Hepatitis Delta Virus
Hepatitis D, Chronic
Hepatitis B Surface Antigens
Molecular Sequence Data
Hepatitis B virus
Amino Acid Sequence
Hepatitis B Antigens
Hepatitis B, Chronic
Hepatitis C, Chronic
Hepatitis, Viral, Human
Hepatitis A virus
Hepatitis B Antibodies
Cell cycle arrest mediated by hepatitis delta antigen. (1/171)Hepatitis delta antigen (HDAg) is the only viral-encoded protein of the hepatitis delta virus (HDV). This protein has been extensively characterized with respect to its biochemical and functional properties. However, the molecular mechanism responsible for persistent HDV infection is not yet clear. Previously, we reported that overexpression of HDAg protects insect cells from baculovirus-induced cytolysis [Hwang, S.B. Park, K.-J. and Kim, Y.S. (1998) Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 244, 652-658]. Here we report that HDAg mediates cell cycle arrest when overexpressed in recombinant baculovirus-infected insect cells. Flow cytometry analysis has shown that HDAg expression in Spodoptera frugiperda cells causes an accumulation of substantial amounts of polyploid DNA in the absence of cell division. This phenomenon may be partly responsible for the persistent infection of chronic HDV patients. (+info)
Unique properties of the large antigen of hepatitis delta virus. (2/171)The large form of the hepatitis delta virus (HDV) protein (L) can be isoprenylated near its C terminus, and this modification is considered essential for particle assembly. Using gel electrophoresis, we separated L into two species of similar mobilities. The slower species could be labeled by the incorporation of [(14)C]mevalonolactone and is interpreted to be isoprenylated L (L(i)). In serum particles, infected liver, transfected cells, and assembled particles, 25 to 85% of L was isoprenylated. Isoprenylation was also demonstrated by (14)C incorporation in vitro with a rabbit reticulocyte coupled transcription-translation system. However, the species obtained migrated even slower than that detected by labeling in vivo. Next, in studies of HDV particle assembly in the presence of the surface proteins of human hepatitis B virus, we observed the following. (i) Relative to L, L(i) was preferentially assembled into virus-like particles. (ii) L(i) could coassemble the unmodified L and the small delta protein, S. (iii) In contrast, a form of L with a deletion in the dimerization domain was both isoprenylated and assembled, but it could not support the coassembly of S. Finally, to test the expectation that the isoprenylation of L would increase its hydrophobicity, we applied a phase separation strategy based on micelle formation with the nonionic detergent Triton X-114. We showed the following. (i) The unique C-terminal 19 amino acids present on L relative to S caused a significant increase in the hydrophobicity. (ii) This increase was independent of isoprenylation. (iii) In contrast, other, artificial modifications at either the N or C terminus of S did not increase the hydrophobicity. (iv) The increased hydrophobicity was not sufficient for particle assembly; nevertheless, we speculate that it might facilitate virion assembly. (+info)
Characterization of the phosphorylated forms and the phosphorylated residues of hepatitis delta virus delta antigens. (3/171)Hepatitis delta virus (HDV) replication requires both the cellular RNA polymerase and one virus-encoded protein, small delta antigen (S-HDAg). S-HDAg has been shown to be a phosphoprotein, but its phosphorylation status is not yet clear. In this study, we employed three methods to address this question. A special two-dimensional gel electrophoresis, namely, nonequilibrium pH gradient electrophoresis, was used to separate the very basic S-HDAg. By carefully adjusting the pH of solubilization solution, the ampholyte composition, and the appropriate electrophoresis time periods, we were able to clearly resolve S-HDAg into two phosphorylated isoforms and one unphosphorylated form. In contrast, the viral large delta antigen (L-HDAg) can only be separated into one phosphorylated and one unphosphorylated form. By metabolic (32)P labeling, both immunoprecipitated S-HDAg and L-HDAg were found to incorporate radioactive phosphate. The extent of S-HDAg phosphorylation was increased upon 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate treatment, while that of L-HDAg was not affected. Finally, phosphoamino acid analysis identified serine and threonine as the phospho residues in the labeled S-HDAg and only serine in the L-HDAg. Therefore, HDV S- and L-HDAgs differ in their phosphorylation patterns, which may account for their distinct biological functions. (+info)
