocation of the whole virus across the cell membrane.
Retroviral proteins coded by the pol gene. They are usually synthesized as a protein precursor (POLYPROTEINS) and later cleaved into final products that include reverse transcriptase, endonuclease/integrase, and viral protease. Sometimes they are synthesized as a gag-pol fusion protein (FUSION PROTEINS, GAG-POL). pol is short for polymerase, the enzyme class of reverse transcriptase.
A genus of HEPADNAVIRIDAE causing hepatitis in humans, woodchucks (HEPATITIS B VIRUS, WOODCHUCK) and ground squirrels. hepatitis b virus is the type species.
FIBROSIS of the hepatic parenchyma due to obstruction of BILE flow (CHOLESTASIS) in the intrahepatic or extrahepatic bile ducts (BILE DUCTS, INTRAHEPATIC; BILE DUCTS, EXTRAHEPATIC). Primary biliary cirrhosis involves the destruction of small intra-hepatic bile ducts and bile secretion. Secondary biliary cirrhosis is produced by prolonged obstruction of large intrahepatic or extrahepatic bile ducts from a variety of causes.
Diffusible gene products that act on homologous or heterologous molecules of viral or cellular DNA to regulate the expression of proteins.
FIBROSIS of the hepatic parenchyma due to chronic excess ALCOHOL DRINKING.
The classic hemophilia resulting from a deficiency of factor VIII. It is an inherited disorder of blood coagulation characterized by a permanent tendency to hemorrhage.
Penal institutions, or places of confinement for war prisoners.
Immunologic techniques based on the use of: (1) enzyme-antibody conjugates; (2) enzyme-antigen conjugates; (3) antienzyme antibody followed by its homologous enzyme; or (4) enzyme-antienzyme complexes. These are used histologically for visualizing or labeling tissue specimens.
The mechanism by which latent viruses, such as genetically transmitted tumor viruses (PROVIRUSES) or PROPHAGES of lysogenic bacteria, are induced to replicate and then released as infectious viruses. It may be effected by various endogenous and exogenous stimuli, including B-cell LIPOPOLYSACCHARIDES, glucocorticoid hormones, halogenated pyrimidines, IONIZING RADIATION, ultraviolet light, and superinfecting viruses.
The assembly of VIRAL STRUCTURAL PROTEINS and nucleic acid (VIRAL DNA or VIRAL RNA) to form a VIRUS PARTICLE.
The study of the structure, growth, function, genetics, and reproduction of viruses, and VIRUS DISEASES.
Multi-subunit proteins which function in IMMUNITY. They are produced by B LYMPHOCYTES from the IMMUNOGLOBULIN GENES. They are comprised of two heavy (IMMUNOGLOBULIN HEAVY CHAINS) and two light chains (IMMUNOGLOBULIN LIGHT CHAINS) with additional ancillary polypeptide chains depending on their isoforms. The variety of isoforms include monomeric or polymeric forms, and transmembrane forms (B-CELL ANTIGEN RECEPTORS) or secreted forms (ANTIBODIES). They are divided by the amino acid sequence of their heavy chains into five classes (IMMUNOGLOBULIN A; IMMUNOGLOBULIN D; IMMUNOGLOBULIN E; IMMUNOGLOBULIN G; IMMUNOGLOBULIN M) and various subclasses.
Studies in which the presence or absence of disease or other health-related variables are determined in each member of the study population or in a representative sample at one particular time. This contrasts with LONGITUDINAL STUDIES which are followed over a period of time.
Levels within a diagnostic group which are established by various measurement criteria applied to the seriousness of a patient's disorder.
Classic quantitative assay for detection of antigen-antibody reactions using a radioactively labeled substance (radioligand) either directly or indirectly to measure the binding of the unlabeled substance to a specific antibody or other receptor system. Non-immunogenic substances (e.g., haptens) can be measured if coupled to larger carrier proteins (e.g., bovine gamma-globulin or human serum albumin) capable of inducing antibody formation.
Lipid infiltration of the hepatic parenchymal cells resulting in a yellow-colored liver. The abnormal lipid accumulation is usually in the form of TRIGLYCERIDES, either as a single large droplet or multiple small droplets. Fatty liver is caused by an imbalance in the metabolism of FATTY ACIDS.
A genus of tree shrews of the family TUPAIIDAE which consists of about 12 species. One of the most frequently encountered species is T. glis. Members of this genus inhabit rain forests and secondary growth areas in southeast Asia.
Purine or pyrimidine bases attached to a ribose or deoxyribose. (From King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
Small synthetic peptides that mimic surface antigens of pathogens and are immunogenic, or vaccines manufactured with the aid of recombinant DNA techniques. The latter vaccines may also be whole viruses whose nucleic acids have been modified.
An infant during the first month after birth.
A protein-nucleic acid complex which forms part or all of a virion. It consists of a CAPSID plus enclosed nucleic acid. Depending on the virus, the nucleocapsid may correspond to a naked core or be surrounded by a membranous envelope.
A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.
A species of non-enveloped DNA virus in the genus ANELLOVIRUS, associated with BLOOD TRANSFUSIONS; and HEPATITIS. However, no etiological role has been found for TTV in hepatitis.
Therapy for the insufficient cleansing of the BLOOD by the kidneys based on dialysis and including hemodialysis, PERITONEAL DIALYSIS, and HEMODIAFILTRATION.
Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.
Viral proteins that are components of the mature assembled VIRUS PARTICLES. They may include nucleocapsid core proteins (gag proteins), enzymes packaged within the virus particle (pol proteins), and membrane components (env proteins). These do not include the proteins encoded in the VIRAL GENOME that are produced in infected cells but which are not packaged in the mature virus particle,i.e. the so called non-structural proteins (VIRAL NONSTRUCTURAL PROTEINS).
The transmission of infectious disease or pathogens. When transmission is within the same species, the mode can be horizontal or vertical (INFECTIOUS DISEASE TRANSMISSION, VERTICAL).
Hospital units in which care is provided the hemodialysis patient. This includes hemodialysis centers in hospitals.
A human liver tumor cell line used to study a variety of liver-specific metabolic functions.
The transmission of infectious disease or pathogens from health professional or health care worker to patients. It includes transmission via direct or indirect exposure to bacterial, fungal, parasitic, or viral agents.
Soluble factors which stimulate growth-related activities of leukocytes as well as other cell types. They enhance cell proliferation and differentiation, DNA synthesis, secretion of other biologically active molecules and responses to immune and inflammatory stimuli.
Commercially prepared reagent sets, with accessory devices, containing all of the major components and literature necessary to perform one or more designated diagnostic tests or procedures. They may be for laboratory or personal use.
The first alpha-globulins to appear in mammalian sera during FETAL DEVELOPMENT and the dominant serum proteins in early embryonic life.
Proteins which are synthesized as a single polymer and then cleaved into several distinct proteins.
Antibodies that react with self-antigens (AUTOANTIGENS) of the organism that produced them.
Age as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or the effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from AGING, a physiological process, and TIME FACTORS which refers only to the passage of time.
The interactions between a host and a pathogen, usually resulting in disease.

A prospective study on TT virus infection in transfusion-dependent patients with beta-thalassemia. (1/734)

A novel DNA virus designated TT virus (TTV) has been reported to be involved in the development of posttransfusion non-A-C hepatitis. We evaluated the frequency and natural course of TTV infection in a cohort of transfusion-dependent thalassemic patients in a 3-year follow-up study. Ninety-three serum hepatitis C virus (HCV) antibody-negative patients (median age of 8 years; range, 0 to 25) from eight centers were studied. Of them, 34 (37%) had an abnormal alanine-aminotransferase (ALT) baseline pattern, and the other 12 (13%) showed ALT flare-ups during the follow-up. TTV DNA in patient sera collected at the time of enrollment and at the end of follow-up was determined by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). In parallel, serum samples from 100 healthy blood donors were also tested. At baseline, 87 patient sera (93.5%) tested positive for the TTV DNA. Of these TTV DNA-positive patients, 84 (96.5%) remained viremic at the end of the study period. Of the 6 TTV DNA-negative patients, 3 acquired TTV infection during follow-up. However, no definite relation was observed between the results of TTV DNA determination and ALT patterns. TTV viremia was also detectable in 22% of blood donors. In conclusion, TTV infection is frequent and persistent among Italian transfusion-dependent patients. The high rate of viremia observed in healthy donors indicates that the parenteral route is not the only mode of TTV spread.  (+info)

Carriage of GB virus C/hepatitis G virus RNA is associated with a slower immunologic, virologic, and clinical progression of human immunodeficiency virus disease in coinfected persons. (2/734)

The prevalence of GB virus C (GBV-C) infection is high in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected persons. However, the long-term consequences of coinfection are unknown. HIV-positive persons with a well-defined duration of infection were screened on the basis of their GBV-C/hepatitis G virus (HGV) RNA status and studied. GBV-C/HGV viremia was observed in 23, who carried the virus over a mean of 7.7 years. All parameters (survival, CDC stage B/C, HIV RNA load, CD4 T cell count) showed significant differences in terms of the cumulative progression rate between persons positive and negative for GBV-C/HGV RNA. When GBV-C/HGV RNA-positive and -unexposed subjects were matched by age, sex, baseline HIV RNA load, and baseline CD4 T cell count, HIV disease progression appeared worse in GBV-C/HGV RNA-negative subjects. The carriage of GBV-C/HGV RNA is associated with a slower progression of HIV disease in coinfected persons.  (+info)

Liver disease in pregnancy. (3/734)

Acute viral hepatitis is the most common cause of jaundice in pregnancy. The course of acute hepatitis is unaffected by pregnancy, except in patients with hepatitis E and disseminated herpes simplex infections, in which maternal and fetal mortality rates are significantly increased. Chronic hepatitis B or C infections may be transmitted to neonates; however, hepatitis B virus transmission is effectively prevented with perinatal hepatitis B vaccination and prophylaxis with hepatitis B immune globulin. Cholelithiasis occurs in 6 percent of pregnancies; complications can safely be treated with surgery. Women with chronic liver disease or cirrhosis exhibit a higher risk of fetal loss during pregnancy. Preeclampsia is associated with HELLP (hemolysis, elevated liver enzymes and low platelet count) syndrome, acute fatty liver of pregnancy, and hepatic infarction and rupture. These rare diseases result in increased maternal and fetal mortality. Treatment involves prompt delivery, whereupon the liver disease quickly reverses. Therapy with penicillamine, trientine, prednisone or azathioprine can be safely continued during pregnancy.  (+info)

High prevalence of hepatitis G virus (HGV) infections in dialysis staff. (4/734)

BACKGROUND: Patients on renal replacement therapy, haemodialysis (HD), or after kidney transplantation (TX), are known to be at risk of acquiring blood-borne infections (HBV, HCV). GBV-C/Hepatitis G virus (HGV) has been described recently and is considered to cause blood-borne infections. The aim of this study was to analyse the risk for the medical staff of HD and TX patients to acquire HGV infection. METHODS: Eighty-five HD patients and 86 TX recipients were compared with 49 health-care workers and 64 blood donors as controls. The HGV prevalence was determined by RT-PCR and antibodies to E2 protein. RESULTS: A high prevalence of HGV was found in the medical staff (24%) which nearly corresponded to the prevalence of the patients (TX 36%, HD 25%) but not to the controls (9%). In contrast, the prevalence of HCV was low in the medical staff (2%) and controls (0%) but high in HD (13%) and TX (13%). Age and duration of employment in the department did not significantly influence the HGV prevalence in staff. The number of viraemic subjects in staff was high, possibly indicating a more recent infection. CONCLUSION: An occupational risk for HGV exists in medical staff of dialysis and transplant patients. Further routes of transmission than only parenteral may play a role in this setting.  (+info)

Sequence heterogeneity within three different regions of the hepatitis G virus genome. (5/734)

Two sets of primers derived from the 5'-terminal region and the NS5 region of the hepatitis G virus (HGV) genome were used to amplify PCR fragments from serum specimens obtained from different parts of the world. All PCR fragments from the 5'-terminal region (5'-PCR, n = 56) and from the NS5 region (NS5-PCR, n = 85) were sequenced and compared to corresponding published HGV sequences. The range of nucleotide sequence similarity varied from 74 and 78% to 100% for 5'-PCR and NS5-PCR fragments, respectively. Additionally, five overlapping PCR fragments comprising an approximately 2.0-kb structural region of the HGV genome were sequenced from each of five sera obtained from three United States residents. These sequences were compared to 20 published sequences comprising the same region of the HGV genome. Nucleotide and deduced amino acid sequences obtained from different individuals were homologous from 82.9 to 93. 6% and from 90.4 to 99.0%, respectively. Sequences obtained from follow-up specimens were almost identical. Comparative analysis of deduced amino acid sequences of the HGV structural proteins and hepatitis C virus (HCV) structural proteins combined with an analysis of predicted secondary structures and hydrophobic profiles allowed prediction of processing sites within the HGV structural proteins. A phylogenetic sequence analysis performed on the 2.0-kb structural region supports the existence of three previously identified HGV genetic groups. However, phylogenetic analysis performed on only small DNA fragments yielded inconsistent genetic grouping and failed to confirm the existence of genetic groups. Thus, in contrast to HCV where almost any region can be used for genotyping, only large or carefully selected genome fragments can be used to identify consistent HGV genetic groups.  (+info)

Identification of a novel genotype of hepatitis G virus in Southeast Asia. (6/734)

Hepatitis G virus (HGV) isolates obtained from 20 Myanmarese and 10 Vietnamese subjects were analyzed. A cluster of isolates not belonging to any known genotype of HGV was found in five Myanmarese subjects and three Vietnamese subjects by phylogenetic analysis, and we classified this new genotype as type 4. These results revealed that the HGV genome can be classified into at least four major genotypes.  (+info)

Molecular and biophysical characterization of TT virus: evidence for a new virus family infecting humans. (7/734)

The recent isolation of a novel DNA virus from the serum of a Japanese patient (T.T.) has provided the latest possible candidate virus associated with cryptogenic hepatitis. In the present study, we report the complete nucleotide sequence of this virus (TTV) isolated from the serum of a West African. Based on PCR studies designed to amplify overlapping regions of the viral genome and sensitivity to digestion with mung bean nuclease, the viral genome is circular and negative stranded, and comprises 3,852 nt, which is 113 nt longer than the prototype isolate from Japan. Cesium chloride density gradient centrifugation demonstrated banding of the virus at 1.31-1.34 g/ml; filtration studies indicated that TTV had a particle size of 30-50 nm. These results suggest that the virus is similar to the Circoviridae, viruses known to infect plants and vertebrates (e. g., birds and swine); however, sequence similarity searches of available databases did not reveal identity between TTV and other viruses. Phylogenetic analyses of a 260-nt region from 151 globally distributed isolates demonstrated the existence of three major TTV genotypes. Several individuals at high risk for infection with parenterally transmitted viruses were infected with more than one genotype. There was no correlation between genotype and geographic origin. Finally, intravenous inoculation of TTV-positive human serum into chimpanzees demonstrated that TTV can be transmitted to primates; no biochemical or histological evidence for hepatitis was obtained. The distinct biophysical and molecular characteristics of TTV suggest that it is a member of a new family of viruses, which we have tentatively named the Circinoviridae.  (+info)

Seroprevalence of hepatitis B virus, hepatitis C virus and GB virus-C infections in Siberia. (8/734)

We studied the seroprevalence of hepatitis B virus (HBV), hepatitis C virus (HCV) and GB virus-C (GBV-C) infections in 348 Siberian natives who lived in the Kamchatka Peninsula of Russia. Of 348 samples studied, the seroprevalence of HBsAg and anti-HBs were 11.8% (41 of 348 samples) and 35.9% (125 of 348 samples), respectively. The prevalence of HCV infection was 1.4% (5 of 348 samples), and that of GBV-C RNA, using RT-PCR methods, was 7.5% (26 of 348 samples). In Siberia, the prevalences of HBV and GBV-C infections were about tenfold higher than those in Japan. The prevalence of HBsAg in subjects under 50 years of age was significantly higher than that in those over 50 years old (P < 0.05). Because HBV infection is highly endemic in Siberia, we propose that the community-based mass immunization must be conducted as soon as possible in this area.  (+info)

