Hepatitis E virus: A positive-stranded RNA virus species in the genus HEPEVIRUS, causing enterically-transmitted non-A, non-B hepatitis (HEPATITIS E).Hepatitis E: Acute INFLAMMATION of the LIVER in humans; caused by HEPATITIS E VIRUS, a non-enveloped single-stranded RNA virus. Similar to HEPATITIS A, its incubation period is 15-60 days and is enterically transmitted, usually by fecal-oral transmission.Hepatitis Antibodies: Immunoglobulins raised by any form of viral hepatitis; some of these antibodies are used to diagnose the specific kind of hepatitis.Hepevirus: An unassigned genus of RNA viruses with a single officially described species, HEPATITIS E VIRUS. A distantly related virus, Avian hepatitis E virus, has been listed as a tentative species. Strains have also been identified in swine. The family name hepeviridae has been proposed.Hepatitis, Viral, Animal: INFLAMMATION of the LIVER in animals due to viral infection.Zoonoses: Diseases of non-human animals that may be transmitted to HUMANS or may be transmitted from humans to non-human animals.Hepatitis B: INFLAMMATION of the LIVER in humans caused by a member of the ORTHOHEPADNAVIRUS genus, HEPATITIS B VIRUS. It is primarily transmitted by parenteral exposure, such as transfusion of contaminated blood or blood products, but can also be transmitted via sexual or intimate personal contact.Swine Diseases: Diseases of domestic swine and of the wild boar of the genus Sus.Hepatitis A: INFLAMMATION of the LIVER in humans caused by a member of the HEPATOVIRUS genus, HUMAN HEPATITIS A VIRUS. It can be transmitted through fecal contamination of food or water.Hepatitis C: INFLAMMATION of the LIVER in humans caused by HEPATITIS C VIRUS, a single-stranded RNA virus. Its incubation period is 30-90 days. Hepatitis C is transmitted primarily by contaminated blood parenterally, and is often associated with transfusion and intravenous drug abuse. However, in a significant number of cases, the source of hepatitis C infection is unknown.RNA, Viral: Ribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.Hepatitis B virus: The type species of the genus ORTHOHEPADNAVIRUS which causes human HEPATITIS B and is also apparently a causal agent in human HEPATOCELLULAR CARCINOMA. The Dane particle is an intact hepatitis virion, named after its discoverer. Non-infectious spherical and tubular particles are also seen in the serum.Seroepidemiologic Studies: EPIDEMIOLOGIC STUDIES based on the detection through serological testing of characteristic change in the serum level of specific ANTIBODIES. Latent subclinical infections and carrier states can thus be detected in addition to clinically overt cases.Hepatitis Antigens: Antigens from any of the hepatitis viruses including surface, core, and other associated antigens.Phylogeny: The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.Hepatitis, Viral, Human: INFLAMMATION of the LIVER in humans due to infection by VIRUSES. There are several significant types of human viral hepatitis with infection caused by enteric-transmission (HEPATITIS A; HEPATITIS E) or blood transfusion (HEPATITIS B; HEPATITIS C; and HEPATITIS D).Swine: Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).Viral Hepatitis Vaccines: Any vaccine raised against any virus or viral derivative that causes hepatitis.Open Reading Frames: A sequence of successive nucleotide triplets that are read as CODONS specifying AMINO ACIDS and begin with an INITIATOR CODON and end with a stop codon (CODON, TERMINATOR).Virus Shedding: The expelling of virus particles from the body. Important routes include the respiratory tract, genital tract, and intestinal tract. Virus shedding is an important means of vertical transmission (INFECTIOUS DISEASE TRANSMISSION, VERTICAL).Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Hepatitis, Chronic: INFLAMMATION of the LIVER with ongoing hepatocellular injury for 6 months or more, characterized by NECROSIS of HEPATOCYTES and inflammatory cell (LEUKOCYTES) infiltration. Chronic hepatitis can be caused by viruses, medications, autoimmune diseases, and other unknown factors.Hepatitis B Surface Antigens: Those hepatitis B antigens found on the surface of the Dane particle and on the 20 nm spherical and tubular particles. Several subspecificities of the surface antigen are known. These were formerly called the Australia antigen.Hepatitis A virus: A species in the genus HEPATOVIRUS containing one serotype and two strains: HUMAN HEPATITIS A VIRUS and Simian hepatitis A virus causing hepatitis in humans (HEPATITIS A) and primates, respectively.Disease Reservoirs: Animate or inanimate sources which normally harbor disease-causing organisms and thus serve as potential sources of disease outbreaks. Reservoirs are distinguished from vectors (DISEASE VECTORS) and carriers, which are agents of disease transmission rather than continuing sources of potential disease outbreaks.Genotype: The genetic constitution of the individual, comprising the ALLELES present at each GENETIC LOCUS.Hepatitis: INFLAMMATION of the LIVER.Hepatitis Viruses: Any of the viruses that cause inflammation of the liver. They include both DNA and RNA viruses as well viruses