Hepatitis E virus: A positive-stranded RNA virus species in the genus HEPEVIRUS, causing enterically-transmitted non-A, non-B hepatitis (HEPATITIS E).Hepatitis E: Acute INFLAMMATION of the LIVER in humans; caused by HEPATITIS E VIRUS, a non-enveloped single-stranded RNA virus. Similar to HEPATITIS A, its incubation period is 15-60 days and is enterically transmitted, usually by fecal-oral transmission.Hepatitis Antibodies: Immunoglobulins raised by any form of viral hepatitis; some of these antibodies are used to diagnose the specific kind of hepatitis.Hepevirus: An unassigned genus of RNA viruses with a single officially described species, HEPATITIS E VIRUS. A distantly related virus, Avian hepatitis E virus, has been listed as a tentative species. Strains have also been identified in swine. The family name hepeviridae has been proposed.Hepatitis, Viral, Animal: INFLAMMATION of the LIVER in animals due to viral infection.Zoonoses: Diseases of non-human animals that may be transmitted to HUMANS or may be transmitted from humans to non-human animals.Hepatitis B: INFLAMMATION of the LIVER in humans caused by a member of the ORTHOHEPADNAVIRUS genus, HEPATITIS B VIRUS. It is primarily transmitted by parenteral exposure, such as transfusion of contaminated blood or blood products, but can also be transmitted via sexual or intimate personal contact.Swine Diseases: Diseases of domestic swine and of the wild boar of the genus Sus.Hepatitis A: INFLAMMATION of the LIVER in humans caused by a member of the HEPATOVIRUS genus, HUMAN HEPATITIS A VIRUS. It can be transmitted through fecal contamination of food or water.Hepatitis C: INFLAMMATION of the LIVER in humans caused by HEPATITIS C VIRUS, a single-stranded RNA virus. Its incubation period is 30-90 days. Hepatitis C is transmitted primarily by contaminated blood parenterally, and is often associated with transfusion and intravenous drug abuse. However, in a significant number of cases, the source of hepatitis C infection is unknown.RNA, Viral: Ribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.Hepatitis B virus: The type species of the genus ORTHOHEPADNAVIRUS which causes human HEPATITIS B and is also apparently a causal agent in human HEPATOCELLULAR CARCINOMA. The Dane particle is an intact hepatitis virion, named after its discoverer. Non-infectious spherical and tubular particles are also seen in the serum.Seroepidemiologic Studies: EPIDEMIOLOGIC STUDIES based on the detection through serological testing of characteristic change in the serum level of specific ANTIBODIES. Latent subclinical infections and carrier states can thus be detected in addition to clinically overt cases.Hepatitis Antigens: Antigens from any of the hepatitis viruses including surface, core, and other associated antigens.Phylogeny: The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.Hepatitis, Viral, Human: INFLAMMATION of the LIVER in humans due to infection by VIRUSES. There are several significant types of human viral hepatitis with infection caused by enteric-transmission (HEPATITIS A; HEPATITIS E) or blood transfusion (HEPATITIS B; HEPATITIS C; and HEPATITIS D).Swine: Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).Viral Hepatitis Vaccines: Any vaccine raised against any virus or viral derivative that causes hepatitis.Open Reading Frames: A sequence of successive nucleotide triplets that are read as CODONS specifying AMINO ACIDS and begin with an INITIATOR CODON and end with a stop codon (CODON, TERMINATOR).Virus Shedding: The expelling of virus particles from the body. Important routes include the respiratory tract, genital tract, and intestinal tract. Virus shedding is an important means of vertical transmission (INFECTIOUS DISEASE TRANSMISSION, VERTICAL).Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Hepatitis, Chronic: INFLAMMATION of the LIVER with ongoing hepatocellular injury for 6 months or more, characterized by NECROSIS of HEPATOCYTES and inflammatory cell (LEUKOCYTES) infiltration. Chronic hepatitis can be caused by viruses, medications, autoimmune diseases, and other unknown factors.Hepatitis B Surface Antigens: Those hepatitis B antigens found on the surface of the Dane particle and on the 20 nm spherical and tubular particles. Several subspecificities of the surface antigen are known. These were formerly called the Australia antigen.Hepatitis A virus: A species in the genus HEPATOVIRUS containing one serotype and two strains: HUMAN HEPATITIS A VIRUS and Simian hepatitis A virus causing hepatitis in humans (HEPATITIS A) and primates, respectively.Disease Reservoirs: Animate or inanimate sources which normally harbor disease-causing organisms and thus serve as potential sources of disease outbreaks. Reservoirs are distinguished from vectors (DISEASE VECTORS) and carriers, which are agents of disease transmission rather than continuing sources of potential disease outbreaks.Genotype: The genetic constitution of the individual, comprising the ALLELES present at each GENETIC LOCUS.Hepatitis: INFLAMMATION of the LIVER.Hepatitis Viruses: Any of the viruses that cause inflammation of the liver. They include both DNA and RNA viruses as well viruses from humans and animals.Hepatitis C, Chronic: INFLAMMATION of the LIVER in humans that is caused by HEPATITIS C VIRUS lasting six months or more. Chronic hepatitis C can lead to LIVER CIRRHOSIS.Genome, Viral: The complete genetic complement contained in a DNA or RNA molecule in a virus.Viral Proteins: Proteins found in any species of virus.Hepatitis B, Chronic: INFLAMMATION of the LIVER in humans caused by HEPATITIS B VIRUS lasting six months or more. It is primarily transmitted by parenteral exposure, such as transfusion of contaminated blood or blood products, but can also be transmitted via sexual or intimate personal contact.Sequence Analysis, DNA: A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.Virus Replication: The process of intracellular viral multiplication, consisting of the synthesis of PROTEINS; NUCLEIC ACIDS; and sometimes LIPIDS, and their assembly into a new infectious particle.RNA Virus InfectionsImmunoglobulin G: The major immunoglobulin isotype class in normal human serum. There are several isotype subclasses of IgG, for example, IgG1, IgG2A, and IgG2B.Immunoglobulin M: A class of immunoglobulin bearing mu chains (IMMUNOGLOBULIN MU-CHAINS). IgM can fix COMPLEMENT. The name comes from its high molecular weight and originally being called a macroglobulin.Hepatitis B Vaccines: Vaccines or candidate vaccines containing inactivated hepatitis B or some of its component antigens and designed to prevent hepatitis B. Some vaccines may be recombinantly produced.Hepatitis B Antibodies: Antibodies to the HEPATITIS B ANTIGENS, including antibodies to the surface (Australia) and core of the Dane particle and those to the "e" antigens.Antibodies, Viral: Immunoglobulins produced in response to VIRAL ANTIGENS.Hepacivirus: A genus of FLAVIVIRIDAE causing parenterally-transmitted HEPATITIS C which is associated with transfusions and drug abuse. Hepatitis C virus is the type species.Jaundice: A clinical manifestation of HYPERBILIRUBINEMIA, characterized by the yellowish staining of the SKIN; MUCOUS MEMBRANE; and SCLERA. Clinical jaundice usually is a sign of LIVER dysfunction.Feces: Excrement from the INTESTINES, containing unabsorbed solids, waste products, secretions, and BACTERIA of the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM.Sus scrofa: A species of SWINE, in the family Suidae, comprising a number of subspecies including the domestic pig Sus scrofa domestica.Hepatitis B Core Antigens: The hepatitis B antigen within the core of the Dane particle, the infectious hepatitis virion.Virus Cultivation: Process of growing viruses in live animals, plants, or cultured cells.Hepatitis A Vaccines: Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent infection with hepatitis A virus (HEPATOVIRUS).RNA Viruses: Viruses whose genetic material is RNA.Hepatitis B e Antigens: A closely related group of antigens found in the plasma only during the infective phase of hepatitis B or in virulent chronic hepatitis B, probably indicating active virus replication; there are three subtypes which may exist in a complex with immunoglobulins G.Virology: The study of the structure, growth, function, genetics, and reproduction of viruses, and VIRUS DISEASES.Capsid Proteins: Proteins that form the CAPSID of VIRUSES.Animals, Wild: Animals considered to be wild or feral or not adapted for domestic use. It does not include wild animals in zoos for which ANIMALS, ZOO is available.Hepatitis B Antigens: Antigens of the virion of the HEPATITIS B VIRUS or the Dane particle, its surface (HEPATITIS B SURFACE ANTIGENS), core (HEPATITIS B CORE ANTIGENS), and other associated antigens, including the HEPATITIS B E ANTIGENS.Hepatitis C Antibodies: Antibodies to the HEPATITIS C ANTIGENS including antibodies to envelope, core, and non-structural proteins.DNA, Viral: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.Food Safety: Activities involved in ensuring the safety of FOOD including avoidance of bacterial and other contamination.Antiviral Agents: Agents used in the prophylaxis or therapy of VIRUS DISEASES. Some of the ways they may act include preventing viral replication by inhibiting viral DNA polymerase; binding to specific cell-surface receptors and inhibiting viral penetration or uncoating; inhibiting viral protein synthesis; or blocking late stages of virus assembly.Liver: A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.Vaccinia virus: The type species of ORTHOPOXVIRUS, related to COWPOX VIRUS, but whose true origin is unknown. It has been used as a live vaccine against SMALLPOX. It is also used as a vector for inserting foreign DNA into animals. Rabbitpox virus is a subspecies of VACCINIA VIRUS.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.VirginiaHepatitis A Antibodies: Antibodies to the HEPATITIS A ANTIGENS including antibodies to envelope, core, and non-structural proteins.Hepatitis Delta Virus: A defective virus, containing particles of RNA nucleoprotein in virion-like form, present in patients with acute hepatitis B and chronic hepatitis. It requires the presence of a hepadnavirus for full replication. This is the lone species in the genus Deltavirus.Blood DonorsHepatitis A Virus, Human: A strain of HEPATITIS A VIRUS which causes hepatitis in humans. The virus replicates in hepatocytes and is presumed to reach the intestine via the bile duct. Transmission occurs by the fecal-oral route.Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay: An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed.Poultry Diseases: Diseases of birds which are raised as a source of meat or eggs for human consumption and are usually found in barnyards, hatcheries, etc. The concept is differentiated from BIRD DISEASES which is for diseases of birds not considered poultry and usually found in zoos, parks, and the wild.Abattoirs: Places where animals are slaughtered and dressed for market.Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction: A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.Prevalence: The total number of cases of a given disease in a specified population at a designated time. It is differentiated from INCIDENCE, which refers to the number of new cases in the population at a given time.Alanine Transaminase: An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of L-alanine and 2-oxoglutarate to pyruvate and L-glutamate. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 22.214.171.124.Antigens, Viral: Substances elaborated by viruses that have antigenic activity.Hepatitis, Autoimmune: A chronic self-perpetuating hepatocellular INFLAMMATION of unknown cause, usually with HYPERGAMMAGLOBULINEMIA and serum AUTOANTIBODIES.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Acute Disease: Disease having a short and relatively severe course.France: A country in western Europe bordered by the Atlantic Ocean, the English Channel, the Mediterranean Sea, and the countries of Belgium, Germany, Italy, Spain, Switzerland, the principalities of Andorra and Monaco, and by the duchy of Luxembourg. Its capital is Paris.Disease Outbreaks: Sudden increase in the incidence of a disease. The concept includes EPIDEMICS and PANDEMICS.Herpestidae: The family of agile, keen-sighted mongooses of Asia and Africa that feed on RODENTS and SNAKES.Sequence Homology: The degree of similarity between sequences. Studies of AMINO ACID SEQUENCE HOMOLOGY and NUCLEIC ACID SEQUENCE HOMOLOGY provide useful information about the genetic relatedness of genes, gene products, and species.Virion: The infective system of a virus, composed of the viral genome, a protein core, and a protein coat called a capsid, which may be naked or enclosed in a lipoprotein envelope called the peplos.Capsid: The outer protein protective shell of a virus, which protects the viral nucleic acid.China: A country spanning from central Asia to the Pacific Ocean.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Receptors, Virus: Specific molecular components of the cell capable of recognizing and interacting with a virus, and which, after binding it, are capable of generating some signal that initiates the chain of events leading to the biological response.Hepatitis D: INFLAMMATION of the LIVER in humans caused by HEPATITIS DELTA VIRUS, a defective RNA virus that can only infect HEPATITIS B patients. For its viral coating, hepatitis delta virus requires the HEPATITIS B SURFACE ANTIGENS produced by these patients. Hepatitis D can occur either concomitantly with (coinfection) or subsequent to (superinfection) hepatitis B infection. Similar to hepatitis B, it is primarily transmitted by parenteral exposure, such as transfusion of contaminated blood or blood products, but can also be transmitted via sexual or intimate personal contact.JapanVirus Assembly: The assembly of VIRAL STRUCTURAL PROTEINS and nucleic acid (VIRAL DNA or VIRAL RNA) to form a VIRUS PARTICLE.Viral Structural Proteins: Viral proteins that are components of the mature assembled VIRUS PARTICLES. They may include nucleocapsid core proteins (gag proteins), enzymes packaged within the virus particle (pol proteins), and membrane components (env proteins). These do not include the proteins encoded in the VIRAL GENOME that are produced in infected cells but which are not packaged in the mature virus particle,i.e. the so called non-structural proteins (VIRAL NONSTRUCTURAL PROTEINS).Hepatitis, Animal: INFLAMMATION of the LIVER in non-human animals.Viremia: The presence of viruses in the blood.Genes, Viral: The functional hereditary units of VIRUSES.Polymerase Chain Reaction: In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.Chickens: Common name for the species Gallus gallus, the domestic fowl, in the family Phasianidae, order GALLIFORMES. It is descended from the red jungle fowl of SOUTHEAST ASIA.Djibouti: A republic in eastern Africa, on the Gulf of Aden at the entrance to the Red Sea. Djibouti is also the name of its capital.Travel: Aspects of health and disease related to travel.Monkey Diseases: Diseases of Old World and New World monkeys. This term includes diseases of baboons but not of chimpanzees or gorillas (= APE DISEASES).Gene Expression Regulation, Viral: Any of the processes by which cytoplasmic factors influence the differential control of gene action in viruses.Recombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.Virus Diseases: A general term for diseases produced by viruses.
Prevalence of enteric hepatitis A and E viruses in the Mekong River delta region of Vietnam. (1/486)A study of antibody prevalence for hepatitis A virus (HAV) and hepatitis E virus (HEV) was carried out in southwestern Vietnam in an area adjacent to a known focus of epidemic HEV transmission. The purpose of this investigation was first to provide a prevalence measure of hepatitis infections, and second to determine the outbreak potential of HEV as a function of the susceptible population. Blood specimens collected from 646 persons in randomly selected village hamlets were examined by an ELISA for anti-HEV IgG and anti-HAV IgG. The prevalences of anti-HEV IgG and anti-HAV IgG were 9% and 97%, respectively. There was a significant increase (P < 0.01) in age-specific anti-HEV IgG. A notable increase in anti-HAV IgG prevalence (P < 0.0001) occurred between child populations 0-4 (64%) and 5-9 (95%) years of age. No evidence of familial clustering of anti-HEV IgG-positive individuals was detected, and household crowding was not associated with the spread of HEV. Boiling of water was found to be of protective value against HEV transmission. A relatively low prevalence of anti-HEV indicates considerable HEV outbreak potential, against a background of 1) poor, water-related hygiene/sanitation, 2) dependence on a (likely human/animal waste)-contaminated Mekong riverine system, and 3) periodic river flooding. (+info)
A hepatitis E virus variant from the United States: molecular characterization and transmission in cynomolgus macaques. (2/486)The partial sequence of a hepatitis E virus (HEV-US1) isolated from a patient in the United States (US), suffering from acute viral hepatitis with no known risk factors for acquiring HEV, has been reported. These sequences were significantly different from previously characterized HEV isolates, alluding to the existence of a distinct human variant. In this paper, we report the near full-length sequences of HEV-US1 and a second US isolate (HEV-US2). HEV-US2 was identified in a US patient suffering from acute viral hepatitis. These sequences verify the presence of a new HEV strain in North America and provide information as to the degree of variability between variants. The HEV-US nucleotide sequences are 92% identical to each other and only 74% identical to the Burmese and Mexican strains. Amino acid and phylogenetic analyses also demonstrate that the US isolates are genetically distinct, suggesting the presence of three genotypes of HEV. Serum from the second US patient induced hepatitis following inoculation into a cynomolgus macaque. Within 2-4 weeks, HEV-US2 RNA was detectable in both the serum and faecal material coinciding with elevated serum alanine transaminase levels. Infection resolved as antibody titres increased 8 weeks post-inoculation. (+info)
Mutational analysis of glycosylation, membrane translocation, and cell surface expression of the hepatitis E virus ORF2 protein. (3/486)Hepatitis E virus (HEV) is the etiological agent for viral hepatitis type E, which is a major problem in the developing world. Because HEV cannot be cultured in vitro, very little information exists on the mechanisms of HEV gene expression and genome replication. HEV is a positive-strand RNA virus with three potential open reading frames (ORFs), one of which (ORF2) is postulated to encode the major viral capsid protein (pORF2). We earlier showed (S. Jameel, M. Zafrullah, M. H. Ozdener, and S. K. Panda, J. Virol. 70:207-216, 1996) pORF2 to be a approximately 88-kDa glycoprotein, carrying N-linked glycans and a potential endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-directing signal at its N terminus. Treatment with the drugs brefeldin A and monensin suggest that the protein may accumulate within the ER. Based on mutational analysis, we demonstrate Asn-310 to be the major site of N-glycan addition. In COS-1 cell expression and in vitro translation experiments, we confirm the ER-translocating nature of the pORF2 N-terminal hydrophobic sequence and show that the protein is cotranslationally, but not posttranslationally, translocated across the ER membrane. Earlier, we had also demonstrated cell surface localization of a fraction of the COS-1 cell-expressed pORF2. Using glycosylation- and translocation-defective mutants of pORF2, we now show that while transit of pORF2 into the ER is necessary for its cell surface expression, glycosylation of the protein is not required for such localization. These results may offer clues to the mechanisms of gene expression and capsid assembly in HEV. (+info)
Only the non-glycosylated fraction of hepatitis E virus capsid (open reading frame 2) protein is stable in mammalian cells. (4/486)Hepatitis E virus (HEV) is a non-enveloped, positive-strand RNA virus, with the genome encoding three open reading frames (ORFs) of which ORF 2 directs translation of the capsid protein, PORF2. Following pulse-labelling and cell fractionation of PORF2 expressed in mammalian cells using the Semliki Forest virus replicon, the capsid protein was detected as three major species of 78 (PORF2), 82 and 86 kDa, with P82 and P86 being N-glycosylated (gPORF2 and ggPORF2, respectively). Although gPORF2 and ggPORF2 species represented 79% of total PORF2 after 20 min metabolic labelling and were largely membrane-associated, the glycosylated PORF2 species were much less stable than non-glycosylated PORF2, which was present in the cytosol and represented the major product accumulated in the cell. In the absence of detectable surface expression or export of PORF2, this suggests that glycosylated ORF 2 proteins may not be intermediates in HEV capsid assembly. (+info)
Phylogenetic analysis of hepatitis E virus isolates from India (1976-1993). (5/486)Seventeen Indian hepatitis E virus (HEV) isolates, representing epidemic and sporadic hepatitis E cases during 1976-1991, were sequenced in the RNA polymerase (RNAP) region. Five isolates were also sequenced in the non-structural hypervariable region of open reading frame 1. Open reading frames 2 and 3 were sequenced only for the prototype isolate. On the basis of the comparison of all the available sequences of the conserved RNAP region, the HEV isolates were divided into three genotypes, differing from each other by >15%. Genotype I included African and Asian isolates, whereas II and III were represented by Mexican and US isolates, respectively. Genotype I was further divided into four sub-genotypes. The majority of the Indian isolates (15/20), along with the Burmese and Nepali isolates, belonged to genotype IA. Genotype IB included HEV isolates from China, Pakistan and the former USSR and 2/20 Indian isolates, which represented the oldest (1976) HEV sequenced so far. Genotype IC included both the African isolates, whereas 3/20 Indian isolates formed genotype ID. Nucleotide sequence analysis of other regions of the HEV genome also placed isolates in the same genotypes. Both the Indian cities experiencing second HEV epidemics, after intervals of 8 and 10 years, showed shifts in the sub-genotypes found; from IB (Ahm-76) to IA (Ahm-84) and from IA (Kol-81) to ID (Kol-91). However, no major shift in the genotypes was noted. Overall, HEV genotypes appear to be segregated geographically. (+info)
Antigenic domains of the open reading frame 2-encoded protein of hepatitis E virus. (6/486)The antigenic composition of the hepatitis E virus (HEV) protein encoded by open reading frame 2 (ORF2) was determined by using synthetic peptides. Three sets of overlapping 18-, 25-, and 30-mer peptides, with each set spanning the entire ORF2 protein of the HEV Burma strain, were synthesized. All synthetic peptides were tested by enzyme immunoassay against a panel of 32 anti-HEV-positive serum specimens obtained from acutely HEV-infected persons. Six antigenic domains within the ORF2 protein were identified. Domains 1 and 6 located at the N and C termini of the ORF2 protein, respectively, contain strong immunoglobulin G (IgG) and IgM antigenic epitopes that can be efficiently modeled with peptides of different sizes. In contrast, antigenic epitopes identified within the two central domains (3 and 4) were modeled more efficiently with 30-mer peptides than with either 18- or 25-mers. Domain 2 located at amino acids (aa) 143 to 222 was modeled best with 25-mer peptides. A few 30-mer synthetic peptides derived from domain 5 identified at aa 490 to 579 demonstrated strong IgM antigenic reactivity. Several 30-mer synthetic peptides derived from domains 1, 4, and 6 immunoreacted with IgG or IgM with more than 70% of anti-HEV-positive serum specimens. Thus, the results of this study demonstrate the existence of six diagnostically relevant antigenic domains within the HEV ORF2 protein. (+info)
Evidence for widespread infection of wild rats with hepatitis E virus in the United States. (7/486)Hepatitis E is an important medical pathogen in many developing countries but is rarely reported from the United States, although antibody to hepatitis E virus (anti-HEV) is found in > 1% of U.S. citizens. Zoonotic spread of the virus is suspected. Sera obtained from 239 wild rats trapped in widely separated regions of the United States were tested for anti-HEV. Seventy-seven percent of rats from Maryland, 90% from Hawaii, and 44% from Louisiana were seropositive for anti-HEV. Rats from urban as well as rural areas were seropositive and the prevalence of anti-HEV IgG increased in parallel with the estimated age of the rats, leading to speculation that they might be involved in the puzzling high prevalence of anti-HEV among some U.S. city dwellers. The discovery of a in rats in the United States and the recently reported discovery that HEV is endemic in U.S. swine raise many questions about transmission, reservoirs, and strains of HEV in developed countries. (+info)
Cell culture of sporadic hepatitis E virus in China. (8/486)The isolation and identification of the 87A strain of epidemic hepatitis E virus (HEV) by means of cell culturing have been described previously. This paper reports the successful isolation of a sporadic HEV strain (G93-2) in human lung carcinoma cell (A549) cultures. The etiology, molecular and biological properties, and serological relationship of this new strain to other, epidemic HEV strains are described. The propagation of both sporadic and epidemic HEV strains in a cell culture system will facilitate vaccine research. (+info)
Hepatitis News: Hepatitis E Virus in Animals
Rabbits have also been suggested as a zoonotic source of Hepatitis E Virus. French researchers found that farmed and wild rabbits in France are naturally infected with Hepatitis E Virus. They also characterized a human Hepatitis E Virus strain that is closely related to rabbit Hepatitis E Virus strains; this finding thus supports the potential of zoonotic transmission from rabbits to humans. However, research showed that isolates from farmed, wild and pet rabbits in The Netherlands were distinct from most human isolates and are unlikely to be a zoonotic source ...
Sporadic cases of acute autochthonous hepatitis E virus infection in Southwest Germany. - Publikationsserver der Universität...
Hepatitis E infection is usually a self-limiting disease and an important cause of acute hepatitis in tropical and subtropical regions where the virus is endemic. In industrialized countries, sporadic cases of acute hepatitis E virus (HEV) infections have been described and the number of documented autochthonous infections seems to be increasing. We report three sporadic cases of autochthonous hepatitis E infections in Southwestern Germany which presented at our university hospital within two years. All cases were men who presented with acute hepatitis, icterus and elevated liver. In case 1 and case 2, liver biopsy revealed acute hepatitis, both patients were positive for anti-HEV antibodies, case 1 was also positive for HEV RNA with a viral load of 3.0x10(3)copies/ml in serum. In case 3, anti-HEV antibodies were detectable and HEV RNA was detected in serum (4.3x10(3)copies/ml) and stool (1.4x10(6)copies/ml). None of the patients had a recent travel history outside Germany and close contact to ...
Laboratory-based Surveillance for Hepatitis E Virus Infection, United States, 2005-2012 - Volume 19, Number 2-February 2013 -...
