Antibodies reactive with HIV ANTIGENS.
INFLAMMATION of the LIVER in humans caused by a member of the ORTHOHEPADNAVIRUS genus, HEPATITIS B VIRUS. It is primarily transmitted by parenteral exposure, such as transfusion of contaminated blood or blood products, but can also be transmitted via sexual or intimate personal contact.
INFLAMMATION of the LIVER in humans caused by HEPATITIS C VIRUS, a single-stranded RNA virus. Its incubation period is 30-90 days. Hepatitis C is transmitted primarily by contaminated blood parenterally, and is often associated with transfusion and intravenous drug abuse. However, in a significant number of cases, the source of hepatitis C infection is unknown.
INFLAMMATION of the LIVER in humans caused by a member of the HEPATOVIRUS genus, HUMAN HEPATITIS A VIRUS. It can be transmitted through fecal contamination of food or water.
Immunoglobulin molecules having a specific amino acid sequence by virtue of which they interact only with the ANTIGEN (or a very similar shape) that induced their synthesis in cells of the lymphoid series (especially PLASMA CELLS).
Development of neutralizing antibodies in individuals who have been exposed to the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV/HTLV-III/LAV).
The type species of the genus ORTHOHEPADNAVIRUS which causes human HEPATITIS B and is also apparently a causal agent in human HEPATOCELLULAR CARCINOMA. The Dane particle is an intact hepatitis virion, named after its discoverer. Non-infectious spherical and tubular particles are also seen in the serum.
Includes the spectrum of human immunodeficiency virus infections that range from asymptomatic seropositivity, thru AIDS-related complex (ARC), to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS).
Immunologic tests for identification of HIV (HTLV-III/LAV) antibodies. They include assays for HIV SEROPOSITIVITY and HIV SERONEGATIVITY that have been developed for screening persons carrying the viral antibody from patients with overt symptoms of AIDS or AIDS-RELATED COMPLEX.
Immunoglobulins produced in response to VIRAL ANTIGENS.
Those hepatitis B antigens found on the surface of the Dane particle and on the 20 nm spherical and tubular particles. Several subspecificities of the surface antigen are known. These were formerly called the Australia antigen.
Studies of the number of cases where human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is present in a specific population at a designated time. The presence in a given individual is determined by the finding of HIV antibodies in the serum (HIV SEROPOSITIVITY).
Programs in which participation is not required.
The property of antibodies which enables them to react with some ANTIGENIC DETERMINANTS and not with others. Specificity is dependent on chemical composition, physical forces, and molecular structure at the binding site.
Testing in which the source of the specimen or the person being tested is not individually identified.
INFLAMMATION of the LIVER.
INFLAMMATION of the LIVER in humans that is caused by HEPATITIS C VIRUS lasting six months or more. Chronic hepatitis C can lead to LIVER CIRRHOSIS.
INFLAMMATION of the LIVER in humans caused by HEPATITIS B VIRUS lasting six months or more. It is primarily transmitted by parenteral exposure, such as transfusion of contaminated blood or blood products, but can also be transmitted via sexual or intimate personal contact.
The sexual attraction or relationship between members of the same SEX.
INFLAMMATION of the LIVER in humans due to infection by VIRUSES. There are several significant types of human viral hepatitis with infection caused by enteric-transmission (HEPATITIS A; HEPATITIS E) or blood transfusion (HEPATITIS B; HEPATITIS C; and HEPATITIS D).
Antibodies to the HEPATITIS B ANTIGENS, including antibodies to the surface (Australia) and core of the Dane particle and those to the "e" antigens.
A species in the genus HEPATOVIRUS containing one serotype and two strains: HUMAN HEPATITIS A VIRUS and Simian hepatitis A virus causing hepatitis in humans (HEPATITIS A) and primates, respectively.
Vaccines or candidate vaccines containing inactivated hepatitis B or some of its component antigens and designed to prevent hepatitis B. Some vaccines may be recombinantly produced.
Antibodies that reduce or abolish some biological activity of a soluble antigen or infectious agent, usually a virus.
Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.
Contraceptive devices used by males.
Immunoglobulins produced in a response to BACTERIAL ANTIGENS.
An acquired defect of cellular immunity associated with infection by the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), a CD4-positive T-lymphocyte count under 200 cells/microliter or less than 14% of total lymphocytes, and increased susceptibility to opportunistic infections and malignant neoplasms. Clinical manifestations also include emaciation (wasting) and dementia. These elements reflect criteria for AIDS as defined by the CDC in 1993.
INFLAMMATION of the LIVER with ongoing hepatocellular injury for 6 months or more, characterized by NECROSIS of HEPATOCYTES and inflammatory cell (LEUKOCYTES) infiltration. Chronic hepatitis can be caused by viruses, medications, autoimmune diseases, and other unknown factors.
The hepatitis B antigen within the core of the Dane particle, the infectious hepatitis virion.
A genus of FLAVIVIRIDAE causing parenterally-transmitted HEPATITIS C which is associated with transfusions and drug abuse. Hepatitis C virus is the type species.
Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent infection with hepatitis A virus (HEPATOVIRUS).
Antibodies to the HEPATITIS C ANTIGENS including antibodies to envelope, core, and non-structural proteins.
Immunoglobulins raised by any form of viral hepatitis; some of these antibodies are used to diagnose the specific kind of hepatitis.
A closely related group of antigens found in the plasma only during the infective phase of hepatitis B or in virulent chronic hepatitis B, probably indicating active virus replication; there are three subtypes which may exist in a complex with immunoglobulins G.
Antigens of the virion of the HEPATITIS B VIRUS or the Dane particle, its surface (HEPATITIS B SURFACE ANTIGENS), core (HEPATITIS B CORE ANTIGENS), and other associated antigens, including the HEPATITIS B E ANTIGENS.
The production of ANTIBODIES by proliferating and differentiated B-LYMPHOCYTES under stimulation by ANTIGENS.
Acute INFLAMMATION of the LIVER in humans; caused by HEPATITIS E VIRUS, a non-enveloped single-stranded RNA virus. Similar to HEPATITIS A, its incubation period is 15-60 days and is enterically transmitted, usually by fecal-oral transmission.
A positive-stranded RNA virus species in the genus HEPEVIRUS, causing enterically-transmitted non-A, non-B hepatitis (HEPATITIS E).
Antibodies to the HEPATITIS A ANTIGENS including antibodies to envelope, core, and non-structural proteins.
A chronic self-perpetuating hepatocellular INFLAMMATION of unknown cause, usually with HYPERGAMMAGLOBULINEMIA and serum AUTOANTIBODIES.
INFLAMMATION of the LIVER in animals due to viral infection.
The type species of LENTIVIRUS and the etiologic agent of AIDS. It is characterized by its cytopathic effect and affinity for the T4-lymphocyte.
Sexual activities of humans.
A strain of HEPATITIS A VIRUS which causes hepatitis in humans. The virus replicates in hepatocytes and is presumed to reach the intestine via the bile duct. Transmission occurs by the fecal-oral route.
Abuse, overuse, or misuse of a substance by its injection into a vein.
Any of the viruses that cause inflammation of the liver. They include both DNA and RNA viruses as well viruses from humans and animals.
Antigens associated with specific proteins of the human adult T-cell immunodeficiency virus (HIV); also called HTLV-III-associated and lymphadenopathy-associated virus (LAV) antigens.
INFLAMMATION of the LIVER in humans caused by HEPATITIS DELTA VIRUS, a defective RNA virus that can only infect HEPATITIS B patients. For its viral coating, hepatitis delta virus requires the HEPATITIS B SURFACE ANTIGENS produced by these patients. Hepatitis D can occur either concomitantly with (coinfection) or subsequent to (superinfection) hepatitis B infection. Similar to hepatitis B, it is primarily transmitted by parenteral exposure, such as transfusion of contaminated blood or blood products, but can also be transmitted via sexual or intimate personal contact.
A defective virus, containing particles of RNA nucleoprotein in virion-like form, present in patients with acute hepatitis B and chronic hepatitis. It requires the presence of a hepadnavirus for full replication. This is the lone species in the genus Deltavirus.
INFLAMMATION of the LIVER in non-human animals.
Human immunodeficiency virus. A non-taxonomic and historical term referring to any of two species, specifically HIV-1 and/or HIV-2. Prior to 1986, this was called human T-lymphotropic virus type III/lymphadenopathy-associated virus (HTLV-III/LAV). From 1986-1990, it was an official species called HIV. Since 1991, HIV was no longer considered an official species name; the two species were designated HIV-1 and HIV-2.
A measure of the binding strength between antibody and a simple hapten or antigen determinant. It depends on the closeness of stereochemical fit between antibody combining sites and antigen determinants, on the size of the area of contact between them, and on the distribution of charged and hydrophobic groups. It includes the concept of "avidity," which refers to the strength of the antigen-antibody bond after formation of reversible complexes.
Ribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.
Any vaccine raised against any virus or viral derivative that causes hepatitis.
Agents used in the prophylaxis or therapy of VIRUS DISEASES. Some of the ways they may act include preventing viral replication by inhibiting viral DNA polymerase; binding to specific cell-surface receptors and inhibiting viral penetration or uncoating; inhibiting viral protein synthesis; or blocking late stages of virus assembly.
Test for tissue antigen using either a direct method, by conjugation of antibody with fluorescent dye (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, DIRECT) or an indirect method, by formation of antigen-antibody complex which is then labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, INDIRECT). The tissue is then examined by fluorescence microscopy.
An HIV species related to HIV-1 but carrying different antigenic components and with differing nucleic acid composition. It shares serologic reactivity and sequence homology with the simian Lentivirus SIMIAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS and infects only T4-lymphocytes expressing the CD4 phenotypic marker.
A prodromal phase of infection with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Laboratory criteria separating AIDS-related complex (ARC) from AIDS include elevated or hyperactive B-cell humoral immune responses, compared to depressed or normal antibody reactivity in AIDS; follicular or mixed hyperplasia in ARC lymph nodes, leading to lymphocyte degeneration and depletion more typical of AIDS; evolving succession of histopathological lesions such as localization of Kaposi's sarcoma, signaling the transition to the full-blown AIDS.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
Antibodies which react with the individual structural determinants (idiotopes) on the variable region of other antibodies.
An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed.
Sites on an antigen that interact with specific antibodies.
Local surface sites on antibodies which react with antigen determinant sites on antigens (EPITOPES.) They are formed from parts of the variable regions of FAB FRAGMENTS.
The total number of cases of a given disease in a specified population at a designated time. It is differentiated from INCIDENCE, which refers to the number of new cases in the population at a given time.
Commercially prepared reagent sets, with accessory devices, containing all of the major components and literature necessary to perform one or more designated diagnostic tests or procedures. They may be for laboratory or personal use.
An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.
A species of the CORONAVIRUS genus causing hepatitis in mice. Four strains have been identified as MHV 1, MHV 2, MHV 3, and MHV 4 (also known as MHV-JHM, which is neurotropic and causes disseminated encephalomyelitis with demyelination as well as focal liver necrosis).
The co-occurrence of pregnancy and an INFECTION. The infection may precede or follow FERTILIZATION.
Antigens of the virions of HEPACIVIRUS, their surface, core, or other associated antigens.
A genus of PICORNAVIRIDAE causing infectious hepatitis naturally in humans and experimentally in other primates. It is transmitted through fecal contamination of food or water. HEPATITIS A VIRUS is the type species.
Organized periodic procedures performed on large groups of people for the purpose of detecting disease.
Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)
Identification of those persons (or animals) who have had such an association with an infected person, animal, or contaminated environment as to have had the opportunity to acquire the infection. Contact tracing is a generally accepted method for the control of sexually transmitted diseases.
Autoantibodies directed against various nuclear antigens including DNA, RNA, histones, acidic nuclear proteins, or complexes of these molecular elements. Antinuclear antibodies are found in systemic autoimmune diseases including systemic lupus erythematosus, Sjogren's syndrome, scleroderma, polymyositis, and mixed connective tissue disease.
Immunologic techniques based on the use of: (1) enzyme-antibody conjugates; (2) enzyme-antigen conjugates; (3) antienzyme antibody followed by its homologous enzyme; or (4) enzyme-antienzyme complexes. These are used histologically for visualizing or labeling tissue specimens.
Genes and gene segments encoding the IMMUNOGLOBULIN HEAVY CHAINS. Gene segments of the heavy chain genes are symbolized V (variable), D (diversity), J (joining), and C (constant).
The giving of advice and assistance to individuals with educational or personal problems.
Immunoglobulins produced in a response to PROTOZOAN ANTIGENS.
Immunoglobulins induced by antigens specific for tumors other than the normally occurring HISTOCOMPATIBILITY ANTIGENS.
Sexual attraction or relationship between males.
A technique using antibodies for identifying or quantifying a substance. Usually the substance being studied serves as antigen both in antibody production and in measurement of antibody by the test substance.
One of the type I interferons produced by peripheral blood leukocytes or lymphoblastoid cells. In addition to antiviral activity, it activates NATURAL KILLER CELLS and B-LYMPHOCYTES, and down-regulates VASCULAR ENDOTHELIAL GROWTH FACTOR expression through PI-3 KINASE and MAPK KINASES signaling pathways.
A class of immunoglobulin bearing mu chains (IMMUNOGLOBULIN MU-CHAINS). IgM can fix COMPLEMENT. The name comes from its high molecular weight and originally being called a macroglobulin.
Undertaking a task involving a challenge for achievement or a desirable goal in which there is a lack of certainty or a fear of failure. It may also include the exhibiting of certain behaviors whose outcomes may present a risk to the individual or to those associated with him or her.
Serological reactions in which an antiserum against one antigen reacts with a non-identical but closely related antigen.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
Liver disease in which the normal microcirculation, the gross vascular anatomy, and the hepatic architecture have been variably destroyed and altered with fibrous septa surrounding regenerated or regenerating parenchymal nodules.
Diseases due to or propagated by sexual contact.
Antigens produced by various strains of HEPATITIS A VIRUS such as the human hepatitis A virus (HEPATITIS A VIRUS, HUMAN).
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.
EPIDEMIOLOGIC STUDIES based on the detection through serological testing of characteristic change in the serum level of specific ANTIBODIES. Latent subclinical infections and carrier states can thus be detected in addition to clinically overt cases.
A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.
Antigens produced by various strains of HEPATITIS D VIRUS.
Antigens from any of the hepatitis viruses including surface, core, and other associated antigens.
Married or single individuals who share sexual relations.
Antibodies that react with self-antigens (AUTOANTIGENS) of the organism that produced them.
Agents used to treat AIDS and/or stop the spread of the HIV infection. These do not include drugs used to treat symptoms or opportunistic infections associated with AIDS.
INFLAMMATION of the LIVER due to ALCOHOL ABUSE. It is characterized by NECROSIS of HEPATOCYTES, infiltration by NEUTROPHILS, and deposit of MALLORY BODIES. Depending on its severity, the inflammatory lesion may be reversible or progress to LIVER CIRRHOSIS.
