A positive-stranded RNA virus species in the genus HEPEVIRUS, causing enterically-transmitted non-A, non-B hepatitis (HEPATITIS E).
Acute INFLAMMATION of the LIVER in humans; caused by HEPATITIS E VIRUS, a non-enveloped single-stranded RNA virus. Similar to HEPATITIS A, its incubation period is 15-60 days and is enterically transmitted, usually by fecal-oral transmission.
Immunoglobulins raised by any form of viral hepatitis; some of these antibodies are used to diagnose the specific kind of hepatitis.
An unassigned genus of RNA viruses with a single officially described species, HEPATITIS E VIRUS. A distantly related virus, Avian hepatitis E virus, has been listed as a tentative species. Strains have also been identified in swine. The family name hepeviridae has been proposed.
INFLAMMATION of the LIVER in animals due to viral infection.
Diseases of non-human animals that may be transmitted to HUMANS or may be transmitted from humans to non-human animals.
INFLAMMATION of the LIVER in humans caused by a member of the ORTHOHEPADNAVIRUS genus, HEPATITIS B VIRUS. It is primarily transmitted by parenteral exposure, such as transfusion of contaminated blood or blood products, but can also be transmitted via sexual or intimate personal contact.
Diseases of domestic swine and of the wild boar of the genus Sus.
INFLAMMATION of the LIVER in humans caused by a member of the HEPATOVIRUS genus, HUMAN HEPATITIS A VIRUS. It can be transmitted through fecal contamination of food or water.
INFLAMMATION of the LIVER in humans caused by HEPATITIS C VIRUS, a single-stranded RNA virus. Its incubation period is 30-90 days. Hepatitis C is transmitted primarily by contaminated blood parenterally, and is often associated with transfusion and intravenous drug abuse. However, in a significant number of cases, the source of hepatitis C infection is unknown.
Ribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.
The type species of the genus ORTHOHEPADNAVIRUS which causes human HEPATITIS B and is also apparently a causal agent in human HEPATOCELLULAR CARCINOMA. The Dane particle is an intact hepatitis virion, named after its discoverer. Non-infectious spherical and tubular particles are also seen in the serum.
EPIDEMIOLOGIC STUDIES based on the detection through serological testing of characteristic change in the serum level of specific ANTIBODIES. Latent subclinical infections and carrier states can thus be detected in addition to clinically overt cases.
Antigens from any of the hepatitis viruses including surface, core, and other associated antigens.
The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.
INFLAMMATION of the LIVER in humans due to infection by VIRUSES. There are several significant types of human viral hepatitis with infection caused by enteric-transmission (HEPATITIS A; HEPATITIS E) or blood transfusion (HEPATITIS B; HEPATITIS C; and HEPATITIS D).
Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).
Any vaccine raised against any virus or viral derivative that causes hepatitis.
A sequence of successive nucleotide triplets that are read as CODONS specifying AMINO ACIDS and begin with an INITIATOR CODON and end with a stop codon (CODON, TERMINATOR).
The expelling of virus particles from the body. Important routes include the respiratory tract, genital tract, and intestinal tract. Virus shedding is an important means of vertical transmission (INFECTIOUS DISEASE TRANSMISSION, VERTICAL).
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
INFLAMMATION of the LIVER with ongoing hepatocellular injury for 6 months or more, characterized by NECROSIS of HEPATOCYTES and inflammatory cell (LEUKOCYTES) infiltration. Chronic hepatitis can be caused by viruses, medications, autoimmune diseases, and other unknown factors.
Those hepatitis B antigens found on the surface of the Dane particle and on the 20 nm spherical and tubular particles. Several subspecificities of the surface antigen are known. These were formerly called the Australia antigen.
A species in the genus HEPATOVIRUS containing one serotype and two strains: HUMAN HEPATITIS A VIRUS and Simian hepatitis A virus causing hepatitis in humans (HEPATITIS A) and primates, respectively.
Animate or inanimate sources which normally harbor disease-causing organisms and thus serve as potential sources of disease outbreaks. Reservoirs are distinguished from vectors (DISEASE VECTORS) and carriers, which are agents of disease transmission rather than continuing sources of potential disease outbreaks.
The genetic constitution of the individual, comprising the ALLELES present at each GENETIC LOCUS.
INFLAMMATION of the LIVER.
Any of the viruses that cause inflammation of the liver. They include both DNA and RNA viruses as well viruses from humans and animals.
INFLAMMATION of the LIVER in humans that is caused by HEPATITIS C VIRUS lasting six months or more. Chronic hepatitis C can lead to LIVER CIRRHOSIS.
The complete genetic complement contained in a DNA or RNA molecule in a virus.
Proteins found in any species of virus.
INFLAMMATION of the LIVER in humans caused by HEPATITIS B VIRUS lasting six months or more. It is primarily transmitted by parenteral exposure, such as transfusion of contaminated blood or blood products, but can also be transmitted via sexual or intimate personal contact.
A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.
The process of intracellular viral multiplication, consisting of the synthesis of PROTEINS; NUCLEIC ACIDS; and sometimes LIPIDS, and their assembly into a new infectious particle.
The major immunoglobulin isotype class in normal human serum. There are several isotype subclasses of IgG, for example, IgG1, IgG2A, and IgG2B.
A class of immunoglobulin bearing mu chains (IMMUNOGLOBULIN MU-CHAINS). IgM can fix COMPLEMENT. The name comes from its high molecular weight and originally being called a macroglobulin.
Vaccines or candidate vaccines containing inactivated hepatitis B or some of its component antigens and designed to prevent hepatitis B. Some vaccines may be recombinantly produced.
Antibodies to the HEPATITIS B ANTIGENS, including antibodies to the surface (Australia) and core of the Dane particle and those to the "e" antigens.
Immunoglobulins produced in response to VIRAL ANTIGENS.
A genus of FLAVIVIRIDAE causing parenterally-transmitted HEPATITIS C which is associated with transfusions and drug abuse. Hepatitis C virus is the type species.
A clinical manifestation of HYPERBILIRUBINEMIA, characterized by the yellowish staining of the SKIN; MUCOUS MEMBRANE; and SCLERA. Clinical jaundice usually is a sign of LIVER dysfunction.
Excrement from the INTESTINES, containing unabsorbed solids, waste products, secretions, and BACTERIA of the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM.
A species of SWINE, in the family Suidae, comprising a number of subspecies including the domestic pig Sus scrofa domestica.
The hepatitis B antigen within the core of the Dane particle, the infectious hepatitis virion.
Process of growing viruses in live animals, plants, or cultured cells.
Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent infection with hepatitis A virus (HEPATOVIRUS).
Viruses whose genetic material is RNA.
A closely related group of antigens found in the plasma only during the infective phase of hepatitis B or in virulent chronic hepatitis B, probably indicating active virus replication; there are three subtypes which may exist in a complex with immunoglobulins G.
The study of the structure, growth, function, genetics, and reproduction of viruses, and VIRUS DISEASES.
Proteins that form the CAPSID of VIRUSES.
Animals considered to be wild or feral or not adapted for domestic use. It does not include wild animals in zoos for which ANIMALS, ZOO is available.
Antigens of the virion of the HEPATITIS B VIRUS or the Dane particle, its surface (HEPATITIS B SURFACE ANTIGENS), core (HEPATITIS B CORE ANTIGENS), and other associated antigens, including the HEPATITIS B E ANTIGENS.
Antibodies to the HEPATITIS C ANTIGENS including antibodies to envelope, core, and non-structural proteins.
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.
Activities involved in ensuring the safety of FOOD including avoidance of bacterial and other contamination.
Agents used in the prophylaxis or therapy of VIRUS DISEASES. Some of the ways they may act include preventing viral replication by inhibiting viral DNA polymerase; binding to specific cell-surface receptors and inhibiting viral penetration or uncoating; inhibiting viral protein synthesis; or blocking late stages of virus assembly.
A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.
The type species of ORTHOPOXVIRUS, related to COWPOX VIRUS, but whose true origin is unknown. It has been used as a live vaccine against SMALLPOX. It is also used as a vector for inserting foreign DNA into animals. Rabbitpox virus is a subspecies of VACCINIA VIRUS.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
Antibodies to the HEPATITIS A ANTIGENS including antibodies to envelope, core, and non-structural proteins.
A defective virus, containing particles of RNA nucleoprotein in virion-like form, present in patients with acute hepatitis B and chronic hepatitis. It requires the presence of a hepadnavirus for full replication. This is the lone species in the genus Deltavirus.
A strain of HEPATITIS A VIRUS which causes hepatitis in humans. The virus replicates in hepatocytes and is presumed to reach the intestine via the bile duct. Transmission occurs by the fecal-oral route.
An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed.
Diseases of birds which are raised as a source of meat or eggs for human consumption and are usually found in barnyards, hatcheries, etc. The concept is differentiated from BIRD DISEASES which is for diseases of birds not considered poultry and usually found in zoos, parks, and the wild.
Places where animals are slaughtered and dressed for market.
A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.
The total number of cases of a given disease in a specified population at a designated time. It is differentiated from INCIDENCE, which refers to the number of new cases in the population at a given time.
An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of L-alanine and 2-oxoglutarate to pyruvate and L-glutamate. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 2.6.1.2.
Substances elaborated by viruses that have antigenic activity.
A chronic self-perpetuating hepatocellular INFLAMMATION of unknown cause, usually with HYPERGAMMAGLOBULINEMIA and serum AUTOANTIBODIES.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
Disease having a short and relatively severe course.
A country in western Europe bordered by the Atlantic Ocean, the English Channel, the Mediterranean Sea, and the countries of Belgium, Germany, Italy, Spain, Switzerland, the principalities of Andorra and Monaco, and by the duchy of Luxembourg. Its capital is Paris.
Sudden increase in the incidence of a disease. The concept includes EPIDEMICS and PANDEMICS.
The family of agile, keen-sighted mongooses of Asia and Africa that feed on RODENTS and SNAKES.
The degree of similarity between sequences. Studies of AMINO ACID SEQUENCE HOMOLOGY and NUCLEIC ACID SEQUENCE HOMOLOGY provide useful information about the genetic relatedness of genes, gene products, and species.
The infective system of a virus, composed of the viral genome, a protein core, and a protein coat called a capsid, which may be naked or enclosed in a lipoprotein envelope called the peplos.
The outer protein protective shell of a virus, which protects the viral nucleic acid.
A country spanning from central Asia to the Pacific Ocean.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
Specific molecular components of the cell capable of recognizing and interacting with a virus, and which, after binding it, are capable of generating some signal that initiates the chain of events leading to the biological response.
INFLAMMATION of the LIVER in humans caused by HEPATITIS DELTA VIRUS, a defective RNA virus that can only infect HEPATITIS B patients. For its viral coating, hepatitis delta virus requires the HEPATITIS B SURFACE ANTIGENS produced by these patients. Hepatitis D can occur either concomitantly with (coinfection) or subsequent to (superinfection) hepatitis B infection. Similar to hepatitis B, it is primarily transmitted by parenteral exposure, such as transfusion of contaminated blood or blood products, but can also be transmitted via sexual or intimate personal contact.
The assembly of VIRAL STRUCTURAL PROTEINS and nucleic acid (VIRAL DNA or VIRAL RNA) to form a VIRUS PARTICLE.
Viral proteins that are components of the mature assembled VIRUS PARTICLES. They may include nucleocapsid core proteins (gag proteins), enzymes packaged within the virus particle (pol proteins), and membrane components (env proteins). These do not include the proteins encoded in the VIRAL GENOME that are produced in infected cells but which are not packaged in the mature virus particle,i.e. the so called non-structural proteins (VIRAL NONSTRUCTURAL PROTEINS).
INFLAMMATION of the LIVER in non-human animals.
The presence of viruses in the blood.
The functional hereditary units of VIRUSES.
In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.
Common name for the species Gallus gallus, the domestic fowl, in the family Phasianidae, order GALLIFORMES. It is descended from the red jungle fowl of SOUTHEAST ASIA.
A republic in eastern Africa, on the Gulf of Aden at the entrance to the Red Sea. Djibouti is also the name of its capital.
Aspects of health and disease related to travel.
Diseases of Old World and New World monkeys. This term includes diseases of baboons but not of chimpanzees or gorillas (= APE DISEASES).
Any of the processes by which cytoplasmic factors influence the differential control of gene action in viruses.
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
A general term for diseases produced by viruses.