To investigate characteristics of hepatitis E cases in the United States, we tested samples from persons seronegative for acute hepatitis A and B whose clinical specimens were referred to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention during June 2005-March 2012 for hepatitis E virus (HEV) testing. We found that 26 (17%) of 154 persons tested had hepatitis E. Of these, 15 had not recently traveled abroad (nontravelers), and 11 had (travelers). Compared with travelers, nontravelers were older (median 61 vs. 32 years of age) and more likely to be anicteric (53% vs. 8%); the nontraveler group also had fewer persons of South Asian ethnicity (7% vs. 73%) and more solid-organ transplant recipients (47% vs. 0). HEV genotype 3 was characterized from 8 nontravelers and genotypes 1 or 4 from 4 travelers. Clinicians should consider HEV infection in the differential diagnosis of hepatitis, regardless of patient travel history.
Welcome to CDC stacks | Laboratory-based Surveillance for Hepatitis E Virus Infection, United States, 2005-2012 - 18929 |...
To investigate characteristics of hepatitis E cases in the United States, we tested samples from persons seronegative for acute hepatitis A and B whose clinical specimens were referred to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention during June 2005-March 2012 for hepatitis E virus (HEV) testing. We found that 26 (17%) of 154 persons tested had hepatitis E. Of these, 15 had not recently traveled abroad (nontravelers), and 11 had (travelers). Compared with travelers, nontravelers were older (median 61 vs. 32 years of age) and more likely to be anicteric (53% vs. 8%); the nontraveler group also had fewer persons of South Asian ethnicity (7% vs. 73%) and more solid-organ transplant recipients (47% vs. 0). HEV genotype 3 was characterized from 8 nontravelers and genotypes 1 or 4 from 4 travelers. Clinicians should consider HEV infection in the differential diagnosis of hepatitis, regardless of patient travel history ...
Epidemiology of Hepatitis E Virus Infection in Patients on Chronic Hemodialysis | Jundishapur Journal of Microbiology | Full...
Many studies have been done on the epidemiology of Hepatitis E on general population, but the data among patients with end stage renal disease (ESRD) are few and give conflicting results.The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of hepatitis E virus (HEV) infection and its relationship in ESRD patients undergoing maintenance hemodialysis (HD).This cross-sectional study was carried out on ESRD patients treated with HD in Imam Khomeini Hospital, Ahvaz city, Southwest of Iran. Blood sampling of patients was collected immediately before the dialysis session and the serum were evaluated for anti-HEV IgG titers by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. The statistical package for social sciences (SPSS) version 15 software was used for data analysis.Out of 47 ESRD patients, 27 were male (57.4%) and 20 were female (42.6%), with mean age of 55.27 ± 8.1 years. The prevalence of anti-HEV antibody was 10.6 % (five patients, four male and one female). The mean age of HEV positive and negative patients
Serological and molecular markers of hepatitis E virus infection in HIV-infected patients in Brazil. | Physician's Weekly for...
In Brazil, the circulation of hepatitis E virus (HEV) has been demonstrated in distinct groups of individuals and some animals, but its prevalence among individuals with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection is unknown. This study aimed to assess the frequency of serological and molecular HEV markers in individuals infected with HIV from São Paulo, Brazil. Serum and plasma samples of 354 HIV-infected patients collected between 2007 and 2013 were included. All samples were tested for anti-HEV IgG and IgM antibodies and HEV RNA. Anti-HEV IgG and IgM antibodies were detected in 10.7% (38/354) and 1.4% (5/354) of the samples, respectively. Both antibodies were detected simultaneously in only two samples. HEV RNA was not detected in any sample. There was no significant correlation of anti-HEV serological status (positivity to anti-HEV IgG and/or IgM) with sex, age, CD4(+) T cell count, HIV viral load, antiretroviral therapy, liver enzyme levels, or coinfection with hepatitis B virus and/or ...
World Health Organization International Standard to Harmonize Assays for Detection of Hepatitis E Virus RNA - Volume 19, Number...
Nucleic acid amplification technique-based assays are a primary method for the detection of acute hepatitis E virus (HEV) infection, but assay sensitivity can vary widely. To improve interlaboratory results for the detection and quantification of HEV RNA, a candidate World Health Organization (WHO) International Standard (IS) strain was evaluated in a collaborative study involving 23 laboratories from 10 countries. The IS, code number 6329/10, was formulated by using a genotype 3a HEV strain from a blood donation, diluted in pooled human plasma and lyophilized. A Japanese national standard, representing a genotype 3b HEV strain, was prepared and evaluated in parallel. The potencies of the standards were determined by qualitative and quantitative assays. Assay variability was substantially reduced when HEV RNA concentrations were expressed relative to the IS. Thus, WHO has established 6329/10 as the IS for HEV RNA, with a unitage of 250,000 International Units per milliliter.
Diagnostic performance of hepatitis E virus antigen assay in hepatitis E virus acute infection. | Physician's Weekly for...
The aim of this study was to analyze the sensitivity of hepatitis E virus antigen (HEV-Ag) to determine acute E hepatitis. Ninety-four serum samples resulting anti-HEV IgM by DIA.PRO assay were analyzed with Wantai assay to check for HEV-Ag. Thirty samples were anti-HEV IgM positive and HEV-RNA positive, 19 samples harbored genotype 3, whereas 11 samples were genotype 1. Overall, 16% of anti-HEV IgM samples resulted HEV-Ag positive and 33.3% of HEV-RNA positive were also HEV-Ag positive. Among 64 HEV-RNA negative samples, 5 (7.8%) were HEV-Ag positive. The concordance of HEV-RNA and HEV-Ag was low (Cohens Kappa=0.36). The Bland-Altman plot revealed a low agreement between HEV-RNA viral load and HEV-Ag, confirmed by a not significant Spearmans correlation coefficient (rho=0.137, p >0.05). Moreover, the HEV-Ag showed 100% specificity. In genotype 3f samples with a viral load >800cp/ml HEV-Ag was positive in 80% of samples, whereas all patients harboring genotype 3e were HEV-Ag-negative ...
Cynomolgus monkeys are successfully and persistently infected with hepatitis E virus genotype 3 (HEV-3) after long-term...
Epidemiological studies found that hepatitis E virus genotype 3 (HEV-3) infection was associated with chronic hepatitis and cirrhosis in immunocompromised patients. Our study aimed to investigate the relationship between the host immunosuppressive status and the occurrence of HEV-related chronic hepatitis. Here we describe a successful experimental study, using cynomolgus monkeys previously treated with tacrolimus, a potent calcineurin inhibitor immunosuppressant, and infected with a Brazilian HEV-3 strain isolated from naturally infected pigs. HEV infected monkeys were followed up during 160 days post infection (dpi) by clinical signs; virological, biochemical and haematological parameters; and liver histopathology. The tacrolimus blood levels were monitored throughout the experiment. Immunosuppression was confirmed by clinical and laboratorial findings, such as: moderate weight loss, alopecia, and herpes virus opportunistic infection. In this study, chronic HEV infection was characterized by the mild
Hepatitis E virus infection in patients on dialysis and in solid organ transplant recipients in Argentina: exploring associated...
Read "Hepatitis E virus infection in patients on dialysis and in solid organ transplant recipients in Argentina: exploring associated risk factors, Archives of Virology" on DeepDyve, the largest online rental service for scholarly research with thousands of academic publications available at your fingertips.
Aanalysis of Genotype and ORF3 Gene Mutation of Hepatitis E Virus in Wuhan - Master's thesis - Dissertation
Chronic Hepatitis E Virus Infection during Lymphoplasmacytic Lymphoma and Ibrutinib Treatment.
Hepatitis E virus (HEV) is an increasingly recognised pathogen, affecting several hundred thousand individuals in western countries each year. Importantly, the majority of immunocompromised individuals are not able to clear HEV but develop a chronic course of infection. In the case of lymphoma, which is an inherent immunosuppressive disease per se, chemotherapy can even further exacerbate the immunosuppressive status. As the mechanism of HEV chronification is barely understood, it is important to gain knowledge about the influence of chemotherapeutic drugs on the HEV replication cycle to guide rational clinical management of HEV infection in such patients. In this case report, a 70 year old man was diagnosed with lymphoplasmacytic lymphoma. As we observed the occurrence of chronic HEV after treatment with the Brutons tyrosine kinase (BTK) inhibitor ibrutinib in vivo, we investigated the influence of BTK signaling and ibrutinib treatment in the HEV replication cycle in vitro. First, we detected ...
KNUSTSpace: Hepatitis E virus infections in HIV-infected patients in Ghana and Cameroon
Chronic hepatitis E virus (HEV) infections have recently been described in HIV-infected patients. Only few data are available for sub-Saharan Africa, where HIV and HEV are highly co-endemic, and where liver pathology is common in HIV-infected individuals. OBJECTIVES: To assess the prevalence of HEV viremia, anti-HEV antibodies, and serum aminotransferase levels in HIV patients in Ghana and Cameroon. STUDY DESIGN: We retrospectively surveyed a cross-section of patients who were enrolled in cohort studies in Ghana (West Africa), and Cameroon (Central Africa). Plasma samples from 1029 HIV patients from Ghana and 515 patients from Cameroon including 214 children were analyzed for HEV-RNA by two reverse transcription PCR methods. In a subset of 791 patients, anti-HEV IgG and IgM antibodies were analyzed. RESULTS: No HEV-RNA was detected in any of the plasma samples of 1544 patients. HEV seroprevalence was high in adult HIV patients from Ghana (45.3%, n=402) and Cameroon (14.2%, n=289), but low in ...
Hepatitis e virus (HEV) detection and quantification by a real-time reverse transcription-PCR assay calibrated to the world...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Hepatitis e virus (HEV) detection and quantification by a real-time reverse transcription-PCR assay calibrated to the world health organization standard for HEV RNA. AU - Germer, Jeffrey J.. AU - Ankoudinova, Irina. AU - Belousov, Yevgeniy S.. AU - Mahoney, Walt. AU - Dong, Chen. AU - Meng, Jihong. AU - Mandrekar, Jayawant. AU - Yao, Joseph D.. PY - 2017/5/1. Y1 - 2017/5/1. N2 - Hepatitis E virus (HEV) has emerged as a cause of chronic hepatitis among immunocompromised patients. Molecular assays have become important tools for the diagnosis and management of these chronically infected patients. A real-time reverse transcription-quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR) assay utilizing Pleiades probe chemistry and an RNA internal control for the simultaneous detection and quantification of HEV RNA in human serum was developed based on an adaptation of a previously described and broadly reactive primer set targeting the overlapping open reading frame 2/3 (ORF2/3) nucleotide sequence of HEV. A ...
Welcome to CDC stacks | Virulent Strain of Hepatitis E Virus Genotype 3, Japan - 17719 | Emerging Infectious Diseases
Hepatitis E virus (HEV) genotype 3, which usually causes asymptomatic infection in Japan, induced severe hepatitis in 8 patients. To better understand genetic features of HEV associated with increased virulence, we determined the complete or near-complete nucleotide sequences of HEV from these 8 patients and from 5 swine infected with genotype 3 strain swJ19. Phylogenetic analysis showed that the isolates from the 8 patients and the 5 swine grouped separately from the other genotype 3 isolates to create a unique cluster, designated JIO. The human JIO-related viruses encoded 18 amino acids different from those of the other HEV genotype 3 strains. One substitution common to almost all human HEV strains in the JIO cluster was located in the helicase domain (V239A) and may be associated with increased virulence. A zoonotic origin of JIO-related viruses is suspected because the isolates from the 5 swine also possessed the signature V239A substitution in helicase ...
Prevalence and risks of Hepatitis E virus infection in blood donors from the Western Cape, South Africa
ENGLISH ABSTRACT: Hepatitis E virus (HEV) is an important cause of enterically transmitted acute hepatitis worldwide and is a locally acquired disease in both developing and developed nations. Different genotypes in these two regions display the different characteristics of this interesting infection. HEV is classified into four major genotypes and it can present as two contrasting clinical entities. HEV genotypes 1 (HEV1) and 2 (HEV 2) are related to waterborne transmission and poor sanitation. Whereas genotypes 3 (HEV3) and 4 (HEV4) are associated with zoonotic transmission mainly through pigs, wild boar and deer. HEV infections in Africa are thought to be caused by HEV1 and HEV2. The seroprevalence of HEV has been described in Southern Africa, but all more than 10 years ago when assays were not well developed. South Africa has three HEV reports, describing a hospital outbreak, and the seroprevalence in specific communities of South Africa. The seroprevalence from these studies ranged from 2% ...
PDF] Diagnosis of hepatitis E | Semantic Scholar
Hepatitis E, caused by infection with hepatitis E virus (HEV), is a common cause of enterically-transmitted acute hepatitis in developing countries. Occasional cases of sporadic hepatitis E have been increasingly recognized in developed countries over the past decade. These cases differ from those in developing countries in being possibly caused by zoonotic transmission, often affecting people with a suppressed immune system and occasionally leading to persistent HEV infection. The commonly used tests for HEV infection include detection of IgM and IgG anti-HEV antibodies and detection of HEV RNA. IgM anti-HEV antibodies can be detected during the first few months after HEV infection, whereas IgG anti-HEV antibodies represent either recent or remote exposure. The presence of HEV RNA indicates current infection, whether acute or chronic. Although several diagnostic assays for anti-HEV antibodies are available, they have undergone fairly limited testing and often provide discordant results, particularly
Genetic heterogeneity of swine hepatitis E virus isolates from Yunnan province, China in 2011-2012 | Virology Journal | Full...
Hepatitis E is a disease of major public-health concern mainly in developing countries. Although molecular and sero-epidemiological investigations of HEV have been performed in many provinces in China, the epidemiological data from Yunnan Province are limited and genotypes are not be fully characterized. In this study the prevalence and characteristics of hepatitis E virus (HEV) detected in pigs from Yunnan province, China was evaluated. A total of 13 out of 187 pig fecal samples collected in 2011 revealed HEV positive results; likewise, 7 out of 69 samples collected in 2012 exhibited positive results. These findings indicated a total prevalence of 7.8% (20/256). Phylogenetic and molecular evolutionary analysis results revealed that nine strains were found in the samples obtained in 2011, in which 87.1% to 99.4% nucleotide sequence identity was shared among these strains; and 77.0% to 81.9%, 52.2% to 53.6%, 77.0% to 88.2% and 77.9% to 96.8% nucleotide sequence identities were shared with strains
主要论著：. 1.Shen Q, Pu Y,Fu X, Xie Y, Bian X, Yang S, Yang Y, Cui L, Wang X, Wang H, Zhang W. 2014. Changes in the cellular proteins of A549 infected with hepatitis E virus by proteomics analysis. BMC Vet Res. 2014 Aug 30;10(1):188.. 2.Shen Q, Zhang W, Yang S, Cui L, Hua X. 2012. Complete genome sequence of a new-genotype porcine norovirus isolated from piglets with diarrhea. J Virol. 2012 Jun;86(12):7015-6.. 3.Shen Q, Zhang W, Yang S, Chen Y, Ning H, Shan T, Liu J, Yang Z, Cui L, Zhu J, and Hua X. 2009. Molecular Detection and Prevalence of Porcine Caliciviruses in eastern China from 2008 to 2009. Arch Virol 154(10):1625-30. 4.Shen Q, Zhang W, Cao X, Mou J, Cui L, and Hua X. 2007. Cloning of Full Genome Sequence of Hepatitis E Virus of Shanghai Swine Isolate Using RACE Method. Virol J 4:98. 5.Quan Shen, Rongqing Ren, Wen Zhang, Zhibiao Yang, Shixing Yang, Yan Chen, Li Cui, Xiuguo Hu. 2011. Prevalence of Hepatitis E Virus and Porcine Caliciviruses in Pig Farms of Guizhou Province, China. ...
Microbiology Society Journals | Variability and pathogenicity of hepatitis E virus genotype 3 variants
Infection with hepatitis E virus (HEV) can be clinically inapparent or produce symptoms and signs of hepatitis of varying severity and occasional fatality. This variability in clinical outcomes may reflect differences in host susceptibility or the presence of virally encoded determinants of pathogenicity. Analysis of complete genome sequences supports the division of HEV genotype 3 (HEV-3) variants into three major clades: 3ra comprising HEV isolates from rabbits, and 3efg and 3abchij comprising the corresponding named subtypes derived from humans and pigs. Using this framework, we investigated associations between viral genetic variability of HEV-3 in symptomatic and asymptomatic infections by comparing HEV-3 subgenomic sequences previously obtained from blood donors with those from patients presenting with hepatitis in the UK (54 blood donors, 148 hepatitis patients), the Netherlands (38 blood donors, 119 hepatitis patients), France (24 blood donors, 55 hepatitis patients) and Germany (14 blood donors
Hepatitis E virus infections in travellers: Assessing the threat to the Australian blood supply | USC Research Bank -...
Background. In many developed countries hepatitis E virus (HEV) infections have occurred predominantly in travellers to countries endemic for HEV. HEV is a potential threat to blood safety as the virus is transfusion-transmissible. To minimise this risk in Australia, individuals diagnosed with HEV are deferred. Malarial deferrals, when donors are restricted from donating fresh blood components following travel to an area in which malaria is endemic, probably also decrease the HEV risk, by deferring donors who travel to many countries also endemic for HEV. The aim of this study is to describe overseas-acquired HEV cases in Australia, in order to determine whether infection in travellers poses a risk to Australian blood safety. Materials and methods. Details of all notified HEV cases in Australia from 2002 to 2014 were accessed, and importation rates estimated. Countries in which HEV was acquired were compared to those for which donations are restricted following travel because of a malaria risk.
Chronic Hepatitis E Virus Infection: Successful Virologic Response to Pegylated Interferon-α Therapy | Annals of Internal...
Discussion: We have reported elsewhere (1) that HEV infection can evolve into chronic hepatitis E in organ transplant recipients receiving immunosuppressive drugs. Two other cases (2, 3) of prolonged HEV infection have been reported: 1 in a patient with lymphoma being treated with rituximab (2), and another in an immunocompromised patient with HIV infection (3). The lymphocyte and CD4+ cell counts were lower than normal in our transplant recipients (1) and in the patient with HIV (3), and they were not reported for the patient with lymphoma (2). Hairy cell leukemia is an indolent chronic B-cell lymphoproliferative disease with a good long-term prognosis, and its main complication is infection (4). We chose to treat this patient with pegylated interferon-α2b for several reasons. We have reported (1) that immunosuppressive drugs are associated with progression to severe liver fibrosis in chronic HEV infection, so we treated this patients chronic HEV infection with pegylated interferon-α2b ...
... is a viral hepatitis that affects the liver and is caused by the hepatitis E virus, or HEV. The liver is an organ found on the right side of our belly (abdomen) under the rib cage. It cleans our blood of toxins, poisons, and bacteria. It produces bile which helps our body breakdown food. It stores vitamins, minerals and sugars. And it helps control cholesterol levels. Hepatitis E occurs when the hepatitis E virus causes the liver to swell, scar, and become inflamed, which stops it from working properly or completely Symptoms may include nausea, diarrhea, fatigue, and jaundice (yellowing of the skin). Hepatitis E symptoms usually go away after 4-6 weeks. It is rare for HEV to become chronic, but it can be very serious for pregnant women. HEV is spread through food or water that is contaminated with the feces (bowel movement) of people infected with HEV. There is some concern that it may also be passed through pigs in areas where HEV is common. There is no evidence that HEV is passed ...
Neurology Podcast Search | American Academy of Neurology®
1) Guillain-Barre syndrome being associated with hepatitis E virus infection and 2) Topic of the month: Review of new oral anticoagulants for stroke. This podcast for the Neurology Journal begins and closes with Dr. Robert Gross, Editor-in-Chief, briefly discussing highlighted articles from the print issue of Neurology. In the second segment Dr. Ted Burns interviews Dr. Bart Jacobs about his paper on Guillain-Barre syndrome being associated with hepatitis E virus infection. Dr. James Addington is reading our e-Pearl of the week about myelin-oligodendrocyte glycoprotein antibody. In the next part of the podcast Dr. Mark McAllister in Read More 1) Guillain-Barre syndrome being associated with hepatitis E virus infection and 2) Topic of the month: Review of new oral anticoagulants for stroke. This podcast for the Neurology Journal begins and closes with Dr. Robert Gross, Editor-in-Chief, briefly discussing highlighted articles from the print issue of Neurology. In the second segment Dr. Ted Burns ...
Executive summary: Consensus document of the diagnosis, management and prevention of infection with the hepatitis E virus:...
Justification and scope. Hepatitis E virus (HEV) infection is one of the main causes of acute hepatitis in both developed and developing countries. This infectious disease has a high prevalence and incidence in Europe.1 HEV infection has a greater clinical impact in vulnerable populations, such as immunosuppressed patients, pregnant women, and patients with underlying liver disease.2,3 Thus, the World Health Organisation (WHO) ranks it as one of the leading causes of death due to acute hepatitis of viral origin worldwide.4 However, national and international recommendations for the screening, diagnosis, and treatment of HEV have not been developed (EASL guidelines has been reported after submission of the present document),5 which makes it difficult to manage patients. This, combined with the fact that HEV infection is not a notifiable disease in most countries, allows us to speculate that its incidence and clinical impact may be higher than expected. The European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) ...
Hepatitis E takes a piggyback ( Pigs carry hepatitis E virus (HEV) whi...)
Pigs carry hepatitis E virus (HEV) which they can pass on to humans. ...Kunio Satou and Hiroshi Nishiura analysed blood test data from 2500 p...Inoculation studies have shown that the virus remains in pigs?faeces a...HEV which is found worldwide can potentially cause acute hepatitis i...Suckling pigs dont contract the virus in their first 30 days because...,Hepatitis,E,takes,a,piggyback,biological,biology news articles,biology news today,latest biology news,current biology news,biology newsletters
Evidence for widespread infection of wild rats with hepatitis E virus in the United States. | Base documentaire | BDSP
Hepatitis E is an important medical pathogen in many developing countries but is rarely reported from the United States, although antibody to hepatitis E virus anti-HEV is found in1% of U.S. citizens. Zoonotic spread of the virus is suspected. Sera obtained from 239 wild rats trapped in widely separated regions of the United States were tested...
This review details the molecular virology of the hepatitis E virus<...
This review details the molecular virology of the hepatitis E virus (HEV). a few variants from Africa, and genotypes 3 and 4 include human and swine HEV strains from industrialized countries and Asia (particularly China), respectively. While genotypes 1 and 2 have only been found in humans, genotypes 3 and 4 have been recovered from humans as well as pigs and other animal species. Genotype 3 is usually evenly distributed across the world while genotype 4 is found more often in China and Japan. Early studies on HEV transmission and pathogenesis as well as preclinical vaccine development studies have mostly been carried out in non-human primates such as cynomolgus, rhesus and owl monkeys, and chimpanzees (Uchida et al., 1991; Purdy et al., 1992; Ticehurst et al., 1992; McCaustland et al., 2000). More recently, pigs have also been used for transmission and molecular studies (Meng et al., 1998). However, a small animal model for HEV is still elusive. That and the lack of a suitable cell culture ...
A549 and PLC/PRF/5 cells can support the efficient propagation of swine and wild boar hepatitis E virus (HEV) strains:...
Read "A549 and PLC/PRF/5 cells can support the efficient propagation of swine and wild boar hepatitis E virus (HEV) strains: demonstration of HEV infectivity of porcine liver sold as food, Archives of Virology" on DeepDyve, the largest online rental service for scholarly research with thousands of academic publications available at your fingertips.
Hepatitis E Virus: Foodborne, Waterborne and Zoonotic Transmission
Hepatitis E virus (HEV) is responsible for epidemics and endemics of acute hepatitis in humans, mainly through waterborne, foodborne, and zoonotic transmission routes. HEV is a single-stranded, positive-sense RNA virus classified in the family Hepeviridae and encompasses four known Genotypes (1-4), at least two new putative genotypes of mammalian HEV, and one floating genus of avian HEV. Genotypes 1 and 2 HEVs only affect humans, while Genotypes 3 and 4 are zoonotic and responsible for sporadic and autochthonous infections in both humans and several other animal species worldwide. HEV has an ever-expanding host range and has been identified in numerous animal species. Swine serve as a reservoir species for HEV transmission to humans; however, it is likely that other animal species may also act as reservoirs. HEV poses an important public health concern with cases of the disease definitively linked to handling of infected pigs, consumption of raw and undercooked animal meats, and animal manure ...
Distribution and Molecular Characterization of Hepatitis E Virus in Domestic Animals and Wildlife in Croatia - PubMed
Hepatitis E is becoming a growing health concern in European countries as an increase of sporadic human cases of unknown origin has been recorded lately. Its causative agent, Hepatitis E virus (HEV), is known to have zoonotic potential and thus the role of domestic and wild animals in the chain of v …
A systematic review of the epidemiology of hepatitis E virus in Africa | BMC Infectious Diseases | Full Text
Hepatitis E Virus (HEV) infection is a newly recognized serious threat to global public health and Africa is suspected to be among the most severely affected regions in the world. Understanding HEV epidemiology in Africa will expedite the implementation of evidence-based control policies aimed at preventing the spread of HEV including policies for the use of available resources such as HEV vaccines. Here we present a comprehensive review of HEV epidemiology in Africa based on published data. We searched for articles on HEV epidemiology in Africa from online databases such as PubMed, Scopus, and ISI Web of Science and critically reviewed appropriate publications to extract consistent findings, identify knowledge gaps, and suggest future studies. Taking a particularly high toll in pregnant women and their fetuses, HEV has infected human populations in 28 of 56 African countries. Since 1979, 17 HEV outbreaks have been reported about once every other year from Africa causing a reported 35,300 cases with 650
Hepatitis E virus seroprevalence in pregnant women in Jiangsu, China, and postpartum evolution during six years | BMC...