Hepatitis delta virus replication generates complexes of large hepatitis delta antigen and antigenomic RNA that affiliate with and alter nuclear domain 10. (4/171)Hepatitis delta virus (HDV), a single-stranded RNA virus, bears a single coding region whose product, the hepatitis delta antigen (HDAg), is expressed in two isoforms, small (S-HDAg) and large (L-HDAg). S-HDAg is required for replication of HDV, while L-HDAg inhibits viral replication and is required for the envelopment of the HDV genomic RNA by hepatitis B virus proteins. Here we have examined the spatial distribution of HDV RNA and proteins in infected nuclei, with particular reference to specific nuclear domains. We found that L-HDAg was aggregated in specific nuclear domains and that over half of these domains were localized beside nuclear domain 10 (ND10). At later times, ND10-associated proteins like PML were found in larger HDAg complexes that had developed into apparently hollow spheres. In these larger complexes, PML was found chiefly in the rims of the spheres, while the known ND10 components Sp100, Daxx, and NDP55 were found in the centers of the spheres. Thus, ND10 proteins that normally are closely linked separate within HDAg-associated complexes. Viral RNA of antigenomic polarity, whether expressed from genomic RNA or directly from introduced plasmids, colocalizes with L-HDAg and the transcriptional repressor PML. In contrast, HDV genomic RNA was distributed more uniformly throughout the nucleus. These results suggest that different host protein complexes may assemble on viral RNA strands of different polarities, and they also suggest that this RNA virus, like DNA viruses, can alter the distribution of ND10-associated proteins. The fact that viral components specifically linked to repression of replication can associate with one of the ND10-associated proteins (PML) raises the possibility that this host protein may play a role in the regulation of HDV RNA synthesis. (+info)
Interactions between hepatitis delta virus proteins. (5/171)The 195- and 214-amino-acid (aa) forms of the delta protein (deltaAg-S and deltaAg-L, respectively) of hepatitis delta virus (HDV) differ only in the 19-aa C-terminal extension unique to deltaAg-L. deltaAg-S is needed for genome replication, while deltaAg-L is needed for particle assembly. These proteins share a region at aa 12 to 60, which mediates protein-protein interactions essential for HDV replication. H. Zuccola et al. (Structure 6:821-830, 1998) reported a crystal structure for a peptide spanning this region which demonstrates an antiparallel coiled-coil dimer interaction with the potential to form tetramers of dimers. Our studies tested whether predictions based on this structure could be extrapolated to conditions where the peptide was replaced by full-length deltaAg-S or deltaAg-L, and when the assays were not in vitro but in vivo. Nine amino acids that are conserved between several isolates of HDV and predicted to be important in multimerization were mutated to alanine on both deltaAg-S and deltaAg-L. We found that the predicted hierarchy of importance of these nine mutations correlated to a significant extent with the observed in vivo effects on the ability of these proteins to (i) support in trans the replication of the HDV genome when expressed on deltaAg-S and (ii) act as dominant-negative inhibitors of replication when expressed on deltaAg-L. We thus infer that these biological activities of deltaAg depend on ordered protein-protein interactions. (+info)
The large delta antigen of hepatitis delta virus potently inhibits genomic but not antigenomic RNA synthesis: a mechanism enabling initiation of viral replication. (6/171)Hepatitis delta virus (HDV) contains two types of hepatitis delta antigens (HDAg) in the virion. The small form (S-HDAg) is required for HDV RNA replication, whereas the large form (L-HDAg) potently inhibits it by a dominant-negative inhibitory mechanism. The sequential appearance of these two forms in the infected cells regulates HDV RNA synthesis during the viral life cycle. However, the presence of almost equal amounts of S-HDAg and L-HDAg in the virion raised a puzzling question concerning how HDV can escape the inhibitory effects of L-HDAg and initiate RNA replication after infection. In this study, we examined the inhibitory effects of L-HDAg on the synthesis of various HDV RNA species. Using an HDV RNA-based transfection approach devoid of any artificial DNA intermediates, we showed that a small amount of L-HDAg is sufficient to inhibit HDV genomic RNA synthesis from the antigenomic RNA template. However, the synthesis of antigenomic RNA, including both the 1.7-kb HDV RNA and the 0.8-kb HDAg mRNA, from the genomic-sense RNA was surprisingly resistant to inhibition by L-HDAg. The synthesis of these RNAs was inhibited only when L-HDAg was in vast excess over S-HDAg. These results explain why HDV genomic RNA can initiate replication after infection even though the incoming viral genome is complexed with equal amounts of L-HDAg and S-HDAg. These results also suggest that the mechanisms of synthesis of genomic versus antigenomic RNA are different. This study thus resolves a puzzling question about the early events of the HDV life cycle. (+info)
