Antigens produced by various strains of HEPATITIS D VIRUS.
A defective virus, containing particles of RNA nucleoprotein in virion-like form, present in patients with acute hepatitis B and chronic hepatitis. It requires the presence of a hepadnavirus for full replication. This is the lone species in the genus Deltavirus.
Antigens from any of the hepatitis viruses including surface, core, and other associated antigens.
INFLAMMATION of the LIVER in humans caused by HEPATITIS DELTA VIRUS, a defective RNA virus that can only infect HEPATITIS B patients. For its viral coating, hepatitis delta virus requires the HEPATITIS B SURFACE ANTIGENS produced by these patients. Hepatitis D can occur either concomitantly with (coinfection) or subsequent to (superinfection) hepatitis B infection. Similar to hepatitis B, it is primarily transmitted by parenteral exposure, such as transfusion of contaminated blood or blood products, but can also be transmitted via sexual or intimate personal contact.
INFLAMMATION of the LIVER in humans caused by HEPATITIS DELTA VIRUS in conjunction with HEPATITIS B VIRUS and lasting six months or more.
Ribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.
Substances elaborated by viruses that have antigenic activity.
Those hepatitis B antigens found on the surface of the Dane particle and on the 20 nm spherical and tubular particles. Several subspecificities of the surface antigen are known. These were formerly called the Australia antigen.
The process of intracellular viral multiplication, consisting of the synthesis of PROTEINS; NUCLEIC ACIDS; and sometimes LIPIDS, and their assembly into a new infectious particle.
RNA that has catalytic activity. The catalytic RNA sequence folds to form a complex surface that can function as an enzyme in reactions with itself and other molecules. It may function even in the absence of protein. There are numerous examples of RNA species that are acted upon by catalytic RNA, however the scope of this enzyme class is not limited to a particular type of substrate.
INFLAMMATION of the LIVER in humans caused by a member of the ORTHOHEPADNAVIRUS genus, HEPATITIS B VIRUS. It is primarily transmitted by parenteral exposure, such as transfusion of contaminated blood or blood products, but can also be transmitted via sexual or intimate personal contact.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
A genus of Sciuridae consisting of 14 species. They are shortlegged, burrowing rodents which hibernate in winter.
The type species of the genus ORTHOHEPADNAVIRUS which causes human HEPATITIS B and is also apparently a causal agent in human HEPATOCELLULAR CARCINOMA. The Dane particle is an intact hepatitis virion, named after its discoverer. Non-infectious spherical and tubular particles are also seen in the serum.
INFLAMMATION of the LIVER in humans caused by HEPATITIS C VIRUS, a single-stranded RNA virus. Its incubation period is 30-90 days. Hepatitis C is transmitted primarily by contaminated blood parenterally, and is often associated with transfusion and intravenous drug abuse. However, in a significant number of cases, the source of hepatitis C infection is unknown.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
INFLAMMATION of the LIVER in humans caused by a member of the HEPATOVIRUS genus, HUMAN HEPATITIS A VIRUS. It can be transmitted through fecal contamination of food or water.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
Substances that are recognized by the immune system and induce an immune reaction.
Proteins that bind to RNA molecules. Included here are RIBONUCLEOPROTEINS and other proteins whose function is to bind specifically to RNA.
The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.
Antigens of the virion of the HEPATITIS B VIRUS or the Dane particle, its surface (HEPATITIS B SURFACE ANTIGENS), core (HEPATITIS B CORE ANTIGENS), and other associated antigens, including the HEPATITIS B E ANTIGENS.
INFLAMMATION of the LIVER in humans caused by HEPATITIS B VIRUS lasting six months or more. It is primarily transmitted by parenteral exposure, such as transfusion of contaminated blood or blood products, but can also be transmitted via sexual or intimate personal contact.
INFLAMMATION of the LIVER.
Immunoglobulins raised by any form of viral hepatitis; some of these antibodies are used to diagnose the specific kind of hepatitis.
INFLAMMATION of the LIVER in humans that is caused by HEPATITIS C VIRUS lasting six months or more. Chronic hepatitis C can lead to LIVER CIRRHOSIS.
The complete genetic complement contained in a DNA or RNA molecule in a virus.
A process that changes the nucleotide sequence of mRNA from that of the DNA template encoding it. Some major classes of RNA editing are as follows: 1, the conversion of cytosine to uracil in mRNA; 2, the addition of variable number of guanines at pre-determined sites; and 3, the addition and deletion of uracils, templated by guide-RNAs (RNA, GUIDE).
INFLAMMATION of the LIVER in humans due to infection by VIRUSES. There are several significant types of human viral hepatitis with infection caused by enteric-transmission (HEPATITIS A; HEPATITIS E) or blood transfusion (HEPATITIS B; HEPATITIS C; and HEPATITIS D).
A species in the genus HEPATOVIRUS containing one serotype and two strains: HUMAN HEPATITIS A VIRUS and Simian hepatitis A virus causing hepatitis in humans (HEPATITIS A) and primates, respectively.
Antibodies to the HEPATITIS B ANTIGENS, including antibodies to the surface (Australia) and core of the Dane particle and those to the "e" antigens.
Vaccines or candidate vaccines containing inactivated hepatitis B or some of its component antigens and designed to prevent hepatitis B. Some vaccines may be recombinantly produced.
All of the divisions of the natural sciences dealing with the various aspects of the phenomena of life and vital processes. The concept includes anatomy and physiology, biochemistry and biophysics, and the biology of animals, plants, and microorganisms. It should be differentiated from BIOLOGY, one of its subdivisions, concerned specifically with the origin and life processes of living organisms.
A publication issued at stated, more or less regular, intervals.
A bibliographic database that includes MEDLINE as its primary subset. It is produced by the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI), part of the NATIONAL LIBRARY OF MEDICINE. PubMed, which is searchable through NLM's Web site, also includes access to additional citations to selected life sciences journals not in MEDLINE, and links to other resources such as the full-text of articles at participating publishers' Web sites, NCBI's molecular biology databases, and PubMed Central.
A class of structurally related proteins of 12-20 kDa in size. They covalently modify specific proteins in a manner analogous to UBIQUITIN.
An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed.
A starch found in the tubers and roots of many plants. Since it is hydrolyzable to FRUCTOSE, it is classified as a fructosan. It has been used in physiologic investigation for determination of the rate of glomerular function.
A plant genus of the family ASTERACEAE that contains antifungal plant defensin.
Strains of ESCHERICHIA COLI characterized by attaching-and-effacing histopathology. These strains of bacteria intimately adhere to the epithelial cell membrane and show effacement of microvilli. In developed countries they are associated with INFANTILE DIARRHEA and infantile GASTROENTERITIS and, in contrast to ETEC strains, do not produce ENDOTOXINS.
Proteins obtained from ESCHERICHIA COLI.
Infections with bacteria of the species ESCHERICHIA COLI.
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.
Physicochemical property of fimbriated (FIMBRIAE, BACTERIAL) and non-fimbriated bacteria of attaching to cells, tissue, and nonbiological surfaces. It is a factor in bacterial colonization and pathogenicity.
An increased liquidity or decreased consistency of FECES, such as running stool. Fecal consistency is related to the ratio of water-holding capacity of insoluble solids to total water, rather than the amount of water present. Diarrhea is not hyperdefecation or increased fecal weight.
Cell-surface components or appendages of bacteria that facilitate adhesion (BACTERIAL ADHESION) to other cells or to inanimate surfaces. Most fimbriae (FIMBRIAE, BACTERIAL) of gram-negative bacteria function as adhesins, but in many cases it is a minor subunit protein at the tip of the fimbriae that is the actual adhesin. In gram-positive bacteria, a protein or polysaccharide surface layer serves as the specific adhesin. What is sometimes called polymeric adhesin (BIOFILMS) is distinct from protein adhesin.
A DNA-dependent RNA polymerase present in bacterial, plant, and animal cells. It functions in the nucleoplasmic structure and transcribes DNA into RNA. It has different requirements for cations and salt than RNA polymerase I and is strongly inhibited by alpha-amanitin. EC 2.7.7.6.
Transcription factors whose primary function is to regulate the rate in which RNA is transcribed.
A transcriptional elongation factor complex that is comprised of a heterodimer of CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASE 9 and one of several CYCLINS including TYPE T CYCLINS and cyclin K. It functions by phosphorylating the carboxy-terminal domain of RNA POLYMERASE II.
Software used to locate data or information stored in machine-readable form locally or at a distance such as an INTERNET site.
An RNA polymerase II transcriptional inhibitor. This compound terminates transcription prematurely by selective inhibition of RNA synthesis. It is used in research to study underlying mechanisms of cellular regulation.
Databases devoted to knowledge about specific genes and gene products.
Protein factors uniquely required during the elongation phase of protein synthesis.

Cell cycle arrest mediated by hepatitis delta antigen. (1/171)

Hepatitis delta antigen (HDAg) is the only viral-encoded protein of the hepatitis delta virus (HDV). This protein has been extensively characterized with respect to its biochemical and functional properties. However, the molecular mechanism responsible for persistent HDV infection is not yet clear. Previously, we reported that overexpression of HDAg protects insect cells from baculovirus-induced cytolysis [Hwang, S.B. Park, K.-J. and Kim, Y.S. (1998) Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 244, 652-658]. Here we report that HDAg mediates cell cycle arrest when overexpressed in recombinant baculovirus-infected insect cells. Flow cytometry analysis has shown that HDAg expression in Spodoptera frugiperda cells causes an accumulation of substantial amounts of polyploid DNA in the absence of cell division. This phenomenon may be partly responsible for the persistent infection of chronic HDV patients.  (+info)

Unique properties of the large antigen of hepatitis delta virus. (2/171)

The large form of the hepatitis delta virus (HDV) protein (L) can be isoprenylated near its C terminus, and this modification is considered essential for particle assembly. Using gel electrophoresis, we separated L into two species of similar mobilities. The slower species could be labeled by the incorporation of [(14)C]mevalonolactone and is interpreted to be isoprenylated L (L(i)). In serum particles, infected liver, transfected cells, and assembled particles, 25 to 85% of L was isoprenylated. Isoprenylation was also demonstrated by (14)C incorporation in vitro with a rabbit reticulocyte coupled transcription-translation system. However, the species obtained migrated even slower than that detected by labeling in vivo. Next, in studies of HDV particle assembly in the presence of the surface proteins of human hepatitis B virus, we observed the following. (i) Relative to L, L(i) was preferentially assembled into virus-like particles. (ii) L(i) could coassemble the unmodified L and the small delta protein, S. (iii) In contrast, a form of L with a deletion in the dimerization domain was both isoprenylated and assembled, but it could not support the coassembly of S. Finally, to test the expectation that the isoprenylation of L would increase its hydrophobicity, we applied a phase separation strategy based on micelle formation with the nonionic detergent Triton X-114. We showed the following. (i) The unique C-terminal 19 amino acids present on L relative to S caused a significant increase in the hydrophobicity. (ii) This increase was independent of isoprenylation. (iii) In contrast, other, artificial modifications at either the N or C terminus of S did not increase the hydrophobicity. (iv) The increased hydrophobicity was not sufficient for particle assembly; nevertheless, we speculate that it might facilitate virion assembly.  (+info)

Characterization of the phosphorylated forms and the phosphorylated residues of hepatitis delta virus delta antigens. (3/171)

Hepatitis delta virus (HDV) replication requires both the cellular RNA polymerase and one virus-encoded protein, small delta antigen (S-HDAg). S-HDAg has been shown to be a phosphoprotein, but its phosphorylation status is not yet clear. In this study, we employed three methods to address this question. A special two-dimensional gel electrophoresis, namely, nonequilibrium pH gradient electrophoresis, was used to separate the very basic S-HDAg. By carefully adjusting the pH of solubilization solution, the ampholyte composition, and the appropriate electrophoresis time periods, we were able to clearly resolve S-HDAg into two phosphorylated isoforms and one unphosphorylated form. In contrast, the viral large delta antigen (L-HDAg) can only be separated into one phosphorylated and one unphosphorylated form. By metabolic (32)P labeling, both immunoprecipitated S-HDAg and L-HDAg were found to incorporate radioactive phosphate. The extent of S-HDAg phosphorylation was increased upon 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate treatment, while that of L-HDAg was not affected. Finally, phosphoamino acid analysis identified serine and threonine as the phospho residues in the labeled S-HDAg and only serine in the L-HDAg. Therefore, HDV S- and L-HDAgs differ in their phosphorylation patterns, which may account for their distinct biological functions.  (+info)

Hepatitis delta virus replication generates complexes of large hepatitis delta antigen and antigenomic RNA that affiliate with and alter nuclear domain 10. (4/171)

Hepatitis delta virus (HDV), a single-stranded RNA virus, bears a single coding region whose product, the hepatitis delta antigen (HDAg), is expressed in two isoforms, small (S-HDAg) and large (L-HDAg). S-HDAg is required for replication of HDV, while L-HDAg inhibits viral replication and is required for the envelopment of the HDV genomic RNA by hepatitis B virus proteins. Here we have examined the spatial distribution of HDV RNA and proteins in infected nuclei, with particular reference to specific nuclear domains. We found that L-HDAg was aggregated in specific nuclear domains and that over half of these domains were localized beside nuclear domain 10 (ND10). At later times, ND10-associated proteins like PML were found in larger HDAg complexes that had developed into apparently hollow spheres. In these larger complexes, PML was found chiefly in the rims of the spheres, while the known ND10 components Sp100, Daxx, and NDP55 were found in the centers of the spheres. Thus, ND10 proteins that normally are closely linked separate within HDAg-associated complexes. Viral RNA of antigenomic polarity, whether expressed from genomic RNA or directly from introduced plasmids, colocalizes with L-HDAg and the transcriptional repressor PML. In contrast, HDV genomic RNA was distributed more uniformly throughout the nucleus. These results suggest that different host protein complexes may assemble on viral RNA strands of different polarities, and they also suggest that this RNA virus, like DNA viruses, can alter the distribution of ND10-associated proteins. The fact that viral components specifically linked to repression of replication can associate with one of the ND10-associated proteins (PML) raises the possibility that this host protein may play a role in the regulation of HDV RNA synthesis.  (+info)

Interactions between hepatitis delta virus proteins. (5/171)