Prevalence of enteric hepatitis A and E viruses in the Mekong River delta region of Vietnam. (1/486)

A study of antibody prevalence for hepatitis A virus (HAV) and hepatitis E virus (HEV) was carried out in southwestern Vietnam in an area adjacent to a known focus of epidemic HEV transmission. The purpose of this investigation was first to provide a prevalence measure of hepatitis infections, and second to determine the outbreak potential of HEV as a function of the susceptible population. Blood specimens collected from 646 persons in randomly selected village hamlets were examined by an ELISA for anti-HEV IgG and anti-HAV IgG. The prevalences of anti-HEV IgG and anti-HAV IgG were 9% and 97%, respectively. There was a significant increase (P < 0.01) in age-specific anti-HEV IgG. A notable increase in anti-HAV IgG prevalence (P < 0.0001) occurred between child populations 0-4 (64%) and 5-9 (95%) years of age. No evidence of familial clustering of anti-HEV IgG-positive individuals was detected, and household crowding was not associated with the spread of HEV. Boiling of water was found to be of protective value against HEV transmission. A relatively low prevalence of anti-HEV indicates considerable HEV outbreak potential, against a background of 1) poor, water-related hygiene/sanitation, 2) dependence on a (likely human/animal waste)-contaminated Mekong riverine system, and 3) periodic river flooding.  (+info)

A hepatitis E virus variant from the United States: molecular characterization and transmission in cynomolgus macaques. (2/486)

The partial sequence of a hepatitis E virus (HEV-US1) isolated from a patient in the United States (US), suffering from acute viral hepatitis with no known risk factors for acquiring HEV, has been reported. These sequences were significantly different from previously characterized HEV isolates, alluding to the existence of a distinct human variant. In this paper, we report the near full-length sequences of HEV-US1 and a second US isolate (HEV-US2). HEV-US2 was identified in a US patient suffering from acute viral hepatitis. These sequences verify the presence of a new HEV strain in North America and provide information as to the degree of variability between variants. The HEV-US nucleotide sequences are 92% identical to each other and only 74% identical to the Burmese and Mexican strains. Amino acid and phylogenetic analyses also demonstrate that the US isolates are genetically distinct, suggesting the presence of three genotypes of HEV. Serum from the second US patient induced hepatitis following inoculation into a cynomolgus macaque. Within 2-4 weeks, HEV-US2 RNA was detectable in both the serum and faecal material coinciding with elevated serum alanine transaminase levels. Infection resolved as antibody titres increased 8 weeks post-inoculation.  (+info)

Mutational analysis of glycosylation, membrane translocation, and cell surface expression of the hepatitis E virus ORF2 protein. (3/486)

Hepatitis E virus (HEV) is the etiological agent for viral hepatitis type E, which is a major problem in the developing world. Because HEV cannot be cultured in vitro, very little information exists on the mechanisms of HEV gene expression and genome replication. HEV is a positive-strand RNA virus with three potential open reading frames (ORFs), one of which (ORF2) is postulated to encode the major viral capsid protein (pORF2). We earlier showed (S. Jameel, M. Zafrullah, M. H. Ozdener, and S. K. Panda, J. Virol. 70:207-216, 1996) pORF2 to be a approximately 88-kDa glycoprotein, carrying N-linked glycans and a potential endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-directing signal at its N terminus. Treatment with the drugs brefeldin A and monensin suggest that the protein may accumulate within the ER. Based on mutational analysis, we demonstrate Asn-310 to be the major site of N-glycan addition. In COS-1 cell expression and in vitro translation experiments, we confirm the ER-translocating nature of the pORF2 N-terminal hydrophobic sequence and show that the protein is cotranslationally, but not posttranslationally, translocated across the ER membrane. Earlier, we had also demonstrated cell surface localization of a fraction of the COS-1 cell-expressed pORF2. Using glycosylation- and translocation-defective mutants of pORF2, we now show that while transit of pORF2 into the ER is necessary for its cell surface expression, glycosylation of the protein is not required for such localization. These results may offer clues to the mechanisms of gene expression and capsid assembly in HEV.  (+info)

Only the non-glycosylated fraction of hepatitis E virus capsid (open reading frame 2) protein is stable in mammalian cells. (4/486)

Hepatitis E virus (HEV) is a non-enveloped, positive-strand RNA virus, with the genome encoding three open reading frames (ORFs) of which ORF 2 directs translation of the capsid protein, PORF2. Following pulse-labelling and cell fractionation of PORF2 expressed in mammalian cells using the Semliki Forest virus replicon, the capsid protein was detected as three major species of 78 (PORF2), 82 and 86 kDa, with P82 and P86 being N-glycosylated (gPORF2 and ggPORF2, respectively). Although gPORF2 and ggPORF2 species represented 79% of total PORF2 after 20 min metabolic labelling and were largely membrane-associated, the glycosylated PORF2 species were much less stable than non-glycosylated PORF2, which was present in the cytosol and represented the major product accumulated in the cell. In the absence of detectable surface expression or export of PORF2, this suggests that glycosylated ORF 2 proteins may not be intermediates in HEV capsid assembly.  (+info)

Phylogenetic analysis of hepatitis E virus isolates from India (1976-1993). (5/486)