A nucleoside antimetabolite antiviral agent that blocks nucleic acid synthesis and is used against both RNA and DNA viruses.
The classic hemophilia resulting from a deficiency of factor VIII. It is an inherited disorder of blood coagulation characterized by a permanent tendency to hemorrhage.
Institutions which provide medical or health-related services.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of L-alanine and 2-oxoglutarate to pyruvate and L-glutamate. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 2.6.1.2.
A DNA virus that closely resembles human hepatitis B virus. It has been recovered from naturally infected ducks.
The process of intracellular viral multiplication, consisting of the synthesis of PROTEINS; NUCLEIC ACIDS; and sometimes LIPIDS, and their assembly into a new infectious particle.
The measurement of infection-blocking titer of ANTISERA by testing a series of dilutions for a given virus-antiserum interaction end-point, which is generally the dilution at which tissue cultures inoculated with the serum-virus mixtures demonstrate cytopathology (CPE) or the dilution at which 50% of test animals injected with serum-virus mixtures show infectivity (ID50) or die (LD50).
Immune status consisting of non-production of HIV antibodies, as determined by various serological tests.
Proteins encoded by a VIRAL GENOME that are produced in the organisms they infect, but not packaged into the VIRUS PARTICLES. Some of these proteins may play roles within the infected cell during VIRUS REPLICATION or act in regulation of virus replication or VIRUS ASSEMBLY.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
The major immunoglobulin isotype class in normal human serum. There are several isotype subclasses of IgG, for example, IgG1, IgG2A, and IgG2B.
The quantity of measurable virus in a body fluid. Change in viral load, measured in plasma, is sometimes used as a SURROGATE MARKER in disease progression.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
A primary malignant neoplasm of epithelial liver cells. It ranges from a well-differentiated tumor with EPITHELIAL CELLS indistinguishable from normal HEPATOCYTES to a poorly differentiated neoplasm. The cells may be uniform or markedly pleomorphic, or form GIANT CELLS. Several classification schemes have been suggested.
The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.
Studies in which the presence or absence of disease or other health-related variables are determined in each member of the study population or in a representative sample at one particular time. This contrasts with LONGITUDINAL STUDIES which are followed over a period of time.
Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.
Immunoglobulins produced in a response to FUNGAL ANTIGENS.
An ORTHOHEPADNAVIRUS causing chronic liver disease and hepatocellular carcinoma in woodchucks. It closely resembles the human hepatitis B virus.
The processes triggered by interactions of ANTIBODIES with their ANTIGENS.
Tumors or cancer of the LIVER.
The genetic constitution of the individual, comprising the ALLELES present at each GENETIC LOCUS.
The complex formed by the binding of antigen and antibody molecules. The deposition of large antigen-antibody complexes leading to tissue damage causes IMMUNE COMPLEX DISEASES.
The clear, viscous fluid secreted by the SALIVARY GLANDS and mucous glands of the mouth. It contains MUCINS, water, organic salts, and ptylin.
Polymers of ETHYLENE OXIDE and water, and their ethers. They vary in consistency from liquid to solid depending on the molecular weight indicated by a number following the name. They are used as SURFACTANTS, dispersing agents, solvents, ointment and suppository bases, vehicles, and tablet excipients. Some specific groups are NONOXYNOLS, OCTOXYNOLS, and POLOXAMERS.
Positive test results in subjects who do not possess the attribute for which the test is conducted. The labeling of healthy persons as diseased when screening in the detection of disease. (Last, A Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)
Proteins found mainly in icosahedral DNA and RNA viruses. They consist of proteins directly associated with the nucleic acid inside the NUCLEOCAPSID.
Opportunistic infections found in patients who test positive for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). The most common include PNEUMOCYSTIS PNEUMONIA, Kaposi's sarcoma, cryptosporidiosis, herpes simplex, toxoplasmosis, cryptococcosis, and infections with Mycobacterium avium complex, Microsporidium, and Cytomegalovirus.
Antibodies, often monoclonal, in which the two antigen-binding sites are specific for separate ANTIGENIC DETERMINANTS. They are artificial antibodies produced by chemical crosslinking, fusion of HYBRIDOMA cells, or by molecular genetic techniques. They function as the main mediators of targeted cellular cytotoxicity and have been shown to be efficient in the targeting of drugs, toxins, radiolabeled haptens, and effector cells to diseased tissue, primarily tumors.
A reverse transcriptase inhibitor and ZALCITABINE analog in which a sulfur atom replaces the 3' carbon of the pentose ring. It is used to treat HIV disease.
Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.
Antibodies that inhibit the reaction between ANTIGEN and other antibodies or sensitized T-LYMPHOCYTES (e.g., antibodies of the IMMUNOGLOBULIN G class that compete with IGE antibodies for antigen, thereby blocking an allergic response). Blocking antibodies that bind tumors and prevent destruction of tumor cells by CYTOTOXIC T-LYMPHOCYTES have also been called enhancing antibodies. (Rosen et al., Dictionary of Immunology, 1989)
A form of antibodies consisting only of the variable regions of the heavy and light chains (FV FRAGMENTS), connected by a small linker peptide. They are less immunogenic than complete immunoglobulin and thus have potential therapeutic use.
An infant during the first month after birth.
Univalent antigen-binding fragments composed of one entire IMMUNOGLOBULIN LIGHT CHAIN and the amino terminal end of one of the IMMUNOGLOBULIN HEAVY CHAINS from the hinge region, linked to each other by disulfide bonds. Fab contains the IMMUNOGLOBULIN VARIABLE REGIONS, which are part of the antigen-binding site, and the first IMMUNOGLOBULIN CONSTANT REGIONS. This fragment can be obtained by digestion of immunoglobulins with the proteolytic enzyme PAPAIN.
Administration of vaccines to stimulate the host's immune response. This includes any preparation intended for active immunological prophylaxis.
Substances elaborated by viruses that have antigenic activity.
Layers of protein which surround the capsid in animal viruses with tubular nucleocapsids. The envelope consists of an inner layer of lipids and virus specified proteins also called membrane or matrix proteins. The outer layer consists of one or more types of morphological subunits called peplomers which project from the viral envelope; this layer always consists of glycoproteins.
Deliberate stimulation of the host's immune response. ACTIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of ANTIGENS or IMMUNOLOGIC ADJUVANTS. PASSIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of IMMUNE SERA or LYMPHOCYTES or their extracts (e.g., transfer factor, immune RNA) or transplantation of immunocompetent cell producing tissue (thymus or bone marrow).
Methods used for studying the interactions of antibodies with specific regions of protein antigens. Important applications of epitope mapping are found within the area of immunochemistry.
INFLAMMATION of the LIVER in humans caused by HEPATITIS DELTA VIRUS in conjunction with HEPATITIS B VIRUS and lasting six months or more.
Antibodies elicited in a different species from which the antigen originated. These antibodies are directed against a wide variety of interspecies-specific antigens, the best known of which are Forssman, Hanganutziu-Deicher (H-D), and Paul-Bunnell (P-B). Incidence of antibodies to these antigens--i.e., the phenomenon of heterophile antibody response--is useful in the serodiagnosis, pathogenesis, and prognosis of infection and latent infectious states as well as in cancer classification.
A form of fluorescent antibody technique commonly used to detect serum antibodies and immune complexes in tissues and microorganisms in specimens from patients with infectious diseases. The technique involves formation of an antigen-antibody complex which is labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody. (From Bennington, Saunders Dictionary & Encyclopedia of Laboratory Medicine and Technology, 1984)
Disorders related to substance abuse.
The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.
In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.
Antibodies that can catalyze a wide variety of chemical reactions. They are characterized by high substrate specificity and share many mechanistic features with enzymes.
Represents 15-20% of the human serum immunoglobulins, mostly as the 4-chain polymer in humans or dimer in other mammals. Secretory IgA (IMMUNOGLOBULIN A, SECRETORY) is the main immunoglobulin in secretions.
Serum that contains antibodies. It is obtained from an animal that has been immunized either by ANTIGEN injection or infection with microorganisms containing the antigen.
A genus of Sciuridae consisting of 14 species. They are shortlegged, burrowing rodents which hibernate in winter.
The condition of harboring an infective organism without manifesting symptoms of infection. The organism must be readily transmissible to another susceptible host.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
The transference of a part of or an entire liver from one human or animal to another.
Cells artificially created by fusion of activated lymphocytes with neoplastic cells. The resulting hybrid cells are cloned and produce pure MONOCLONAL ANTIBODIES or T-cell products, identical to those produced by the immunologically competent parent cell.
Disease having a short and relatively severe course.
Classic quantitative assay for detection of antigen-antibody reactions using a radioactively labeled substance (radioligand) either directly or indirectly to measure the binding of the unlabeled substance to a specific antibody or other receptor system. Non-immunogenic substances (e.g., haptens) can be measured if coupled to larger carrier proteins (e.g., bovine gamma-globulin or human serum albumin) capable of inducing antibody formation.
Transfer of immunity from immunized to non-immune host by administration of serum antibodies, or transplantation of lymphocytes (ADOPTIVE TRANSFER).
Predetermined sets of questions used to collect data - clinical data, social status, occupational group, etc. The term is often applied to a self-completed survey instrument.
Antibodies from non-human species whose protein sequences have been modified to make them nearly identical with human antibodies. If the constant region and part of the variable region are replaced, they are called humanized. If only the constant region is modified they are called chimeric. INN names for humanized antibodies end in -zumab.
Simultaneous infection of a host organism by two or more pathogens. In virology, coinfection commonly refers to simultaneous infection of a single cell by two or more different viruses.
The complete genetic complement contained in a DNA or RNA molecule in a virus.
Lymphocytes responsible for cell-mediated immunity. Two types have been identified - cytotoxic (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and helper T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, HELPER-INDUCER). They are formed when lymphocytes circulate through the THYMUS GLAND and differentiate to thymocytes. When exposed to an antigen, they divide rapidly and produce large numbers of new T cells sensitized to that antigen.
Diagnostic procedures involving immunoglobulin reactions.
The common chimpanzee, a species of the genus Pan, family HOMINIDAE. It lives in Africa, primarily in the tropical rainforests. There are a number of recognized subspecies.
Therapy with two or more separate preparations given for a combined effect.
Substances that are recognized by the immune system and induce an immune reaction.
The main structural component of the LIVER. They are specialized EPITHELIAL CELLS that are organized into interconnected plates called lobules.
Pathological processes of the LIVER.
Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.
Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.
Autoantibodies directed against phospholipids. These antibodies are characteristically found in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (LUPUS ERYTHEMATOSUS, SYSTEMIC;), ANTIPHOSPHOLIPID SYNDROME; related autoimmune diseases, some non-autoimmune diseases, and also in healthy individuals.
External envelope protein of the human immunodeficiency virus which is encoded by the HIV env gene. It has a molecular weight of 120 kDa and contains numerous glycosylation sites. Gp120 binds to cells expressing CD4 cell-surface antigens, most notably T4-lymphocytes and monocytes/macrophages. Gp120 has been shown to interfere with the normal function of CD4 and is at least partly responsible for the cytopathic effect of HIV.
Immunologic method used for detecting or quantifying immunoreactive substances. The substance is identified by first immobilizing it by blotting onto a membrane and then tagging it with labeled antibodies.
A family of RNA viruses, many of which cause disease in humans and domestic animals. There are three genera FLAVIVIRUS; PESTIVIRUS; and HEPACIVIRUS, as well as several unassigned species.
Antigens on surfaces of cells, including infectious or foreign cells or viruses. They are usually protein-containing groups on cell membranes or walls and may be isolated.
Multi-subunit proteins which function in IMMUNITY. They are produced by B LYMPHOCYTES from the IMMUNOGLOBULIN GENES. They are comprised of two heavy (IMMUNOGLOBULIN HEAVY CHAINS) and two light chains (IMMUNOGLOBULIN LIGHT CHAINS) with additional ancillary polypeptide chains depending on their isoforms. The variety of isoforms include monomeric or polymeric forms, and transmembrane forms (B-CELL ANTIGEN RECEPTORS) or secreted forms (ANTIBODIES). They are divided by the amino acid sequence of their heavy chains into five classes (IMMUNOGLOBULIN A; IMMUNOGLOBULIN D; IMMUNOGLOBULIN E; IMMUNOGLOBULIN G; IMMUNOGLOBULIN M) and various subclasses.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
Blood tests that are used to evaluate how well a patient's liver is working and also to help diagnose liver conditions.
The number of CD4-POSITIVE T-LYMPHOCYTES per unit volume of BLOOD. Determination requires the use of a fluorescence-activated flow cytometer.
The presence of viruses in the blood.
Diseases which have one or more of the following characteristics: they are permanent, leave residual disability, are caused by nonreversible pathological alteration, require special training of the patient for rehabilitation, or may be expected to require a long period of supervision, observation, or care. (Dictionary of Health Services Management, 2d ed)
Lymphoid cells concerned with humoral immunity. They are short-lived cells resembling bursa-derived lymphocytes of birds in their production of immunoglobulin upon appropriate stimulation.
In screening and diagnostic tests, the probability that a person with a positive test is a true positive (i.e., has the disease), is referred to as the predictive value of a positive test; whereas, the predictive value of a negative test is the probability that the person with a negative test does not have the disease. Predictive value is related to the sensitivity and specificity of the test.
The ability of viruses to resist or to become tolerant to chemotherapeutic agents or antiviral agents. This resistance is acquired through gene mutation.
Proteins found in any species of virus.
Substances elaborated by bacteria that have antigenic activity.
Serologic tests based on inactivation of complement by the antigen-antibody complex (stage 1). Binding of free complement can be visualized by addition of a second antigen-antibody system such as red cells and appropriate red cell antibody (hemolysin) requiring complement for its completion (stage 2). Failure of the red cells to lyse indicates that a specific antigen-antibody reaction has taken place in stage 1. If red cells lyse, free complement is present indicating no antigen-antibody reaction occurred in stage 1.
The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.
Carbon-containing phosphonic acid compounds. Included under this heading are compounds that have carbon bound to either OXYGEN atom or the PHOSPHOROUS atom of the (P=O)O2 structure.
Sensitive tests to measure certain antigens, antibodies, or viruses, using their ability to agglutinate certain erythrocytes. (From Stedman, 26th ed)
Inhibitors of HIV PROTEASE, an enzyme required for production of proteins needed for viral assembly.
Technique using an instrument system for making, processing, and displaying one or more measurements on individual cells obtained from a cell suspension. Cells are usually stained with one or more fluorescent dyes specific to cell components of interest, e.g., DNA, and fluorescence of each cell is measured as it rapidly transverses the excitation beam (laser or mercury arc lamp). Fluorescence provides a quantitative measure of various biochemical and biophysical properties of the cell, as well as a basis for cell sorting. Other measurable optical parameters include light absorption and light scattering, the latter being applicable to the measurement of cell size, shape, density, granularity, and stain uptake.