The 195- and 214-amino-acid (aa) forms of the delta protein (deltaAg-S and deltaAg-L, respectively) of hepatitis delta virus (HDV) differ only in the 19-aa C-terminal extension unique to deltaAg-L. deltaAg-S is needed for genome replication, while deltaAg-L is needed for particle assembly. These proteins share a region at aa 12 to 60, which mediates protein-protein interactions essential for HDV replication. H. Zuccola et al. (Structure 6:821-830, 1998) reported a crystal structure for a peptide spanning this region which demonstrates an antiparallel coiled-coil dimer interaction with the potential to form tetramers of dimers. Our studies tested whether predictions based on this structure could be extrapolated to conditions where the peptide was replaced by full-length deltaAg-S or deltaAg-L, and when the assays were not in vitro but in vivo. Nine amino acids that are conserved between several isolates of HDV and predicted to be important in multimerization were mutated to alanine on both deltaAg-S and deltaAg-L. We found that the predicted hierarchy of importance of these nine mutations correlated to a significant extent with the observed in vivo effects on the ability of these proteins to (i) support in trans the replication of the HDV genome when expressed on deltaAg-S and (ii) act as dominant-negative inhibitors of replication when expressed on deltaAg-L. We thus infer that these biological activities of deltaAg depend on ordered protein-protein interactions.  (+info)

The large delta antigen of hepatitis delta virus potently inhibits genomic but not antigenomic RNA synthesis: a mechanism enabling initiation of viral replication. (6/171)

Hepatitis delta virus (HDV) contains two types of hepatitis delta antigens (HDAg) in the virion. The small form (S-HDAg) is required for HDV RNA replication, whereas the large form (L-HDAg) potently inhibits it by a dominant-negative inhibitory mechanism. The sequential appearance of these two forms in the infected cells regulates HDV RNA synthesis during the viral life cycle. However, the presence of almost equal amounts of S-HDAg and L-HDAg in the virion raised a puzzling question concerning how HDV can escape the inhibitory effects of L-HDAg and initiate RNA replication after infection. In this study, we examined the inhibitory effects of L-HDAg on the synthesis of various HDV RNA species. Using an HDV RNA-based transfection approach devoid of any artificial DNA intermediates, we showed that a small amount of L-HDAg is sufficient to inhibit HDV genomic RNA synthesis from the antigenomic RNA template. However, the synthesis of antigenomic RNA, including both the 1.7-kb HDV RNA and the 0.8-kb HDAg mRNA, from the genomic-sense RNA was surprisingly resistant to inhibition by L-HDAg. The synthesis of these RNAs was inhibited only when L-HDAg was in vast excess over S-HDAg. These results explain why HDV genomic RNA can initiate replication after infection even though the incoming viral genome is complexed with equal amounts of L-HDAg and S-HDAg. These results also suggest that the mechanisms of synthesis of genomic versus antigenomic RNA are different. This study thus resolves a puzzling question about the early events of the HDV life cycle.  (+info)

A novel chromosome region maintenance 1-independent nuclear export signal of the large form of hepatitis delta antigen that is required for the viral assembly. (7/171)

Hepatitis delta virus (HDV) is a satellite virus of hepatitis B virus, as it requires hepatitis B virus for virion production and transmission. We have previously demonstrated that sequences within the C-terminal 19-amino acid domain flanking the isoprenylation motif of the large hepatitis delta antigen (HDAg-L) are important for virion assembly. In this study, site-directed mutagenesis and immunofluorescence staining demonstrated that in the absence of hepatitis B virus surface antigen (HBsAg), the wild-type HDAg-L was localized in the nuclei of transfected COS7 cells. Nevertheless, in the presence of HBsAg, the HDAg-L became both nuclei- and cytoplasm-distributed in about half of the cells. An HDAg-L mutant with a substitution of Pro-205 to alanine could neither form HDV-like particles nor shift the subcellular localization in the presence of HBsAg. In addition, nuclear trafficking of HDAg-L in heterokaryons indicated that HDAg-L is a nucleocytoplasmic shuttling protein. A proline-rich HDAg peptide spanning amino acid residues 198 to 210, designated NES(HDAg-L), can function as a nuclear export signal (NES) in Xenopus oocytes. Pro-205 is critical for the NES function. Furthermore, assembly of HDV is insensitive to leptomycin B, indicating that the NES(HDAg-L) directs nuclear export of HDAg-L to the cytoplasm via a chromosome region maintenance 1-independent pathway.  (+info)

Recombinant hepatitis delta antigen from E. coli promotes hepatitis delta virus RNA replication only from the genomic strand but not the antigenomic strand. (8/171)

Hepatitis delta antigen (HDAg) of hepatitis delta virus (HDV) typically consists of two related protein species. The small HDAg (S-HDAg) is a 24-kDa protein of 195 amino acids and the large HDAg (L-HDAg) is a 27-kDa protein with an additional 19 amino acids at its C-terminus. These two proteins have distinct functions in the HDV life cycle. We have developed conditions for expressing S-HDAg and L-HDAg in E. coli as soluble proteins to facilitate large-scale purification. These proteins were purified to homogeneity and shown to be biologically active. Transfection of the purified recombinant S-HDAg together with HDV genomic RNA resulted in viral RNA replication. Surprisingly, the purified S-HDAg could not initiate replication from the antigenomic-sense HDV RNA, even though the latter led to RNA replication when transfected with an mRNA encoding the S-HDAg. These results suggest that initiation of HDV RNA synthesis from the antigenomic RNA may require a form of HDAg that is modified in mammalian cells; in contrast, RNA synthesis from the genomic RNA could be initiated by the recombinant S-HDAg from E. coli. Interestingly, the purified L-HDAg appeared as multiple protein species, including one corresponding to S-HDAg, probably as a result of degradation. The partially proteolyzed L-HDAg also initiated HDV RNA replication under the same conditions. These results add to the mounting evidence that genomic- and antigenomic-strand HDV RNA syntheses are carried out by different mechanisms.  (+info)