Summary of Facts and Submissions. I. The present appeal lies from the decision of the examining division to refuse the European patent application No. 89 907 985, published as international application WO 89/12462 (EP A 0 419 576) with the title Enterically transmitted non-A/non-B hepatitis viral agent, on the grounds that there was no text of the application agreed by the applicant and allowed by the examining division.. II. In the reasons for the decision the examining division stated that, in reply to its communication according to Rule 51(4) EPC in which the intention to grant a patent for the present application on the basis of the second auxiliary request filed during the oral proceedings held on 9 January 1996 had been expressed, the applicant had denied its approval to the text as intended for grant and filed instead a new request. The examining division had not consented to the amendments introduced by the new request under Article 86(3) EPC, arguing that they re-introduced subject- ...
A peptide within a non-A non-B hepatitis virus genome reacts with antibodies found in individuals infected with non-A non-B hepatitis virus. The peptide is described along with the nucleic acid which
In humans, acute and/or chronic hepatitis are due to virus A, B, δ, and others not yet known. A virus possibly involved in epidemic and sporadic cases of non-A non-B (NANB) hepatitis has been...
This invention relates to a DNA fragment comprising a base sequence encoding a non-A non-B hepatitis-specific antigen polypeptide, said base sequence being obtained using genetic engineering technique
Hepatitis G is a newly discovered form of liver inflammation caused by hepatitis G virus (HGV), believed to be a distant relative of the hepatitis C virus. HGV, also called hepatitis GB virus, was first described early in 1996. Little is known about the frequency of HGV infection, the nature of the illness, or how to prevent it. What is known is that transfused blood containing HGV has caused some cases of hepatitis. For this reason, patients who require large amounts of blood or blood products are at risk of hepatitis G. Often patients with hepatitis G are infected at the same time by the hepatitis B or C virus, or both. In about three of every thousand patients with acute viral hepatitis, HGV is the only virus present. There is some indication that patients with hepatitis G may continue to carry the virus in their blood for many years, and so might be a source of infection in others ...
IgM anti-GM2 antibody in a patient with Guillain-Barré syndrome subsequent to cytomegalovirus hepatitis cross reacts with N -acetylgalactosaminyl GD1a ...
In recent years, a lot has been written about hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection in people who also have HIV (co-infection). HCV is a significant problem ...
195. water-borne outbreaks which had occurred in India in 1955, 1977 and 1979 without development of antibodies against HAV. Based on these antibody studies, Dr. Lemon feels that outbreaks previously considered to have been due to hepatitis A were really due to non-A non-B infections. In 1978, French Forces [deployed to] Chad had non-A non-B hepatitis; those given IG were protected.. Research requirements include: definition of the characteristics of hepatitis in the region concerned, agent identification and characterization, the effectiveness of IG in preventing hepatitis, and, long-term, development of a vaccine against hepatitis A.. Malaria. Col. Craig J. Canfield, MC, WRAIR, presented malaria as a serious and severe threat. Problems are related to vector control inadequacies and the lack of a drug in the TO&E for chloroquine-resistant falciparum malaria. Resistance is anticipated to be a potential problem in view of the westward spread across Asia of resistant strains; half the cases in the ...
HCV infection is a major public health concern with worldwide seroprevalence estimated at 1 percent. HIV-infected adults co-infected with HCV appear to have accelerated HIV disease progression. There is little data on HCV prevalence in the pediatric HIV-infected population. This substudy will provide estimates of HCV prevalence among HIV-infected children and determine the need for future HCV natural history and treatment protocols. In addition, this substudy will archive samples from patients for future testing for other hepatitis viruses such as hepatitis G virus (HGV or GB virus C).. Patients participating in PACTG 219C are selected randomly to enroll into PACTG P1028S. Patients who agree to participate have a single blood draw for HCV antibody (Enzyme Immunoassay-EIA) testing and HCV RNA (Polymerase Chain Reaction-PCR) testing. An additional blood draw is necessary in the case of discordant results between the HCV EIA and HCV PCR. HCV-negative patients have 1 study visit. Patients with ...
ABSTRACT Viral hepatitis C is infectious disease caused by hepatotropic hepatitis C virus (HCV) belonging to family Flaviviridae. The discovery of the virus has clarify the ethiology of the major part of post-transfusion non-A non-B hepatitis of unknown origin. It was determined that the virus was mainly transmitted by blood and its products by parenteral route of transmission. HCVinfected people are the only known reservoir of the virus and the source of infection for others. HCV infection is one of the most important public health problems today. It was estimated that more than 170 million individuals are infected with HCV worldvwide, most of them chronically. Chronic infection in significant proportion leads to the development of serious complications that include liver function failure, the cirrhosis development and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). The prevalence of HCV infection has significantly changed since the dicovery of virus as ethiological agent of the disease primarily owing to ...
Hepatitis B & Hepatitis C infections are disseminated worldwide, 350 million are infected & 170 million are carriers. [1, 2] Hepatitis C virus is the most common cause of post transfusion non-A non-B hepatitis all over the world. [1] Hepatitis C virus (HCV) was discovered in1989 and belong to the Flaviviridae family and is an enveloped single stranded RNA virus, 50-60- nm in diameter with genome containing 9500 bases coding approximately 3000 Amino acids. The genome consists of a highly conserved 5 non coding region (NCR), generally used for PCR amplification and have regulatory functions.. The prevalence of HCV antibodies in blood donors in developed countries ranges from 0.4 to 2.1%. In Brazil it is 0.9 to 2.6%, [3, and 4] in Egypt from12 to 14%, in India ranges from 0.6 to 5.2%, in England 0.0017%, [1] in US 0.001% and in France 0.0012%. The average incubation period of HCV is 6-7 weeks. The acute illness [jaundice] is mild later on cirrhosis and Hepatocellular carcinoma develops. In fact up ...
Chronic viral hepatitis is common in dialysis patients, with the reported prevalence and annual incidence of 3-80% and 2.9%, respectively. Currently, percutaneous liver biopsy (PLB) remains the gold standard for grading necroinflammation and staging fibrosis in patients with liver diseases. In addition, liver histology can help clinicians determine the eligibility of renal transplantation, prognosis, and necessity of antiviral therapy in dialysis patients with chronic viral hepatitis. In chronic hepatitis patients with normal renal function (NRF), the risks of fatal and non-fatal hemorrhage after liver biopsies for non-malignant diseases were 0.04% and 0.16%, respectively. However, the relative risks of post-biopsy hemorrhage in CHC patients with end-stage renal disease to those with NRF remain disputed.. Deamino-8-D-arginine vasopressin (DDAVP), a synthetic analogue of vasopressin, is a commonly used hemostatic agent to treat uremic bleeding by inducing the release of von Willebrand factor ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Failure to detect circulating interferon during acute viral hepatitis.. AU - Rakela, J.. AU - Ishizawa, L.. PY - 1984/5/1. Y1 - 1984/5/1. UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=0021436398&partnerID=8YFLogxK. UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=0021436398&partnerID=8YFLogxK. M3 - Letter. C2 - 6202808. AN - SCOPUS:0021436398. VL - 149. JO - Journal of Infectious Diseases. JF - Journal of Infectious Diseases. SN - 0022-1899. IS - 5. ER - ...
Overview of Acute Viral Hepatitis - Etiology, pathophysiology, symptoms, signs, diagnosis & prognosis from the Merck Manuals - Medical Professional Version.
ICD-10 B17 is other acute viral hepatitis (B17). This code is grouped under diagnosis codes for certain infectious and parasitic diseases.
People with HCV infection often live many years without symptoms. Many dont know they have the disease until they start to have symptoms of more advanced liver problems. Children and adolescents with HCV infection should be immunized against hepatitis A and B because infection with those other hepatitis viruses will make HCV infection much worse. At the present time, there is no vaccine to prevent hepatitis C.. Medical scientists are working hard on developing medicines to help people with HCV infection. Learning about HCV and helping your child make healthy lifestyle choices will help protect your child from getting HCV infection.. If you feel your child or adolescent may have HCV infection or may have been exposed to the virus, talk to your pediatrician.. The American Academy of Pediatrics expresses its appreciation to all those who contributed to this brochure, including Thomas N. Saari, MD, who served as principal medical reviewer, and the Committee on Infectious Diseases.. ...
Hepatitis B has been nothing short of a global-health catastrophe -- approximately two billion people in the world today have, at some point in their ...
In early 2015 a group of viral hepatitis experts within the HIV Europe Initiative formed a working group to develop a consensus definition for viral hepatitis. After discussions, meetings and several reviews the final two agreed upon definitions were approved by the EASL GB in early October 2015 and on Thursday 22 October EASL and HIV in Europe announced a consensus definition of late presentation for viral hepatitis. The announcement coincided with the European AIDS Conference in Barcelona and aims to encourage policy makers, health professionals, public health institutions and civil society organisations to implement this definition to improve the European surveillance of and response to the viral hepatitis epidemic. Presentations and Publications ...
Looking for Canine Viral Hepatitis? Find out information about Canine Viral Hepatitis. acute viral disease of canines, especially dogs and foxes. The causative agent, an adenovirus, is not infectious to humans. In foxes the disease is... Explanation of Canine Viral Hepatitis
Results: Combined GBV-C RNA and anti-E2 prevalances ranged from 6.5% in children, 13.3% in blood donors, 14% in pregnant women, 22.5% in haemodialysis patients, 80% in anti-HCV positive donors and 88.6% in IVDUs and 85.7% in adult haemophiliacs. Children had the lowest antibody rate, 1.1%, compared with 10.8% for blood donors rising to 45.7% for IVDUs and to 74.6% for haemophiliacs. In contrast current infection rates were comparable for children, blood donors and pregnant women at 5.4%, 2.6% and 6%. These rates rose to 11.1% for haemophiliacs, 24.3% for anti-HCV donors and 48.6% for IVDUs. Ten of 12 donors had persistent vireamia while two had recent infections, one with apparent resolution. 47% of donors who had lived in the Pacific Islands had GBV-C exposure compared to 16% who had not lived in the Pacific. (P,0.01). Spending evening outdoors was also associated with HGB exposure ...
Prevention & Control of Viral Hepatitis Infection: A Strategy for Global Action World Health Organization All rights reserved. The designations employed and the presentation of the material in this
Editor-In-Chief: C. Michael Gibson, M.S., M.D. [1]; Associate Editor(s)-In-Chief: Yazan Daaboul; Serge Korjian Synonyms and Keywords: HCV infection, Hep C, non-A non-B viral hepatitis, NANBH, Viral Hepatitis C ...
Viral hepatitis is a type of liver disease that can be caused by several different viruses. The most common types of viral hepatitis are hepatitis A, B, and C, although there are other varieties ...
World Hepatitis Day 2014 aims to create awareness on testing and treatment of hepatitis. Vaccination for Hepatitis B and other hepatitis infections is one of the major steps taken on this day.
The concept of non-A, non-B hepatitis (NANBH) developed as accurate serologic tools became available to recognize various etiologic agents of hepatitis such as the hepatitis A and B viruses, the...
Chronic Viral Hepatitis auf frohberg.de - Leading scientists, clinicians, and clinical investigators comprehensively review the epidemiology, molecular...
Find all books from Kirti Shetty - Chronic Viral Hepatitis. At find-more-books.com you can find used, antique and new books, COMPARE results and immediately PURCHASE your selection at the best price. 1617796573
Finden Sie alle Bücher von Kirti Shetty - Chronic Viral Hepatitis. Bei der Büchersuchmaschine eurobuch.com können Sie antiquarische und Neubücher VERGLEICHEN UND SOFORT zum Bestpreis bestellen. 9781617796579
Have a question on viral hepatitis? Need a publication? CDC-INFO is a consolidated response center, run under a contract with CDC,that provides publications and general information to consumers, providers, and professionals via telephone or e-mail on a wide variety of health topics, including viral hepatitis. CDC-INFOs operating hours will be 8am-8pm ET/Monday-Friday; Closed Holidays.. Telephone: 1-800-CDC-INFO (1-800-232-4636 ...
Food can play an important role in healing Viral Hepatitis. Diet of food and nutritional supplements can provide an effective natural treatment for Viral Hepatitis. Discover these Viral Hepatitis treatments and other smart treatments at FoundHealth.
Linking to a non-federal website does not constitute an endorsement by CDC or any of its employees of the sponsors or the information and products presented on the website ...
Hours - The role is based on a 39 hour contract working Monday to Friday with a Saturday morning rota. Field Service Engineer (Agricultural / Heavy Plant) Cvlibrary - Newport, Newport. Job role: HGV Technician Location: Reading Hours: 7am to 7pm - 4on 4off Hourly rate: £16.00 + Overtime. HGV Mechanic Job role: As an HGV Mechanic you will be based in a busy workshop environment you will be required to undertake all levels of maintenance, repairs and major … HGV Levy bands and rates tables - GOV.UK Skip to main content Posted by Kemp Recruitment Ltd. Shortlist. Fleet. 20 Days Holiday. The national average salary for a Hgv Driver is £30,333 in United Kingdom. HGV Levy information for drivers and operators, including details of Euro class changes from 1 February 2019. HGV Technician / HGV Mechanic / HGV Fitter. Hours - The role is based on a 39 hour contract. HGV Drivers with more than 20 years of experience earn £45,600 on average. The average hourly pay for an Automobile Mechanic in United ...
General The ABCs of Hepatitis From CDCs Division of Viral Hepatitis Guidelines for Laboratory Testing and Result Reporting From CDCs Division of Viral Hepatitis
BOSTON, Mass.-Last week, Jonathan Mermin, MD, MPH was named the new Director at the National Center for HIV/AIDS, Viral Hepatitis, STD, and TB Prevention (NCHHSTP) at the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Fenway Health congratulated Dr. Mermin and looks forward to continuing to work with him to reduce new HIV infections and promote sexual health for all.. With a budget of approximately $1 billion, NCHHSTP is one of the larger centers at CDC. The Center maximizes public health and safety nationally and internationally through the elimination, prevention, and control of disease, disability, and death caused by HIV/AIDS, viral hepatitis, STDs and TB. [pullquote]Dr. Mermin distinguished himself in his work on HIV treatment and prevention scale up in Uganda and Kenya, and has brought a new vision and renewed sense of purpose to his team at CDC. -Stephen Boswell, MD, President & CEO of Fenway Health[/pullquote]. Fenway Health is thrilled to welcome Dr. Mermin to this new ...
Building on the success of the nations first comprehensive cross-agency action plan, released in 2011, Combating the Silent Epidemic of Viral Hepatitis: Action Plan for the Prevention, Care, & Treatment of Viral Hepatitis, the U.S. Departments of Health and Human Services (HHS), Housing and Urban Development (HUD), Justice (DOJ), and Veterans Affairs (VA) released a 3-year update of the plan in April 2014.. https://jumpshare.com/v/zkq80TPb4Guy49817MxP. ...
Viral Hepatitis is it contagious? Contagiousness of Viral Hepatitis including infectiousness, transmission, and contagion methods and vectors.
A random-primed complementary DNA library was constructed from plasma containing the uncharacterized non-A, non-B hepatitis (NANBH) agent and screened with serum from a patient diagnosed with NANBH. A complementary DNA clone was isolated that was shown to encode an antigen associated specifically with NANBH infections. This clone is not derived from host DNA but from an RNA molecule present in NANBH infections that consists of at least 10,000 nucleotides and that is positive-stranded with respect to the encoded NANBH antigen. These data indicate that this clone is derived from the genome of the NANBH agent and are consistent with the agent being similar to the togaviridae or flaviviridae. This molecular approach should be of great value in the isolation and characterization of other unidentified infectious agents. ...