In the present study, we detected anti-HEV IgM and IgG in a cohort of 497 women at mid-term pregnancy and at 6 years postpartum and also in their 497 children. We found that the positive rate of anti-HEV IgM or the prevalence of anti-HEV IgG was constant in women at the two time points. The unchanged positive rates do not reflect that there was no novel HEV infection occurred during the observation period, but it was resulted from the balance of seronegative conversion due to the natural decay of anti-HEV IgG and the seropositive conversion caused by the novel infections. Additionally, we found that anti-HEV prevalence in Chinese children was extremely low.. Previous studies have indicated that commercially available immunoassays for detection of anti-HEV antibodies differ dramatically in the sensitivity and specificity. The sensitivity could range from 72 to 98 % in detecting the same diagnostic sensitivity panel , and highly discrepant results existed in evaluation of anti-HEV IgG ...
Hepatitis E virus seroprevalence among adults, Germany.
The use of human sewage screening for community surveillance of hepatitis E virus in the UK. - Immunology
Hepatitis E virus sequences were detected by RT-PCR in 14/15 (93%) of untreated sewage samples from Edinburgh, Scotland, UK. Phylogenetic analysis of amplicons at limiting dilution revealed the co-circulation of multiple variants of HEV-3, with a pattern of diversity matching that observed in a local cohort of HEV-infected hepatitis patients. J. Med. Virol. 88:915-918, 2016. © 2015 The Authors. Journal of Medical Virology Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Frontiers | Evaluation of High-Pressure Processing in Inactivation of the Hepatitis E Virus | Microbiology
Hepatitis E virus (HEV) causes acute hepatitis with approximately 20 million cases per year globally. Based on genetic diversity, HEV is classified into different genotypes, with genotype 3 (HEV-3) being most prevalent in Europe and North America. The transmission of HEV-3 has been shown to be zoonotic and mainly associated with the consumption of raw or undercooked pork products. Herein, we investigated the efficacy of high-pressure processing (HPP) in inactivation of HEV-3 using a cell culture system. HPP has been indicated as a promising non-thermal pathogen inactivation strategy for treatment of certain high-risk food commodities, without any noticeable changes in their nature. For this purpose, we treated HEV-3 in media with different conditions of HPP: 400 MPa for 1 and 5 min, as well as 600 MPa for 1 and 5 min, at ambient temperature. All four HPP treatments of HEV in media were observed to result in a 2-log reduction in HEV load, as determined by the amounts of extracellular HEV RNA produced at
A novel avian isolate of hepatitis E virus from Pakistan | Virology Journal | Full Text
Avian hepatitis E virus (aHEV) has been associated with hepatitis-splenomegaly syndrome (HSS) in chickens along with asymptomatic subclinical infection in many cases. So far, four genotypes have been described, which cause infection in chickens, specifically in broiler breeders and layer chickens. In the present study, we isolated and identified two novel aHEV strains from the bile of layer chickens in Pakistan evincing clinical symptoms related to HSS. Histology of liver and spleen tissues was carried out to observe histopathological changes in these tissues. Bile fluid and fecal suspensions were used for viral RNA isolation through MegNA pure and Trizol method which was further used for viral genome detection and characterization by cDNA synthesis and amplification of partial open reading frame (ORF) 1, ORF2 and complete ORF3. The bioinformatics tools; Molecular Evolutionary Genetics Analysis version 6.0 (MEGA 6), Mfold and ProtScale were used for phylogenic analysis, RNA secondary structure
Microbiology Society Journals | Sporadic acute or fulminant hepatitis E in Hokkaido, Japan, may be food-borne, as suggested by...
Among ten patients who contracted sporadic acute or fulminant hepatitis E between 2001 and 2002 in Hokkaido, Japan, nine (90 %) had a history of consuming grilled or undercooked pig liver 2-8 weeks before the disease onset. We tested packages of raw pig liver sold in grocery stores as food in Hokkaido for the presence of hepatitis E virus (HEV) RNA by RT-PCR. Pig liver specimens from seven (1·9 %) of 363 packages had detectable HEV RNA. Partial sequence analyses revealed that the seven swine HEV isolates belonged to genotype III or IV. One swine HEV isolate (swJL145) from a packaged pig liver had 100 % identity with the HE-JA18 isolate recovered from an 86-year-old patient in Hokkaido. Two swine HEV isolates (swJL234 and swJL325) had 98·5-100 % identity with the HE-JA4 isolate obtained from a 44-year-old patient in Hokkaido. These results indicate that inadequately cooked pig liver may transmit HEV to humans.
Hepatitis E Diagnostic Tests Market (2016) : Evolving Technology, Trends And Industry Analysis - 2024
Culture systems for hepatitis E virus | SpringerLink
Research - Research groups - GC26 Clinical virology and zoonosis - IMIBIC
Recent publications. Caballero-Gomez J, Jimenez-Ruiz S, Lopez-Lopez P, Vicente J, Risalde MA, Cano-Terriza D, Frias M, Barasona JA, Rivero A, Garcia-Bocanegra I, Rivero-Juarez A; Emergent subtype of hepatitis E virus genotype 3 in wild boar in Spain. TRANSBOUNDARY AND EMERGING DISEASES. 2019 Sep;66(5):1803-1808. doi: 10.1111/tbed.13251. IF: 3,554. D1. Caballero-Gomez J, Rivero-Juarez A, Cano-Terriza D, Risalde MA, Lopez-Lopez P, Frias M, Jimenez-Ruiz S, Rivero A, Garcia-Bocanegra I; Survey for Hepatitis E virus infection in non-human primates in zoos in Spain. TRANSBOUNDARY AND EMERGING DISEASES. 2019 Jul;66(4):1771-1775. doi: 10.1111/tbed.13196. IF: 3,504. D1 Rivero-Juarez A, Lopez-Lopez P, Frias M, Rivero A; Hepatitis E Infection in HIV-Infected Patients. FRONTIERS IN MICROBIOLOGY. 2019 Jun 26;10:1425. doi: 10.3389/fmicb.2019.01425. IF: 4,259. Q1.. Lopez-Lopez P, Rivero-Juarez A, Frias M, Machuca I, Caballero-Gomez J, Olivas I, Camacho A, Risalde MD, Garcia-Bocanegra I, Rivero A; Mutations in ...
RNA-dependent RNA Polymerase Assay for Hepatitis E Virus
RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) is essential for the replication of viral RNA for RNA viruses. It synthesizes the complementary strand of viral genomic RNA, which is used subsequently as a template to generate more copies of viral genome. This assay measures activity of the hepatitis E virus (HEV) RdRp. In contrast to protocols available to assay the RdRp activity of many other viruses, this assay utilizes DIG-11-UTP as a nonradioactive alternative to 32P-UTP, thereby increasing the convenience of performing the assay.
Efficacy of the Hepatitis E Vaccine - InpharmD™
Matthew Garrett PharmD Candidate 2015 It is estimated that around 20 million hepatitis E infections occur every year. The hepatitis E virus causes liver disease and is usually transmitted through contaminated drinking water. The highest prevalence of hepatitis E is seen in eastern Asia. Hepatitis E infection usually resolves in 4-6 weeks and is…
Transfusion-acquired hepatitis E infection misdiagnosed as severe critical illness polyneuromyopathy in a heart transplant...
This is the case of a 56-year-old man who underwent heart transplantation. Within the first postoperative days, his respiratory and limb muscles weakened, which was attributed to critical illness polyneuromyopathy (CIPM). At day 70 post transplantation, he had increased liver enzyme levels and acute hepatitis E virus (HEV) infection was diagnosed. HEV RNA was found in the serum, stools, and cerebrospinal fluid. Results of further investigations suggested a possible HEV-related polyradiculoneuropathy. At transplantation, the patient was negative for immunoglobulin (Ig)G, IgM, and HEV RNA. A trace-back procedure identified the source of infection and concluded that HEV infection was contracted from blood transfusion 12 days prior to transplantation from an HEV RNA-positive donor. Tests of the organ donor for HEV were negative. Phylogenetic analysis revealed sequence homology between the HEV-3 strain of the patient and the HEV-3 strain of the blood donor. Despite ribavirin treatment, the patient ...
Epidemiological and virological characteristics of symptomatic acute hepatitis E in Greater Cairo, Egypt
Hepatitis E virus and neurological disorders | Practical Neurology
A significant proportion of patients with neuralgic amyotrophy also report a preceding infection, but no single infective agent predominates. A study of two cohorts of patients from the UK and the Netherlands found that 10% of patients had acute HEV infection.23 The UK cases were retrospectively identified, but those in the Dutch group were from a prospective trial of corticosteroid therapy. All were anicteric, had mildly elevated liver function tests (in some cases they were normal), and in all but one case, HEV RNA (genotype 3) was found in the serum. All were locally acquired infections, without a clear source of infection. There have now been over 30 cases of HEV-associated neuralgic amyotrophy reported in the literature, mostly from Europe.24 The clinical phenotype of HEV-associated neuralgic amyotrophy appears to be a bilateral disorder in middle-aged men, affecting any part of the brachial plexus in a patchy manner. Some patients have lumbosacral and phrenic nerve involvement. The outcome ...
Fulminant hepatic failure resulting from coexistent Wilson's disease and hepatitis E. | Gut
Fulminant hepatic failure resulting from hepatitis E and coexistent Wilsons disease was diagnosed in a six year old girl six weeks after returning from a holiday in India. Wilsons disease was diagnosed on the basis of histological evidence of hepatocellular copper deposition, confirmed by biochemical estimation of liver copper concentration. Although severely damaged, the liver was non-cirrhotic. Hepatitis E virus (HEV) was diagnosed by nested polymerase chain reaction, the specificity of which was confirmed by direct sequencing of amplified DNA. Replication of HEV within the liver at the time of diagnosis was confirmed by selective amplification of the antigenomic strand of the virus obtained from total liver RNA. The patient had an orthotopic liver transplantation without recurrence of hepatitis and remains well at 19 months. Viral excretion, recorded by serial amplification of HEV RNA extracted from stool samples, persisted for 30 days after liver grafting. Severe vitiligo, present ...
Fulminant Hepatitis E in a Woman Taking Oral Contraceptive Medication | The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
Abstract. We describe a fulminant autochthonous hepatic failure caused by hepatitis E (HEV) in a patient admitted in our hospital for liver-transplant evaluation. The only risk factor recorded for this severe course was the use of oral contraceptives that are known to mimic a hormonal status similar to pregnancy. The diagnosis was based on the presence of IgG and IgM anti-HEV in the serum of the patient and confirmed by the isolation of a strain of HEV genotype 3f from a blood sample obtained the fourth day after hospital admission. HEV genotype 3 is present in human and swine populations in Spain. The patient began to recover while waiting for a liver transplant. To our knowledge, this is the first report of fulminant hepatitis E in a non-pregnant European patient on oral contraceptives.
course="kwd-title"|Keywords: hepatitis E HEV genotype 4 chronic liver disease acute - A new family of covalent inhibitors...
course="kwd-title">Keywords: hepatitis E HEV genotype 4 chronic liver disease acute liver disease Cyt387 cirrhosis Hong Kong liver transplantation viruses Copyright notice This short article has been cited by additional content articles in PMC. Appendix Number panel A) in a patient during which cirrhosis and fatal hepatic decompensation ensued. The patient was a 68-year-old man of Chinese ethnicity who had been a California resident since 1985. He wanted treatment for slight jaundice in April 2013 in Hong Kong Cyt387 where he had been remaining for 7 weeks. Sixteen years before he had undergone orthotopic liver transplantation at Stanford University or college INFIRMARY (Palo Alto California USA) for hepatitis B cirrhosis. Since that time he previously received tacrolimus and entecavir for maintenance and have been vaccinated against hepatitis A trojan. Until his current disease routine Cyt387 liver organ function tests hadnt indicated hepatic dysfunction (beliefs in November 2012: alanine ...
Molecular Evidence of Patient-to-Patient Transmission of Hepatitis E Virus in a Hematology Ward : Clinical Infectious Diseases ...
Hepatitis E - Wikipedia
Hepatitis E (genotype 1 and, to a lesser extent genotype 2) is endemic and can cause outbreaks in Southeast Asia, northern and central Africa, India, and Central America. It is spread mainly by the fecal-oral route due to contamination of water supplies or food; direct person-to-person transmission is uncommon. In contrast to genotypes 1 and 2, genotypes 3 and 4 cause sporadic cases thought to be contracted zoonotically, from direct contact with animals or indirectly from contaminated water or undercooked meat. Outbreaks of epidemic hepatitis E most commonly occur after heavy rainfalls, especially monsoons because of their disruption of water supplies; heavy flooding can causes sewage to contaminate water supplies.:78 The World Health Organization recommendation for chlorine on HEV inactivation, a free chlorine residual of 0.5 mg/L (6.7×10−5 oz/US gal) for 30 min (pH, ,8.0) Major outbreaks have occurred in New Delhi, India (30,000 cases in 1955-1956), ...
Cirrhosis due to chronic hepatitis E infection in a child post-bone marrow transplant. - PubMed - NCBI
Libya: Hepatitis E | IAMAT
Hepatitis E (HEV) is a viral infection causing inflammation of the liver. It is primarily acquired by ingesting water contaminated with fecal matter. The virus is also transmitted from person to person through the fecal-oral route as a result of poor body hygiene practices. In some regions, such as Europe and Japan, pigs, deer, and wild boars are known to be reservoirs for Hepatitis E and it can be contracted by eating raw or undercooked meat such as pig liver and venison. ...
Guinea-Bissau: Hepatitis E | IAMAT
Hepatitis E (HEV) is a viral infection causing inflammation of the liver. It is primarily acquired by ingesting water contaminated with fecal matter. The virus is also transmitted from person to person through the fecal-oral route as a result of poor body hygiene practices. In some regions, such as Europe and Japan, pigs, deer, and wild boars are known to be reservoirs for Hepatitis E and it can be contracted by eating raw or undercooked meat such as pig liver and venison. ...
Namibian Hepatitis E outbreak spreads - Outbreak News Today
According to information from the Ministry of Health, the deceased included six pregnant women among other categories from the Havana and Goreangab informal settlements.. The outbreak has since spread from the capital to other administrative regions of the country. However, the cases are largely confined to five informal settlement in the Katutura local government area of Windhoek.. Speaking during an assessment tour of emergency responses in the affected settlements Friday, US ambassador to Namibia Lisa Johnson said Washington will help Namibia fight the Hepatitis E outbreak. "We are seeing that there are still new cases in the areas of Windhoek every week and thats actually not to be unexpected, it does take months to get the hepatitis E outbreak under control. "We will continue to assist, and I think by mid-July the National Health Emergency National Committee will have some sort of 6 months response review to see how we are doing altogether, and what needs to be done next," Johnson said. ...
share via email
Hepatitis E virus (HEV) is an under-recognised cause of acute hepatitis in high-income countries. The purpose of this study was to provide an overview of testing, diagnosis, surveillance activities, and data on confirmed cases in the European Union/European Economic Area (EU/EEA). A semi-structured survey was developed and sent to 31 EU/EEA countries in February 2016, 30 responded. Twenty of these countries reported that they have specific surveillance systems for HEV infection. Applied specific case definition for HEV infection varied widely across countries. The number of reported cases has increased from 514 cases per year in 2005 to 5,617 in 2015, with most infections being locally acquired. This increase could not be explained by additional countries implementing surveillance for HEV infections over time. Hospitalisations increased from less than 100 in 2005 to more than 1,100 in 2015 and 28 fatal cases were reported over the study period. EU/EEA countries are at different stages in their
Most recent papers with the keyword Vegan diets | Read by QxMD
We determined the hepatitis E virus (HEV) seroprevalence and detection rate in commercial swine herds in Italys utmost pig-rich area, and assessed HEV seropositivity risk in humans as a function of occupational exposure to pigs, diet, foreign travel, medical history and hunting activities. During 2011-2014, 2700 sera from 300 swine herds were tested for anti-HEV IgG. HEV RNA was searched in 959 faecal pools from HEV-seropositive herds and in liver/bile/muscle samples from 179 pigs from HEV-positive herds. A cohort study of HEV seropositivity in swine workers (n = 149) was also performed using two comparison groups of people unexposed to swine: omnivores (n = 121) and vegetarians/vegans (n = 115 ...
Most recent papers with the keyword Vegetarian diet | Read by QxMD
We determined the hepatitis E virus (HEV) seroprevalence and detection rate in commercial swine herds in Italys utmost pig-rich area, and assessed HEV seropositivity risk in humans as a function of occupational exposure to pigs, diet, foreign travel, medical history and hunting activities. During 2011-2014, 2700 sera from 300 swine herds were tested for anti-HEV IgG. HEV RNA was searched in 959 faecal pools from HEV-seropositive herds and in liver/bile/muscle samples from 179 pigs from HEV-positive herds. A cohort study of HEV seropositivity in swine workers (n = 149) was also performed using two comparison groups of people unexposed to swine: omnivores (n = 121) and vegetarians/vegans (n = 115 ...
Hepeviridae - Wikipedia
Hepeviridae is a family of viruses. Human, pig, wild boar, sheep, cow, camel, monkey, some rodents, bats and chickens serve as natural hosts. There are five species in this family, divided between two genera. Diseases associated with this family include: hepatitis; high mortality rate during pregnancy; and avian hepatitis E virus is the cause of hepatitis-splenomegaly (HS) syndrome among chickens.Orthohepevirus used to be known as Hepevirus. The virus that causes Hepatitis E belongs to the Orthohepevirus genus. Group: ssRNA+ Order: Unassigned Family: Hepeviridae Genus: Orthohepevirus Orthohepevirus A Orthohepevirus B Orthohepevirus C Orthohepevirus D Genus: Piscihepevirus Piscihepevirus A Viruses in the family Hepeviridae are non-enveloped, with icosahedral and spherical geometries, and T=1 symmetry. The diameter is around 32-34 nm. Genomes are linear and non-segmented, around 7.2kb in length. The genome has three open reading frames. This has been studied by examining the ORF1 and the capsid ...
Search results | Page 5 | European Food Safety Authority
hev elisa igm rapid test kit igm - Diagnostic test kit
Hepatitis E Virus (HEV) is the most common cause of acute viral hepatitis worldwide 1, with 20 million infections and 3.3 million acute cases every year 2.Hepatitis E is a food and water borne infection. The risk is higher in developing countries with unsafe water and poor sanitation, but you can catch it anywhere.In Europe, the number of reported cases has increased 10 fold over the last ...
Bioline International Official Site (site up-dated regularly)
We investigated the seroprevalence of hepatitis A virus (HAV) and hepatitis E virus (HEV) infection in subjects living in the community of Manguinhos, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, and assisted at the Health Unit of Escola Nacional de Saúde Pública, Fundação Oswaldo Cruz. After formal consent, individuals were submitted to an interview using a standardized questionnaire. Anti-HAV and anti-HEV antibodies were detected by ELISA. Statistical analysis was carried out using the Epi-Info 6.04b software, to investigate possible associations between serological markers and risk factors. Results were regarded as significant when p value < 0.05. Although a high prevalence of anti-HAV was observed (87%), almost 50% of subjects under the age of 10 were susceptible to HAV infection, an unexpected rate in endemic areas. This fact could be attributed to improvements in environmental sanitation, occurring in this area in the last years. The increasing proportion of susceptible people may result in outbreaks of ...
Hepatitis E Treatment in North Hollywood, CA
UNFPA Namibia | UNFPA donates hygiene kits for women and girls impacted by Hepatitis E outbreak
Chad: Hepatitis E Outbreak - Sep 2016 | ReliefWeb
Hepatitis E Kills a Third Person in Namibia - allAfrica.com
UN warns risk of hepatitis E in S. Sudan grows
Browsing by Department "Department of Mathematical and Natural Science, BRAC University."
Glossary | Global Water Pathogen Project
Disability-adjusted life year (DALY) losses. The various hazards that can be present in water, excreta, wastewaters and polluted surface waters can have very different health outcomes. Some outcomes are mild (e.g., diarrhea,), while others can be severe (cholera, haemolytic uraemic syndrome associated with E. coli O157, or cancer); some are acute (diarrhea), while others are delayed (infectious hepatitis, cancer); some especially relate to certain age ranges and groups (skeletal fluorosis in older adults often arises from long-term exposure to high levels of fluoride in childhood; infection with hepatitis E virus has a very high mortality rate among pregnant women). In addition, any one hazard may cause multiple effects (e.g., gastroenteritis, Guillain-Barré syndrome, reactive arthritis and mortality associated with Campylobacter).. In order to support public health priority setting a common metric is required that can be applied to all types of hazard and takes into account different health ...
The assay was validated using paired oral fluid and serum samples collected from 141 patients who presented either with (n=76) or without (n=65) symptoms of acute viral hepatitis at a clinical diagnostics center in Dhaka, Bangladesh. The sensitivity and specificity of the oral fluid-based immunoassay for HEV IgG (past HEV infection) and HEV IgA (recent HEV infection) antibodies was calculated in reference to Wantais (Beijing Wantai) serum-based HEV enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) kits for IgG and IgM antibodies, respectively.. RESULTS: ...
Anemic, Underweight Pregnant Women at Greater Risk for Hepatitis E
Todays Dietitian magazine, the leading news source for dietitians and nutritionists, covering topics such as diabetes management, long-term care, new products and technologies, career strategies, nutrition research updates, supplements, culinary arts, food allergies, fitness, sports medicine, and much more.
hepatitis e Archives - African Politics and Policy
Print Manager - Hepatitis E
Scientists use Hepatitis virus shell for cancer treatment - Mangalorean.com
Cheng, Stark and colleagues prepared virus-like particles based on Hepatitis E proteins. The particles do not contain any virus DNA, so they cant multiply and spread and cause infections.. Such particles could be used as vaccines that are delivered through food or drink. The idea is that you would drink the vaccine, and after passing through the stomach the virus-like particles would get absorbed in the intestine and deliver vaccines to the body.. But the particles could also be used to attack cancer. Stark and Cheng did some tinkering with the proteins, so that they carry sticky cysteine amino acids on the outside. They could then chemically link other molecules to these cysteine groups.. They worked with a molecule called LXY-30, developed by researchers at the UC Davis Comprehensive Cancer Centre, which is known to stick to breast cancer cells.. The technique was tested in rodents as a way to target breast cancer.. By using a fluorescent marker, they could show that virus-like particles ...
'Supermarket X' could have infected thousands with hepatitis through infected sausages and ham - Peterborough...
'Supermarket X' could have infected thousands with hepatitis through infected sausages - Milton Keynes...
Poor immune function, autoimmune diseases, Helicobacter pylori infection, hepatitis C, obesity, Epstein-Barr virus infection ... Hepatitis C virus: associated with splenic marginal zone lymphoma, lymphoplasmacytic lymphoma and diffuse large B-cell lymphoma ... hepatitis C, obesity and Epstein-Barr virus infection. The World Health Organization (WHO) classifies lymphomas into five ... Epstein-Barr virus: associated with Burkitt's lymphoma, Hodgkin's lymphoma, follicular dendritic cell sarcoma, extranodal NK-T- ...
Hepatitis C virus. miR-122 Antiviral. pHIV7-shI-TAR-CCR5RZ. HIV. HIV Tat protein, HIV TAR RNA, human CCR5 ... Immunity against viruses or transposons. RNA silencing is the mechanism that our cells (and cells from all kingdoms) use ... Adeno-associated virus (AAV). ~4.5Kb. ssDNA vector, small packaging capacity, mildly immunogenic, lasting expression in non- ... In the case of RNA viruses, these get destroyed immediately by the mechanism cited above. In the case of transposons, it's a ...
Porphyria cutanea tarda
Hepatitis C virus. Pathogenesis. Porphyria cutanea tarda is primarily caused by uroporphyrinogen decarboxylase ... One of the most common risk factors observed is infection with the Hepatitis C virus. One review of a collection of PCT ... due to the strong association between PCT and Hepatitis C, the treatment of Hepatitis C (if present) is vital to the effective ... Studies have suggested that the cytopathic effect of the virus on hepatocytes can lead to the release of free iron. This iron ...
Nonstructural protein 5B (NS5B) is a viral protein found in the hepatitis C virus (HCV). It is an RNA polymerase, having the ... O'Farrell, D; Trowbridge, R; Rowlands, D; Jäger, J (2003). "Substrate complexes of hepatitis C virus RNA polymerase (HC-J4): ... Moradpour, D; Penin, F; Rice, CM (2007). "Replication of hepatitis C virus". Nature Reviews. Microbiology. 5 (6): 453-63. doi: ... "Crystal structures of the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase genotype 2a of hepatitis C virus reveal two conformations and suggest ...