Hepatitis Delta virus (HDV) is a subviral agent that is dependent on the hepatitis B (HBV) virus for its life cycle. Hepatitis Delta infection cannot occur...
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Two mAbs directed to the TCR-gamma/delta were analyzed for their pattern of reactivity with CD3+WT31- cell populations or clones. In normal individuals, the BB3 mAb reacted with approximately 2/3 of peripheral blood CD3+WT31- lymphocytes, whereas delta-TCS-1 stained approximately 1/3 of such cells. In addition, the sum of the percentages of BB3+ and delta-TCS-1+ cells approximated the percentages of peripheral blood CD3+WT31- lymphocytes in seven normal donors tested. Also, in peripheral blood-derived polyclonal CD3+WT31- populations, cultured in IL-2, cells reacting with one or another mAb accounted for the whole cell population. On the other hand, only delta-TCS-1-reactive cells, but not BB3+ cells, could be detected in unfractionated as well as in CD4-8-thymocyte populations. Analysis of peripheral blood-derived CD3+WT31- clones showed that 70% of 72 clones analyzed reacted with BB3 mAb, but not with delta-TCS-1 mAb. On the other hand, delta-TCS-1 mAb stained the remaining BB3- clones. Five ...
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Realize a transformation or cellular immortalization. To decide, to co-operate this primary culture and to induce some change so that these cells can multiply indefinitely, let us turn them to death. In this case, we would be talking about a cell line. A set of cells that you can maintain indefinitely in cultivation to work with them comfortably.. Do you disadvantages? The immortalization process could change its phenotype (the observable characteristics derived from combining genes and the environment), and they are not identical to the original cells.. How can a cell be immortalized? It may seem like a twist, but there are only so many strategies. In this case we will focus on the method followed by these researchers: using the SV40 T large antigen.. SV40 is a virus capable of infecting both humans and humans. What is interesting? A gen that houses its genome. This gene produces the protein known as the large SV40 antigen. This protein is able to block the p53 action.. We have also spoken on ...
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If thats the case, why are more people in here not using the iMac for their silent HTPC? From what I have read, it is close to silent as you can get with such a small form case. Plus, it is the most power efficient PC you can get for the CPU/GPU horse power (Core Duo and 9400). It seems to me if yo ...
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BACKGROUND Hepatitis delta virus is a unique human pathogen responsible for some 20 million infections globally. This virus is dependent on hepatitis B virus for transmission and propagation. Currently, at least three genotypes of hepatitis delta virus with different geographic distribution and clinical manifestations are described. METHODS In this study, hepatitis delta virus RNA of 35 patients sera were analyzed by RT- semi-nested polymerase chain reaction. Based on genomic differences of hepatitis delta antigen coding region of hepatitis delta virus RNA among hepatitis delta virus RNA-positive sera, the polymerase chain reaction products were digested with restriction enzymes and studied by restriction fragment length polymorphism. RESULTS Out of 35 samples, 13 (38.46%) were positive for hepatitis delta virus RNA by RT- semi-nested polymerase chain reaction. All polymorphisms were shown to be genotype I. Out of 13 hepatitis delta virus RNA-positive (13/35), eight were HBeAg negative.
We have investigated the usefulness of serum hepatitis delta virus (HDV) RNA detection using a slot hybridization analysis of serum samples from ten patients with acute hepatitis and delta markers (group I), from 28 patients with chronic delta hepatitis (group II) and from seven liver graft recipients with hepatitis B virus (HBV) and HDV related cirrhosis or fulminant hepatitis (group III). The slot-blots were hybridized with both HDV-complementary DNA and single-stranded RNA probes. With the single-stranded RNA probe, HDV RNA was detected in the first serum sample available in 9/10 of the patients with acute hepatitis (group I). In addition, HDV RNA was detected in 8/9 and 7/8 of the samples obtained within and after 1 month of the onset of hepatitis. Five of the ten patients scored positive for HDV RNA and negative for hepatitis delta antigen (HDAg) while one was negative for HDV RNA and positive for HDAg. The same RNA probe enabled the detection of serum HDV RNA in 21/28 chronic hepatitis ...
PubMed Central Canada (PMC Canada) provides free access to a stable and permanent online digital archive of full-text, peer-reviewed health and life sciences research publications. It builds on PubMed Central (PMC), the U.S. National Institutes of Health (NIH) free digital archive of biomedical and life sciences journal literature and is a member of the broader PMC International (PMCI) network of e-repositories.
Coiled-coil domain-containing protein 85B is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CCDC85B gene. Hepatitis delta virus (HDV) is a pathogenic human virus whose RNA genome and replication cycle resemble those of plant viroids. Delta-interacting protein A (DIPA), a cellular gene product, has been found to have homology to hepatitis delta virus antigen (HDAg). DIPA interacts with the viral antigen, HDAg, and can affect HDV replication in vitro. CCDC85B has been shown to interact with: C19orf25, KIAA1267, Keratin 17, and Protein kinase N1. GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ENSG00000175602 - Ensembl, May 2017 GRCm38: Ensembl release 89: ENSMUSG00000095098 - Ensembl, May 2017 Human PubMed Reference:. Mouse PubMed Reference:. Brazas R, Ganem D (Oct 1996). A cellular homolog of hepatitis delta antigen: implications for viral replication and evolution. Science. 274 (5284): 90-4. doi:10.1126/science.274.5284.90. PMID 8810253. Bezy O, Elabd C, Cochet O, Petersen RK, Kristiansen K, Dani C, Ailhaud G, ...
Hepatitis B virus (HBV) B is a DNA virus belonging to the Hepadnaviridae family. Hepatitis B infection is a serious health problem and two billion people worldwide are infected with this virus and 350 million people are infected with the chronic infection (1). Hepatitis delta virus (HDV) is a satellite virus and a single-stranded RNA virus that belongs to the delta viride family. Delta antigen was identified by Rizzetto et al. in patients with hepatitis B during year 1977 (2). Hepatitis delta virus requires the surface antigen of hepatitis B virus to replicate and transmit. Hepatitis D virus infection in HBsAg carriers can be found as a simultaneous and acute infection. This infection simultaneously leads to chronic hepatitis, liver cirrhosis, and hepatocellular carcinoma (3). Currently, eight genotypes have been described for HDV, HDV-1 to HDV-8, with the exception of HDV-1; all genotypes are found in distinct and different geographic regions. Most studies in Iran have reported on the HDV-1 ...
LMBRD1 Full-Length MS Protein Standard (NP_060838), Labeled with [U- 13C6, 15N4]-L-Arginine and [U- 13C6, 15N2]-L-Lysine, was produced in human 293 cells (HEK293) with fully chemically defined cell culture medium to obtain incorporation efficiency at Creative-Proteomics. This gene encodes a lysosomal membrane protein that may be involved in the transport and metabolism of cobalamin. This protein also interacts with the large form of the hepatitis delta antigen and may be required for the nucleocytoplasmic shuttling of the hepatitis delta virus. Mutations in this gene are associated with the vitamin B12 metabolism disorder termed, homocystinuria-megaloblastic anemia complementation type F.
Chronic delta hepatitis, caused by hepatitis delta virus (HDV), is the most severe form of viral hepatitis, affecting at least 20 million hepatitis B virus (HBV)-infected patients worldwide. HDV/HBV co- or superinfections are major drivers for hepatocarcinogenesis. Antiviral treatments exist only for HBV and can only suppress but not cure infection. Development of more effective therapies has been impeded by the scarcity of suitable small-animal models. We created a transgenic (tg) mouse model for HDV expressing the functional receptor for HBV and HDV, the human sodium taurocholate cotransporting peptide NTCP. Both HBV and HDV entered hepatocytes in these mice in a glycoprotein-dependent manner, but one or more postentry blocks prevented HBV replication. In contrast, HDV persistently infected hNTCP tg mice coexpressing the HBV envelope, consistent with HDV dependency on the HBV surface antigen (HBsAg) for packaging and spread. In immunocompromised mice lacking functional B, T, and natural killer ...
Homepage »Research Network »Publications »2016 »Liver capsule: Entry and entry inhibition of hepatitis B virus and hepatitis delta virus into hepatocytes ...
Density functional theory methods have been used to investigate the hepatitis delta virus (HDV) ribozyme and its catalyzed phosphodiester cleavage. In particular, the effects of the environmentâ s polarity and/or specific hydrogen-bond interactions on the proton affinity of the active site cytosineâ s N3 ring center have been considered. In addition, the basicities of possible hydrated Mg2+ ion species were also examined. The mechanism previously proposed for the HDV ribozyme in which the active site cytosine (C75) is protonated and thus acts as an acid while the Mg2+ species acts as the complementary base was then investigated. The possible role of tautomerization of C75 is also discussed ...
BACKGROUND:. Patients with classical hemophilia (hemophilia A) and Christmas disease (hemophilia B) were exposed to many hepatotropic viruses during the course of their therapy. Severe chronic hepatitis among these patients was most likely related to persistent infection with non-A, non-B hepatitis virus, hepatitis B virus, or delta hepatitis virus, a defective RNA virus which is dependent upon coinfection with HBV for essential helper functions. Carriers of HBV could contract an acute delta hepatitis infection that was invariably more severe than the illness caused by HBV alone. The morbidity and mortality of delta hepatitis infection was remarkably high. Transmission of the delta hepatitis agent appeared to follow the same routes of transmission as HBV. Direct parenteral inoculation was the classic mode of transmission of HBV which suggested a similar mode of transmission for delta hepatitis.. In 1986, hemophiliacs treated with commercial concentrates of coagulation factors prepared from pools ...
BACKGROUND:. Patients with classical hemophilia (hemophilia A) and Christmas disease (hemophilia B) were exposed to many hepatotropic viruses during the course of their therapy. Severe chronic hepatitis among these patients was most likely related to persistent infection with non-A, non-B hepatitis virus, hepatitis B virus, or delta hepatitis virus, a defective RNA virus which is dependent upon coinfection with HBV for essential helper functions. Carriers of HBV could contract an acute delta hepatitis infection that was invariably more severe than the illness caused by HBV alone. The morbidity and mortality of delta hepatitis infection was remarkably high. Transmission of the delta hepatitis agent appeared to follow the same routes of transmission as HBV. Direct parenteral inoculation was the classic mode of transmission of HBV which suggested a similar mode of transmission for delta hepatitis.. In 1986, hemophiliacs treated with commercial concentrates of coagulation factors prepared from pools ...
Hepatitis delta, also known as hepatitis D, is a liver infection caused by the hepatitis delta virus (HDV) that results in the most severe form of human viral hepatitis for which there is no approved therapy.. HDV is a single-stranded, circular RNA virus that requires the envelope protein (HBsAg) of the hepatitis B virus (HBV) for its own assembly. As a result, hepatitis delta virus (HDV) infection occurs only as a co-infection in individuals infected with HBV. However, HDV/HBV co-infections lead to more serious liver disease than HBV infection alone. HDV is associated with faster progression to liver fibrosis (progressing to cirrhosis in about 80% of individuals in 5-10 years), increased risk of liver cancer, and early decompensated cirrhosis and liver failure ...
The incidence of hepatitis Delta virus in the general Italian population was estimated by a specific surveillance system for acute viral hepatitis over the period 1987-1992. The hepatitis Delta virus incidence rate declined from 3.1/1 000 000 inhabitants in 1987 to 1.2/1 000 000 in 1992. Males predominated 83.8% of cases ; the sex ratio was 5.2....
Patients with hepatitis delta virus genotype 5 have demonstrated improved prognoses, better responses to pegylated interferon treatment.
PALO ALTO, Calif., Oct. 23, 2017 /PRNewswire/ -- Eiger BioPharmaceuticals, Inc., (NASDAQ: EIGR) today announced positive interim 24-week data with pegylated ...
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Chronic HDV/HBV infection is perhaps the most intriguing and difficult to treat among the human viral hepatitis and is one of the most neglected diseases worldwide [44]. The study area included was based upon previous articles that demonstrated the endemicity and near exclusivity of HDV infection in the Amazon region of Brazil [12, 19, 45, 46], only two studies have identified HDV cases outside the locations presented in this study [47, 48].. In Brazil, 77 % of the HDV infections occur in the North region [48]. The isolation of this virus in this location can be a consequence that the majority of HDV cases are present in the indigenous population, that generally lives in isolated regions and interacts preferentially among individuals of their own tribes.. The DBS was used to collect the samples because: distant areas were included, this method is less invasive for the patient once the blood is collected via puncture of the finger using a lancet, it requires minimal collector training, allows the ...
The cDNA (651nt - 941nt) fragment of an isolate of hepatitis delta virus with 289 bp was determined by cloning and Sequencing, from a HBsAg carrier positive both for anti - HDAg and HDV RNA from China, Sichuan Province, using reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction.It contains the region of HDV ribozyme and its self - cleavage site. Comparing this Sichuan isolate with other known HDV isolates from Henan, US - 1, Japan, Peru and Taiwan, the result showed that the homology of nucbotides is 97. 2 %, 93 %, 94 %, 79 %, 96 %, respectively.
Delta agent infection in Melbourne.: Evidence of infection with delta agent was sought in 284 patients with acute hepatitis B referred to Fairfield Hospital, Me
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When it comes to selecting a platform for a vSphere Homelab, there are many options which include building your own whitebox system. For the large majority of folks, the preference is to purchase a ready to use kit such as an Intel NUC or Supermicro which both extremely popular. These systems not only work well but their form factor is also ideal for home offices where space is always at a premium.. With that said, there are many other small form factor (SFF) platforms that exists out in the market and not just Intel-based systems, but also AMD SFF kits which are being introduced and have been getting many inquiries about. As someone who keeps a close eye on this market for new and interesting platforms, I have been re(sharing) some of these new updates on Twitter.. Although Twitter is great way to share and discuss news, it is not the best place to consolidate this type of information that can easily be searched. This was one the motivation for putting together this post for both ...
So far, the only known example of deltaviruses is the hepatitis delta virus (HDV). HDV is speculated to have evolved in humans, since deltaviruses were until very recently found only in humans. Using a metatranscriptomic sequencing approach, we found a circular RNA, which resembles that of HDV in size and coding strategy, in a snake. The identification of similar deltaviruses in distantly related species other than humans indicates that... ...
19:20 Andrew Vaillant Functional control and clinical benefit 1 year following completion of REP 2139 / peg-IFN therapy in patients with chronic HBV / HDV co-infection ...
Freescale Semiconductor, Inc. has introduced two new low-cost i.MX Lite Kits, designed to provide a quick and cost effective method for software and hardware developers to evaluate the i.MXL or i.MX21 Applications Processors.
