Hepatitis delta Antigens: Antigens produced by various strains of HEPATITIS D VIRUS.Hepatitis Delta Virus: A defective virus, containing particles of RNA nucleoprotein in virion-like form, present in patients with acute hepatitis B and chronic hepatitis. It requires the presence of a hepadnavirus for full replication. This is the lone species in the genus Deltavirus.Hepatitis Antigens: Antigens from any of the hepatitis viruses including surface, core, and other associated antigens.Hepatitis D: INFLAMMATION of the LIVER in humans caused by HEPATITIS DELTA VIRUS, a defective RNA virus that can only infect HEPATITIS B patients. For its viral coating, hepatitis delta virus requires the HEPATITIS B SURFACE ANTIGENS produced by these patients. Hepatitis D can occur either concomitantly with (coinfection) or subsequent to (superinfection) hepatitis B infection. Similar to hepatitis B, it is primarily transmitted by parenteral exposure, such as transfusion of contaminated blood or blood products, but can also be transmitted via sexual or intimate personal contact.Hepatitis D, Chronic: INFLAMMATION of the LIVER in humans caused by HEPATITIS DELTA VIRUS in conjunction with HEPATITIS B VIRUS and lasting six months or more.RNA, Viral: Ribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.Antigens, Viral: Substances elaborated by viruses that have antigenic activity.Hepatitis B Surface Antigens: Those hepatitis B antigens found on the surface of the Dane particle and on the 20 nm spherical and tubular particles. Several subspecificities of the surface antigen are known. These were formerly called the Australia antigen.Virus Replication: The process of intracellular viral multiplication, consisting of the synthesis of PROTEINS; NUCLEIC ACIDS; and sometimes LIPIDS, and their assembly into a new infectious particle.RNA, Catalytic: RNA that has catalytic activity. The catalytic RNA sequence folds to form a complex surface that can function as an enzyme in reactions with itself and other molecules. It may function even in the absence of protein. There are numerous examples of RNA species that are acted upon by catalytic RNA, however the scope of this enzyme class is not limited to a particular type of substrate.Hepatitis B: INFLAMMATION of the LIVER in humans caused by a member of the ORTHOHEPADNAVIRUS genus, HEPATITIS B VIRUS. It is primarily transmitted by parenteral exposure, such as transfusion of contaminated blood or blood products, but can also be transmitted via sexual or intimate personal contact.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Marmota: A genus of Sciuridae consisting of 14 species. They are shortlegged, burrowing rodents which hibernate in winter.Hepatitis B virus: The type species of the genus ORTHOHEPADNAVIRUS which causes human HEPATITIS B and is also apparently a causal agent in human HEPATOCELLULAR CARCINOMA. The Dane particle is an intact hepatitis virion, named after its discoverer. Non-infectious spherical and tubular particles are also seen in the serum.Hepatitis C: INFLAMMATION of the LIVER in humans caused by HEPATITIS C VIRUS, a single-stranded RNA virus. Its incubation period is 30-90 days. Hepatitis C is transmitted primarily by contaminated blood parenterally, and is often associated with transfusion and intravenous drug abuse. However, in a significant number of cases, the source of hepatitis C infection is unknown.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Hepatitis A: INFLAMMATION of the LIVER in humans caused by a member of the HEPATOVIRUS genus, HUMAN HEPATITIS A VIRUS. It can be transmitted through fecal contamination of food or water.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Antigens: Substances that are recognized by the immune system and induce an immune reaction.RNA-Binding Proteins: Proteins that bind to RNA molecules. Included here are RIBONUCLEOPROTEINS and other proteins whose function is to bind specifically to RNA.Transfection: The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.Hepatitis B Antigens: Antigens of the virion of the HEPATITIS B VIRUS or the Dane particle, its surface (HEPATITIS B SURFACE ANTIGENS), core (HEPATITIS B CORE ANTIGENS), and other associated antigens, including the HEPATITIS B E ANTIGENS.Hepatitis B, Chronic: INFLAMMATION of the LIVER in humans caused by HEPATITIS B VIRUS lasting six months or more. It is primarily transmitted by parenteral exposure, such as transfusion of contaminated blood or blood products, but can also be transmitted via sexual or intimate personal contact.Hepatitis: INFLAMMATION of the LIVER.Hepatitis Antibodies: Immunoglobulins raised by any form of viral hepatitis; some of these antibodies are used to diagnose the specific kind of hepatitis.Hepatitis C, Chronic: INFLAMMATION of the LIVER in humans that is caused by HEPATITIS C VIRUS lasting six months or more. Chronic hepatitis C can lead to LIVER CIRRHOSIS.Genome, Viral: The complete genetic complement contained in a DNA or RNA molecule in a virus.RNA Editing: A process that changes the nucleotide sequence of mRNA from that of the DNA template encoding it. Some major classes of RNA editing are as follows: 1, the conversion of cytosine to uracil in mRNA; 2, the addition of variable number of guanines at pre-determined sites; and 3, the addition and deletion of uracils, templated by guide-RNAs (RNA, GUIDE).Hepatitis, Viral, Human: INFLAMMATION of the LIVER in humans due to infection by VIRUSES. There