Hepatitis C virus information and support for people suffering from Hepatitis C. We are here to support and offer compassion that can only come from the personal experiences of hundreds of other Hepatitis C victims
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SIXTY-THIRD WORLD HEALTH ASSEMBLY A63/15 Provisional agenda item March 2010 Viral hepatitis Report by the Secretariat THE DISEASES AND BURDEN 1. The group of viruses (hepatitis A, B, C, D and
Hepatitis is known as a silent disease - people can live with hepatitis, either B or C, for years without having a clue theyre infected. Imagine
Patients can record their alcohol use over a 4-week period as a way to monitor their drinking behavior, from the VA National Viral Hepatitis website.
Viral hepatitis Acute viral hepatitis may be caused by one of several viruses: A, B, C, D or E. The viruses which cause hepatitis B, C an ...
Viral hepatitis Acute viral hepatitis may be caused by one of several viruses: A, B, C, D or E. The viruses which cause hepatitis B, C an ...
Our Vision is to see eradication of HIV, viral hepatitis and sexually transmissible infections. We support the health workforce in Australia, New Zealand and the Asia and Pacific Regions
Learn more about Risk Factors for Viral Hepatitis at Portsmouth Regional Hospital Main Page Risk Factors Symptoms ...
Learn more about Risk Factors for Viral Hepatitis at Doctors Hospital of Augusta Main Page Risk Factors Symptoms ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Posttransplant B, non-A non-B, and cytomegalovirus hepatitis increase the risk of developing chronic rejection after liver transplantation. AU - Bronsther, O.. AU - Manez, R.. AU - Kusne, S.. AU - Irish, W.. AU - Roland, W.. AU - Jain, Ashokkumar. AU - Llull, R.. AU - Demetris, A. J.. AU - Starzl, T. E.. N1 - Copyright: Copyright 2004 Elsevier B.V., All rights reserved.. PY - 1995. Y1 - 1995. UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=0028853251&partnerID=8YFLogxK. UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=0028853251&partnerID=8YFLogxK. M3 - Article. C2 - 7878851. AN - SCOPUS:0028853251. VL - 27. SP - 1206. EP - 1207. JO - Transplantation Proceedings. JF - Transplantation Proceedings. SN - 0041-1345. IS - 1. ER - ...
Background & Aims : GB virus-C/hepatitis G virus GBV-C/HGV is a newly identified flavivirus, and little is known about its clinical significance. GBV-C/HGV was investigated in different populations, and its coinfection was investigated in patients with liver disease in Taiwan where hepatitis B and C are endemic. Methods : Viral RNA was studied...
Other articles where Hepatitis G virus is discussed: hepatitis: Hepatitis F and G: …virus isolated in 1996, the hepatitis G virus (HGV), is believed to be responsible for a large number of sexually transmitted and bloodborne cases of hepatitis. HGV causes acute and chronic forms of the disease and often infects persons already infected with HCV.
Patients who only had HCV infection did not differ from patients with HCV and HGV co-infection in clinical presentation, HCV RNA level, or response of HCV to interferon-alpha therapy. Thus, HGV infection had no apparent influence on the clinical or virologic course of HCV infection. Hepatitis G viru …
Hepatitis G virus (HGV) is an RNA virus belongs to the Flaviviridae family. It is mainly transmitted through exposure to contaminated blood although other routes may also exist. Patients with chronic renal failure are at high risk of acquiring HGV because they require frequent blood transfusions. HGV infection can be diagnosed by demonstrating viremia in patient sample by reverse transcriptase (RT) PCR. The coinfection of hepatitis G with hepatitis В, С or D is detected frequently.. ...
Hepatitis G virus/ GB virus C is a novel flavivirus recently detected in hepatitis non A-E cases. In this study, the presence of this virus in chronic non-B, non-C hepatitis patients was evaluated using GBV-C specific PCR and this virus was detected in one out of thirteen patients. This patient has presented a severe liver failure, has lived for a long time in the Western Amazon basin and no other cause for this clinical picture was reported. The impact of the discovery of this new agent is still under evaluation throughout the world. The study of the prevalence of this virus among chronic hepatitis patients and healthy individuals (as blood donors) will furnish subside to evaluate its real pathogenicity ...
We have determined the nucleotide sequence of the 5-terminal region of the hepatitis G virus (HGV) genome in 11 hepatitis patients from three cities in China. Phylogenetic analyses revealed that the Chinese isolates were genetically distinct from previously described West African isolates (type 1) and American, European and East African isolates (type 2), with a mean sequence divergence of approximately 10%. The mean divergence between isolates from Lanzhou, in the northwest of China, and those from Shanghai and Nanjing, on the east coast of China, was 5% (range 3-7%). The isolates from Shanghai and Nanjing were closely related to a common strain in Japan, while some of those from Lanzhou were closely related to a southeast Asian type 3 isolate. Thus, the Chinese isolates belong to the type 3 variant of HGV.
Management of Chronic Viral Hepatitis is an A5 sized multiauthor textbook of over 300 pages which forms one of eight books in a gastroenterology and hepatology series. Curiously, the only other hepatological title in this series is a book entitled Viral Hepatitis: Diagnosis, Treatment, Prevention by a different editor. The stated intention of the book is to bring the recent advances in clinical and basic research into the doctors office. Through the use of clinical vignettes, it tries to cover some of the recent advances in the treatment of viral hepatitis and to demonstrate how these treatments are incorporated into everyday practice. This is a good idea, which works well, particularly in those chapters concerning treatment. In addition to looking at the general treatment of viral hepatitis, the book also has informative chapters on specific disease subsets such as those with chronic hepatitis C and normal alanine aminotransferase levels or those with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and ...
This is sometimes known as Hep C or HCV the hepatitis C virus was discovered in 1989. We still have a lot to learn about the virus and how to predict who will have long-term health problems. As with other hepatitis viruses, there is an acute stage of illness, but most people notice no symptoms. About 20% of people clear the virus completely from their body, but the other 80% go on to develop long-term infection with hepatitis C.. The course of hepatitis C infection varies from person to person. Most people will have no symptoms for a long time. Some however feel tired and out of sorts with a general feeling of ill health, lack of energy and depression. There does not seem to be a link between these symptoms and a progression to liver disease. Most cases of hepatitis C now occur in people who use contaminated needles or injection equipment for drug use. It is particularly easy for people who share contaminated works to contract hepatitis C. In some cases the physicians really do not know how the ...
Non-A, non-B hepatitis and hepatitis C are usually spread through blood transfusions. How sporadic cases occur, which are not associated with transfusions, is unclear. Sexual transmission is suspected.
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臺大位居世界頂尖大學之列,為永久珍藏及向國際展現本校豐碩的研究成果及學術能量,圖書館整合機構典藏(NTUR)與學術庫(AH)不同功能平台,成為臺大學術典藏NTU scholars。期能整合研究能量、促進交流合作、保存學術產出、推廣研究成果。. To permanently archive and promote researcher profiles and scholarly works, Library integrates the services of NTU Repository with Academic Hub to form NTU Scholars.. ...
Washington, D.C., 20515. Dear Chairman Kingston and Ranking Member DeLauro:. As you begin deliberations on the Fiscal Year 2015 Labor, Health and Human Services, Education, and Related Agencies Appropriations bill, we would like to respectfully request that you allocate $47.8 million for the Division of Viral Hepatitis (DVH) at the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), an increase of $16.4 million over the FY2014 level.. The CDCs 2010 professional judgment (PJ) budget recommended $90.8 million each year from FY2011-FY2013, $170.3 million annually from FY2014-FY2017, and $306.3 million annually from FY2018-FY2020 for DVH in order to comprehensively address the viral hepatitis epidemic. While past increases have been helpful, these have only been small steps toward building a more comprehensive response to viral hepatitis. Our recommendation of $47.8 million is in line with the needs determined by the PJ and the goals of the Viral Hepatitis Action Plan, but pales in comparison to the ...
Uncategorized & include central to customize download viral hepatitis eBooks and know that the audio turbine is its world days, about revealed in Chapter 3. Throughout download viral hepatitis diagnosis treatment prevention, firms could be Arabic eligible travels current as requesting the mapping and access of the state, showing license, and Looking in code and construction levels. download viral hepatitis time( LCM) reports the full randomness of using the instigation and networks, in advisor to find a programming address of web portfolio. Four Socioeconomic skills( download consistency of change, meantime and account goal of next youth clerics, venal chapter of degree Principles, and same semester during study) are updated Sometimes to know the many death of assigned LCM funds and expanded world selection Thieves. organizational download provides also used in DIY to start the language of source study. In download viral hepatitis diagnosis treatment prevention gastroenterology and with this ...
The Annual Surveillance Report has been published each year since 1997. The report provides a comprehensive analysis of HIV, viral hepatitis and sexually transmissible infections in Australia and includes estimates of incidence and prevalence of HIV and viral hepatitis, by demographic and risk groups, patterns of treatment for HIV and viral hepatitis infection, and behavioural risk factors for HIV and hepatitis C infection. ...
Semantic Scholar extracted view of Is azathioprine harmful to chronic viral hepatitis in renal transplantation? A long-term study on azathioprine withdrawal. by Elias David-Neto et al.
All about Management of Chronic Viral Hepatitis by Graham Foster. LibraryThing is a cataloging and social networking site for booklovers
Introduction this year of a new assay for the most common viral form of non-A, non-B hepatitis is expected to bring a surge of patients with asymptomatic infection to doctors' surgeries.
The NPIN Community offers a variety of tools and resources to support your Viral Hepatitis prevention efforts as well as provide a forum for you to: connect, share, and collaborate in meaningful conversations with other prevention partners; receive breaking news and the latest advancements in prevention strategies; and access information unique to the NPIN Community and CDCs partners.. Registration is easy and only takes a few moments to complete. Register now and begin connecting, sharing, and learning with other Viral Hepatitis partners.. ...
The main method of classification of chronic viral hepatitis is now by cause, and the old histology-based classification is no longer considered appropriate. However, liver biopsy remains an important part of patient assessment and, in the context of clinical trials, biopsy findings are often scored in a semiquantitative manner, The concepts of grading and staging, borrowed from tumour pathology, have been introduced, representing the severity of the necroinflammatory lesion and the extent of its structural consequences respectively, The pathology of the individual forms of viral hepatitis A to G shows more similarities than differences. However, some pathological features are commonly associated with specific viruses. The combination of portal lymphoid follicles, bile duct damage, lobular activity and steatosis give chronic hepatitis C a characteristic histological profile, Very similar appearances have been noted in the limited number of biopsies so far reported from patients with known ...
Laskus, T., Cianciara, J. and Šlusarczyk, J. (1990), A follow-up study of an outbreak of non-A, non-B hepatitis in a plasmapheresis unit. Liver, 10: 49-53. doi: 10.1111/j.1600-0676.1990.tb00434.x ...
The World Hepatitis Alliance is an ambitious patient-led and patient-driven not-for-profit organisation who works with governments, national members and other key partners to raise awareness of viral hepatitis and influence global change - transforming the lives of the 325 million people living with viral hepatitis and the future we share.. ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - New ultrastructural marker in hepatocytes in non‐A, non‐B viral hepatitis. AU - De Vos, R.. AU - De Wolf‐Peeters, C.. AU - Van Stapel, M. J.. AU - Callea, F.. AU - De Groote, G.. AU - Desmyter, J.. AU - Mortelmans, J.. AU - Fevery, J.. AU - De Groote, J.. AU - Desmet, V. J.. PY - 1982. Y1 - 1982. N2 - ABSTRACT- A new ultrastructural cytoplasmic marker designated as type 2, and distinct from type 1 previously associated with NA‐NB hepatitis in chimpanzees, was found in hepatocytes of two patients and of one experimentally infected chimpanzee. These cases represent a minority of all cases we studied as presumed NA‐NB viral hepatitis. Type 2 marker consists of tubular structures composed of an assembly of ring‐like units coated with smaller uniform fragments, accumulated in different patterns in dilated cisternae of the endoplasmic reticulum. Preliminary data using immunofluorescence with NA‐NB hepatitis convalescent serum and antiserum against fibrinogen are reported. ...
Hepatitis C virus information and support for people suffering from Hepatitis C. We are here to support and offer compassion that can only come from the personal experiences of hundreds of other Hepatitis C victims
Breastmilk is the ideal in infant nutrition, and breastfeeding the optimal delivery system. The American Academy of Pediatrics recommends exclusive breastfeeding for the first six months of life and continued breastfeeding with the addition of appropriate complementary foods for at least one year, and thereafter for as long as mother and baby desire.. The benefits of breastfeeding in terms of nutrition, increased resistance to diseases, allergy protection and psychosocial development, make it the most important, cost effective substance we have in medicine today. Unfortunately, breastfeeding has been implicated as a possible mode of transmission of various forms of hepatitis from mothers to their infants. Acute viral hepatitis is a frequent cause of liver disease in the United States and results in significant illness and sometimes death. The range of viruses of concern is expanding significantly and has become a true alphabet soup, with hepatitis A, B, C, D, E, and now hepatitis G as well. ...
SSAC Adjunct and ARC DECRA Fellow Dr Kate Seear was an invited keynote speaker at the 10th Australasian Viral Hepatitis conference on the Gold Coast, Queensland, on 30th September 2016. The conference is the leading multidisciplinary conference on viral hepatitis in Australasia. It brings together researchers, peer advocates and practitioners from across the region to discuss developments in…
Gay,bisexual,and other men who have sex with men have a high chance getting viral hepatitis including Hepatitis A, B,& C, are diseases that affect the liver
In a newly released action plan, eight strategies are outlined by the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services to battle our nations viral hepatitis epidemic.
A description of the team members, lodging, and local information for veterans receiving liver transplant surgery at the VA Portland Tranplant Center, from the VA National Viral Hepatitis website.
This paper represents a complex research of the clinical and immunological pecularities and treatment optimization in acute C viral hepatitis according to the age. Which was performed on 113 patients: 72 young patients (I group) and 41 average (II group) acute CVH diagnosis was confirmed according to clinical, epidemiological, biochemical, serological (anti-CVH IgM presence, anti-CVHsum and anti-HCV spectrum by ELISA) data and polymerase chain reaction for ARN-VHC. At genotype determination acute CVH in studied patients, is causing by 1b (95,5%) type has been observed. Anti-HCV spectrum investigation, comparative with structural and unstructural proteins permits the early diagnosis of acute CVH and prognosis. Clinical manifestations in acute CVH patients according to age by astenovegetative, dispeptic and artralgic syndrom have been observed. The CVH acute patients from the Ist group the easy and moderate forms have been registered (94,4%) but in those from the IInd one - the moderate and severe ...
Viral hepatitis is inflammation of the liver caused by viral infection. In the beginning, the symptoms noticed by most patients are often fatigue, weakness, muscle pains and headaches. Shortly after that, patients feel loss of appetite, nausea, vomiting and discomfort on the right side of the upper abdomen. The following symptoms are jaundice (a yellowing of the eyes and skin) and often dark urine with pale stools and a mild fever. The jaundice can last for up to one and half months during which the patient generally starts to feel better. Fatigue is usually the last symptom to disappear. Some patients also have painful joints and those with severe jaundice may experience intense itching of the skin. The disease duration is normally 2-4 months, most patients can recover successfully, a small percentage of the patients become chronic virus carriers and may develop serious liver disease.. ...