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In con-trast to HBV, HDV infec-tion induces pro-found innate immune response which is medi-at-ed by pat-tern recog-ni-tion recep-tor MDA5 (Zhang, et al. 2018. J Hepa-tol. 69:25-35). MDA5 is a cytosol sen-sor usu-al-ly rec-og-niz-ing long dou-ble strand RNA (dsR-NA). How-ev-er, unlike oth-er RNA virus-es, HDV repli-cates its RNA in the nucle-us via a unique dou-ble-rolling-cycle mech-a-nism with-out pro-duc-ing long dsR-NA. Inves-ti-gat-ing the innate immune acti-va-tion dur-ing HDV repli-ca-tion will pro-vide impor-tant insights for under-stand-ing MDA5 medi-at-ed innate immune sens-ing of viral RNA. To this aim, we plan to: (i) iden-ti-fy the HDV RNA lig-and rec-og-nized by MDA5; (ii) deter-mine the sub-cel-lu-lar loca-tion of MDA5-HDV RNA inter-ac-tion; and (iii) elu-ci-date the roles of host fac-tors (LGP2, ADAR1, etc.) and viral fac-tors (HDAg and HBV enve-lope pro-teins) in the process of innate immu-ni-ty acti-va-tion.. Long term per-sis-tence of HBV and HDV makes it chal-leng-ing to ...
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aspirin paracetamol ibuprofen together The screen shrinks from 4.7”xxxxx to 4.3”, but the single biggest change is the shift to a plastic bezel around the edge. That takes away a big chunk of the very premium feel of the HTC One, moving it away from glass and metal and toward much of the material compromises for which Samsung has seen the S4 criticised. But the small form factor feels neat in the hand, comes at a cheaper price and is still almost as good ...
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Esant išplitusiai ligai ir skrandžio navikui nekraujuojant, nesant stenozės ir normaliai praeinant maistui operacija nereikalinga. Jei yra stenozė arba navikas kraujuoja gali būti atliekamos paliatyvios operacijos (naviką apeinančioji anastomozė, maitinamoji jenunostomija ar endoskopu įstumiami protezai). Šių operacijų metu skrandžio vėžys neišgydomas, tačiau pagerėja ligonio savijauta. Gydymas priešvėžiniais vaistais pagerina ligonių savijautą, gyvenimo kokybę ir prailgina išgyvenamumą: nuo vidutiniškai 3 mėnesių skiriant tik simptominį gydymą iki 12-14 mėnesių skiriant kombinuotą gydymą vaistais. Būtina ištirti naviko audinį ieškant HER2 receptoriaus. Jei nustatomas HER2 teigiamas navikas, reikia skirti gydymą trastuzumabu, šiuo atveju kombinuojant trastuzumabą ir chemoterapiją pasiekiama ligonių 16 mėnesių išgyvenamumo mediana[8]. Skrandžio adenokarcinoma gydoma 5-fluoruracilo ir platinos preparatų (cisplatina, oksaliplatina) kombinacijomis. ...
"Stimulation of RNA polymerase II elongation by hepatitis delta antigen". Science. 293 (5527): 124-7. doi:10.1126/science. ...
Delta-interacting protein A (DIPA), a cellular gene product, has been found to have homology to hepatitis delta virus antigen ( ... Long M, de Souza SJ, Gilbert W (May 1997). "Delta-interacting protein A and the origin of hepatitis delta antigen". Science. ... Brazas R, Ganem D (Oct 1996). "A cellular homolog of hepatitis delta antigen: implications for viral replication and evolution ... Hepatitis delta virus (HDV) is a pathogenic human virus whose RNA genome and replication cycle resemble those of plant viroids ...
... hepatitis delta antigen, and stimulatory factor II". The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 278 (50): 50101-11. doi:10.1074/jbc. ...
... hepatitis delta virus small delta antigen). p300/CBP have also been observed to acetylate β-catenin, RIP140, PCNA, the DNA ...
This nuclear antigen was then thought to be a hepatitis B antigen and was called the delta antigen. Subsequent experiments in ... of both hepatitis delta antigen polypeptides p24 delta and p27 delta". Journal of Virology. 62 (2): 594-9. doi:10.1128/JVI.62.2 ... Hepatitis D is a type of viral hepatitis caused by the hepatitis delta virus (HDV), a small spherical enveloped particle that ... Taylor JM (2006). "Structure and replication of hepatitis delta virus RNA". Hepatitis Delta Virus. Current Topics in ...
Modahl LE, Lai MM (July 1998). "Transcription of hepatitis delta antigen mRNA continues throughout hepatitis delta virus (HDV) ... The hepatitis delta virus (HDV) ribozyme is a non-coding RNA found in the hepatitis delta virus that is necessary for viral ... In the hepatitis delta virus, this substrate nucleotide sequence begins with uridine and is known as U(-1), however, the ... Page for Hepatitis delta virus ribozyme at Rfam Subviral RNA database entry for HDV ribozyme. ...
... delta/anti-delta) associated to hepatitis B virus in liver and in serum of HBsAg carriers". Gut. 18 (12): 997-1003. doi:10.1136 ... is an Italian virologist who in 1977 first reported the Hepatitis D virus as a nuclear antigen in patients infected with HBV ... Rizzetto, M; Canese MG; Arico S; Criello O; Trepo C; Bonino F; Verme G (1977). "Immunofluorescence detection of new antigen- ...
"Characterization of RNA-binding domains of hepatitis delta antigen". J. Gen. Virol. 74 (Pt 11): 2473-2478. PMID 8245865.. CS1 ... 1987). "Molecular cloning and sequencing of a human hepatitis delta (delta) virus RNA". Nature. 329 (6137): 343-346. doi: ... Taylor JM (2006). "Hepatitis delta virus". Virology. 344 (1): 71-76. doi:10.1016/j.virol.2005.09.033. PMID 16364738.. ... Farci P. Delta hepatitis: an update. J Hepatol 2003; 39 Supl 1: S212-219. ...
They called it "Hepatitis Delta Virus" (HDV). This new virus was found to be defective. HDV needed HBV to act as a helper ... The first sign of Hepatitis D was detected in 1978 when a strange and unrecognizable internuclear antigen was discovered during ... Incubation of Hepatitis D typically lasts for thirty five days. Most often Hepatitis D is a co-infection with Hepatitis B or a ... Normally Hepatitis B is transmitted through blood or any type of blood product. In South America Hepatitis D was found to be ...
Hepatitis D or delta virus (HDV) was discovered in 1977 by Mario Rizzetto and is differentiated from hepatitis A, B, and C ... HBV provides a surface antigen, HBsAg, which is utilized by HDV to create a super-infection resulting in liver failure. HDV is ... "Hepatitis D Virus". web.stanford.edu. Retrieved 2017-12-01. "Hepatitis D: Background, Etiology, Epidemiology". Medscape. ... health that demonstrates the need for co-infection to replicate and infect within a host is the virus that causes hepatitis D. ...
Hepatitis D is caused by the hepatitis D virus (HDV), or hepatitis delta virus; it belongs to the genus Deltavirus. It is ... It can only cause infection when encapsulated by hepatitis B virus surface antigens. The vaccine for hepatitis B protects ... "WHO , Hepatitis C". Who.int. 2010-12-08. Retrieved 2012-08-26. U.S. National Library of Medicine "Delta Agent (hepatitis D)" ... Hepatitis C (originally "non-A non-B hepatitis") is caused by hepatitis C virus (HCV), an RNA virus of the family Flaviviridae ...
Delta agent not screened for, since it is a superinfection of Hepatitis B and cannot exist alone. Often silent infection Most ... Other tests are used to look for donors during this period, specifically the p24 antigen test and nucleic acid testing. In ... Recipients of blood-derived clotting factor concentrates have become ill with Hepatitis A, but there are no documented cases of ... likely significant TTI in developed countries Used as a surrogate for other Hepatitis testing, losing favor now that HCV tests ...
Hepatitis B surface antigen MeSH D23.050.327.495.505 - hepatitis c antigens MeSH D23.050.327.495.752 - hepatitis delta antigens ... hepatitis a antigens MeSH D23.050.327.495.500 - hepatitis b antigens MeSH D23.050.327.495.500.450 - Hepatitis B core antigens ... antigens, cd15 MeSH D23.101.100.900.131 - antigens, cd31 MeSH D23.101.100.920 - antigens, ly MeSH D23.101.100.930 - antigens, ... forssman antigen MeSH D23.050.285.018 - antigens, cd24 MeSH D23.050.285.025 - antigens, cd30 MeSH D23.050.285.040 - antigens, ...
... hepatitis delta virus (HDV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV). Some research has showed that the lack of vitamin A and vitamin D are ... Dendritic cells are antigen-presenting cells that process antigen material and present it to other T cells. Following the ... "Hepatitis Delta Virus Detected in Salivary Glands of Sjögren's Syndrome Patients and Recapitulates a Sjögren's Syndrome-Like ... Epstein-Barr virus, hepatitis C, and human T-cell leukemia virus-1 are among the most studied infectious agents in Sjögren's ...
... hepatitis c antibodies MeSH D12.776.377.715.548.114.257 - antigen-antibody complex MeSH D12.776.377.715.548.114.301 - ... immunoglobulin delta-chains MeSH D12.776.377.715.548.114.619.312 - immunoglobulin e MeSH D12.776.377.715.548.114.619.312.500 - ... antigen, b-cell MeSH D12.776.377.715.548.950.500 - antigens, cd79 MeSH D12.776.377.715.647.100 - alpha-macroglobulins See List ... hepatitis a antibodies MeSH D12.776.377.715.548.114.254.450.504 - hepatitis b antibodies MeSH D12.776.377.715.548.114.254.450. ...
... hepatitis c antibodies MeSH D12.776.124.486.485.114.257 - antigen-antibody complex MeSH D12.776.124.486.485.114.301 - ... immunoglobulin delta-chains MeSH D12.776.124.486.485.114.619.312 - immunoglobulin e MeSH D12.776.124.486.485.114.619.312.500 - ... hepatitis c antibodies MeSH D12.776.124.790.651.114.257 - antigen-antibody complex MeSH D12.776.124.790.651.114.301 - ... antigen, b-cell MeSH D12.776.124.486.485.950.500 - antigens, cd79 MeSH D12.776.124.790.106.050 - alpha 1-antichymotrypsin MeSH ...
"Characteristics of circulating T cell receptor gamma-delta T cells from individuals chronically infected with hepatitis B virus ... The Vδ2+ T cells recognize small non-peptide antigens, but unlike αβ T cells, these antigens do not need to be processed by ... If both delta and gamma rearrangements produce functional chains, the cell expresses delta and gamma. If not, the cell proceeds ... While the αβ lineage has been widely studied, the γδ lineage has not due to the minimal number of defined antigens, the unusual ...
Hepatitis B surface Antigen); HBsAg shfaqet para rritjes të transaminazave dhe qëndron i rritur gjatë kohës të sëmundjes; ... Hepatiti D (agjenti delta): *a. Virusi i hepatitit D është një virus gjysmak prej acidi ribonukleik që shkakton infeksion vetëm ... Viruset shkaktare janë viruset e hepatitit (HAV, HBV, HCV, delta-virusi, HEV), si dhe viruse të tjera si CMV, EBV, HSV, etj. ... a. Shkaktohet nga virusi i hepatitit A, një picornavirus i njohur si HAV (Hepatitis A Virus). ...
"Predictive factors for reactivation of hepatitis B following hepatitis B e antigen seroconversion in chronic hepatitis B". ... Taylor JM (2006). "Hepatitis delta virus". Virology. 344 (1): 71-76. doi:10.1016/j.virol.2005.09.033. PMID 16364738.. ... Hepatitis D (HDV) can occur only with a concomitant hepatitis B infection, because HDV uses the HBV surface antigen to form a ... Shortly after the appearance of the HBsAg, another antigen called hepatitis B e antigen (HBeAg) will appear. Traditionally, the ...
Folding of other ribozymes (hepatitis delta virus, ribonuclease P, hairpin ribozyme) has also been proposed. Several years ... antigen epitopes generally have greater mobility than the less immunogenic regions of proteins. With Pascal Auffinger, the ...
S. mansoni infection often occurs alongside those of viral hepatitis, either hepatitis B virus (HBV) or hepatitis C virus (HCV ... Antibodies and antigens can be detected in the blood using ELISA to identify infection. Adult worm antigens can be detected by ... In Egypt, 60% of the population in the Northern and Eastern parts of the Nile Delta and only 6% in the Southern part are ... Gasim, Gasim I; Bella, Abdelhaleem; Adam, Ishag (2015). "Schistosomiasis, hepatitis B and hepatitis C co-infection". Virology ...
"Hepatitis delta virus infection in a large cohort of chronic hepatitis B patients in Ethiopia". Liver Int. 38 (6): 1000-1009. ... The major victims are the carriers of the hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg), who become superinfected by the HDV, and ... Farci, Patrizia (2003). "Delta hepatitis: An update". Journal of Hepatology. 39: 212-219. doi:10.1016/S0168-8278(03)00331-3. ... Alfaiate, Dulce; Dény, Paul; Durantel, David (2015). "Hepatitis delta virus: From biological and medical aspects to current and ...
Dantu is associated with very weak s antigen, a protease-resistant N antigen and either very weak or no U antigen. There are at ... Use of a pseudoexon in construction of two delta-alpha-delta hybrid genes resulting in antigenic diversification". J. Biol. ... Sánchez G, Aragonès L, Costafreda MI, Ribes E, Bosch A, Pintó RM (September 2004). "Capsid region involved in hepatitis A virus ... This antigen is now considered to be part of the Miltenberger complex. A related antigen is Sat. This gene has six exons of ...
... express gamma-delta TCRs (gamma delta T cells), which recognize non-protein antigens. T cells with functionally stable TCRs ... During hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection cytotoxic T cells kill infected cells and produce antiviral cytokines capable of ... An antigen is a molecule capable of stimulating an immune response and is often produced by cancer cells or viruses. Antigens ... If the TCR is specific for that antigen, it binds to the complex of the class I MHC molecule and the antigen, and the T cell ...
All five patients had stable or increased immune response to HIV antigens and other pathogens. This was the first evaluation of ... with double-delta-32 mutation which disables the CCR5 receptor. This cure was accepted by the medical community in 2011. It ... and hepatitis were underway. In March, scientists, including an inventor of CRISPR, Jennifer Doudna, urged a worldwide ... Chimeric antigen receptor T cell therapy) are the FDA's first approved gene therapies to enter the market. Since that time, ...
... banyak ditemukan jenis lain dari limfosit misalnya sel T gamma delta (sel T γδ). Sel T sitotoksik hanya mengenali antigen yang ... "Sleep Enhances the Human Antibody response to Hepatitis A Vaccination". Psychosomatic Medicine. 65: 831-835. PMID 14508028 ... oleh pengenal antigen.[59] Respons imun adaptif bersifat spesifik terhadap antigen tertentu dan membutuhkan pengenalan antigen ... Sel T gamma delta[sunting , sunting sumber]. Sel T gamma delta (sel T γδ) memiliki reseptor sel T alternatif yang berbeda ...
The antigen recognition by T cells is a remarkable process dependent on the T cell receptor (TCR). The TCR is randomly ... Homologues of the mammalian gamma, delta and alpha beta TCR (TCR1 and TCR2) are found in birds. However, a third TCR, called ... These include Marek's Disease, Duck Hepatitis Virus, Chicken Anemia Virus, Turkeypox, Fowlpox and others. Bird immunity is ... Using monoclonal antibodies that are specific for chicken T cell surface antigens, the development of T cells in birds is ...
... hepatitis delta virus, group I, group II, and RNase P ribozymes. Hammerhead, hairpin, and hepatitis delta virus (HDV) ribozyme ... In hepatitis B, siRNA silencing was used to target the surface antigen on the hepatitis B virus and led to a decrease in the ... In addition, siRNA techniques used in hepatitis C were able to lower the amount of the virus in the cell by 98%. RNA ... RNAi has been used to target genes in several viral diseases, such as the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and hepatitis. In ...
O antigen is exposed on the very outer surface of the bacterial cell, and, as a consequence, is a target for recognition by ... Hep) moieties. The outer core oligosaccharide chain varies depending on the bacterial strain. The term lipooligosaccharide is ... such as the so-called delta endotoxin proteins secreted by Bacillus thuringiensis. The toxic activity of LPS was first ... The O antigen is attached to the core oligosaccharide, and comprises the outermost domain of the LPS molecule. The composition ...
Liver biopsy can verify inflammation and necrosis of hepatocytes and detect viral antigens. Because of the bleeding tendency of ... Mitchell misdiagnosed the disease that he observed and treated, and the disease was probably Weil's disease or hepatitis. See: ... Delta Omega.org Archived 2012-05-09 at the Wayback Machine. *^ Chaves-Carballo E (2005). "Carlos Finlay and yellow fever: ... ribavirin in reducing liver pathology in yellow fever virus infection may be similar to its activity in treatment of hepatitis ...
... -antigen interactions[edit]. The antibody's paratope interacts with the antigen's epitope. An antigen usually contains ... elevated IgM indicates viral hepatitis and primary biliary cirrhosis, while IgG is elevated in viral hepatitis, autoimmune ... Possible classes of heavy chains in antibodies include alpha, gamma, delta, epsilon, and mu, and they define the antibody's ... Functions mainly as an antigen receptor on B cells that have not been exposed to antigens.[16] It has been shown to activate ...
Interakcije antitijelo-antigenUredi. Paratop protutijela reagira s epitopom antigena. Antigen obično sadrži različite epitope ... Na primjer, povišena IgA ukazuje na alkoholnu cirozu, povišeni IgM označava virusni hepatitis i primarnu bilijarnu cirozu, dok ... delta), ε (epsilon) i μ (mu). To uzrokuje IgA, IgG, IgD, IgE i IgM. ... Rh faktor, također poznat kao Rh D antigen, je antigen pronađen na crvenim krvnim stanicama; pojedinci koji su Rh-pozitivni (Rh ...
The serotype or serovar, is a classification of Salmonella into subspecies based on antigens that the organism presents. It is ... Serotyping is done by mixing cells with antibodies for a particular antigen. It can give some idea about risk. A 2014 study ... and flagellar H antigens (the Kauffman-White classification). The full name of a serotype is given as, for example, Salmonella ...