are several significant types of human viral hepatitis with infection caused by enteric-transmission (HEPATITIS A; HEPATITIS E) or blood transfusion (HEPATITIS B; HEPATITIS C; and HEPATITIS D).Hepatitis A virus: A species in the genus HEPATOVIRUS containing one serotype and two strains: HUMAN HEPATITIS A VIRUS and Simian hepatitis A virus causing hepatitis in humans (HEPATITIS A) and primates, respectively.Hepatitis B Antibodies: Antibodies to the HEPATITIS B ANTIGENS, including antibodies to the surface (Australia) and core of the Dane particle and those to the "e" antigens.Hepatitis B Vaccines: Vaccines or candidate vaccines containing inactivated hepatitis B or some of its component antigens and designed to prevent hepatitis B. Some vaccines may be recombinantly produced.ArchivesBiological Science Disciplines: All of the divisions of the natural sciences dealing with the various aspects of the phenomena of life and vital processes. The concept includes anatomy and physiology, biochemistry and biophysics, and the biology of animals, plants, and microorganisms. It should be differentiated from BIOLOGY, one of its subdivisions, concerned specifically with the origin and life processes of living organisms.Periodicals as Topic: A publication issued at stated, more or less regular, intervals.PubMed: A bibliographic database that includes MEDLINE as its primary subset. It is produced by the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI), part of the NATIONAL LIBRARY OF MEDICINE. PubMed, which is searchable through NLM's Web site, also includes access to additional citations to selected life sciences journals not in MEDLINE, and links to other resources such as the full-text of articles at participating publishers' Web sites, NCBI's molecular biology databases, and PubMed Central.Small Ubiquitin-Related Modifier Proteins: A class of structurally related proteins of 12-20 kDa in size. They covalently modify specific proteins in a manner analogous to UBIQUITIN.Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay: An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed.Inulin: A starch found in the tubers and roots of many plants. Since it is hydrolyzable to FRUCTOSE, it is classified as a fructosan. It has been used in physiologic investigation for determination of the rate of glomerular function.PolysaccharidesDahlia: A plant genus of the family ASTERACEAE that contains antifungal plant defensin.Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli: Strains of ESCHERICHIA COLI characterized by attaching-and-effacing histopathology. These strains of bacteria intimately adhere to the epithelial cell membrane and show effacement of microvilli. In developed countries they are associated with INFANTILE DIARRHEA and infantile GASTROENTERITIS and, in contrast to ETEC strains, do not produce ENDOTOXINS.Escherichia coli Proteins: Proteins obtained from ESCHERICHIA COLI.Escherichia coli Infections: Infections with bacteria of the species ESCHERICHIA COLI.Escherichia coli: A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.Bacterial Adhesion: Physicochemical property of fimbriated (FIMBRIAE, BACTERIAL) and non-fimbriated bacteria of attaching to cells, tissue, and nonbiological surfaces. It is a factor in bacterial colonization and pathogenicity.Diarrhea: An increased liquidity or decreased consistency of FECES, such as running stool. Fecal consistency is related to the ratio of water-holding capacity of insoluble solids to total water, rather than the amount of water present. Diarrhea is not hyperdefecation or increased fecal weight.Adhesins, Bacterial: Cell-surface components or appendages of bacteria that facilitate adhesion (BACTERIAL ADHESION) to other cells or to inanimate surfaces. Most fimbriae (FIMBRIAE, BACTERIAL) of gram-negative bacteria function as adhesins, but in many cases it is a minor subunit protein at the tip of the fimbriae that is the actual adhesin. In gram-positive bacteria, a protein or polysaccharide surface layer serves as the specific adhesin. What is sometimes called polymeric adhesin (BIOFILMS) is distinct from protein adhesin.RNA Polymerase II: A DNA-dependent RNA polymerase present in bacterial, plant, and animal cells. It functions in the nucleoplasmic structure and transcribes DNA into RNA. It has different requirements for cations and salt than RNA polymerase I and is strongly inhibited by alpha-amanitin. EC Elongation Factors: Transcription factors whose primary function is to regulate the rate in which RNA is transcribed.Positive Transcriptional Elongation Factor B: A transcriptional elongation factor complex that is comprised of a heterodimer of CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASE 9 and one of several CYCLINS including TYPE T CYCLINS and cyclin K. It functions by phosphorylating the carboxy-terminal domain of RNA POLYMERASE II.Search Engine: Software used to locate data or information stored in machine-readable form locally or at a distance such as an INTERNET site.Dichlororibofuranosylbenzimidazole: An RNA polymerase II transcriptional inhibitor. This compound terminates transcription prematurely by selective inhibition of RNA synthesis. It is used in research to study underlying mechanisms of cellular regulation.Databases, Genetic: Databases devoted to knowledge about specific genes and gene products.Peptide Elongation Factors: Protein factors uniquely required during the elongation phase of protein synthesis.