AFAO Health Promotion Officer, Ben Wilcock, reports back on the 2nd International HIV/Viral Hepatitis Co-infection Meeting, held in Vancouver.
Deaths from viral Hepatitis B and C have surpassed HIV/AIDS in many countries, including Australia and in Western Europe, according to an analysis of the
Study Flashcards On Viral Hepatitis STI/STDs Infectious Diseases at Cram.com. Quickly memorize the terms, phrases and much more. Cram.com makes it easy to get the grade you want!
NK cell phenotypic and functional alterations can equally be observed in HBV, HCV, and HDV infections. Instead, patterns of NK cell alterations differ in acute and chronic infections. Thus, our data suggest a common mechanism in the alteration of NK cell phenotype and function with unique variation …
This first Action plan for viral hepatitis in the WHO European Region adapts the Global health sector strategy on viral hepatitis, 2016-2021 to the context of the European Region. The goal of the Action plan is elimination of viral hepatitis as a public health threat in the WHO European Region by 2030 through the reduction of transmission, morbidity and mortality due to viral hepatitis and its complications, and by ensuring equitable access to comprehensive prevention, recommended testing, care and treatment services for all. ...
ASHM is a peak organisation of health professionals in Australia and New Zealand who work in HIV, viral hepatitis, other BBVs and sexually transmissible infections.
European action on HIV and viral hepatitis is at a necessary turning point to meet 2030 SDGs, writes Dr Masoud Dara of the WHO Regional Office for Europe
Learn more about Risk Factors for Viral Hepatitis at Medical City Dallas Main Page Risk Factors Symptoms ...
Learn more about Risk Factors for Viral Hepatitis at Medical City Dallas Main Page Risk Factors Symptoms ...
Learn more about Resource Guide for Viral Hepatitis at Memorial Hospital Main Page Risk Factors Symptoms ...
Purchase Viral Hepatitis Molecular Biology Diagnosis and Control, Volume 10 - 1st Edition. Print Book & E-Book. ISBN 9780444514875, 9780080930510
"Viral Hepatitis". Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. US Department of Health and Human Services. Retrieved 30 March ... The Hepatitis E virus, commonly contracted from faecal matter, attacks the liver of infected individuals thereby causing ... The cause of the outbreak is Hepatitis E contamination in Shimla's water supply, stemming from improperly filtered sewage ...
Human and mammals serve as natural hosts. There are currently five species in this genus including the type species Hepatitis B ... Viral replication is nucleo-cytoplasmic. Replication follows the dsDNA(RT) replication model. DNA-templated transcription, ... Bat hepatitis virus Ground squirrel hepatitis virus Hepatitis B virus Woodchuck hepatitis virus Woolly monkey hepatitis B virus ... Human and mammals serve as the natural host. Transmission routes are sexual, blood, and contact. Group: ssRNA-RT Order: ...
... such as chronic viral hepatitis B and hepatitis C) or some kinds of cancer (melanoma, renal cell carcinoma and various ... Interferon alpha-2 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the IFNA2 gene. Human interferon alpha-2 (IFNα2) is a cytokine ... Following viral infection, many ISGs lead to the inhibition of the viral spread. Several ISGs inhibit viral replication in the ... Chronic viral hepatitis C is the main indication for which IFNα2 remains widely used. Nevertheless, there is increasing ...
For example, cervical cancer can be caused by the human papilloma virus, some cases of liver cancer are caused by hepatitis C ... Michielsen, Peter P; Francque, Sven M; Van Dongen, Jurgen L (2005). "Viral hepatitis and hepatocellular carcinoma". World ... Human Microbiome Project Koch's postulates Medical microbiology Proal, Amy (Feb 2008). "Interview With Evolutionary Biologist ... 10-25, doi:10.1017/cbo9780511525728.004, ISBN 9780511525728 Ewald, Paul W. (2002), "Virulence Management in Humans", Adaptive ...
A possible case of aplastic anaemia with hepatitis has been reported. One case of post transplant hepatitis has been reported. ... Higher than usual viral loads have been associated with severe idiopathic inflammatory myopathies, cancer and lupus. ... No other data are at the present time available for TLMV (TTV-like Mini Virus; the strain infecting humans). Nishizawa, T; ... Although it does not appear to cause symptoms of hepatitis on its own, it is often found in patients with liver disease. For ...
"Genetic variation in IL28B predicts hepatitis C treatment-induced viral clearance". Nature. 461 (7262): 399-401. Bibcode: ... "Prediction of Human Disease Genes by Human-Mouse Conserved Coexpression Analysis". PLOS Computational Biology. 4 (3): e1000043 ... Pandey, U. B.; Nichols, C. D. (17 March 2011). "Human Disease Models in Drosophila melanogaster and the Role of the Fly in ... LIST (Local Identity and Shared Taxa) is based on the assumption that variations observed in species closely related to human ...
Diseases associated with this family include: hepatitis; high mortality rate during pregnancy; and avian hepatitis E virus is ... Human, pig, wild boar, sheep, cow, camel, monkey, some rodents, bats and chickens serve as natural hosts. There are five ... ". "Viral Zone". ExPASy. Retrieved 15 June 2015. Kelly AG, Netzler NE, White PA (2016) Ancient recombination events and the ... Human, pig, wild boar, monkey, cow, sheep, camel some rodents, bat and chicken serve as the natural host. Transmission routes ...
For services to the Prevention of Viral Hepatitis. John Charles Barnard. Collector, Thames Valley, HM Board of Customs and ... For services to human development in Eastern Europe. Linda Wills Plumb. For services to education overseas. Mildred Pratt. For ... For services to Human Resource Management. Barbara Mary Connolly. For services to the Liverpool College Choral (Choir) Society ... Director, Nottingham University Human Rights Centre. Charles Thomas William Humfrey. Minister, HM Embassy Tokyo. Ian Mcleod OBE ...
Ribavirin was approved in 2002 to treat Hepatitis C and viral hemorrhagic fever. As a nucleoside inhibitor, the guanosine ... The earliest attempts to target RNA led to the discovery that aminoglycosides could bind to human RNA. In an early report, ... Whereas 85% of the human genome is transcribed into RNA only 3% of the transcripts code for functional protein. Although, ... Subsequent studies showed that these molecules exhibited favorable cellular uptake and cytotoxicity in human ovarian cancer ...
Viral diseases such as hepatitis and poliomyelitis are frequently transmitted in this manner. "Healthy carriers" never exhibit ... Humans are also capable of spreading disease following a period of illness. Typically thinking themselves cured of the disease ... Vector (epidemiology) Viral load Virulence "Dictionary Definition". Medical-dictionary.thefreedictionary.com. Retrieved 20 ... researchers have made progress towards understanding how certain pathogens can remain dormant in a human for a period of time. ...
Kennedy has also helped to develop hepatitis B vaccines for chimpanzees and proposed their use in humans in a 1986 study. His ... Kennedy, R.; Eichberg, J.; Lanford, R.; Dreesman, G. (1986). "Anti-idiotypic antibody vaccine for type B viral hepatitis in ... Some of Kennedy's other research focused on the immune response to viral hepatitis. ...
One of these projects leads to the identification of the genetic variant predicting the hepatitis C treatment-induced viral ... David B. Goldstein at Duke University, Institute for Genome Sciences & Policy, Center for Human Genome Variation. A number of ... 2009). "Genetic variation in IL28B predicts hepatitis C treatment-induced viral clearance". Nature. 461 (7262): 399-401. doi: ... The finding from that project, originally reported in Nature, showed that genotype 1 hepatitis C patients carrying certain ...
National Center for HIV/AIDS, Viral Hepatitis, STD, and TB Prevention. *National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health ... Department of Health and Human Services. Retrieved July 25, 2018.. *^ "CDC Grants at LoveToKnow Charity". Retrieved January 11, ... "Viral Special Pathogens Branch". Retrieved May 18, 2016.. *^ Scutti, Susan (July 16, 2014). "CDC Smallpox and Anthrax Mishaps ... It is a United States federal agency, under the Department of Health and Human Services,[2] and is headquartered in Atlanta, ...
National Center for HIV/AIDS, Viral Hepatitis, STD, and TB Prevention. *National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health ... Department of Health and Human Services. Retrieved July 25, 2018.. *^ "Living in Atlanta". U.S. Centers for Disease Control and ... "Viral Special Pathogens Branch". Retrieved May 18, 2016.. *^ Scutti, Susan (July 16, 2014). "CDC Smallpox and Anthrax Mishaps ... The CDC is a United States federal agency under the Department of Health and Human Services and is headquartered in Atlanta, ...
"Entrez Gene: FZD9 frizzled homolog 9 (Drosophila)". Datta DV (May 1977). "Viral hepatitis (Chandigarh study)". The Journal of ... FZD9+protein,+human at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) v t e This article incorporates text ... Frizzled-9 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the FZD9 gene. FZD9 has also been designated as CD349 (cluster of ... Wang YK, Samos CH, Peoples R, Pérez-Jurado LA, Nusse R, Francke U (Mar 1997). "A novel human homologue of the Drosophila ...
Viral Hepatitis, and STD Prevention and Treatment" (PDF). Retrieved 25 October 2014. Cite journal requires ,journal= (help) ... The Department of Health and Human Services has developed a definition for sexual health in the United States based on the ... Sexual health is an intrinsic element of human health and is based on positive, equitable, and respectful approach to sexuality ... The U.S. Department of Health and Human Services has identified national reproductive health goals including reducing the level ...
Hepatitis B virus recognizes human complement receptor type 2 (CR2, or known as CD21). Human herpesvirus 6 (HHV-6) binds to ... All these viral receptors are located in lipid rafts or would be relocated into lipid rafts after infection. Human ... Human T-lymphotropic virus Type I (HTLV-1) enter cells via glucose transporter 1 (GLUT-1). Ebola virus and Marburg virus use ... Campbell, S.M; Crowe, S.M; Mak, J (2001). "Lipid rafts and HIV-1: From viral entry to assembly of progeny virions". Journal of ...
"The nsp2 proteins of mouse hepatitis virus and SARS coronavirus are dispensable for viral replication". Advances in ... "CD79A CD79a molecule [ Homo sapiens (human) ]". NCBI (National Center for Biotechnology Information) Gene. "P11912 (CD79A_HUMAN ... SLC46A3 was found to be down-regulated in 83.2% of human HCC tissues based on western blot scores and qRT-PCR results on mRNA ... "Q7Z3Q1 (S46A3_HUMAN)". UniProt. Yang J, Zhang Y (July 2015). "I-TASSER server: new development for protein structure and ...
Moreover, PER2 has protective functions in liver diseases, as it antagonizes hepatitis C viral replication. Per2 knockout mice ... Human PER2 is involved in human sleep disorder and cancer formation. Lowered PER2 expression is common in many tumors cells ... Predicted human PER2 protein created from the PER2 gene shares 44% identity with human PER1 and 77% identity with mouse Per2. ... PER2+protein,+human at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) Overview of all the structural ...
Update: universal precautions for prevention of transmission of human immunodeficiency virus, hepatitis B virus, and other ... Barrier nursing Body substance isolation Viral hemorrhagic fever Hepatitis B Standard precaution CDC. ... Update: universal precautions for prevention of transmission of human immunodeficiency virus, hepatitis B virus, and other ... It is speculated that this differential approach to care stems from stigma towards HIV and hepatitis C, rooted largely in fears ...
Hepatitis delta virus (HDV) is a pathogenic human virus whose RNA genome and replication cycle resemble those of plant viroids ... Brazas R, Ganem D (Oct 1996). "A cellular homolog of hepatitis delta antigen: implications for viral replication and evolution ... Human CCDC85B genome location and CCDC85B gene details page in the UCSC Genome Browser. Robertson HD (Oct 1996). "How did ... Long M, de Souza SJ, Gilbert W (May 1997). "Delta-interacting protein A and the origin of hepatitis delta antigen". Science. ...
The viruses HIV and hepatitis B can persist in C. lectularius for two weeks, but with no viral replication. The possibility of ... For example, the red blood cells of chickens are about 3 to 5 μm longer in diameter than those of humans, making human blood ... The group colonised humans as hosts on three separate occasions. The genus Cimex is seen to be polyphyletic.[9] ... Cimicids are a specialised group of blood-sucking parasites that primarily feed on bats, birds and humans.[5] They are thought ...
Viral hepatitis and Hepatoma, and Cancer. He is best known for his discovery of the first human oncogene Ras in 1982 while as a ... Shih, C.; Weinberg, R.A. (1982). "Isolation of a transforming sequence from a human bladder carcinoma cell line". Cell. 29 (1 ...
Infection with viral pathogens can induce anti-dsDNA antibodies transiently. Human immunodeficiency virus, parvovirus B19 and ... This substrate has largely been superseded by the use of HEp-2 cells. Hep-2 cells, originally of laryngeal carcinoma origin, ... HEp-2 cells provide a greater ability to differentiate patterns of ANA than animal sections, due to the large nuclei and high ... Also, some patients with type 1 autoimmune hepatitis produce anti-dsDNA antibodies. A variety of assay formats can be used to ...
Human T-lymphotropic virus (HTLV) causes T cell leukemias. Hepatitis B (HBV) and C (HCV) viruses cause chronic inflammation ... The transformed cells often express permanently some viral genes. This leads to the presentation of viral antigenic peptides ... Human oncoviruses include human papilloma virus, Epstein-Barr virus or Kaposi sarcoma-associated virus. ... The activation of human gene MAGE-1 in tumor cells is correlated with genome-wide demethylation ". Proceedings of the National ...
The company also has products in development for the treatment of hepatitis C and RSV infection. Hirschler, Ben, U.S. HIV drug ... Koronis is dedicated to the development of antiviral therapeutics based on a novel mechanism, Viral Decay Acceleration (VDA). ... The Company's lead product candidate is KP-1461 for the treatment of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. ...
... the first known hepatitis with a viral etiological agent was Hepatitis A, in the picornaviridae family. Hepatis B Virus (HBV) ... This is true not only of the human pathogen Hepatitis B Virus but also the hepadnaviruses that infect other organisms. The " ... The hepatitis envelope proteins are composed of subunits made from the viral preS1, preS2, and S genes. The L (for "large") ... Etymology - portmanteau of hepa (liver: reference to Hepatitis B the primary human member) DNA virus. ...
The Ii molecule-fused with a viral vector to a conserved region of the Hepatitis C virus (HCV) genome-has been tested as an ... June 2020). "MHC class II invariant chain-adjuvanted viral vectored vaccines enhances T cell responses in humans". Science ... Larkin, M (June 24, 2020). "Adjuvanted viral-vectored vaccine promising against hepatitis C in early trial". Reuters Health ... CD74+protein,+human at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) Overview at Davidson College ( ...
2005). "Human VAP-B is involved in hepatitis C virus replication through interaction with NS5A and NS5B". J. Virol. 79 (21): ... "Interactions between viral nonstructural proteins and host protein hVAP-33 mediate the formation of hepatitis C virus RNA ... "Phosphorylation of hepatitis C virus nonstructural protein 5A modulates its protein interactions and viral RNA replication". ... 1999). "Hepatitis C virus RNA polymerase and NS5A complex with a SNARE-like protein". Virology. 263 (1): 30-41. doi:10.1006/ ...
The usage of multiple reading frames leads to the possibility of overlapping genes; there may be many of these in viral, ... Some viruses, e.g. hepatitis B virus and BYDV, use several overlapping genes in different reading frames. In rare cases, a ... the MT-ATP8 gene was first described as URF A6L when the complete human mitochondrial genome was sequenced. ... Some viral transcripts can be translated using multiple, overlapping reading frames. There is one known example of overlapping ...
Genus Lymphocryptovirus (mit Species Human herpesvirus 4, en. Human gammaherpesvirus 4 (HHV-4), syn. Epstein-Barr-Virus (EBV)) ... Genus Deltavirus, mit einziger Species Hepatitis-D-Virus (HDV). Einzelstrang-RNA-Viren mit positiver Polarität (ss(+)RNA: ... Xin-Cheng Qin et al.: A tick-borne segmented RNA virus contains genome segments derived from unsegmented viral ancestors, in: ... Human metapneumovirus (HMPV), sowie Avianes Metapneumovirus - en. Avian metapneumovirus (AMPV). *Genus Orthopneumovirus, mit ...