Seventeen Indian hepatitis E virus (HEV) isolates, representing epidemic and sporadic hepatitis E cases during 1976-1991, were sequenced in the RNA polymerase (RNAP) region. Five isolates were also sequenced in the non-structural hypervariable region of open reading frame 1. Open reading frames 2 and 3 were sequenced only for the prototype isolate. On the basis of the comparison of all the available sequences of the conserved RNAP region, the HEV isolates were divided into three genotypes, differing from each other by >15%. Genotype I included African and Asian isolates, whereas II and III were represented by Mexican and US isolates, respectively. Genotype I was further divided into four sub-genotypes. The majority of the Indian isolates (15/20), along with the Burmese and Nepali isolates, belonged to genotype IA. Genotype IB included HEV isolates from China, Pakistan and the former USSR and 2/20 Indian isolates, which represented the oldest (1976) HEV sequenced so far. Genotype IC included both the African isolates, whereas 3/20 Indian isolates formed genotype ID. Nucleotide sequence analysis of other regions of the HEV genome also placed isolates in the same genotypes. Both the Indian cities experiencing second HEV epidemics, after intervals of 8 and 10 years, showed shifts in the sub-genotypes found; from IB (Ahm-76) to IA (Ahm-84) and from IA (Kol-81) to ID (Kol-91). However, no major shift in the genotypes was noted. Overall, HEV genotypes appear to be segregated geographically.  (+info)

Antigenic domains of the open reading frame 2-encoded protein of hepatitis E virus. (6/486)

The antigenic composition of the hepatitis E virus (HEV) protein encoded by open reading frame 2 (ORF2) was determined by using synthetic peptides. Three sets of overlapping 18-, 25-, and 30-mer peptides, with each set spanning the entire ORF2 protein of the HEV Burma strain, were synthesized. All synthetic peptides were tested by enzyme immunoassay against a panel of 32 anti-HEV-positive serum specimens obtained from acutely HEV-infected persons. Six antigenic domains within the ORF2 protein were identified. Domains 1 and 6 located at the N and C termini of the ORF2 protein, respectively, contain strong immunoglobulin G (IgG) and IgM antigenic epitopes that can be efficiently modeled with peptides of different sizes. In contrast, antigenic epitopes identified within the two central domains (3 and 4) were modeled more efficiently with 30-mer peptides than with either 18- or 25-mers. Domain 2 located at amino acids (aa) 143 to 222 was modeled best with 25-mer peptides. A few 30-mer synthetic peptides derived from domain 5 identified at aa 490 to 579 demonstrated strong IgM antigenic reactivity. Several 30-mer synthetic peptides derived from domains 1, 4, and 6 immunoreacted with IgG or IgM with more than 70% of anti-HEV-positive serum specimens. Thus, the results of this study demonstrate the existence of six diagnostically relevant antigenic domains within the HEV ORF2 protein.  (+info)

Evidence for widespread infection of wild rats with hepatitis E virus in the United States. (7/486)

Hepatitis E is an important medical pathogen in many developing countries but is rarely reported from the United States, although antibody to hepatitis E virus (anti-HEV) is found in > 1% of U.S. citizens. Zoonotic spread of the virus is suspected. Sera obtained from 239 wild rats trapped in widely separated regions of the United States were tested for anti-HEV. Seventy-seven percent of rats from Maryland, 90% from Hawaii, and 44% from Louisiana were seropositive for anti-HEV. Rats from urban as well as rural areas were seropositive and the prevalence of anti-HEV IgG increased in parallel with the estimated age of the rats, leading to speculation that they might be involved in the puzzling high prevalence of anti-HEV among some U.S. city dwellers. The discovery of a in rats in the United States and the recently reported discovery that HEV is endemic in U.S. swine raise many questions about transmission, reservoirs, and strains of HEV in developed countries.  (+info)

Cell culture of sporadic hepatitis E virus in China. (8/486)

The isolation and identification of the 87A strain of epidemic hepatitis E virus (HEV) by means of cell culturing have been described previously. This paper reports the successful isolation of a sporadic HEV strain (G93-2) in human lung carcinoma cell (A549) cultures. The etiology, molecular and biological properties, and serological relationship of this new strain to other, epidemic HEV strains are described. The propagation of both sporadic and epidemic HEV strains in a cell culture system will facilitate vaccine research.  (+info)

Symptoms of hepatitis E can include fever, fatigue, loss of appetite, nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain, dark urine, and yellowing of the skin and eyes (jaundice).

Hepatitis E is usually a self-limiting disease, meaning it will resolve on its own without treatment. However, in some cases, it can lead to fulminant hepatitis, which is a severe and potentially life-threatening form of liver disease.

There are several ways to diagnose hepatitis E, including blood tests to detect the presence of HEV antigens or antibodies, as well as imaging tests such as ultrasound or CT scans to evaluate liver function.

Treatment for hepatitis E is typically supportive, meaning it focuses on managing symptoms and maintaining hydration. In severe cases, hospitalization may be necessary to monitor and treat complications. Prevention of hepatitis E involves improving access to safe water and sanitation, as well as promoting good hygiene practices, such as washing hands regularly.

Vaccines are available for hepatitis E, but they are not widely available or recommended for most individuals. However, they may be recommended for certain high-risk groups, such as people living in areas with a high prevalence of HEV infection or those traveling to such areas.

A viral infection that affects the liver and is transmitted to animals through contact with infected feces, urine, or saliva. The condition can be caused by several different viruses, including hepatitis A, B, C, D, and E. Symptoms of animal hepatitis may include loss of appetite, vomiting, diarrhea, lethargy, fever, and jaundice (yellowing of the skin and eyes). In severe cases, the infection can cause liver failure and death.

Prevention:

* Avoid contact with infected animals
* Practice good hygiene, such as washing hands frequently
* Keep pets up to date on vaccinations and preventatives
* Avoid drinking water or eating food that may be contaminated with feces or urine from infected animals
* Use protective clothing and equipment when handling animals that may be infected

Treatment:

* Supportive care, such as fluids and electrolytes to prevent dehydration and maintain blood pressure
* Antiviral medications in severe cases
* Hospitalization for severe cases or those that do not respond to treatment

Prognosis:

* Depends on the severity of the infection and the underlying health status of the animal. In general, the prognosis is good for animals that receive prompt and appropriate treatment.

Complications:

* Liver failure
* Sepsis (blood infection)
* Kidney failure
* Death

Prevalence:

* Widespread in animals, especially in those that are kept in close quarters or have poor living conditions.

Affected Organ:

* Liver

Zoonoses (zoonosis) refers to infectious diseases that can be transmitted between animals and humans. These diseases are caused by a variety of pathogens, including bacteria, viruses, parasites, and fungi, and can be spread through contact with infected animals or contaminated animal products.

Examples of Zoonoses

Some common examples of zoonoses include:

1. Rabies: a viral infection that can be transmitted to humans through the bite of an infected animal, typically dogs, bats, or raccoons.
2. Lyme disease: a bacterial infection caused by Borrelia burgdorferi, which is spread to humans through the bite of an infected blacklegged tick (Ixodes scapularis).
3. Toxoplasmosis: a parasitic infection caused by Toxoplasma gondii, which can be transmitted to humans through contact with contaminated cat feces or undercooked meat.
4. Leptospirosis: a bacterial infection caused by Leptospira interrogans, which is spread to humans through contact with contaminated water or soil.
5. Avian influenza (bird flu): a viral infection that can be transmitted to humans through contact with infected birds or contaminated surfaces.

Transmission of Zoonoses

Zoonoses can be transmitted to humans in a variety of ways, including:

1. Direct contact with infected animals or contaminated animal products.
2. Contact with contaminated soil, water, or other environmental sources.
3. Through vectors such as ticks, mosquitoes, and fleas.
4. By consuming contaminated food or water.
5. Through close contact with an infected person or animal.

Prevention of Zoonoses

Preventing the transmission of zoonoses requires a combination of personal protective measures, good hygiene practices, and careful handling of animals and animal products. Some strategies for preventing zoonoses include:

1. Washing hands frequently, especially after contact with animals or their waste.
2. Avoiding direct contact with wild animals and avoiding touching or feeding stray animals.
3. Cooking meat and eggs thoroughly to kill harmful bacteria.
4. Keeping pets up to date on vaccinations and preventative care.
5. Avoiding consumption of raw or undercooked meat, particularly poultry and pork.
6. Using insect repellents and wearing protective clothing when outdoors in areas where vectors are prevalent.
7. Implementing proper sanitation and hygiene practices in animal housing and husbandry.
8. Implementing strict biosecurity measures on farms and in animal facilities to prevent the spread of disease.
9. Providing education and training to individuals working with animals or in areas where zoonoses are prevalent.
10. Monitoring for and reporting cases of zoonotic disease to help track and control outbreaks.