Cell cycle arrest mediated by hepatitis delta antigen. (1/171)

Hepatitis delta antigen (HDAg) is the only viral-encoded protein of the hepatitis delta virus (HDV). This protein has been extensively characterized with respect to its biochemical and functional properties. However, the molecular mechanism responsible for persistent HDV infection is not yet clear. Previously, we reported that overexpression of HDAg protects insect cells from baculovirus-induced cytolysis [Hwang, S.B. Park, K.-J. and Kim, Y.S. (1998) Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 244, 652-658]. Here we report that HDAg mediates cell cycle arrest when overexpressed in recombinant baculovirus-infected insect cells. Flow cytometry analysis has shown that HDAg expression in Spodoptera frugiperda cells causes an accumulation of substantial amounts of polyploid DNA in the absence of cell division. This phenomenon may be partly responsible for the persistent infection of chronic HDV patients.  (+info)

Unique properties of the large antigen of hepatitis delta virus. (2/171)

The large form of the hepatitis delta virus (HDV) protein (L) can be isoprenylated near its C terminus, and this modification is considered essential for particle assembly. Using gel electrophoresis, we separated L into two species of similar mobilities. The slower species could be labeled by the incorporation of [(14)C]mevalonolactone and is interpreted to be isoprenylated L (L(i)). In serum particles, infected liver, transfected cells, and assembled particles, 25 to 85% of L was isoprenylated. Isoprenylation was also demonstrated by (14)C incorporation in vitro with a rabbit reticulocyte coupled transcription-translation system. However, the species obtained migrated even slower than that detected by labeling in vivo. Next, in studies of HDV particle assembly in the presence of the surface proteins of human hepatitis B virus, we observed the following. (i) Relative to L, L(i) was preferentially assembled into virus-like particles. (ii) L(i) could coassemble the unmodified L and the small delta protein, S. (iii) In contrast, a form of L with a deletion in the dimerization domain was both isoprenylated and assembled, but it could not support the coassembly of S. Finally, to test the expectation that the isoprenylation of L would increase its hydrophobicity, we applied a phase separation strategy based on micelle formation with the nonionic detergent Triton X-114. We showed the following. (i) The unique C-terminal 19 amino acids present on L relative to S caused a significant increase in the hydrophobicity. (ii) This increase was independent of isoprenylation. (iii) In contrast, other, artificial modifications at either the N or C terminus of S did not increase the hydrophobicity. (iv) The increased hydrophobicity was not sufficient for particle assembly; nevertheless, we speculate that it might facilitate virion assembly.  (+info)

Characterization of the phosphorylated forms and the phosphorylated residues of hepatitis delta virus delta antigens. (3/171)

Hepatitis delta virus (HDV) replication requires both the cellular RNA polymerase and one virus-encoded protein, small delta antigen (S-HDAg). S-HDAg has been shown to be a phosphoprotein, but its phosphorylation status is not yet clear. In this study, we employed three methods to address this question. A special two-dimensional gel electrophoresis, namely, nonequilibrium pH gradient electrophoresis, was used to separate the very basic S-HDAg. By carefully adjusting the pH of solubilization solution, the ampholyte composition, and the appropriate electrophoresis time periods, we were able to clearly resolve S-HDAg into two phosphorylated isoforms and one unphosphorylated form. In contrast, the viral large delta antigen (L-HDAg) can only be separated into one phosphorylated and one unphosphorylated form. By metabolic (32)P labeling, both immunoprecipitated S-HDAg and L-HDAg were found to incorporate radioactive phosphate. The extent of S-HDAg phosphorylation was increased upon 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate treatment, while that of L-HDAg was not affected. Finally, phosphoamino acid analysis identified serine and threonine as the phospho residues in the labeled S-HDAg and only serine in the L-HDAg. Therefore, HDV S- and L-HDAgs differ in their phosphorylation patterns, which may account for their distinct biological functions.  (+info)