A novel chromosome region maintenance 1-independent nuclear export signal of the large form of hepatitis delta antigen that is required for the viral assembly. (7/171)Hepatitis delta virus (HDV) is a satellite virus of hepatitis B virus, as it requires hepatitis B virus for virion production and transmission. We have previously demonstrated that sequences within the C-terminal 19-amino acid domain flanking the isoprenylation motif of the large hepatitis delta antigen (HDAg-L) are important for virion assembly. In this study, site-directed mutagenesis and immunofluorescence staining demonstrated that in the absence of hepatitis B virus surface antigen (HBsAg), the wild-type HDAg-L was localized in the nuclei of transfected COS7 cells. Nevertheless, in the presence of HBsAg, the HDAg-L became both nuclei- and cytoplasm-distributed in about half of the cells. An HDAg-L mutant with a substitution of Pro-205 to alanine could neither form HDV-like particles nor shift the subcellular localization in the presence of HBsAg. In addition, nuclear trafficking of HDAg-L in heterokaryons indicated that HDAg-L is a nucleocytoplasmic shuttling protein. A proline-rich HDAg peptide spanning amino acid residues 198 to 210, designated NES(HDAg-L), can function as a nuclear export signal (NES) in Xenopus oocytes. Pro-205 is critical for the NES function. Furthermore, assembly of HDV is insensitive to leptomycin B, indicating that the NES(HDAg-L) directs nuclear export of HDAg-L to the cytoplasm via a chromosome region maintenance 1-independent pathway. (+info)
Recombinant hepatitis delta antigen from E. coli promotes hepatitis delta virus RNA replication only from the genomic strand but not the antigenomic strand. (8/171)Hepatitis delta antigen (HDAg) of hepatitis delta virus (HDV) typically consists of two related protein species. The small HDAg (S-HDAg) is a 24-kDa protein of 195 amino acids and the large HDAg (L-HDAg) is a 27-kDa protein with an additional 19 amino acids at its C-terminus. These two proteins have distinct functions in the HDV life cycle. We have developed conditions for expressing S-HDAg and L-HDAg in E. coli as soluble proteins to facilitate large-scale purification. These proteins were purified to homogeneity and shown to be biologically active. Transfection of the purified recombinant S-HDAg together with HDV genomic RNA resulted in viral RNA replication. Surprisingly, the purified S-HDAg could not initiate replication from the antigenomic-sense HDV RNA, even though the latter led to RNA replication when transfected with an mRNA encoding the S-HDAg. These results suggest that initiation of HDV RNA synthesis from the antigenomic RNA may require a form of HDAg that is modified in mammalian cells; in contrast, RNA synthesis from the genomic RNA could be initiated by the recombinant S-HDAg from E. coli. Interestingly, the purified L-HDAg appeared as multiple protein species, including one corresponding to S-HDAg, probably as a result of degradation. The partially proteolyzed L-HDAg also initiated HDV RNA replication under the same conditions. These results add to the mounting evidence that genomic- and antigenomic-strand HDV RNA syntheses are carried out by different mechanisms. (+info)
The hepatitis D virus is transmitted through contact with infected blood or through sexual contact with an infected person. It can also be spread from mother to child during pregnancy or childbirth. Hepatitis D is a critical illness, and it can lead to liver failure, especially in people who are already infected with HBV.
There are two main types of hepatitis D: acute and chronic. Acute hepatitis D lasts for less than six months and typically resolves on its own without treatment. Chronic hepatitis D, on the other hand, can last for more than six months and can cause long-term liver damage.
Treatment for hepatitis D usually involves a combination of medications to manage symptoms and reduce inflammation in the liver. In severe cases, a liver transplant may be necessary. Prevention methods for hepatitis D include getting vaccinated against HBV, practicing safe sex, and avoiding sharing needles or other drug equipment.
Hepatitis D is a serious condition that can lead to complications such as liver failure, so it is important to seek medical attention if symptoms persist or worsen over time.
Chronic hepatitis D can cause inflammation and damage to the liver, leading to scarring and cirrhosis. It can also increase the risk of developing liver cancer. Treatment options for chronic hepatitis D are limited and may include antiviral medications, pegylated interferon, and liver transplantation in severe cases.
Prevention of chronic hepatitis D primarily involves avoiding exposure to HBV, which is the primary risk factor for HDV infection. This can be achieved through vaccination against HBV, safe sex practices, and avoiding sharing of needles or other injection equipment.
The symptoms of hepatitis B can range from mild to severe and may include fatigue, loss of appetite, nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain, dark urine, pale stools, joint pain, and jaundice (yellowing of the skin and eyes). In some cases, hepatitis B can be asymptomatic, meaning that individuals may not experience any symptoms at all.
Hepatitis B is diagnosed through blood tests that detect the presence of HBV antigens or antibodies in the body. Treatment for acute hepatitis B typically involves rest, hydration, and medication to manage symptoms, while chronic hepatitis B may require ongoing therapy with antiviral drugs to suppress the virus and prevent liver damage.