Conclusion

Zoonoses are diseases that can be transmitted between animals and humans, posing a significant risk to human health and animal welfare. Understanding the causes, transmission, and prevention of zoonoses is essential for protecting both humans and animals from these diseases. By implementing appropriate measures such as avoiding contact with wild animals, cooking meat thoroughly, keeping pets up to date on vaccinations, and implementing proper sanitation and biosecurity practices, we can reduce the risk of zoonotic disease transmission and protect public health and animal welfare.

The symptoms of hepatitis B can range from mild to severe and may include fatigue, loss of appetite, nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain, dark urine, pale stools, joint pain, and jaundice (yellowing of the skin and eyes). In some cases, hepatitis B can be asymptomatic, meaning that individuals may not experience any symptoms at all.

Hepatitis B is diagnosed through blood tests that detect the presence of HBV antigens or antibodies in the body. Treatment for acute hepatitis B typically involves rest, hydration, and medication to manage symptoms, while chronic hepatitis B may require ongoing therapy with antiviral drugs to suppress the virus and prevent liver damage.

Preventive measures for hepatitis B include vaccination, which is recommended for individuals at high risk of infection, such as healthcare workers, sexually active individuals, and those traveling to areas where HBV is common. In addition, safe sex practices, avoiding sharing of needles or other bodily fluids, and proper sterilization of medical equipment can help reduce the risk of transmission.

Overall, hepatitis B is a serious infection that can have long-term consequences for liver health, and it is important to take preventive measures and seek medical attention if symptoms persist or worsen over time.

A disease that affects pigs, including viral, bacterial, and parasitic infections, as well as genetic disorders and nutritional deficiencies. Some common swine diseases include:

1. Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome (PRRS): A highly contagious viral disease that can cause reproductive failure, respiratory problems, and death.
2. Swine Influenza: A viral infection similar to human influenza, which can cause fever, coughing, and pneumonia in pigs.
3. Erysipelas: A bacterial infection that causes high fever, loss of appetite, and skin lesions in pigs.
4. Actinobacillosis: A bacterial infection that can cause pneumonia, arthritis, and abscesses in pigs.
5. Parasitic infections: Such as gastrointestinal parasites like roundworms and tapeworms, which can cause diarrhea, anemia, and weight loss in pigs.
6. Scrapie: A degenerative neurological disorder that affects pigs and other animals, causing confusion, aggression, and eventually death.
7. Nutritional deficiencies: Such as a lack of vitamin E or selenium, which can cause a range of health problems in pigs, including muscular dystrophy and anemia.
8. Genetic disorders: Such as achondroplasia, a condition that causes dwarfism and deformities in pigs.
9. Environmental diseases: Such as heat stress, which can cause a range of health problems in pigs, including respiratory distress and death.

It's important to note that many swine diseases have similar symptoms, making accurate diagnosis by a veterinarian essential for effective treatment and control.

Hepatitis A is typically spread through contaminated food and water or through close contact with someone who has the infection. The virus can also be spread through sexual contact or sharing of needles.

Symptoms of hepatitis A usually appear two to six weeks after exposure and can last for several weeks or months. In some cases, the infection can lead to complications such as liver failure, which can be life-threatening.

There is a vaccine available for hepatitis A, which is recommended for individuals traveling to areas where the virus is common, people who engage in high-risk behaviors, and those with chronic liver disease. Treatment for hepatitis A typically focuses on relieving symptoms and supporting the liver as it recovers. In severe cases, hospitalization may be necessary.

Preventive measures to reduce the risk of hepatitis A infection include maintaining good hygiene practices, such as washing hands frequently, especially before eating or preparing food; avoiding consumption of raw or undercooked shellfish, particularly oysters; and avoiding close contact with people who have the infection.

There are several types of hepatitis C, including genotype 1, which is the most common and accounts for approximately 70% of cases in the United States. Other genotypes include 2, 3, 4, 5, and 6. The symptoms of hepatitis C can range from mild to severe and may include fatigue, fever, loss of appetite, nausea, vomiting, joint pain, jaundice (yellowing of the skin and eyes), dark urine, pale stools, and itching all over the body. Some people with hepatitis C may not experience any symptoms at all.

Hepatitis C is diagnosed through a combination of blood tests that detect the presence of antibodies against HCV or the virus itself. Treatment typically involves a combination of medications, including interferon and ribavirin, which can cure the infection but may have side effects such as fatigue, nausea, and depression. In recent years, new drugs known as direct-acting antivirals (DAAs) have become available, which can cure the infection with fewer side effects and in a shorter period of time.

Prevention measures for hepatitis C include avoiding sharing needles or other drug paraphernalia, using condoms to prevent sexual transmission, and ensuring that any tattoos or piercings are performed with sterilized equipment. Vaccines are also available for people who are at high risk of contracting the virus, such as healthcare workers and individuals who engage in high-risk behaviors.

Overall, hepatitis C is a serious and common liver disease that can lead to significant health complications if left untreated. Fortunately, with advances in medical technology and treatment options, it is possible to manage and cure the virus with proper care and attention.

Note: This definition may have some variations in different contexts and medical fields.

Hepatitis, chronic is a type of liver disease that is characterized by inflammation and damage to the liver, which can lead to scarring, cirrhosis, and potentially liver failure. It is caused by a variety of factors, including viral infections (such as hepatitis B and C), alcohol consumption, and autoimmune disorders.

Chronic hepatitis can be challenging to diagnose, as its symptoms are often nonspecific and may resemble those of other conditions. However, some common signs and symptoms include:

* Fatigue
* Loss of appetite
* Nausea and vomiting
* Abdominal pain
* Yellowing of the skin and eyes (jaundice)
* Dark urine
* Pale stools

If left untreated, chronic hepatitis can lead to serious complications, such as liver failure, liver cancer, and esophageal varices. Treatment options for chronic hepatitis depend on the underlying cause and may include medications, lifestyle changes, and in severe cases, liver transplantation.

Preventing Chronic Hepatitis:

While some forms of chronic hepatitis are incurable, there are steps you can take to prevent the development of this condition or slow its progression. These include:

* Avoiding alcohol or drinking in moderation
* Maintaining a healthy diet and lifestyle
* Getting vaccinated against hepatitis A and B
* Practicing safe sex to avoid sexually transmitted infections (STIs)
* Avoiding sharing needles or other drug-injecting equipment
* Seeking medical attention if you suspect you have been exposed to hepatitis

Managing Chronic Hepatitis:

If you have chronic hepatitis, managing the condition is crucial to prevent complications and improve quality of life. This may involve:

* Medications to treat the underlying cause of the hepatitis (e.g., antiviral drugs for hepatitis B or C)
* Lifestyle changes, such as avoiding alcohol and maintaining a healthy diet
* Regular monitoring of liver function and viral load
* In some cases, liver transplantation

Living with Chronic Hepatitis:

Living with chronic hepatitis can be challenging, but there are resources available to help you cope. These may include:

* Support groups for people with hepatitis and their families
* Counseling to address emotional and mental health concerns
* Educational resources to help you understand the condition and its management
* Legal assistance to navigate insurance and disability benefits

Conclusion:

Chronic hepatitis is a complex and multifactorial condition that can have serious consequences if left untreated. However, with early diagnosis, appropriate treatment, and lifestyle changes, it is possible to manage the condition and improve quality of life. By understanding the causes, symptoms, diagnosis, and management of chronic hepatitis, you can take an active role in your healthcare and make informed decisions about your care.

There are several types of hepatitis, including:

1. Hepatitis A: This type is caused by the hepatitis A virus (HAV) and is usually transmitted through contaminated food or water or through close contact with someone who has the infection.
2. Hepatitis B: This type is caused by the hepatitis B virus (HBV) and can be spread through sexual contact, sharing of needles, or mother-to-child transmission during childbirth.
3. Hepatitis C: This type is caused by the hepatitis C virus (HCV) and is primarily spread through blood-to-blood contact, such as sharing of needles or receiving a tainted blood transfusion.
4. Alcoholic hepatitis: This type is caused by excessive alcohol consumption and can lead to inflammation and scarring in the liver.
5. Drug-induced hepatitis: This type is caused by certain medications, such as antidepressants, anti-seizure drugs, or chemotherapy agents.
6. Autoimmune hepatitis: This type is caused by an abnormal immune response and can lead to inflammation in the liver.

Symptoms of hepatitis may include fatigue, loss of appetite, nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain, dark urine, pale stools, and yellowing of the skin (jaundice). In severe cases, it can lead to liver failure or even death.

Diagnosis of hepatitis is typically made through a combination of physical examination, laboratory tests such as blood tests and imaging studies like ultrasound or CT scans. Treatment options vary depending on the cause and severity of the condition, but may include medications to manage symptoms, antiviral therapy, or in severe cases, liver transplantation. Prevention measures for hepatitis include vaccination against certain types of the disease, practicing safe sex, avoiding sharing needles or other drug paraphernalia, and following proper hygiene practices.