"Hepatitis B Virus-Specific CD8+ T Cells Maintain Functional Exhaustion after Antigen Reexposure in an Acute Activation Immune ... Gamma delta T cellsEdit. Gamma delta T cells (γδ T cells) represent a small subset of T cells which possess a γδ TCR rather ... Antigen-naïve T cells expand and differentiate into memory and effector T cells after they encounter their cognate antigen ... T cell exhaustion can be triggered by several factors like persistent antigen exposure and lack of CD4 T cell help.[51] Antigen ...
Although hepatitis delta virus genome may replicate independently once inside a host cell, it requires the help of hepatitis B ... interferon for hepatitis B e antigen-positive hepatitis B treatment: meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Liver ... The hepatitis delta virus of humans has an RNA genome similar to viroids but has a protein coat derived from hepatitis B virus ... Development of vaccines against hepatitis A and hepatitis B. Reviews of Infectious Diseases. 1986;8(4):591-8. doi:10.1093/ ...
antigen processing and presentation. • positive regulation of fructose 1,6-bisphosphate 1-phosphatase activity. • regulation of ... Hepatitis B (VII). *Nucleoside analogues/NARTIs: Entecavir#. *Lamivudine. *Telbivudine. *Clevudine. *Nucleotide analogues/ ... Causes normal cells to increase expression of class I MHC molecules as well as class II MHC on antigen-presenting cells-to be ... Milstone LM, Waksman BH (1970). "Release of virus inhibitor from tuberculin-sensitized peritoneal cells stimulated by antigen ...
... and antigens for vaccinations[58] A study led by the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) found also viral genes in transgenic ... Delta & Pine Land Company of Mississippi (5%)."[79] ...
Gama delta T-celiceUredi. Gama delta T-celice (γδ T-celice) imajo alternativni T-celični receptor (TCR) v nasprotju s CD4+ in ... Kompleks antigen-PHK prepoznajo tudi koreceptorji CD4, ki novačijo molekule iz T-celice (npr. Lck tirozinsko kinazo), ki so ... "Sleep enhances the human antibody response to hepatitis A vaccination" (PDF). Psychosomatic Medicine. Vol. 65 no. 5. 2003. str ... "Vitamin D controls T cell antigen receptor signaling and activation of human T cells". Nature Immunology. Vol. 11 no. 4. Apr ...
Hepatitis B Virus-Specific CD8+ T Cells Maintain Functional Exhaustion after Antigen Reexposure in an Acute Activation Immune ... γδT细胞(英语:Gamma delta T cell). *自然T細胞(英语:Naive T cell) ... 自體免疫肝炎(英语:Autoimmune hepatitis). *自體免疫多腺體症候群(Autoimmune polyendocrine syndrome,APS)(英语:Autoimmune polyendocrine syndrome) *APS1 ... MR1 antigen presentation to mucosal-associated invariant T cells was highly conserved in evolution
Some infections, such as Campylobacter jejuni, have antigens that are similar (but not identical) to our own self-molecules. In ... "PPAR-delta senses and orchestrates clearance of apoptotic cells to promote tolerance". Nature Medicine. 15 (11): 1266-72. doi ... Antigen-specific immunotherapy which allows immune cells to specifically target the abnormal cells that cause autoimmune ... According to the hygiene hypothesis, high levels of cleanliness expose children to fewer antigens than in the past, causing ...
"Hepatitis B Virus-Specific CD8+ T Cells Maintain Functional Exhaustion after Antigen Reexposure in an Acute Activation Immune ... Gamma delta T cells[edit]. Gamma delta T cells (γδ T cells) represent a small subset of T cells that possess a distinct T cell ... Antigen-naïve T cells expand and differentiate into memory and effector T cells after they encounter their cognate antigen ... T cell exhaustion can be triggered by several factors like persistent antigen exposure and lack of CD4 T cell help.[57] Antigen ...
Interakcije antitijelo-antigenUredi. Paratop protutijela reagira s epitopom antigena. Antigen obično sadrži različite epitope ... Na primjer, povišena IgA ukazuje na alkoholnu cirozu , povišeni IgM označava virusni hepatitis i primarnu bilijarnu cirozu , ... delta), ε (epsilon) i μ (mu). To uzrokuje IgA, IgG, IgD, IgE i IgM. ... Važno je napomenuti da se to događa prije nego što antigen može stimulirati majčinske B stanice da "sjećaju" Rh antigen ...
"Space Year Review 2012: Launch vehicles - Falcon 9, Delta IV and Soyuz show robustness in mishaps but not so for Safir or ... Researchers at Oxford University report promising results in human trials of a prototype hepatitis C vaccine. Scientists at ... Neurol.) 18 November - A biodegradable nanoparticle has been developed which can stealthily deliver an antigen, tricking the ...
The chi psi complex functions by increasing the affinity of tau and gamma for delta.delta' to a physiologically relevant range ... Boehm EM, Powers KT, Kondratick CM, Spies M, Houtman JC, Washington MT (April 2016). "The Proliferating Cell Nuclear Antigen ( ... Some viruses also encode special DNA polymerases, such as Hepatitis B virus DNA polymerase. These may selectively replicate ... Pol α (alpha), Pol δ (delta), and Pol ε (epsilon) are members of Family B Polymerases and are the main polymerases involved ...
Liver disease activity and hepatitis B virus replication in chronic delta antigen-positive hepatitis B virus carriers.. ... HBcAg and delta antigen in liver was determined by immunofluorescence or immunoperoxidase staining. In delta antigen-positive/ ... Hepatitis B virus DNA was assayed in the serum of 21 patients with delta antigen-positive/HBsAg-positive chronic liver disease ... Delta antigen is currently thought to reflect superinfection of the liver with a defective RNA virus (delta agent), requiring ...
Hepatitis delta virus (HDV) is known to express a protein termed the small delta antigen, a structural protein which is also ... A novel form of hepatitis delta antigen.. V V Bichko, Y E Khudyakov, J M Taylor ... leading to the production of an elongated form of the delta antigen, the large form, which is essential for virus assembly. The ...
Role of hepatitis C and delta viruses in the termination of chronic hepatitis B surface antigen carrier state: a multivariate ... Influences of hepatitis delta (HDV) or C virus (HCV) superinfection on the spontaneous clearance of hepatitis B virus (HBV) ... Results suggest that HCV is the most important hepatotropic virus that enhances HBsAg clearance in chronic hepatitis B. ... surface antigen (HBsAg) were investigated in 992 patients. Patients were infected with HBV alone (group 1), HBV and HDV (group ...
Delta agent: association of delta antigen with hepatitis B surface antigen and RNA in serum of delta-infected chimpanzees. Proc ... Large hepatitis delta antigen is not a suppressor of hepatitis delta virus RNA synthesis once RNA replication is established. J ... The large form of hepatitis delta antigen is crucial for assembly of hepatitis delta virus. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 88:8490- ... Hepatitis delta antigen (HDAg) is a nuclear protein that is intimately involved in hepatitis delta virus (HDV) RNA replication ...
... is a subviral agent that is dependent on the hepatitis B (HBV) virus for its life cycle. Hepatitis Delta infection cannot occur ... The Hepatitis Delta Antigen test is used to diagnose hepatitis D infection in patients with documented acute or chronic ... Your Hepatitis Delta Antigen test includes 1st class postage and packaging for you to send your blood sample directly to our ... We will send you your Hepatitis Delta Antigen blood test sample collection kit together with the details of a convenient clinic ...
HDV encodes small delta antigens (S-HDAg) and large delta antigens (L-HDAg). S-HDAg is essential for HDV replication. ... infection may induce fulminant hepatitis in chronic hepatitis B patients (CHB) or rapid progression of CHB to cirrhosis or ... HDV encodes delta antigens (HDAg), which have two isoforms: small delta antigens (S-HDAg) and large delta antigens (L-HDAg) [4 ... Chronic hepatitis in carriers of hepatitis B surface antigen, with intrahepatic expression of the delta antigen. An active and ...
Large hepatitis delta antigen is a novel clathrin adaptor-like protein. Authors: Huang C.. Chang, S.C. Yu I.-C.. Tsay Y.-G.. ...
Small delta antigen , Drug development. ABSTRACT. Delta hepatitis is pandemic worldwide, which is causedby Hepatitis delta ... Comparative Modeling Study of the 3-D Structure of Small Delta Antigen Protein of Hepatitis Delta Virus. ... HDV causeseither co-infection or super infection with Hepatitis B virus.Small delta antigen protein of HDV is obligatory ... Keywords: Delta hepatitis , 3-D structure , Modeling , Energy minimization , ...
Inhibition of Cellular RNA polymerase II transcription by delta antigen of hepatitis delta virus. ...
... protein forms complexes with lamin A/C-Nups to mediate the CRM1-independent nuclear export of large hepatitis delta antigen. J ... The hepatitis D virus can cause liver disease, although infection is rare and requires co-infection with a related virus called ... This protein interacts with a region called the nuclear export signal (NES) of a protein that forms a piece of the hepatitis D ...
Based on genomic differences of hepatitis delta antigen coding region of hepatitis delta virus RNA among hepatitis delta virus ... Out of 13 hepatitis delta virus RNA-positive (13/35), eight were HBeAg negative. CONCLUSION Our data indicated that hepatitis ... METHODS In this study, hepatitis delta virus RNA of 35 patients sera were analyzed by RT- semi-nested polymerase chain ... RESULTS Out of 35 samples, 13 (38.46%) were positive for hepatitis delta virus RNA by RT- semi-nested polymerase chain reaction ...
... delta) virus genotyping: Relationship with the geographical origin and the clinical course of the disease - Antigen; Total and ... The anti-genome of HDV contains a single open reading frame that encodes the two isoforms of hepatitis delta antigen, the small ... The hepatitis delta virus (HDV) is responsible for the most severe form of acute and chronic viral hepatitis. Infection with ... an internal nucleocapsid formed by hepatitis delta antigen (HDAg) molecules, and a chain of single-stranded circular RNA of ...
These results suggested that the double antigen sandwich ELISA with purified recombinant HDAg showed higher specificity and ... We obtained high titer and good quality hepatitis delta virus protein purified by Ni-NTA metal-affinity chromatography, which ... 4) For the assay of specificity, all 60 samples infected by other hepatitis viruses and 30 normal samples were negative for ... in human serum was developed by using double antigen sandwich ELISA. HDV gene fragment encoding HDAg was isolated from a ...
Hepatitis B Antigens/analysis , Hepatitis B/etiology , Hepatitis B Surface Antigens/analysis , Hepatitis B Core Antigens/ ... Labrea hepatitis-hepatitis B and delta antigen expression in liver tissue: report of three autopsy cases; preliminary report ... Labrea hepatitis-hepatitis B and delta antigen expression in liver tissue: report of three ... Index: LILACS (Americas) Main subject: Hepatitis B / Hepatitis B Antigens Type of study: Case report Limits: Adolescent / Child ...
... a novel polysaccharide adjuvant based on delta inulin, when formulated with hepatitis B surface antigen: A randomized ... Immunogenicity and safety of Advax™, a novel polysaccharide adjuvant based on delta inulin, when formulated with hepatitis B ... surface antigen: A randomized controlled Phase 1 study. David Gordon, Peter Kelley, Susanne Heinzel, Peter Cooper, Nikolai ...
Hepatitis Delta Virus , Allergy and Immunology , Hepatitis delta Antigens , Allergy and Immunology , Recombinant Proteins , ... Hepatitis Delta Virus / Hepatitis delta Antigens / Diagnosis / Allergy and Immunology / Escherichia coli / Fermentation ... Hepatitis Delta Virus / Hepatitis delta Antigens / Diagnosis / Allergy and Immunology / Escherichia coli / Fermentation ... Expression and Purification of Recombinant Hepatitis Delta Virus (HDV) Antigen for Use in a Diagnostic ELISA for HDV Infection ...
HDV RNA genome Hepatitis delta antigen (HDAg) 36 nm From HDV: From HBV: From HDV:From HBV: ... Hepatitis Delta Virus Hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) ... 3 Hepatitis Delta Virus Hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) HDV ... Hepatitis Delta Virus Hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) HDV RNA genome Hepatitis delta antigen (HDAg) 36 nm From HDV: From ... Hepatitis Delta Virus Hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) HDV RNA genome Hepatitis delta antigen (HDAg) 36 nm From HDV: From ...
In animal studies Advax enhanced humoral and cellular immunity to hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) without inducing local or ... Immunogenicity and safety of Advax™, a novel polysaccharide adjuvant based on delta inulin, when formulated with hepatitis B ... Advax™ is a novel adjuvant produced from semi-crystalline particles of delta inulin. ... surface antigen: A randomized controlled Phase 1 study Academic Article * View record in Web of Science ® ...
CHRONIC HEPATITIS IN CARRIERS OF HEPATITIS B SURFACE ANTIGEN, WITH INTRAHEPATIC EXPRESSION OF THE DELTA ANTIGEN. AN ACTIVE AND ... "CHRONIC HEPATITIS IN CARRIERS OF HEPATITIS B SURFACE ANTIGEN, WITH INTRAHEPATIC EXPRESSION OF THE DELTA ANTIGEN. AN ACTIVE AND ... "CHRONIC HEPATITIS IN CARRIERS OF HEPATITIS B SURFACE ANTIGEN, WITH INTRAHEPATIC EXPRESSION OF THE DELTA ANTIGEN. AN ACTIVE AND ... "CHRONIC HEPATITIS IN CARRIERS OF HEPATITIS B SURFACE ANTIGEN, WITH INTRAHEPATIC EXPRESSION OF THE DELTA ANTIGEN. AN ACTIVE AND ...
Hepatitis delta virus delta antigen (IPR002506) Pfam signature: PF01517 Reovirus non-structural protein sigma NS (IPR002507) ... Hepatitis C virus core protein, C-terminal (IPR002521) Pfam signature: PF01542 Hepatitis C virus core protein, N-terminal ( ... Hepatitis C virus non-structural protein NS2 (IPR002518) Pfam signature: PF01538 Hepatitis C virus envelope glycoprotein E1 ( ... Merozoite surface antigen 2 (MSA-2) (IPR001136) Pfam signature: PF00985 DNA gyrase B subunit, C-terminal (IPR002288) Pfam ...
Delta-Interacting Protein A and the Origin of Hepatitis Delta Antigen. By Manyuan Long, Sandro J de Souza, Walter Gilbert ...
... delta antigen explanation free. What is delta antigen? Meaning of delta antigen medical term. What does delta antigen mean? ... Looking for online definition of delta antigen in the Medical Dictionary? ... Synonym(s): delta agent, delta antigen, delta virus, hepatitis delta virus. hep·a·ti·tis D vi·rus. , hepatitis delta virus (HDV ... Genotype-specific complementation of hepatitis delta virus RNA replication by hepatitis delta antigen.. Eighth major clade for ...
This study aimed to detect the hepatitis delta virus in blood donors with positive Hepatitis B Surface Antigens (HBsAg). ... Hepatitis delta virus is an imperfect virus with RNA and its activity depends on the presence of hepatitis B virus. This virus ... Low prevalence of HDV infection shows that Hepatitis B is being controlled in Shahrekord. Keywords: Hepatitis Delta Virus_Blood ... Molecular detection of hepatitis delta virus in blood donors with RT-PCR ...
The tiny hepatitis delta virus (HDV) antigen (SHDAg) plays an essential. May 28, 2017 12:20 pm. \ by Randall Harvey ... The tiny hepatitis delta virus (HDV) antigen (SHDAg) plays an essential role in HDV RNA double-rolling-circle replication. S177 ... Hepatitis delta computer virus (HDV) is usually a subviral pathogen that can self-replicate but relies on its helper hepatitis ... which replicates from genomic RNA encodes hepatitis AEG 3482 delta antigen (HDAg) (53). You will find two forms of HDAg: p24 ( ...
Stimulation of RNA polymerase II elongation by hepatitis delta antigen. Science 293, 124-127 (2001). doi:10.1126/science. ...
Hepatitis delta virus is the only representative of the Deltavirus genus, which consists of 7 differentiated major clades. In ... Genotype-specific complementation of hepatitis delta virus RNA replication by hepatitis delta antigen. J Virol. 1998;72:2806-14 ... Percent similarity between hepatitis delta virus (HDV) genotypes calculated from complete and small hepatitis delta (sHD) ... Percent similarity between hepatitis delta virus (HDV) genotypes calculated from complete and small hepatitis delta (sHD) ...
Hepatitis delta virus is the only representative of the Deltavirus genus, which consists of 7 differentiated major clades. In ... Genotype-specific complementation of hepatitis delta virus RNA replication by hepatitis delta antigen. J Virol. 1998;72:2806-14 ... Wang KS, Choo QL, Weiner AJ, Ou JH, Najarian RC, Thayer RM, Structure, sequence and expression of the hepatitis delta (delta) ... Le Gal F, Gordien E, Affolabi D, Hanslik T, Alloui C, Deny P, Quantification of hepatitis delta virus RNA in serum by consensus ...
A novel form of hepatitis delta antigen. V V Bichko, Y E Khudyakov, J M Taylor ... Replication of hepatitis A viruses with chimeric 5 nontranslated regions. X Y Jia, M Tesar, D F Summers, E Ehrenfeld ... Structure of the 3 terminus of the hepatitis C virus genome. T Tanaka, N Kato, M J Cho, K Sugiyama, K Shimotohno ... Simian virus 40 large T antigen alters the phosphorylation state of the RB-related proteins p130 and p107. H Stubdal, J Zalvide ...
Stimulation of RNA polymerase II elongation by hepatitis delta antigen. (PMID: 11387440) Yamaguchi Y … Handa H (Science (New ... Suggested Antigen Peptide Sequences for NELFA Gene. GenScript: Design optimal peptide antigens:. *cDNA FLJ36721 fis, clone ...