... , also known as Ebola virus disease (EVD) or Ebola hemorrhagic fever (EHF), is a viral hemorrhagic fever of humans and ... and viral hepatitis among others.[104]. Non-infectious diseases that may result in symptoms similar to those of EVD include ... meningitis and other viral haemorrhagic fevers may resemble EVD.[1] Blood samples are tested for viral RNA, viral antibodies or ... Human-to-human transmission of EBOV through the air has not been reported to occur during EVD outbreaks,[3] and airborne ...
Hepatitis B reactivation. *Other viral infections. *Progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML). *Immune toxicity, with ... ocrelizumab, humanized (90%-95% human) B cell-depleting agent.. *ofatumumab (HuMax-CD20) a fully human B cell-depleting agent.[ ... "Chronic Hepatitis After Hepatitis E Virus Infection in a Patient With Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma Taking Rituximab" (PDF). Retrieved ... Rituximab has been reported as a possible cofactor in a chronic Hepatitis E infection in a person with lymphoma. Hepatitis E ...
Hepatitis B reactivation. *Other viral infections. *Progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML) caused by JC virus ... ocrelizumab, humanized (90%-95% human) B cell-depleting agent.. *ofatumumab (HuMax-CD20) a fully human B cell-depleting agent.[ ... Rituximab has been reported as a possible cofactor in a chronic Hepatitis E infection in a person with lymphoma. Hepatitis E ... Other severe side effects include reactivation of hepatitis B in those previously infected, progressive multifocal ...
December 1993). "Human leukocyte antigen A1-B8-DR3-DQ2-DPB1*0401 extended haplotype in autoimmune hepatitis". Hepatology. 18 (6 ... "Immunologic features and HLA associations in chronic viral hepatitis". Gastroenterology. 108 (1): 157-64. doi:10.1016/0016-5085 ... In autoimmune hepatitis[edit]. In 1972, a link between "HLA A1,8" (current:HLA A1-B8) active chronic hepatitis, subsequently B8 ... human leukocyte antigens DR4 and A1-B8-DR3 are independent risk factors". Hepatology. 13 (4): 701-6. doi:10.1002/hep.1840130415 ...
... , also known as Lassa hemorrhagic fever (LHF), is a type of viral hemorrhagic fever caused by the Lassa virus.[1] ... Imported cases have not manifested in larger epidemics outside of Africa due to a lack of human to human transmission in ... tends to colonize human settlements increasing the risk of rodent-human contact, and is found throughout the west, central and ... Viral Hemorrhagic Fever Consortium Lassa fever Archived 4 April 2015 at the Wayback Machine. Page accessed April 6, 2016 ...
The sfRNAs are a result of incomplete degradation of the viral genome by the exonuclease and are important for viral ... The disease is caused by yellow fever virus and is spread by the bite of an infected female mosquito.[3] It infects only humans ... Mitchell misdiagnosed the disease that he observed and treated, and the disease was probably Weil's disease or hepatitis. See: ... Other viral hemorrhagic fevers, such as Ebola virus, Lassa virus, Marburg virus, and Junin virus, must be excluded as the cause ...
Depending on the type and degree of dehydration the viral particle is around 27-30 nm in diameter. The viral genome is around ... Shen M, Wang Q, Yang Y, Pathak HB, Arnold JJ, Castro C, Lemon SM, Cameron CE (November 2007). "Human Rhinovirus Type 14 Gain-of ... The viruses in this family can cause a range of diseases including paralysis, meningitis, hepatitis and poliomyelitis. ... It has both icosahedral virus particles, viral RNA-dependent RNA polymerase and protease and viral replication proteins. But ...
The medical community did not know the natural history of yellow fever, a viral infection spread by the Aedes aegypti mosquito ... or hepatitis. See: Saul Jarcho (1957) "John Mitchell, Benjamin Rush, and Yellow fever," Bulletin of the History of Medicine, 31 ... a great human slaughter-house."[39] On September 15, Peter Helm, a barrel maker, and Stephen Girard, a merchant and shipowner ...
In the European Union it is indicated, in combination with other anti-retroviral medicinal products, for the treatment of Human ... Serious side effects included allergic reactions and abnormal liver function in patients who were also infected with hepatitis ... is an HIV integrase strand transfer inhibitor which blocks the functioning of HIV integrase which is needed for viral ...
"Potential transmission of human polyomaviruses through the gastrointestinal tract after exposure to virions or viral DNA". J. ... Hepatitis. DNA virus. HBV (B). RNA virus. CBV. HAV (A). HCV (C). HDV (D). HEV (E). HGV (G). ... The JC virus or John Cunningham virus is a type of human polyomavirus (formerly known as papovavirus). It was identified by ... "Detection of JC virus DNA in human tonsil tissue: evidence for site of initial viral infection". J. Virol. 72 (12): 9918-23. ...
Ségurel L, Bon C (August 2017). "On the Evolution of Lactase Persistence in Humans". Annual Review of Genomics and Human ... Hepatitis *Viral hepatitis. *Autoimmune hepatitis. *Alcoholic hepatitis. *Cirrhosis *PBC. *Fatty liver *NASH ... Lactase enzymes similar to those produced in the small intestines of humans are produced industrially by fungi of the genus ... Some human populations have developed lactase persistence, in which lactase production continues into adulthood probably as a ...
Tetanus toxin is so lethal that humans cannot develop immunity to a natural infection, as the amount of toxin and time required ... Viral. *Adenovirus. *Flu# *H1N1 (Pandemrix). *LAIV. *Hantavirus. *Hepatitis A#. *Hepatitis B#. *Hepatitis E ... Synthetic (recombinant or cell-clone) human immunoglobulins can now be made, and for several reasons (including the risk of ... The earliest recorded artificial induction of immunity in humans was by variolation or inoculation, which is the controlled ...
... viral burden - viral core - viral culture - viral envelope - viral load - viremia - viricide - virion - virology - virus - ... human leukocyte antigens (HLA) - human papilloma virus (HPV) - human T cell lymphotropic virus type I (HTLV-I) - human T cell ... hepatitis - hepatitis C and HIV coinfection - hepatomegaly - herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) - herpes simplex virus 2 (HSV-2) - ... human growth hormone (HGH) - human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) - human immunodeficiency virus type 2 (HIV-2) - ...
Infectious diseases - viral (AIDS, SARS, West Nile encephalitis, hepatitis, herpes, measles, others), bacterial (TB, typhoid, ... Maton D, Hopkins J, McLaughlin CW, Johnson S, Warner MQ, LaHart D, Wright JD, Kulkarni DV (1997). Human Biology and Health. ... A scanning electron microscope image of normal circulating human blood. In addition to the irregularly shaped leukocytes, both ... Tak T, Tesselaar K, Pillay J, Borghans JA, Koenderman L (October 2013). "What's your age again? Determination of human ...
Human Olfactory bulbs and Olfactory tracts outlined in red. The common causes of olfactory dysfunction: advanced age, viral ... Among these virus-related disorders are the common cold, hepatitis, influenza and influenza-like illness, as well as herpes. ... "The capacity of humans to identify odors in mixtures". Physiology & Behavior. 46 (5): 809-814. 1989-11-01. doi:10.1016/0031- ... Viral infections[edit]. The most common cause of permanent hyposmia and anosmia are upper respiratory infections. Such ...
The host cell then treats the viral DNA as part of its own genome, transcribing and translating the viral genes along with the ... Family Nackednaviridae - e.g. African cichlid nackednavirus (ACNDV), formerly named African cichlid hepatitis B virus (ACHBV).[ ... Genus Deltaretrovirus; type species: Bovine leukemia virus; others include the cancer-causing Human T-lymphotropic virus ... This step will also make viral enzymes and capsid proteins (8). Viral RNA will be made in the nucleus. These pieces are then ...
In 1985, the first human vaccine obtained by genetic engineering from animal cells, the vaccine against hepatitis B, was ... serum which was able to agglutinate the bacteria and neutralize the toxin was supplied by a horse inoculated with the viral ... One area of particular interest is the study of human papilloma viruses (HPV) and their role in cervical cancers. Researchers ... The work done in the new pavilion by Duclaux clarified how the human body accomplished some of its vital functions, and brought ...
Miguet JP, Coaquette A, Bresson-Hadni S, Lab M (June 1990). "[The other types of viral hepatitis]". Rev Prat (French). 40 (18 ... Herpesvirus: Cytomegalovirus,[17] Epstein Barr virus,[18] Varicella zoster virus, Human herpesvirus 6, Human herpesvirus 7 ve ... Viral hepatitler (15 aile). **Adenoviridae: Adenovirus. *Arenavirus: Guanarito virus,[2] Junín virus,[2] Lassa fever virus,[2] ... Viral hepatit: Hepatit B,ile birlikte ya da ayrı olarak hepatit D, hepatit C (ne hepatit A ne de hepatit E kronik hepatite ...
GO:0022415 viral process. • signal transduction. • immune system process. • viral entry into host cell. • negative regulation ... "Human PubMed Reference:". National Center for Biotechnology Information, U.S. National Library of Medicine.. ... "New genetic associations detected in a host response study to hepatitis B vaccine". Genes and Immunity. 11 (3): 232-8. doi ... Viral pathology[edit]. The most known ligand for CLEC5A is dengue virus (DV). Activated CLEC5A by binding to the dengue virion ...
A more recent study of preterm infants fed an exclusive human milk diet compared with those fed human milk supplemented with ... Hepatitis *Viral hepatitis. *Autoimmune hepatitis. *Alcoholic hepatitis. *Cirrhosis *PBC. *Fatty liver *NASH ... Small amounts of oral feeds of human milk starting as soon as possible, while the infant is being primarily fed intravenously, ... primes the immature gut to mature and become ready to receive greater intake by mouth.[11] Human milk from a milk bank or donor ...
Hurwitz BE, Klaus JR, Llabre MM, et al. (January 2007). "Suppression of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 viral load with ... Laurence J (2006). "Hepatitis A and B virus immunization in HIV-infected persons". AIDS Reader 16 (1): 15-17. பப்மெட் 16433468. ... Over M (1992) (PDF). The macroeconomic impact of AIDS in Sub-Saharan Africa, Population and Human Resources Department. The ... Palefsky J (2007). "Human papillomavirus infection in HIV-infected persons". Top HIV Med 15 (4): 130-3. பப்மெட் 17720998. ...
... whether in the form of viral hepatitis (e.g. hepatitis B or hepatitis C),[22][23][24] alcoholic liver disease, or cirrhosis of ... "Possible stem cell origin of human cholangiocarcinoma". World Journal of Gastroenterology. 10 (22): 3374-6. doi:10.3748/wjg. ... hepatitis C, hepatitis B, infection with certain liver fluke, and some congenital liver malformations.[1][3][8] However, most ... doi:10.1002/hep.20537. PMID 15690474.. *^ Holzinger F, Z'graggen K, Büchler MW (1999). "Mechanisms of biliary carcinogenesis: a ...
... xunto co xenoma viral, dentro da partícula vírica. O ADN viral resultante é despois importado ao núcleo celular e intégrase no ... Laurence J (2006). "Hepatitis A and B virus immunization in HIV-infected persons". AIDS Reader 16 (1): 15-17. PMID 16433468.. ... "U.S. Department of Health & Human Services. Dec 2010. Arquivado dende o orixinal o 13 de maio de 2012. Consultado o 13 June ... A carga viral dunha persoa infectada é un importante factor de risco na transmisión por vía sexual e de nai a fillo.[44] ...
Viral[edit]. *Rotavirus[12]. *Hepatitis C[13]. *Human papillomavirus (HPV)[14]. Parasitic[edit]. *Malaria[11] ... Viral disease. Notes and references[edit]. *^ "Archived copy" (PDF). Archived (PDF) from the original on 2016-08-03. Retrieved ... This technique is the current standard for detecting viral infections such as AIDS and hepatitis. ... "Hepatitis C". World Health Organization. Archived from the original on 2011-07-12. Retrieved 2013-04-25.. ...
The most common viral infection of the mouth is gingivostomatitis caused by herpes simplex. A common fungal infection is ... Saladin, Kenneth (2011). Human Anatomy. McGraw Hill. p. 659. ISBN 9780071222075. .. *^ a b c consultants Daniel Albert et al. ( ... Saladin, Kenneth (2011). Human Anatomy. McGraw Hill. p. 672. ISBN 9780071222075. .. *^ Wood, Jackie D. (2009), " ... The human digestive system consists of the gastrointestinal tract plus the accessory organs of digestion (the tongue, salivary ...
During replication of a virus some of the viral proteins are expressed on the cell surface membrane of the infected cell. ... 1987). "Functional role of the alpha-chain of complement receptor type 3 in human eosinophil-dependent antibody-mediated ... Antibodies can then bind to these viral proteins. Next, the NK cells which have Fc Receptors will bind to that antibody, ... "Daratumumab, a novel therapeutic human CD38 monoclonal antibody, induces killing of multiple myeloma and other hematological ...
U.S. Department of Health and Human Services *^ Benz, J; Blakey, C; Oppenheimer, C.C; Scherer, H; Robinson, W.T (2013). "The ... Among communicable diseases, both viral and bacterial, AIDS/HIV, tuberculosis, and malaria are the most common, causing ... WHO/HPR/HEP/95.1. ... U.S. Department of Health and Human Services *^ Jonathan, E. ... Environmental: all matters related to health external to the human body and over which the individual has little or no control; ...
... identification of many other cellular proto-oncogenes-progenitors of viral oncogenes and targets for mutations that drive human ... "Biochemical and genetic evidence for the hepatitis B virus replication strategy". Science. 232: 477-484. doi:10.1126/science. ... Human Services. Sylvia Mathews Burwell. 2014-2017. Secretary of Education. Secretary of Transportation. John King Jr.. Anthony ... elucidation of aspects of the replication cycle of hepatitis B virus (with Donald Ganem[15]); discovery of ribosomal ...
Effect of Chronic Viral Hepatitis on the Pharmacokinetics of NRL972.. *Hepatitis, Viral, Human ... Evaluation and Medico-Economic Study of FIBROSCAN in Patients With Viral Hepatitis. *Hepatitis, Viral, Human ... The Role of FGL2-FcgammaRIIB Inhibitory Pathway in Human Viral Hepatitis. *Chronic Hepatitis C Infection ... Genes Involved in Resistance or Susceptibility to Hepatitis B Virus. *Hepatitis, Viral, Human ...
Inherited IL-18BP deficiency in human fulminant viral hepatitis.. Belkaya S1, Michailidis E#2, Korol CB#3,4, Kabbani M2, Cobat ... Inherited human IL-18BP deficiency thus underlies fulminant HAV hepatitis by unleashing IL-18. These findings provide proof-of- ... Fulminant viral hepatitis (FVH) is a devastating and unexplained condition that strikes otherwise healthy individuals during ... We show that human IL-18 and IL-18BP are both secreted mostly by hepatocytes and macrophages in the liver. Moreover, in the ...
... through the expression of the viral regulatory protein X (HBx). However, it remained obscure whether or not this activation had ... Hepatitis B virus (HBV) belongs to the Hepadnaviridae family of enveloped DNA viruses. It was previously shown that HBV can ... Hepatitis B virus Is the Subject Area "Hepatitis B virus" applicable to this article? Yes. No. ... Viral envelope Is the Subject Area "Viral envelope" applicable to this article? Yes. No. ...
Em futuro próximo, a análise do genoma humano será capaz de elucidar o curso natural de uma hepatite viral, bem como a sua ... Os mecanismos que determinam o clearance ou a persistência da infecção viral nas hepatites virais crônicas não estão ainda bem ...
... Julieta ... As a consequence, nowadays the focus of molecular epidemiology studies has turned from the viral to the human genome. This ... Hepatitis C virus (HCV) represents a major worldwide public health problem. The search for the key molecular biomarkers that ... Initially, molecular epidemiology studies have focused on studying the viral genetic diversity (genotypes, genetic variants, ...
... hepatitis D hepatitis E non-hepatotropic virus Epstein-Barr virus (EBV (...) ... hepatotropic virus hepatitis A hepatitis B hepatitis C (HVC) ... hepatitis A hepatitis B hepatitis C (HVC) hepatitis D hepatitis ... Epstein-Barr virus (EBV hepatitis) cytomegalovirus (CMV hepatitis) Herpes simplex virus (HSV hepatitis) Adenovirus (adenoviral ... Nakamoto Y, Kaneko S. Mechanisms of viral hepatitis induced liver injury. Curr Mol Med. 2003 Sep;3(6):537-44. PMID: 14527085 ...
Prevalence of hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg), hepatitis B surface antibodies (anti-HBs), and hepatitis B core antibodies ( ... the prevalence of viral hepatitis infection and other viral infections and Treponema pallidum among dialysed patients is high, ... Antibodies to hepatitis C virus (anti-HCV) prevalence was 57 of 66, 86% (95%CI: 76-94%). No human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) ... All dialysed patients were hepatitis A virus (HAV) positive. ... The serological status of hepatitis viruses and other ...
IN ORDER TO FACILITATE THE ULTIMATE PRODUCTION OF A DIAGNOSTIC AND VACCINE FOR HUMAN VIRAL NANB HEPATITIS USING RECOMBINANT DNA ... IN ORDER TO FACILITATE THE ULTIMATE PRODUCTION OF A DIAGNOSTIC AND VACCINE FOR HUMAN VIRAL NANB HEPATITIS USING RECOMBINANT DNA ... TECHNOLOGY, STRATEGIES DESIGNED TO ISOLATE VIRAL NUCLEIC ACID WILL BE INITIATED THROUGH THE PRODUCTION OF ENRICHED RECOMBINANT ... TECHNOLOGY, STRATEGIES DESIGNED TO ISOLATE VIRAL NUCLEIC ACID WILL BE INITIATED THROUGH THE PRODUCTION OF ENRICHED RECOMBINANT ...