Partial immunoglobulin molecules resulting from selective cleavage by proteolytic enzymes or generated through PROTEIN ENGINEERING techniques.
Removal and pathologic examination of specimens in the form of small pieces of tissue from the living body.
Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.
Proteins secreted by vertebrate cells in response to a wide variety of inducers. They confer resistance against many different viruses, inhibit proliferation of normal and malignant cells, impede multiplication of intracellular parasites, enhance macrophage and granulocyte phagocytosis, augment natural killer cell activity, and show several other immunomodulatory functions.
Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.
... cells produced the antibody, which cleared them of HIV. The technique is named immunoprophylaxis by gene transfer (IGT). Animal ... tests for antibodies to ebola, malaria, influenza, and hepatitis were underway. In March, scientists, including an inventor of ... a gene-based immunotherapy for the treatment of HIV that uses a lentiviral vector to deliver an antisense gene against the HIV ... In a phase I clinical trial, five subjects with chronic HIV infection who had failed to respond to at least two antiretroviral ...
In 1987, the emergence of AIDS led to the introduction of screening of all collected blood for HIV 1 and 2 antibodies. In 1988 ... Screening of blood for hepatitis B was initiated. ...
The accuracy of saliva anti-HIV antibody testing has been confirmed by many additional studies, leading to approval of this ... May 2011). "Importance of the cutoff ratio for detecting antibodies against hepatitis A virus in oral fluids by enzyme ... The second study, conducted by Pascoe, et al., compared saliva antibody testing to serum antibody testing using ELISA followed ... such as HIV, viral hepatitis, amoebiasis, and helicobacter pylori infection), and allergic conditions (such as food allergy). ...
These include HIV, Hepatitis B, Hepatitis C, Treponema pallidum (syphilis) and, where relevant, other infections that pose a ... As with HIV, this low rate has been attributed to the ability to screen for both antibodies as well as viral RNA nucleic acid ... HIV; Hepatitis B; Hepatitis C; or syphilis.[10] One of the main reasons for this is because testing kits are not always ... When antibodies are bound to its antigens, histamine is released from mast cells and basophils. Either IgE antibodies from the ...
Additionally, blood serum should be tested for the presence of viruses, including HIV, hepatitis B and C, cytomegalovirus (CMV ... The panel reactive antibody (PRA) test measures the proportion of the population to which a recipient will react via pre- ... desperate terminal patients may accept a transplant from a HIV-positive donor if they are willing to expose themselves to HIV. ... They may also be treated with anti-lymphocyte antibodies (anti-thymocyte globulin, alemtuzumab), irradiation directed against ...
Cases associated with HIV/AIDS test positive for antibodies directed against this virus. (PEL occurs in the absence of HHV-8 ... hepatitis complicated by cirrhosis caused by hepatitis B or C viral infection, or of old age. PEL occurring in the elderly ... particularly HIV/AIDS in HIV-infected individuals. New treatment strategies, including those directed at its underlying ... Individuals with PEL that is associated with cirrosis due to hepatitis evidence positive serum tests for the hepatitis virus B ...
Hepatitis B surface antigen Antibody to hepatitis C Antibody to HIV, usually subtypes 1 and 2 Serologic test for syphilis The ... For example, the HIV antibody test will not detect a recently infected donor, so some blood banks use a p24 antigen or HIV ... The screening includes testing for diseases that can be transmitted by a blood transfusion, including HIV and viral hepatitis. ... "HIV charities welcome the lifting of lifetime ban on gay men donating blood". National Aids Trust. 2011-09-08. Archived from ...
... the screens cannot pick up on the small number of antibodies produced in HIV infections within the last 90 days or Hepatitis C ... NAT (nucleic acid testing) is now being done by many organ procurement organizations and is able to detect HIV and Hepatitis C ... In November 2007, the CDC reported the first-ever case of HIV and Hepatitis C being simultaneously transferred through an organ ... and the receiver often gets hepatitis or HIV. In legal markets of Iran the price of a kidney is $2,000 to $4,000. An article by ...
Evaluation of an indirect immunofluorescence assay for the confirmation of HIV-1 antibody in U.S. blood donor sera. J Clin ... PDF List of FDA-approved HIV and hepatitis tests Möstl M, Mucke H, Schinkinger M, Haushofer A, Krieger O, Lutz D. Indications ... HIV-1 by the U.S. FDA approval on 5 February 1992. A human T-lymphotropic virus antibody test, developed by Mucke's team but ... for the presence of antibodies cross-reactive with HTLVI/II, but not HIV, in patients with myelodysplastic sndrome. Clin. ...
The samples, "...were to become invaluable measures of the rise of HIV infection once a test for HIV antibodies became ... Rotello then describes how HIV entered this system and began to spread. He cites data from a large study of Hepatitis B ... He also cites the theory of evolutionary biologist Paul W. Ewald that high levels of HIV transmission among gay men led to the ... Some studies indicated that 40% or more of young gay men would become infected with HIV by the time they reached middle age, ...
For the detection of HIV antibodies, the wells of microtiter plate are coated with the HIV antigen. Two specific antibodies are ... antibodies in tuberculosis detection of rotavirus in feces detection of hepatitis B markers in serum detection of hepatitis C ... the antigen-antibody reaction occurs. No antigen is left for the enzyme-labelled specific HIV antibodies. These antibodies ... If antibodies to HIV are present in the serum, they may bind to these HIV antigens. The plate is then washed to remove all ...
... such as infliximab are not recommended for use in chronic carriers of the hepatitis B virus or individuals infected with HIV. ... Neutralization occurs when an antidrug antibody prevents a monoclonal antibody such as infliximab from binding antigen in a ... The rate of psoriasis in human immunodeficiency virus-positive (HIV) individuals is comparable to that of HIV-negative ... Individuals with psoriasis may develop neutralizing antibodies against monoclonal antibodies. ...
... hepatitis B, rabies, HIV, anthrax and respiratory syncytial virus. Korean scientists are looking at using the tomato to express ... Clinical trials have been conducted on mice using tomatoes expressing antibodies or proteins that stimulate antibody production ...
These antibodies are found in 10-25 % of HIV-1 infected patients. Few of those (worldwide 0.8% of HIV-1 positive individuals) ... the approach has also transferred well for the treatment of hepatitis B and HIV. One of the approaches for a protective HIV-1 ... It is likely to assume that these results are transferable to humans as HIV-1 patients with neutralizing antibodies were shown ... ISH has proven effective for the treatment of influenza, rabies related lyssavirus, hepatitis B, and the HIV virus. This ...
... some tests measure the level of HIV antibodies in the blood and/or saliva or the level of both HIV antigens and antibodies in ... Due to the similar routes of transmission of HIV and HCV, HIV-positive individuals are at great risk of HIV and HCV co- ... Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) and Hepatitis C Virus (HCV) co-infection is a multi-faceted, chronic condition that ... For an individual to be diagnosed with HCV, they must first take the hepatitis C antibody (HCV Ab) screening test. This test is ...
... of people with HIV or hepatitis C. As per Lupus Foundation of America, "about 5% of the general population will have a positive ... anti-Sm antibodies, anti-nRNP antibodies, anti-Scl-70 antibodies, anti-dsDNA antibodies, anti-histone antibodies, antibodies to ... Typically, HEp-2 cells are used as a substrate to detect the antibodies in human serum. Microscope slides are coated with HEp-2 ... This pattern is associated with anti-dsDNA antibodies, antibodies to nucleosomal components, and anti-histone antibodies. There ...
... virus Cytomegalovirus Mycoplasma pneumonia Hepatitis HIV AIHA can be caused by a number of different classes of antibody, with ... Classification of the antibodies is based on their activity at different temperatures and their etiology. Antibodies with high ... Usually, the antibody becomes active when it reaches the limbs, at which point it opsonizes RBCs. When these RBCs return to ... Antibodies are produced against the RBCs, which leads to complement activation. Complement fragments, such as C3a, C4a and C5a ...
The standard test for HIV is an enzyme immunoassay test that reacts with antibodies to the virus. This test has a window period ... Delta agent not screened for, since it is a superinfection of Hepatitis B and cannot exist alone. Often silent infection Most ... These fall into three basic varieties: antibody tests, nucleic acid tests (NAT), and surrogate tests. Antibody tests look for ... specifically HIV group O. People who have been in prison for extended periods are also excluded for HIV risk. Not a major ...
The test detects both HIV-1 and HIV-2 antibodies and the p24 antigen, and enables detection of HIV-1 acute infection earlier ... 2001: Ortho becomes the first diagnostic company to receive US FDA approval for automated random access hepatitis tests. 2006: ... "Ortho Clinical Diagnostics Gets FDA Clearance for HIV Combo Test on Immunodiagnostic System". 360Dx.com. Retrieved 19 December ... 2017: FDA approves Ortho's HIV Combo test for the Vitros immunodiagnostic system. ...
HIV), but also of Hepatitis and other STD, and their antibodies present in the human blood that will be eventually used for ... Another important aspect of this law is that it states that it is compulsory to detect HIV and its antibodies present in the ... In addition, it declares of national interest the medicines, vaccines and products for the treatment of HIV, Hepatitis and ... Argentina enacted an HIV/AIDS law in 1990, the 23.798 HIV/AIDS National Law, which has also been criticised. Critics pointed to ...
b12 is an antibody against HIV found in some long-term nonprogressors. It has been found to bind to gp120 at the exact region, ... Entry inhibitors are used to treat conditions such as HIV and hepatitis D. They are used in combination therapy for the ... Leronlimab, a monoclonal antibody that binds CCR5 Plerixafor was being developed to interfere with interaction between HIV and ... Pugach P, Ketas TJ, Michael E, Moore JP (August 2008). "Neutralizing antibody and anti-retroviral drug sensitivities of HIV-1 ...
Antibody responses against hepatitis B virus (HBV) envelope protein (HBsAg) have been sustained for up to 74 weeks without ... April 1997). "Enhancement of cell-mediated immunity against HIV-1 induced by coinnoculation of plasmid-encoded HIV-1 antigen ... Antibody-secreting cells migrate to the bone marrow and spleen for long-term antibody production, and generally localise there ... Antibody responses generated by DNA are useful as a preparative tool. For example, polyclonal and monoclonal antibodies can be ...
... at a 1983 Centers for Disease Control meeting that blood donors should be screened for hepatitis B as a surrogate for HIV, as ... Noting that AIDS antibodies were being increasingly detected among hemophiliacs, Ratnoff proposed ... He and his associates had been the first to identify some of the symptoms of HIV/AIDS in hemophilia patients. ... In the 1980s, Ratnoff became concerned about the risk of HIV transmission to patients with hemophilia because these patients ...
Hiv) And Hepatitis C Virus (Hcv) Archived 21 February 2008 at the Wayback Machine "HIV Antibody Assays". hivinsite.ucsf.edu. ... Roberts, Bill D. (Spring 1994). "HIV Antibody Testing Methods" (PDF). Update on HIV/AIDS. 26: 13-14. "The Window Period , HIV ... which HIV and hepatitis may not be detected in the blood and that this window is seven days for HIV and 16 days for hepatitis. ... "Types of HIV Tests , HIV Risk Reduction Tool , CDC". wwwn.cdc.gov. Retrieved 19 November 2019. "HIV testing technologies". www. ...
Tests detecting HIV infection by detecting the presence of HIV antibody were developed. Subsequent tremendous research efforts ... In 1963, the Hepatitis B virus was discovered by Baruch Blumberg who went on to develop a hepatitis B vaccine. In 1965, Howard ... Another example is the association of infection with hepatitis B and hepatitis C viruses and liver cancer. Some subviral ... Vaccinations protect against viral diseases, in part, by eliciting the production of antibodies. Monoclonal antibodies, ...
Hepatitis C, and the Vaccinia virus. Sulfatide shows involvement in HIV-1 infection. gp120-gp41 are specific types of envelope ... In the diagnosis of Type I diabetes, elevated anti-sulfatide antibodies in serum arise. Such anti-sulfatide antibodies prevent ... including HIV-1, Hepatitis C, Influenza A virus, and Vaccinia virus. Metachromatic leukodystrophy, also known as MLD, is a ... it has been demonstrated that sulfatide treatments may lead to the inhibition of HIV-1 replication. Additionally, HIV-1- ...
... such as HIV-1 and Hepatitis C virus envelope glycoproteins. His team was reported by the 6 February 2004 edition of Science ... and catalytic antibodies, with a variety of antigens, including steroids, peptides, carbohydrates and viral proteins, ...
HIV 1 and 2, hepatitis B virus, ELISA for determination of hormones and the presence of other microorganisms causing diseases ... Combos indirect detection of antibodies and antibodies. All manual or automated procedures require the strictest quality ... tests are done as presence or absence of infectious agents that produce diseases such as HIV, Sagas disease, Hepatitis, HTLV I ... Some of the tests performed in this section mentioned techniques are: rheumatoid factor, antinuclear antibodies by ...
The diagnosis of HIV/AIDS has legal restrictions in patient confidentiality, and some clinics use rapid antibody tests to ... "Hepatitis Virus Test or Panel". UCSF Medical Center. 2007-11-01. Archived from the original on 2008-09-05. Retrieved 2008-09-28 ... "National HIV and STD Testing Resources". Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Retrieved 2021-02-26. Find a Testing ... "Hepatitis C". American Association for Clinical Chemistry. 2005-12-16. Retrieved 2008-09-28. "What Happens When You Visit Our ...
Hepatitis B Virus-Specific CD8+ T Cells Maintain Functional Exhaustion after Antigen Reexposure in an Acute Activation Immune ... and HIV-1 infection. Annual Review of Immunology. 2000, 18: 529-560. ISSN 0732-0582. PMID 10837068. doi:10.1146/annurev.immunol ... Disappearance of T Cell-Mediated Rejection Despite Continued Antibody-Mediated Rejection in Late Kidney Transplant Recipients. ... in immune function in patients with sepsis are associated with PD-1 or PD-L1 expression and can be restored by antibodies ...
IgM antibodies are detectable two days after symptom onset and IgG antibodies can be detected six to 18 days after symptom ... "African monkey meat that could be behind the next HIV". The Independent. Archived from the original on 22 June 2017. 25 people ... and viral hepatitis among others.[104] ... Finding the virus, viral RNA, or antibodies in blood[1]. ... Survivors develop antibodies against Ebola that last at least 10 years, but it is unclear whether they are immune to additional ...
... hepatitis B, rabies, HIV, anthrax and respiratory syncytial virus.[41] Korean scientists are looking at using the tomato to ... Clinical trials have been conducted on mice using tomatoes expressing antibodies or proteins that stimulate antibody production ...