from humans and animals.Hepatitis C, Chronic: INFLAMMATION of the LIVER in humans that is caused by HEPATITIS C VIRUS lasting six months or more. Chronic hepatitis C can lead to LIVER CIRRHOSIS.Genome, Viral: The complete genetic complement contained in a DNA or RNA molecule in a virus.Viral Proteins: Proteins found in any species of virus.Hepatitis B, Chronic: INFLAMMATION of the LIVER in humans caused by HEPATITIS B VIRUS lasting six months or more. It is primarily transmitted by parenteral exposure, such as transfusion of contaminated blood or blood products, but can also be transmitted via sexual or intimate personal contact.Sequence Analysis, DNA: A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.Virus Replication: The process of intracellular viral multiplication, consisting of the synthesis of PROTEINS; NUCLEIC ACIDS; and sometimes LIPIDS, and their assembly into a new infectious particle.RNA Virus InfectionsImmunoglobulin G: The major immunoglobulin isotype class in normal human serum. There are several isotype subclasses of IgG, for example, IgG1, IgG2A, and IgG2B.Immunoglobulin M: A class of immunoglobulin bearing mu chains (IMMUNOGLOBULIN MU-CHAINS). IgM can fix COMPLEMENT. The name comes from its high molecular weight and originally being called a macroglobulin.Hepatitis B Vaccines: Vaccines or candidate vaccines containing inactivated hepatitis B or some of its component antigens and designed to prevent hepatitis B. Some vaccines may be recombinantly produced.Hepatitis B Antibodies: Antibodies to the HEPATITIS B ANTIGENS, including antibodies to the surface (Australia) and core of the Dane particle and those to the "e" antigens.Antibodies, Viral: Immunoglobulins produced in response to VIRAL ANTIGENS.Hepacivirus: A genus of FLAVIVIRIDAE causing parenterally-transmitted HEPATITIS C which is associated with transfusions and drug abuse. Hepatitis C virus is the type species.Jaundice: A clinical manifestation of HYPERBILIRUBINEMIA, characterized by the yellowish staining of the SKIN; MUCOUS MEMBRANE; and SCLERA. Clinical jaundice usually is a sign of LIVER dysfunction.Feces: Excrement from the INTESTINES, containing unabsorbed solids, waste products, secretions, and BACTERIA of the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM.Sus scrofa: A species of SWINE, in the family Suidae, comprising a number of subspecies including the domestic pig Sus scrofa domestica.Hepatitis B Core Antigens: The hepatitis B antigen within the core of the Dane particle, the infectious hepatitis virion.Virus Cultivation: Process of growing viruses in live animals, plants, or cultured cells.Hepatitis A Vaccines: Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent infection with hepatitis A virus (HEPATOVIRUS).RNA Viruses: Viruses whose genetic material is RNA.Hepatitis B e Antigens: A closely related group of antigens found in the plasma only during the infective phase of hepatitis B or in virulent chronic hepatitis B, probably indicating active virus replication; there are three subtypes which may exist in a complex with immunoglobulins G.Virology: The study of the structure, growth, function, genetics, and reproduction of viruses, and VIRUS DISEASES.Capsid Proteins: Proteins that form the CAPSID of VIRUSES.Animals, Wild: Animals considered to be wild or feral or not adapted for domestic use. It does not include wild animals in zoos for which ANIMALS, ZOO is available.Hepatitis B Antigens: Antigens of the virion of the HEPATITIS B VIRUS or the Dane particle, its surface (HEPATITIS B SURFACE ANTIGENS), core (HEPATITIS B CORE ANTIGENS), and other associated antigens, including the HEPATITIS B E ANTIGENS.Hepatitis C Antibodies: Antibodies to the HEPATITIS C ANTIGENS including antibodies to envelope, core, and non-structural proteins.DNA, Viral: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.Food Safety: Activities involved in ensuring the safety of FOOD including avoidance of bacterial and other contamination.Antiviral Agents: Agents used in the prophylaxis or therapy of VIRUS DISEASES. Some of the ways they may act include preventing viral replication by inhibiting viral DNA polymerase; binding to specific cell-surface receptors and inhibiting viral penetration or uncoating; inhibiting viral protein synthesis; or blocking late stages of virus assembly.Liver: A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.Vaccinia virus: The type species of ORTHOPOXVIRUS, related to COWPOX VIRUS, but whose true origin is unknown. It has been used as a live vaccine against SMALLPOX. It is also used as a vector for inserting foreign DNA into animals. Rabbitpox virus is a subspecies of VACCINIA VIRUS.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.VirginiaHepatitis A Antibodies: Antibodies to the HEPATITIS A ANTIGENS including antibodies to envelope, core, and non-structural proteins.Hepatitis Delta Virus: A defective virus, containing particles of RNA nucleoprotein in virion-like form, present in patients with acute hepatitis B and chronic hepatitis. It requires the presence of a hepadnavirus for full replication. This is the lone species in the genus Deltavirus.Blood DonorsHepatitis A Virus, Human: A strain of HEPATITIS A VIRUS which causes hepatitis in humans. The virus replicates in hepatocytes and is presumed to reach the intestine via the bile duct. Transmission occurs by the fecal-oral route.Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay: An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed.Poultry Diseases: Diseases of birds which are raised as a source of meat or eggs for human consumption and are usually found in barnyards, hatcheries, etc. The concept is differentiated from BIRD DISEASES which is for diseases of birds not considered poultry and usually found in zoos, parks, and the wild.Abattoirs: Places where animals are slaughtered and dressed for market.Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction: A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.Prevalence: The total number of cases of a given disease in a specified population at a designated time. It is differentiated from INCIDENCE, which refers to the number of new cases in the population at a given time.Alanine Transaminase: An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of L-alanine and 2-oxoglutarate to pyruvate and L-glutamate. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC, Viral: Substances elaborated by viruses that have antigenic activity.Hepatitis, Autoimmune: A chronic self-perpetuating hepatocellular INFLAMMATION of unknown cause, usually with HYPERGAMMAGLOBULINEMIA and serum AUTOANTIBODIES.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Acute Disease: Disease having a short and relatively severe course.France: A country in western Europe bordered by the Atlantic Ocean, the English Channel, the Mediterranean Sea, and the countries of Belgium, Germany, Italy, Spain, Switzerland, the principalities of Andorra and Monaco, and by the duchy of Luxembourg. Its capital is Paris.Disease Outbreaks: Sudden increase in the incidence of a disease. The concept includes EPIDEMICS and PANDEMICS.Herpestidae: The family of agile, keen-sighted mongooses of Asia and Africa that feed on RODENTS and SNAKES.Sequence Homology: The degree of similarity between sequences. Studies of AMINO ACID SEQUENCE HOMOLOGY and NUCLEIC ACID SEQUENCE HOMOLOGY provide useful information about the genetic relatedness of genes, gene products, and species.Virion: The infective system of a virus, composed of the viral genome, a protein core, and a protein coat called a capsid, which may be naked or enclosed in a lipoprotein envelope called the peplos.Capsid: The outer protein protective shell of a virus, which protects the viral nucleic acid.China: A country spanning from central Asia to the Pacific Ocean.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Receptors, Virus: Specific molecular components of the cell capable of recognizing and interacting with a virus, and which, after binding it, are capable of generating some signal that initiates the chain of events leading to the biological response.Hepatitis D: INFLAMMATION of the LIVER in humans caused by HEPATITIS DELTA VIRUS, a defective RNA virus that can only infect HEPATITIS B patients. For its viral coating, hepatitis delta virus requires the HEPATITIS B SURFACE ANTIGENS produced by these patients. Hepatitis D can occur either concomitantly with (coinfection) or subsequent to (superinfection) hepatitis B infection. Similar to hepatitis B, it is primarily transmitted by parenteral exposure, such as transfusion of contaminated blood or blood products, but can also be transmitted via sexual or intimate personal contact.JapanVirus Assembly: The assembly of VIRAL STRUCTURAL PROTEINS and nucleic acid (VIRAL DNA or VIRAL RNA) to form a VIRUS PARTICLE.Viral Structural Proteins: Viral proteins that are components of the mature assembled VIRUS PARTICLES. They may include nucleocapsid core proteins (gag proteins), enzymes packaged within the virus particle (pol proteins), and membrane components (env proteins). These do not include the proteins encoded in the VIRAL GENOME that are produced in infected cells but which are not packaged in the mature virus particle,i.e. the so called non-structural proteins (VIRAL NONSTRUCTURAL PROTEINS).Hepatitis, Animal: INFLAMMATION of the LIVER in non-human animals.Viremia: The presence of viruses in the blood.Genes, Viral: The functional hereditary units of VIRUSES.Polymerase Chain Reaction: In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.Chickens: Common name for the species Gallus gallus, the domestic fowl, in the family Phasianidae, order GALLIFORMES. It is descended from the red jungle fowl of SOUTHEAST ASIA.Djibouti: A republic in eastern Africa, on the Gulf of Aden at the entrance to the Red Sea. Djibouti is also the name of its capital.Travel: Aspects of health and disease related to travel.Monkey Diseases: Diseases of Old World and New World monkeys. This term includes diseases of baboons but not of chimpanzees or gorillas (= APE DISEASES).Gene Expression Regulation, Viral: Any of the processes by which cytoplasmic factors influence the differential control of gene action in viruses.Recombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.Virus Diseases: A general term for diseases produced by viruses.