... the pathogen-host interactomes of Hepatitis C Virus/Human (2008), Epstein Barr virus/Human (2008), Influenza virus/Human ( ... "Hepatitis C virus infection protein network". Molecular Systems Biology. 4 (4): 230. doi:10.1038/msb.2008.66. PMC 2600670. PMID ... "The Hepatitis E virus intraviral interactome". Sci Rep. 5: 13872. Bibcode:2015NatSR...513872O. doi:10.1038/srep13872. PMC ... Viral interactomes are connected to their host interactomes, forming virus-host interaction networks. Some published virus ...
eds.). Hepatitis Viruses in: Baron's Medical Microbiology (4th ed.). Univ of Texas Medical Branch. ISBN 978-0-9631172-1-2. . ( ... Diseases caused by fecal-oral transmission include diarrhea, typhoid, cholera, polio and hepatitis. ... "Hepatitis E: an overview and recent advances in vaccine research". World J Gastroenterol. 10 (15): 2157-62. doi:10.3748/wjg. ...
... hepatitis C virus, hantaviruses, rotaviruses, poliovirus type 1, human respiratory syncytial virus, murine leukemia viruses and ... Azzam HS, Goertz C, Fritts M, Jonas WB (2007). "Natural products and chronic hepatitis C virus". Liver Int. 27 (1): 17-25. doi: ... Beside interacting with the cell membrane, lactoferrin also directly binds to viral particles, such as the hepatitis viruses. ... Lactoferrin also suppresses virus replication after the virus penetrated into the cell. Such an indirect antiviral effect is ...
Sociology of health and illness
They called it "Hepatitis Delta Virus" (HDV). This new virus was found to be defective. HDV needed HBV to act as a helper ... Incubation of Hepatitis D typically lasts for thirty five days. Most often Hepatitis D is a co-infection with Hepatitis B or a ... HDV is still considered an unusual form of hepatitis. Agents of this virus resemble that of plant viroids. It is still hard to ... Normally Hepatitis B is transmitted through blood or any type of blood product. In South America Hepatitis D was found to be ...
Li Y, Zhang T, Ho C, Orange JS, Douglas SD, Ho WZ (December 2004). "Natural killer cells inhibit hepatitis C virus expression ... The virus integrates the receptor into the T cells' genome. The cells are expanded non-specifically and/or stimulated. The ... Kida K, Isozumi R, Ito M (December 2000). "Killing of human Herpes virus 6-infected cells by lymphocytes cultured with ... The therapy has been tested against Hepatitis C, Chronic fatigue syndrome and HHV6 infection. ...
1989 in science
Some of the more common viruses removed by these methods are the HIV-1 and HIV-2 viruses; hepatitis A, B, and C; and ... Virus removal. This overarching process, which has come to be known simply as virus removal, is one in which all of the ... Viral inactivation renders viruses inactive, or unable to infect. Many viruses contain lipid or protein coats that can be ... Virus removal processes using nanofiltration techniques remove viruses specifically by size exclusion. This type of process ...
A new virus has been described in fish - White sucker hepatitis B virus. This is the first hepadnavirus described from fish ... the first known hepatitis with a viral etiological agent was Hepatitis A, in the picornaviridae family. Hepatis B Virus (HBV) ... "Deciphering the Origin and Evolution of Hepatitis B Viruses by Means of a Family of Non-enveloped Fish Viruses". Cell Host & ... Endogenous hepatitis B virus genomes have been described in crocodilian, snake and turtle genomes. This suggests that these ...
Resistance to hepatitis C virus infectionEdit. There is evidence that genetic heterozygosity in humans provides increased ... "Evidence for human leukocyte antigen heterozygote advantage against hepatitis C virus infection". Hepatology. 46 (6): 1713-21. ... doi:10.1002/hep.21889. PMID 17935228.. *^ Rikowski A, Grammer K (May 1999). "Human body odour, symmetry and attractiveness". ...
Harold E. Varmus
"Biochemical and genetic evidence for the hepatitis B virus replication strategy". Science. 232: 477-484. doi:10.1126/science. ... elucidation of aspects of the replication cycle of hepatitis B virus (with Donald Ganem); discovery of ribosomal ... that gave rise to the v-src oncogene of Rous Sarcoma Virus, a cancer-causing virus first isolated from a chicken sarcoma by ... Jacks, T. and Varmus, H.E. Expression of the Rous sarcoma virus pol gene by ribosomal frameshifting. Science 230:1237, 1985. ...
"Genetic variation in IL28B and spontaneous clearance of hepatitis C virus". Nature. 461 (7265): 798-801. Bibcode:2009Natur.461 ... Some viruses once acquired never leave the body. A typical example is the herpes virus, which tends to hide in nerves and ... Viruses are also usually identified using alternatives to growth in culture or animals. Some viruses may be grown in ... demonstrated that the same genetic variants are also associated with the natural clearance of the genotype 1 hepatitis C virus ...
Diseases associated with this family include: hepatitis; high mortality rate during pregnancy; and avian hepatitis E virus is ... The virus that causes Hepatitis E belongs to the Orthohepevirus genus. Group: ssRNA+ Order: Unassigned Family: Hepeviridae ... Kelly AG, Netzler NE, White PA (2016) Ancient recombination events and the origins of hepatitis E virus. BMC Evol Biol 16(1): ... Replication follows the positive stranded RNA virus replication model. Positive stranded rna virus transcription is the method ...
Hati bahasa Indonesia, ensiklopedia bebas
"Hepatitis C Virus and Alcohol". Warren Alpert Medical School of Brown University; Larry Siu, Julie Foont, dan Jack R. Wands. ... atau hepatitis C, patogen serupa hepatitis B yang disebabkan oleh infeksi virus RNA dengan fokus infeksi berupa metilasi DNA, ... "Downregulation of Gadd45beta expression by hepatitis C virus leads to defective cell cycle arrest". Institut National de la ... "Evidence that methylation of hepatitis B virus covalently closed circular DNA in liver tissues of patients with chronic ...
The adenovirus E1B-55K protein and the hepatitis B virus HBx protein are examples of viral proteins that can perform such a ... April 2010). "Apoptosis induced by Oropouche virus infection in HeLa cells is dependent on virus protein expression". Virus Res ... Many viruses encode proteins that can inhibit apoptosis. Several viruses encode viral homologs of Bcl-2. These homologs can ... Whilst a number of viruses can block the effects of TNF and Fas. For example, the M-T2 protein of myxoma viruses can bind TNF ...
... has been shown to inhibit hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection in vitro. It has weak in vitro activity against human ... "Multiple effects of Honokiol on the life cycle of hepatitis C virus". Liver International. 32 (6): 989-97. doi:10.1111/j.1478- ... immunodeficiency virus (HIV-1). Metabolic activity. Honokiol was shown to normalize blood glucose levels and prevent ...
Virus, den frie encyklopædi
... yellow fever virus og herpes simplex virus.. *Hepatitis A forårsages af Hepatitis A virus, HAV er en picornavirus med en ... Hepatitis D, (hepatitis delta) forårsages af hepatitis delta virus (HDV), men kun ved en coinfektion med HBV. HDV er en ... Hepatitis, smitsom leverbetændelse, viral hepatitis forårsages af Hepatitis virus A, B, C, D og E samt sjældnere af ... Sygdomme forårsaget af virus[redigér , redigér wikikode]. Mange sygdomme forårsages af virus. Nogle virus forårsager ...
HBV RNA encapsidation signal epsilon
... epsilon Duck HBV RNA encapsidation signal epsilon Hepatitis B virus PRE alpha Hepatitis B virus PRE beta Hepatitis B virus PRE ... Beck, J; Nassal, M (2003). "Efficient Hsp90-independent in vitro activation by Hsc70 and Hsp40 of duck hepatitis B virus ... Page for HBV RNA encapsidation signal epsilon at Rfam HBVRegDB Hepatitis B Virus HBV Regulatory Sequence Database (HBVRegDB). ... "Hepatitis B virus replication". World J. Gastroenterol. 13 (1): 48-64. doi:10.3748/wjg.v13.i1.48. PMC 4065876 . PMID 17206754. ...
Tanaka M, Katayama F, Kato H, Tanaka H, Wang J, Qiao YL, Inoue M (2011). "Hepatitis B and C virus infection and hepatocellular ... to hepatitis C. Chronic hepatitis C causes HCC through the stage of cirrhosis. In chronic hepatitis B, however, the integration ... Chronic viral hepatitis (estimated cause of 80% cases globally) Chronic hepatitis B (approximately 50% cases) Chronic hepatitis ... The incidence of HCC in the United States and other developing countries is increasing due to an increase in hepatitis C virus ...
DNA-directed RNA interference
The hepatitis B virus (HBV) genome encodes its own DNA polymerase for replication. Biomics Biotechnologies has evaluated around ... "Use of RNA interference to modulate liver adenoma development in a murine model transgenic for hepatitis B virus". Gene Therapy ... hepatitis B or hepatitis C, or diseases associated with altered expression of endogenous genes such as drug-resistant lung ... AAV vectors are considered a low risk for host-genome integration, as adeno-associated virus infection has not been associated ...
... impairs hepatitis B virus (HBV) DNA replication by leading to chain termination. It differs from the natural ... 4 December 2007). "Treatment of hepatitis B e antigen positive chronic hepatitis with telbivudine or adefovir: a randomized ... and the combination in patients with hepatitis B e antigen-positive chronic hepatitis B". Gastroenterology. 129 (2): 528-36. ... Telbivudine is an antiviral drug used in the treatment of hepatitis B infection. It is marketed by Swiss pharmaceutical company ...
Testicular receptor 4
However, this method does not destroy hepatitis viruses and spores.. Disinfectant is also one of the major roles of dental ... Dental assistants are strongly encouraged to have current vaccinations for Hepatitis B, and Tetanus along with the normal ... This was at a crucial time due to the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) spreading rapidly at a global rate. However, in ... public health care facilities and training providers will require students and workers to present evidence of Hepatitis B ...
Rice, C.M.; Rawlings, N.D.; Woessner, J.F. (1998). "Hepatitis C virus polyprotein peptidase". In Barrett, A.J. Handbook of ... Hepacivirin (EC 126.96.36.199, Cpro-2, hepatitis C virus NS3 serine proteinase, NS3-4A serine proteinase complex) is an enzyme. ... This enzyme is encoded by the genome of the viruses of the hepatitis C group. Kim, J.L.; Morgenstern, K.A.; Lin, C.; Fox, T.; ... "Crystal structure of the hepatitis C virus NS3 protease domain complexed with a synthetic NS4A cofactor peptide". Cell. 87: 343 ...
Similarly, hepatitis A virus protease[d] contains an ordered water in the position where an acid residue should be. ... hepatitis A virus protease), whilst in others the cysteine is already deprotonated before catalysis begins (e.g. papain). ... TEV protease (Tobacco etch virus) S1, S3, S6, S7, S29, S30, S31, S32, S39, S46, S55, S64, S65, S75 Chymotrypsin (mammals, e.g. ... 2002). "Structural basis for the substrate specificity of tobacco etch virus protease". J. Biol. Chem. 277 (52): 50564-72. doi: ...
Infectious causes of cancer
... hepatitis B virus (HBV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) are the most frequently encountered oncogenic DNA viruses. Worldwide, HPV ... Infection by some hepatitis viruses, especially hepatitis B and hepatitis C, can induce a chronic viral infection that leads to ... World-wide, liver cancer mortality is more often due to hepatitis B virus (HBV) (33%), less often due to hepatitis C virus (HCV ... Liver cancer in the United States is primarily due to three main factors: hepatitis C virus (HCV) (22%), hepatitis B virus (HBV ...
1999). "Hepatitis C virus RNA polymerase and NS5A complex with a SNARE-like protein". Virology. 263 (1): 30-41. doi:10.1006/ ... 2005). "Human VAP-B is involved in hepatitis C virus replication through interaction with NS5A and NS5B". J. Virol. 79 (21): ... Evans MJ, Rice CM, Goff SP (2004). "Phosphorylation of hepatitis C virus nonstructural protein 5A modulates its protein ... "Interactions between viral nonstructural proteins and host protein hVAP-33 mediate the formation of hepatitis C virus RNA ...
Eukaryotic small ribosomal subunit (40S)
Jaundice - Simple English Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Genome-wide association study
One such success is related to identifying the genetic variant associated with response to anti-hepatitis C virus treatment. ... Iadonato SP, Katze MG (September 2009). "Genomics: Hepatitis C virus gets personal". Nature. 461 (7262): 357-8. doi:10.1038/ ... "Genetic variation in IL28B and spontaneous clearance of hepatitis C virus". Nature. 461 (7265): 798-801. doi:10.1038/ ... For genotype 1 hepatitis C treated with Pegylated interferon-alpha-2a or Pegylated interferon-alpha-2b combined with ribavirin ...
Timeline of liver cancer
Trent Hepatitis C virus Study Group". J Viral Hepat. 5: 165-9. doi:10.1046/j.1365-2893.1998.00102.x. PMID 9658369. "Molecular ... "Hepatitis G infection: role in cryptogenic chronic liver disease and primary liver cell cancer in the UK. ... doi:10.1002/hep.22412. PMC 4142499 . PMID 18688876. "Liver cancer risk influenced by blood selenium levels". Medical News Today ... 3.0.CO;2-X. "Hepatitis B VIS". Retrieved 1 October 2016. van Sonnenberg, Eric; McMullen, William; Solbiati, Luigi. Tumor ...
Intracytoplasmic sperm injection
"Interaction between complement receptor gC1qR and hepatitis C virus core protein inhibits T-lymphocyte proliferation". J Clin ... negative regulation of defense response to virus. • immune system process. • mRNA processing. • negative regulation of ... Tange TO, Jensen TH, Kjems J (1996). "In vitro interaction between human immunodeficiency virus type 1 Rev protein and splicing ... virus  and plasmodium falciparum. Plasma proteins including fibrinogen, FXII and HK have been demonstrated to interact ...
Splenic marginal zone lymphoma
Bat hepatitis virus Ground squirrel hepatitis virus Hepatitis B virus Woodchuck hepatitis virus Woolly monkey hepatitis B virus ... There are currently five species in this genus including the type species Hepatitis B virus. Diseases associated with this ... The virus exits the host cell by budding, and nuclear pore export. Human and mammals serve as the natural host. Transmission ... Viruses in Orthohepadnavirus are enveloped, with spherical geometries, and T=4 symmetry. The diameter is around 42 nm. Genomes ...
produced an infectious form of the hepatitis C virus in laboratory cultures of human cells; ... Showed that viruses can be oncogenic, and enabled the field tumor biology ... Showed that genes are structurally composed of DNA, discovered blood groups, resolved that virus particles are protein ... "Peyton Rous: Father of the tumor virus". J. Exp. Med. 201 (3): 320. doi:10.1084/jem.2013fta. PMC 2213042. PMID 15756727 ...
"Serum prolidase activity and oxidant-antioxidant status in children with chronic hepatitis B virus infection". Italian Journal ... Duygu F, Aksoy N, Cicek AC, Butun I, Unlu S (Sep 2013). "Does prolidase indicate worsening of hepatitis B infection?". Journal ... reliable marker for diseases including chronic hepatitis B and liver fibrosis. Decontamination: Prolidase from the ...
Limfoma bahasa Indonesia, ensiklopedia bebas
Nonstructural protein 2 (NS2) is a viral protein found in the hepatitis C virus. It is also produced by influenza viruses, and ... Lorenz, Ivo (Aug 2010). "The Hepatitis C Virus Nonstructural Protein 2 (NS2): An Up-and-Coming Antiviral Drug Target". Viruses ... "Hepatitis C Virus p7 and NS2 Proteins Are Essential for Production of Infectious Virus". J Virol. 81 (16): 8374-8383. Retrieved ... May 2003). "The hepatitis C virus NS2 protein is an inhibitor of CIDE-B-induced apoptosis". J. Biol. Chem. 278 (20): 18256-64. ...
Nucleic acid secondary structure
The hepatitis delta virus ribozyme is a well known example of a catalytic RNA with a pseudoknot in its active site. Though DNA ... Lai, Michael M. C. (1995-06-01). "The Molecular Biology of Hepatitis Delta Virus". Annual Review of Biochemistry. 64 (1): 259- ... Doudna, Jennifer A.; Ferré-D'Amaré, Adrian R.; Zhou, Kaihong (October 1998). "Crystal structure of a hepatitis delta virus ...
Health in Egypt
Alter, MJ (2007-05-07). "Epidemiology of hepatitis C virus infection" (PDF). World Journal of Gastroenterology. 13 (17): 2436- ... Egypt has particularly high rates of Hepatitis C (22%), one of the highest worldwide (Pakistan (4.8%), China (3.2%)). It is ... Some water treatment plants are not maintained properly and are thus inefficient in removing parasites, viruses and other ... "Hepatitis C". World Health Organization (WHO). June 2011. Retrieved 2011-07-13. ...
Infections associated with diseases
Mazzaro, C; Tirelli, U; Pozzato, G (2005). "Hepatitis C virus and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma 10 years later". Digestive and Liver ... "BK Virus, JC Virus and Simian Virus 40 Infection in Humans, and Association with Human Tumors". Polyomaviruses and Human ... Negro, F; Alaei, M (2009). "Hepatitis C virus and type 2 diabetes". World Journal of Gastroenterology. 15 (13): 1537-47. doi: ... The virus causing this illness was isolated in 1937. The rash typical of Lyme borreliosis was identified the early 1900s. ...
... hepatitis B virus, and hepatitis C virus, among other infections Nowak, Martin; May, Robert (2001). Virus Dynamics: ... Nowak, MA; Bonhoeffer, S; Hill, AM; Boehme, R; Thomas, HC; McDade, H (1996). "Viral dynamics in hepatitis B virus infection". ... Ciupe, SM; Ribeiro, RM; Nelson, PW; Perelson, AS (2007). "Modeling the mechanisms of acute hepatitis B virus infection". ... It employs a family of mathematical models that describe changes over time in the populations of cells targeted by the virus ...
Maya R, Gershwin ME, Shoenfeld Y (February 2008). "Hepatitis B virus (HBV) and autoimmune disease". Clin Rev Allergy Immunol. ... Human immunodeficiency virus, parvovirus B19 and BK virus are known to induce these antibodies. There is little evidence ... This substrate has largely been superseded by the use of HEp-2 cells. Hep-2 cells, originally of laryngeal carcinoma origin, ... HEp-2 cells provide a greater ability to differentiate patterns of ANA than animal sections, due to the large nuclei and high ...
... including the herpes simplex virus 1 and 2, cytomegalovirus, HIV, hepatitis C virus, hantaviruses, ... rotaviruses, poliovirus type 1, human respiratory syncytial virus, murine leukemia viruses and Mayaro virus. ... Azzam HS, Goertz C, Fritts M, Jonas WB (February 2007). "Natural products and chronic hepatitis C virus". Liver International. ... Beside interacting with the cell membrane, lactoferrin also directly binds to viral particles, such as the hepatitis viruses.[ ...
Usually due to hepatitis B and C, HIV, cytomegalovirus, Epstein-Barr virus, and Parvo B19 virus. ... A detailed history is important to elicit any recent medications, any risk of hepatitis infection, or any recent diagnosis with ... Complement levels that are low can suggest mixed cryoglobulinemia, hepatitis C infection, and SLE, but not most other ... Most often due to hepatitis C infection, immune complexes of cryoglobulins --- proteins that consists of immunoglobulins and ...
Natural killer cell
Chikungunya virus, HIV, or viral hepatitis. However, whether these virus infections trigger the expansion of adaptive NKG2C+ NK ... "Cytomegalovirus-Driven Adaptive-Like Natural Killer Cell Expansions Are Unaffected by Concurrent Chronic Hepatitis Virus ... For NK cells to defend the body against viruses and other pathogens, they require mechanisms that enable the determination of ... NK cells provide rapid responses to virus-infected cells, acting at around 3 days after infection, and respond to tumor ...
Bini Edmund; Perumalswami Ponni (2010). "Hepatitis B Virus Infection Among American Patients with Chronic Hepatitis C Virus ... Southgate Erica, Weatherall Day, Marr Anne, Carolyn Dolan, Kate (2005). "What's in a Virus? Folk Understandings of Hepatitis C ... The drop in HIV virus levels may be due to a lack of target CD4+ T cells in which they replicate, or measles virus may ... as for example in type 2 diabetes mellitus and hepatitis C virus infection. ...
Small nuclear ribonucleoprotein polypeptide A
1998). "Binding of hepatitis C virus to CD81". Science. 282 (5390): 938-41. doi:10.1126/science.282.5390.938. PMID 9794763. ... This protein plays a critical role in Hepatitis C attachment and/or cell entry by interacting with virus' E1/E2 glycoproteins ... Ye J (2007). "Reliance of Host Cholesterol Metabolic Pathways for the Life Cycle of Hepatitis C Virus". PLoS Pathog. 3 (8): ... 2000). "Identification of Amino Acid Residues in CD81 Critical for Interaction with Hepatitis C Virus Envelope Glycoprotein E2 ...
Nucleic acid tertiary structure
One example of a pseudoknot motif is the highly stable Hepatitis Delta virus ribozyme, in which the backbone shows an overall ... Ferré-D'Amaré AR, Zhou K, Doudna JA (October 1998). "Crystal structure of a hepatitis delta virus ribozyme". Nature. 395 (6702 ... Prody GA, Bakos JT, Buzayan JM, Schneider IR, Bruening G (March 1986). "Autolytic Processing of Dimeric Plant Virus Satellite ...
Paul H. Harvey
E2 is a viral structural protein found in the hepatitis C virus. It is present on the viral membrane and functions as a host ... Bartosch B, Dubuisson J, Cosset FL (2003). "Infectious hepatitis C virus pseudo-particles containing functional E1-E2 envelope ... "Hepatitis C virus (HCV) E1 and E2 protein regions that specifically bind to HepG2 cells". Journal of Hepatology. 36 (2): 254-62 ... "Hepatitis C virus E2 envelope glycoprotein core structure". Science. 342 (6162): 1090-4. doi:10.1126/science.1243876. PMC ...
For example, the genetic diversity of the DNA-based hepatitis B virus declined in the Netherlands in the late 1990s, following ... DNA viruses, such as herpes simplex virus, evolve orders of magnitude more slowly. These viruses have commensurately larger ... "A New Evolutionary Model for Hepatitis C Virus Chronic Infection". PLoS Pathogens. 8 (5): e1002656. doi:10.1371/journal.ppat. ... For antigenically variable viruses, it becomes crucial to model the risk of transmission from an individual infected with virus ...
It is used extensively in hepatitis C and dengue virus research. Huh7 cells have been instrumental in hepatitis C research. ... The introduction of the Huh7 cell line permitted screening of drug candidates against laboratory-cultured hepatitis C virus and ... Bartenschlager, R; Pietschmann, T (2005). "Efficient hepatitis C virus cell culture system: what a difference the host cell ... Meier, Volker; Ramadori, Giuliano (2009). "Hepatitis C virus virology and new treatment targets". Expert Review of Anti- ...
... is a hepatitis C virus protease inhibitor. Faldaprevir was tested in combination regimens with pegylated interferon ... "Hepatitis C: Aus für Boehringers Faldaprevir". www.pharmazeutische-zeitung.de. Interferon-free hepatitis C treatment with ... Faldaprevir was an experimental drug for the treatment of hepatitis C (HCV). It was being developed by Boehringer-Ingelheim and ... in Combination With Pegylated Interferon-alpha and Ribavirin in Treatment-naïve Genotype 1 Hepatitis C Infected Patients ( ...
... possible role of hepatitis C virus infection. JAMA 272: 355-6, 1994; Ferri C, et al: Hepatitis C Virus Infection in Patients ... His most notable discovery is on the causative role of the hepatitis C virus (HCV) in the majority of patients with mixed ... Ferri C, et al.: Association between hepatitis C virus and mixed cryoglobulinemia. Clin Exp Rheumatol 9: 621-624, 1991. Ferri C ... soon after the discovery of the hepatitis C virus (HCV), he demonstrated the presence of serum viral genome (HCV-RNA) in a ...
Competing endogenous RNA (CeRNA)
"Hepatitis C Virus RNA Functionally Sequesters miR-122". Cell. 160 (6): 1099-1110. doi:10.1016/j.cell.2015.02.025. PMC 4386883 ... Hepatitis C has shown been suggested to regulate miR-122 through be a ceRNA mechanism when overexpressed in Huh-7.5 cells. It ... T cells transformed by the primate virus Herpesvirus saimiri (HVS) have been shown to express viral U-rich noncoding RNAs ... however still remains to be shown whether Hepatitis C can reach the high titers necessary in vivo in order to modulate gene ...
Jae U. Jung
Sir, D; Liang, C; Chen, WL; Jung, JU; Ou, JH (Aug 2008). "Perturbation of autophagic pathway by hepatitis C virus". Autophagy. ... with a focus on host immune responses to viruses, mechanisms by which viruses induce tumors, and the ability of viruses to ... University of California-Davis Virus-induced cancer Cell death: apoptosis and autophagy Host and virus controls of interferon- ... Jae U. Jung is an expert in the molecular biology of herpes viruses and their gene products as they relate to cell biology, ...