  • To assess the influence of delta agent on hepatitis B virus replication in patients persistently infected with both viruses and showing chronic liver disease, we measured serum and liver hepatitis B virus DNA in HBsAg-positive chronic liver disease patients who were either positive or negative for delta antigen in the liver. (nih.gov)
  • Hepatitis B virus DNA was assayed in the serum of 21 patients with delta antigen-positive/HBsAg-positive chronic liver disease and in 21 patients with delta antigen-negative/HBsAg-positive chronic liver disease matched for HBeAg/anti-HBe status and underlying liver histology. (nih.gov)
  • In delta antigen-positive/HBsAg-positive chronic liver disease, serum hepatitis B virus DNA was detected transiently in 4 of 21 cases (19%) and was present in these patients at low levels (trace to 2+). (nih.gov)
  • In contrast, 9 of 21 (43%) delta antigen-negative/HBsAg-positive chronic liver disease patients were serum hepatitis B virus DNA positive, and five of these had high serum hepatitis B virus DNA levels (3+ to 4+). (nih.gov)
  • Serum HBsAg and anti-HBc titers were significantly lower in delta antigen-positive cases and correlated with reduced amount of HBcAg in the liver. (nih.gov)
  • Influences of hepatitis delta (HDV) or C virus (HCV) superinfection on the spontaneous clearance of hepatitis B virus (HBV) surface antigen (HBsAg) were investigated in 992 patients. (nih.gov)
  • Results suggest that HCV is the most important hepatotropic virus that enhances HBsAg clearance in chronic hepatitis B. (nih.gov)
  • HDV is a defective satellite virus whose assembly requires a supply of hepatitis B virus surface antigen (HBsAg) from hepatitis B virus (HBV) [ 4 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
  • It is a small defective RNA virus and an obligate satellite of HBV, which requires surface antigens (HBsAg) for its own assembly, propagation and transmission of infectious virions. (ivami.com)
  • The HDV virion is 36 nm in diameter and is composed of an outer envelope with the HBV surface glycoproteins (HBsAg) and host lipids, an internal nucleocapsid formed by hepatitis delta antigen (HDAg) molecules, and a chain of single-stranded circular RNA of negative polarity. (ivami.com)
  • Hepatitis Delta Virus Hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) HDV RNA genome Hepatitis delta antigen (HDAg) 36 nm From HDV: From HBV: From. (slideplayer.com)
  • In animal studies Advax enhanced humoral and cellular immunity to hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) without inducing local or systemic reactogenicity. (edu.au)
  • ABSTRACT: A total of 1535 randomly collected blood specimens from different groups of consenting subjects in Benue State, were screened by ELISA for Hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg), hepatitis B surface antibodies (HBsAb), hepatitis B core antibodies (HBcAb), hepatitis Be antigen (HBeAg) and Hepatitis B core IgM antibodies (HBcIgM). (scirp.org)
  • Mbaawuaga, E.M., Nor, J.S. and Jombo, G.T.A. (2008) Prevalence of Hepatitis B Surface Antigen (HBsAg) among Patients in Makurdi, Benue State. (scirp.org)
  • 10.2% individuals were chronic carriers for HBV surface antigen (HBsAg-positive). (ajtmh.org)
  • The prevalence of antibody to HDV was 6.1%, with the proportion of 13.6% among hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg)-positive subjects, all of whom had HDV RNA. (ajtmh.org)
  • A documented past history of hepatitis, living in 'asocial' wards in which at least one HBsAg carrier was present, long institutionalization (is greater than 10 yrs.), admission to the institution between ages 5 and 19, a present age between 20 and 39, and being male were associated with the presence of anti-HBs. (arctichealth.org)
  • 112 (34%) were females, 258 (79%) were injecting drug users (IDU), 25 (8%) were men who have sex with men (MSM), and 20 (6%) were hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg)-positive. (arctichealth.org)
  • The occurrence of the delta (delta) agent was analyzed in 89 patients with acute hepatitis B infection during 1976-1979 in Gothenburg, Sweden, and in 46 patients (16 drug addicts) with chronic HBsAg-positive liver disease. (arctichealth.org)
  • 1983). An infectious inoculum induced HBV hepatitis and intrahepatic expression of HDAg in HBsAg negative chimpanzees up to a 1 × 10− 5 dilution whereas a 1 x 10- 6 dilution caused only an HBV infection (Purcell et al. (springer.com)
  • 1 × 10− 7 ) while dilutions, up to 1 × 10− 11 induced hepatitis with intrahepatic expression of HDAg in HBsAg carrier chimpanzees. (springer.com)
  • Bonino F, Hoyer BM , Ford E, Shih J-W K, Purcell RH, Gerin JL (1981) The delta agent: HBSAg particles with delta antigen and RNA in the serum of a HBV carrier. (springer.com)
  • Bonino F, Negro F, Chiaberge E (1985b) Active HBV replication in HBSAg carriers with chronic delta infection. (springer.com)
  • Canese MG, Rizzetto M, Novara R, London WT, Purcell RH (1984) Experimental infection of chimpanzees with the HBsAg associated delta agent: an ultrastructural study. (springer.com)
  • Craxi A, Raimondo G, Longo G, Giannuoli G, De Pasquale R, Caltagirone M, Patti S, Squadrito G, Pagliaro L (1984) Delta agent infection in acute hepatitis and chronic HBSAg carriers with and without liver disease. (springer.com)
  • 3-5 Cross sectional studies have indicated that patients with hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) positive chronic hepatitis and HDV infection have more severe liver disease than those with HBV infection alone. (bmj.com)
  • 6 Moreover longitudinal studies have reported that HDV infection in patients with chronic hepatitis B is associated with a more rapid progression to cirrhosis than in HBsAg carriers with chronic hepatitis and no evidence of HDV infection. (bmj.com)
  • For complete replication and transmission, HDV requires the hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg). (intmedpress.com)
  • Thus, HDV infection only occurs in HBsAg-positive individuals, either as acute coinfection in treatment-naive HBV-infected persons, or as superinfection in patients with pre-existing chronic hepatitis B (CHB). (intmedpress.com)
  • Like the satellite RNA viruses of plants, HDV is coated by the envelope containing proteins derived from another virus that acts as a helper virus, and in this case, it is the hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) of the HBV. (intmedpress.com)
  • An open-label randomized study was undertaken to compare a 2-dose regimen (Months 0 and 6) of hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) vaccine formulated with a novel adjuvant (HBsAg/AS04) with a standard 3-dose regimen (Months 0, 1 and 6) of licensed recombinant HBsAg vaccine in terms of immunogenicity and reactogenicity when administered to healthy subjects aged between 15 and 40 y. (arctichealth.org)
  • Hepatitis D virus (HDV) is an incomplete RNA virus that needs hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) to help its replication. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • To estimate the prevalence of hepatitis D virus infection among HBsAg positive individuals. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • REP 2139 is a nucleic acid polymer that removes surface antigen (HBsAg) and as part of combination therapy, has achieved functional cure for chronic HBV (sustained HBsAg loss) and sustained clearance of HDV infection from the blood in early phase II proof of concept clinical trials it has completed to date. (hepb.org)
  • In HBV infection, the most abundant viral antigen in the blood is the hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) which plays an important role in preventing immune control of HBV. (hepb.org)
  • Circulating HBsAg is almost entirely in the form of non-infectious HBV subviral particles (SVP) which are produced independently from viral replication, making this viral antigen difficult to target with approved therapies. (hepb.org)
  • The overall antiviral effect of REP 2139 is to allow the body to clear HBsAg in order to reduce or remove the inhibition of immune control caused by this viral antigen. (hepb.org)
  • For those suspected of having acute hepatitis B and delta coinfection, HBsAg testing should follow 6 months after initial diagnosis. (hepb.org)
  • For decades, people living with chronic hepatitis B were told they would be "cured" only when they lost the hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) and developed surface antibodies. (hepb.org)
  • Hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) is required for HDV replication but may be suppressed to undetectable levels with active HDV replication. (medscape.com)
  • Arnold W, Nielsen JO, Hardts F, Meyer zum Buschenfelde KH (1977) Localization of e-antigen in nuclei of hepatocytes in HBsAg-positive liver disease. (springer.com)
  • Infected hepatocytes contain delta particles coated with hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg). (merckmanuals.com)
  • Hepatitis D virus (HDV), also known as delta hepatitis virus, is a defective RNA virus comprising of a delta antigen and a hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) as the core and protein coat of the virus, respectively. (mayomedicallaboratories.com)
  • IgG subclasses in circulating immune complexes with hepatitis B e antigen in chronic hepatitis B . IgG subclasses of antibodies to hepatitis B e antigen (anti-HBe) complexed to HBeAg were determined in 126 HBsAg-positive sera. (tripdatabase.com)
  • Sixty-five HBsAg and HBeAg carriers with chronic hepatitis and intrahepatic HBcAg histologically proven by immunohistochemistry were included in the study. (tripdatabase.com)
  • Hepatitis delta antigen (HDAg), hepatitis B core antigen (HBcAg) and cell proliferation were determined by immunofluorescence. (bmj.com)
  • Its staining pattern was similar to hepatitis B core antigen (HBcAg) expression in hepatocytes in patients with CHB and it was initially believed to be another component of the HBV. (intmedpress.com)
  • This antigen was detected by immunofluorescence in the nuclei of liver cells in patients infected with hepatitis B and looked similar to hepatitis B core antigen. (natap.org)
  • This involves the reaction of anti-HBc in the sample with hepatitis B core antigen (HBcAg) coated wells. (cdc.gov)
  • Core antigen (Hb c CAg) appears later and also indicates infectivity. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Bianchi L, Gudat F (1976) Sanded nuclei in hepatitis B. Eosinophilic inclusions in liver cell nuclei due to excess in hepatitis B core antigen formation. (springer.com)
  • liver damage is thought to be at least partially attributable to the expression of hepatitis B core antigen on the surface of hepatocytes , which then become targeted for destruction by MHC-restricted cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL)(31, 32). (factbites.com)
  • Hepatitis delta antigen (HDAg) is a nuclear protein that is intimately involved in hepatitis delta virus (HDV) RNA replication. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • The viral genomic RNA (G-RNA) is first replicated into the full-length antigenomic RNA (AG-RNA) and is also transcribed into a 0.8-kb mRNA, which encodes the only HDV protein, hepatitis delta antigen (HDAg). (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • HDV encodes small delta antigens (S-HDAg) and large delta antigens (L-HDAg). (biomedcentral.com)
  • HDV encodes delta antigens (HDAg), which have two isoforms: small delta antigens (S-HDAg) and large delta antigens (L-HDAg) [ 4 , 5 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The anti-genome of HDV contains a single open reading frame that encodes the two isoforms of hepatitis delta antigen, the small antigen (S-HDAg), responsible for the start of replication, and the large one (L-HDAg), required for viral assembly. (ivami.com)
  • HDV is usually a negative-stranded RNA computer virus with 1.7-kb single-stranded circular RNA (genomic RNA) that because of the intramolecular base pairing is usually folded into an unbranched rod-like structure (11 53 The genomic strand of HDV RNA does not encode any protein but the complementary strand (antigenomic HDV RNA) which replicates from genomic RNA encodes hepatitis AEG 3482 delta antigen (HDAg) (53). (cylch.org)
  • Delta-interacting protein A (DIPA), a cellular gene product, has been found to have homology to hepatitis delta virus antigen (HDAg). (wikipedia.org)
  • DIPA interacts with the viral antigen, HDAg, and can affect HDV replication in vitro. (wikipedia.org)
  • The HDV RNA genome is capable of self-cleavage through a ribozyme and encodes only one structural protein, the hepatitis delta antigen (HDAg), from the antigenomic RNA. (intmedpress.com)
  • The HDV genome encodes only a single structural protein, the hepatitis delta antigen (HDAg). (intmedpress.com)
  • Hepatitis D virus (HDV) infection may induce fulminant hepatitis in chronic hepatitis B patients (CHB) or rapid progression of CHB to cirrhosis or hepatocellular carcinoma. (biomedcentral.com)
  • While patients with HBV/HDV co-infection usually evolve to cure, superinfection is associated with a more severe form of liver disease, since it almost always evolves into chronicity and, on occasion, can cause severe cases of liver failure or worsening of chronic hepatitis B that the patient had previously had, leading to a rapid progression to cirrhosis and increasing the risk of hepatocellular carcinoma. (ivami.com)
  • Hepatitis-associated antigen and hepatocellular carcinoma in Taiwan. (ebscohost.com)
  • Describes the prevalence of hepatitis-associated antigen (HAA) in patients with primary hepatocellular carcinoma in Taiwan. (ebscohost.com)
  • Viral hepatitis-associated intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma shares common disease processes with hepatocellular carcinoma. (ebscohost.com)
  • In this manuscript, we review the currently known molecular mechanisms by which hepatitis viruses induce epithelial-mesenchymal transition and, thus, hepatocellular carcinoma progression. (springer.com)
  • Bartosch B. Hepatitis B and C viruses and hepatocellular carcinoma. (springer.com)
  • Epidemiology of viral hepatitis and hepatocellular carcinoma. (springer.com)
  • Abbas Z, Qureshi M, Hamid S, Jafri W. Hepatocellular carcinoma in hepatitis D: does it differ from hepatitis B monoinfection? (springer.com)
  • Ji J, Sundquist K, Sundquist J. A population-based study of hepatitis D virus as potential risk factor for hepatocellular carcinoma. (springer.com)
  • A 28-year study of the course of hepatitis Delta infection: a risk factor for cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. (springer.com)
  • Role of hepatitis delta virus infection in hepatocellular carcinoma. (springer.com)
  • Extensive oxidative DNA damage in hepatocytes of transgenic mice with chronic active hepatitis destined to develop hepatocellular carcinoma. (springer.com)
  • The core protein of hepatitis C virus induces hepatocellular carcinoma in transgenic mice. (springer.com)
  • Hepatitis D virus (HDV) is responsible for fulminant hepatitis and liver failure and accelerates evolution toward cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma in hepatitis B virus (HBV)-infected patients. (asm.org)
  • Chen DS, Lai MY, Sung JL (1984) Delta agent infection in patients with chronic liver diseases and hepatocellular carcinoma infrequent finding in Taiwan. (springer.com)
  • 7 Overall, these data indicate that HDV infection tends to influence unfavourably the clinical outcome of chronic hepatitis B. However at present, there are insufficient data to clarify whether HDV alters the clinical course of HBV related compensated cirrhosis and increases the risk of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). (bmj.com)
  • Hepatitis D does not increase the incidence of extrahepatic disease hepatocellular carcinoma over hepatitis B infection. (natap.org)
  • Chronic Hep B is a major risk factor for hepatocellular carcinoma in what cultural group? (brainscape.com)
  • This disease is a leading cause of chronic hepatitis, cirrhosis, and hepatocellular carcinoma. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • BACKGROUND: Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is a leading cause of chronic liver disease and hepatocellular carcinoma. (bvsalud.org)
  • Di Bisceglie, "Hepatitis B and Hepatocellular Carcinoma," Hepatology 49 (5 Suppl. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • Hepatitis delta virus (HDV) causes chronic and, occasionally, fulminant hepatitis in humans ( 16 ). (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Infection with HDV is one of the important etiologies of fulminant hepatitis and may aggravate the clinical course of chronic infection with hepatitis B virus (HBV), leading to cirrhosis and liver failure. (ivami.com)
  • Hepatitis D virus (HDV), the only known deltavirus until 2018, has been found only in humans, and its coinfection with hepatitis B virus (HBV) is linked with fulminant hepatitis. (asm.org)
  • Bensag A (1983) Labrea hepatitis and other fulminant hepatitis in Serra Madureira Acre and Boca de Acre Amazonas Brasil. (springer.com)