Prevalence of enteric hepatitis A and E viruses in the Mekong River delta region of Vietnam. (1/486)

A study of antibody prevalence for hepatitis A virus (HAV) and hepatitis E virus (HEV) was carried out in southwestern Vietnam in an area adjacent to a known focus of epidemic HEV transmission. The purpose of this investigation was first to provide a prevalence measure of hepatitis infections, and second to determine the outbreak potential of HEV as a function of the susceptible population. Blood specimens collected from 646 persons in randomly selected village hamlets were examined by an ELISA for anti-HEV IgG and anti-HAV IgG. The prevalences of anti-HEV IgG and anti-HAV IgG were 9% and 97%, respectively. There was a significant increase (P < 0.01) in age-specific anti-HEV IgG. A notable increase in anti-HAV IgG prevalence (P < 0.0001) occurred between child populations 0-4 (64%) and 5-9 (95%) years of age. No evidence of familial clustering of anti-HEV IgG-positive individuals was detected, and household crowding was not associated with the spread of HEV. Boiling of water was found to be of protective value against HEV transmission. A relatively low prevalence of anti-HEV indicates considerable HEV outbreak potential, against a background of 1) poor, water-related hygiene/sanitation, 2) dependence on a (likely human/animal waste)-contaminated Mekong riverine system, and 3) periodic river flooding.  (+info)