Jangra RK, Yi M, Lemon SM (2010). "Regulation of hepatitis C virus translation and infectious virus production by the microRNA ... "Antagonizing microRNA-122 and treatment of hepatitis C virus infection". Hepatology. 51 (4): 1461-3. doi:10.1002/hep.23573. ... other RNA viruses and viral mimetics (e.g. poly(I:C)). Recent studies have shown that replication of hepatitis C virus (HCV) is ... Xiong, Y; Zhang, C; Yuan, J; Zhu, Y; Tan, Z; Kuang, X; Wang, X (March 2015). "Hepatitis C virus represses the cellular ...
"Chronic Hepatitis After Hepatitis E Virus Infection in a Patient With Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma Taking Rituximab" (PDF). Retrieved ... PML is caused by activation of JC virus, a common virus in the brain which is usually latent. Reactivation of the JC virus ... Rituximab has been reported as a possible cofactor in a chronic Hepatitis E infection in a person with lymphoma. Hepatitis E ... myasthenia gravis and Epstein-Barr virus-positive mucocutaneous ulcers. It is given by slow injection into a vein.[ ...
Duck hepatitis B virus Heron hepatitis B virus Viruses in Avihepadnavirus are enveloped, with spherical geometries, and T=4 ... There are currently only two species in this genus including the type species Duck hepatitis B virus. Diseases associated with ... The virus exits the host cell by budding, and nuclear pore export. Birds serve as the natural host. Transmission routes are ... "Virus Taxonomy: 2014 Release". Retrieved 12 June 2015. Guo, Haitao; Mason, William (2005). "Identification and Characterization ...
Roy S, Gupta N, Subramanian N, Mondal T, Banerjea AC, Das S (July 2008). "Sequence-specific cleavage of hepatitis C virus RNA ... Kumar B, Asha K, Khanna M, Ronsard L, Meseko CA, Sanicas M (April 2018). "The emerging influenza virus threat: status and new ... Kumar B, Rajput R, Pati DR, Khanna M (September 2015). "Potent Intracellular Knock-Down of Influenza A Virus M2 Gene Transcript ... Several studies have shown the usage of DNAzymes to inhibit influenza A and B virus replication in host cells.[ ...
2009). "The correlation of hepatocyte nuclear factor 4 alpha and 3 beta with hepatitis B virus replication in the liver of ... "Hepatitis C virus differentially modulates activation of forkhead transcription factors and insulin-induced metabolic gene ... doi:10.1002/hep.22362. PMID 18666263.. *. Song Y, Washington MK, Crawford HC (2010). "Loss of FOXA1/2 is essential for the ... chronic hepatitis B patients". J. Viral Hepat. 16 (8): 537-46. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2893.2009.01089.x. PMID 19302415.. ...
Up to 80% of liver cancers can be attributed to either hepatitis B or hepatitis C virus. In terms of mortality, the former is ... identified the hepatitis C virus, which had previously been known as non-A, non-B hepatitis and could not be detected in the ... More than two billion people have been infected with hepatitis B virus at some point in their life, and approximately 350 ... Baruch S. Blumberg discovered hepatitis B virus in 1966 and developed the first vaccine against it 1969. He was awarded the ...
"A novel mycovirus that is related to the human pathogen Hepatitis E virus and rubi-like viruses. Journal of Virology, 83 (4) ... However, many virus families containing mycoviruses have only sparsely been sampled. Mycovirology is the study of viruses ... Although the origin of viruses is still not well understood, recently presented data which suggest that viruses invaded the ... Mycoviruses (ancient Greek μύκης mykes: fungus and Latin virus) are viruses that infect fungi. The majority of mycoviruses have ...
... is the surface antigen of the hepatitis B virus (HBV). It indicates current hepatitis B infection. The viral envelope of an ... It was discovered to be part of the virus that caused serum hepatitis by virologist Alfred Prince in 1968. Heptavax, a "first- ... Positive HBsAg tests can be due to recent vaccination against Hepatitis B virus but this positivity is unlikely to persist ... generation" hepatitis B vaccine in the 1980s, was made from HBsAg extracted from the blood plasma of hepatitis patients. ...
"Hepatitis C Virus Core Protein Interacts with 14-3-3 Protein and Activates the Kinase Raf-1". J. Virol. 74 (4): 1736-41. doi: ... "Partner molecules of accessory protein Vpr of the human immunodeficiency virus type 1". DNA Cell Biol. 23 (4): 193-205. doi ... "Human immunodeficiency virus type-1 accessory protein Vpr: a causative agent of the AIDS-related insulin resistance/ ...
Hepatitis B virus X-interacting protein is a protein that in humans is encoded by the HBXIP gene. This gene encodes a protein ... "Entrez Gene: HBXIP hepatitis B virus x interacting protein". Kong, Hee Jeong; Park Min Jung; Hong SunHwa; Yu Hyun Jung; Lee ... 2005). "The hepatitis B virus X protein sensitizes HepG2 cells to UV light-induced DNA damage". J. Biol. Chem. 280 (39): 33525- ... 2002). "Hepatitis B virus pX interacts with HBXAP, a PHD finger protein to coactivate transcription". J. Biol. Chem. 277 (12): ...
A Hepatitis E-like virus has been isolated from a Swedish moose. This virus is quite distinct from the other known Hepatitis E ... "Genetic identification and characterization of a novel virus related to human hepatitis E virus from chickens with hepatitis- ... "Bats worldwide carry hepatitis E virus-related viruses that form a putative novel genus within the family Hepeviridae". J. ... "A novel virus in swine is closely related to the human hepatitis E virus". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 94 (18): 9860-5. doi: ...
"Inhibition of Human Hepatitis B Virus Replication by AT-61, a Phenylpropenamide Derivative, Alone and in Combination with (−)β- ... "Phenylpropenamide derivatives as inhibitors of hepatitis B virus replication". Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry Letters, Vol. ... One patent covers compounds intended to treat hepatitis B in synergy with lamivudine; another relates to recyclable packaging ...
Cytotoxic T cell
During hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection cytotoxic T cells play an important pathogenic role. They contribute to nearly all of ... "Pathogenetic and antiviral immune responses against hepatitis B virus". Future Virology. 1 (2): 189-96. doi:10.2217/17460794.1. ... cytotoxic T cells also eliminate the virus. Platelets have been shown to facilitate the accumulation of virus-specific ... An antigen is a molecule capable of stimulating an immune response, and is often produced by cancer cells or viruses. Antigens ...
WHP Posttranscriptional Response Element
Woodchuck Hepatitis Virus (WHP) Posttranscriptional Regulatory Element (WPRE) is a DNA sequence that, when transcribed, creates ... Donello, JE; Loeb, JE; Hope, TJ (Jun 1998). "Woodchuck hepatitis virus contains a tripartite posttranscriptional regulatory ... homology with base pairs 1093 to 1684 of the Woodchuck hepatitis B virus (WHV8) genome. When used in the 3' untranslated region ...
Jiao, P; Xue, W; Shen, Y; Jin, N; Liu, H (April 2014). "Understanding the Drug Resistance Mechanism of Hepatitis C Virus NS5B ... Hepatitis C Virus Infection". Expert Opinion on Investigational Drugs. 24 (2): 239-51. doi:10.1517/13543784.2015.982274. ... a Potent Nonnucleoside Inhibitor of the Hepatitis C Virus RNA-Dependent RNA Polymerase". Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy ... "Pfizer Stops Developing Hepatitis C Drug". The Wall Street Journal. Dow Jones & Company, Inc. Retrieved 5 December 2015. ...
Li D, Liu J, Kang F, Guan W, Gao X, Wang Y, Sun D (October 2011). "Core-APOBEC3C chimerical protein inhibits hepatitis B virus ... Baumert TF, Rösler C, Malim MH, von Weizsäcker F (September 2007). "Hepatitis B virus DNA is subject to extensive editing by ... Köck J, Blum HE (May 2008). "Hypermutation of hepatitis B virus genomes by APOBEC3G, APOBEC3C and APOBEC3H". The Journal of ... "Vif Proteins from Diverse Human Immunodeficiency Virus/Simian Immunodeficiency Virus Lineages Have Distinct Binding Sites in ...
Michael Houghton (virologist)
De Bisceglie, AM; Alter, H; Kuo, G; Houghton, M; Hoofnagle, JH (1989). "Detection of antibody to hepatitis C virus in patients ... Houghton, M (2009). "The long and winding road leading to the identification of the hepatitis C virus". J. Hepatol. 51: 939-948 ... Houghton, M; Law, J; Tyrrell, DL (2013). "An inactivated hepatitis C virus vaccine on the horizon?". Gastroenterology. 145: 285 ... He also co-discovered the Hepatitis D genome in 1986. The discovery of Hepatitis C led to the rapid development of diagnostic ...
The overall G+C content is 50.7%. The virus appears to have evolved from the Hepatitis C virus between 500 and 1,000 years ago ... Canine hepacivirus is a single strand RNA virus of the genus Hepacivirus. It causes pulmonary infections in dogs. The virus was ... "Characterization of a canine homolog of hepatitis C virus". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 108 (28): 11608-13. doi:10.1073/pnas. ...
She worked on hepatitis B and the cold virus. Almeida produced the first images of the rubella virus. David Tyrrell and Almeida ... While working for Wellcome she was named on several patents in the field of imaging viruses. She left Wellcome and began to ... The Times Published: 18 February 2008 Booss, John; August, Marilyn J (2013). To catch a virus. Washington, DC: ASM Press. p. ... This family includes the SARS virus. Almeida followed Waterson to the Postgraduate Medical School in London where her ...
"Prevention of Hepatitis B Virus Infection in the United States: Recommendations of the Advisory Committee on Immunization ... Hep B. It protects against the infectious diseases diphtheria, tetanus, pertussis, poliomyelitis, and hepatitis B. ... "FDA licensure of diphtheria and tetanus toxoids and acellular pertussis adsorbed, hepatitis B (recombinant), and poliovirus ... "Diphtheria, Tetanus Toxoids, Acellular Pertussis, Hepatitis B (Recombinant), and Poliovirus (Inactivated) Vaccine". Drugs.com. ...
T细胞 - 维基百科，自由的百科全书
Hepatitis B Virus-Specific CD8+ T Cells Maintain Functional Exhaustion after Antigen Reexposure in an Acute Activation Immune ... Role of regulatory T cells during virus infection. Immunological Reviews. September 2013, 255 (1): 182-96. PMC 3748387. PMID ... Cell-intrinsic transforming growth factor-beta signaling mediates virus-specific CD8+ T cell deletion and viral persistence in ... IL-10 Induces T Cell Exhaustion During Transplantation of Virus Infected Hearts. Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry. 2016, 38 ...
Genus Deltavirus, mit einziger Species Hepatitis-D-Virus (HDV). Einzelstrang-RNA-Viren mit positiver Polarität (ss(+)RNA: ... Usutu-Virus - en. Usutu virus (USUV), Zika-Virus - en. Zika virus (ZIKV), sowie Gelbfieber-Virus - en. Yellow fever virus (YFV) ... Genus ‚Negevirus', mit Species ‚Blackford virus', ‚Bofa virus', ‚Buckhurst virus', ‚Marsac virus', sowie ‚Muthill virus' ... Sorghum mosaic virus (SrMV), Lily-Mottle-Virus - en. Lily mottle virus (LMoV), sowie Sellerie-Virus Y - en. Apium virus Y (ApVY ...
Hepatitis D - Wikipedija, prosta enciklopedija
Hepatitis D je oblika hepatitisa, ki ga povzroča virus hepatitisa D (VHD); le-ta za svoj razvoj potrebuje virus hepatitisa B. ... Glej glavni članek Virus hepatitisa D. Povzročitelj virus hepatitisa D je majhen krožen virus RNK z ovojnico. Spada med. t. i. ... hepatitis G. Viri[uredi , uredi kodo]. *^ http://lsm1.amebis.si/lsmeds/novPogoj.aspx?pPogoj=hepatitis, Slovenski medicinski e- ... Taylor JM (2006). "Hepatitis delta virus". Virology 344 (1): 71-76. PMID 16364738. doi:10.1016/j.virol.2005.09.033.. ...
The four are Bundibugyo virus (BDBV), Sudan virus (SUDV), Taï Forest virus (TAFV) and one simply called Ebola virus (EBOV, ... and viral hepatitis among others. ... "Ebola virus disease". www.who.int. Retrieved 28 May 2020.. *^ " ... The virus responsible for the initial outbreak, first thought to be Marburg virus, was later identified as a new type of virus ... Main articles: Ebola virus cases in the United States, Ebola virus disease in Spain, and Ebola virus disease in the United ...
Hepatitis B reactivation. *Other viral infections. *Progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML) caused by JC virus ... PML is caused by activation of JC virus, a common virus in the brain which is usually latent. Reactivation of the JC virus ... Rituximab has been reported as a possible cofactor in a chronic Hepatitis E infection in a person with lymphoma. Hepatitis E ... myasthenia gravis and Epstein-Barr virus-positive mucocutaneous ulcers. It is given by slow injection into a vein.[ ...
Genetically modified tomato
In autoimmune hepatitis. In 1972, a link between "HLA A1,8" (current:HLA A1-B8) active chronic hepatitis, subsequently B8 ... Type 1 diabetes has a risk associated with coxsackie 4B virus, there is a potential for involvement of class I loci, ... doi:10.1002/hep.1840210411. PMID 7705806.. *^ Muratori P, Czaja AJ, Muratori L, et al. (March 2005). "Genetic distinctions ... "HLA-C genes and susceptibility to type 1 autoimmune hepatitis". Hepatology. 26 (4): 1023-6. doi:10.1002/hep.510260434. PMID ...
Lujo virus. References. *^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad "Lassa fever". WHO. March 2016 ... Confirmation is by laboratory testing to detect the virus's RNA, antibodies for the virus, or the virus itself in cell culture. ... The Lassa virus is one of several viruses identified by WHO as a likely cause of a future epidemic. They therefore list it for ... Lassa virus is a member of the Arenavirida family of viruses. Specifically it is an old world arenavirus, which is enveloped ...
"Origin of measles virus: divergence from rinderpest virus between the 11th and 12th centuries.", Virol. J., 7 (52). ... Gujarat hepatitis (2009). *W. African meningitis (2009-2010). *Haiti cholera (2010-2019) ... "Origin of the Measles Virus: Divergence from Rinderpest Virus Between the 11th and 12th Centuries". Virology. 7: 52-55. doi ...
... ribavirin in reducing liver pathology in yellow fever virus infection may be similar to its activity in treatment of hepatitis ... Other viral hemorrhagic fevers, such as Ebola virus, Lassa virus, Marburg virus, and Junin virus, must be excluded as the cause ... Viruses reach the stomach of the mosquito, and if the virus concentration is high enough, the virions can infect epithelial ... Yellow fever is caused by yellow fever virus, a 40- to 50-nm-wide enveloped RNA virus, the type species and namesake of the ...
The viruses in this family can cause a range of diseases including paralysis, meningitis, hepatitis and poliomyelitis. ... deformed wing virus, acute bee paralysis virus, Drosophila C virus, Rhopalosiphum padi virus, and Himetobi P virus. Several ... This family includes Infectious flacherie virus and SeIV-1 virus. Another virus is Nora virus from Drosophila melanogaster. ... Bovine rhinitis A virus Bovine rhinitis B virus Equine rhinitis A virus Foot-and-mouth disease virus Genus: Aquamavirus ...
... like with hepatitis B. In epidemic situations, such as the 2014-2016 West African Ebola virus epidemic or the 2003 SARS ... Health professionals are also at risk for contracting blood-borne diseases like hepatitis B, hepatitis C, and HIV/AIDS through ... "Does your workplace culture help protect you from hepatitis?". National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health. Archived ...
Healthcare in Cuba
Hepatitis. DNA virus. HBV (B). RNA virus. CBV. HAV (A). HCV (C). HDV (D). HEV (E). HGV (G). ... DNA virus. JCV Progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy. RNA virus. MeV Subacute sclerosing panencephalitis. LCV Lymphocytic ... The JC virus or John Cunningham virus is a type of human polyomavirus (formerly known as papovavirus). It was identified by ... DNA virus. HBV Hepatocellular carcinoma. HPV Cervical cancer. Anal cancer. Penile cancer. Vulvar cancer. Vaginal cancer. ...
Artificial induction of immunity
Anthrax is now known to be caused by a bacterium, and rabies is known to be caused by a virus. The microscopes of the time ... a virus, or a prion. At present, the science to understand this process is available but not the technology to perform it. ... could reasonably be expected to show bacteria, but imaging of viruses had to wait until the development of electron microscopes ...
Index of HIV/AIDS-related articles
... hepatitis - hepatitis C and HIV coinfection - hepatomegaly - herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) - herpes simplex virus 2 (HSV-2) - ... human papilloma virus (HPV) - human T cell lymphotropic virus type I (HTLV-I) - human T cell lymphotropic virus type II (HTLV- ... human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) - human immunodeficiency virus type 2 (HIV-2) - human leukocyte antigens (HLA) - ... herpes varicella zoster virus (VZV) - herpes viruses - highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) - histocompatibility ...
White blood cell
CD8+ cytotoxic T cells: virus-infected and tumor cells.. *γδ T cells: bridge between innate and adaptive immune responses; ... Infectious diseases - viral (AIDS, SARS, West Nile encephalitis, hepatitis, herpes, measles, others), bacterial (TB, typhoid, ... Natural killer cells: virus-infected and tumor cells.. Deeply staining, eccentric. NK-cells and cytotoxic (CD8+) T-cells. Years ... These cells bind antigens presented on MHC I complex of virus-infected or tumour cells and kill them. Nearly all nucleated ...
ICD-10 Chapter V: Mental and behavioural disorders
Hepatitis B virus) viruses. Once inside the host cell's cytoplasm, the virus uses its own reverse transcriptase enzyme to ... "Deciphering the Origin and Evolution of Hepatitis B Viruses by Means of a Family of Non-enveloped Fish Viruses". Cell Host & ... Family Nackednaviridae - e.g. African cichlid nackednavirus (ACNDV), formerly named African cichlid hepatitis B virus (ACHBV).[ ... Genus Betaretrovirus; type species: Mouse mammary tumour virus. *Genus Gammaretrovirus; type species: Murine leukemia virus; ...
This worldwide biomedical research organization based in Paris was the first to isolate HIV, the virus that causes AIDS, in ... In 1985, the first human vaccine obtained by genetic engineering from animal cells, the vaccine against hepatitis B, was ... One area of particular interest is the study of human papilloma viruses (HPV) and their role in cervical cancers. Researchers ... Luc Montagnier, Françoise Barré-Sinoussi and colleagues discovered the two HIV viruses that cause AIDS, in 1983 and 1985, was ...
Hepatit - Vikipedi
"Hepatitis viruses: not always what it seems to be". Rev Med Chil. 138 (10), s. 1302-11. doi:10.4067/S0034-98872010001100016. ... Arenavirus: Guanarito virus, Junín virus, Lassa fever virus, Lujo virus, Machupo virus ve Sabiá virus ... Hantaan virus, Puumala virus, Rift Valley fever virus, Seoul virus ve SFTS virus ... Flavivirus: Akhurma virus,Dengue, Hepatit C, Kyasanur Forest disease virus, Omsk hemorrhagic fever virus, Sarı ...
Mold health issues
எயிட்சு - தமிழ் விக்கிப்பீடியா
Laurence J (2006). "Hepatitis A and B virus immunization in HIV-infected persons". AIDS Reader 16 (1): 15-17. பப்மெட் 16433468. ... 1986). "Transactivation of the human immunodeficiency virus long terminal repeat sequences by DNA viruses". Proc. Natl. Acad. ... Pollok RC (2001). "Viruses causing diarrhoea in AIDS". Novartis Found. Symp. 238: 276-83; discussion 283-8. doi:10.1002/ ... Tóth FD, Bácsi A, Beck Z, Szabó J (2001). "Vertical transmission of human immunodeficiency virus". Acta Microbiol Immunol Hung ...
Lu H, Ye MQ, Thung SN, Dash S, Gerber MA (December 2000). "Detection of hepatitis C virus RNA sequences in cholangiocarcinomas ... whether in the form of viral hepatitis (e.g. hepatitis B or hepatitis C), alcoholic liver disease, or cirrhosis of ... "Hepatitis C virus infection as a likely etiology of intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma". Cancer Science. 95 (7): 592-5. doi: ... hepatitis C, hepatitis B, infection with certain liver fluke, and some congenital liver malformations. However, most ...
SIDA, a enciclopedia libre
Laurence J (2006). "Hepatitis A and B virus immunization in HIV-infected persons". AIDS Reader 16 (1): 15-17. PMID 16433468.. ... O grupo de Montagnier denominou o seu novo virus illado virus asociado á linfadenopatía (LAV). Como estes dous virus se ... Despois de que o virus entra no corpo hai un período de rápida replicación viral, que fai que o virus sexa abondoso no sangue ... O grupo de Gallo chamou o seu novo virus illado HTLV-III. Ao mesmo tempo, o grupo de Montagnier illou un virus dun paciente que ...
Brome mosaic virus
Semliki forest virus, Hepatitis E virus, Sindbis virus, and arboviruses (which cause certain types of encephalitis). Many of ... Brome mosaic virus (BMV) is a small (28 nm, 86S), positive-stranded, icosahedral RNA plant virus belonging to the genus ... The alphavirus-like superfamily includes more than 250 plant and animal viruses including Tobacco mosaic virus, ... "Sindbis virus proteins nsP1 and nsP2 contain homology to nonstructural proteins from several RNA plant viruses". Journal of ...
Once the virus has gained access to the host's cells, the virus' genetic material (RNA or DNA) must be introduced to the cell. ... "Hepatitis C". World Health Organization. Archived from the original on 2011-07-12. Retrieved 2013-04-25.. ... Most DNA viruses assemble in the nucleus while most RNA viruses develop solely in cytoplasm. ... Like other pathogens, viruses use these methods of transmission to enter the body, but viruses differ in that they must also ...
Human digestive system
Antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity
During replication of a virus some of the viral proteins are expressed on the cell surface membrane of the infected cell. ... University of Leicester, Virus Immunopathology Notes. *Antibody-Dependent+Cell+Cytotoxicity at the US National Library of ... "Antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity against influenza virus-infected cells". The Journal of Infectious Diseases. 148 ... which causes the lysis of the infected cell to hinder the spread of the virus. ...
Harvey J. Alter
This work eventually led to the discovery of the hepatitis C virus. In 1988 the new hepatitis virus was confirmed by Alter's ... In April 1989, the discovery of the non-A, non-B virus, renamed hepatitis C virus, was published in two articles in Science. ... his research team demonstrated that most post-transfusion hepatitis cases were not due to hepatitis A and hepatitis B viruses. ... his research team demonstrated that most post-transfusion hepatitis cases were not due to hepatitis A and hepatitis B viruses. ...
Discovery of the virus that causes hepatitis C and the development of screening methods that reduced the risk of blood ... For development of a system to study the replication of the virus that causes hepatitis C and for use of this system to ... transfusion-associated hepatitis in the U.S. from 30% in 1970 to virtually zero in 2000. ...
C hepatitis, entziklopedia askea.
Chronic Hepatitis C Virus Advances in Treatment, Promise for the Future Springer Verlag. 2011. p. 4 ... Data horren aurretik, gaitza hepatitis ez-A eta ez-B moduan izendatzen zen, mikrobio eragilea ezezaguna zelako eta bi hepatitis ... C hepatitisaren birusarekin kutsatzen direnen gehiengoak hepatitis kronikoa jasango dute. Denboraren poderioz, hepatitis mota ... Nuevos fármacos y nuevas estrategias para el tratamiento de la hepatitis C Associació catalana de malalts d'hepatitis ...
Gugur kandungan bahasa Indonesia, ensiklopedia bebas
Respiratory syncytial virus vaccine
A respiratory syncytial virus vaccine (RSV vaccine) is a vaccine which prevents infection by respiratory syncytial virus. No ... Mejias, Asuncion; Rodriguez-Fernandez, Rosa; Peeples, Mark E.; Ramilo, Octavio (October 2019). "Respiratory Syncytial Virus ... "Respiratory syncytial virus vaccines". Clinical Microbiology Reviews. 11 (3): 430-9. doi:10.1128/CMR.11.3.430. PMC 88889. PMID ... "The respiratory syncytial virus vaccine landscape: lessons from the graveyard and promising candidates" (PDF). The Lancet ...
Vaccine - Simple English Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
... infectious canine hepatitis, adenovirus-2, leptospirosis, bordatella, canine parainfluenza virus, and Lyme disease. ... It gives immunity to an infectious disease caused by a particular germ (bacteria or virus). For example, the flu vaccine makes ... When a person gets a live vaccine, their immune system learns to recognize and fight off that virus or bacteria. Then, if the ... One common type of vaccine is a "live vaccine." This type of vaccine contains a small amount of a live virus or bacteria. ...