Preventive measures for hepatitis B include vaccination, which is recommended for individuals at high risk of infection, such as healthcare workers, sexually active individuals, and those traveling to areas where HBV is common. In addition, safe sex practices, avoiding sharing of needles or other bodily fluids, and proper sterilization of medical equipment can help reduce the risk of transmission.
Overall, hepatitis B is a serious infection that can have long-term consequences for liver health, and it is important to take preventive measures and seek medical attention if symptoms persist or worsen over time.
There are several types of hepatitis C, including genotype 1, which is the most common and accounts for approximately 70% of cases in the United States. Other genotypes include 2, 3, 4, 5, and 6. The symptoms of hepatitis C can range from mild to severe and may include fatigue, fever, loss of appetite, nausea, vomiting, joint pain, jaundice (yellowing of the skin and eyes), dark urine, pale stools, and itching all over the body. Some people with hepatitis C may not experience any symptoms at all.
Hepatitis C is diagnosed through a combination of blood tests that detect the presence of antibodies against HCV or the virus itself. Treatment typically involves a combination of medications, including interferon and ribavirin, which can cure the infection but may have side effects such as fatigue, nausea, and depression. In recent years, new drugs known as direct-acting antivirals (DAAs) have become available, which can cure the infection with fewer side effects and in a shorter period of time.
Prevention measures for hepatitis C include avoiding sharing needles or other drug paraphernalia, using condoms to prevent sexual transmission, and ensuring that any tattoos or piercings are performed with sterilized equipment. Vaccines are also available for people who are at high risk of contracting the virus, such as healthcare workers and individuals who engage in high-risk behaviors.
Overall, hepatitis C is a serious and common liver disease that can lead to significant health complications if left untreated. Fortunately, with advances in medical technology and treatment options, it is possible to manage and cure the virus with proper care and attention.
Hepatitis A is typically spread through contaminated food and water or through close contact with someone who has the infection. The virus can also be spread through sexual contact or sharing of needles.
Symptoms of hepatitis A usually appear two to six weeks after exposure and can last for several weeks or months. In some cases, the infection can lead to complications such as liver failure, which can be life-threatening.
There is a vaccine available for hepatitis A, which is recommended for individuals traveling to areas where the virus is common, people who engage in high-risk behaviors, and those with chronic liver disease. Treatment for hepatitis A typically focuses on relieving symptoms and supporting the liver as it recovers. In severe cases, hospitalization may be necessary.
Preventive measures to reduce the risk of hepatitis A infection include maintaining good hygiene practices, such as washing hands frequently, especially before eating or preparing food; avoiding consumption of raw or undercooked shellfish, particularly oysters; and avoiding close contact with people who have the infection.
A persistent infection with the hepatitis B virus (HBV) that can lead to liver cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. HBV is a bloodborne pathogen and can be spread through contact with infected blood, sexual contact, or vertical transmission from mother to child during childbirth.
Chronic hepatitis B is characterized by the presence of HBsAg in the blood for more than 6 months, indicating that the virus is still present in the liver. The disease can be asymptomatic or symptomatic, with symptoms such as fatigue, malaise, loss of appetite, nausea, vomiting, joint pain, and jaundice.
Chronic hepatitis B is diagnosed through serological tests such as HBsAg, anti-HBc, and HBV DNA. Treatment options include interferon alpha and nucleos(t)ide analogues, which can slow the progression of the disease but do not cure it.
Prevention strategies for chronic hepatitis B include vaccination with hepatitis B vaccine, which is effective in preventing acute and chronic HBV infection, as well as avoidance of risky behaviors such as unprotected sex and sharing of needles.
There are several types of hepatitis, including:
1. Hepatitis A: This type is caused by the hepatitis A virus (HAV) and is usually transmitted through contaminated food or water or through close contact with someone who has the infection.
2. Hepatitis B: This type is caused by the hepatitis B virus (HBV) and can be spread through sexual contact, sharing of needles, or mother-to-child transmission during childbirth.
3. Hepatitis C: This type is caused by the hepatitis C virus (HCV) and is primarily spread through blood-to-blood contact, such as sharing of needles or receiving a tainted blood transfusion.
4. Alcoholic hepatitis: This type is caused by excessive alcohol consumption and can lead to inflammation and scarring in the liver.
5. Drug-induced hepatitis: This type is caused by certain medications, such as antidepressants, anti-seizure drugs, or chemotherapy agents.
6. Autoimmune hepatitis: This type is caused by an abnormal immune response and can lead to inflammation in the liver.
Symptoms of hepatitis may include fatigue, loss of appetite, nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain, dark urine, pale stools, and yellowing of the skin (jaundice). In severe cases, it can lead to liver failure or even death.