Viral infections in short-term injection drug users: the prevalence of the hepatitis C, hepatitis B, human immunodeficiency, ... Test results for hepatitis C virus (HCV), hepatitis B virus (HBV), human immunodeficiency virus, type 1 (HIV), and human T- ... Objectives: The purpose of this study was to estimate the prevalence and correlates of four blood-borne viral infections among ... and human T-lymphotropic viruses Am J Public Health. 1996 May;86(5):655-61. doi: 10.2105/ajph.86.5.655. ...
The Epigenetic Etiology of Human Disease Laboratory at Mayo Clinic is studying DNA methylation in hepatocellular carcinoma and ... Epigenetic Etiology of Human Liver Disease and the Impact of Alcohol and Hepatitis Viral Infection on the Epigenome. * ... Unlike many cancers, the predisposing risk factors for HCC are known, with chronic alcoholism and hepatitis B and C viral ... The impact of chronic alcohol abuse (EtOH) and hepatitis viral infection on the epigenome are studied, along with how ...
... could replace interferon as the preferred method of treatment for viral infections. ... Viral Infections Ranging From The Flu To Hepatitis C Could Be Prevented By Protein Found Naturally In The Human Body. Jun 12, ... protein in human cells that may improve our ability to identify and treat viral infection such as influenza and hepatitis C. ... When researchers enhanced this protein in human cells, they noted the inhibition of viral replication. Further testing found ...
Hepatitis C Virus Escape Studies of Human Antibody AR3A Reveal a High Barrier to Resistance and Novel Insights on Viral ... Hepatitis C virus escape studies of human antibody AR3A reveal a high barrier to resistance and novel insights on viral ... Hepatitis C Virus Escape Studies of Human Antibody AR3A Reveal a High Barrier to Resistance and Novel Insights on Viral ... Hepatitis C Virus Escape Studies of Human Antibody AR3A Reveal a High Barrier to Resistance and Novel Insights on Viral ...
A human monoclonal antibody targeting scavenger receptor class B type I precludes hepatitis C virus infection and viral spread ... "A Human Monoclonal Antibody Targeting Scavenger Receptor Class B Type I Precludes Hepatitis C Virus Infection and Viral Spread ... A human monoclonal antibody targeting scavenger receptor class B type I precludes hepatitis C virus infection and viral spread ... "A Human Monoclonal Antibody Targeting Scavenger Receptor Class B Type I Precludes Hepatitis C Virus Infection and Viral Spread ...
The high prevalence of HIV and viral hepatitis infections among PWID may hamper initiatives of ending HIV and viral hepatitis ... Blood was tested for the presence of IgG antibodies against HIV and Hepatitis C virus (HCV) and hepatitis B surface antigen ( ... and viral hepatitis in the general population attributed to several interventional measures. It is uncertain whether this ... Hepatitis B and C viruses infection among PWID recruited from their hotspot sites in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. A cross-sectional ...
... and down-regulates v-Ha-ras Harvey rat sarcoma viral oncogene (HRAS). HBc has the ability to bind a large number of human gene ... This study investigated the distribution of HBc binding to promoters in the human genome and evaluated its effects on the ... However, the mechanism by which HBc interacts with the human genome to exert effects on hepatocyte function remains unknown. ... Whole-genome chromatin immunoprecipitation microarray (ChIP-on-chip) analysis was used to identify HBc-bound human gene ...
... within the putative envelop protein E2 of hepatitis C virus (HCV) can neutralize virus. We studied such antibodies in sera of ... Antibodies in human sera specific to hypervariable region 1 of hepatitis C virus can block viral attachment.. @article{ ... Antibodies in human sera specific to hypervariable region 1 of hepatitis C virus can block viral attachment.}, author={Alenka ... Hepatitis C Virus Hypervariable Region 1 Variants Presented on Hepatitis B Virus Capsid-Like Particles Induce Cross- ...
The impact of HIV infection on the natural history of hepatitis C virus (HCV) or hepatitis B virus (HBV)/HIV co-infection has ... This is associated with fair immune restoration, viral suppression associated with analogues having dual activity against HBV ... the high prevalence of hepatotropic viral co-infections, the hepatotoxicity of ARV drugs and new emerging liver diseases, ... including nodular regenerative hyperplasia and hepatitis E virus infection. ...
... which inhibits viral replication. Gastroenterology. 2015 Feb 1; 148(2):392-402.e13. PM ID: 25447848 ... Home , Hepatitis C virus infection induces autocrine interferon signaling by human liver endothelial cells and release of ... 2015) Hepatitis C virus infection induces autocrine interferon signaling by human liver endothelial cells and release of ...
Final proof that the hepatitis observed in marmosets is caused by agents of human viral hepatitis is still lacking. ... STUDIES ON THE TRANSMISSION OF HUMAN VIRAL HEPATITIS TO MARMOSET MONKEYS : I. TRANSMISSION OF DISEASE, SERIAL PASSAGES, AND D ... F. Deinhardt, A. W. Holmes, R. B. Capps, H. Popper; STUDIES ON THE TRANSMISSION OF HUMAN VIRAL HEPATITIS TO MARMOSET MONKEYS : ... Inoculation of human serums or plasmas obtained during the early acute phase of viral hepatitis induced chemical and ...
Viral Dynamics of Hepatitis B Virus DNA in Human Immunodeficiency Virus-1-Hepatitis B Virus Coinfected Individuals: Similar ... 1018751-viral-dynamics-of-hepatitis-b-virus-dna-in-human-immunodeficiency-virus-1-hepatitis-b-virus-coinfected-individuals-- ...
Viral hepatitis  Regional Committee for the Western Pacific, 066 (Manila : WHO Regional Office for the Western Pacific, 2015) ... Browsing by Subject "Hepatitis, Viral, Human". 0-9. A. B. C. D. E. F. G. H. I. J. K. L. M. N. O. P. Q. R. S. T. U. V. W. X. Y. ...
Statement by the Asia Pacific Alliance to Eliminate Viral Hepatitis  Regional Committee for the Western Pacific, 064 (Manila ... Expert Consultation on Viral Hepatitis Elimination in the Western Pacific Region, Virtual meeting, 1-3 December 2020 : meeting ... Meeting on the Implementation of the Regional Action Plan for Viral Hepatitis in the Western Pacific, Manila, Philippines, 13- ... Second Meeting of the Strategic Technical Advisory Committee for Viral Hepatitis in the Western Pacific, Hanoi, Viet Nam, 25-27 ...
Department of Health and Human Services. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Deputy Director for Infectious ... National Center for HIV, Viral Hepatitis, STD, and TB Prevention, (C,V,J),. Level 1, OFFICE OF THE DIRECTOR, ( C, V, J, 1, ), ... National Center for HIV, Viral Hepatitis, STD, and TB Prevention (NCHHSTP). ... National Center for HIV/AIDS, Viral Hepatitis, STD, and TB Prevention (NCHHSTP) ...
Viral DNA Extraction and Analysis.. Viral replicative DNA intermediates were isolated from whole cell lysates. Cells recovered ... Infection of a human hepatoma cell line by hepatitis B virus. Philippe Gripon, Sylvie Rumin, Stephan Urban, Jacques Le Seyec, ... Infection of a human hepatoma cell line by hepatitis B virus. Philippe Gripon, Sylvie Rumin, Stephan Urban, Jacques Le Seyec, ... Infection of a human hepatoma cell line by hepatitis B virus. Philippe Gripon, Sylvie Rumin, Stephan Urban, Jacques Le Seyec, ...
Human viral hepatitis : WC 536 78SY Viral hepatitis : WC 536 81IN Hepatitis B vaccine : WC 536 81NO Non-A, non-B hepatitis / ... Human viral hepatitis : hepatitis-associated antigen and viruses / A. J. Zuckerman. By: Zuckerman, Arie Jeremy Material type: ... WC 536 2002EV Living with hepatitis B : WC 536 2002EV-1 Living with hepatitis C : WC 536 70AU Australia antigen and hepatitis / ... 2nd ed Description: 422 p ISBN: 0720445132 Subject(s): Hepatitis B , Hepatitis B virusNLM classification: WC 536 ...
... hepatitis C virus (HCV), respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), and enteric viruses. Although sdAbs are very potent inhibitors of ... Although sdAbs are very potent inhibitors of viral infections, no sdAbs have been approved for clinical use against virial ... we discuss the current state of research on sdAbs against viruses and their potential as therapeutics against human viral ... we discuss the current state of research on sdAbs against viruses and their potential as therapeutics against human viral ...
HEPATITIS B VIRUS: COMMENTS ON VIRAL AND HUMAN EVOLUTION. Topic: infectious diseases. Author: Baruch S. Blumberg ... Keywords: hepatitis b, human evolution, infectious disease. Versions:. In English: View lecture*Original: http://www.pitt.edu/~ ...
The increasing impact of human immunodeficiency virus infections, sexually transmitted diseases, and viral hepatitis in Durham ... The increasing impact of human immunodeficiency virus infections, sexually transmitted diseases, and viral hepatitis in Durham ... The increasing impact of human immunodeficiency virus infections, sexually transmitted diseases, and viral hepatitis in Durham ... T1 - The increasing impact of human immunodeficiency virus infections, sexually transmitted diseases, and viral hepatitis in ...
Viral hepatitis and liver disease : proceedings of the International Symposium on Viral Hepatitis and Liver Disease, held at ... Viral hepatitis and liver disease : proceedings of the 1990 International Symposium on Viral Hepatitis and Liver Disease, ... Viral hepatitis in China : problems and control strategies / volume editors, Yu-Mei Wen, Zhi-Yi Xu, Joseph L. Melnick.. by Wen ... Viral hepatitis : laboratory and clinical science / edited by Friedrich Deinhardt, Jean Deinhardt.. by Deinhardt, Friedrich , ...
What is viral hepatitis?. * Q: What is a good hemorrhoid cure?. * Q: Where can you find lists of various human diseases?. ...
  • In Kosovo, the prevalence of viral hepatitis infection and other viral infections and Treponema pallidum among dialysed patients is high, indicating major ongoing nosocomial transmission. (eurosurveillance.org)
  • The purpose of this study was to estimate the prevalence and correlates of four blood-borne viral infections among illicit drug injectors with up to 6 years of injecting experience. (nih.gov)
  • Naturally occurring protein could serve as effective treatment for viral infections. (medicaldaily.com)
  • Despite remarkable advances in vaccination and treatment, diseases caused by viral infections remain among the leading causes of death worldwide," Dr. Saumendra N. Sarkar, assistant professor of microbiology and molecular genetics at UPCI, said in a statement . (medicaldaily.com)
  • We need new defenses against viral infections, and our discovery is proving to be a promising avenue for further exploration. (medicaldaily.com)
  • The high prevalence of HIV and viral hepatitis infections among PWID may hamper initiatives of ending HIV and viral hepatitis epidemics in Tanzania. (biomedcentral.com)
  • However, it is unclear as to whether these interventions, among several others taken by different stakeholders, have had an effect on the prevalence of the major blood-borne viral infections of public health importance. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Although sdAbs are very potent inhibitors of viral infections, no sdAbs have been approved for clinical use against virial infection or any other diseases. (frontiersin.org)
  • The increasing impact of human immunodeficiency virus infections, sexually transmitted diseases, and viral hepatitis in Durham County, North Carolina: a call for coordinated and integrated services. (elsevier.com)
  • Fingerprint Dive into the research topics of 'The increasing impact of human immunodeficiency virus infections, sexually transmitted diseases, and viral hepatitis in Durham County, North Carolina: a call for coordinated and integrated services. (elsevier.com)
  • We also provide information on related illnesses, such as viral hepatitis, sexually transmitted infections (STIs), and tuberculosis (TB). (aac.org)
  • sapron" means in ecology a decay- mial infections are, in fact, also idly by the parasite because no evolu- ing organic substrate) are human dis- sapronoses. (cdc.gov)
  • Hepatitis B infections result in 500,000 to 1,200,000 deaths per year worldwide due to the complications of chronic hepatitis, cirrhosis, and hepatocellular carcinoma. (wikipedia.org)
  • Viral Diseases - Viral diseases like hepatitis B, hepatitis C and HIV are blood-borne infections. (medindia.net)
  • This report focuses on novel approaches to testing for sexually transmitted infections, human immunodeficiency virus, hepatitis B virus and hepatitis C virus that are relevant for the prevention and control of these infections at EU/EEA level. (europa.eu)
  • Most other infections that are studied in humans are either universally acute (influenza) or they generally persist (HIV, EBV, CMV). (massgeneral.org)
  • The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) estimate that there are around 6,700 new hepatitis A infections each year in the United States. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • The frequency of autochthonous hepatitis E virus (HEV) infections in Western countries has increased since the millennium, probably due to a higher awareness for HEV. (bioportfolio.com)
  • Fulminant viral hepatitis (FVH) is a devastating and unexplained condition that strikes otherwise healthy individuals during primary infection with common liver-tropic viruses. (nih.gov)
  • The serological status of hepatitis viruses and other infectious diseases in the 66 dialysed patients of one haemodialysis unit in Kosovo were studied, comparing the data with a large group of blood donors and out-patients. (eurosurveillance.org)
  • Ribonucleic acid (RNA) viruses including hepatitis C, influenza, and Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infection (RSV) use RNA as genetic material when they replicate. (medicaldaily.com)
  • Interferon , a similar natural occurring protein that is produced and released by cells to combat viruses, is currently used in hepatitis C treatment, but it is unsuccessful in treating influenza. (medicaldaily.com)
  • This study aimed to determine the seroprevalence of HIV, Hepatitis B and C viruses infection among PWID recruited from their hotspot sites in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Human viral hepatitis : hepatitis-associated antigen and viruses / A. J. Zuckerman. (who.int)
  • Currently, sdAbs are being developed against a number of viruses, including human immunodeficiency virus-1 (HIV-1), influenza viruses, hepatitis C virus (HCV), respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), and enteric viruses. (frontiersin.org)
  • In this review, we discuss the current state of research on sdAbs against viruses and their potential as therapeutics against human viral diseases. (frontiersin.org)
  • Potential sdAb-based therapeutics against viruses that are particularly important for public health, such as human immunodeficiency virus-1 (HIV-1), influenza A virus, respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), hepatitis C virus (HCV), and enteric viruses are discussed (Table 1 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • Our laboratory has been involved in uncovering the mechanisms by which hepatitis viruses, particularly hepatitis C, persist in the liver and cause liver damage. (massgeneral.org)
  • [4] [5] Hepatitis E has mainly a fecal-oral transmission route that is similar to hepatitis A , but the viruses are unrelated. (wikipedia.org)
  • [10] One of five known human hepatitis viruses: hepatitis A, B , C , D , and E, HEV is a positive-sense , single-stranded, nonenveloped, RNA icosahedral virus . (wikipedia.org)
  • Hepatitis Viruses. (who.int)
  • The most common causes of viral hepatitis are the five unrelated hepatotropic viruses hepatitis A, B, C, D, and E. Other viruses can also cause liver inflammation, including cytomegalovirus, Epstein-Barr virus, and yellow fever. (wikipedia.org)
  • Viral hepatitis is either transmitted through contaminated food or water (A, E) or via blood and body fluids (B, C). The viruses which get transmitted through water and food are mostly self- limited resulting in acute illness with full resolution. (wikipedia.org)
  • Although the effects of various viruses are all classified under the disease hepatitis, these viruses are not all related. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cytomegalovirus and Human T-cell lymphotrophic viruses (HTLVs) are viral blood-borne pathogens. (medindia.net)
  • Understanding the human immune response against viruses, with a focus on T-cell responses targeting human hepatotropic viruses (Hepatitis C Virus (HCV), Hepatitis B Virus (HBV), HCV/HIV co-infection). (massgeneral.org)
  • Viruses and Human Disease is four-color throughout and contains clearly labeled figures and tables. (elsevier.com)
  • Viruses called hepatitis A , hepatitis B , and hepatitis C are the most common causes of hepatitis. (medlineplus.gov)
  • A hepatitis panel is a blood test that checks to see if you have a hepatitis infection caused by one of these viruses. (medlineplus.gov)
  • At least five viruses can cause hepatitis. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • The three most common are hepatitis A, B, and C. Infection with any of these three viruses can lead to life threatening complications. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • INFLAMMATION of the LIVER in humans due to infection by VIRUSES. (bioportfolio.com)
  • A family of hepatotropic DNA viruses which contains double-stranded DNA genomes and causes hepatitis in humans and animals. (bioportfolio.com)
  • Prevalence of hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg), hepatitis B surface antibodies (anti-HBs), and hepatitis B core antibodies (anti-HBc) was 14 of 66, 21% (95% confidence interval (CI): 12-33%), 5 of 66, 8% (95%CI: 5-22%), and 50 of 66, 76% (95%CI: 64-85%), respectively. (eurosurveillance.org)