In conclusion, hepatitis is a serious condition that affects millions of people worldwide. It is important to be aware of the different types of hepatitis and their causes in order to prevent and manage this condition effectively. By taking appropriate measures such as getting vaccinated and practicing safe sex, individuals can reduce their risk of contracting hepatitis. In severe cases, early diagnosis and treatment can help to minimize damage to the liver and improve outcomes for patients.

The symptoms of chronic hepatitis C may be mild or absent, but some people experience fatigue, joint pain, muscle aches, nausea, loss of appetite, and jaundice (yellowing of the skin and eyes).

Chronic hepatitis C is usually diagnosed through blood tests that detect the presence of antibodies against HCV or the virus itself. Imaging tests such as ultrasound and liver biopsy may also be performed to assess the extent of liver damage.

Treatment for chronic hepatitis C typically involves a combination of medications, including interferon and ribavirin, which can help clear the virus from the body. In severe cases, a liver transplant may be necessary. Prevention of the spread of HCV includes avoiding sharing of needles or other sharp objects, practicing safe sex, and getting tested for the virus before donating blood or organs.

See also: Hepatitis C; Liver; Virus

A persistent infection with the hepatitis B virus (HBV) that can lead to liver cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. HBV is a bloodborne pathogen and can be spread through contact with infected blood, sexual contact, or vertical transmission from mother to child during childbirth.

Chronic hepatitis B is characterized by the presence of HBsAg in the blood for more than 6 months, indicating that the virus is still present in the liver. The disease can be asymptomatic or symptomatic, with symptoms such as fatigue, malaise, loss of appetite, nausea, vomiting, joint pain, and jaundice.

Chronic hepatitis B is diagnosed through serological tests such as HBsAg, anti-HBc, and HBV DNA. Treatment options include interferon alpha and nucleos(t)ide analogues, which can slow the progression of the disease but do not cure it.

Prevention strategies for chronic hepatitis B include vaccination with hepatitis B vaccine, which is effective in preventing acute and chronic HBV infection, as well as avoidance of risky behaviors such as unprotected sex and sharing of needles.

1. Influenza (flu): Caused by the influenza virus, which is an RNA virus that affects the respiratory system and can cause fever, cough, sore throat, and body aches.
2. HIV/AIDS: Caused by the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), which is an RNA virus that attacks the body's immune system and can lead to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS).
3. Hepatitis B: Caused by the hepatitis B virus, which is an RNA virus that infects the liver and can cause inflammation, scarring, and cancer.
4. Measles: Caused by the measles virus, which is an RNA virus that affects the respiratory system and can cause fever, cough, and a rash.
5. Rabies: Caused by the rabies virus, which is an RNA virus that attacks the central nervous system and can cause brain damage and death.
6. Ebola: Caused by the Ebola virus, which is an RNA virus that affects the blood vessels and can cause fever, vomiting, diarrhea, and bleeding.
7. SARS-CoV-2: Caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome-related coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), which is an RNA virus that affects the respiratory system and can cause COVID-19.

RNA virus infections are often difficult to treat and can be highly contagious, so it's important to take precautions to prevent transmission and seek medical attention if symptoms persist or worsen over time.

Jaundice is typically diagnosed through physical examination and laboratory tests such as blood tests to measure bilirubin levels. Treatment depends on the underlying cause, but may include medications to reduce bilirubin production or increase its excretion, or surgery to remove blockages in the bile ducts.

Here are some of the synonyms for Jaundice:

1. Yellow fever
2. Yellow jaundice
3. Hepatitis
4. Gallstones
5. Cholestasis
6. Obstruction of the bile ducts
7. Biliary tract disease
8. Hemochromatosis
9. Sickle cell anemia
10. Crigler-Najjar syndrome

Here are some of the antonyms for Jaundice:

1. Pinkness
2. Normal skin color
3. Healthy liver function
4. Bilirubin levels within normal range
5. No signs of liver disease or obstruction of bile ducts.

Some common poultry diseases include:

1. Avian influenza (bird flu): A highly contagious viral disease that affects birds and can be transmitted to humans.
2. Newcastle disease: A viral disease that causes respiratory and gastrointestinal symptoms in birds.
3. Infectious bronchitis: A viral disease that causes respiratory symptoms in birds.
4. Marek's disease: A viral disease that affects the nervous system of birds.
5. Coccidiosis: A parasitic disease caused by the Eimeria protozoa, which can cause diarrhea and weight loss in birds.
6. Chicken anemia virus: A viral disease that causes anemia and weakened immune systems in chickens.
7. Fowl pox: A viral disease that causes skin lesions and other symptoms in birds.
8. Avian encephalomyelitis (AE): A viral disease that affects the brain and spinal cord of birds, causing neurological symptoms such as paralysis and death.
9. Mycoplasmosis: A bacterial disease caused by the Mycoplasma bacteria, which can cause respiratory and other symptoms in birds.
10. Aspergillosis: A fungal disease that affects the respiratory system of birds, causing symptoms such as coughing and difficulty breathing.

Poultry diseases can have a significant impact on bird health and productivity, and can also be transmitted to humans in some cases. It is important for poultry farmers and owners to monitor their flocks closely and take steps to prevent the spread of disease, such as providing clean water and feed, maintaining good hygiene, and vaccinating birds against certain diseases.

The exact cause of autoimmune hepatitis is not fully understood, but it is believed to involve a combination of genetic and environmental factors. The condition can occur in people of all ages, although it is most common in women between the ages of 20 and 40.

Symptoms of autoimmune hepatitis may include fatigue, loss of appetite, nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain, dark urine, pale stools, and yellowing of the skin and eyes (jaundice). If left untreated, the condition can lead to liver failure and even death.

Treatment for autoimmune hepatitis typically involves medications to suppress the immune system and reduce inflammation in the liver. In severe cases, a liver transplant may be necessary. Early diagnosis and treatment can improve the chances of a successful outcome.

Examples of acute diseases include:

1. Common cold and flu
2. Pneumonia and bronchitis
3. Appendicitis and other abdominal emergencies
4. Heart attacks and strokes
5. Asthma attacks and allergic reactions
6. Skin infections and cellulitis
7. Urinary tract infections
8. Sinusitis and meningitis
9. Gastroenteritis and food poisoning
10. Sprains, strains, and fractures.

Acute diseases can be treated effectively with antibiotics, medications, or other therapies. However, if left untreated, they can lead to chronic conditions or complications that may require long-term care. Therefore, it is important to seek medical attention promptly if symptoms persist or worsen over time.

The hepatitis D virus is transmitted through contact with infected blood or through sexual contact with an infected person. It can also be spread from mother to child during pregnancy or childbirth. Hepatitis D is a critical illness, and it can lead to liver failure, especially in people who are already infected with HBV.

There are two main types of hepatitis D: acute and chronic. Acute hepatitis D lasts for less than six months and typically resolves on its own without treatment. Chronic hepatitis D, on the other hand, can last for more than six months and can cause long-term liver damage.

Treatment for hepatitis D usually involves a combination of medications to manage symptoms and reduce inflammation in the liver. In severe cases, a liver transplant may be necessary. Prevention methods for hepatitis D include getting vaccinated against HBV, practicing safe sex, and avoiding sharing needles or other drug equipment.

Hepatitis D is a serious condition that can lead to complications such as liver failure, so it is important to seek medical attention if symptoms persist or worsen over time.

In animals, hepatitis can be caused by a variety of agents, including:

1. Viral hepatitis: Caused by viruses such as feline infectious peritonitis (FIP) in cats and canine infectious hepatitis (CIH) in dogs.
2. Bacterial hepatitis: Caused by bacteria such as Leptospira spp., which can be transmitted through contact with contaminated water or soil.
3. Parasitic hepatitis: Caused by parasites such as liver flukes (Fasciola spp.) and tapeworms (Taenia spp.).
4. Toxic hepatitis: Caused by exposure to certain drugs, chemicals, or environmental toxins.
5. Genetic hepatitis: Caused by inherited genetic disorders such as hemophilia in dogs and cats.

The clinical signs of animal hepatitis can vary depending on the cause and severity of the disease, but may include lethargy, loss of appetite, vomiting, diarrhea, abdominal pain, and jaundice (yellowing of the skin and eyes). Diagnosis is based on a combination of physical examination, laboratory tests (such as blood tests and liver biopsy), and imaging studies.

Treatment of animal hepatitis depends on the underlying cause and may include supportive care, antibiotics, anti-inflammatory medications, and in some cases, surgery or liver transplantation. In severe cases, animal hepatitis can be fatal if left untreated, so early diagnosis and aggressive treatment are essential for a successful outcome.

Viremia is a condition where the virus is present in the bloodstream, outside of infected cells or tissues. This can occur during the acute phase of an infection, when the virus is actively replicating and spreading throughout the body. Viremia can also be seen in chronic infections, where the virus may persist in the blood for longer periods of time.