Soto Hernández, JL «Toxoplasmosis cerebral en pacientes con infección por HIV-SIDA» (en castellà). Enf Infec y Microbiol, 1999 ... Toxoplasma antibodies» (en anglès). PLoS Negl Trop Dis, 2018 Ag 16; 12 (8), pp: e0006536. DOI: 10.1371/journal.pntd.0006536. ... Acute Seronegative Toxoplasma gondii Hepatitis Allergic to First-Line Treatment» (en anglès). Case Reports in Infectious ... aquest protozou provoca hepatitis agudes.[23] En persones immunodeprimides desencadena infeccions oportunistes molt serioses[24 ...
"WHO , WHO validates elimination of mother-to-child transmission of HIV and syphilis in Cuba". www.who.int. Retrieved 2017-12-06 ... The Center of molecular immunology (CIM) developed nimotuzumab, a monoclonal antibody used to treat cancer. Nimotuzumab is an ... hepatitis and chicken pox. Other campaigns included a program to reduce the infant mortality rate in 1970 directed at maternal ... new HIV infections are on the rise, and Cuba's preventive measures appear not to be keeping pace with conditions that favour ...
Hepatitis. DNA virus. HBV (B). RNA virus. CBV. HAV (A). HCV (C). HDV (D). HEV (E). HGV (G). ... Progressive Multifocal Leukoencephalopathy in HIV at eMedicine *^ Theodoropoulos, G., Panoussopoulos, D., Papaconstantinou, I ... Padgett, B.L.; Walker, D.L. (1973). "Prevalence of antibodies in human sera against JC virus, an isolate from a case of ... "X. Opportunistic Infections of HIV: JC Virus (JCV)". Microbiology. Illustrated Reviews. 3. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. p. ...
Engineers of small-scale humanised antibody production. Prices on application.. *^ Immunisation article in Ganfyd, the online ... because the antibodies which are transferred have a lifespan of only about 3-6 months.[18] Every placental mammal (which ... known as antibodies or immunoglobulins. This was first performed (and is still sometimes performed) by taking blood from a ... In the future it might be possible to artificially design antibodies to fit specific antigens, then produce them in large ...
... hepatitis - hepatitis C and HIV coinfection - hepatomegaly - herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) - herpes simplex virus 2 (HSV-2) - ... antibodies - antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity (ADCC) - antibody-mediated immunity - antifungal medication - ... HIV disease - HIV prevention trials network (HPTN) - HIV set point - HIV vaccine trials network (HVTN) - HIV-1 - HIV-2 - HIV- ... HIV-1) - human immunodeficiency virus type 2 (HIV-2) - human leukocyte antigens (HLA) - human papilloma virus (HPV) - human T ...
B cells: releases antibodies and assists activation of T cells. *T cells: *CD4+ Th (T helper) cells: activate and regulate T ... Infectious diseases - viral (AIDS, SARS, West Nile encephalitis, hepatitis, herpes, measles, others), bacterial (TB, typhoid, ... In HIV infection, these T cells are the main index to identify the individual's immune system integrity. ... This causes an antibody response to be mounted. Monocytes eventually leave the bloodstream and become tissue macrophages, which ...
In addition to the isolation of HIV-1 and HIV-2, in the recent past researchers at the Institut Pasteur have developed a test ... Jules Bordet received the Nobel prize in 1919 for his discoveries on immunity, especially the implication of antibodies and the ... In 1985, the first human vaccine obtained by genetic engineering from animal cells, the vaccine against hepatitis B, was ... This worldwide biomedical research organization based in Paris was the first to isolate HIV, the virus that causes AIDS, in ...
Laurence J (2006). "Hepatitis A and B virus immunization in HIV-infected persons". AIDS Reader 16 (1): 15-17. பப்மெட் 16433468. ... Planque S, Nishiyama Y, Taguchi H, Salas M, Hanson C, Paul S (June 2008). "Catalytic antibodies to HIV: Physiological role and ... "Facts about AIDS & HIV". avert.org. பார்த்த நாள் 2007-11-30.. *↑ Johnson AM, Laga M (1988). "Heterosexual transmission of HIV ... Palefsky J (2007). "Human papillomavirus infection in HIV-infected persons". Top HIV Med 15 (4): 130-3. பப்மெட் 17720998. ...
report that gene sequences for HIV, Ebola, Hepatitis, and Bacillus Anthracis can be uniquely identified using this technique. ... Using antibodies and gold particles this approach can quantify proteins in serum with high sensitivity and specificity.[43] ...
"High-throughput quantitative analysis of HIV-1 and SIV-specific ADCC-mediating antibody responses". Cytometry Part A. 79 (8): ... Afucosylated monoclonal antibodies. References[edit]. *^ Hashimoto, G.; Wright, P. F.; Karzon, D. T. (1983-11-01). "Antibody- ... Antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC), also referred to as antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity, is a ... Antibodies can then bind to these viral proteins. Next, the NK cells which have Fc Receptors will bind to that antibody, ...
1960s - Developed the first licensed rubella vaccine and the first test for rubella antibodies for large scale testing. ... and the creation of vaccines against hepatitis, Haemophilus influenzae (HIB), and human papillomavirus (HPV).[7] ... and in the 1980s there was a significant amount allocated for AIDS/HIV research.[43] ...
The diseases that most need vaccines today - HIV, malaria, and tuberculosis - exist mostly in poor countries. Companies that ... This means that their immune systems just do not create antibodies to fight off a disease, even after they are vaccinated ... Examples of inactivated vaccines include vaccines for pertussis (whooping cough), rabies, and hepatitis B. ... However, vaccines still do not exist for many important diseases, like malaria and HIV.[1] ...
Hepatitis C, or HIV. Davies et al. surveyed podiatrists and found that 41% of them complained of eye problems, particularly ... It has been suggested that absorption of trichophyton fungal antigens can give rise to immunoglobulin E (IgE) antibody ... Studies conducted in England found that the prevalence of trichophyton rubrum antibodies in podiatrists ranged from 14%-31%. ... of the population has allergic antibodies to fungal antigens, and half of them, that is 5% of the population, would be ...
These observations suggest that although TLR activation can lead to increases in antibody responses, TLR activation is not ... an immune signal that promotes antibody production. Alum adheres to the cell's plasma membrane and rearranges certain lipids ... "Adjuvant-enhanced antibody responses in the absence of toll-like receptor signaling". Science. 314 (5807): 1936-8. Bibcode ... "Vaccines with the MF59 Adjuvant Do Not Stimulate Antibody Responses against Squalene". Clin. Vaccine Immunol. 13 (9): 1010- ...
Antibody responses in humans to an inactivated hantavirus vaccine (Hantavax). Vaccine. 1999;17:2569-75. ...
... with intravenous use associated with the transmission of many disease such as Hepatitis C, HIV/AIDS and potential medical ... Ramón Peces; Navascués, RA; Baltar, J; Seco, M; Alvarez, J (1999). "Antiglomerular Basement Membrane Antibody-Mediated ...
Antibodies. Donors are sometimes immunized against agents such as tetanus or hepatitis B so that their plasma contains the ... For example, donations are tested for HIV by ELISA, which shows if they have been exposed to the disease, as well as by nucleic ... to rule out recent infections that the ELISA test might miss and are also screened for hepatitis B and hepatitis C. Industry ... In other donors, an intentionally incompatible unit of blood is transfused to produce antibodies to the antigens on the red ...
For example, the use of antibodies made artificially fluorescent (fluorescently labeled antibodies) can be directed to bind to ... The top three single agent/disease killers are HIV/AIDS, TB and malaria. While the number of deaths due to nearly every disease ... For instance, for genotype 1 hepatitis C treated with Pegylated interferon-alpha-2a or Pegylated interferon-alpha-2b (brand ... In contrast, the Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) kills its victims very slowly by attacking their immune system.[17] As a ...
Hepatitis. DNA virus. HBV (B). RNA virus. CBV. HAV (A). HCV (C). HDV (D). HEV (E). HGV (G). ... Passive antibody therapy[සංස්කරණය]. මෙම කොටස හිස්ය. එය පුළුල් කිරීමෙන් ඔබ හට උපකාර කළ හැක.. ... HIV *AIDS. Central. nervous system. Encephalitis/. meningitis. DNA virus. JCV Progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy. RNA ...
The antibody test (ELISA or western blot) uses a recombinant HIV protein to test for the presence of antibodies that the body ... Hepatitis B infection is controlled through the use of a recombinant hepatitis B vaccine, which contains a form of the ... אבחון HIV ===. כל אחת משלוש השיטות המשמשות לאבחון נגיף HIV פותחו על ידי שימוש בדנ"א רקומביננטי. מבחן הנוגדנים (אליסה) משתמשים ... for example HIV and hepatitis B. DrugBank entry. ... HIV testing page from US Centers for Disease Control (CDC). ...
... hepatitis B, hepatitis C, human papillomavirus infection, Epstein-Barr virus and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV).[2] These ... Approaches include antibodies, checkpoint therapy and adoptive cell transfer.[161] Laser therapy. Main article: Lasers in ... The hepatitis B vaccine prevents infection with hepatitis B virus and thus decreases the risk of liver cancer.[126] The ... hepatitis B and hepatitis C viruses (hepatocellular carcinoma) and human T-cell leukemia virus-1 (T-cell leukemias). Bacterial ...
Usually due to hepatitis B and C, HIV, cytomegalovirus, Epstein-Barr virus, and Parvo B19 virus. ... Antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody (ANCA) may highly suggest granulomatosis with polyangiitis, microscopic polyangiitis, ... A detailed history is important to elicit any recent medications, any risk of hepatitis infection, or any recent diagnosis with ... Complement levels that are low can suggest mixed cryoglobulinemia, hepatitis C infection, and SLE, but not most other ...
Main articles: Hepatitis B and Healthcare and the LGBT community § Hepatitis. Hepatitis B is a disease caused by hepatitis B ... "As many as 46% of black MSM have HIV" while "the HIV rate is estimated at 21% for white MSM and 17% for Hispanic MSM."[32][33][ ... Unprotected anal sex is a risk factor for formation of antisperm antibodies (ASA) in the recipient. In some people, ASA may ... "WHO , Hepatitis B".. *^ Petersen NJ, Barrett DH, Bond WW, Berquist KR, Favero MS, Bender TR, Maynard JE (1976). "Hepatitis B ...
An immunoassay measures the levels of antibodies against the virus that give immunity to a person. If the levels of antibodies ... The number of people in this high-risk group has increased, due to the HIV epidemic and the increased use of immunosuppressive ... Rarer complications of disseminated chickenpox include myocarditis, hepatitis, and glomerulonephritis.[65] Hemorrhagic ... antibodies; IgG antibodies persist for life and confer immunity. Cell-mediated immune responses are also important in limiting ...
HIV-1 expression induces tubular cell G2/M arrest and apoptosis.[94] The progression from HIV to AIDS is not immediate or even ... The adenovirus E1B-55K protein and the hepatitis B virus HBx protein are examples of viral proteins that can perform such a ... these mice demonstrated a deficiency in the maturation of an antibody response; they were able to generate normal levels of IgM ... HIV progression[edit]. The progression of the human immunodeficiency virus infection into AIDS is due primarily to the ...
They are the species primarily responsible for cryptococcosis, a fungal disease that occurs in about one million HIV/AIDS ... "Protective antifungal yeast killer toxin-like antibodies". Current Molecular Medicine. 5 (4): 443-452. doi:10.2174/ ... vaccines for hepatitis, and human serum albumin.[102] ...
A core antibody would help to tell the... ... It means protection from hepatitis B. Either you had a vaccine ... Ask the Experts > Forum on Hepatitis and HIV Coinfection > Q & A hepititis bs antibody. Jan 3, 2008 I had a physical done aout ... It means protection from hepatitis B. Either you had a vaccine in the past or you had natural infection and recovered. A core ... Read More About Hepatitis B Prevention Browse Forums: <-- Select . Aging. Choosing Your Meds. En Español. In Italiano. ...
Conclusions CMV IgG levels are higher in HCV/HIV co-infected women than in HIV mono-infected women. Further research on the ... Methods Associations of HCV with CMV seropositivity and CMV IgG levels were studied in 635 HIV-infected women, 187 of whom were ... but there are few data regarding the association of hepatitis C virus (HCV) with the immune response against CMV. ... CMV IgG to be associated with morbidity and mortality in the general population and subclinical carotid artery disease in HIV- ...
Prevalence of antibodies to hepatitis B core antigen, antibodies to hepatitis C virus, and antibodies to HIV. Self reported ... Prevalence of antibodies to hepatitis B, hepatitis C, and HIV and risk factors in Irish prisoners: results of a national cross ... Prevalence of antibodies to hepatitis B, hepatitis C, and HIV and risk factors in Irish prisoners: results of a national cross ... Prevalence of antibodies to hepatitis B, hepatitis C, and HIV and risk factors in Irish prisoners: results of a national cross ...
... antibody to HIV-1 was detected in none of the 536 sera tested. Risk factors found to be independently predictive of hepatitis B ... The high prevalence of serologic markers to hepatitis B and syphilis, however, indicates a potential for HIV-1 in this region. ... The absence of HIV-1 infection among the prostitutes enrolled in this study is in marked contrast to the current AIDS epidemic ... Serologic markers for hepatitis B and syphilis were detected in 68% and 17% of the entire study population, respectively. In ...
Comparison of Plasma & SMARTplasma for Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) and Hepatitis C Virus (HCV) Antibody Testing. The ... The purpose of this study is to compare the results for HIV and/or Hepatitis C Virus antibody testing when using routine plasma ... Hepatitis. Hepatitis C. Immunologic Deficiency Syndromes. Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome. HIV Infections. Virus Diseases. ... Sensitivity and specificity of HIV and HCV antibody assays when used with SMARTplasma [ Time Frame: Blood samples for HIV and ...
CATIE ensures that these resources, developed to help prevent the transmission of HIV, hepatitis C and other infections, are ... Injectable cabotegravir highly successful at preventing HIV infection in women. Factors affecting frailty in middle-aged HIV- ... Managing Your Health During the COVID-19 Pandemic: Information for people living with HIV (CATIE) ... North American study finds decreasing hospitalization rates for many HIV-positive people ...
Hepatitis C virus RNA, a marker for current infection, was not detected in any of the tested antibody-positive specimens. The ... We estimated the Kenyan HCV prevalence in HIV-negative persons aged 15-64 years. This is a retrospective cross-sectional study ... high HCV antibody prevalence together with no current infection suggests that some HCV antibody serologic testing in Kenya may ... Of the 1,091 randomly selected participants, 50 tested positive for HCV antibody using the automated chemiluminescence ...
... of this review is to summarize the prevalence and clinical implications of the isolated anti-HBc serologic profile in HIV- ... Isolated hepatitis B core antibody is associated with HIV and ongoing but not resolved hepatitis C virus infection in a cohort ... Isolated hepatitis B Core antibody is associated with advanced hepatic fibrosis in HIV/HCV infection but not in HIV infection ... Occult hepatitis B virus infection in HIV-infected patients with isolated antibodies to hepatitis B core antigen: Aquitaine ...