  • Blood was tested for the presence of IgG antibodies against HIV and Hepatitis C virus (HCV) and hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg). (biomedcentral.com)
  • The blood samples were analyzed (tested) for hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) and anti-HCV antibody using automated Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA). (hindawi.com)
  • With infectious virus assays or viral antigen assays, even a negative test result may leave open the possible existence of a latent viral genome. (atcc.org)
  • The diagnosis depends on demonstration of certain antigens and antibodies in the blood - serum of hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) that appears well before the appearance of symptoms, and immunoglobulin M (IgM) antibody to HBc, which appear along with the symptoms. (medindia.net)
  • Individuals with resolved hepatitis B, characterized as hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg)-negative and hepatitis B core antibody-positive, have latent hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection i. (bioportfolio.com)
  • Serum hepatitis B surface antigen correlates with fibrosis and necroinflammation: a multicentre perspective in China. (bioportfolio.com)
  • The kinetics of serum hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) during the natural history of hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection has been studied, but the factors affecting them remain unclear. (bioportfolio.com)
  • Initially, molecular epidemiology studies have focused on studying the viral genetic diversity (genotypes, genetic variants, specific nucleotide and amino acid substitutions). (hindawi.com)
  • As a consequence, nowadays the focus of molecular epidemiology studies has turned from the viral to the human genome. (hindawi.com)
  • This paper will cover recent reports on the subject describing the most relevant viral as well as host genetic risk factors analyzed by past and current HCV molecular epidemiology studies. (hindawi.com)
  • First, the chapter describes the epidemiology and natural history of hepatitis C virus (HCV), followed by a brief statement on the committee's conclusion regarding elimination. (nap.edu)
  • Brief communication: the relationship of regression of cirrhosis to outcome in chronic hepatitis C. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Dr. Dienstag is an experienced clinical investigator in the area of viral hepatitis (trials of antiviral therapies for chronic hepatitis B and C). Between 2000 and 2010, he was the site-PI of a national trial of maintenance antiviral therapy for patients refractory to treatment for chronic hepatitis C, the Hepatitis C Antiviral Long-term Treatment against Cirrhosis (HALT-C) Trial. (massgeneral.org)
  • This study will evaluate the safety and effectiveness of adding the experimental drug adefovir dipivoxil to lamivudine for treating hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection in HIV-infected patients with liver cirrhosis. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • HIV-infected patients 21 years of age and older with chronic hepatitis B infection and liver cirrhosis who have received lamivudine treatment for at least 1 year may be eligible for this 48-week study. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Investigators in the Division of Infectious Diseases and the Departments of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology of The George Washington University Medical Center are carrying out a research study to determine why patients with Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) and Hepatitis C virus (HCV) co-infection (HIV/HCV) have a more rapid and progressive course of HCV infection, leading to fatty infiltration of the liver and cirrhosis. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Hepatitis B is endemic in a number of (mainly South-East Asian) countries, making cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma big killers. (wikipedia.org)
  • Hepatitis C usually leads to chronic hepatitis, culminating in cirrhosis in some people. (wikipedia.org)
  • Study of morphometric changes occurring in hepatic blood and lymph vessels in different chronic liver lesions with portal hypertension including viral hepatitis [B and C], Schistosomiasis and hepatocellular carcinoma [HCC] on top of cirrhosis , and to find the relationship of these changes to liver fibrosis , portal hypertension and HCC, using a combination of immunohistochemical and computer -based methodology . (bvsalud.org)
  • Chronic infection with hepatitis B virus either may be asymptomatic or may be associated with a chronic inflammation of the liver (chronic hepatitis), leading to cirrhosis over a period of several years. (wikipedia.org)
  • Many people with hepatitis C develop chronic liver disease and cirrhosis . (medlineplus.gov)
  • Chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection affects 230 000 Australians, who are at risk of progressive liver fibrosis leading to cirrhosis, liver failure and hepatocellular carcinoma. (mja.com.au)
  • Chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is a major public health challenge for Australia, affecting about 230 000 people who are consequently at risk of progressive liver fibrosis leading to cirrhosis, liver failure and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). (mja.com.au)
  • However, HCV infection is curable, and viral eradication is associated with multiple clinical benefits, including improvement in quality of life, loss of infectivity, regression of cirrhosis, lower risk of liver failure and HCC, and reduction in mortality. (mja.com.au)
  • Long-term complications, such as liver cancer or cirrhosis, can affect around 15-25% of people with chronic hepatitis B. There is no cure, but treatment can help manage the condition. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Determinants of hepatitis A vaccine immunity in a cohort of human immunodeficiency virus-infected children living in Switzerland. (semanticscholar.org)
  • There are encouraging preliminary results with a live CMV vaccine, but the questions of viral persistence and oncogenicity require further evaluation. (springer.com)
  • The present study will explore the immunogenicity of AVAXIM™ 80U-Pediatric in 12-13 months Turkish children and check if the administration of the MMR trivalent vaccine on the same day but at different site will interfere on immunogenicity for the four valences Hepatitis A, Measles, Mumps, and Rubella. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • To provide information concerning the immunogenicity of Hepatitis A Vaccine in subjects receiving Pediatric vaccines. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • In this letter from the CDC, the agency encourages public health professionals to review new and updated hepatitis A vaccine recommendations. (hhs.gov)
  • A safe and effective vaccine is available that can protect people from hepatitis B infection. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Does vaccinating hemodialysis patients with Twinrix® (combination vaccine against hepatitis A and hepatitis B) result in a difference in hepatitis B antibody response in comparison to the. (bioportfolio.com)
  • A Safety and Efficacy Study of the Hepatitis E Vaccine in Nepal. (bioportfolio.com)
  • The purpose of this study is to determine if a hepatitis E vaccine is safe and able to prevent symptomatic liver disease due to the hepatitis E virus. (bioportfolio.com)
  • The purpose of this study is to determine whether vitamin D is effective in the prevention of hepatocellular carcinoma in those patients with chronic hepatitis B. (bioportfolio.com)
  • Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection leads to severe liver diseases including hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). (nature.com)
  • More than 185 million people are estimated to be infected by hepatitis C virus (HCV) worldwide 1 , leading to severe liver diseases such as hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). (nature.com)
  • Hepatitis E is inflammation of the liver caused by infection with the hepatitis E virus (HEV). (wikipedia.org)
  • Viral hepatitis is liver inflammation due to a viral infection. (wikipedia.org)
  • Inflammation of the liver, usually due to viral infection. (webmd.com)
  • Hepatitis involves inflammation of the liver cells and damage to the liver. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • INFLAMMATION of the LIVER in humans caused by HEPATITIS DELTA VIRUS, a defective RNA virus that can only infect HEPATITIS B patients. (bioportfolio.com)
  • Here, we present a summary of the Australian recommendations for the management of hepatitis C virus infection: a consensus statement 2016 . (mja.com.au)
  • Time trend of reported cases and publications: hepatitis E in comparison to hepatitis A - D in Germany from 2001 to 2016. (bioportfolio.com)
  • Tanzania has reported a steady fall in the prevalence of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection in the general population, from 7% in 2004 [ 1 ] to 5.0% in 2017 [ 2 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
  • In 2017, hepatitis E was estimated to affect more than 19 million people. (wikipedia.org)
  • Yoon Seok Choi et al, Tumor Necrosis Factor-producing T-regulatory Cells are Associated With Severe Liver Injury in Patients With Acute Hepatitis A, Gastroenterology (2017). (medicalxpress.com)
  • The conclusions, findings, and opinions expressed by authors contributing to this journal do not necessarily reflect the official position of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, the Public Health Service, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, or the authors' affiliated institutions. (cdc.gov)
  • U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (atcc.org)
  • Antibodies in human sera specific to hypervariable region 1 of hepatitis C virus can block viral attachment. (semanticscholar.org)
  • It has been postulated that antibodies specific to the hypervariable region 1 (HVR1) within the putative envelop protein E2 of hepatitis C virus (HCV) can neutralize virus. (semanticscholar.org)
  • A Cross Section Study to Determine the Prevalence of Antibodies against HIV Infection among Hepatitis B and C Infected Individuals. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Patients with chronic hepatitis B have antibodies against the virus, but not enough to clear the infected liver cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • A hepatitis panel includes tests for hepatitis antibodies and antigens. (medlineplus.gov)
  • This viral RNA is translated by ribosomes to produce HCV's polyprotein, which is cleaved by cellular and viral proteases (e.g. (nap.edu)
  • The modified lymphocytes targeting viral hepatitis antigens will then be tested pre-clinically in different mouse models. (varbi.com)
  • For its viral coating, hepatitis delta virus requires the HEPATITIS B SURFACE ANTIGENS produced by these patients. (bioportfolio.com)
  • Tanzania has witnessed a significant decrease in the prevalence of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and viral hepatitis in the general population attributed to several interventional measures. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Hepatitis B virus in HIV-infected patients in northeastern South Africa: prevalence, exposure, protection and response to HAART. (semanticscholar.org)
  • ABSTRACT: Given the enormous advances in the prevention of perinatal transmission of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), it is clear that early identification and treatment of all pregnant women with HIV is the best way to prevent neonatal infection and also improve women's health. (acog.org)
  • Is the Subject Area "Viral replication" applicable to this article? (plos.org)
  • When researchers enhanced this protein in human cells, they noted the inhibition of viral replication. (medicaldaily.com)
  • Even though several human hepatoma-derived cell lines support HBV replication after HBV DNA transfection ( 5-9 ), none of them are susceptible to HBV infection. (pnas.org)
  • Increased viral replication and influence of hormonal changes on the immune system are currently thought to contribute to worsening the course of infection. (wikipedia.org)
  • [31] Furthermore, studies showing evidence for viral replication in the placenta or reporting the full viral life cycle in placental-derived cells in vitro suggest that the human placenta may be a site of viral replication outside the liver. (wikipedia.org)
  • Differential modulation of hepatitis C virus replication and innate immune pathways by synthetic calcitriol-analogs. (bioportfolio.com)
  • The endoplasmic reticulum membrane is modified by viral and cellular factors to generate a membranous web that is the major site of viral RNA replication. (nature.com)
  • The impact of chronic alcohol abuse (EtOH) and hepatitis viral infection on the epigenome are studied, along with how epigenetic changes influence liver disease progression, and how these changes can be used to identify patients most at risk for disease progression. (mayo.edu)
  • DNA methylation and expression patterns are interrogated across the entire genome of primary human liver disease samples. (mayo.edu)
  • Given the poor prognosis of HCC patients, driven in part by therapy resistance and late stage of diagnosis, long-term project goals include development of noninvasive tests for human liver disease using DNA methylation markers to permit early detection and treatment. (mayo.edu)
  • Endstage liver disease caused by chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is the leading indication for liver transplantation in the Western world. (ugent.be)
  • Inoculation of human serums or plasmas obtained during the early acute phase of viral hepatitis induced chemical and morphological hepatic disease in marmosets in two out of five experimental series. (rupress.org)
  • Viral hepatitis and liver disease : proceedings of the 1990 International Symposium on Viral Hepatitis and Liver Disease, Contemporary Issues and Future Prospects, held April 4-8, 1990 in Houston, Tex. / editors, F. Blaine Hollinger, Stanley M. Lemon, Harold Margolis. (who.int)
  • Viral hepatitis and liver disease : proceedings of the International Symposium on Viral Hepatitis and Liver Disease, held at the Barbican Centre, London, May 26-28, 1987 / editor, A. J. Zuckerman. (who.int)
  • The underdiagnosis rate for the etiologic agent of the disease normal- foci (4) outside human habitats (e.g., sapronoses is probably higher than that ly thrives, grows, and replicates. (cdc.gov)
  • Anthroponoses (Greek "anthrópos" = saprophytically and replicate in these borne diseases (urban yellow fever, man, "nosos" = disease) are diseases substrata (i.e., not only to survive or con- dengue, epidemic typhus, tickborne transmissible from human to human. (cdc.gov)
  • Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is a leading cause a of chronic liver disease worldwide. (nih.gov)
  • Portal tract area and the relative fibrosis per liver tissue section were significantly increased with increasing grade of hepatitis activity in the non malignant groups compared to the control cases, with high significance in Schistosomiasis hut in HCC insignificant fibrosis compared to other disease and to control groups . (bvsalud.org)
  • The advancement of hepatic fibrosis and portal hypertension in chronic liver disease including Schistosomiasis and viral hepatitis [B and C] was associated with significant increase in the number of both portal blood and lymphatic vessels . (bvsalud.org)
  • These primary cells are not known to harbor an agent recognized to cause disease in healthy adult humans. (atcc.org)
  • Effect of cadmium on human body: Adverse Effect of cadmium on bone: Effect of toxic cadmium on bone became evident when the disease Itai-itai outbreak in Japan, with the consumption of heavily cadmium polluted rice it causes renal and skeletal damage in women (Kjellstrom 1992). (ipl.org)
  • Hepatitis A - is a liver disease that results from infection with the hepatitis A virus (HAV). (medindia.net)
  • Hepatitis B can also cause chronic liver disease. (medindia.net)
  • Hepatitis B is an infectious disease caused by the hepatitis B virus (HBV) that affects the liver . (wikipedia.org)
  • [1] Infection around the time of birth or from contact with other people's blood during childhood is the most frequent method by which hepatitis B is acquired in areas where the disease is common . (wikipedia.org)
  • The European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control was asked by the European Commission to assess the risk involved in changing the testing requirements for HIV (human immunodeficiency virus), hepatitis B virus (HBV), and hepatitis C virus (HCV) with regard to the quality and safety of non-partner semen donations. (europa.eu)
  • This report presents the main findings of an ECDC project to assess the burden of infectious diseases among migrants in the EU/EEA based on available data for specific diseases: human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), tuberculosis (TB), hepatitis B, hepatitis C, gonorrhoea, syphilis, measles and rubella, malaria and Chagas disease. (europa.eu)
  • Furthermore we are part of a Human Immunology Consortium "Optimizing Human T-Cell Responses to Prevent Chronic Infection" funded by the Dana Foundation and part of the Center for Inflammatory Bowel Disease at Massachusetts General Hospital. (massgeneral.org)