Diagnosis of hepatitis is typically made through a combination of physical examination, laboratory tests such as blood tests and imaging studies like ultrasound or CT scans. Treatment options vary depending on the cause and severity of the condition, but may include medications to manage symptoms, antiviral therapy, or in severe cases, liver transplantation. Prevention measures for hepatitis include vaccination against certain types of the disease, practicing safe sex, avoiding sharing needles or other drug paraphernalia, and following proper hygiene practices.
In conclusion, hepatitis is a serious condition that affects millions of people worldwide. It is important to be aware of the different types of hepatitis and their causes in order to prevent and manage this condition effectively. By taking appropriate measures such as getting vaccinated and practicing safe sex, individuals can reduce their risk of contracting hepatitis. In severe cases, early diagnosis and treatment can help to minimize damage to the liver and improve outcomes for patients.
The symptoms of chronic hepatitis C may be mild or absent, but some people experience fatigue, joint pain, muscle aches, nausea, loss of appetite, and jaundice (yellowing of the skin and eyes).
Chronic hepatitis C is usually diagnosed through blood tests that detect the presence of antibodies against HCV or the virus itself. Imaging tests such as ultrasound and liver biopsy may also be performed to assess the extent of liver damage.
Treatment for chronic hepatitis C typically involves a combination of medications, including interferon and ribavirin, which can help clear the virus from the body. In severe cases, a liver transplant may be necessary. Prevention of the spread of HCV includes avoiding sharing of needles or other sharp objects, practicing safe sex, and getting tested for the virus before donating blood or organs.
See also: Hepatitis C; Liver; Virus
Note: This definition may have some variations in different contexts and medical fields.
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- In addition, two of 13 non-ill HBsAg-positive PDAs had serologic markers of delta virus infection (one with IgG antibodies and one with IgM). (cdc.gov)
- It contains a circular or linear RNA genome surrounded by a nucleocapsid protein called HDV antigen which is in turn surrounded by an envelope consisting of Hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) Footnote 2 . (canada.ca)
- Les deux groupes étaient semblables en ce qui concerne leur réponse proliférative aux antigènes de surface de l'hépatite B (HBsAg) mais une réponse vigoureuse aux antigènes centraux de l'hépatite B (HBcAg) était une caractéristique importante chez les patients répondants. (who.int)
- Eighteen patients with serum anti-HIV antibodies, HBsAg and HBV DNA-positive, and chronic active hepatitis, who were not treated with interferon, were included as controls (mean follow-up: 29 months). (pasteur.fr)
- Approximately 15% of people with HIV who test positive for hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) also carry hepatitis delta virus (HDV), a defective virus that can only replicate in the presence of hepatitis B virus (HBV) but can lead to more severe liver damage, according to a recent European study. (hivandhepatitis.com)
- Immunohistochemical staining is positive for hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg. (medscape.com)
- Young adult males with age range 17-22 years from different districts of Pakistan were screened for hepatitis B surface antigens (HBsAg) and anti-hepatitis C antibodies (anti-HCV). (who.int)
- B surface antigens (HbsAg) and 2.2%-14% rough physical examination, complete for HCV antibodies [ 6 - 9 ]. (who.int)
- This involves the reaction of anti-HBc in the sample with hepatitis B core antigen (HBcAg) coated wells. (cdc.gov)
- Serum samples were obtained to test for markers of hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection and delta virus infection. (cdc.gov)
- Although transmissible as an independent infectious agent, delta virus can only infect and cause illness in the presence of active HBV infection. (cdc.gov)
- Delta virus and HBV may simultaneously infect a host (coprimary infection with HBV/delta virus), or delta virus may superinfect an existing HBV carrier. (cdc.gov)
- Delta virus infection is endemic in southern Italy. (cdc.gov)
- Delta virus infection has been limited to hemophilia patients and PDA populations in the rest of Western Europe, North America, and Australia (7,8). (cdc.gov)
- Although delta virus is transmitted in a manner similar to HBV, to date, delta virus infection has not been reported in this country in health-care workers or male homosexuals, the other major groups at risk for HB. (cdc.gov)
- The hepatitis D virus can cause liver disease, although infection is rare and requires co-infection with a related virus called hepatitis B. (medlineplus.gov)
- Co-infection with hepatitis D virus (HDV) in persons with acute or chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection can lead to fulminant hepatitis. (cdc.gov)
- Recommendations have also been developed for the prevention and control of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection. (cdc.gov)