A hepatitis E virus variant from the United States: molecular characterization and transmission in cynomolgus macaques. (2/486)

The partial sequence of a hepatitis E virus (HEV-US1) isolated from a patient in the United States (US), suffering from acute viral hepatitis with no known risk factors for acquiring HEV, has been reported. These sequences were significantly different from previously characterized HEV isolates, alluding to the existence of a distinct human variant. In this paper, we report the near full-length sequences of HEV-US1 and a second US isolate (HEV-US2). HEV-US2 was identified in a US patient suffering from acute viral hepatitis. These sequences verify the presence of a new HEV strain in North America and provide information as to the degree of variability between variants. The HEV-US nucleotide sequences are 92% identical to each other and only 74% identical to the Burmese and Mexican strains. Amino acid and phylogenetic analyses also demonstrate that the US isolates are genetically distinct, suggesting the presence of three genotypes of HEV. Serum from the second US patient induced hepatitis following inoculation into a cynomolgus macaque. Within 2-4 weeks, HEV-US2 RNA was detectable in both the serum and faecal material coinciding with elevated serum alanine transaminase levels. Infection resolved as antibody titres increased 8 weeks post-inoculation.  (+info)

Mutational analysis of glycosylation, membrane translocation, and cell surface expression of the hepatitis E virus ORF2 protein. (3/486)

Hepatitis E virus (HEV) is the etiological agent for viral hepatitis type E, which is a major problem in the developing world. Because HEV cannot be cultured in vitro, very little information exists on the mechanisms of HEV gene expression and genome replication. HEV is a positive-strand RNA virus with three potential open reading frames (ORFs), one of which (ORF2) is postulated to encode the major viral capsid protein (pORF2). We earlier showed (S. Jameel, M. Zafrullah, M. H. Ozdener, and S. K. Panda, J. Virol. 70:207-216, 1996) pORF2 to be a approximately 88-kDa glycoprotein, carrying N-linked glycans and a potential endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-directing signal at its N terminus. Treatment with the drugs brefeldin A and monensin suggest that the protein may accumulate within the ER. Based on mutational analysis, we demonstrate Asn-310 to be the major site of N-glycan addition. In COS-1 cell expression and in vitro translation experiments, we confirm the ER-translocating nature of the pORF2 N-terminal hydrophobic sequence and show that the protein is cotranslationally, but not posttranslationally, translocated across the ER membrane. Earlier, we had also demonstrated cell surface localization of a fraction of the COS-1 cell-expressed pORF2. Using glycosylation- and translocation-defective mutants of pORF2, we now show that while transit of pORF2 into the ER is necessary for its cell surface expression, glycosylation of the protein is not required for such localization. These results may offer clues to the mechanisms of gene expression and capsid assembly in HEV.  (+info)

Only the non-glycosylated fraction of hepatitis E virus capsid (open reading frame 2) protein is stable in mammalian cells. (4/486)

Hepatitis E virus (HEV) is a non-enveloped, positive-strand RNA virus, with the genome encoding three open reading frames (ORFs) of which ORF 2 directs translation of the capsid protein, PORF2. Following pulse-labelling and cell fractionation of PORF2 expressed in mammalian cells using the Semliki Forest virus replicon, the capsid protein was detected as three major species of 78 (PORF2), 82 and 86 kDa, with P82 and P86 being N-glycosylated (gPORF2 and ggPORF2, respectively). Although gPORF2 and ggPORF2 species represented 79% of total PORF2 after 20 min metabolic labelling and were largely membrane-associated, the glycosylated PORF2 species were much less stable than non-glycosylated PORF2, which was present in the cytosol and represented the major product accumulated in the cell. In the absence of detectable surface expression or export of PORF2, this suggests that glycosylated ORF 2 proteins may not be intermediates in HEV capsid assembly.  (+info)