Hepatitis Antibodies, Hepatitis C, Hepatitis C-Like Viruses, Hiv, HIV Seropositivity, Human, immunology, Male, Methadone, ... Loss of antibodies against hepatitis C virus in HIV-seropositive intravenous drug users. AIDS. 1990;4(12):1275-1277. ... Loss of antibodies against hepatitis C virus in HIV-seropositive intravenous drug users. ... Adult, analysis, blood, complications, Female, Follow-Up Studies, hepatitis, ...
Larger studies will be necessary to confirm the efficacy of antibody combinations in reducing HIV-1 viremia and limiting the ... In the four individuals with dual antibody-sensitive viruses, immunotherapy resulted in an average reduction in HIV-1 viral ... Combination of two broadly neutralizing antibodies is effective in reducing HIV-1 viremia and in limiting the emergence of ... Although anti-HIV-1 antibodies constitute a potential alternative to ART5,6, treatment of viremic individuals with a single ...
... does everyone infected with hiv produce antibodies, with a wealth of fact sheets, expert advice, community perspective, the ... Hepatitis B and HIV Antibody Production. I had Hep B 7 years ago, it is not chronic. I have took an HIV antibody test at week 9 ... HIV Antibodies and other antibodies. I have been told that when someone has antibodies to a virus, he is protected or immune ... BobScientists Find Antibodies That Prevent Most HIV Strains From Infecting Human CellsDiscovery to Advance HIV Vaccine Design, ...
... and a sexual partner with hepatitis or HIV. For the HCV+ group, the presence of anti-HIV antibodies was associated with female ... A Cross Section Study to Determine the Prevalence of Antibodies against HIV Infection among Hepatitis B and C Infected ... There are limited data regarding human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) prevalence among hepatitis B virus (HBV) or hepatitis C ... HIV antibodies was found among individuals with HBV and HCV, showing the importance of education programmes towards HIV ...
IGHV1-69 B-CLL antibodies were enriched for reactivity with HIV-1 envelope gp41, influenza, hepatitis C virus E2 protein and ... of the HCDR2 as do rare HIV-1 gp41 and influenza hemagglutinin stem neutralizing antibodies, while IGHV1-69 gp41 antibodies ... Since HIV-1 envelope gp41 antibodies also frequently use IGHV1-69 gene segments, we hypothesized that IGHV1-69 B-CLL precursors ... antibodies derive from a restricted B cell pool that also produces rare HIV-1 gp41 and influenza hemagglutinin stem antibodies ...
Antibody screening tests variably overestimate the prevalence of hepatitis C virus infection among HIV-infected adults in Ghana ... Antibody screening tests variably overestimate the prevalenceof hepatitis C virus infection among HIV-infected adults in Ghana. ... and relate the findings to HCV antibody detection. From a population of 1520 HIV-infected adults, all HBsAg-positive subjects ( ... HCV antibody screening assays variably overestimated HCV prevalence among HIV-infected subjects in Ghana. These findings inform ...
Isolated hepatitis B core antibody is associated with HIV and ongoing but not resolved hepatitis C virus infection in a cohort ... Isolated hepatitis B core antibody is associated with HIV and ongoing but not resolved hepatitis C virus infection in a cohort ... Isolated hepatitis B core antibody is associated with HIV and ongoing but not resolved hepatitis C virus infection in a cohort ... Isolated hepatitis B core antibody is associated with HIV and ongoing but not resolved hepatitis C virus infection in a cohort ...
Isolated Hepatitis B Core Antibody is Associated with Advanced Hepatic Fibrosis in HIV/HCV Infection but not in HIV infection ... Isolated Hepatitis B Core Antibody is Associated with Advanced Hepatic Fibrosis in HIV/HCV Infection but not in HIV infection ... Isolated Hepatitis B Core Antibody is Associated with Advanced Hepatic Fibrosis in HIV/HCV Infection but not in HIV infection ... Ritchwood, T.D., Bishu, K.G., Egede, L.E., (2017) Trends in healthcare expenditure among people living with HIV/AIDS in the ...
HIV Antibodies / Risk Factors / Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome / HIV / Hepatitis B Vaccines / Hepatitis B / India / ... HIV Antibodies / Risk Factors / Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome / HIV / Hepatitis B Vaccines / Hepatitis B / India / ... Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome/immunology , HIV/immunology , HIV Antibodies/analysis , Hepatitis B/prevention & control , ... Absence of antibodies to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) in health workers after hepatitis B vaccination. ...
Potent Brodly neutralizing huma antibodies against HIV-1 and Hepatitis viruses. 8 Sep 2020 , News ...
ECDC: Hepatitis A - Annual epidemiological report for 2016. The European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control (ECDC) ... The ability of HIV to mutate has been a major challenge to vaccine development. As the body produces antibodies to target the ... "Broadly neutralizing antibodies capable of recognizing HIV-infected cells could direct effector cells to clear the latent ... EATG » Antibodies show effectiveness for HIV prevention and promise for treatment and cure ...
Negative for antibodies to hepatitis C virus (anti-HCV). - Negative for HCV RNA. - Negative antibodies to HIV. - Negative for ... Number of Participants With Chronic Hepatitis C Virus (HCV) Infection at 6 Months [ Time Frame: 6 months ]. Chronic hepatitis C ... adapted from HIV Network for Prevention Trials (HIVNET) behavioral criteria for high risk of HIV): (1) sexually active male who ... Hepatitis C Intervention ICMJE *Biological: AdCh3NSmut1 Stages I and II: Receive AdCh3NSmut1 at 2.5 x 10^10 total virus ...
Low sero-prevalence of hepatitis delta antibodies in HIV/ hepatitis B co-infected patients attending an urban HIV clinic in ... BACKGROUND: Co-infection with hepatitis B (HBV) and hepatitis D (HDV) is common among human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) ... CONCLUSIONS: The sero-prevalence of HDV antibodies among the HIV/HBV co-infected patients is low in a Ugandan urban cohort. ... the sero-prevalence and factors associated with HDV antibody among HIV/HBV co-infected patients attending a large urban HIV ...
... of hepatitis B vaccination among 40 human immunodeficiency virus-infected patients with isolated positivity for antibodies to ... of hepatitis B vaccination among 40 human immunodeficiency virus-infected patients with isolated positivity for antibodies to ... hepatitis B core antigen. No baseline factors were found to be predictive of an anamnestic response, which occurred in 32.5% of ... hepatitis B core antigen. No baseline factors were found to be predictive of an anamnestic response, which occurred in 32.5% of ...
Hepatitis B surface antigen, hepatitis C and HIV antibodies in a low-risk blood donor group, Nigeria  Egah, D.Z.; Banwat, E.B. ... Prevalence of hepatitis B surface antigen and hepatitis C virus antibodies among blood donors in Alexandria, Egypt  Wasfi, O.A ... We investigated the seroprevalence of human immunodeficiency virus [‎HIV]‎, hepatitis B virus [‎HBV]‎ and hepatitis C virus [‎ ... We determined the serum level of antibody to hepatitis B surface antigen [‎anti-HBsAg]‎ in 273 randomly selected 7-9-year-old ...
Diagnostics included commercial serum: HIV antibody; total antibody to hepatitis B core (anti-HBc); IgM anti-HBc; hepatitis B ... BACKGROUND: Guyana expanded its HIV response in 2005 but the epidemiology of hepatitis B virus (HBV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV ... Integrated HIV surveillance finds recent adult hepatitis B virus (HBV) transmission and intermediate HBV prevalence among ... A cost-effectiveness analysis of antenatal influenza vaccination among HIV-infected and HIV-uninfected pregnant women in South ...
... hepatitis-C virus (HCV), and hepatitis-B virus (HBV) in 262 funeral service practitioners (FSP) in Maryland was determined. Of ... Participants were then serologically screened for HIV, HCV, and HBV antibodies. In the previous 6 months, 13 reported at least ... The prevalence of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), hepatitis-C virus (HCV), and hepatitis-B virus (HBV) in 262 funeral ... The serological tests found one person with HIV infection and six with markers for past HBV infections. Hepatitis-B vaccine had ...
The antibody VRC01 proved safe but didnt do a stellar job of delaying HIVs rebound after stopping standard antiretroviral ... Latest HIV/AIDS treatment info sent weekly. *. Hep Email Update. Latest hepatitis news sent weekly ... HIV Antibody Treatment Has Only Modest Effect. The antibody VRC01 proved safe but didnt do a stellar job of delaying HIVs ... Giving infusions of the antibody VRC01 to people with HIV does not significantly delay the rebound of their virus after they ...
The prevalence of hepatitis A virus (HAV) protective antibody in 98 Thai HIV-infected children who achieved immune recovery ... Antibody responses to hepatitis A virus vaccination in Thai HIV-infected children with immune recovery after antiretroviral ... HAV antibody response. © 2011 Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, Inc. ...
This study was conducted to elucidate the cause of isolated HBcAb in HIV-infected patients via hepatitis B vaccination. Methods ... In some of these patients, HBcAb is the only serologic marker of hepatitis B. ... In this interventional study during 2014-15 in the HIV Clinic ... ... Concomitant hepatitis B and HIV infections are common. ... Isolated hepatitis B core antibody in HIV infected patients-- ...
Viral antibodies to HIV and hepatitis B and C in donation cases ... Antibodies. Viral antibodies to HIV and hepatitis B and C in ... Viral antibodies. Antibodies to the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) can be detected in the vitreous. This has potential ... HIV-antibody detection in vitreous humor and serum by enzyme immunosorbent assay and particle agglutination test. Cornea. 1997 ... DKA = diabetic ketoacidosis; DNA = deoxyribonucleic acid; HIV = human immunodeficiency virus; 6-MAM = 6-monoacetylmorphine; PMI ...
  • To determine the prevalence of antibodies to hepatitis B core antigen, hepatitis C virus, and HIV in the prison population of the Republic of Ireland and to examine risk factors for infection. (bmj.com)
  • Prevalence of antibodies to hepatitis B core antigen, antibodies to hepatitis C virus, and antibodies to HIV. (bmj.com)
  • We report the results of a national study examining the relations between self reported risk behaviour and the prevalence of antibodies to hepatitis B core antigen, hepatitis C virus, and HIV in the Irish prisoner population. (bmj.com)
  • Prevalence, risk factors, and impact of isolated antibody to hepatitis B core antigen and occult hepatitis B virus infection in HIV-1-infected pregnant women. (springer.com)
  • Occult hepatitis B virus infection in HIV-infected patients with isolated antibodies to hepatitis B core antigen: Aquitaine cohort, 2002-2003. (springer.com)
  • We assessed the safety and immunogenicity of hepatitis B vaccination among 40 human immunodeficiency virus-infected patients with isolated positivity for antibodies to hepatitis B core antigen. (oup.com)
  • We determined the serum level of antibody to hepatitis B surface antigen [‎anti-HBsAg]‎ in 273 randomly selected 7-9-year-old schoolchildren from Zanjan City, Islamic Republic of Iran, who had been fully vaccinated against hepatitis B starting at birth. (who.int)
  • Antibody to hepatitis B core antigen (anti-HBc) is considered a sensitive and specific serum marker of hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection. (lww.com)
  • Recovery from HBV infection is associated with the presence of antibody to hepatitis B surface antigen (anti-HBs), and active infection shows hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg). (lww.com)
  • Human Leukocyte Antigen (HLA) Class I Down-Regulation by Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 Negative Factor (HIV-1 Nef): What Might We Learn From Natural Sequence Variants? (mdpi.com)
  • 1) Patients positive for HIV, hepatitis B surface antigen, or hepatitis C antibody. (mdanderson.org)
  • For the study, blood samples from 1-5-year old children from five states - Delhi, Rajasthan, Uttar Pradesh, Uttarakhand and Gujarat - were collected to measure antigen and antibodies of Hepatitis B virus. (yahoo.com)
  • However, if the mother is a hepatitis B carrier especially if she is e-antigen positive, the baby must be vaccinated at birth", Dr. Jacob Puliyel, the study's primary author and a pediatrician at St. Stephens Hospital in Delhi, told India Science Wire . (yahoo.com)
  • Hiv and Hcv Negative Antibody and Antigen Test At 15 Week conclusive? (medhelp.org)
  • Hello Everybody, I would like to know where i can get tested for HIV with p24 antigen or P. (medhelp.org)
  • dear Doctor, P24 antigen test after 36 days is negative.Is it conclusive that i am HIV nega. (medhelp.org)
  • Here, we describe the analysis of human antibodies induced during an HIV-1 vaccine trial (GSK PRO HIV-002) that used the clade B envelope (Env) gp120 of clone W6.1D (gp120 W6.1D ). Using dual-color antigen-specific sorting, we isolated Env-specific human monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) and studied the clonal persistence of antibodies in the setting of HIV-1 Env vaccination. (asm.org)
  • Testing for hepatitis C virus core antigen could eventually replace the current two-step procedure for diagnosing chronic hepatitis C infection in lower- and middle-income countries, speeding up access to treatment and improving retention in care, a systematic review designed to inform World Health Organization hepatitis C testing guidelines has found. (aidsmap.com)
  • Can be used to detect antibodies to HIV, p24 antigen or other substances. (aidsmap.com)
  • Hepatitis C core antigen can be detected soon after infection, before the development of antibodies to the virus, and remains detectable throughout chronic infection. (aidsmap.com)
  • Tests for core antigen do not require molecular testing equipment and currently available tests can be carried out in any laboratory that can do antibody testing. (aidsmap.com)
  • A rapid point-of-care test for HCV antigen that could be used by health care workers in the same way as point-of-care tests for HIV or HCV antibodies was viewed as the highest priority for improving HCV diagnosis, and a feasible target for product development, by a recent stakeholder consultation convened by the Forum for Collaborative HIV Research and the Foundation for Innovative Diagnostics (FIND). (aidsmap.com)
  • The review, published in Annals of Internal Medicine on 20 June, compared the sensitivity and specificity of five commercially available tests for hepatitis C core antigen compared to nucleic acid testing for HCV RNA. (aidsmap.com)
  • Chemiluminescence's Immunoassay is the method used for the detection of the presence of antibodies directed against the antigens of HIV-1, HIV -2 viruses, Hepatitis C Virus and Hepatitis B surface antigen. (hsa.gov.sg)
  • An antibody is a protein (immunoglobulin) produced by B-lymphocytes (immune cells) in response to stimulation by an antigen. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Immunoassays measure the formation of antibody-antigen complexes and detect them via an indicator reaction. (encyclopedia.com)
  • The simplest immunoassay method measures the quantity of precipitate, which forms after the reagent antibody (precipitin) has incubated with the sample and reacted with its respective antigen to form an insoluble aggregate. (encyclopedia.com)
  • By linking several antibodies to the particle, the particle is able to bind many antigen molecules simultaneously. (encyclopedia.com)
  • The immediate union of antibody and antigen forms immune complexes that are too small to precipitate. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Radioimmunoassay (RIA) is a method employing radioactive isotopes to label either the antigen or antibody. (encyclopedia.com)
  • These methods use an enzyme to label either the antibody or antigen. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Each woman had blood screened for the presence of HIV antibodies and the Hepatitis B antigen. (inciid.org)
  • It means protection from hepatitis B . Either you had a vaccine in the past or you had natural infection and recovered. (thebody.com)