Occupational hazards of human nail dust
Possible ocular hazards result from exposure to foreign bodies, allergens, bacteria, viruses, fungi and protozoa that can be ... Hepatitis C, or HIV. Davies et al. surveyed podiatrists and found that 41% of them complained of eye problems, particularly ... of podiatry drill burrs potentially expose the healthcare worker to aerosols containing bloodborne pathogens such as Hepatitis ...
आइसीडी-१० अध्याय ब - विकिपीडिया
B19.) Unspecified viral hepatitis. (B20-B24) Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) disease[संपादित करें]. *(B20.) Human ... B24.) Unspecified Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Disease. (B25-B34) Other viral diseases[संपादित करें]. *(B25.) ... B21.) Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) disease Resulting in malignant neoplasms *(B21.0) HIV disease resulting in Kaposi's ... B22.) Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) disease Resulting in other specified diseases *(B22.0) HIV disease resulting in ...
Red blood cell
Blood is usually collected and tested for common or serious Blood-borne diseases including Hepatitis B, Hepatitis C and HIV. ... The inability to carry out protein synthesis means that no virus can evolve to target mammalian red blood cells. However, ... "Scientists Explore Ways to Lure Viruses to Their Death". The New York Times. Retrieved 2013-03-26 ...
"IFNL3 mRNA structure is remodeled by a functional non-coding polymorphism associated with hepatitis C virus clearance". ... RNA virus genomes (the + strands of which are translated as mRNA) are also commonly circularized. During ... Barley yellow dwarf virus has binding between mRNA segments on its 5' end and 3' end (called kissing stem loops), circularizing ... Obbard, D.J.; Gordon, K.H.J.; Buck, A.H.; Jiggins, F.M. (2009), "The evolution of RNAi as a defence against viruses and ...
The fifth reassortant virus expresses the attachment protein VP4, (type P1A), from the human rotavirus parent strain and the ... Rotavirus antigens for parenteral delivery, such as the P2-VP8 candidate, can be expressed as virus-like particles prepared in ... Both are taken orally and contain disabled live virus. ... Hepatitis A#. *Hepatitis B#. *Hepatitis E. *HPV *Cervarix. * ... baculovirus, expressed antigens, DNA vaccines, and killed virus. These novel approaches are being pursued using animal models ...
Hepatocyte growth factor
doi:10.1002/hep.1840200223. PMID 8045504.. *^ Yu Y, Yao AH, Chen N, Pu LY, Fan Y, Lv L, Sun BC, Li GQ, Wang XH (July 2007). " ... HGF may further play a role as an indicator for prognosis of chronicity for Chikungunya virus induced arthralgia. High HGF ... doi:10.1002/hep.1840150125.. *. Nakamura T (1992). "Structure and function of hepatocyte growth factor". Progress in Growth ... "Persistent arthralgia induced by Chikungunya virus infection is associated with interleukin-6 and granulocyte macrophage ...
Regulation of genetic engineering
List of epidemics
primarily Hepatitis E, but also Hepatitis A . 2,035 India 2015-present 2015 Indian swine flu outbreak Influenza A virus ... 2015-16 Zika virus epidemic Zika virus. Hundreds (as of 1 April 2016[update]) Africa 2016 2016 yellow fever outbreak in Angola ... 2018 Nipah virus outbreak Nipah virus infection 1,743 (as of 21 July 2019[update]) Democratic Republic of the Congo & Uganda ... and syndemic infection of hepatitis B and hepatitis D. . 280,000 Italy 1629-1631 Italian plague of 1629-1631 plague [20 ...
COVID-19 - Wikipédia
How Viruses Evolve May Affect Course of COVID-19 Pandemic [online]. Medscape, [cit. 2020-08-26]. Dostupné online. ... Hep C Sofosbuvir/Daclatasvir Combo Promising for COVID-19 [online]. Medscape, 13.7.2020, [cit. 2020-07-15]. Dostupné online. ... Coronavirus Update (Live): 1,550,000 Cases and 90,000 Deaths from COVID-19 Virus Pandemic - Worldometer [online]. www. ... Regeneron's COVID-19 Outpatient Trial Prospectively Demonstrates that REGN-COV2 Antibody Cocktail Significantly Reduced Virus ...
එන්නත් - විකිපීඩියා
This virus-related article is a stub. You can help Wikipedia by expanding it. *v ... The first hantavirus vaccine was developed in 1990 initially for use against Hantaan River virus which causes one of the most ... They include a recombinant vaccine and vaccines derived from HTNV and PUUV viruses. However, their prospects are unclear. ... Other hantaviruses for which the vaccine is used include Seoul (SEOV) virus. However the vaccine is thought not to be effective ...
ಅಲರ್ಜಿ - ವಿಕಿಪೀಡಿಯ
Every injector they tested had detectable blood in a quantity sufficient to pass on a virus such as hepatitis B. ... Population risk (Veterans and children) for another deadly virus, previously known as "non A- non B" or Chronic Hepatitis C " ... After administering injections to hepatitis B patients, researchers found hepatitis B had penetrated the protective cap and ... "There is Hope for Hepatitis C". Yahoo. Retrieved July 31, 2017.. *^ A laser based reusable microjet injector for transdermal ...
Zinc finger inhibitor
Other viruses such as SARS, polio, Ebola, measles, human coxsackie, Dengue, rabies, human hepatitis, human parainfluenza and ... However, these methods are proving to be ineffective due to the development of resistant strains of the virus or due to the ... By inhibiting the function of NCp7, the viral replication is affected and a non-functional virus that is unable to infect its ... NV038 is found to effect the function of the zinc finger after the virus has entered the cell but before reverse transcription ...
Primary central nervous system lymphoma
Hepatitis. DNA virus. HBV (B). RNA virus. CBV. HAV (A). HCV (C). HDV (D). HEV (E). HGV (G). ... DNA virus. JCV Progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy. RNA virus. MeV Subacute sclerosing panencephalitis. LCV Lymphocytic ... DNA virus. HBV Hepatocellular carcinoma. HPV Cervical cancer. Anal cancer. Penile cancer. Vulvar cancer. Vaginal cancer. ... RNA virus. HCV Hepatocellular carcinoma. Splenic marginal zone lymphoma. HTLV-I Adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma. ...
Adverse drug reaction
... to rule out recent infections that the ELISA test might miss and are also screened for hepatitis B and hepatitis C. Industry ... The plasma is also treated in processing multiple times to inactivate any virus that was undetected during the screening ... Donors are sometimes immunized against agents such as tetanus or hepatitis B so that their plasma contains the antibodies ...
History of yellow fever
Advances in Virus Research. Advances in Virus Research. 59: 277-314. doi:10.1016/S0065-3527(03)59008-X. ISBN 978-0-12-039859-1 ... Mitchell misdiagnosed the disease that he observed and treated, and that the disease was probably Weil's disease or hepatitis. ... The evolutionary origins of yellow fever most likely lie in Africa. Phylogenetic analyses indicate that the virus ... A ship carrying persons infected with the virus arrived in Hampton Roads in southeastern Virginia in June 1855. The disease ...
... such as hepatitis C. (I've added this senctence in now). It doesn't take long to get used to writing in this boring & ... and did not get rid of the virus. Since studies often present statistical significance where there is none we try to wait until ... for the general reader to see the results strongly indicated that this treatment was effective in getting rid of hepatitis C ...
위키백과:모든 언어의 위키백과마다 꼭 있어야 하는 문서 목록/확장판/생물학 및 의과학 - 위키백과, 우리 모두의 백과사전
Salim AF, Phillips AD, Farthing MJ (1990). "Pathogenesis of gut virus infection". Baillière's Clinical Gastroenterology. 4 (3 ... "Anti-Saccharomyces cerevisiae as unusual antibodies in autoimmune hepatitis". Minerva Gastroenterologica E Dietologica. 55 (1 ... autoimmune hepatitis, dermatitis herpetiformis, primary sclerosing cholangitis, and more. ...
എച്ച് ഐ ബി വാക്സിൻ - വിക്കിപീഡിയ
ഹീമൊഫെലസ് ഇൻഫ്ലുവെൻസെ ടൈപ്പ് ബി വാക്സിൻ (Haemophelus influenzae type B) (HIB) അണുബാധ തടയുന്നതിനുള്ള പ്രതിരോധ മരുന്നാണു Haemophelus influenzae type B വാക്സിൻ. ഈ വാക്സിനെ ഒരു ദൈനംദിന വാക്സിനേഷൻ പ്രക്രിയയിൽ ഉൾപെടുത്തിയിട്ടുള്ള രാജ്യങ്ങളിൽ HIB അണുബാധ 90% ൽ അധികം കുറഞ്ഞിട്ടുണ്ട് അതുകൊണ്ടുതന്നെ മെനിഞ്ചൈറ്റിസ്, ന്യൂമോണിയ, എപ്പിഗ്ലൊട്ടിസ് എന്നീ രോഗങ്ങളും കുറഞ്ഞിട്ടുണ്ട്. ...
Hepatitis B (Hepatitis B virus). *Herpes simplex (HSV1/HSV2). *Molluscum contagiosum (MCV) ... MC is caused by a poxvirus called the molluscum contagiosum virus (MCV). The virus is spread either by direct contact ... Molluscum contagiosum virus spread by direct contact or contaminated objects. Risk factors. Weak immune system, atopic ... Chen, X; Anstey, AV; Bugert, JJ (October 2013). "Molluscum contagiosum virus infection". Lancet Infectious Diseases. 13 (10): ...
... hepatitis A, hepatitis B, influenza virus, respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), SARS ... Jia F, Zhang YZ, Liu CM (October 2006). "A retrovirus-based system to stably silence hepatitis B virus genes by RNA ... Some viruses have evolved mechanisms for suppressing the RNAi response in their host cells, particularly for plant viruses. ... Other functions for RNAi in mammalian viruses also exist, such as miRNAs expressed by the herpes virus that may act as ...
הבדלים בין גרסאות בדף "DNA רקומביננטי" - ויקיפדיה
... unlike other common viruses such as polio virus, cannot be grown in vitro. Vaccine information from Hepatitis B Foundation. ... The development of the recombinant subunit vaccine was an important and necessary development because hepatitis B virus, ... Hepatitis B infection is controlled through the use of a recombinant hepatitis B vaccine, which contains a form of the ... hepatitis B virus surface antigen that is produced in yeast cells. ...
... hepatitis B, hepatitis C, human papillomavirus infection, Epstein-Barr virus and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). These ... hepatitis B and hepatitis C viruses (hepatocellular carcinoma) and human T-cell leukemia virus-1 (T-cell leukemias). Bacterial ... The hepatitis B vaccine prevents infection with hepatitis B virus and thus decreases the risk of liver cancer. The ... Oncoviruses (viruses that can cause cancer) include human papillomavirus (cervical cancer), Epstein-Barr virus (B-cell ...
Interferencia de ARN, a enciclopedia libre
Jia F, Zhang Y, Liu C (2006). "A retrovirus-based system to stably silence hepatitis B virus genes by RNA interference". ... Stram Y, Kuzntzova L (2006). "Inhibition of viruses by RNA interference". Virus Genes 32 (3): 299-306. PMID 16732482. doi: ... "Silencing of hepatitis A virus infection by small interfering RNAs". J Virol 80 (11): 5599-610. PMC 1472172. PMID 16699041. doi ... á interferencia de ARN en virus de mamíferos, como os microARN expresados polos virus herpes que poden actuar como causantes da ...
... elevated IgM indicates viral hepatitis and primary biliary cirrhosis, while IgG is elevated in viral hepatitis, autoimmune ... Determination of the virus clearance studies. Before clinical trials. *Product safety testing : Sterility (bacteria and ... Circulating antibodies are produced by clonal B cells that specifically respond to only one antigen (an example is a virus ... These antibodies can activate the classical complement pathway leading to lysis of enveloped virus particles long before the ...
Green M, Loewenstein PM (December 1988). "Autonomous functional domains of chemically synthesized human immunodeficiency virus ... "Cellular uptake of the tat protein from human immunodeficiency virus". Cell. 55 (6): 1189-93. doi:10.1016/0092-8674(88)90263-2 ... "Mutational analysis of the conserved basic domain of human immunodeficiency virus tat protein". Journal of Virology. 63 (3): ... "Structural and functional characterization of human immunodeficiency virus Tat protein". Journal of Virology. 63 (1): 1-8. doi ...
Mir-181 microRNA precursor
doi:10.1002/hep.22989. PMC 2721019 . PMID 19585654. Li QJ, Chau J, Ebert PJ, Sylvester G, Min H, Liu G, Braich R, Manoharan M, ... Yao Y, Zhao Y, Xu H, Smith LP, Lawrie CH, Watson M, Nair V (April 2008). "MicroRNA profile of Marek's disease virus-transformed ... T-cell line MSB-1: predominance of virus-encoded microRNAs". Journal of Virology. 82 (8): 4007-15. doi:10.1128/JVI.02659-07. ...
Men who have sex with men
Hepatitis. Hepatitis B is a disease caused by hepatitis B virus (HBV) which infects the liver of hominoidea, including humans, ... "WHO , Hepatitis B".. *^ Petersen NJ, Barrett DH, Bond WW, Berquist KR, Favero MS, Bender TR, Maynard JE (1976). "Hepatitis B ... Hepatitis B. Main articles: Hepatitis B and Healthcare and the LGBT community § ... Genital human papillomavirus (HPV) is a common virus that most sexually active people in the U.S. will have at some time in ...
... some forms of hepatitis, herpes simplex virus, HIV, staph, tetanus, and tuberculosis. ... Haley, R. W.; Fischer, R. P. (March 2000). "Commercial tattooing as a potential source of hepatitis C infection". Medicine. 80 ... specifically local infections and virus transmission. Disposable plastic aprons and eye protection can be worn depending on the ...
Hepatitis B - Simple English Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Hepatitis B is a disease of the liver. It is caused by a virus. The virus is not spread by food or casual contact. It can be ... If people have those signs, treatment for hepatitis B can prevent the liver damage caused by the virus. Antiviral medications ... Dienstag, J. L. (2008). "Hepatitis B Virus Infection". New England Journal of Medicine 359 (14): 1486-1500. doi:10.1056/ ... However, once the virus is in the liver, it is not possible to get rid of the virus completely. ...
This is to keep the virus in circulation thereby exposing the population to the virus at an early age, when it is less harmful ... Rarer complications of disseminated chickenpox include myocarditis, hepatitis, and glomerulonephritis. Hemorrhagic ... After a chickenpox infection, the virus remains dormant in the body's nerve tissues. The immune system keeps the virus at bay, ... "Understanding Viruses (2nd ed.). Jones & Bartlett. p. 459. ISBN 978-0-7637-8553-6. . Archived from the original on 1 October ...
List of vaccine topics
Hepatitis A vaccine. Havrix, Avaxim, VAQTA, Epaxal, Twinrix, Biovac-A Hepatitis B virus. Hepatitis B. Hepatitis B vaccine. Sci- ... Hepatitis E virus. Hepatitis E. Hepatitis E vaccine. Hecolin Human papillomavirus. Cervical cancer, Genital warts, anogenital ... Virus. Diseases or conditions. Vaccine(s). Brands Hepatitis A virus. Hepatitis A. ... Polio virus. Poliomyelitis. Polio vaccine. Kinrix, Quadracel, Pediarix, Pentacel, Pediacel, Ipol Rabies virus. Rabies. Rabies ...
Hepatitis E virus seroprevalence among adults, Germany.
We assessed hepatitis E virus (HEV) antibody seroprevalence in a sample of the adult population in Germany. Overall HEV IgG ... Keywords: Keywords: Hepatitis E virus, cross-sectional study, HEV, hepatitis E, seroprevalence, Germany, viruses, hepatitis, ... Hepatitis Antibodies / blood*. Hepatitis E / epidemiology*, virology. Hepatitis E virus / immunology*. Humans. Immunoglobulin G ... Hepatitis E Virus Seroprevalence among Adults, Germany Alternate Title:Hepatitis E Virus Seroprevalence, Germany ...
Testing Recommendations for Hepatitis C Virus Infection | CDC
CDC and USPSTF recommendations for hepatitis C (HCV) screening among adults in the United States along with testing sequence ... Screening for Hepatitis C Virus Infectionexternal icon. The USPSTF recommends screening for hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection ... CDC Recommendations for Hepatitis C Screening Among Adults in the United States. *Universal hepatitis C screening: *Hepatitis C ... Interpretation of Results of Tests for Hepatitis C Virus (HCV) Infection and Further Actions pdf icon[PDF- 1 page] ...
Hepatitis D Virus | SpringerLink
... and it is considered the most pathogenic among all hepatotropic viruses. HDV infection occurs worldwide, but highly endemic ... The hepatitis D virus (HDV) was described in 1977, ... High prevalence of hepatitis B virus and hepatitis D virus in ... Hepatitis B virus (HBV)/hepatitis D virus (HDV) coinfection in outbreaks of acute hepatitis in the Peruvian Amazon basin: the ... Hepatitis D virus and hepatitis B virus infection in Amerindian communities of the Amazonas state, Colombia. Virol J 12:172-175 ...
Hepatitis C Virus Molecular Epidemiology | CDC
Viral hepatitis materials for health professionals and patients, with links to MMWR publications and education campaigns, ... Know Hepatitis B encourages hepatitis B testing for Asian Americans and Pacific Islanders (AAPIs) ... Content source: Division of Viral Hepatitis, National Center for HIV/AIDS, Viral Hepatitis, STD, and TB Prevention ... AtlasPlus is a tool to create customized tables, maps, and charts with CDCs viral hepatitis surveillance data ...
Hepatitis B virus PRE beta - Wikipedia
Hepatitis B virus PRE 1151-1410. References. *^ a b c Smith Gj, 3rd; Donello, JE; Lück, R; Steger, G; Hope, TJ (1998). " ... The Hepatitis B virus PRE stem-loop beta (HBV PRE SL-beta) is an RNA structure that is shown to play a role in nuclear export ... "The hepatitis B virus post-transcriptional regulatory element contains two conserved RNA stem-loops which are required for ... "Prospects for inhibiting the post-transcriptional regulation of gene expression in hepatitis B virus". World Journal of ...
Hepatitis D virus | Britannica.com
Infection with hepatitis D virus (HDV), also called the delta agent, can occur only in association with HBV infection, because ... cause of hepatitis. * In hepatitis: Hepatitis D. Infection with hepatitis D virus (HDV), also called the delta agent, can occur ... hepatitis B virus serves as a helper for replication of hepatitis delta virus, the virions of which contain hepatitis B surface ... In virus: Chronic and slowly progressive diseases. …that causes hepatitis is designated hepatitis delta virus, which has not ...
Hepatitis C Virus | The BMJ
The availability of serological tests for hepatitis A and B viruses in the 1970s made it clear that most parenterally ... Hepatitis C Virus. BMJ 1995; 310 doi: https://doi.org/10.1136/bmj.310.6974.268a (Published 28 January 1995) Cite this as: BMJ ... transmitted hepatitis was due to neither of these viruses. It was not until 1988 that the identification of a cDNA clone made ... possible the first reliable diagnostic test for hepatitis C virus, the agent responsible for the vast majority of non-A, non-B ...
Hepatitis C Virus I | SpringerLink
This is particularly important in understanding hepatitis C because HCV infection alone is not cell lytic. Mechanisms ... Lipid and Lipoprotein Components Play Important Roles the Egress and Infectivity of Hepatitis C Virions ... early virus-cell interactions including identification of various cellular receptors, HCV gene expression studied using the HCV ...
Hepatitis G virus | infectious agent | Britannica
... hepatitis: Hepatitis F and G: …virus isolated in 1996, the hepatitis G virus (HGV), is believed to be responsible for a large ... number of sexually transmitted and bloodborne cases of hepatitis. HGV causes acute and chronic forms of the disease and often ... Other articles where Hepatitis G virus is discussed: ... cause of hepatitis. * In hepatitis: Hepatitis F and G. …virus ... the hepatitis G virus (HGV), is believed to be responsible for a large number of sexually transmitted and bloodborne cases of ...
Haemagglutination in Virus Hepatitis | The BMJ
Hepatitis virus panel: MedlinePlus Medical Encyclopedia
... hepatitis B, or hepatitis C. It can screen blood samples for more than one kind of hepatitis ... The hepatitis virus panel is a series of blood tests used to detect current or past infection by hepatitis A, ... The hepatitis virus panel is a series of blood tests used to detect current or past infection by hepatitis A, hepatitis B, or ... Hepatitis A antibody test; Hepatitis B antibody test; Hepatitis C antibody test; Hepatitis D antibody test ...
How does the hepatitis C virus spread?
razors, toothbrushes, and tattoo needles also could carry and transmit the virus ... the hepatitis c virus spreads most often among people who share needles for injected drugs, and through sexual contact. ... How does the hepatitis C virus spread?. ANSWER The hepatitis C virus spreads most often among people who share needles for ... Merck Manual: "Hepatitis C, Chronic," "Hepatitis C, Acute," "Overview of Chronic Hepatitis." ...
Hepatitis A-like virus identified in seals
... in the Center for Infection and Immunity at Columbia Universitys Mailman School of Public Health have discovered a new virus ... "Hepatitis A-like virus identified in seals ." Medical News Today. MediLexicon, Intl., 25 Aug. 2015. Web.. 20 Apr. 2019. ,https ... "Our data suggest that hepatitis A and this new virus share a common ancestor, which means that a spillover event must have ... "It raises the question of whether hepatitis A originated in animals, like many other viruses that are now adapted to humans." ...
Hepatitis C Virus Clearance in Older Adults
... Antonio Massimo Ippolito, MD; Angelo Iacobellis, MD; Michele Milella, MD; Fabio ... Objectives To determine whether older adults with the hepatitis C virus (HCV) achieve a sustained viral response (SVR) after ... New epidemiological data indicate that the prevalence of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is almost null in young and middle- ... Table 1. Baseline Characteristics and Sustained Viral Response (SVR) of Individuals with Hepatitis C Virus Infection After ...
Hepatitis B, Perinatal Virus Infection | Summary | NNDSS
Hepatitis B, Perinatal Infection , 2017 Case Definition (https://wwwn.cdc.gov/nndss/conditions/hepatitis-b-perinatal-virus- ... Hepatitis B, Perinatal Virus Infection , 1995 Case Definition (https://wwwn.cdc.gov/nndss/conditions/hepatitis-b-perinatal- ... Hepatitis C, Perinatal Infection (https://wwwn.cdc.gov/nndss/conditions/hepatitis-c-perinatal-infection/) ... virus-infection/case-definition/1995/) Related Condition(s). * Hepatitis A, acute (https://wwwn.cdc.gov/nndss/conditions/ ...
Thermal stability of hepatitis E virus. - PubMed - NCBI
The thermal stability of virulent hepatitis E virus (HEV) and hepatitis A virus (HAV) was compared. Fecal suspensions of virus ... Thermal stability of hepatitis E virus.. Emerson SU1, Arankalle VA, Purcell RH. ... and residual infectivity was determined in a cell culture system that was permissive for both viruses. Although HEV was less ...
Viral dynamics in hepatitis B virus infection | PNAS
Viral dynamics in hepatitis B virus infection. M A Nowak, S Bonhoeffer, A M Hill, R Boehme, H C Thomas, and H McDade ... Treatment of chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infections with the reverse transcriptase inhibitor lamivudine leads to a rapid ... daily turnover of the free virus population. Total viral release into the periphery is approximately 10(11) virus particles per ... The total daily production of plasma virus is, on average, higher in chronic HBV carriers than in HIV-infected patients, but ...
Hepatitis B, Perinatal Virus Infection | 1995 Case Definition
Hepatitis B, Perinatal Infection , 2017 Case Definition (https://wwwn.cdc.gov/nndss/conditions/hepatitis-b-perinatal-virus- ... Infants born to HBsAg-positive mothers should receive hepatitis B immune globulin (HBIG) and the first dose of hepatitis B ... Perinatal hepatitis B in the newborn may range from asymptomatic to fulminant hepatitis. ... Hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) positive. Case Classification. Confirmed. HBsAg positivity in any infant aged ,1-24 months ...
Ultrastructural analysis of hepatitis C virus particles | PNAS
virus assembly. Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is an important human pathogen that infects the liver and establishes chronic infection ... Ultrastructural analysis of hepatitis C virus particles. Maria Teresa Catanese, Kunihiro Uryu, Martina Kopp, Thomas J. Edwards ... Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is a major cause of chronic liver disease, with an estimated 170 million people infected worldwide. Low ... 2013) Hepatitis C virus-specific directly acting antiviral drugs. Curr Top Microbiol Immunol 369:289-320. ...
Hepatitis C Virus (ExLib) 9783805558662 for sale online
Hepatitis C virus epitopes - Genelabs Incorporated
Peptide antigens which are immunoreactive with sera from individuals infected with hepatitis C virus (HCV) are disclosed. ... Viral hepatitis resulting from a virus other than hepatitis A virus (HAV) and hepatitis B virus (HBV) has been referred to as ... is serologically distinct from hepatitis A virus (HAV), hepatitis B virus (HBV), and hepatitis E virus (HEV). ... 1. "Parenterally transmitted non-A, non-B hepatitis viral agent (PT-NANBH)" means a virus, virus type, or virus class which (i ...