Phylogenetic analysis of hepatitis E virus isolates from India (1976-1993). (5/486)

Seventeen Indian hepatitis E virus (HEV) isolates, representing epidemic and sporadic hepatitis E cases during 1976-1991, were sequenced in the RNA polymerase (RNAP) region. Five isolates were also sequenced in the non-structural hypervariable region of open reading frame 1. Open reading frames 2 and 3 were sequenced only for the prototype isolate. On the basis of the comparison of all the available sequences of the conserved RNAP region, the HEV isolates were divided into three genotypes, differing from each other by >15%. Genotype I included African and Asian isolates, whereas II and III were represented by Mexican and US isolates, respectively. Genotype I was further divided into four sub-genotypes. The majority of the Indian isolates (15/20), along with the Burmese and Nepali isolates, belonged to genotype IA. Genotype IB included HEV isolates from China, Pakistan and the former USSR and 2/20 Indian isolates, which represented the oldest (1976) HEV sequenced so far. Genotype IC included both the African isolates, whereas 3/20 Indian isolates formed genotype ID. Nucleotide sequence analysis of other regions of the HEV genome also placed isolates in the same genotypes. Both the Indian cities experiencing second HEV epidemics, after intervals of 8 and 10 years, showed shifts in the sub-genotypes found; from IB (Ahm-76) to IA (Ahm-84) and from IA (Kol-81) to ID (Kol-91). However, no major shift in the genotypes was noted. Overall, HEV genotypes appear to be segregated geographically.  (+info)

Antigenic domains of the open reading frame 2-encoded protein of hepatitis E virus. (6/486)

The antigenic composition of the hepatitis E virus (HEV) protein encoded by open reading frame 2 (ORF2) was determined by using synthetic peptides. Three sets of overlapping 18-, 25-, and 30-mer peptides, with each set spanning the entire ORF2 protein of the HEV Burma strain, were synthesized. All synthetic peptides were tested by enzyme immunoassay against a panel of 32 anti-HEV-positive serum specimens obtained from acutely HEV-infected persons. Six antigenic domains within the ORF2 protein were identified. Domains 1 and 6 located at the N and C termini of the ORF2 protein, respectively, contain strong immunoglobulin G (IgG) and IgM antigenic epitopes that can be efficiently modeled with peptides of different sizes. In contrast, antigenic epitopes identified within the two central domains (3 and 4) were modeled more efficiently with 30-mer peptides than with either 18- or 25-mers. Domain 2 located at amino acids (aa) 143 to 222 was modeled best with 25-mer peptides. A few 30-mer synthetic peptides derived from domain 5 identified at aa 490 to 579 demonstrated strong IgM antigenic reactivity. Several 30-mer synthetic peptides derived from domains 1, 4, and 6 immunoreacted with IgG or IgM with more than 70% of anti-HEV-positive serum specimens. Thus, the results of this study demonstrate the existence of six diagnostically relevant antigenic domains within the HEV ORF2 protein.  (+info)

Evidence for widespread infection of wild rats with hepatitis E virus in the United States. (7/486)

Hepatitis E is an important medical pathogen in many developing countries but is rarely reported from the United States, although antibody to hepatitis E virus (anti-HEV) is found in > 1% of U.S. citizens. Zoonotic spread of the virus is suspected. Sera obtained from 239 wild rats trapped in widely separated regions of the United States were tested for anti-HEV. Seventy-seven percent of rats from Maryland, 90% from Hawaii, and 44% from Louisiana were seropositive for anti-HEV. Rats from urban as well as rural areas were seropositive and the prevalence of anti-HEV IgG increased in parallel with the estimated age of the rats, leading to speculation that they might be involved in the puzzling high prevalence of anti-HEV among some U.S. city dwellers. The discovery of a in rats in the United States and the recently reported discovery that HEV is endemic in U.S. swine raise many questions about transmission, reservoirs, and strains of HEV in developed countries.  (+info)

Cell culture of sporadic hepatitis E virus in China. (8/486)

The isolation and identification of the 87A strain of epidemic hepatitis E virus (HEV) by means of cell culturing have been described previously. This paper reports the successful isolation of a sporadic HEV strain (G93-2) in human lung carcinoma cell (A549) cultures. The etiology, molecular and biological properties, and serological relationship of this new strain to other, epidemic HEV strains are described. The propagation of both sporadic and epidemic HEV strains in a cell culture system will facilitate vaccine research.  (+info)