- NHANES testing for markers of infection with hepatitis viruses will be used to determine secular trends in infection rates across most age and racial/ethnic groups, and will provide a national picture of the epidemiologic determinants of these infections. (cdc.gov)
- There are two major types of infection, HDV and HBV coinfection and HDV superinfection in individuals with chronic hepatitis B. Coinfection results in clinical hepatitis which is indistinguishable from acute hepatitis B Footnote 4 . (canada.ca)
- HDV superinfection generally causes severe acute hepatitis and leads to chronic hepatitis D infection in 90% of cases Footnote 1 . (canada.ca)
- Viral hepatitis is a cause of considerable morbidity and mortality in the human population both from acute infection and the chronic sequelae which include, with at least two types of infection, chronic active hepatitis, cirrhosis and primary liver cancer. (who.int)
- Infection with hepatitis B virus (HBV) is a problem of immense dimension with over 200 million people being infected worldwide . (who.int)
- The major features of immunological interest in HBV infection are: that a proportion of those exposed to the virus become chronically infected, and that once chronic infection is established, most will gradually eliminate the nucleocapsid antigen from the liver, while the envelope antigens continue to be expressed. (who.int)
- This prospective follow-up study shows that in liver transplantation for chronic hepatitis B, after initial treatment including HBIG for at least 6 months combined with or followed by (dual) nucleos(t)ide analog therapy, TDF/FTC provides adequate prophylaxis against recurrent HBV infection without major side effects and leads to substantial cost savings over a regimen with HBIG. (nih.gov)
- Infection can occur in the form of a co-infection with hepatitis B, which can be self-limiting, vs superinfection in a patient with established hepatitis B infection, which often leads to chronicity in majority of cases. (chronicliverdisease.org)
- The subject invention is based on the discovery of an association between infection by a novel clade 1 variant of hepatitis delta virus (HDV) and primary Sjögren's syndrome. (nih.gov)
- Hepatitis B infection is a worldwide healthcare problem, especially in developing areas. (medscape.com)
- Hepatitis B. Under higher-power magnification, ground-glass cells may be visible in chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection. (medscape.com)
- Patients with chronic hepatitis B infection can be immune tolerant or have an inactive chronic infection without any evidence of active disease, and they are also asymptomatic. (medscape.com)
- The primary treatment goals for patients with hepatitis B infection are to prevent progression of the disease, particularly to cirrhosis, liver failure, or hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). (medscape.com)
- In developing countries, Hepatitis A virus infection commonly occurs in children and is associated with poor sanitation and low socio-economic status. (thenativeantigencompany.com)
- DiaSorin receives clearance from the CE Notified Body to market the LIAISON® XL Murex Anti-HDV assay for the diagnosis of Hepatitis D virus (HDV) infection enlarging its CLIA menu for hepatitis on LIAISON® platforms. (diasorin.com)
- Hepatitis D is a severe viral disease caused by the hepatitis delta virus (HDV), occurring only in populations with a simultaneous hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection. (medscape.com)
- Infection by HDV results in severe complications, often causing fulminant hepatitis and causing cirrhosis in 70%-80% of cases. (medscape.com)
- three had immunoglobulin M (IgM) anti-delta virus antibodies. (cdc.gov)
- IgM anti-delta virus antibodies were also present in four of 22 PDAs with nonfulminant acute HB, one of seven PDA contacts with nonfulminant acute HB, and none of 11 nonoutbreak-related patients with acute HB. (cdc.gov)
- Diagnosis is based on serological testing for the presence of IgM or IgG antibodies to the delta antigen Footnote 2 Footnote 4 . (canada.ca)
- All patients were serum HBs Ag and HBV DNA-positive, and delta antigen and antibody negative. (pasteur.fr)
- Mouse monoclonal antibody specific for Hepatitis A virus (1885). (thenativeantigencompany.com)
- Mouse anti Hepatitis A virus antibody is suitable for immunoassay research and development. (thenativeantigencompany.com)
- The Anti-TCRγ/δ-1 antibody reacts with a framework epitope of the γ/δ T-cell antigen receptor (TCR). (bdbiosciences.com)
- Distinct molecular forms of human T cell receptor gamma/delta detected on viable T cells by a monoclonal antibody. (bdbiosciences.com)
- The last two decades have witnessed an explosion in knowledge of viral hepatitis, a major public health problem throughout the world affecting several hundred million people. (who.int)
- Chronic delta hepatitis is the most severe form of viral hepatitis affecting nearly 65 million people worldwide. (chronicliverdisease.org)
- or soldiers in services groups including the engineering branch, army medical corps, Viral hepatitis due to hepatitis B and C is clerks, supply units and signals branch). (who.int)