  • Infection with hepatitis C secondary to use of injected drugs is endemic in Irish prisons. (bmj.com)
  • 6 Given the association between injecting drug use and infection with hepatitis B virus, hepatitis C virus, and HIV, it is important to know both the prevalence of these infections and the pattern of risk behaviours in prison environments so that appropriate responses can be instituted. (bmj.com)
  • Risk factors found to be independently predictive of hepatitis B infection by multivariate analysis included prostitution, positive serology for syphilis, and a history of anti-schistosomal therapy. (ajtmh.org)
  • The absence of HIV-1 infection among the prostitutes enrolled in this study is in marked contrast to the current AIDS epidemic in neighboring sub-Saharan countries, suggesting that HIV-1 has not been widely introduced on the coast of Sudan. (ajtmh.org)
  • The prevalence of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection in the Kenyan population has not been previously determined. (ajtmh.org)
  • Hepatitis C virus RNA, a marker for current infection, was not detected in any of the tested antibody-positive specimens. (ajtmh.org)
  • The high HCV antibody prevalence together with no current infection suggests that some HCV antibody serologic testing in Kenya may result in false positives whereas others may be because of spontaneous viral clearance. (ajtmh.org)
  • Conversely, meta-analyses have found an association between occult HBV infection (a component of the isolated anti-HBc pattern) and advanced liver disease and hepatocellular carcinoma in HIV-uninfected individuals. (springer.com)
  • Isolated hepatitis B Core antibody is associated with advanced hepatic fibrosis in HIV/HCV infection but not in HIV infection alone. (springer.com)
  • Replicative activity of hepatitis B virus is negatively associated with methylation of covalently closed circular DNA in advanced hepatitis B virus infection. (springer.com)
  • Samal J, Kandpal M, Vivekanandan P. Molecular mechanisms underlying occult hepatitis B virus infection. (springer.com)
  • Latent infection of CD4 + T cells provides a mechanism for lifelong persistence of HIV-1, even in patients on effective combination therapy. (nature.com)
  • Virologic effects of broadly neutralizing antibody VRC01 administration during chronic HIV-1 infection. (nature.com)
  • A Cross Section Study to Determine the Prevalence of Antibodies against HIV Infection among Hepatitis B and C Infected Individuals. (bvsalud.org)
  • A high prevalence of anti- HIV antibodies was found among individuals with HBV and HCV, showing the importance of education programmes towards HIV infection among HBV- and HCV-infected individuals. (bvsalud.org)
  • Since HIV-1 envelope gp41 antibodies also frequently use IGHV1-69 gene segments, we hypothesized that IGHV1-69 B-CLL precursors may contribute to the gp41 B cell response during HIV-1 infection. (ox.ac.uk)
  • IGHV1-69 B-CLL BCRs exhibited a phenylalanine at position 54 (F54) of the HCDR2 as do rare HIV-1 gp41 and influenza hemagglutinin stem neutralizing antibodies, while IGHV1-69 gp41 antibodies induced by HIV-1 infection predominantly used leucine (L54) allelic variants. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Only one sample (1.5%) had confirmed antibody reactivity by line immunoassay indicating past HCV infection. (edu.gh)
  • BnAbs are thought to be akin to signposts - that they point to a path that might be followed by a future HIV vaccine strategy through induction of bnAbs capable of preventing HIV infection," said David Margolis, M.D., article co-author and director of the UNC HIV Cure Center. (eatg.org)
  • Trispecific antibodies may also block infection more efficiently at mucosal surfaces and within deeper tissue as well as neutralize a wider range of viral particles. (eatg.org)
  • Chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection was defined by persistent viremia over a period of 6 months after initial detection of primary infection. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • BACKGROUND: Co-infection with hepatitis B (HBV) and hepatitis D (HDV) is common among human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infected individuals in developing countries and it aggressively accelerates progression of liver disease to cirrhosis and other complications. (echosensclinicallibrary.com)
  • The serological tests found one person with HIV infection and six with markers for past HBV infections. (cdc.gov)
  • In this interventional study during 2014-15 in the HIV Clinic in Hamadan, thirty four patients with HIV infection and isolated HBcAb positive isolate, received hepatitis B vaccine and their responses to vaccination were investigated. (caspjim.com)
  • Due to favorable response to hepatitis B vaccination in HIV positive patients with isolated HBc Ab, false positive HBc Ab and recovery from previous infection were more probable than hidden hepatitis B. (caspjim.com)
  • Because viral genetic material may be detectable earlier than antibodies which develop in response to an infection, PCR testing can be used to screen for a recent exposure . (requestatest.com)
  • 1,2 A higher frequency of isolated reactivity to anti-HBc is observed in patients with HIV infection and hepatitis C virus (HCV) coinfection. (lww.com)
  • The presence of HBV and HCV serological markers was investigated in 450 patients with HIV infection. (lww.com)
  • HIV-1 infection and vaccination induce multiple types of antibodies, including antibodies to envelope variable loops, the CD4 binding site, and the chemokine receptor binding site. (sciencemag.org)
  • Therefore, evaluation for HIV infection as a cause of this patient's FSGS is the most appropriate next diagnostic step. (kevinmd.com)
  • Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is a major cause of chronic liver disease worldwide. (mdpi.com)
  • Furthermore, viral evasion from host neutralizing antibodies has been revealed to be an important contributor in leading both to viral persistence in acute liver graft infection following liver transplantation, and to chronic viral infection. (mdpi.com)
  • This review summarizes recent concepts of the role of neutralizing antibodies in viral clearance and protection, and highlights consequences of viral escape from neutralizing antibodies in the pathogenesis of HCV infection. (mdpi.com)
  • Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is a leading contributor to global chronic liver disease. (mdpi.com)
  • Initial HCV infection is most often followed by chronic hepatitis with persistence of viremia in up to 85% of individuals [ 2 ]. (mdpi.com)
  • The high rate of HIV /HCV co-infection and the similar routes of transmission of both viruses underscore the importance of screening all HIV-infected patients for anti-HCV antibodies at baseline. (medscape.com)
  • Women with HIV infection and their perinatally exposed children. (mja.com.au)
  • The increasing rate of perinatal exposure and the decreasing rate of mother-to-child transmission among children whose mothers' HIV infection was diagnosed antenatally were temporally associated with use of interventions for minimising mother-to-child transmission. (mja.com.au)
  • Mother-to-child transmission remained high when the mother's HIV infection was not known during pregnancy. (mja.com.au)
  • Previous reports of the pattern of perinatal exposure to HIV in Australia indicate increasing use of antiretroviral therapy during pregnancy and avoidance of breastfeeding by women diagnosed with HIV infection before delivery. (mja.com.au)
  • Children born to women with diagnosed HIV infection were notified from 1982 to a national registry of perinatal exposure to HIV through an informal network of clinicians coordinated by the Sydney Children's Hospital, and, from May 1993, by paediatricians through the Australian Paediatric Surveillance Unit (APSU), using previously described methods. (mja.com.au)
  • 12 Cases were also notified after retrospective assessment of perinatal HIV exposure among children born to women with new diagnoses of HIV infection from July 1995. (mja.com.au)
  • Women with HIV infection diagnosed before or at an exposed child's birth (ie, during the hospital admission for the birth) were classified as having an antenatal diagnosis. (mja.com.au)
  • Women with HIV infection diagnosed after a child's birth were classified as having a postnatal diagnosis. (mja.com.au)
  • An HIV test may be done if doctors think that HL is related to an HIV (human immunodeficiency virus) infection. (cancer.ca)
  • Over 40 million Indians are chronically infected with Hepatitis B. People can live without symptoms for years and realize later that they have an infection. (yahoo.com)
  • Indian Council of Medical Research (ICMR), was conducted to examine if the birth dose is crucial for attaining full immunity against hepatitis B infection. (yahoo.com)
  • It was found that children who were given complete vaccination (with or without birth-dose of hepatitis B vaccine) had a similar level of protection against infection. (yahoo.com)
  • once again we are looking at antibodies to fight HIV infection. (thebodypro.com)
  • Importantly, such broadly neutralizing antibodies (bNAb) can be synthesized and are being studied to treat and prevent HIV infection. (thebodypro.com)
  • Screening for possibility of Hepatitis B infection. (lexmed.com)
  • Preliminary screening test for possibility of HIV infection. (lexmed.com)
  • 15 However, in HIV-infected MSM, multiple outbreaks of acute HCV infection demonstrate that sexual transmission is an important mode of acquisition in this population. (nih.gov)
  • Chronic hepatitis C infection is currently diagnosed by antibody testing followed by a confirmatory nucleic acid test to detect HCV RNA, which indicates active viral infection. (aidsmap.com)
  • The second step is essential because between 15 and 50% of people with HCV antibodies will have spontaneously cleared HCV infection during the first six months after exposure and are not chronically infected. (aidsmap.com)
  • These data suggest that the majority of gp41-binding antibodies produced after acute HIV-1 infection are cross-reactive responses generated by stimulating memory B cells that have previously been activated by non-HIV-1 antigens. (rupress.org)
  • A high IgG level can be an indicator of having a long-term infection such as HIV, states WebMD. (reference.com)
  • Because reverse transcriptase enzyme is unique to retroviruses, drugs that inhibit the action of this enzyme are used to treat retroviral infection, such as HIV. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Often, reverse transcriptase inhibitors are used in combination with other drugs to treat HIV infection. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Statistical Investigation on the Relation of Intravenous Drug Addiction and HIV-Infection. (springer.com)
  • Seroprevalence and risk assessment of viral hepatitis E infection in a group of exposed persons from Republic of Moldova. (bioportfolio.com)
  • Solid-organ transplant recipients are at risk of hepatitis E virus (HEV) infection. (bioportfolio.com)
  • Community viral load and hepatitis C virus infection: Community viral load measures to aid public health treatment efforts and program evaluation. (bioportfolio.com)
  • Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is the most prevalent blood-borne infection and causes more deaths than any other infectious disease in the US. (bioportfolio.com)
  • Risk factors associated with horizontal transmission of hepatitis B viral infection from parents to children in Mexico. (bioportfolio.com)
  • Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection in children is a health problem worldwide. (bioportfolio.com)
  • Little is known about hepatitis E virus (HEV) infection in patients with cirrhosis. (bioportfolio.com)
  • Do Low High Density Lipoprotein (HDL) Levels Predict Treatment Outcome in Patients With Chronic Hepatitis C Viral Infection? (bioportfolio.com)
  • Tat is a key HIV regulatory protein produced very early after infection, prior to virus integration, and necessary for viral gene expression, cell-to-cell virus transmission and disease pr. (bioportfolio.com)
  • Hepatitis D can occur either concomitantly with (coinfection) or subsequent to (superinfection) hepatitis B infection. (bioportfolio.com)
  • Role of macrophages in the pathogenesis of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. (edu.au)
  • Absence of antibodies to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) in health workers after hepatitis B vaccination. (bvsalud.org)
  • The duration of protection after hepatitis B vaccination in children is unknown. (who.int)
  • In some of these patients, HBcAb is the only serologic marker of hepatitis B. This study was conducted to elucidate the cause of isolated HBcAb in HIV-infected patients via hepatitis B vaccination. (caspjim.com)
  • After the first round of hepatitis B vaccination, HBs Ab titer exceeded 10 International Units Per Liter (IU/L) in 58.8% of patients with isolated HBc Ab. (caspjim.com)
  • The levels of hepatitis A antibodies in the primary vaccination were the only factor independently associated with maintaining these antibodies for 7 years. (scielo.br)
  • The antibodies levels acquired in the primary vaccination in the HIV group were the main factor associated with antibodies loss after HAV immunization. (scielo.br)
  • hepatitis B vaccination at birth may not be necessary. (yahoo.com)
  • Our analysis demonstrated that HIV-1-reactive antibodies in the initial response to HIV-1 in the setting of AHI were more somatically hypermutated than Env antibodies isolated after primary HIV-1 Env vaccination. (rupress.org)
  • Hepatitis B vaccination. (edu.au)
  • Effects of influenza vaccination in HIV-infected adults: a double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. (springer.com)
  • Salles MJ, Sens YA, Boas LS, Machado CM. Influenza virus vaccination in kidney transplant recipients: serum antibody response to different immunosuppressive drugs. (springer.com)
  • IGHV1-69 B cell chronic lymphocytic leukemia antibodies cross-react with HIV-1 and hepatitis C virus antigens as well as intestinal commensal bacteria. (ox.ac.uk)
  • however, these antibodies were polyreactive and frequently bound to host or bacterial antigens. (rupress.org)
  • For its viral coating, hepatitis delta virus requires the HEPATITIS B SURFACE ANTIGENS produced by these patients. (bioportfolio.com)
  • Their high specificity results from the use of antibodies and purified antigens as reagents. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Qualitative immunoassays are often used to detect antigens on infectious agents and antibodies that the body produces to fight them. (encyclopedia.com)
  • They are also used to detect antigens associated with organisms that are difficult to culture, such as hepatitis B virus and Chlamydia trichomatis . (encyclopedia.com)
  • CATIE ensures that these resources, developed to help prevent the transmission of HIV, hepatitis C and other infections, are written and reviewed by health experts for content accuracy. (catie.ca)
  • Walker, L. M. & Burton, D. R. Passive immunotherapy of viral infections: 'super-antibodies' enter the fray. (nature.com)
  • Hepatitis B and C virus infections are common serious complications of blood transfusion. (who.int)
  • Occupational risk of human immunodeficiency virus, hepatitis B virus, and hepatitis C virus infections among funeral service practitioners in Maryland. (cdc.gov)
  • Concomitant hepatitis B and HIV infections are common. (caspjim.com)
  • The Hepatitis C RNA PCR Quantitative test is used to look for infections with the Hepatitis C virus . (requestatest.com)
  • Nearly 80% of Hepatitis C infections develop into chronic Hepatitis. (requestatest.com)
  • The number of people worldwide with chronic Hepatitis C infections is around 150 million. (requestatest.com)
  • Chronic Hepatitis C infections can lead to serious health complication such as Cirrhosis and Liver Cancer. (requestatest.com)
  • Direct injury to podocytes may also cause FSGS as seen with certain drugs (pamidronate, interferon) and infections, including HIV. (kevinmd.com)
  • IgG antibodies are important for fighting many types of viral, fungal and bacterial infections and cancer, reports HealthLinkBC. (reference.com)