  • ENGLISH ABSTRACT: Hepatitis E virus (HEV) is an important cause of enterically transmitted acute hepatitis worldwide and is a locally acquired disease in both developing and developed nations. (sun.ac.za)
  • HEV is a single-stranded, positive-sense RNA virus classified in the family Hepeviridae and encompasses four known Genotypes (1-4), at least two new putative genotypes of mammalian HEV, and one floating genus of avian HEV. (vt.edu)
  • HEV infection is usually self-limiting, but may develop into fulminant hepatitis with a case-fatality rate (CFR) between 1 and 2% in the general population [ 5 ], which can rise to over 40% in pregnant women, especially during the third trimester of pregnancy [ 6 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Although HEV generally causes a self-limited acute infection and mortality rates are generally lower, acute severe liver disease and fulminant hepatitis can occur, resulting in an overall fatality rate of 0.5 to 3 percent and as high as 20% in pregnant women ( 8 - 10 ). (kowsarpub.com)
  • Hepatitis E virus (HEV) is responsible for epidemics and endemics of acute hepatitis in humans, mainly through waterborne, foodborne, and zoonotic transmission routes. (vt.edu)
  • Epidemic and sporadic hepatitis E virus transmission in West Kalimantan (Borneo), Indonesia. (msf.org)
  • The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention makes available a chart on how to interpret hepatitis C test results and any subsequent additional tests that may be required to obtain a comprehensive diagnosis. (idsociety.org)
  • We find that in persistently infected patients, HBV particles are cleared from the plasma with a half-life of approximately 1.0 day, which implies a 50% daily turnover of the free virus population. (pnas.org)
  • These two independent methods give equivalent results: we find a wide distribution of half-lives for virus-producing cells, ranging from 10 to 100 days in different patients, which may reflect differences in rates of lysis of infected cells by immune responses. (pnas.org)
  • The total daily production of plasma virus is, on average, higher in chronic HBV carriers than in HIV-infected patients, but the half-life of virus-producing cells is much shorter in HIV. (pnas.org)
  • We now know that there are more people, particularly immunosuppressed patients, with hepatitis E who haven't travelled abroad. (food.gov.uk)
  • Giving hepatitis B patients the modified hepatitis delta virus reduced levels of the virus in their blood by nearly 90 per cent. (scidev.net)
  • However, this method means that if patients are re-infected with hepatitis B, they need another injection. (scidev.net)
  • Because it was only identified recently, it isn't clear at this time how widespread hepatitis G is and what its precise effects are on infected patients. (factmonster.com)
  • Hepatitis diet should be carefully monitored and prepared for easy and quick recovery of hepatitis patients. (medindia.net)
  • These treatments helped many patients get rid of the virus, but the treatment fails to cure more than 60 percent of patients. (eurekalert.org)
  • If patients are also HIV+, the effect of antiretroviral therapy on the recovery of hepatitis C immunity will be investigated. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • For those patients enrolled who begin hepatitis C treatment, we will evaluate the immune system of people who respond compared to those who do not respond. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Patients who begin hepatitis C therapy or antiretroviral therapy if HIV coinfected will provide serial specimens for examination. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Patients who undergo liver biopsy as a part of their routine hepatitis care will provide a sample for further studies of the immune response to see if it is different in the liver compared to the blood. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • The recommendations, published today in CDC′s Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report (MMWR) Recommendations & Reports, also for the first time give health professionals guidance for effective management of chronically infected hepatitis B patients. (webwire.com)
  • Hepatitis A vaccines (Havrix or Vaqta) can be administered to children as young as 1 year of age, with a larger adult dose given to patients 19 years of age and up. (dailyherald.com)
  • The Department of Veterans Affairs Hepatitis C Resource Center Program and the National Hepatitis C Program Office developed updated recommendations for standard of care for hepatitis C patients. (idsociety.org)
  • We appreciate the comments of Drs Kao and Hwang regarding the reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) we used for genomic analysis of hepatitis C virus (HCV) R1 in 3 patients with chronic active myocarditis. (ahajournals.org)
  • Ten patients at Penn Medicine have been cured of the Hepatitis C virus (HCV) following lifesaving kidney transplants from deceased donors who were infected with the disease. (eurasiareview.com)
  • In 2016, Penn Medicine launched an innovative clinical trial to test the effect of transplanting kidneys from donors with HCV into patients currently on the kidney transplant waitlist who do not have the virus, and who opt in to receive these otherwise unused organs. (eurasiareview.com)
  • So it was interesting to see that patients were quick to jump at the chance to get this transplant, despite the possibility that they could get Hepatitis C permanently," Reese said. (eurasiareview.com)
  • If the immune system doesn't clear the virus within six months, a person is considered to have chronic HBV. (thebody.com)
  • Most people will get over the virus, although for some, such as those with an immune deficiency disorder, or pregnant women, it can prove fatal. (bbc.co.uk)
  • After the exclusion of anti-HCV-positive plasma units from the donor pool, rare, sporadic instances have occurred of hepatitis C among recipients of immune globulin (IG) preparations for intravenous (but not intramuscular) use. (ufrgs.br)
  • The virus that causes hepatitis C protects itself by blocking signals that call up immune defenses in liver cells, according to University of Washington researchers and colleagues reporting Nov. 14 in Nature Medicine . (eurekalert.org)
  • Changes in immune response once hepatitis C therapy is begun will also be examined. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • If the patient is HIV positive, the change in hepatitis C immune response once various HIV medicines (antiretrovirals) are started will also be examined. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Botelho-Souza LF, dos Santos AO, Borzacov LM, Honda ER, Villalobos-Salcedo JM, Vieira DS (2014) Development of a reverse transcription quantitative real-time PCR-based system for rapid detection and quantitation of hepatitis delta virus in the western Amazon region of Brazil. (springer.com)
  • HCV is a small, single-stranded RNA virus in the family Flaviviridae . (aappublications.org)
  • HCV is an enveloped positive-sense single-stranded RNA virus in the Flaviviridae family 2 . (nature.com)
  • Total viral release into the periphery is approximately 10(11) virus particles per day. (pnas.org)
  • 1985). These viruses are considered to be highly infectious and illness can be caused by as few as 10 viral particles (Teunis, 2008). (fda.gov)
  • These factors necessitate that isolated virus particles be sufficiently concentrated in order to detect their presence in foods. (fda.gov)
  • Hepadnaviruses have the smallest genomes of all known viruses, consisting of two uneven strands of DNA: a (-)sense strand whose size varies between hepadnaciruses and a (+)sense strandwhose size varies between different particles. (kenyon.edu)