Hepatitis C virus infection. - PubMed - NCBI
Hepatitis C virus infection.. Lauer GM1, Walker BD.. Author information. 1. Infectious Disease Division and Partners AIDS ... Hepatitis C virus infection. [N Engl J Med. 2001]. *Hepatitis C virus infection. [N Engl J Med. 2001] ... Hepatitis C virus infection. [N Engl J Med. 2001]. *Hepatitis C virus infection. [N Engl J Med. 2001] ... Hepatitis C virus infection. [N Engl J Med. 2001]. *Hepatitis C virus infection. [N Engl J Med. 2001] ...
Hepatitis E virus | Food Standards Agency
What Hepatitis E is, the ways it can spread and advice on how to avoid it when cooking pork. ... Hepatitis E is an infection caused by the hepatitis E virus (also known as HEV). Both humans and animals can be infected by HEV ... This is so that we can better assess the risk from hepatitis E virus in the food chain. Well then be able to take steps to ... While its possible to identify the hepatitis E virus in food, we cant tell whether its infectious and capable of making us ...
Vaniprevir (Hepatitis C Virus) - Forecast and Market Analysis to 2022
Hepatitis C Virus) - Forecast and Market Analysis to 2022 Summary Hepatitis C is a liver infection caused by ... Hepatitis C is a liver infection caused by the hepatitis C virus (HCV) that results in acute or chronic presentation. The ... Reportbuyer.com just published a new market research report: Vaniprevir (Hepatitis C Virus) - Forecast and Market Analysis to ... Vaniprevir (Hepatitis C Virus) - Forecast and Market Analysis to 2022. http://www.reportbuyer.com/pharma_healthcare/diseases/ ...
duck hepatitis A virus
Duck hepatitis is caused by at least three different viruses, previously referred to as types I, II and III (Tseng and Tsai, ... Identification of chicken enterovirus-like viruses, duck hepatitis virus type 2 and duck hepatitis virus type 3 as astroviruses ... DHV I, the most common of the three viruses, with international distribution, is now known as duck hepatitis A virus (DHAV) in ... Classification of duck hepatitis virus into three genotypes based on molecular evolutionary analysis. Virus Genes, 37(1):52-59 ...
Hepatitis B Virus and Risk of Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma
The Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), human herpes virus 8, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and Human T-cell lymphoma viruses I and ... Hepatitis B virus (HBV) is a hepatotropic DNA virus. However, it also exhibits a significant capacity to infect and replicate ... HBV, hepatitis B virus; NHL, non-Hodgkin lymphoma; patient control, diagnosed with other cancers (except HCC); health control, ... HBV, hepatitis B virus; NHL non-Hodgkin lymphoma; CI, confidence interval, sOR, summary odds ratio; patient control, diagnosed ...
Hepatitis C Virus Infection | AMERICAN ACADEMY OF PEDIATRICS | Pediatrics
1994) Transmission of hepatitis C virus from mothers to infants: the Vertical Transmission of Hepatitis C Virus Collaborative ... hepatitis C virus • ALT = alanine aminotransferase • anti-HCV = antibody to HCV • HIV = human immunodeficiency virus • PCR = ... persistence of anti-hepatitis C virus in children is associated with the mothers anti-hepatitis C virus immunoblotting pattern ... Most cases of blood-borne non-A, non-B hepatitis have been proven to be caused by hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection, one of the ...
Entry point of hepatitis C virus identified
Researchers have now identified the entry point of hepatitis C virus - the first step leading to the chronic infection- thus ... London, Jan 25 (ANI): Researchers have now identified the entry point of hepatitis C virus - the first step leading to the ... They used the drug to block the receptor before, during and after inoculation with the virus, in cell culture and in a small- ... embedded in the membrane of human liver cells that aids in cholesterol absorption also allows the entry of hepatitis C virus. ...
Hepatitis C virus infection in kidney donors
Transplantation of a kidney from a hepatitis C virus (HCV)-infected kidney donor may cause HCV infection in the recipient. HCV ... Impact of donor hepatitis C virus infection status on death and need for liver transplant in hepatitis C virus-positive kidney ... Shorter waiting times for hepatitis C virus seropositive recipients of cadaveric renal allografts from hepatitis C virus ... Prevalence of hepatitis C virus RNA in organ donors positive for hepatitis C antibody and in the recipients of their organs. N ...
Regulation of hepatic innate immunity by hepatitis C virus | Nature Medicine
Persistence of hepatitis C virus contributes to chronic infection, which can lead to liver fibrosis and even liver cancer. ... immunity and how they might be used to identify the key targets to mount an effective immune response that will clear the virus ... TLR3 and TLR4 SNP variants in the liver disease resulting from hepatitis B virus and hepatitis C virus infection *I Sghaier ... cytokine response in hepatitis C virus-infected hepatocytes depends on Toll-like receptor 3 sensing of hepatitis C virus double ...
AbstractGenotypesFulminant hepatitis20172016ReplicationInfectionsHumansSeroprevalenceCases of acute hepatitisEnterically transmittedSerumDiagnosisCause of acute hepatitisFecal-oralEpidemicIsolatesSporadicInfectionViral HepatitisHepatocellular carcinomaVaccineAntigenGenotypeFulminantTests for hepatitisSimilar to hepatitisPrevalenceEpidemiologyDiagnosisPatientsLiver diseaseImmuneReal-TimSingle-stranded RNA virusParticlesCases of hepatitisIdentify the hepatitis E virHumansAdultsContagious1995Causes hepatitisProteinsImmunologyInfectiousTransfusion-associated hepatitisAMERICAN ACADEMY OFSymptomsInflammationHbeAgTreatment of chronic hepatitisHepadnaviridaeCausativeGeneticOrthohepadnavirusVirions
- HEV infection is usually self-limiting, but may develop into fulminant hepatitis with a case-fatality rate (CFR) between 1 and 2% in the general population [ 5 ], which can rise to over 40% in pregnant women, especially during the third trimester of pregnancy [ 6 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
- Although HEV generally causes a self-limited acute infection and mortality rates are generally lower, acute severe liver disease and fulminant hepatitis can occur, resulting in an overall fatality rate of 0.5 to 3 percent and as high as 20% in pregnant women ( 8 - 10 ). (kowsarpub.com)
- Endoplasmic reticulum stress induced synthesis of a novel viral factor mediates efficient replication of genotype-1 hepatitis E virus. (bio-protocol.org)
- RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) is essential for the replication of viral RNA for RNA viruses. (bio-protocol.org)
- ISG15 Modulates Type I Interferon Signaling and the Antiviral Response during Hepatitis E Virus Replication. (helmholtz-hzi.de)
- Zinc Salts Block Hepatitis E Virus Replication by Inhibiting the Activity of Viral RNA-Dependent RNA Polymerase. (helmholtz-hzi.de)
- Positive Regulation of Hepatitis E Virus Replication by MicroRNA-122. (helmholtz-hzi.de)
- The natural compound silvestrol inhibits hepatitis E virus (HEV) replication in vitro and in vivo. (helmholtz-hzi.de)
- In industrialized countries, sporadic cases of acute hepatitis E virus (HEV) infections have been described and the number of documented autochthonous infections seems to be increasing. (uni-regensburg.de)
- We report three sporadic cases of autochthonous hepatitis E infections in Southwestern Germany which presented at our university hospital within two years. (uni-regensburg.de)
- Epidemic and sporadic hepatitis E virus transmission in West Kalimantan (Borneo), Indonesia. (msf.org)
- See complete Recommended Testing Sequence for Identifying Current Hepatitis C Virus (HCV) Infection pdf icon . (cdc.gov)
- The USPSTF recommends screening for hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection in adults aged 18 to 79 years. (cdc.gov)
- Barros A, Gomes-gouvêa B, Pinho B, Alvarado-mora BA, Dos Santos A, Mendes-corrêa AJM, Caldas AMT, Sousa MDC, Santos SP, Ferreira ASP (2011) Hepatitis delta virus genotype 8 infection in northeast Brazil: inheritance from african slaves. (springer.com)
- Braga WS, Castilho Mda C, Borges FG, Leão JR, Martinho AC, Rodrigues IS, Azevedo EP, Barros Júnior GM, Paraná R (2012) Hepatitis D virus infection in the Western Brazilian Amazon-far from a vanishing disease. (springer.com)
- Infection with hepatitis D virus (HDV), also called the delta agent, can occur only in association with HBV infection, because HDV requires HBV to replicate. (britannica.com)
- This is particularly important in understanding hepatitis C because HCV infection alone is not cell lytic. (springer.com)
- The hepatitis virus panel is a series of blood tests used to detect current or past infection by hepatitis A , hepatitis B , or hepatitis C . It can screen blood samples for more than one kind of hepatitis virus at the same time. (medlineplus.gov)
- You currently have a hepatitis infection. (medlineplus.gov)
- This may be a new infection (acute hepatitis), or it may be an infection that you have had for a long time ( chronic hepatitis). (medlineplus.gov)
- You had a hepatitis infection in the past, but you no longer have the infection and can't spread it to others. (medlineplus.gov)
- Antibodies to hepatitis C can most often be detected 4 to 10 weeks after you get the infection. (medlineplus.gov)
- Other types of tests may be done to decide on treatment and monitor the hepatitis C infection. (medlineplus.gov)
- Scientists in the Center for Infection and Immunity at Columbia University's Mailman School of Public Health have discovered a new virus in seals that is the closest known relative of the human hepatitis A virus. (medicalnewstoday.com)
- Hepatitis A viral infection, which impacts 1.4 million people worldwide annually, can cause mild to severe illness. (medicalnewstoday.com)
- New epidemiological data indicate that the prevalence of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is almost null in young and middle-aged individuals and is peaking in older adults (≥70). (medscape.com)
- Elderly adults with chronic hepatitis C infection are more likely than younger individuals to have progressed to the cirrhotic stage and to be at risk of liver-related complications. (medscape.com)
- This study also represents a comparison for recent findings on the dynamics of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. (pnas.org)
- Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is an important human pathogen that infects the liver and establishes chronic infection in the majority of cases, leading to cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) over the course of many years. (pnas.org)
- This invention relates to specific peptide viral antigens which are immunoreactive with sera from patients infected with parenterally transmitted non-A, non-B hepatitis virus (PT-NANBH, now called Hepatitis C Virus), to polynucleotide sequences which encode the peptides, to an expression system capable of producing the peptides, and to methods of using the peptides for detecting PT-NANBH infection in human sera. (freepatentsonline.com)
- Hepatitis C virus infection. (nih.gov)
- Hepatitis E is an infection caused by the hepatitis E virus (also known as HEV). (food.gov.uk)
- Hepatitis C is a liver infection caused by the hepatitis C virus (HCV) that results in acute or chronic presentation. (prweb.com)
- Previous studies have focused on the relationship between hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection and non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL). (medscape.com)
- [ 5 ] Studies on the aetiology of lymphoma have indicated that virus infection is the primary risk factor for NHL. (medscape.com)
- Most cases of blood-borne non-A, non-B hepatitis have been proven to be caused by hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection, one of the most common causes of chronic hepatitis in developed societies. (aappublications.org)
- The incubation period of hepatitis C infection averages 6 to 7 weeks, with a range of 2 weeks to 6 months. (aappublications.org)
- Jaundice occurs in only 25% of patients, and elevations in alanine aminotransferase (ALT) generally are lower than those in hepatitis B virus infection. (aappublications.org)
- 5 This rapid mutation appears to be a mechanism that allows the virus to escape immune surveillance by the host and to maintain persistent infection. (aappublications.org)
- Because antibodies elicited by one virus type do not recognize other virus types, previous infection does not protect against reinfection with the same or different genotypes of the virus. (aappublications.org)
- London, Jan 25 (ANI): Researchers have now identified the entry point of hepatitis C virus - the first step leading to the chronic infection- thus opening the door to a number of possibilities for therapeutics. (yahoo.com)
- They used the drug to block the receptor before, during and after inoculation with the virus, in cell culture and in a small-animal model, to evaluate the receptor's role in infection and the drug's potential as an anti-hepatitis agent. (yahoo.com)
- Transplantation of a kidney from a hepatitis C virus (HCV)-infected kidney donor may cause HCV infection in the recipient [ 1,2 ]. (uptodate.com)
- See 'Hepatitis C infection in kidney transplant candidates and recipients' and 'Hepatitis C virus infection in patients on maintenance dialysis' . (uptodate.com)
- See 'Screening for chronic hepatitis C virus infection' . (uptodate.com)
- See 'Hepatitis C infection in kidney transplant candidates and recipients', section on 'Epidemiology' . (uptodate.com)
- In industrialized countries, hepatitis E virus (HEV) were borderline (n = 70) were excluded from further has long been regarded as a rare imported infection. (cdc.gov)
- Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is a global public health problem involving chronic infection of the liver, which can cause liver disease and is linked with liver cancer. (nature.com)
- In recent years, a lot has been written about hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection in people who also have HIV (co-infection). (thebody.com)
- HIV/hepatitis B virus (HBV) is another common co-infection and, like HIV/HCV co-infection, can cause severe liver damage and death. (thebody.com)
- HIV/HBV co-infection is relatively common because the viruses are transmitted similarly, although HBV is transmitted more easily. (thebody.com)
- In chronic infection, the virus continues to reproduce in the liver, which can cause severe liver damage over time, such as cirrhosis (scarring) and liver cancer (hepatocellular carcinoma or HCC). (thebody.com)
- Overall, about 95% of adults infected with HBV clear the virus following initial (acute) infection. (thebody.com)
- Women are routinely tested for hepatitis B during pregnancy , and infants born to women with chronic HBV are vaccinated and given hepatitis B immune globulin (HBIG) shortly after birth to avoid infection. (thebody.com)
- We also encourage residents at high-risk for infection to get vaccinated for hepatitis A. (dailyherald.com)
- One in 10 sausages and processed pork meat products in England and Wales could cause hepatitis E virus (HEV) infection if undercooked, experts warn. (bbc.co.uk)
- However, he said, the figure of 1 in 10 sausages presenting a potential risk of hepatitis E infection if undercooked should be interpreted with caution. (bbc.co.uk)
- Antigenic and genetic variation in cytopathic hepatitis A virus variants arising during persistent infection: evidence for genetic recombination. (atcc.org)
- In humans, hepatitis D virus infection only occurs in the presence of hepatitis B infection. (natap.org)
- Hepatitis D virus infection is transmitted by blood and blood products. (natap.org)
- The risk factors for infection are similar to those for hepatitis B virus infection. (natap.org)
- A patient can acquire hepatitis D virus infection at the same time as he/she is infected with the hepatitis B virus. (natap.org)
- A patient with hepatitis B can be infected with hepatitis D virus at any time after acute hepatitis B virus infection. (natap.org)
- Hepatitis D virus super-infection should be suspected in a patient with chronic hepatitis B whose condition suddenly worsens. (natap.org)
- A particularly aggressive acute hepatitis B infection could suggest hepatitis D co-infection. (natap.org)
- Co-infection or super-infection with hepatitis D virus in a patient with hepatitis B is diagnosed by the presence of antibodies against the hepatitis D virus. (natap.org)
- Disease: Coinfection: acute infection with hepatitis B virus. (natap.org)
- Superinfection: acute HDV infection on chronic hepatitis B. (natap.org)
- Infection may occur simultaneously with Hepatitis B virus (coinfection) or it may be acquired after B (superinfection). (natap.org)
- In the case of coinfection the patient displays two transaminases peaks, the first apparently due to hepatitis B and the second, which occurs weeks later, due to hepatitis D infection. (natap.org)
- Hepatitis D does not increase the incidence of extrahepatic disease hepatocellular carcinoma over hepatitis B infection. (natap.org)
- In order for the hepatitis D virus to replicate and cause infection, the virus causing hepatitis B must also be present in the body to supply the proteins necessary to form its protein coat. (merriam-webster.com)
- A study of patients infected with acute hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection found that women had higher rates of spontaneous viral clearance - undetectable levels of the virus without initiating drug therapy. (medicalnewstoday.com)
- One hepatitis virus could help treat infection by another, say Chinese researchers. (scidev.net)
- Stopping the replication of hepatitis B, which affects most people in developing countries in childhood, effectively cures the infection. (scidev.net)
- By using a related hepatitis virus, which targets only the liver, the researchers ensured that treatment would be specific to the site of infection. (scidev.net)
- Recently, another team showed that injecting the 'molecular scissors' alone into the bloodstream of hepatitis B patients helped treat the infection (see Hope for hepatitis B treatment ). (scidev.net)
- Hepatitis B is the most common serious cause of liver infection and a leading cause of liver cancer. (scidev.net)
- Symptoms of Hepatitis A infection usually appear two to six weeks after exposure and include fever, fatigue, loss of appetite, abdominal discomfort, dark urine, diarrhea, and yellow skin and eyes. (prnewswire.com)
- Infection with the hepatitis B virus (HBV). (nih.gov)
- The word hepatitis means inflammation of the liver and with HBV infection the liver is often enlarged and tender. (brightkite.com)
- All pregnant women living with HIV should be screened during the current pregnancy for hepatitis B virus (HBV) and unless they are known to have HIV/HBV coinfection and for hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection unless they are known to have HIV/HCV coinfection (see HIV/Hepatitis C Virus Coinfection ) (AIII) . (nih.gov)
- Women with chronic HBV infection who have not already received the hepatitis A virus (HAV) vaccine series should be screened for immunity to HAV because they are at increased risk of complications from coinfection with other viral hepatitis infections. (nih.gov)
- Within 12 hours of birth, infants born to women with HBV infection should receive hepatitis B immune globulin and the first dose of the HBV vaccine series (AI) . (nih.gov)
- For additional information on hepatitis B virus (HBV) and HIV, see HIV/Hepatitis B (HBV) Coinfection in the Adult and Adolescent Guidelines 1 and Hepatitis B Virus Infection in the Adult and Adolescent OI Guidelines . (nih.gov)
- Hepatitis B tests are blood tests that show whether you have an active hepatitis B infection. (cigna.com)
- This antigen is the earliest sign of an active hepatitis B infection. (cigna.com)
- This antigen is only present during an active hepatitis B infection. (cigna.com)
- This antibody shows that a hepatitis B infection has occurred within the last 6 months. (cigna.com)
- It can also mean that a chronic hepatitis B infection has flared up again. (cigna.com)
- This antibody shows that the active stage of a hepatitis B infection is almost over, and your risk of spreading the virus is a lot lower. (cigna.com)
- This infection occurs only in people who are already infected with hepatitis B. It's rare in the United States and Canada, except among people who inject illegal drugs and those who are often exposed to blood products. (cigna.com)
- Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection has the dubious distinction of being the most common chronic blood-borne infection in the U.S., with an estimated 3.2 million people chronically infected. (aacc.org)
- Projections based on the current prevalence of infection and anticipated rates of progression have raised concerns about the potential impact of the virus during the next 2 decades. (aacc.org)
- HCV infection causes acute hepatitis, chronic hepatitis, cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). (mdpi.com)
- Acute infection is diagnosed by antibody tests or by molecular techniques like PCR that detect the presence of RNA from the virus. (factmonster.com)
- The U.S. Food and Drug Administration today approved Olysio (simeprevir), a new therapy to treat chronic hepatitis C virus infection. (scienceblog.com)
- In clinical studies, Olysio was evaluated in combination with peginterferon-alfa and ribavirin, two drugs also used to treat hepatitis C virus infection. (scienceblog.com)
- Olysio is the third FDA-approved protease inhibitor to treat chronic hepatitis C virus infection, and provides health professionals and patients with a new, effective treatment for this serious disease," said Edward Cox, M.D., director of the Office of Antimicrobial Products in the FDA's Center for Drug Evaluation and Research. (scienceblog.com)
- The studies were designed to measure whether a participant's hepatitis C virus was no longer detected in the blood at least 12 weeks after finishing treatment (sustained virologic response), suggesting a participant's infection had been cured. (scienceblog.com)
- Olysio should not be used alone to treat chronic hepatitis C infection. (scienceblog.com)
- Unravelling these important mechanisms of virus-host interaction will contribute to the development of novel strategies to prevent and control HCV infection. (mdpi.com)
- Effective treatment options for individuals with chronic hepatitis B infection were limited until 1998 when lamivudine, the first nucleoside analogue drug, was introduced. (who.int)
- Treatment is currently intended to prevent the long-term complications of hepatitis B virus infection, with little consideration given to potential adverse public health impacts. (who.int)
- Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection leads to severe liver diseases including hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). (nature.com)
- The study showed that exosomes secreted from uMSC inhibited HCV infection in lab culture - "mainly, we think, because it targeted the virus as it tried to replicate," Dr. Qi said. (prweb.com)
- Hepatitis B is inflammation of the liver due to infection with the hepatitis B virus. (medindia.net)
- Hepatitis is a viral infection that attacks the liver. (medindia.net)
- Autochthonous hepatitis E occurring in developed countries is caused by genotypes 3 and 4 and is a zoonotic infection. (nih.gov)
- The purpose of the study is to investigate the immune response to hepatitis C virus to determine why some people clear the virus and others develop chronic infection. (clinicaltrials.gov)
- We will analyze the peripheral (blood) and intrahepatic (liver) immune response in hepatitis C infection in patients with clear hepatitis C infection and those who develop chronic infection. (clinicaltrials.gov)
- No previous studies have examined HBV DNA in sweat or blood as a potential route of transmission of the virus, but animal studies with occultly infected blood suggest that it can transmit infection even though it contains extremely small numbers of virus particles, Dr. Bereket-YÃ¼cel said. (medpagetoday.com)
- Several mechanisms conducive to occult HBV infection have been suggested, such as an altered immune system response, infection of peripheral blood mononuclear cells by integration in the chromosomes of the host, or co-infection with other hepatropic viruses and mutations in HBV genes," Dr. Bereket-YÃ¼cel said. (medpagetoday.com)
- Infection can lead to acute disease, chronic hepatitis, and primary cancer of the liver. (seti.org)
- Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is a major cause of chronic liver disease, affecting ∼3% of the world's population ( 1 , 2 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
- In addition, the prevalence of chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection, which shares similar epidemiological factors of transmision with HCV, has not been found higher in type 2 diabetic patients than in the general population ( 19 , 21 , 22 , 25 , 26 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
- The CDC recommendations are key to increasing the early diagnosis of chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection, since many of the estimated 800,000 1.4 million Americans with chronic HBV infection have no symptoms and are unaware of their disease. (webwire.com)
- For more information chronic hepatitis B infection, visit www.cdc.gov/hepatitis/HBV/TestingChronic.htm or www.cdc.gov/hepatitis/ . (webwire.com)
- The findings potentially explain how the hepatitis B virus (HBV) establishes and maintains chronic infection, and could lead to the development of novel therapeutic strategies. (news-medical.net)
- Chronic HBV infection is associated with impaired virus-specific T-cell responses. (news-medical.net)
- In addition, the hepatitis B e-antigen (HBeAg) - a hepatitis B viral protein -- may represent a viral strategy to establish persistent infection, but the mechanism remains largely unknown. (news-medical.net)
- Hepatitis A is a virus known to infect the liver, and infection can result in a monthlong illness featuring fever, vomiting and diarrhea, dark urine, clay-colored stools and jaundice. (dailyherald.com)
- The research of Associate Professor Joseph Marcotrigiano has isolated and examined an outer region of hepatitis C that enables the virus to evade the body's natural immune system response, which causes persistent, chronic infection. (rutgers.edu)
- These proteins will be present in your blood if you have a hepatitis C infection now or have had one in the past. (adventisthealthcare.com)
- It is important to identify the type of hepatitis virus causing the infection, to prevent its spread and choose the proper treatment. (adventisthealthcare.com)
- HCV genetic material (RNA) testing uses polymerase chain reaction (PCR) to identify an active hepatitis C infection. (adventisthealthcare.com)
- Find out if a hepatitis C infection is the cause of abnormal liver function tests. (adventisthealthcare.com)
- Screen people (such as doctors, dentists, and nurses) who have an increased chance of getting or spreading a hepatitis C infection. (adventisthealthcare.com)
- Identify the type of hepatitis C virus causing the infection. (adventisthealthcare.com)
- Okabe et al 1 studied the association of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection with chronic active myocarditis, a variant form of chronic myocarditis characterized by numerous lymphocytic clusters and myocardial cell damage, in 3 patients. (ahajournals.org)
- 2 4 Second, HCV infection of lymphocytic cells in patients with chronic hepatitis C has been documented. (ahajournals.org)
- Okabe M, Fukuda K, Arakawa K, Kikuchi M. Chronic variant of myocarditis associated with hepatitis C virus infection. (ahajournals.org)
- Zignego AL, De Carli M, Monti M, Careccia G, La Villa G, Giannini C, D'Elios MM, Del Prete G, Gentilini P. Hepatitis C virus infection of mononuclear cells from peripheral blood and liver infiltrates in chronically infected patients. (ahajournals.org)
- Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is a major cause of chronic hepatitis, liver cirrhosis, and hepatocellular carcinoma. (frontiersin.org)
- The approval of directly acting antivirals (DAA) for the treatment of chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection will represent a major breakthrough for the 180 million persons infected worldwide. (biomedsearch.com)
- This virus causes the disease hepatitis B. In addition to causing hepatitis, infection with HBV can lead to cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. (wikipedia.org)
- Viral infection by hepatitis B virus (HBV) causes many hepatocyte changes due to direct action of a protein coded for by the virus, HBx, and to indirect changes due to a large increase in intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) after infection. (wikipedia.org)
- Chronic HBV/HDV coinfection leads to the most severe form of chronic viral hepatitis, so it is important to elucidate the molecular mechanisms regulating virus-host interplay and pathogenesis. (springer.com)
- Pawlotsky J-M. Acute viral hepatitis. (medlineplus.gov)
- A mild form of viral hepatitis, without jaundice. (dictionary.com)
- Friend C, Braunsteiner H. Viral hepatitis associated with transplantable mouse leukemia. (atcc.org)
- Delta hepatitis is considered to be the most severe viral hepatitis. (natap.org)
- Unlike other forms of viral hepatitis, HBV cannot be transmitted by contaminated food or water. (brightkite.com)
- Pawlotsky J-M, Wedemeyer H. Acute viral hepatitis. (sutterhealth.org)
- Monday, July 28, 2014 is World Hepatitis Day--a day organized by WHO to increase awareness and understanding of viral hepatitis. (eurekalert.org)
- Each month, the distinguished Editorial Board monitors and selects only the best articles on subjects such as immunology, chronic hepatitis, viral hepatitis, cirrhosis, genetic and metabolic liver diseases and their complications, liver cancer, and drug metabolism. (eurekalert.org)
- These new recommendations are critical to identifying people who are living with the disease without the benefits of medical attention, said John W. Ward, M.D., director of CDC′s Division of Viral Hepatitis. (webwire.com)
- Viral hepatitis is a silent epidemic. (idsociety.org)
- 2 Hepatocellular carcinoma develops in a small proportion of patients who have chronic hepatitis, but the true rate of this complication is unknown. (aappublications.org)
- Omata, M. Hepatitis C Virus and Hepatocellular Carcinoma. (mdpi.com)
- The vaccine has been particularly important for countries where the incidence of hepatitis B virus-related hepatocellular carcinoma is high. (who.int)
- More than 185 million people are estimated to be infected by hepatitis C virus (HCV) worldwide 1 , leading to severe liver diseases such as hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). (nature.com)
- That may induce hepatocellular carcinoma, peliosis hepatitis, and general liver dysfunction," Dr. Bereket-YÃ¼cel said. (medpagetoday.com)
- However, integrated parts of the Hepatitis B virus genome are found in the chromosomes of many hepatocellular carcinoma patients. (kenyon.edu)
- Infants born to HBsAg-positive mothers should receive hepatitis B immune globulin (HBIG) and the first dose of hepatitis B vaccine within 12 hours of birth, followed by the second and third doses of vaccine at 1 and 6 months of age, respectively. (cdc.gov)
- The hepatitis B vaccine has been around for almost 25 years and has significantly reduced the number of new infections. (thebody.com)
- The hepatitis B vaccine is a series of three shots injected into the muscle of the upper arm over a six-month period. (thebody.com)
- All measures that prevent hepatitis B will prevent HDV, including HBV vaccine. (natap.org)
- CVS ), is encouraging unvaccinated Ohio residents to receive the Hepatitis A vaccine following an increase in confirmed cases of the virus. (prnewswire.com)
- All 64 MinuteClinic locations in Ohio have the Hepatitis A vaccine available for people who have not yet been vaccinated. (prnewswire.com)
- Hepatitis A vaccine may provide protection against the disease if given within two weeks after exposure. (prnewswire.com)
- People who have had Hepatitis A disease or previously received two doses of the Hepatitis A vaccine do not need to be immunized for Hepatitis A again. (prnewswire.com)
- MinuteClinic providers can provide the Hepatitis A vaccine to children 24 months and older and to adults. (prnewswire.com)
- Developing an effective vaccine has been challenging because the virus mutates frequently, thereby evading immunologic surveillance. (aacc.org)
- Since its widespread introduction, the hepatitis B vaccine has become an essential part of infant immunization programmes globally. (who.int)
- Mutations associated with drug treatment can cause changes to the surface antigen protein, the precise part of the virus that the hepatitis B vaccine mimics. (who.int)
- However, the emergence of antiviral drug-associated potential vaccine escape mutants (ADAP-VEMs) in treated patients does not necessarily pose a significant, imminent threat to the global hepatitis B immunization programme. (who.int)
- The medical world may be one step closer to an affordable, effective therapeutic vaccine for hepatitis C virus (HCV), according to a new study appearing in the latest issue of STEM CELLS Translational Medicine. (prweb.com)
- Hepatitis A vaccine is available that is 95% effective in preventing the disease. (medindia.net)
- It was not, initially, directed to the discovery of hepatitis B virus (HBV), the development of a vaccine, and the prevention of a common cancer. (seti.org)
- The first inactivated hepatitis A vaccine was licensed for use in 1995. (dailyherald.com)
- The AAP estimates that there were approximately 300,000 cases of hepatitis A infections per year in the United States prior to vaccine licensure. (dailyherald.com)
- By 2003, hepatitis A disease rates were already 76 percent lower than rates seen during the pre-vaccine years. (dailyherald.com)
- AAP researchers find that an impressive 97 percent of children and 95 percent of adults develop protective antibodies within one month of their first hepatitis A vaccination, and "virtually 100 percent" of patients are protected after the second dose of the vaccine. (dailyherald.com)
- In the 2012 Yellow Book on travelers' health, Umid M. Sharapov of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention states that hepatitis A is often seen in the developing world and is "one of the most common vaccine-preventable infections acquired during travel. (dailyherald.com)
- Protective hepatitis A antibodies have been shown to persist for at least five to 12 years and mathematical models predict that protection will last for at least 20 years following completion of the hepatitis A vaccine series. (dailyherald.com)
- There is no vaccine available to prevent hepatitis C. (adventisthealthcare.com)
- Rebecca Skloot wrote a short snippet about Ted Slavin, detailing the story of a hemophiliac who sold his antibodies and aided Dr. Baruch Blumberg in the discovery of the link between the hepatitis B virus and liver cancer, which eventually led to the first hepatitis B vaccine. (hepb.org)
- Because of Ted Slavin, there are tests to diagnose hepatitis B, ways to detect liver cancer linked to hepatitis B, and the first cancer preventative vaccine! (hepb.org)
- For more information about the hepatitis B vaccine, please visit our website here . (hepb.org)
- For helping looking for the hepatitis B vaccine, you can go here or to the HealthMap Vaccine Finder . (hepb.org)
- World Hepatitis Day: The History of the Hepatitis B Vaccine. (hepb.org)
- A precore mutant is a variety of hepatitis B virus that does not produce hepatitis B virus e antigen (HBeAg). (wikipedia.org)
- They are readily detectable by HBV DNA in serum, but hepatitis B e antigen (HbeAg) is absent. (wikipedia.org)
- The product of the X gene is hepatitis B x antigen (HBxAg). (wikipedia.org)
- Presence of precore and core promoter mutants limits the probability of response to peginterferon in hepatitis B e antigen-positive chronic hepatitis B". Hepatology. (wikipedia.org)
- hepatitis B virus serves as a helper for replication of hepatitis delta virus, the virions of which contain hepatitis B surface antigen (HB s Ag). (britannica.com)
- Antibody and antigen tests can detect each of the different hepatitis viruses. (medlineplus.gov)
- Although we have no direct measurement of the infected cell mass, we can estimate the turnover rate of these cells in two ways: (i) by comparing the rate of viral production before and after therapy or (ii) from the decline of hepatitis B antigen during treatment. (pnas.org)
- This antigen was detected by immunofluorescence in the nuclei of liver cells in patients infected with hepatitis B and looked similar to hepatitis B core antigen. (natap.org)
- Therefore came the suspicion that the new antigen might belong to a different virus. (natap.org)
- Hepatitis B e-antigen. (cigna.com)
- This paper examines the mechanism of antiviral drug-selected changes in the portion of the viral genome that also affects the surface antigen, and explores their potential impact on current hepatitis B immunization programmes. (who.int)
- The MP Diagnostics (MPD) Anti-HBs ELISA 4.0 is an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) intended for the detection of antibodies to Hepatitis B Virus Surface Antigen (anti-HBs) in human serum or plasma samples. (mpbio.com)
- The MP Diagnostics ASSURE HBsAg Rapid Test (Whole Blood/Serum/Plasma) is a lateral flow chromatographic immunoassay for the qualitative detection of Hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) in human whole blood, serum or plasma. (mpbio.com)
- The surface antigen is sometimes extended as a tubular tail on one side of the virus particle. (kenyon.edu)
- Alvarado-Mora MV, Romano CM, Gomes-Gouvêa MS, Gutierrez MF, Carrilho FJ, Pinho JR (2011) Dynamics of hepatitis D (delta) virus genotype 3 in the Amazon region of South America. (springer.com)
- Casey L, Brown TL, Colan EJ, Wignall F, Gerin JL (1993) A genotype of hepatitis D virus that occurs in northern America. (springer.com)
- This tool is designed to use phylogenetic methods in order to identify the Hepatitis E virus genotype of a nucleotide sequence. (rivm.nl)
- In one of the largest prevalence studies to date, researchers from the U.K. provide national, regional, and global genotype prevalence estimates for the hepatitis C virus (HCV). (eurekalert.org)
- A reduction in Olysio's effectiveness was observed in participants infected with the genotype 1a hepatitis C virus with an NS3 Q80K polymorphism, a strain of the hepatitis C virus commonly found in the United States. (scienceblog.com)
- However, genotype 3 (HEV 3) can lead to chronic hepatitis in immuno-compromised patients such as organ-transplant recipients and patients with haematological malignancies. (nih.gov)
- HCV viral genotyping is used to find out which genotype of the HCV virus is present. (adventisthealthcare.com)
- Bensag A (1983) Labrea hepatitis and other fulminant hepatitis in Serra Madureira Acre and Boca de Acre Amazonas Brasil. (springer.com)
- Perinatal hepatitis B in the newborn may range from asymptomatic to fulminant hepatitis. (cdc.gov)
- Fulminant hepatitis occurs but is extremely uncommon. (aappublications.org)
- The availability of serological tests for hepatitis A and B viruses in the 1970s made it clear that most parenterally transmitted hepatitis was due to neither of these viruses. (bmj.com)
- There are different tests for hepatitis A and hepatitis B. A positive test is considered abnormal. (medlineplus.gov)
- They discovered a new virus that was genetically similar to hepatitis A and named it phopivirus. (medicalnewstoday.com)
- Viruses similar to hepatitis B have been found in all apes (orangutan, gibbons, gorillas and chimpanzees), in Old World monkeys, and in a New World woolly monkeys suggesting an ancient origin for this virus in primates. (wikipedia.org)
- Determining prevalence: In the absence of existing data for hepatitis C prevalence, healthcare providers should initiate universal hepatitis C screening until they establish that the prevalence of HCV RNA positivity in their population is less than 0.1%, at which point universal screening is no longer explicitly recommended but may occur at the provider's discretion. (cdc.gov)
- About 2%-3% of the world's population is infected with hepatitis C virus (HCV), with an estimated prevalence of 0.8% in Canada or more than 240 000 Canadians infected. (cmaj.ca)
- The average age at a hepatitis C diagnosis ranges from 40 to 59 years : 4 million affected (prevalence 1%) and 10 000-20 000 deaths a year. (ufrgs.br)
- See cdc.gov/travel for other geographic areas with an intermediate or high prevalence of the hepatitis A virus. (dailyherald.com)
- Until now, we didn't know that hepatitis A had any close relatives, and we thought that only humans and other primates could be infected by such viruses," said lead author Simon Anthony, assistant professor of Epidemiology. (medicalnewstoday.com)
- Overview of Hepatitis C, including epidemiology, etiology, symptoms, diagnosis, pathology and treatment guidelines as well as an overview on the competitive landscape. (prweb.com)
- We find that in persistently infected patients, HBV particles are cleared from the plasma with a half-life of approximately 1.0 day, which implies a 50% daily turnover of the free virus population. (pnas.org)
- These two independent methods give equivalent results: we find a wide distribution of half-lives for virus-producing cells, ranging from 10 to 100 days in different patients, which may reflect differences in rates of lysis of infected cells by immune responses. (pnas.org)
- The total daily production of plasma virus is, on average, higher in chronic HBV carriers than in HIV-infected patients, but the half-life of virus-producing cells is much shorter in HIV. (pnas.org)
- We now know that there are more people, particularly immunosuppressed patients, with hepatitis E who haven't travelled abroad. (food.gov.uk)
- Giving hepatitis B patients the modified hepatitis delta virus reduced levels of the virus in their blood by nearly 90 per cent. (scidev.net)
- However, this method means that if patients are re-infected with hepatitis B, they need another injection. (scidev.net)
- Because it was only identified recently, it isn't clear at this time how widespread hepatitis G is and what its precise effects are on infected patients. (factmonster.com)
- Hepatitis diet should be carefully monitored and prepared for easy and quick recovery of hepatitis patients. (medindia.net)
- These treatments helped many patients get rid of the virus, but the treatment fails to cure more than 60 percent of patients. (eurekalert.org)
- If patients are also HIV+, the effect of antiretroviral therapy on the recovery of hepatitis C immunity will be investigated. (clinicaltrials.gov)
- For those patients enrolled who begin hepatitis C treatment, we will evaluate the immune system of people who respond compared to those who do not respond. (clinicaltrials.gov)
- Patients who begin hepatitis C therapy or antiretroviral therapy if HIV coinfected will provide serial specimens for examination. (clinicaltrials.gov)
- Patients who undergo liver biopsy as a part of their routine hepatitis care will provide a sample for further studies of the immune response to see if it is different in the liver compared to the blood. (clinicaltrials.gov)
- The recommendations, published today in CDC′s Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report (MMWR) Recommendations & Reports, also for the first time give health professionals guidance for effective management of chronically infected hepatitis B patients. (webwire.com)
- Hepatitis A vaccines (Havrix or Vaqta) can be administered to children as young as 1 year of age, with a larger adult dose given to patients 19 years of age and up. (dailyherald.com)
- The Department of Veterans Affairs Hepatitis C Resource Center Program and the National Hepatitis C Program Office developed updated recommendations for standard of care for hepatitis C patients. (idsociety.org)
- We appreciate the comments of Drs Kao and Hwang regarding the reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) we used for genomic analysis of hepatitis C virus (HCV) R1 in 3 patients with chronic active myocarditis. (ahajournals.org)
- Ten patients at Penn Medicine have been cured of the Hepatitis C virus (HCV) following lifesaving kidney transplants from deceased donors who were infected with the disease. (eurasiareview.com)
- In 2016, Penn Medicine launched an innovative clinical trial to test the effect of transplanting kidneys from donors with HCV into patients currently on the kidney transplant waitlist who do not have the virus, and who opt in to receive these otherwise unused organs. (eurasiareview.com)
- So it was interesting to see that patients were quick to jump at the chance to get this transplant, despite the possibility that they could get Hepatitis C permanently," Reese said. (eurasiareview.com)
- Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is a major cause of chronic liver disease, with an estimated 170 million people infected worldwide. (pnas.org)
- Hepatitis C virus (HCV) has become the most significant cause of chronic liver disease of infectious etiology in the United States. (aappublications.org)
- Hepatitis C virus (HCV), a major causative agent of chronic liver disease, is spread throughout the world and around 170 million people are persistently infected. (illinois.edu)
- Human hepatitis delta virus , or HDV, is harmless when on its own, but can cause devastating liver disease when it teams up with the hepatitis B virus. (merriam-webster.com)
- Hepatitis B virus (HBV) is the most prevalent cause of human liver disease [4, (brightkite.com)
- The first major study of virus has reported that those infected by means other than blood transfusions did not develop chronic liver disease. (factmonster.com)
- Our studies allowed us to understand the gender disparity of HBV carriers, and why this virus tends to cause more severe liver disease in men than in women," says principal investigator James Ou of the University of Southern California. (asm.org)
- The U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) today published new recommendations for health care providers that are designed to increase routine testing in the United States for chronic hepatitis B, a major cause of liver disease and liver cancer. (webwire.com)
- More than 170 million individuals are currently infected with hepatitis C virus (HCV) worldwide and are at continuous risk of developing chronic liver disease. (frontiersin.org)
- If the immune system doesn't clear the virus within six months, a person is considered to have chronic HBV. (thebody.com)
- Most people will get over the virus, although for some, such as those with an immune deficiency disorder, or pregnant women, it can prove fatal. (bbc.co.uk)
- After the exclusion of anti-HCV-positive plasma units from the donor pool, rare, sporadic instances have occurred of hepatitis C among recipients of immune globulin (IG) preparations for intravenous (but not intramuscular) use. (ufrgs.br)
- The virus that causes hepatitis C protects itself by blocking signals that call up immune defenses in liver cells, according to University of Washington researchers and colleagues reporting Nov. 14 in Nature Medicine . (eurekalert.org)
- Changes in immune response once hepatitis C therapy is begun will also be examined. (clinicaltrials.gov)
- If the patient is HIV positive, the change in hepatitis C immune response once various HIV medicines (antiretrovirals) are started will also be examined. (clinicaltrials.gov)
- Total viral release into the periphery is approximately 10(11) virus particles per day. (pnas.org)
- 1985). These viruses are considered to be highly infectious and illness can be caused by as few as 10 viral particles (Teunis, 2008). (fda.gov)
- These factors necessitate that isolated virus particles be sufficiently concentrated in order to detect their presence in foods. (fda.gov)
- Hepadnaviruses have the smallest genomes of all known viruses, consisting of two uneven strands of DNA: a (-)sense strand whose size varies between hepadnaciruses and a (+)sense strandwhose size varies between different particles. (kenyon.edu)
- The virus forms small round-shaped particles ranging from 50 to 80 nm in diameter. (frontiersin.org)
- virus isolated in 1996, the hepatitis G virus (HGV), is believed to be responsible for a large number of sexually transmitted and bloodborne cases of hepatitis. (britannica.com)
- The Lake County Health Department is informing the public that there has been a recent increase in reported cases of hepatitis A virus (HAV) throughout the State of Illinois and in Lake County. (dailyherald.com)
- CLEVELAND, Ohio -- Cases of hepatitis A and the number of mosquitoes carrying West Nile Virus continue to rise in Ohio, according to the Ohio Department of Health (ODH). (cleveland.com)
- In the U.S., 85 percent of travel-related cases of hepatitis A occur following travel to Mexico, Central America or South America. (dailyherald.com)
- While it's possible to identify the hepatitis E virus in food, we can't tell whether it's infectious and capable of making us ill. (food.gov.uk)
- It raises the question of whether hepatitis A originated in animals, like many other viruses that are now adapted to humans. (medicalnewstoday.com)
- In the natural history of phopivirus and hepatitis A, it is unclear whether a common ancestor (virus) spilled over from humans to seals, vice versa, or from a third unrelated host that has not yet been identified. (medicalnewstoday.com)
- Another project might study humans who eat seal meat to see if the seal virus has ever spilled over. (medicalnewstoday.com)
- 7. An isolated polynucleotide encoding a polypeptide which is immunoreactive with sera from humans infected with hepatitis C virus (HCV), said polynucleotide consisting essentially of the polynucleotide sequence presented as SEQ ID NO:1. (freepatentsonline.com)
- Only humans and chimpanzees are susceptible to Hepatitis B virus. (kenyon.edu)
- The Rapid HCV Project offers free Hepatitis C testing to adults in the communities listed below. (in.gov)
- However, they caution that further research is needed in mature seals, because if it acts anything like hepatitis A it might only cause disease in adults. (medicalnewstoday.com)
- Hepatitis E Virus refl ects the total adult population with respect to age, Seroprevalence sex, and geographic region, but persons with migration background are underrepresented (non-German citizenship among Adults, 4.6% in the sample vs. 8.7% in the total adult population). (cdc.gov)
- AAP infectious disease experts report that most hepatitis A-infected children under the age of 6 show no symptoms of the disease, while more than two-thirds of affected older kids and adults will develop jaundice. (dailyherald.com)
- A series of three combination hepatitis A-hepatitis B shots (Twinrix) is also available for use in adults 18 years and older. (dailyherald.com)
- Viruses are very small and often highly contagious pathogenic agents which cause disease. (food.gov.uk)
- A high level of this DNA means that the virus is multiplying in your body and you are very contagious. (cigna.com)
- Hepatitis A is a highly contagious illness caused by the hepatitis A virus. (cleveland.com)
- Virus: Incomplete RNA virus, dependent on HBV envelope proteins. (natap.org)
- These in turn spur hundreds of genes that generate virus-fighting proteins within the cell. (eurekalert.org)
- The virus is divided into four major serotypes (adr, adw, ayr, ayw) based on antigenic epitopes present on its envelope proteins. (wikipedia.org)
- There are three open reading frames (ORF1, ORF2 and ORF3), encoding 3 proteins (O1, O2, O3), two of which are polyproteins, that is, they are cleaved into fragments which carry out the actual functions of the virus (see figure). (wikipedia.org)
- Exosomes, although isolated from unfractionated culture media, were absent in highly infectious, purified virus preparations. (pnas.org)
- Some viruses can survive and remain infectious in foods and the environment for prolonged periods of time. (food.gov.uk)
- We suspect that these cases may be due to exposure to infectious hepatitis E virus in pork and pork products. (food.gov.uk)
- Recommendations for Testing, Managing, and Treating Hepatitis C. Joint panel from the American Association of the Study of Liver Diseases and the Infectious Diseases Society of America. (uptodate.com)
- Authorities suspect that those who consumed food from McDonald's Greenlane on the evening of Dec 15th carry the risk of contracting Hepatitis A. The medical officer confirmed that a particular food handler working on the 7pm to 2am shift was suffering the highly infectious stage of the virus. (medindia.net)
- Margaret Littlejohn of the Victorian Infectious Diseases Reference Laboratory noted that there are also differences in the virus among the 30 communities that offered samples for testing, which allowed the scientists to study its possible transmission routes, and determine when the virus may have first appeared in Australia. (archaeology.org)
- While vaccines have not yet been developed for the rest of the "alphabet" of infectious hepatitis, it is fortunate that safe and effective vaccinations are available against both the hepatitis A and hepatitis B viruses. (dailyherald.com)
- In response to action taken by some State Medicaid programs to restrict the specialties of providers who can prescribe drug therapies to treat hepatitis C virus (HCV), IDSA has developed an appeals letter template recommending that Infectious Diseases (ID) Specialists and other HIV providers be covered prescribers of all HCV medications. (idsociety.org)
- Although the frequency of transfusion-associated hepatitis C fell as a result of blood donor screening, the overall frequency of hepatitis C remained the same until the early 1990s, when the overall frequency fell by 80%, in parallel with a reduction in the number of new cases in injection drug users. (ufrgs.br)
- What are symptoms of acute and chronic hepatitis C? (webmd.com)
- For most people, the symptoms of hepatitis E are mild and clear up within four weeks, but in rare cases the disease can be fatal. (food.gov.uk)
- Only about 1 in every 150 people who contract West Nile virus will develop these serious symptoms. (cleveland.com)
- Most people infected with the hepatitis C virus have no symptoms of the disease until liver damage becomes apparent, which may take several years. (scienceblog.com)
- HCV is a significant problem for many people with HIV, but it isn't the only virus that can cause hepatitis (inflammation of the liver). (thebody.com)
- 702 words - 3 pages Hepatitis A is an inflammation of the liver caused by the hepatitis A virus. (brightkite.com)
- Hepatitis B is an inflammation of the liver caused by the hepatitis B virus. (brightkite.com)
- 1260 words - 6 pages Hepatitis is a medical condition defined by the inflammation of the liver and characterized by the presence of inflammatory cells in the tissue of the organ. (brightkite.com)
- The name is from the Greek hêpar (ἧπαρ), the stem of which is hēpat- (ἡπατ-), meaning of the liver, and suffix -itis, meaning "inflammation" hepatitis virus have A, B C and D types. (brightkite.com)
- Hepatitis C is an inflammation of the liver's cells and tissues caused by the hepatitis C virus (HCV). (brightkite.com)
- Hepatitis C is a viral disease that causes inflammation of the liver that can lead to diminished liver function or liver failure. (scienceblog.com)
- Neonatal hepatitis is an inflammation of the liver that usually occurs in early infancy and is typically transmitted to the baby by the infected mother. (medindia.net)
- Hepatitis B DNA , which is the virus's genetic material. (cigna.com)
- In a third set of experiments, the researchers removed the androgen receptor by genetic knockout, once again abolishing the androgen's effect on hepatitis B replication. (asm.org)
- Schlauder, G. G. & Mushahwar, I. K. (2001) Genetic heterogeneity of hepatitis E virus. (wikipedia.org)