  • With both infections there is more incidence of fulminant hepatitis and the mortality rate is 5% versus 1% with hepatitis B alone. (natap.org)
  • The Hepatitis Delta Virus (HDV) can increase the incidence of fulminant hepatitis. (biomedcentral.com)
  • About 20% to 30% of coinfections of HDV and HBV in humans develop fatal fulminant hepatitis versus 2% of patients with acute hepatitis B mono-infection. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Co-infection with hepatitis D virus (HDV) in persons with acute or chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection can lead to fulminant hepatitis. (cdc.gov)
  • People infected by both hepatitis B and hepatitis D viruses are at high risk of developing fulminant hepatitis and cirrhosis. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Liver disease activity and hepatitis B virus replication in chronic delta antigen-positive hepatitis B virus carriers. (nih.gov)
  • Delta antigen is currently thought to reflect superinfection of the liver with a defective RNA virus (delta agent), requiring helper function from hepatitis B virus for its replication. (nih.gov)
  • Hepatitis delta virus (HDV) is known to express a protein termed the small delta antigen, a structural protein which is also essential for genome replication. (asm.org)
  • During replication, posttranscriptional RNA editing specifically modifies some of the HDV RNA, leading to the production of an elongated form of the delta antigen, the large form, which is essential for virus assembly. (asm.org)
  • The tiny hepatitis delta virus (HDV) antigen (SHDAg) plays an essential role in HDV RNA double-rolling-circle replication. (cylch.org)
  • AEG 3482 The function of LHDAg is definitely important for packaging with hepatitis B computer virus surface antigen to form the adult HDV computer virus particle (8 15 24 Whether cellular RNA polymerase (RNAP) can result in HDV replication is definitely controversial. (cylch.org)
  • Genotype-specific complementation of hepatitis delta virus RNA replication by hepatitis delta antigen. (cdc.gov)
  • A bulged region of the hepatitis B virus RNA encapsidation signal contains the replication origin for discontinuous first-strand DNA synthesis. (asm.org)
  • Hepatitis delta virus (HDV) is a pathogenic human virus whose RNA genome and replication cycle resemble those of plant viroids. (wikipedia.org)
  • Transcription and replication of hepatitis delta virus (1987) Prog Clin Biol Res 234: 89-92. (springer.com)
  • hepatitis B virus serves as a helper for replication of hepatitis delta virus, the virions of which contain hepatitis B surface antigen (HB s Ag). (britannica.com)
  • The hepatitis D virus is replication defective and therefore cannot propagate in the absence of another virus. (natap.org)
  • This is because, in cases of coinfection, hepatitis delta usually becomes the dominant virus, and suppresses hepatitis B, slowing or even stopping its replication entirely. (hepb.org)
  • Hepatitis D virus infection, replication and cross-talk with the hepatitis B virus. (hepb.org)
  • Alberti A, Trevisan A, Fattovich G, Realdi G (1984) The role of hepatitis B virus replication and hepatocyte membrane expression in the pathogenesis of HBV-related hepatic damage. (springer.com)
  • This virus cannot replicate effectively by itself, and it requires the presence of hepatitis B virus (HBV) to initiate and maintain its replication in the infected liver cells. (mayomedicallaboratories.com)
  • Lamivudine is a nucleoside analogue that is a potent inhibitor of hepatitis B viral DNA replication. (factbites.com)
  • FUNCTION: (Microbial infection) Plays a role in hepatitis delta virus (HDV) genomic replication. (antibody-antibodies.com)
  • Trans Am Clin Climatol Assoc. 2019;130:104-118 Authors: Alter HJ Abstract The modern age of viral hepatitis began in the early 1960s with the serendipitous discovery of the Australia antigen, a protein that was later shown to represent the envelope of the hepatitis B virus leading to its designation as the hepatitis B surface antigen. (medworm.com)
  • HDV causeseither co-infection or super infection with Hepatitis B virus.Small delta antigen protein of HDV is obligatory forreplication of virus. (journaldatabase.info)
  • In current study 3-D modelingof small delta antigen protein was performed by usingGenThreader followed by modeller9v7. (journaldatabase.info)
  • This protein interacts with a region called the nuclear export signal (NES) of a protein that forms a piece of the hepatitis D virus. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Nuclear export signal-interacting protein forms complexes with lamin A/C-Nups to mediate the CRM1-independent nuclear export of large hepatitis delta antigen. (medlineplus.gov)
  • We obtained high titer and good quality hepatitis delta virus protein purified by Ni-NTA metal-affinity chromatography, which was identified by Western blot and ELISA, then we set up the double antigen sandwich ELISA for detection of anti-HDV in human serum, and the performance of the sandwich ELISA was evaluated in terms of specificity and sensitivity. (virosin.org)
  • Reconstruct the gene of HDV antigen based on the bias code of Escherichia coli , the recombinant protein expresses by high-density fermentation with fed-batch feeding strategy, and purify by immobilized metal chromatography . (bvsalud.org)
  • Expression and purification the recombinant HDV antigen as a candidate protein for application in a diagnostic ELISA for HDV infection . (bvsalud.org)
  • Bonino F, Heermann KH, Rizzetto M, Gerlich WH (1986a) Hepatitis delta virus: protein composition of delta antigen and its hepatitis B virus derived envelope. (springer.com)
  • In vitro, HDV virion assembly is critically dependent on prenyl lipid modification, or prenylation, of its nucleocapsid-like protein large delta antigen. (jci.org)
  • a single stranded circular RNA, with 1636 bases, a segment of which has a plant viroid sequence and does not encode any protein while another segment is dissimilar and encodes the delta antigen. (natap.org)
  • This protein also interacts with the large form of the hepatitis delta antigen and may be required for the nucleocytoplasmic shuttling of the hepatitis delta virus. (thermofisher.com)
  • Subolesin is an evolutionary conserved protein that was discovered recently in Ixodes scapularis as a tick protective antigen and has a role in tick blood digestion, reproduction and development. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Hepatitis delta virus: protein composition of delta antigen and its hepatitis B virus-derived envelope. (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • Applied to the diagnostic ELISA method , the recombinant HDV antigen shows excellent sensitivity (97% for IgM and 100% for IgG ) and specificity (100% for IgG and IgM ) for the detection of anti-HDV antibodies . (bvsalud.org)
  • Hepatitis D virus screening via hepatitis D virus antigen, anti- hepatitis D virus antibodies, and RNA testing remains important in patients with chronic hepatitis B, with goals to quantitatively measure hepatitis D virus RNA levels in the near future. (lww.com)
  • Sera from 521 residents of an institution for the mentally retarded near Helsinki, Finland were examined by a hemagglutination assay to determine the distribution and titers of antibodies to hepatitis B surface antigen (anti-HBs). (arctichealth.org)
  • About 50 percent of these patients had delta hepatitis virus antibodies. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Antibodies to hepatitis C virus, hepatitis B serology and liver enzymes were examined in 137 Finnish haemophiliac patients to detect signs of chronic viral hepatitis and its possible aetiological associations. (arctichealth.org)
  • These were significantly associated with hepatitis C seropositivity but not with hepatitis B antibodies, severity of haemophilia or the type of clotting factor used in replacement therapy. (arctichealth.org)
  • Co-infection or super-infection with hepatitis D virus in a patient with hepatitis B is diagnosed by the presence of antibodies against the hepatitis D virus. (natap.org)
  • A61K2039/57 - Medicinal preparations containing antigens or antibodies characterised by the type of response, e.g. (google.com)
  • The presence of antibodies to these antigens implies recovery and noninfectivity. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) are a major targeted therapy for malignancies, infectious diseases, autoimmune diseases, transplant rejection and chronic inflammatory diseases due to their antigen specificity and. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Genotype analysis of hepatitis delta virus from hepatitis B surface antigen-positive patients using PCR-RFLP in Tehran, Iran. (semanticscholar.org)
  • All polymorphisms were shown to be genotype I. Out of 13 hepatitis delta virus RNA-positive (13/35), eight were HBeAg negative. (semanticscholar.org)
  • CONCLUSION Our data indicated that hepatitis delta virus isolates in Tehran are exclusively genotype I. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Clinical presentation and genotype of hepatitis delta in Karachi. (semanticscholar.org)
  • RNA editing in hepatitis delta virus genotype III requires a branched double-hairpin RNA structure. (cdc.gov)
  • Sakugawa H , Nakasone H , Nakayoshi T , Kawakami Y , Miyazato S , Kinjo F , Hepatitis delta virus genotype IIb predominates in an endemic area, Okinawa, Japan. (cdc.gov)
  • Watanabe H , Nagayama K , Enomoto N , Chinzei R , Yamashiro T , Izumi N , Chronic hepatitis delta virus infection with genotype IIb variant is correlated with progressive liver disease. (cdc.gov)
  • A genotype of hepatitis D virus that occurs in northern South America. (cdc.gov)
  • Individuals from three isolated, rural communities in the western Brazilian Amazon were evaluated for serological markers of hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection, HBV genotype, and the presence of risk factors for infection and transmission. (ajtmh.org)
  • Alvarado-Mora MV, Romano CM, Gomes-Gouvêa MS, Gutierrez MF, Carrilho FJ, Pinho JR (2011) Dynamics of hepatitis D (delta) virus genotype 3 in the Amazon region of South America. (springer.com)
  • Barros A, Gomes-gouvêa B, Pinho B, Alvarado-mora BA, Dos Santos A, Mendes-corrêa AJM, Caldas AMT, Sousa MDC, Santos SP, Ferreira ASP (2011) Hepatitis delta virus genotype 8 infection in northeast Brazil: inheritance from african slaves. (springer.com)
  • Casey L, Brown TL, Colan EJ, Wignall F, Gerin JL (1993) A genotype of hepatitis D virus that occurs in northern America. (springer.com)
  • With immigration patterns, the HBV genotype distribution for chronic hepatitis B may change rapidly, particularly in the Western world. (worldgastroenterology.org)
  • Acute infection with hepatitis B or C has a higher mortality rate than hepatitis A. Effective vaccines are available for active immunization against hepatitis A and hepatitis B. Interferon-alfa 2b and lamivudine are sometimes effective in hepatitis B. Combination therapy with interferon-alfa 2a, interferon-alfa 2b, and ribavirin brings about clinical remission in some cases of hepatitis C. Responsiveness depends in part on the genotype of the virus. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Varied assembly and RNA editing efficiencies between genotype I and II hepatitis D virus and their implications. (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • Characterization of a new genotype II hepatitis delta virus from Taiwan. (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • A unique open reading frame encodes the small and large hepatitis delta (sHD and lHD, respectively) antigens by way of an editing step in the hepatocyte nucleus ( 2 ). (cdc.gov)
  • This isolate, L215, comprises 1682 nt and encodes 213 aa of the hepatitis delta antigen. (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • HBcAg and delta antigen in liver was determined by immunofluorescence or immunoperoxidase staining. (nih.gov)
  • Recombinant Hepatitis B Virus Core (HBcAg) Source: E.coli Product Description: E.coli derived recombinant. (fishersci.com)
  • Caredda F, Rossi E, D'Arminio Monforte A, Zampini L, Re T, Meroni B, Moroni M (1985) Hepatitis B virus coinfection and superinfection with delta agent: indistinguishable disease with different outcome. (springer.com)
  • Colombo M, Cambieri R, Rumi MG, Ronchi G, Del Ninno E, De Franchis R (1983) Long-term delta superinfection in hepatitis B surface antigen carriers and its relationship to the course of chronic hepatitis.Gastroenterology 85: 235-239. (springer.com)
  • Acute delta hepatitis may occur either by simultaneous co-infection with HDV and HBV or by HDV superinfection in a person already chronically infected with HBV. (bmj.com)
  • Chronicity of HDV infection most commonly develops after acute delta superinfection. (bmj.com)
  • Superinfection: acute HDV infection on chronic hepatitis B. (natap.org)
  • Infection may occur simultaneously with Hepatitis B virus (coinfection) or it may be acquired after B (superinfection). (natap.org)
  • Most cases (50-70%) of superinfection develop a severe form of acute hepatitis and 90% of them become chronic carriers. (natap.org)
  • It occurs uncommonly as a coinfection with acute hepatitis B or as a superinfection in chronic hepatitis B. (merckmanuals.com)
  • HDV superinfection in chronic HBV or in HBV carrier state typically manifests as an acute exacerbation of chronic hepatitis B, with tendency to result in chronic HBV-HDV coinfection and early cirrhosis or liver failure. (mayomedicallaboratories.com)
  • Positive results usually indicate 1 of the following conditions: 1) simultaneous acute or chronic coinfection with hepatitis B virus (HBV) and HDV, 2) acute HDV infection in patients with known chronic HBV infection (ie, HDV superinfection), or 3) resolved HDV infection. (mayomedicallaboratories.com)
  • Role of hepatitis C and delta viruses in the termination of chronic hepatitis B surface antigen carrier state: a multivariate analysis in a longitu. (nih.gov)
  • Genetic heterogeneity of hepatitis viruses and its clinical significance. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Hepatitis-Associated Antigen and Viruses. (ebscohost.com)
  • Reviews the book 'Hepatitis-Associated Antigen and Viruses,' by A. J. Zuckerman. (ebscohost.com)
  • Among the main causative agents of this tumor is the chronic infection by hepatitis viruses B and C, which establish a context of chronic inflammation degenerating in fibrosis, cirrhosis, and, finally, cancer. (springer.com)
  • Recent findings, however, indicate that hepatitis viruses are not only responsible for cancer onset but also for its progression towards metastasis. (springer.com)
  • Hepatitis viruses: changing patterns of human disease. (ajtmh.org)
  • IARC Monographs on the Evaluation of Carcinogenic Risks to Humans: Hepatitis Viruses. (ajtmh.org)
  • Molecular epidemiology of hepatitis B, C, D and E viruses among children in Moscow, Russia. (ajtmh.org)
  • The hepatitis D virus (HDV) was described in 1977, and it is considered the most pathogenic among all hepatotropic viruses. (springer.com)
  • Hepatitis , for example, is a subacute or chronic disease, with a long latent period, that is caused by at least five viruses with different properties. (britannica.com)
  • Hepatitis B virus is classified with similar viruses of birds in the family Hepadnaviridae . (britannica.com)
  • Hepatitis viruses constitute a major public health problem because of the morbidity and mortality associated with the acute and chronic consequences of these infections. (cdc.gov)
  • In addition, NHANES provides the means to better define the epidemiology of other hepatitis viruses. (cdc.gov)
  • NHANES testing for markers of infection with hepatitis viruses will be used to determine secular trends in infection rates across most age and racial/ethnic groups, and will provide a national picture of the epidemiologic determinants of these infections. (cdc.gov)
  • It's important to remember that people who contract hepatitis B and delta during one exposure are likely to clear both viruses. (hepb.org)
  • The hepatitis B, C, and D viruses can also cause chronic hepatitis , in which the infection is prolonged, sometimes lifelong. (factbites.com)
  • Some cases of viral hepatitis cannot be attributed to the hepatitis A, B, C, D, or E viruses. (factbites.com)
  • A 2-dose regimen of a recombinant hepatitis B vaccine with the immune stimulant AS04 compared with the standard 3-dose regimen of Engerix-B in healthy young adults. (arctichealth.org)
  • This issue is crucial in vaccine formulations based on the use of nanoparticles, which can operate both as a delivery system to enhance antigen processing and as an immunostimulatory adjuvant to induce and amplify protective immunity, in part because of their ability to activate the inflammasome and induce the maturation of interleukin 1β. (mdpi.com)
  • This was the first marker for any hepatitis virus and became not only a diagnostic assay, but also a mandatory blood donor screening test and the basis for the first generation hepatitis B vaccine. (medworm.com)