  • The virus forms small round-shaped particles ranging from 50 to 80 nm in diameter. (frontiersin.org)
  • virus isolated in 1996, the hepatitis G virus (HGV), is believed to be responsible for a large number of sexually transmitted and bloodborne cases of hepatitis. (britannica.com)
  • The Lake County Health Department is informing the public that there has been a recent increase in reported cases of hepatitis A virus (HAV) throughout the State of Illinois and in Lake County. (dailyherald.com)
  • CLEVELAND, Ohio -- Cases of hepatitis A and the number of mosquitoes carrying West Nile Virus continue to rise in Ohio, according to the Ohio Department of Health (ODH). (cleveland.com)
  • In the U.S., 85 percent of travel-related cases of hepatitis A occur following travel to Mexico, Central America or South America. (dailyherald.com)
  • While it's possible to identify the hepatitis E virus in food, we can't tell whether it's infectious and capable of making us ill. (food.gov.uk)
  • The Rapid HCV Project offers free Hepatitis C testing to adults in the communities listed below. (in.gov)
  • However, they caution that further research is needed in mature seals, because if it acts anything like hepatitis A it might only cause disease in adults. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Hepatitis E Virus refl ects the total adult population with respect to age, Seroprevalence sex, and geographic region, but persons with migration background are underrepresented (non-German citizenship among Adults, 4.6% in the sample vs. 8.7% in the total adult population). (cdc.gov)
  • AAP infectious disease experts report that most hepatitis A-infected children under the age of 6 show no symptoms of the disease, while more than two-thirds of affected older kids and adults will develop jaundice. (dailyherald.com)
  • A series of three combination hepatitis A-hepatitis B shots (Twinrix) is also available for use in adults 18 years and older. (dailyherald.com)
  • Arboleda M, Castilho MC, Fonseca JCF, Albuquerque BC, Saboia RC, Yoshida CFT (1995) Epidemiological aspects of hepatitis B and D virus in the northern region of Amazonas, Brazil. (springer.com)
  • Hepatitis G is transmitted by blood-borne routes and was just discovered in 1995. (factmonster.com)
  • Abigail Jarrett conducted hepatitis C studies as a research scientist in Ram Savan's immunology laboratory at the University of Washington School of Medicine. (eurekalert.org)
  • Exosomes, although isolated from unfractionated culture media, were absent in highly infectious, purified virus preparations. (pnas.org)
  • Some viruses can survive and remain infectious in foods and the environment for prolonged periods of time. (food.gov.uk)
  • We suspect that these cases may be due to exposure to infectious hepatitis E virus in pork and pork products. (food.gov.uk)
  • Recommendations for Testing, Managing, and Treating Hepatitis C. Joint panel from the American Association of the Study of Liver Diseases and the Infectious Diseases Society of America. (uptodate.com)
  • Authorities suspect that those who consumed food from McDonald's Greenlane on the evening of Dec 15th carry the risk of contracting Hepatitis A. The medical officer confirmed that a particular food handler working on the 7pm to 2am shift was suffering the highly infectious stage of the virus. (medindia.net)
  • Margaret Littlejohn of the Victorian Infectious Diseases Reference Laboratory noted that there are also differences in the virus among the 30 communities that offered samples for testing, which allowed the scientists to study its possible transmission routes, and determine when the virus may have first appeared in Australia. (archaeology.org)
  • While vaccines have not yet been developed for the rest of the "alphabet" of infectious hepatitis, it is fortunate that safe and effective vaccinations are available against both the hepatitis A and hepatitis B viruses. (dailyherald.com)
  • In response to action taken by some State Medicaid programs to restrict the specialties of providers who can prescribe drug therapies to treat hepatitis C virus (HCV), IDSA has developed an appeals letter template recommending that Infectious Diseases (ID) Specialists and other HIV providers be covered prescribers of all HCV medications. (idsociety.org)
  • Although the frequency of transfusion-associated hepatitis C fell as a result of blood donor screening, the overall frequency of hepatitis C remained the same until the early 1990s, when the overall frequency fell by 80%, in parallel with a reduction in the number of new cases in injection drug users. (ufrgs.br)
  • The virions of Hepatitis B virus are 42 nm in diameter and possess an isometric nucleocapsid, the core, of 27nm in diameter, surrounded by an outer coat approximately 4nm thick. (kenyon.edu)
California's Hepatitis A Outbreaks: Why Is the Virus Spreading?
California's Hepatitis A Outbreaks: Why Is the Virus Spreading? (livescience.com)
Subgenotyping of Genotype C Hepatitis B Virus: Correcting Misclassifications and Identifying a Novel Subgenotype
Subgenotyping of Genotype C Hepatitis B Virus: Correcting Misclassifications and Identifying a Novel Subgenotype (journals.plos.org)
PLOS ONE: Molecular and Phylogenetic Analyses Suggest an Additional Hepatitis B Virus Genotype I
PLOS ONE: Molecular and Phylogenetic Analyses Suggest an Additional Hepatitis B Virus Genotype "I" (journals.plos.org)
Epidemic History and Evolutionary Dynamics of Hepatitis B Virus Infection in Two Remote Communities in Rural Nigeria
Epidemic History and Evolutionary Dynamics of Hepatitis B Virus Infection in Two Remote Communities in Rural Nigeria (journals.plos.org)
Hepatitis C Virus Infection Suppresses the Interferon Response in the Liver of the Human Hepatocyte Chimeric Mouse
Hepatitis C Virus Infection Suppresses the Interferon Response in the Liver of the Human Hepatocyte Chimeric Mouse (journals.plos.org)
A Concerted Action of Hepatitis C Virus P7 and Nonstructural Protein 2 Regulates Core Localization at the Endoplasmic Reticulum...
A Concerted Action of Hepatitis C Virus P7 and Nonstructural Protein 2 Regulates Core Localization at the Endoplasmic Reticulum... (journals.plos.org)
A Multicentre Molecular Analysis of Hepatitis B and Blood-Borne Virus Coinfections in Viet Nam
A Multicentre Molecular Analysis of Hepatitis B and Blood-Borne Virus Coinfections in Viet Nam (journals.plos.org)
Extra-epitopic hepatitis C virus polymorphisms confer resistance to broadly neutralizing antibodies by modulating binding to...
Extra-epitopic hepatitis C virus polymorphisms confer resistance to broadly neutralizing antibodies by modulating binding to... (journals.plos.org)
Chain A, Hcv Ns5b Polymerase Inhibitors: Tri-Substituted Acylhydrazines As Tertiary Amide Bioisosteres (Hepatitis C virus ...
Chain A, Hcv Ns5b Polymerase Inhibitors: Tri-Substituted Acylhydrazines As Tertiary Amide Bioisosteres (Hepatitis C virus ... (pubchem.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov)
Chain A, Hepatitis C Virus Polymerase Ns5b (Bk) With Amide Bioisostere Thumb Site Inhibitor (Hepatitis C virus (isolate BK)) |...
Chain A, Hepatitis C Virus Polymerase Ns5b (Bk) With Amide Bioisostere Thumb Site Inhibitor (Hepatitis C virus (isolate BK)) |... (pubchem.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov)
Chain A, Crystal Structure Of The Hepatitis C Virus Ns5b Rna-Dependent Rna Polymerase Complex With (2e)-3-(4-{[(1-{[(13...
Chain A, Crystal Structure Of The Hepatitis C Virus Ns5b Rna-Dependent Rna Polymerase Complex With (2e)-3-(4-{[(1-{[(13... (pubchem.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov)
Epitopes described in Hepatitis B virus capsid: localization of the putative immunodominant loop (residues 78 to 83) on the...
Epitopes described in Hepatitis B virus capsid: localization of the putative immunodominant loop (residues 78 to 83) on the... (iedb.org)