In some cases, viremia can lead to the development of antibodies against the virus, which can help to neutralize it and prevent its spread. However, if the viremia is not controlled, it can cause serious complications, such as sepsis or organ damage.

Diagnosis of viremia typically involves laboratory tests, such as PCR (polymerase chain reaction) or ELISA (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay), which can detect the presence of virus in the blood. Treatment of viremia depends on the underlying cause and may include antiviral medications, supportive care, and management of any related complications.

Some common types of monkey diseases include:

1. Simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV): A virus that affects nonhuman primates and is closely related to the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). SIV can be transmitted to humans through contact with infected animals or contaminated needles.
2. Ebola virus disease: A severe and often deadly illness caused by the Ebola virus, which is transmitted through contact with infected bodily fluids.
3. Herpes B virus: A virus that can cause a range of illnesses in nonhuman primates, including respiratory infections, skin lesions, and neurological symptoms.
4. Tuberculosis: A bacterial infection that affects both humans and nonhuman primates, and is transmitted through the air when an infected animal or person coughs or sneezes.
5. Rabies: A viral infection that affects the central nervous system and can be transmitted to humans through contact with infected animals, usually through bites or scratches.
6. Yellow fever: A viral infection that is transmitted to humans through the bite of an infected mosquito, and can cause fever, jaundice, and hemorrhagic symptoms.
7. Kyasanur Forest disease: A viral infection that is transmitted to humans through the bite of an infected tick, and can cause fever, headache, and hemorrhagic symptoms.
8. Monkeypox: A viral infection that is similar to smallpox and is transmitted to humans through contact with infected animals or contaminated surfaces.
9. Meningitis: An inflammation of the membranes surrounding the brain and spinal cord, which can be caused by a range of bacterial and viral infections.
10. Encephalitis: An inflammation of the brain, which can be caused by a range of viral and bacterial infections.

It is important to note that many of these diseases are rare in humans and may not be commonly encountered in everyday practice. However, it is important for healthcare providers to be aware of these diseases and their potential transmission routes in order to provide appropriate care and prevention measures for patients.

1. Common cold: A viral infection that affects the upper respiratory tract and causes symptoms such as sneezing, running nose, coughing, and mild fever.
2. Influenza (flu): A viral infection that can cause severe respiratory illness, including pneumonia, bronchitis, and sinus and ear infections.
3. Measles: A highly contagious viral infection that causes fever, rashes, coughing, and redness of the eyes.
4. Rubella (German measles): A mild viral infection that can cause fever, rashes, headache, and swollen lymph nodes.
5. Chickenpox: A highly contagious viral infection that causes fever, itching, and a characteristic rash of small blisters on the skin.
6. Herpes simplex virus (HSV): A viral infection that can cause genital herpes, cold sores, or other skin lesions.
7. Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV): A viral infection that attacks the immune system and can lead to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS).
8. Hepatitis B: A viral infection that affects the liver, causing inflammation and damage to liver cells.
9. Hepatitis C: Another viral infection that affects the liver, often leading to chronic liver disease and liver cancer.
10. Ebola: A deadly viral infection that causes fever, vomiting, diarrhea, and internal bleeding.
11. SARS (severe acute respiratory syndrome): A viral infection that can cause severe respiratory illness, including pneumonia and respiratory failure.
12. West Nile virus: A viral infection that can cause fever, headache, and muscle pain, as well as more severe symptoms such as meningitis or encephalitis.

Viral infections can be spread through contact with an infected person or contaminated surfaces, objects, or insects such as mosquitoes. Prevention strategies include:

1. Practicing good hygiene, such as washing hands frequently and thoroughly.
2. Avoiding close contact with people who are sick.
3. Covering the mouth and nose when coughing or sneezing.
4. Avoiding sharing personal items such as towels or utensils.
5. Using condoms or other barrier methods during sexual activity.
6. Getting vaccinated against certain viral infections, such as HPV and hepatitis B.
7. Using insect repellents to prevent mosquito bites.
8. Screening blood products and organs for certain viruses before transfusion or transplantation.

Treatment for viral infections depends on the specific virus and the severity of the illness. Antiviral medications may be used to reduce the replication of the virus and alleviate symptoms. In severe cases, hospitalization may be necessary to provide supportive care such as intravenous fluids, oxygen therapy, or mechanical ventilation.

Prevention is key in avoiding viral infections, so taking the necessary precautions and practicing good hygiene can go a long way in protecting oneself and others from these common and potentially debilitating illnesses.