  • Hepatitis C virus (HCV) continues to spread worldwide with an annual increase of 1.75 million new infections. (frontiersin.org)
  • Estimation of worldwide prevalence of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infections ranged widely from 71 to 185 million people ( 1 , 2 ) and roughly 400,000 will die annually from HCV associated liver failure and hepatocellular carcinoma ( 2 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • Chronic infections, such as HIV, may cause elevated IgG antibody levels, according to WebMD. (reference.com)
  • Rarely, some people have a congenital inability to produce IgG antibodies, and as a result, these people are more prone to develop infections. (reference.com)
  • A serosurvey was conducted in Port Sudan and Suakin, Sudan in October and March 1987 to determine the prevalence and risk factors associated with the transmission of hepatitis B, human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1), and syphilis among sexually active heterosexuals on the coast of Sudan. (ajtmh.org)
  • Serologic markers for hepatitis B and syphilis were detected in 68% and 17% of the entire study population, respectively. (ajtmh.org)
  • The high prevalence of serologic markers to hepatitis B and syphilis, however, indicates a potential for HIV-1 in this region. (ajtmh.org)
  • The treponemal antibody test is used to test for syphilis, which is typically associated with membranous nephropathy. (kevinmd.com)
  • Passive immunization with the anti-HIV-1 human monoclonal antibody (hMAb) 4E10 and the hMAb combination 4E10/2F5/2G12. (nature.com)
  • 6) At least 4 weeks from last chemotherapy, immunotherapy, radiation therapy, monoclonal antibody therapy, or experimental therapy and must have recovered from acute toxic effects of prior therapy. (mdanderson.org)
  • Has had a prior anti-cancer monoclonal antibody (mAb) within 4 weeks prior to study Day 1 (excluding commercial or investigational anti-PD1 or anti-PD-L1 antibodies as single agents) or has not recovered (i.e., less than or equal to Grade 1 or at baseline) from adverse events due to agents administered more than 4 weeks earlier. (moffitt.org)
  • Has had a prior anti-cancer monoclonal antibody (mAb) within 4 weeks prior to study Day 1 or who has not recovered (i.e. (moffitt.org)
  • Fetal pig xenografts in NOD/Lt mice: lack of expression of Gal(alpha 1-3)Gal on endocrine cells and the effect of peritransplant anti-CD4 monoclonal antibody and graft immunomodification on graft survival. (edu.au)
  • Predictors of the isolated hepatitis B core antibody pattern in HIV-infected and -uninfected men in the multicenter AIDS cohort study. (springer.com)
  • The organisers of the Vienna conference, which is expected to bring together 20,000 HIV/AIDS researchers, hope the gathering will help keep the spotlight on the importance of continued investment in HIV . (thebody.com)
  • they have discovered and isolated two antibodies "with the ability to neutralize [or block the action of] many strains of the AIDS virus, a discovery that might help create a long-sought vaccine against the deadly disease," Bloomberg reports. (thebody.com)
  • years after the AIDS epidemic spawned a worldwide search for an effective vaccine against the human immunodeficiency virus ( HIV ), progress in the field seems to have effectively become stalled. (thebody.com)
  • Highlights of CIRA-Supported HIV/AIDS Research summarizes our affiliates' efforts to investigate and find solutions to a range of HIV/AIDS prevention and care issues. (yale.edu)
  • Quantification of HAV antibodies by electrochemiluminescence was performed in 39 adolescents followed up at the Pediatric Aids Clinic of Federal University of São Paulo (Unifesp): 29 HIV-infected (HIV group) (median age: 12.8 years) and 10 HIV-exposed but non-infected (ENI group) (median age: 13.4 years). (scielo.br)
  • Quantificação de anticorpos para o VHA por meio da eletroquimioluminescência foi feita em 39 adolescentes acompanhados no Ambulatório de Aids Pediátrica da Universidade Federal de São Paulo (Unifesp): 29 infectados pelo HIV e 10 expostos e não infectados (ENI) pelo HIV, com mediana de idade, respectivamente, de 12,8 e 13,4 anos. (scielo.br)
  • NAM exists to support the fight against HIV & AIDS with independent, accurate accessible and comprehensive information. (aidsmap.com)
  • We aim to create and disseminate information resources rooted in the experience of those most affected, enabling individuals and communities to take action and control in responding to HIV & AIDS. (aidsmap.com)
  • Human immunodeficiency virus ( HIV ), the virus that causes acquired immune deficiency syndrome ( AIDS ), is a retrovirus. (encyclopedia.com)
  • In 1987, the emergence of AIDS led to the introduction of screening of all collected blood for HIV 1 and 2 antibodies. (wikipedia.org)
  • In the four individuals with dual antibody-sensitive viruses, immunotherapy resulted in an average reduction in HIV-1 viral load of 2.05 log 10 copies per ml that remained significantly reduced for three months following the first of up to three infusions. (nature.com)
  • The development of trispecific multivalent antibodies combine the best attributes of each into a single molecule capable of recognizing and neutralizing multiple viruses not recognized by the individual bnAbs. (eatg.org)
  • This shows the vasculitis, which matches up with the hepatitis B viremia (viruses in blood). (washington.edu)
  • Although DNA is the primary genetic material of cells, RNA is the genetic material for some viruses like HIV. (aidsmap.com)
  • Besides screening for the serological markers of the HIV, HBV and HCV viruses, the genomic materials (DNA or RNA) of these three types of viruses, as well as the Zika Virus, are also tested for by using transcription-medicated amplification based molecular assay on a fully automated platform for high throughput testing. (hsa.gov.sg)
  • For highly variable viruses, such as HCV, isolation and characterization of monoclonal antibodies mediating broad virus neutralization are an important guide for vaccine design. (frontiersin.org)
  • The BioCleanse Process is validated to inactivate or remove a panel of viruses pathogenic organisms including HIV, hepatitis as well as bacteria, fungi and spores. (rtix.com)
  • HCV antibodies were detected by three commercial screening assays and confirmed by the line immunoassay. (edu.gh)
  • HCV RNA-positive subjects showed reactivity in all three antibody screening assays. (edu.gh)
  • Among HCV RNA-negative subjects, 5/67 (7.5%), 5/67 (7.5%) and 19/67 (28.4%) showed antibody reactivity by each screening assay, respectively, including two (3.0%) with reactivity by all three assays. (edu.gh)
  • Without further testing, HCV antibody screening assays variably overestimated HCV prevalence among HIV-infected subjects in Ghana. (edu.gh)
  • We also tested all human mAbs against the human epithelial HEp-2 cell line that is used in clinical antinuclear antibody assays ( 15 ). (sciencemag.org)
  • Here we report on a phase 1b clinical trial ( NCT02825797 ) in which two potent bNAbs, 3BNC117 13 and 10-1074 14 , were administered in combination to seven HIV-1 viremic individuals. (nature.com)
  • Yet recent studies testing multivalent combinations of three broadly neutralizing antibodies, or bnAbs, have yielded promising results in animal models of HIV prevention. (eatg.org)
  • Two investigators at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill describe the potential of bnAbs to inform HIV prevention, treatment and cure strategies in a recent article in the New England Journal of Medicine . (eatg.org)
  • The authors also detail how bnAbs could change HIV treatment and cure research. (eatg.org)
  • Although many HIV providers may not yet be aware of bNAbs, it is likely they will be. (thebodypro.com)
  • So, if asked what the next big thing is in HIV, just say, "bNAbs. (thebodypro.com)
  • Here, we investigate cross-neutralization of HCV genotypes by broadly neutralizing antibodies (bNAbs) encoded by the relatively abundant human gene family V H 1-69 . (sciencemag.org)
  • We have deciphered the molecular requirements for cross-neutralization by this unique class of human antibodies from crystal structures of HCV E2 in complex with bNAbs. (sciencemag.org)
  • IGHV1-69 B-CLL antibodies were enriched for reactivity with HIV-1 envelope gp41, influenza, hepatitis C virus E2 protein and intestinal commensal bacteria. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Long hydrophobic CDR3 regions are generally typical of poly-reactive autoantibodies ( 9 ), and HIV-1-infected patient B lymphocytes are driven to make polyclonal antibodies with reactivity to the endogenous phospholipid, cardiolipin ( 10 ). (sciencemag.org)
  • The mAbs 2F5 and 4E10, two additional rare broadly reactive neutralizing mAbs (2G12 and IgG1b12) ( 11 - 13 ), and 31 common human mAbs to HIV-1 Env were tested for reactivity with cardiolipin ( 14 ) ( Table 1 ). (sciencemag.org)
  • In one large clonal lineage of gp41-reactive antibodies, reactivity to HIV-1 Env was acquired only after somatic mutations. (rupress.org)
  • The purpose of this review is to summarize the prevalence and clinical implications of the isolated anti-HBc serologic profile in HIV-infected individuals. (springer.com)
  • Results of serologic testing for HIV and hepatitis A, B and C antibodies were negative. (cmaj.ca)
  • The purpose of this study is to compare the results for HIV and/or Hepatitis C Virus antibody testing when using routine plasma versus SMARTplasma from the same blood sample. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • These results may have important implications for generating effective neutralizing antibody responses by using HIV-1 vaccines. (sciencemag.org)
  • We now understand that typical antibody responses to HIV are insufficiently neutralizing against the virus to be useful. (thebodypro.com)
  • Antibody subclasses exhibit extensive polymorphisms (allotypes) that could potentially impact the quality of HIV-vaccine induced B cell responses. (frontiersin.org)
  • To investigate the potential link between allotypic IgG1-variants and vaccine-generated humoral responses in a cohort of 14 HIV vaccine recipients, we developed a novel protocol for rapid IgG1-allotyping. (frontiersin.org)
  • While this vaccine will need to induce both cellular and humoral immunity, this review is focused on the required antibody responses. (frontiersin.org)
  • An understanding on the specificities of a protective B cell response, the molecular locations of these epitopes on E1, E2, and E1E2, and the mechanisms, which enable the virus to negatively modulate neutralizing antibody responses to these regions will provide the necessary guidance for vaccine design. (frontiersin.org)
  • As the body produces antibodies to target the outer HIV envelope protein, this protein changes, thwarting the circulating antibodies' ability to neutralize it. (eatg.org)
  • Although rare human monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) exist that broadly neutralize HIV-1, HIV-1 envelope immunogens do not induce these antibody specificities. (sciencemag.org)
  • Most antibodies that broadly neutralize HIV-1 are highly somatically mutated in antibody clonal lineages that persist over time. (asm.org)
  • Zoulim F. New insight on hepatitis B virus persistence from the study of intrahepatic viral cccDNA. (springer.com)
  • Larger studies will be necessary to confirm the efficacy of antibody combinations in reducing HIV-1 viremia and limiting the emergence of resistant viral variants. (nature.com)
  • Antibody 10-1074 suppresses viremia in HIV-1-infected individuals. (nature.com)
  • The initial antibody response to HIV-1 is targeted to envelope (Env) gp41, and is nonneutralizing and ineffective in controlling viremia. (rupress.org)
  • Limited prevalence data for HIV, hepatitis B surface an- population of Kabul, the capital of Afghanistan, has in- tigen (HBsAg), and hepatitis C virus (HCV) exist for Afghan- creased to 3 million since 2001 because of returning refu- istan. (cdc.gov)
  • HIV, antibody to HCV, and HBsAg. (cdc.gov)
  • Overall prevalences of HIV, HCV, and HBsAg were 3.0% (95% confi dence interval supply in 2005 ( 9 ). (cdc.gov)
  • Atomic structure of the antibody VRC01 (blue and green) binding to HIV (grey and red). (thebody.com)
  • The antibody VRC01 proved safe but didn't do a stellar job of delaying HIV's rebound after stopping standard antiretroviral treatment. (poz.com)
  • Giving infusions of the antibody VRC01 to people with HIV does not significantly delay the rebound of their virus after they stop taking standard antiretroviral (ARV) treatment. (poz.com)
  • Researchers conducted two studies of 23 people with HIV who received VRC01 infusions, publishing their findings in The New England Journal of Medicine. (poz.com)
  • Looking at the HIV isolated from the study participants before and after their viral rebound, the researchers found that the virus was not as susceptible to VRC01. (poz.com)
  • Scientists are conducting a separate ongoing study of VRC01 as pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) against the virus among HIV-negative individuals. (poz.com)
  • The two Phase III, double-blind, placebo-controlled AMP Studies will give intravenous infusions of the broadly neutralizing antibody VRC01 every eight weeks to see whether it is safe, tolerable and effective at preventing HIV among high-risk individuals. (poz.com)
  • Research has shown that VRC01 blocks up to 90 percent of the world's HIV strains. (poz.com)
  • Last year, one bNAb, VRC01, was reported to decrease plasma HIV RNA levels in viremic patients . (thebodypro.com)
  • In this trial, 2,700 men and transgender women at risk for HIV acquisition are randomized to two different doses of VRC01 or to a placebo infusion to determine the safety and protective afforded against HIV of the BNAb. (thebodypro.com)
  • We now have two studies, one from South India and this one from North India showing that many babies have acquired passive immunity that may be protecting them soon after birth when they are most vulnerable to develop chronic hepatitis. (yahoo.com)
  • Other medical conditions that can result in elevated IgG levels include multiple myeloma, chronic hepatitis and multiple sclerosis. (reference.com)
  • Of the 1,091 randomly selected participants, 50 tested positive for HCV antibody using the automated chemiluminescence immunoassay, corresponding to a weighted HCV antibody positivity rate of 4.4% (95% confidence interval: 3.3-5.9%) or 848,000 (range: 634,000-1,100,000) persons. (ajtmh.org)
  • In HIV-uninfected individuals with anti-HBc positivity, HBV reactivation has been reported in patients receiving HCV therapy. (springer.com)
  • The antinuclear antibody panel is a blood test that looks at antinuclear antibodies (ANA). (medlineplus.gov)
  • The antinuclear antibody test looks for antibodies that bind to a part of the cell called the nucleus. (medlineplus.gov)
  • testing for HIV, HCV, and treponemal antibodies was negative. (washington.edu)
  • Indirect haemagglutination test is used for the detection of anti-treponemal antibodies. (hsa.gov.sg)
  • HIV coinfection with HCV has been poorly studied in sub-Saharan Africa, and the reliability of available seroprevalence estimates remains uncertain. (edu.gh)
  • 1-6 In this study, we describe the influence of HCV viral load and its genotypes in the development of isolated anti-HBc in a group of patients with HIV coinfection. (lww.com)
  • We have chosen 94 patients with HIV and HCV coinfection, 36 of them had anti-HBs+ and anti-HBc+ (group 1) who were compared with 58 patients with isolated anti-HBc+ (group 2). (lww.com)
  • Influence of HCV Genotype in Isolated Presence of Antibody t. (lww.com)
  • To characterize predictors of isolated hepatitis B core antibody (anti-HBc) among human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected and HIV-uninfected women, we compared 702 women with anti-HBc and hepatitis B surface antibody (anti-HBs) with 490 women with isolated anti-HBc (1.8% of whom had detectable hepatitis B virus [HBV] DNA). (elsevier.com)
  • In HIV-infected patients, the long-term liver outcomes associated with the isolated anti-HBc pattern remain to be fully elucidated, supporting the need for large cohort studies with longitudinal follow-up. (springer.com)