  • All measures that prevent hepatitis B will prevent HDV, including HBV vaccine. (natap.org)
  • Inactivated hepatitis A vaccine: reactogenicity, immunogenicity, and long-term antibody persistence. (factbites.com)
  • Association of the discovery of the Australia antigen or hepatitis-associated antigen with. (ebscohost.com)
  • Modahl LE , Lai MM . Hepatitis delta virus: the molecular basis of laboratory diagnosis. (cdc.gov)
  • Following diagnosis with hepatitis B, with or without delta coinfection, it is important to have close, household contacts and sexual partners screened, and to follow simple prevention measures and practice safe sex using condoms. (hepb.org)
  • Diagnosis, management and treatment of hepatitis delta virus infection: Turkey 2017 Clinical Practice Guidelines. (hepb.org)
  • Consider liver biopsy if the serologic diagnosis of hepatitis is inconclusive. (medscape.com)
  • HDV antigen immunohistochemical analysis of liver tissue is the criterion standard for establishing a diagnosis of persistent HDV infection. (medscape.com)
  • The typical case of chronic hepatitis in a liver allograft is similar to that seen in the general population and the same histological findings are used to ascertain the diagnosis. (factbites.com)
  • n-Butyrate, a cell cycle blocker, inhibits early amplification of duck hepatitis B virus covalently closed circular DNA after in vitro infection of duck hepatocytes. (asm.org)
  • Objective Hepatitis delta virus (HDV) was shown to persist for weeks in the absence of HBV and for months after liver transplantation, demonstrating the ability of HDV to persevere in quiescent hepatocytes. (bmj.com)
  • a delta Antigen predominantly found in the nuclei and in small amounts in the cytoplasm of hepatocytes. (natap.org)
  • Thus, expression of viral antigens on the surface of hepatocytes precipitates lymphohistiocytic lobular lobular inflammation and spotty acidophilic necrosis of hepatocytes , typical of acute hepatitis . (factbites.com)
  • The present standard of care treatment for HDV yields suboptimal results, but insights into the virology of hepatitis D are stimulating the search for novel therapeutic approaches, particularly the development of prenylation inhibitors and viral entry inhibitors. (lww.com)
  • Currently, at least three genotypes of hepatitis delta virus with different geographic distribution and clinical manifestations are described. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Hoffman, C.J. and Thio, C.L. (2007) Clinical Implications of HIV and Hepatitis B Co-Infection in Asia and Africa Review. (scirp.org)
  • or for hepatitis A, a case that meets the clinical case definition and occurs among a contact of a person who has a laboratory-confirmed case. (cdc.gov)
  • BACKGROUND The effect of hepatitis delta virus (HDV) infection on the clinical course of cirrhosis type B is poorly defined. (bmj.com)
  • Numerous clinical studies have reported that patients with chronic HDV infection often show severe chronic hepatitis or cirrhosis on initial liver biopsy. (bmj.com)
  • Acute hepatitis B virus infection: relation of age to the clinical expression of disease and subsequent development of the carrier state. (arctichealth.org)
  • Twenty-six (13.8%) developed clinical hepatitis during the interval when seroconversion occurred. (arctichealth.org)
  • In Upper Egypt, data about the prevalence, clinical, laboratory and virological characters of Hepatitis D virus-infected patients is rare. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Long-term clinical and virological outcome after liver transplantation for cirrhosis caused by chronic delta hepatitis. (medscape.com)
  • If serologic tests for hepatitis B confirm infection and clinical manifestations are severe, antibody to HDV (anti-HDV) levels should be measured. (merckmanuals.com)
  • Hepatitis D is also treated in the context of clinical trials. (merckmanuals.com)
  • The article discusses the increasing threats of Hepatitis B Virus (HBV), which attacks the liver cells and leads to cirrhosis, liver failure and liver cancer. (ebscohost.com)
  • Also, studies of small cohorts indicated that hepatitis delta infection was a major cause of chronic liver disease and cirrhosis. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Levels of HDV viraemia change over the course of HDV infection, being significantly higher in patients with early chronic hepatitis than in cirrhosis. (intmedpress.com)
  • Cirrhosis occurs in 15-20% of patients with hepatitis C. Extrahepatic manifestations of hepatitis C virus infection include cryoglobulinemia, glomerulonephritis, and non-Hodgkin lymphoma. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Current prevalence of hepatitis delta virus (HDV) infection and the range of HDV genotypes in Lebanon. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Yupik Eskimos of southwestern Alaska have the highest known prevalence of hepatitis B virus infection of any general population in the United States. (arctichealth.org)
  • To determine the prevalence of hepatitis D virus active infection. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Prevalence of hepatitis D virus (HDV) varies widely geographically, with endemic pockets in several countries. (merckmanuals.com)
  • Perform heat mediated antigen retrieval with Tris/EDTA buffer pH 9.0 before commencing with IHC staining protocol. (abcam.com)
  • Hepatitis D virus (HDV) is an uncommon, defective, single-stranded circular RNA virus that is dependent on the hepatitis B virus' surface antigen envelope proteins for transmission. (lww.com)
  • Hepatitis D viremia following orthotopic liver transplantation involves a typical HDV virion with a hepatitis B surface antigen envelope. (medscape.com)
  • Hepatitis delta virus (HDV) genotypes in patients with chronic hepatitis: molecular epidemiology of HDV in Turkey. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Epidemiology of hepatitis delta virus: overview. (ajtmh.org)
  • Applications: Antigen in ELISA and Western blots, excellent antigen for detection of HBV with minimal specificity problems. (fishersci.com)
  • Botelho-Souza LF, dos Santos AO, Borzacov LM, Honda ER, Villalobos-Salcedo JM, Vieira DS (2014) Development of a reverse transcription quantitative real-time PCR-based system for rapid detection and quantitation of hepatitis delta virus in the western Amazon region of Brazil. (springer.com)
  • Based on genomic differences of hepatitis delta antigen coding region of hepatitis delta virus RNA among hepatitis delta virus RNA-positive sera, the polymerase chain reaction products were digested with restriction enzymes and studied by restriction fragment length polymorphism. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Evidence of transmission of hepatitis D virus to spouses from sequence analysis of the viral genome. (cdc.gov)
  • Wang KS , Choo QL , Weiner AJ , Ou JH , Najarian RC , Thayer RM , Structure, sequence and expression of the hepatitis delta (delta) viral genome. (cdc.gov)
  • Acts as an RNA- dependent RNA polymerase when associated with small delta antigen of Hepatitis delta virus, acting both as a replicate and transcriptase for the viral RNA circular genome. (biomol.com)
  • HDV is a satellite virus which requires hepatitis B virus (HBV) to supply envelope proteins for virus assembly and production ( 46 ). (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Hepatitis delta computer virus (HDV) is usually a subviral pathogen that can self-replicate but relies on its helper hepatitis B computer virus to provide envelope proteins for HDV contamination and virion assembly (3). (cylch.org)
  • The HDV envelope requires HBV surface antigen proteins provided by HBV. (jci.org)
  • a HBS Ag envelope from hepatitis B virus. (natap.org)
  • This virus requires the protection provided by the envelope of the Hepatitis B Virus (HBV) to enable its budding process from infected cells. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The hepatitis delta virus (HDV) is responsible for the most severe form of acute and chronic viral hepatitis. (ivami.com)
  • Results from liver biopsy in patients with acute disease are consistent with acute hepatitis, and, generally, a biopsy is not indicated. (medscape.com)
  • Disease: Coinfection: acute infection with hepatitis B virus. (natap.org)
  • Infection with hepatitis D virus (HDV), also called the delta agent, can occur only in association with HBV infection, because HDV requires HBV to replicate. (britannica.com)
  • HDV was discovered in the mid-1970s by Mario Rizzetto and colleagues [ 1 ], who originally reported the discovery of a new antigen-antibody system in the livers of patients with chronic hepatitis B (CHB) using immunofluorescence and named it the hepatitis delta antigen. (intmedpress.com)
  • how does hepatitis B evade immune system? (brainscape.com)
  • The cure is called "functional" because the only cure for hepatitis B is when the immune system controls or suppresses the virus. (hepb.org)
  • Negative result may not rule out hepatitis D virus (HDV) infection during the early phase of infection or in immunocompromised patients who have delayed or inadequate immune response. (mayomedicallaboratories.com)
  • The hepatitis D virus can cause liver disease, although infection is rare and requires co-infection with a related virus called hepatitis B. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Hepatitis delta virus (HDV) is a subviral agent that can lead to severe acute and chronic forms of liver disease in association with hepatitis B virus. (cdc.gov)
  • Exacerbation of chronic liver disease due to hepatitis B surface antigen after delta infection. (ebscohost.com)
  • To elucidate the role of hepatitis delta virus (HDV) in the development of chronic liver disease in patients with hemophilia. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Hepatitis delta is an inflammatory liver disease caused by infection with HDV. (intmedpress.com)
  • The hepatitis B virus (HBV) causes acute and chronic liver disease and is endemic in many areas of the world. (worldgastroenterology.org)
  • Hepatitis delta virus (HDV) can dramatically worsen liver disease in patients coinfected with hepatitis B virus (HBV). (jci.org)
  • Bianchi L, Gudat F (1979) Immunopathology of hepatitis B. In: Popper H, Schaffner F (eds) Progress in liver disease, vol VI. (springer.com)
  • De Vos R, Ray MB, Desmet VJ (1978) Electron microscopy of hepatitis B virus components in chronic active liver disease. (springer.com)
  • Contribution of Chronic Viral Hepatitis to the Burden of Disease in the U.S. The burden of chronic liver disease in the U.S. is unknown, although estimates of prevalence and incidence indicate the chronic viral hepatitis is the commonest cause of chronic liver disease. (factbites.com)
  • Hepatitis C virus infection alone or in combination with alcohol was the commonest cause of chronic liver disease, accounting for 58% of cases (22a). (factbites.com)
  • Radjef N , Gordien E , Ivaniushina V , Gault E , Anais P , Drugan T , Molecular phylogenetic analyses indicate a wide and ancient radiation of African hepatitis delta virus, suggesting a deltavirus genus of at least seven major clades. (cdc.gov)
  • The molecular biology of hepatitis delta virus. (ajtmh.org)
  • Chronic HBV/HDV coinfection leads to the most severe form of chronic viral hepatitis, so it is important to elucidate the molecular mechanisms regulating virus-host interplay and pathogenesis. (springer.com)
  • Molecular analysis of hepatitis D virus infection in Miyako Island, a small Japanese island. (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • Hepatitis delta virus (HDV) is a unique defective agent whose infection is inextricably linked to that of hepatitis B virus (HBV) (Rizzetto et al. (springer.com)
  • Severe chronic hepatitis among these patients was most likely related to persistent infection with non-A, non-B hepatitis virus, hepatitis B virus, or delta hepatitis virus, a defective RNA virus which is dependent upon coinfection with HBV for essential helper functions. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • The hepatitis delta virus (HDV) is a defective pathogen which requires for infection the helper functions of hepatitis B virus (HBV). (bmj.com)
  • Hepatitis D is due to a defective RNA virus capable of causing disease only in those previously infected by hepatitis B virus. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Hepatitis D is caused by a defective RNA virus (delta agent) that can replicate only in the presence of hepatitis B virus. (merckmanuals.com)
  • Around a quarter of individuals infected with hepatitis C virus (HCV) are spontaneously able to clear the virus. (arctichealth.org)
  • Ivaniushina V , Radjef N , Alexeeva M , Gault E , Semenov S , Salhi M , Hepatitis delta virus genotypes I and II cocirculate in an endemic area of Yakutia, Russia. (cdc.gov)
  • Simmonds P , Bukh J , Combet C , Deleage G , Enomoto N , Feinstone S , Consensus proposals for a unified system of nomenclature of hepatitis C virus genotypes. (cdc.gov)
  • Hepatitis delta virus genotypes I and II cocirculate in an endemic area of Yakutia, Russia. (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • Carriers of HBV could contract an acute delta hepatitis infection that was invariably more severe than the illness caused by HBV alone. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Twenty-five (13.3%) of the 188 individuals who were studied became chronic carriers of hepatitis B surface antigen. (arctichealth.org)
  • Among patients who were four years of age or less when infected, 28.8% became chronic carriers of hepatitis B, as compared with 7.7% of those who were 30 years of age or older. (arctichealth.org)
  • Globally, about 248 million people are chronic HBV surface antigen carriers, and about 5% of them also had hepatitis delta virus (HDV) infection as well. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Effect of Phyllanthus amarus on chronic carriers of hepatitis B virus. (tripdatabase.com)
  • In a preliminary study, carriers of hepatitis B virus were treated with a preparation of the plant Phyllanthus amarus for 30 days. (tripdatabase.com)
  • Since 1990, viral hepatitis mortality has increased by 63%, and in 2017, hepatitis was the seventh leading cause of death in the world (1-4). (cdc.gov)
  • Analysis of risk factors indicates that HBV is transmitted mainly horizontally within the family from a chronic "active" carrier for hepatitis B "e" antigen (HBeAg-positive), though a strong possibility of vertical transmission remains. (ajtmh.org)
  • The use of nanoparticles (NPs) in medicine has a very important and promising application in vaccinology, both as an antigen carrier and as an adjuvant [ 1 ]. (mdpi.com)
  • Hepatitis E, which occurs chiefly in the tropics, resembles hepatitis A in that it is transmitted by the fecal-oral route and does not become chronic or lead to a carrier state, but it has a much higher mortality rate. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Hepatitis B carrier among married hilltribe women in northern Thailand. (tripdatabase.com)
  • However, hepatitis D is returning to Western Europe through immigration from endemic areas. (ivami.com)
  • Delta hepatitis is highly endemic to several African countries, the Amazonian region, and the Middle East, while its prevalence is low in industrialized countries, except in the Mediterranean. (cdc.gov)
  • HDV continues to ravage endemic parts of Asia and Europe, and its prevalence in the United States, although low, has not decreased in frequency, despite universal hepatitis B virus vaccination, because of lack of testing and underrecognition. (lww.com)
  • Previously endemic throughout much of the developing world, viral hepatitis now ranks as a major public health problem in industrialized nations. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • The Miyako Islands, located in the southernmost part of Japan, have been reported to be endemic for hepatitis delta virus (HDV). (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • large amounts of recombinant HDV antigen with active antigenicity are required for this purpose. (bvsalud.org)
  • The recombinant HDV antigen can be conveniently purified (98%) by immobilized metal ion affinity chromatography (IMAC) using the interaction between a His-tag and nickel ions . (bvsalud.org)
  • Production of recombinant HDV antigen can reach 0.5 g/L under conditions of high-density cell fermentation . (bvsalud.org)
  • The sensitivity and specificity of this antigen detect by ELISA method . (bvsalud.org)
  • To investigate the possible association of viral hepatitis B and C with intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (ICC), we conducted a retrospective caseâ€"control study using univariate and multivariate logistic. (ebscohost.com)
  • and a positive test for intrahepatic HDV antigen. (annals.org)
  • Over the past 15 years, a number of observations have culminated in the localization of viral antigens in liver tissue by the use of routine histology, immunohistochemistry, electron microscopy (EM), and immuno-electron microscopy (IEM). (springer.com)
  • Arrigoni A, Ponzetto A, Actis G, Bonino F (1983) Levamisole and chronic delta hepatitis. (springer.com)