Large hepatitis delta3
- Nuclear export signal-interacting protein forms complexes with lamin A/C-Nups to mediate the CRM1-independent nuclear export of large hepatitis delta antigen. (medlineplus.gov)
- A unique open reading frame encodes the small and large hepatitis delta (sHD and lHD, respectively) antigens by way of an editing step in the hepatocyte nucleus ( 2 ). (cdc.gov)
- 15. Statin inhibits large hepatitis delta antigen- smad 3 -twist-mediated epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition and hepatitis D virus secretion. (nih.gov)
- therefore, excluding other causes of the acute hepatitis is necessary. (cdc.gov)
- Patients with chronic active hepatitis, especially during the replicative state, may have symptoms similar to those of acute hepatitis. (medscape.com)
- A defective virus, containing particles of RNA nucleoprotein in virion-like form, present in patients with acute hepatitis B and chronic hepatitis. (nih.gov)
- The pathogenesis and clinical manifestations of hepatitis B are due to the interaction of the virus and the host immune system, which leads to liver injury and, potentially, cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. (medscape.com)
- The hepatitis D-associated hospitalizations also had significantly greater frequencies of liver failure, non-alcoholic cirrhosis, portal hypertension, ascites and thrombocytopenia. (medscape.com)
- Hepatitis delta virus (HDV) is a subviral agent that can lead to severe acute and chronic forms of liver disease in association with hepatitis B virus. (cdc.gov)
- During the elimination of nucleocapsid antigens many patients develop permanent liver damage . (who.int)
- After orthotopic liver transplantation (OLT) in chronic hepatitis B (HBV), adequate prophylaxis for recurrence of HBV in the graft is mandatory. (nih.gov)
- Current noninvasive tools to assess for advanced liver disease have limited utility in delta hepatitis. (chronicliverdisease.org)
- For some patients transplantation is the only treatment for advanced liver disease due to chronic hepatitis B, hepatitis C, liver cancer, alcoholism, or other causes. (hivandhepatitis.com)
- Treatment with pegylated interferon (Pegasys) -- either alone or in combination with the antiviral drug adefovir (Hepsera) -- led to clearance of hepatitis delta virus (HDV) and improvement in liver enzyme levels, according to a small study published in the January 27, 2011, New England Journal of Medicine . (hivandhepatitis.com)
- Does Previous Hepatitis B Exposure Increase Liver Cancer Risk? (hivandhepatitis.com)
- People who were previously exposed to hepatitis B virus (HBV) have an increased likelihood of developing hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) even if they clear the virus, according to a study presented at the recent American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases 'Liver Meeting' (AASLD 2010) in Boston. (hivandhepatitis.com)
- These results suggest that individuals with prior HBV exposure, as well as those with chronic hepatitis B, could benefit from regular liver cancer monitoring. (hivandhepatitis.com)
- The hepatitis A virus infects the liver and replicates in hepatocytes, causing liver inflammation. (thenativeantigencompany.com)
- 5. The upregulation of stromal antigen 3 expression suppresses the phenotypic hallmarks of hepatocellular carcinoma through the smad 3 -CDK4/CDK6-cyclin D1 and CXCR4/RhoA pathways. (nih.gov)
- Personnel exposed to HDV can be given the vaccine for hepatitis B virus and/or hepatitis B immunoglobulin to prevent coinfection of HBV and HDV Footnote 6 . (canada.ca)
- Evaluate safety of HBV prophylaxis with tenofovir and emtricitabine (TDF/FTC) after cessation of hepatitis B immunoglobulin (HBIG) after OLT in chronic HBV. (nih.gov)
- For example, the albumin promoter was used to target expression of antigen in hepatocytes by DNA vaccines, and the immunoglobulin promoter and enhancer elements were used to obtain preferential expression in B cells. (who.int)
- Hepatitis viruses constitute a major public health problem because of the morbidity and mortality associated with the acute and chronic consequences of these infections. (cdc.gov)
- In addition, NHANES provides the means to better define the epidemiology of other hepatitis viruses. (cdc.gov)
- however, other hepatitis viruses are susceptible to 1-2% glutaraldehyde, 6-10% hydrogen peroxide, 8-12% formaldehyde, iodophores (40-50 mg/L free iodine), chlorine compounds (500-5000 mg/L free chlorine), and 0.5-3% phenolic compounds Footnote 6 . (canada.ca)
- however, other hepatitis viruses can be inactivated by moist heat (121*C for 15 min) and dry heat (170*C for 1h or 160*C for 2h) Footnote 6 . (canada.ca)
- Hepatitis delta virus is considered a satellite virus, an extremely rare class among human viruses, requiring HBV in order to propagate. (medscape.com)
- Icteric hepatitis is associated with a prodromal period, during which a serum sickness-like syndrome can occur. (medscape.com)
- The recombinant hepatitis delta virus antigen was obtained as a chimaeric protein fused to the C-terminus of the phage MS2 RNA polymerase. (unisa.it)