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  • Antibody and antigen tests can detect each of the different hepatitis viruses. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Hepatitis B surface antigen in hepatocytes of an HBV transgenic mouse. (nih.gov)
  • Hepatitis B surface antigen is absent in a preneoplastic focus from an HBV transgenic mouse. (nih.gov)
  • Testing to identify pregnant women who are hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg)-positive and providing their infants with immunoprophylaxis effec- tively prevents HBV transmission during the perinatal period (4,5). (cdc.gov)
  • The risk of perinatal HBV infection among infants born to HBV-infected mothers ranges from 10% to 85%, depending on each mother's hepatitis B e antigen (HBeAg) status (3,7,8). (cdc.gov)
  • Credit Illustration of the hepatitis B virus e-antigen. (nih.gov)
  • A relatively small and simple virus, HBV has three major clinical antigens that elicit an immune response: the surface antigen (which is also used safely and effectively to vaccinate individuals against HBV), the core antigen (HBcAg), and the e-antigen (HBeAg). (nih.gov)
  • The HBV core antigen and the e-antigen are basically two versions of the same protein, but the core antigen is important for virus production, while the e-antigen is not. (nih.gov)
  • In addition, the core antigen assembles into the shell (capsid) that houses the genetic material of the virus, while the e-antigen is secreted into the bloodstream in an unassembled form. (nih.gov)
  • The three main serologic markers used to determine HBV infection status are hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg), antibody to hepatitis B surface antigen (anti-HBs), and antibody to hepatitis B core antigen (anti-HBc) ( Table 1 ). (cdc.gov)
  • It contains a circular or linear RNA genome surrounded by a nucleocapsid protein called HDV antigen which is in turn surrounded by an envelope consisting of Hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) Footnote 2 . (canada.ca)
  • Hepatitis B virus (HBV) surface antigen particles (sAg) isolated from sera were used as the first HBV vaccine, and may be developed into a platform to display designed antigens. (nih.gov)
  • HCV is not related to hepatitis viruses A, B, D, and E. While vaccines are available for hepatitis A and B, currently no vaccine is available to prevent hepatitis C infection. (nih.gov)
  • This prevention strategy includes making hepatitis B vaccine a part of routine vaccination schedules for all infants. (cdc.gov)
  • Immunization with hepatitis B vaccine is the most effective means of preventing HBV infection and its consequences. (cdc.gov)
  • Integrating hepatitis B vaccine into childhood vaccination schedules in populations with high rates of childhood infection (e.g. (cdc.gov)
  • The recommendations for implementing this strategy include making hepatitis B vaccine a part of routine vaccination schedules for infants. (cdc.gov)
  • More than 90% of these infections can be prevented if HBsAg-positive mothers are identified so that their infants can receive hepatitis B vaccine and hepatitis B immune globulin (HBIG) soon after birth (4,5). (cdc.gov)
  • Personnel exposed to HDV can be given the vaccine for hepatitis B virus and/or hepatitis B immunoglobulin to prevent coinfection of HBV and HDV Footnote 6 . (canada.ca)
  • The difficulty in ensuring vaccine coverage in this population would support calls for including hepatitis B vaccination as part of childhood immunization. (nih.gov)
  • The eradication of HCV will require improved access to diagnosis and treatment, an enhanced understanding of virus-host interactions, and the development of an effective vaccine. (cshlpress.com)
  • Direct-acting antiviral regimens to treat infected patients, the impacts of those treatments on hepatitis C epidemiology, and obstacles to HCV elimination (e.g., vaccine development) are also covered. (cshlpress.com)
  • Yet, they could be protected by at least three hepatitis B vaccine shots, with the first shot given within 24 hours of birth (birth dose) followed by 2 or 3 additional shots during infancy, according to the World Health Organization (WHO) recommendations. (cdc.gov)
  • Some countries want to know the number of children infected with HBV either before introducing hepatitis B vaccine birth dose or to ensure all children have access to the vaccine. (cdc.gov)
  • Haiti's MOH can use the results from the survey to guide them on the importance of adding the hepatitis B vaccine birth dose to the recommended vaccine schedule. (cdc.gov)
  • In the Philippines, the National Immunization Program (NIP) offers the hepatitis B vaccine birth dose followed by 3 doses of the hepatitis B vaccine, but not enough children receive all the vaccines. (cdc.gov)
  • These two surveys highlight CDC's role assisting countries find out how many children have HBV infection, and find out how well the country's immunization program is doing to reach children with the hepatitis B vaccine. (cdc.gov)
  • Pawlotsky J-M. Acute viral hepatitis. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Pawlotsky J-M. Chronic viral and autoimmune hepatitis. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Recommendations concerning the prevention of other types of viral hepatitis are found in MMWR 1990;39(No. RR-2): 1-8, 22-26. (cdc.gov)
  • Production of enveloped RNA virus-like particles intracellularly in vitro in insect cells using a recombinant baculovirus vector containing a cDNA coding for viral structural proteins is disclosed. (nih.gov)
  • To provide a framework for reaching the World Health Organization's viral hepatitis elimination goals, the Viral Hepatitis National Strategic Plan for the United States calls for an increase in the proportion of persons with HBV infection who are aware of their infection from 32% (2013-2016) to 90% by 2030 ( 12 , 13 ). (cdc.gov)
  • Hepatitis A virus (HAV), transmitted by the faecal-oral route, is one of the main causes of acute viral hepatitis globally (1). (who.int)
  • Viral infections in short-term injection drug users: the prevalence of the hepatitis C, hepatitis B, human immunodeficiency, and human T-lymphotropic viruses. (eurosurveillance.org)
  • A highly sensitive, non-probe-based, real-time quantitative reverse transcriptase PCR was developed for viral load measurements in both serum and liver samples from patients with hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection. (edu.au)
  • There was a strong correlation between hepatic and serum viral load measurements (r = 0.689, P = 0.004, n = 15), indicating that the level of viremia reflected the amount of virus present in the liver. (edu.au)
  • Please say a few words about viral hepatitis. (nih.gov)
  • Viral hepatitis is an infection of the liver that causes inflammation and can lead to scarring, or cirrhosis. (nih.gov)
  • Bearno's responded with an offer to reimburse customers for "out of pocket" expenses if they get the hepatitis A vaccination because they may have been exposed to the virus. (whas11.com)
  • In response to the health alert, the owners of the Bearno's Pizza Westport Road franchise location have partnered with Bearno's, Inc., the franchisor of the local pizza chain, to offer to reimburse any "out of pocket" costs to any customers who decide to get the hepatitis A vaccination shot because they visited the location during the exposure period of April 8 to April 22. (whas11.com)
  • As a pediatric infectious disease doctor and an epidemiologist with CDC's Global Immunization Division, my primary commitment is to the health of children around the world, which includes helping countries follow WHO hepatitis B vaccination guidelines. (cdc.gov)
  • CDC will continue to provide technical and financial support to generate the evidence to introduce the birth dose and improve hepatitis B vaccination around the world to avoid the tragic consequences of hepatitis B as we work toward the worldwide hepatitis B 2030 elimination goal. (cdc.gov)
  • However, people are still many susceptible, indicating the need for hepatitis A virus vaccination in the country. (who.int)
  • HAV infection can be prevented through immunization and HAV vaccination can be used for prophylaxis pre- and post-exposure to the virus. (who.int)
  • Most infections become chronic, as the body is unable to get rid of the virus. (nih.gov)
  • The reported incidence of acute hepatitis B increased by 37% from 1979 to 1989, and an estimated 200,000-300,000 new infections occurred annually during the period 1980- 1991. (cdc.gov)
  • Incidence, risk factors, and implemented prophylaxis of varicella zoster virus infection, including complicated varicella zoster virus and herpes simplex virus infections, in lenalidomide-treated multiple myeloma patients. (nih.gov)
  • As a member of the Western Pacific Region, the Philippines has set its goal to reduce the number of hepatitis B infections to less than 1 out 100 children. (cdc.gov)
  • To increase the pool of available donors, many transplant programs in the United States now accept donors with active hepatitis C virus (HCV) infections. (centerwatch.com)
  • The researchers are aware that Chlorella cannot cure hepatitis-C type-1 virus infections. (ironmagazine.com)
  • In a long arc of discovery rooted in basic, translational, and clinical research that spanned several decades, Alter and his colleagues doggedly pursued biological clues that at first led to tests, then life-saving treatments, and, today, the very real hope of eradicating the global health threat posed by hepatitis C infections. (nih.gov)
  • The researchers found that all children infected with AAV2 had co-infection with a "helper" virus - either human herpesvirus 6 or Epstein-Barr virus - that might promote AAV2 replication. (cnn.com)
  • The life cycle of the virus, with special attention to virus replication, polypeptide production, and morphogenesis, is described. (nih.gov)
  • This may be a new infection (acute hepatitis), or it may be an infection that you have had for a long time ( chronic hepatitis). (medlineplus.gov)
  • AAV2 was present among nearly all of the children with unexplained acute hepatitis, and many were infected with multiple helper viruses, the researchers found. (cnn.com)
  • There are two major types of infection, HDV and HBV coinfection and HDV superinfection in individuals with chronic hepatitis B. Coinfection results in clinical hepatitis which is indistinguishable from acute hepatitis B Footnote 4 . (canada.ca)
  • HDV superinfection generally causes severe acute hepatitis and leads to chronic hepatitis D infection in 90% of cases Footnote 1 . (canada.ca)
  • The Louisville Department of Health and Wellness released the information today that an employee of the Bearno's Pizza Westport Road location at 9222 Westport Road has been diagnosed with acute hepatitis A. As a result, customers who ate at the franchise restaurant from April 8 to April 22, 2018 may have been exposed to the hepatitis A virus. (whas11.com)
  • Goreal A. Seroprevalence of anti-hepatitis A virus antibody in Iraq. (who.int)
  • Some proteins on the surface of HCV constantly change, allowing the virus to evade the immune system. (nih.gov)
  • called hepatitis B immune globulin (HBIG). (nih.gov)
  • On the diagnosis of varicella-zoster virus (VZV) hepatitis, acyclovir, immune globulin and plasmapheresis were given with a favorable outcome. (nih.gov)
  • Children were suddenly exposed to a barrage of viruses after lockdowns or had poorly trained immune systems that led to an increased susceptibility to otherwise harmless viruses," Dr. Frank Tacke, a gastroenterologist from Germany who was not involved with the research, wrote in an editorial published alongside the new studies. (cnn.com)
  • The objective of this study is to determine the safety and efficacy of transplanting lungs from hepatitis B virus (HBV) nucleic acid test positive (NAT+) donors into HBV vaccinated HBV surface antibody positive (sAb+) lung transplant candidates, who will then be treated with Hepatitis B Immune Globulin (HBIG) and entecavir, tenofovir disoproxil, or tenofovir alafenamide. (centerwatch.com)
  • Following transplant, recipients are treated with Hepatitis B Immune Globulin (HBIG) and life-long antiviral therapy. (centerwatch.com)
  • If the immune system doesn't manage to control the virus, or no medical treatment is available, the longer-term effects include fibrosis of the liver, cirrhosis and ultimately liver cancer. (ironmagazine.com)