  • Occult hepatitis B in HIV-infected patients. (springer.com)
  • Very low prevalence and no clinical significance of occult hepatitis B in a cohort of HIV-infected patients with isolated anti-HBc seropositivity: the BHOI study. (springer.com)
  • A total of 409 patients (126 HBV+ and 283 HCV+) referred to the Brazilian Reference Laboratory for Viral Hepatitis from 2010 to 2013 donated serum samples. (bvsalud.org)
  • The anti- HIV antibody prevalence was 10.31% and 4.59% among HBV+ and HCV+ patients , respectively. (bvsalud.org)
  • To test this hypothesis, we rescued 5 IGHV1-69 unmutated antibodies as heterohybridoma IgM paraproteins and as recombinant IgG1 antibodies from B-CLL patients, determined their antigenic specificities and analyzed BCR sequences. (ox.ac.uk)
  • There is scarcity of data on HDV in sub-Saharan Africa .We investigated the sero-prevalence and factors associated with HDV antibody among HIV/HBV co-infected patients attending a large urban HIV clinic in Uganda. (echosensclinicallibrary.com)
  • CONCLUSIONS: The sero-prevalence of HDV antibodies among the HIV/HBV co-infected patients is low in a Ugandan urban cohort. (echosensclinicallibrary.com)
  • Isolated hepatitis B core antibody in HIV infected patients--can response to hepatitis B vaccine help to elucidate the cause? (caspjim.com)
  • Of the 103 HIV positive patients, the prevalence of HBs Ag, and HBc Ab isolates were 6.79% (n=7) and 46.6% (n=48), respectively. (caspjim.com)
  • Clinicians should screen all HIV-infected patients for anti-HCV antibodies at baseline. (medscape.com)
  • HIV-infected patients who are seronegative for HCV but have continued high-risk behaviors should be screened at least annually for HCV. (medscape.com)
  • HIV-infected patients with continued high-risk behaviors who are seronegative for HCV at baseline should receive annual testing thereafter. (medscape.com)
  • Seroconversion with the ELISA antibody test occurs in 50% of patients within 9 weeks of exposure, in 80% within 15 weeks of exposure, and in at least 97% within 6 months of exposure. (medscape.com)
  • In addition to currently available ELISAs, the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has recently approved a rapid HCV test, the OraQuick® HCV Rapid Antibody Test, for patients at risk for HCV exposure. (medscape.com)
  • Clinicians should obtain a quantitative HCV RNA viral load assay in HIV-infected patients with risk factors for HCV exposure who have a negative HCV ELISA antibody test but unexplained liver disease, including increased serum liver enzymes. (medscape.com)
  • A randomized trial of prednisolone in patients with severe alcoholic hepatitis. (acpjc.org)
  • To evaluate the effectiveness of prednisolone in improving short-term survival in patients with severe alcoholic hepatitis. (acpjc.org)
  • In a carefully conducted, randomized controlled trial, Ramond and colleagues report that treatment with prednisolone improves the short-term survival of patients with severe biopsy-proven alcoholic hepatitis. (acpjc.org)
  • The finding that corticosteroids reduce early mortality in patients with acute alcoholic hepatitis is consistent with the conclusions from a previous meta-analysis ( 1 ) in which a protective effect was found in studies that excluded patients with acute gastrointestinal bleeding (as was done in the study by Ramond and colleagues). (acpjc.org)
  • A possible reason for this discrepancy is that patients without encephalopathy had severe alcoholic hepatitis as measured by a discriminant-function score that included the prothrombin time and serum bilirubin. (acpjc.org)
  • To assess possible factors associated with the loss of antibodies to hepatitis A 7 years after the primary immunization in children of HIV-infected mothers and the response to revaccination in patients seronegative for hepatitis A. (scielo.br)
  • HHS is suing a defendant that merely wants to market a generic version of a drug that is used to treat patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). (ipwatchdog.com)
  • Approximately, 20% to 30% of HIV-infected patients in the United States are coinfected with HCV. (nih.gov)
  • Unexpected high seroprevalence of hepatitis E virus in patients with alcohol-related cirrhosis. (bioportfolio.com)
  • INFLAMMATION of the LIVER in humans caused by HEPATITIS DELTA VIRUS, a defective RNA virus that can only infect HEPATITIS B patients. (bioportfolio.com)
  • Immunoassays for antibodies produced in viral hepatitis, HIV , and Lyme disease are commonly used to identify patients with these diseases. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Fig. 2: Viral load following 3BNC117/10-1074 infusions in HIV-1-infected participants. (nature.com)
  • Routine testing was used to detect liver enzyme, CD4+ cell count, and HIV viral load at the time of serology. (lww.com)
  • The hepatitis B viral load was 2.5 billion copies per milliliter. (washington.edu)
  • SMARTstim (SMARTube)is a blood sample additive which pre-treats blood, stimulating antibody production in vitro so as to bring it to detectable levels using ELISA (or any other antibody test method). (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Accelerated antibody production allows antibody detection in specimens that would otherwise be below the detectable limit of antibody test kits. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Anti-HDV was detected in 6/198, 3.2% (95% CI 1.14-6.92%), associated with male gender and a duration of more than 5 years since HIV diagnosis. (echosensclinicallibrary.com)
  • In the early stages of HIV-associated glomerulopathy, antiretroviral therapy and angiotensin system blockers may halt disease progression, thus an early diagnosis is important. (kevinmd.com)
  • Trends in the age-standardised rate of perinatal exposure, uptake of interventions by women with an antenatal HIV diagnosis, and rate of mother-to-child transmission. (mja.com.au)
  • In addition, certain specific ANA antibodies help to confirm the diagnosis. (medlineplus.gov)
  • The two-step diagnostic process is seen as a major obstacle to diagnosis and treatment of hepatitis C on the scale needed to achieve ambitious targets for reducing the burden of the disease and eliminating hepatitis C as a public health problem. (aidsmap.com)
  • HCV RNA tests can cost between $13 and $100 per test, and the cost of diagnosis and monitoring may increase the overall cost of curing hepatitis C by one-third in some settings. (aidsmap.com)
  • Following exposure to HIV and HCV, there is a 'window period' where a person is infected with the virus but does not produce antibodies at a high enough level so they can be detected by antibody detection test methods. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Immunotherapy with monoclonal antibodies, such as durvalumab, may induce changes in the body's immune system and may interfere with the ability of tumor cells to grow and spread. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • HBV reactivation during HCV DAA therapy has been well-described in HIV-uninfected cohorts and can inform algorithms for the screening and management of the isolated anti-HBc pattern in this population. (springer.com)
  • This test can also be used as a screening by people who may have had a recent exposure or to confirm the results of a previous Hepatitis C test. (requestatest.com)
  • The screening test determines whether such antibodies are present. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Screening of blood for hepatitis B was initiated. (wikipedia.org)
  • The most readily available is the ELISA for anti-HCV antibodies. (medscape.com)
  • METHODS: We screened 189 HIV/HBV co-infected individuals for anti-HDV immunoglobulin G (IgG) and performed logistic regression to determine the associated factors. (echosensclinicallibrary.com)
  • The idea harkens back to the earliest days of the epidemic when anti-HIV immunoglobulin therapy was tried but proved an epic fail. (thebodypro.com)
  • Specific immunoglobulin for prophylaxis of hepatitis B and Varicella-zoster and normal immunoglobulin for prophylaxis of hepatitis A and measles are available. (cmft.nhs.uk)
  • Allotypes of immunoglobulin (Ig) G1, the most abundant serum antibody, have been shown to display altered functional properties in regard to serum half-life, Fc-receptor binding and FcRn-mediated mucosal transcytosis. (frontiersin.org)
  • Multiple sclerosis, long-term hepatitis and multiple myeloma are also health conditions that cause elevated IgG levels. (reference.com)
  • A major obstacle to generating a successful human immunodeficiency virus-1 (HIV-1) vaccine is the inability to induce broadly reactive neutralizing antibodies after immunization with HIV-1 envelope proteins (Env) ( 1 ). (sciencemag.org)
  • The median age at primary immunization (PI) was 5.4 years for HIV group and 6.5 years for ENI group. (scielo.br)
  • The levels of antibody mutation frequencies during this period of plasmacytosis were compared with those induced by primary HIV Env immunization in uninfected subjects. (rupress.org)
  • The B-CLL IGHV1-69 B cell usage of F54 allelic variants strongly suggests that IGHV1-69 B-CLL gp41 antibodies derive from a restricted B cell pool that also produces rare HIV-1 gp41 and influenza hemagglutinin stem antibodies. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Here we demonstrate that the two most broadly reactive HIV-1 envelope gp41 human mAbs, 2F5 and 4E10, are polyspecific autoantibodies reactive with the phospholipid cardiolipin. (sciencemag.org)
  • The human monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) 2F5 and 4E10 represent rare antibodies with broadly neutralizing activity made from B cells of HIV-1-infected humans, which react with conserved membrane-proximal amino acids in HIV-1 gp41 ( 2 - 4 ). (sciencemag.org)
  • To understand the origins and characteristics of gp41-binding antibodies produced shortly after HIV-1 transmission, we isolated and studied gp41-reactive plasma cells from subjects acutely infected with HIV-1. (rupress.org)
  • The frequencies of somatic mutations were relatively high in these gp41-reactive antibodies. (rupress.org)
  • Polyreactive gp41-binding antibodies were also isolated from uninfected individuals. (rupress.org)
  • The isolated anti-HBc pattern, a profile that most often indicates past exposure to HBV with waning anti-HBs immunity, is found commonly in HIV-infected individuals, particularly those with HCV. (springer.com)
  • Tests for evidence of immunity to the Hepatitis B virus. (lexmed.com)
  • However, the involvement of different antibody classes or subclasses is less clear, where their different structural properties affect functional immunity. (frontiersin.org)
  • Viraemia suppressed in HIV-1-infected humans by broadly neutralizing antibody 3BNC117. (nature.com)
  • A major conundrum has been that HIV-1 envelopes that express membrane-proximal epitopes fail to induce equivalent antibodies in animal models or humans ( 5 - 8 ). (sciencemag.org)
  • I have took an HIV antibody test at week 9 of exposure. (thebody.com)
  • Someone who wishes to screen for Hepatitis C but is not concerned about a recent exposure, may wish to order the Hepatitis C Antibodies test . (requestatest.com)
  • The Hepatitis C PCR test can typically detect the virus about 3 weeks from a suspected contact or exposure or any time after. (requestatest.com)
  • Two large-scale, multiyear studies of infusions of antibodies as pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) against HIV are beginning this spring. (poz.com)
  • therefore, measurement of HCV RNA may be indicated in individuals with risk factors for HCV exposure who have a negative HCV antibody test but unexplained liver disease or elevated liver enzymes. (medscape.com)
  • Confidential baseline HIV testing of the exposed worker should be obtained at the time the occupational exposure is reported or within 3 days of the exposure. (medscape.com)
  • Exposed workers should be counseled that it is in their best interest to receive a baseline HIV test to document their HIV status at the time of the exposure. (medscape.com)
  • the baseline HIV test cannot determine whether the exposed worker was infected as a result of the exposure. (medscape.com)
  • Baseline HIV testing of the exposed worker is also used to identify individuals who were already infected with HIV at the time of the exposure. (medscape.com)
  • Cite this: HIV Prophylaxis Following Occupational Exposure: Guideline and Commentary - Medscape - Jan 30, 2013. (medscape.com)
  • National surveillance for perinatal HIV exposure. (mja.com.au)
  • Between 1982 and 2006, there were 354 reported cases of perinatal HIV exposure among children born in Australia. (mja.com.au)
  • 9 - 11 Here, we describe the pattern and outcome of perinatal HIV exposure in children born in Australia, including those born during the HAART era. (mja.com.au)
  • Similar to hepatitis B, it is primarily transmitted by parenteral exposure, such as transfusion of contaminated blood or blood products, but can also be transmitted via sexual or intimate personal contact. (bioportfolio.com)
  • Ascertaining exposure categories of HIV-infected individuals with previously unrecorded risk data. (edu.au)
  • Hepatitis E seroprevalence and associated risk factors in Croatian liver transplant recipients. (bioportfolio.com)
  • Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is a global health problem and one of the main reasons for chronic liver diseases such as cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. (mcponline.org)
  • Analysis of V H sequences of genomic DNA by 454 deep sequencing of four HIV-1 Env-reactive clonal lineages from AHI subjects did not reveal any unmutated lineage members. (rupress.org)
  • I did all reports right from vdrl hepatitis b and hiv but all came negative. (medhelp.org)
  • Broadly neutralizing antibodies may contribute to the deployment of long-acting antiretroviral therapy, which would be an attractive alternative for people who currently take daily medication to control their HIV. (eatg.org)
  • The tables that follow include antiretroviral agents recommended for PEP (tenofovir, emtricitabine, raltegravir) as well as alternative antiretroviral drugs that may be used in the setting of potential HIV resistance, toxicity risks, or constraints on the availability of particular agents. (medscape.com)
  • 15,17-19,20,21 Temporally, the increase in the incidence of sexual transmission of HCV among HIV-infected MSMs coincides with an increase in high-risk sexual behaviors following the introduction of antiretroviral therapy (ART). (nih.gov)
  • Another element in vaccine design is based on information on how the virus escapes from broadly neutralizing antibodies. (frontiersin.org)
  • Fig. 4: HIV-1 escape analysis of individuals receiving 3BNC117 and 10-1074 therapy. (nature.com)
  • Antibodies in HIV-1 vaccine development and therapy. (nature.com)
  • The study aim was to determine HCV RNA prevalence in HIV-infected subjects receiving care in Kumasi, Ghana, and relate the findings to HCV antibody detection. (edu.gh)
  • This allows rapid and sensitive detection of antibodies that are markers of such diseases, as infectious mononucleosis and rheumatoid arthritis. (encyclopedia.com)
  • While antibody binding fragments (Fabs) are critical to determining binding specificity and neutralization, the Fc domain is the primary determinant for a wide spectrum of immunological functions mediated by the engagement of Fc-gamma receptors (FcγR) on a range of effector cells. (frontiersin.org)
  • There are limited data regarding human immunodeficiency virus ( HIV ) prevalence among hepatitis B virus (HBV) or hepatitis C virus (HCV) infected individuals. (bvsalud.org)
  • 13,14 Existing data also suggest that sexual contact is a relatively inefficient mode of transmission between HIV seronegative men who have sex with men (MSM). (nih.gov)
  • Concordance of positive and negative results between normal and treated plasma samples when both are tested with the same HIV and/or HCV Enzyme Linked Immunosorbant Assay (ELISA) [ Time Frame: Blood samples for HIV and HCV testing will be collected at time of consent (day 1). (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Clinicians should confirm a reactive HCV ELISA antibody test with a quantitative HCV RNA assay. (medscape.com)