Hepatitis delta virus replication generates complexes of large hepatitis delta antigen and antigenomic RNA that affiliate with and alter nuclear domain 10. (4/171)

Hepatitis delta virus (HDV), a single-stranded RNA virus, bears a single coding region whose product, the hepatitis delta antigen (HDAg), is expressed in two isoforms, small (S-HDAg) and large (L-HDAg). S-HDAg is required for replication of HDV, while L-HDAg inhibits viral replication and is required for the envelopment of the HDV genomic RNA by hepatitis B virus proteins. Here we have examined the spatial distribution of HDV RNA and proteins in infected nuclei, with particular reference to specific nuclear domains. We found that L-HDAg was aggregated in specific nuclear domains and that over half of these domains were localized beside nuclear domain 10 (ND10). At later times, ND10-associated proteins like PML were found in larger HDAg complexes that had developed into apparently hollow spheres. In these larger complexes, PML was found chiefly in the rims of the spheres, while the known ND10 components Sp100, Daxx, and NDP55 were found in the centers of the spheres. Thus, ND10 proteins that normally are closely linked separate within HDAg-associated complexes. Viral RNA of antigenomic polarity, whether expressed from genomic RNA or directly from introduced plasmids, colocalizes with L-HDAg and the transcriptional repressor PML. In contrast, HDV genomic RNA was distributed more uniformly throughout the nucleus. These results suggest that different host protein complexes may assemble on viral RNA strands of different polarities, and they also suggest that this RNA virus, like DNA viruses, can alter the distribution of ND10-associated proteins. The fact that viral components specifically linked to repression of replication can associate with one of the ND10-associated proteins (PML) raises the possibility that this host protein may play a role in the regulation of HDV RNA synthesis.  (+info)

Interactions between hepatitis delta virus proteins. (5/171)

The 195- and 214-amino-acid (aa) forms of the delta protein (deltaAg-S and deltaAg-L, respectively) of hepatitis delta virus (HDV) differ only in the 19-aa C-terminal extension unique to deltaAg-L. deltaAg-S is needed for genome replication, while deltaAg-L is needed for particle assembly. These proteins share a region at aa 12 to 60, which mediates protein-protein interactions essential for HDV replication. H. Zuccola et al. (Structure 6:821-830, 1998) reported a crystal structure for a peptide spanning this region which demonstrates an antiparallel coiled-coil dimer interaction with the potential to form tetramers of dimers. Our studies tested whether predictions based on this structure could be extrapolated to conditions where the peptide was replaced by full-length deltaAg-S or deltaAg-L, and when the assays were not in vitro but in vivo. Nine amino acids that are conserved between several isolates of HDV and predicted to be important in multimerization were mutated to alanine on both deltaAg-S and deltaAg-L. We found that the predicted hierarchy of importance of these nine mutations correlated to a significant extent with the observed in vivo effects on the ability of these proteins to (i) support in trans the replication of the HDV genome when expressed on deltaAg-S and (ii) act as dominant-negative inhibitors of replication when expressed on deltaAg-L. We thus infer that these biological activities of deltaAg depend on ordered protein-protein interactions.  (+info)

The large delta antigen of hepatitis delta virus potently inhibits genomic but not antigenomic RNA synthesis: a mechanism enabling initiation of viral replication. (6/171)

Hepatitis delta virus (HDV) contains two types of hepatitis delta antigens (HDAg) in the virion. The small form (S-HDAg) is required for HDV RNA replication, whereas the large form (L-HDAg) potently inhibits it by a dominant-negative inhibitory mechanism. The sequential appearance of these two forms in the infected cells regulates HDV RNA synthesis during the viral life cycle. However, the presence of almost equal amounts of S-HDAg and L-HDAg in the virion raised a puzzling question concerning how HDV can escape the inhibitory effects of L-HDAg and initiate RNA replication after infection. In this study, we examined the inhibitory effects of L-HDAg on the synthesis of various HDV RNA species. Using an HDV RNA-based transfection approach devoid of any artificial DNA intermediates, we showed that a small amount of L-HDAg is sufficient to inhibit HDV genomic RNA synthesis from the antigenomic RNA template. However, the synthesis of antigenomic RNA, including both the 1.7-kb HDV RNA and the 0.8-kb HDAg mRNA, from the genomic-sense RNA was surprisingly resistant to inhibition by L-HDAg. The synthesis of these RNAs was inhibited only when L-HDAg was in vast excess over S-HDAg. These results explain why HDV genomic RNA can initiate replication after infection even though the incoming viral genome is complexed with equal amounts of L-HDAg and S-HDAg. These results also suggest that the mechanisms of synthesis of genomic versus antigenomic RNA are different. This study thus resolves a puzzling question about the early events of the HDV life cycle.  (+info)