  • Determining prevalence: In the absence of existing data for hepatitis C prevalence, health care providers should initiate universal hepatitis C screening until they establish that the prevalence of HCV RNA positivity in their population is less than 0.1%, at which point universal screening is no longer explicitly recommended but may occur at the provider's discretion. (cdc.gov)
  • A normal result means no hepatitis antibodies or antigens are found in the blood sample. (medlineplus.gov)
  • The second was the hepatitis B virus, which has a blood-borne transmission, typically from blood transfusions. (nih.gov)
  • In the 1970s, we realized that some other agent was causing most of the hepatitis from blood transfusions. (nih.gov)
  • So, even though you screened donor units for the hepatitis B virus to eliminate tainted blood, people were still getting hepatitis from blood transfusions. (nih.gov)
  • A myriad of agents can potentially be transmitted through blood transfusions, including bacteria, viruses, and parasites. (medscape.com)
  • Effective vaccines to prevent hepatitis B are available. (cdc.gov)
  • Hepatitis E Virus refl ects the total adult population with respect to age, Seroprevalence sex, and geographic region, but persons with migration background are underrepresented (non-German citizenship among Adults, 4.6% in the sample vs. 8.7% in the total adult population). (cdc.gov)
  • Hepatitis A virus infection is widespread in Iraq, therefore, assessing its seroprevalence is important for infection control at the community level. (who.int)
  • Hepatitis A virus seroprevalence in Iraq has been declining since the past decade, indicating intermediate-to-low endemicity of hepatitis A virus. (who.int)
  • Blood (serology) tests are used to check for antibodies to each of the hepatitis viruses. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Antibodies to hepatitis C can most often be detected 4 to 10 weeks after you get the infection. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Seven of 43 (16%) admitted prostitutes compared with 1 of 44 (2%) other street youth and none of 27 controls demonstrated anti-hepatitis B surface antibodies. (nih.gov)
  • The USPSTF recommends screening for hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection in adults aged 18 to 79 years. (cdc.gov)
  • Tenofovir disoproxil fumarate is a nucleotide analog reverse transcriptase inhibitor recently approved by the United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for the treatment of chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection in adults. (nih.gov)
  • Efficacy and safety of Chlorella supplementation in adults with chronic hepatitis C virus infection. (ironmagazine.com)
  • On 2 March 2022 Namibians applauded their government for declaring an end to the Hepatitis E Virus (HEV) outbreak. (who.int)
  • WHO received additional support of N$ 4 million from the Government of Japan which strengthened the support WHO provided to the government to control the HEP E Virus outbreak. (who.int)
  • An outbreak of acute severe, unexplained hepatitis in previously healthy children in 2022 may be linked to adeno-associated virus 2, or AAV2, according to three independent studies published Thursday in the journal Nature. (cnn.com)
  • In November, the Kentucky Department for Public Health declared a statewide hepatitis A outbreak. (whas11.com)
  • Tenofovir disoproxil fumarate in the treatment of chronic hepatitis B. (nih.gov)
  • They write: "Nevertheless, we conclude from our present findings that the benefits of Chlorella administration in the treatment of chronic hepatitis C-virus infection before and/or during the administration of interferon plus antiviral drugs, as well as the effects of Chlorella upon chronic infection by other hepatitis C-virus genotypes, warrant further study. (ironmagazine.com)
  • The primary objectives of this study are to evaluate the antiviral efficacy, safety, and tolerability of treatment with ledipasvir/sofosbuvir (LDV/SOF) fixed-dose combination (FDC) in participants with genotypes 1 and 4 hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection and sofosbuvir (SOF) plus ribavirin (RBV) in participants with genotypes 2 and 3 HCV infection. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • The hepatitis C virus (HCV) attacks the liver, leading to inflammation. (nih.gov)
  • Hepatitis means inflammation of the liver. (nih.gov)
  • Between April and July 2022, more than 1,000 children worldwide - at least 350 of them in the United States - were diagnosed with hepatitis, a disease involving liver inflammation, with no known cause. (cnn.com)
  • 82]. Nucleic acidity polymers are amphipathic oligonucleotides proven to possess both admittance and postentry antiviral activity in the duck hepatitis B pathogen model and will be engineered to eliminate the supplementary proinflammatory and immunostimulatory results connected with single-strand nucleic acids? (exposed-skin-care.net)
  • Recommendations for Identification and Public Health Management of Persons with Chronic Hepatitis B Virus Infection (MMWR Recomm Rep 2008;57[No. RR-8]) regarding screening for HBV infection in the United States . (cdc.gov)
  • However, this strategy has not lowered the incidence of hepatitis B, primarily because vaccinating persons engaged in high-risk behaviors, life-styles, or occupations before they become infected generally has not been feasible. (cdc.gov)
  • This document provides the rationale for a comprehensive strategy to eliminate transmission of HBV and ultimately reduce the incidence of hepatitis B and hepatitis B-associated chronic liver disease in the United States. (cdc.gov)
  • Monitoring hepatitis C virus (HCV) incidence is important for assessing intervention impact. (eurosurveillance.org)
  • Quantitative synthetic RNA for Hepatitis C virus can be used for assay development, verification, and validation as well as monitoring of day-to-day test variation and lot-to-lot performance of molecular-based assays. (atcc.org)
  • The overall impact of this work should increase the number of infants protected against hepatitis B. (cdc.gov)
  • Hepatitis C is a liver disease caused by infection with the hepatitis C virus (HCV), a bloodborne pathogen. (cshlpress.com)
  • Multiple regression analysis was performed to determine the factors which might predict hepatitis B serologic status. (nih.gov)
  • Persistent hepatitis B virus infection is usually a worldwide health concern since it affects more than 240 million people world-wide and around 686,000 people die annually due to complications of the condition. (exposed-skin-care.net)
  • A cumulative total of 8 092 Hepatitis E cases were reported nationally as of 30 January 2022, of which 2 124 (26.2%) were laboratory confirmed, 4 738 (58.6%) cases were epidemiologically linked, and 1 230 (15.2%) cases were suspected cases. (who.int)
  • Your provider may order this test if you have signs or symptoms of hepatitis. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Symptoms of hepatitis A are fatigue, decreased appetite, stomach pain, nausea, darkened urine, pale stools and jaundice (yellowing of the skin and eyes). (whas11.com)
  • Prior to this current health alert, other Bearno's locations have hosted Health Department officials to educate staff on hepatitis A prevention and have offered to reimburse employees who have recently decided to get hepatitis A vaccinations. (whas11.com)
  • Left untreated, chronic hepatitis C can cause severe liver disease or liver cancer. (nih.gov)
  • World-wide, some 350 million people are chronically infected with Hepatitis B Virus (HBV), of whom 620,000 die each year from HBV-related liver disease. (nih.gov)
  • Around the world, approximately 257 million people are infected with hepatitis B virus (HBV), and about 700,000 die every year as result of the long-term, chronic health threats from HBV, including liver disease and cancer. (cdc.gov)
  • Over decades of infection, chronic HCV infection results in progressive damage to the liver and an increased risk for end stage liver disease and liver cancer, making the virus the leading cause of liver-related deaths in the United States today. (unc.edu)
  • however, other hepatitis viruses are susceptible to 1-2% glutaraldehyde, 6-10% hydrogen peroxide, 8-12% formaldehyde, iodophores (40-50 mg/L free iodine), chlorine compounds (500-5000 mg/L free chlorine), and 0.5-3% phenolic compounds Footnote 6 . (canada.ca)
  • Researchers determined the structure of a protein on the surface of the hepatitis C virus that allows it to gain entry into cells. (nih.gov)
  • Scientists from the National Institute of Arthritis and Musculoskeletal and Skin Diseases (NIAMS), part of the National Institutes of Health, and the University of Oxford, U.K., have shed light on a long-standing enigma about the structure of a protein related to the Hepatitis B virus. (nih.gov)
  • In addition to offering reimbursement to customers for vaccinations, the owners of Bearno's Pizza Westport Road location have, under the guidance of the Louisville Department of Health and Wellness, disinfected the whole restaurant, thoroughly educated the staff about hepatitis A, and scheduled free hepatitis A vaccinations this Wednesday, May 2, 2018, for all Bearno's Westport Road employees who have not yet been vaccinated. (whas11.com)
  • Some kidney and lung transplant programs have extended this strategy to include donors with hepatitis B virus (HBV) viremia. (centerwatch.com)
  • The acute and chronic consequences of hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection are major health problems in the United States. (cdc.gov)
  • Written and edited by experts in the field, this collection from Cold Spring Harbor Perspectives in Medicine examines all aspects of the biology of HCV, the pathological consequences of infection, the current standard of hepatitis C treatment, and ongoing efforts to control the disease. (cshlpress.com)
  • This study provides hepatitis C virus (HCV) screening to members of the World Trade Center cohort followed at the Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai (WTC Health Program, WTCHP) born during 1945-1965, and linkage to care for those found infected. (cdc.gov)
  • Two seropositive prostitutes had IgM hepatitis B core antibody suggesting recent infection. (nih.gov)
  • Note: Hepatitis D only causes disease in people who also have hepatitis B. It is not routinely checked in a hepatitis antibody panel. (medlineplus.gov)
  • This document provides the rationale for a comprehensive strategy to eliminate transmission of hepatitis B virus in the United States. (cdc.gov)
  • Combined therapy is required, consisting of a synthetic version of the immuno-stimulatory protein interferon and a virus inhibitor. (ironmagazine.com)
  • Persons with chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection are at increased risk for liver cancer and cirrhosis and are 70%-85% more likely to die prematurely than the general population ( 1 - 4 ). (cdc.gov)
  • Individuals with chronic hepatitis D can develop cirrhosis (60-70%) or fulminant hepatitis. (canada.ca)
  • Thus adolescents who live on the street are at increased risk for becoming infected with hepatitis B virus. (nih.gov)
  • Molecular virology of hepatitis B virus for clinicians. (nih.gov)
  • This article reviews the molecular biology of the hepatitis B virus in an effort to explain its natural history from a molecular perspective. (nih.gov)
  • For the first time, researchers at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill have identified how the class of antiviral drugs known as NS5A inhibitors interacts with the virus, and their findings show a difference between strains of HCV. (unc.edu)
  • Worldwide, approximately 160 million people are estimated to have chronic hepatitis C. Doctors recommend that people who are at higher risk of getting hepatitis C should be tested for HCV infection. (nih.gov)
  • People can become ill 15 to 50 days after being exposed to the virus. (whas11.com)
  • Millions of people on this planet carry, often without knowing, the hepatitis-C virus [see below]. (ironmagazine.com)
  • In order to find out they did a 12-week experiment with 13 people all of whom had a hepatitis-C type-1 virus infection. (ironmagazine.com)
  • Globally, an estimated 71 million people are living with chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV). (unc.edu)
  • In vitro production and purification of hepatitis C virus (HCV)-like particles containing HCV core protein, E1 protein and E2 protein is disclosed. (nih.gov)