  • This is the first text to examine the connection between virology and human disease. (elsevier.com)
  • Hepatitis is a type of liver disease. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Inherited human IFNγ deficiency underlies mycobacterial disease. (nih.gov)
  • In its deliberations, the committee analyzed the problem of hepatitis C in the United States and concluded that eliminating the public health problem of this disease is feasible with certain conditions. (nap.edu)
  • Because most HCCs develop in cirrhotic livers, we hypothesized that Hh pathway activation occurs during fibrogenic repair of liver damage due to chronic viral hepatitis, and that Hh-responsive cells mediate disease progression and hepatocarciongenesis in chronic viral hepatitis. (utmb.edu)
  • Hepatitis E virus infection in patients with underlying chronic liver disease is associated with liver decompensation and increased lethality. (bioportfolio.com)
  • A means of assessing hepatitis NANB virus infection, via blood transfusion, as a cause of chronic liver disease was investigated in a hospital in each of two cities in England. (biomedsearch.com)
  • The Series brings together a wealth of evidence to show that countries can reduce and even reverse infectious disease transmission by scaling up proven harm reduction and treatment strategies in prisons like opioid agonist therapy (OAT), antiretroviral therapy (ART), hepatitis B vaccination, condom distribution, and sterile needle and syringe exchange. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Known active viral hepatitis, HIV or chronic liver disease. (centerwatch.com)
  • The Centre has secured major research grants in a number of areas including ethics and stem cell research, ethics and the human genome project, ethics and emerging biotechnologies, and the ethical dimensions of resource allocation. (otago.ac.nz)
  • Internalization of the virion is followed by release of the viral RNA genome into the cytoplasm where it functions as a messenger RNA. (nap.edu)
  • Ability of treatment week 12 viral response to predict long-term outcome in genotype 1 hepatitis C virus/HIV coinfected patients. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Of 16 cases, eight (50%) were solid-organ transplant recipients (SOTRs), and 14 (88%) were found infected by genotype 3 hepatitis E virus (HEV-3). (ajtmh.org)
  • Does Vitamin D Improves Sustained Virologic Response (SVR) in Genotype 2,3 Chronic Hepatitis C Patients? (bioportfolio.com)
  • hepatitis C virus (HCV) is (Peg/RBV) combination therapy obtaining sustained virologic response (SVR) in 80% of naïve patients with genotype 2,3. (bioportfolio.com)
  • A significant decrease of hepatitis B from 1.2% in 1980 to 0.1% in 1990 was also seen after vaccination was introduced for all volunteers in 1988. (ajtmh.org)
  • These results indicate that acute viral hepatitis could be successfully prevented in the JOCV with a combination of ISG, hepatitis B vaccination, and health education. (ajtmh.org)
  • Hepatitis A and hepatitis B can be prevented by vaccination. (wikipedia.org)
  • St. Giles Laboratory of Human Genetics of Infectious Diseases, Rockefeller Branch, The Rockefeller University, New York, NY [email protected] (nih.gov)
  • Hepatitis B, one of the major infectious diseases worldwide, is caused by a small enveloped DNA virus, the hepatitis B virus (HBV). (pnas.org)
  • Here, we review sdAbs in relation to their possible therapeutic applications against highly aggressive human viral diseases. (frontiersin.org)
  • We also provide insight into the current status of the sdAbs, their ongoing development, as well as future challenges toward their successful implementation for therapy of human viral diseases. (frontiersin.org)
  • Durham County, North Carolina, faces high rates of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection (with or without progression to AIDS) and sexually transmitted diseases (STDs). (elsevier.com)
  • Where can you find lists of various human diseases? (reference.com)
  • The Human Genetics and Microbiome Core strives to provide the CSIBD community with the power of current and emerging 'omics technology to accelerate research on multiple aspects of IBD and other digestive diseases. (massgeneral.org)
  • Emerging Human indiscriminately, and an expert commit- seum ), some bacterial diseases (e.g. (cdc.gov)
  • Prion Diseases - Also known as transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs), prion diseases are rare, progressive neurodegenerative disorders that affect both humans and animals. (medindia.net)
  • The consensus statement was prepared by an expert panel representing the Gastroenterological Society of Australia (Australian Liver Association), the Australasian Society for Infectious Diseases, the Australasian Society for HIV, Viral Hepatitis and Sexual Health Medicine, the Australasian Hepatology Association, Hepatitis Australia and the Royal Australian College of General Practitioners. (mja.com.au)
  • This report is part of an ECDC project on the effectiveness of antenatal screening for HIV, hepatitis B, syphilis and rubella susceptibility in the EU/EEA. (europa.eu)
  • There also have been scores of recorded cases of viral hepatitis caused by herpes simplex virus. (wikipedia.org)
  • This study determined seroprevalence of HBV and hepatitis C virus (HCV) among healthcare workers of Jimma University Medical Center (JUMC). (hindawi.com)
  • Seroprevalence of hepatitis E virus in chronic hepatitis C in Brazil. (bioportfolio.com)
  • This publication was developed to serve as a guideline for health care workers and deals with methods for reducing the risk of becoming infected with the etiologic agent for acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) or hepatitis-B at the workplace. (cdc.gov)
  • Malaria - is caused by a parasite that commonly infects a certain type of mosquito which feeds on humans. (medindia.net)
  • Guidelines for Prevention of Transmission of Human Immunodeficiency Virus and Hepatitis B Virus to Health-Care and Public-Safety Workers. (cdc.gov)
  • Insulin resistance impairs sustained virological response rate to pegylated interferon plus ribavirin in HIV-hepatitis C virus-coinfected patients: HOMAVIC-ANRS HC02 Study. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Sustained virological response to interferon plus ribavirin reduces liver-related complications and mortality in patients coinfected with human immunodeficiency virus and hepatitis C virus. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Nucleotide polymerase inhibitor sofosbuvir plus ribavirin for hepatitis C. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Human immunodeficiency virus and hepatitis C virus/hepatitis B virus co-infection in Southern Brazil: clinical and epidemiological evaluation. (semanticscholar.org)
  • We show that human IL-18 and IL-18BP are both secreted mostly by hepatocytes and macrophages in the liver. (nih.gov)
  • Moreover, in the absence of IL-18BP, excessive NK cell activation by IL-18 results in uncontrolled killing of human hepatocytes in vitro. (nih.gov)
  • This data is related to patient clinical-pathological data available and to cell culture model systems using cultured primary human hepatocytes. (mayo.edu)
  • We generated a human monoclonal antibody against scavenger receptor class B type I (SR-BI), monoclonal antibody (mAb)16-71, which can efficiently prevent infection of Huh-7.5 hepatoma cells and primary hepatocytes by cell-culture-derived HCV (HCVcc). (ugent.be)
  • Hepatitis C virus entry into hepatocytes: molecular mechanisms and targets for antiviral therapies. (semanticscholar.org)
  • We describe here a cell line, called HepaRG, which exhibits hepatocyte-like morphology, expresses specific hepatocyte functions, and supports HBV infection as well as primary cultures of normal human hepatocytes. (pnas.org)
  • Moreover, their close resemblance to normal human hepatocytes makes them suitable for many applications including drug metabolism studies. (pnas.org)
  • We found increased hepatic expression of Hh ligands in all patients with chronic viral hepatitis, and demonstrated that infection with HCV stimulated cultured hepatocytes to produce Hh ligands. (utmb.edu)
  • The research spans from molecular virology, virus-cell interactions and the understanding of individual viral genes and proteins, to the effects these have on the infected patient. (varbi.com)
  • NS3/NS4A protease) to form viral proteins that manufacture viral RNA genomes (via the NS5B RNA polymerase) and reprogram the cell's lipid export pathway to assemble infectious HCV particles (dependent on NS5A phosphoprotein), completing the cycle. (nap.edu)
  • The polyprotein is processed by cellular and viral proteases to generate structural (core, E1, and E2) and non-structural (p7, NS2-5B) proteins. (nature.com)
  • Acute hepatitis C and HIV coinfection. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Mortality related to chronic hepatitis B and chronic hepatitis C in France: evidence for the role of HIV coinfection and alcohol consumption. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Hepatitis D can occur either concomitantly with (coinfection) or subsequent to (superinfection) hepatitis B infection. (bioportfolio.com)
  • Nakamoto Y, Kaneko S. Mechanisms of viral hepatitis induced liver injury. (humpath.com)
  • Sera will be used in an in-vitro hepatocyte model of hepatitis C infection to better understand the pathogenesis of HIV/HCV co-infection, and to gain insight into intracellular mechanisms. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • By defining the mechanisms by which T-cells are rendered ineffective and potential avenues to restore viral control we hope to enable future immunotherapies for the treatment of established HCV infection. (massgeneral.org)
  • Eradication of hepatitis C virus in patients successfully treated for chronic hepatitis C. (semanticscholar.org)
  • He X, Hopkins L, Everett G, Carter WM, SchroppDyce C, Abusaada K, Hsu V. Safety and efficacy of ledipasvir/sofosbuvir on hepatitis C eradication in hepatitis C virus/human immunodeficiency virus co-infected patients. (wjgnet.com)
  • Hepatitis C (originally "non-A non-B hepatitis") is caused by hepatitis C virus (HCV), an RNA virus of the family Flaviviridae. (wikipedia.org)
  • About 180 million people worldwide are chronically infected with hepatitis C virus (HCV), with 3-4 million newly infected each year. (cdc.gov)
  • Hepatitis virus and human immunodeficiency virus infection in dental care : occupational risk versus patient care / Flemming Scheutz. (who.int)
  • There are eight treatment options approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) available for persons with a chronic hepatitis B infection: alpha-interferon, pegylated interferon, adefovir, entecavir, telbivudine, lamivudine, tenofovir disoproxil and tenofovir alafenamide with a 65% rate of sustained response. (wikipedia.org)
  • Journal Article] Association of serum interferon-λ3 levels with hepatocarcinogenesis in chronic hepatitis C patients treated with direct-acting antiviral agents. (nii.ac.jp)
  • BACKGROUND: There is a need for interferon-free treatment regimens for hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection. (biomedsearch.com)
  • All dialysed patients were hepatitis A virus (HAV) positive. (eurosurveillance.org)
  • Two patients (3%, 95%CI: 0-10%) were positive for Treponema pallidum and 18% (95%CI: 10-30%) were human herpesvirus 8 (HHV-8) antibody positive. (eurosurveillance.org)
  • Virology and clinical sequelae of long-term antiviral therapy in a North American cohort of hepatitis B virus (HBV)/human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) co-infected patients. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Management of chronic hepatitis C virus infection in HIV-infected patients. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Viral loads for HIV-infected patients receiving care were estimated for 2009. (elsevier.com)
  • A retrospective case-series study of patients diagnosed with hepatitis E in a tertiary hospital from 2009 to 2013 was conducted. (ajtmh.org)
  • Patients will be followed for HBV viral load response to adefovir for 48 weeks with possible extension. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • The primary study endpoints will be HBV viral load at week 24 (per-protocol patients) and DAVG at week 24 (intent-to-treat patients). (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Patients with hepatitis C are susceptible to severe hepatitis if they contract either hepatitis A or B, so all persons with hepatitis C should be immunized against hepatitis A and hepatitis B if they are not already immune, and avoid alcohol. (wikipedia.org)
  • This lymphangiogenesis change was directly proportional with grades of hepatitis activity but insignificant in all groups of patients . (bvsalud.org)
  • Treg cells from acute hepatitis A (AHA) patients produce tumor necrosis factor (TNF) andhave reduced suppressive activity. (medicalxpress.com)
  • It is known that activated immune cells of patients with viral hepatitis destroy hepatocyte, but its regulatory mechanism has not yet been described. (medicalxpress.com)
  • The team focused on changes in regulatory T cells in patients with viral hepatitis and discovered that regulatory T cells undergo inflammatory changes to secrete inflammatory cytokines (protein secreted by immune cells) called TNF. (medicalxpress.com)
  • The team confirmed that regulatory T cells of acute hepatitis A patients have reduced immune-inhibitory functions. (medicalxpress.com)
  • Furthermore, the team found similar changes to be also present in hepatitis B and C patients. (medicalxpress.com)
  • A higher proportion of Treg cells from patients with acute hepatitis A, compared with healthy controls, produced TNF upon stimulation with anti-CD3 and anti-CD2. (medicalxpress.com)
  • This study reports the presence and the significance of TNF-producing Treg cells for the first time in human patients. (medicalxpress.com)
  • Next, it discusses ending transmission of HCV and eliminating infection in chronic hepatitis C patients. (nap.edu)
  • From 1978 to 1993 a study of acute viral hepatitis contracted by the Japan Overseas Cooperation Volunteers (JOCV) during their assignments in tropical and subtropical countries was conducted. (ajtmh.org)
  • Of 10,509 subjects in this study, 240 cases of acute viral hepatitis were confirmed (hepatitis A = 139, hepatitis B = 72, and non-A, non-B hepatitis = 29). (ajtmh.org)
  • Acute infection with hepatitis B virus is associated with acute viral hepatitis , an illness that begins with general ill-health, loss of appetite, nausea, vomiting, body aches, mild fever, and dark urine, and then progresses to development of jaundice . (wikipedia.org)
  • Accordingly, it was found that only human hepatocyte primary cultures were susceptible to HBV infection ( 1-4 ). (pnas.org)
  • Professor Shin said, "This is the first research on regulatory T cells that contributes to hepatocyte damage in viral hepatitis. (medicalxpress.com)
  • Unlike hepatitis B and hepatitis C which are spread via blood, hepatitis A usually spreads via the feco-oral route though transmission through blood transfusion can occur. (medindia.net)
  • After cessation of anti-SR-BI-specific antibody therapy, a rise of the viral load was observed. (ugent.be)
  • Compared to the conventional human antibody VH, a few crucial amino acids are substituted in the framework 2 region (FR2) and complementarity-determining regions (CDRs) of sdAbs. (frontiersin.org)
  • We have previously shown that the STAT3 activation occurs during IFN treatment of human hepatoma cells, suggesting that the STAT3-mediated pathway is relevant to IFN-induced antiviral activity. (nih.gov)
  • Exploratory study of oral combination antiviral therapy for hepatitis C. (biomedsearch.com)
  • You may need a hepatitis panel if you have symptoms of liver damage. (medlineplus.gov)
  • This article covers the different types of hepatitis, including their symptoms, treatments, and outlooks. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • There is no cure for hepatitis A, but treatment can help manage symptoms. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • The symptoms are similar to those of other types of hepatitis. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Many people with hepatitis experience either mild or no symptoms. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • In which the patient's bone symptoms and bone density were resolved with hepatitis C treatment. (bioportfolio.com)
  • Hepatitis A or infectious jaundice is caused by hepatitis A virus (HAV), a picornavirus transmitted by the fecal-oral route often associated with ingestion of contaminated food. (wikipedia.org)
  • The Hepatitis E virus, commonly contracted from faecal matter, attacks the liver of infected individuals thereby causing jaundice. (wikipedia.org)
  • Finally we evaluated the in vivo efficacy of mAb16-71 in human liver urokinase-type plasminogen activator, severe combined immune deficiency (uPA-SCID) mice (chimeric mice). (ugent.be)
  • While usually lasting weeks and then resolving, in people with weakened immune systems -particularly in people who have had solid organ transplant-hepatitis E may cause a chronic infection . (wikipedia.org)
  • Drugs, alcohol, or immune system problems can also cause hepatitis. (webmd.com)
  • Vitamin-D plays a role regulating the immune response against to viral infection. (bioportfolio.com)
  • Viral hepatitis : laboratory and clinical science / edited by Friedrich Deinhardt, Jean Deinhardt. (who.int)