- The presence of two main protein bands, with a similar difference in size, is also a typical feature of delta antigens, both extracted and recombinant, and it is considered to be derived either from heterogeneity of viral sequences, which can encode hepatitis delta antigen proteins of 195 and 214 amino acids, or from proteolysis of a single precursor. (unisa.it)
- The recombinant protein can be used as an antigenic substitute of viral antigens both for immunoassays and for the preparation of anti-(hepatitis delta virus) antisera. (unisa.it)
- Delta virus is composed of a protein antigen (delta antigen) and a ribonucleic acid of low molecular weight. (cdc.gov)
- This protein interacts with a region called the nuclear export signal (NES) of a protein that forms a piece of the hepatitis D virus. (medlineplus.gov)
- It has generally been assumed that DNA vaccines that produce more antigen in situ will elicit higher levels of immune responses. (who.int)
- A pilot study was conducted to evaluate the efficiency of alpha-interferon treatment in chronic active hepatitis B in anti-HIV-positive patients. (pasteur.fr)
- [ 2 ] Pegylated interferon alfa (PEG-IFN-a), entecavir, and tenofovir disoproxil fumarate are the FDA-approved agents in the treatment of hepatitis B disease. (medscape.com)
- Lanier LL, Ruitenberg J, Bolhuis RL, Borst J, Phillips JH, Testi R. Structural and serological heterogeneity of gamma/delta T cell antigen receptor expression in thymus and peripheral blood. (bdbiosciences.com)
- Delta hepatitis is highly endemic to several African countries, the Amazonian region, and the Middle East, while its prevalence is low in industrialized countries, except in the Mediterranean. (cdc.gov)
- The prevalence of hepatitis D is higher in people who inject drugs and in people who are infected with hepatitis C virus (HCV) or human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). (medscape.com)
- [ 2 ] However, in pregnant persons and foetuses/neonates, the prevalence of HDV and its burden is not well known, particularly in the United States where hepatitis D is not routinely tested in pregnant persons with HBV and studies on this topic are lacking. (medscape.com)
- Superinfection with delta virus was implicated as the major cause of an exceptionally severe hepatitis epidemic among Venezuelan Indians in which 34 of 149 patients died (5). (cdc.gov)
- Fulminant coprimary HBV/delta virus infections among PDAs have occurred sporadically in Los Angeles (6). (cdc.gov)
- [ 6-8 ] While studies are few, genotype-specific outcomes for hepatitis D have been demonstrated. (medscape.com)
- Jeffrey Tang and colleagues from Henry Ford Health System in Detroit conducted a retrospective cohort study to explore the association between hepatitis B serologic status and development of HCC among North American patients. (hivandhepatitis.com)
- p = .044) increased the odds of mortality within the hepatitis D cohort. (medscape.com)
- [ 11-13 ] It is known that in pregnant women with HBV there is an increased risk of preterm delivery, [ 14 ] but knowledge of preterm delivery as well as knowledge of maternal and foetal/neonatal mortality in the setting of hepatitis D is sparse. (medscape.com)
- The association was made after detection of the HDV nucleic acid in the salivary glands of patients diagnosed with Sjögren's syndrome and in vivo studies in mice that developed Sjögren's syndrome-like pathogenesis after expression of HDV antigen. (nih.gov)
- It also brings about the Co-Infections of Syphilis and Hepatitis B Among People Living with HIV in Calabar, General Hospital. (texilajournal.com)
- This requirement may be avoided by use of a bacteriophage T7 promoter system, where expression of the T7 RNA polymerase can drive expression of antigen controlled by the T7 promoter without need for host cell transcription machinery. (who.int)
- Future clinical trials should take into consideration the interaction of hepatitis B and hepatitis D as suppression of one virus can lead to the activation of the other. (chronicliverdisease.org)
- or for hepatitis A, a case that meets the clinical case definition and occurs among a contact of a person who has a laboratory-confirmed case. (cdc.gov)
- In the United States, hepatitis D is not a reportable condition, leading to gaps in epidemiological and clinical knowledge. (medscape.com)
- We aim to estimate the incidence of hepatitis D-associated hospitalizations in the United States and describe the clinical, demographic and geographic characteristics of those hospitalizations. (medscape.com)
- Thus, we aim to estimate the incidence and describe trends of hepatitis D-associated hospitalizations in the United States as well as describe and analyse the clinical, demographic and geographic characteristics of patients and pregnant persons hospitalized with hepatitis D during the 2010-2015 and 2015-2018 time periods. (medscape.com)
- Characterization by mass spectrometry of a recombinant hepatitis delta virus antigen and its proteolytic products. (unisa.it)
- Hepatitis D and hepatitis B only (HBV only) hospitalizations were identified by International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision (ICD-9) and International Classification of Diseases, Tenth Revision (ICD-10) codes. (medscape.com)