A novel chromosome region maintenance 1-independent nuclear export signal of the large form of hepatitis delta antigen that is required for the viral assembly. (7/171)

Hepatitis delta virus (HDV) is a satellite virus of hepatitis B virus, as it requires hepatitis B virus for virion production and transmission. We have previously demonstrated that sequences within the C-terminal 19-amino acid domain flanking the isoprenylation motif of the large hepatitis delta antigen (HDAg-L) are important for virion assembly. In this study, site-directed mutagenesis and immunofluorescence staining demonstrated that in the absence of hepatitis B virus surface antigen (HBsAg), the wild-type HDAg-L was localized in the nuclei of transfected COS7 cells. Nevertheless, in the presence of HBsAg, the HDAg-L became both nuclei- and cytoplasm-distributed in about half of the cells. An HDAg-L mutant with a substitution of Pro-205 to alanine could neither form HDV-like particles nor shift the subcellular localization in the presence of HBsAg. In addition, nuclear trafficking of HDAg-L in heterokaryons indicated that HDAg-L is a nucleocytoplasmic shuttling protein. A proline-rich HDAg peptide spanning amino acid residues 198 to 210, designated NES(HDAg-L), can function as a nuclear export signal (NES) in Xenopus oocytes. Pro-205 is critical for the NES function. Furthermore, assembly of HDV is insensitive to leptomycin B, indicating that the NES(HDAg-L) directs nuclear export of HDAg-L to the cytoplasm via a chromosome region maintenance 1-independent pathway.  (+info)

Recombinant hepatitis delta antigen from E. coli promotes hepatitis delta virus RNA replication only from the genomic strand but not the antigenomic strand. (8/171)

Hepatitis delta antigen (HDAg) of hepatitis delta virus (HDV) typically consists of two related protein species. The small HDAg (S-HDAg) is a 24-kDa protein of 195 amino acids and the large HDAg (L-HDAg) is a 27-kDa protein with an additional 19 amino acids at its C-terminus. These two proteins have distinct functions in the HDV life cycle. We have developed conditions for expressing S-HDAg and L-HDAg in E. coli as soluble proteins to facilitate large-scale purification. These proteins were purified to homogeneity and shown to be biologically active. Transfection of the purified recombinant S-HDAg together with HDV genomic RNA resulted in viral RNA replication. Surprisingly, the purified S-HDAg could not initiate replication from the antigenomic-sense HDV RNA, even though the latter led to RNA replication when transfected with an mRNA encoding the S-HDAg. These results suggest that initiation of HDV RNA synthesis from the antigenomic RNA may require a form of HDAg that is modified in mammalian cells; in contrast, RNA synthesis from the genomic RNA could be initiated by the recombinant S-HDAg from E. coli. Interestingly, the purified L-HDAg appeared as multiple protein species, including one corresponding to S-HDAg, probably as a result of degradation. The partially proteolyzed L-HDAg also initiated HDV RNA replication under the same conditions. These results add to the mounting evidence that genomic- and antigenomic-strand HDV RNA syntheses are carried out by different mechanisms.  (+info)

  • A 2-dose regimen of a recombinant hepatitis B vaccine with the immune stimulant AS04 compared with the standard 3-dose regimen of Engerix-B in healthy young adults. (arctichealth.org)
  • This issue is crucial in vaccine formulations based on the use of nanoparticles, which can operate both as a delivery system to enhance antigen processing and as an immunostimulatory adjuvant to induce and amplify protective immunity, in part because of their ability to activate the inflammasome and induce the maturation of interleukin 1β. (mdpi.com)
  • This was the first marker for any hepatitis virus and became not only a diagnostic assay, but also a mandatory blood donor screening test and the basis for the first generation hepatitis B vaccine. (medworm.com)
  • All measures that prevent hepatitis B will prevent HDV, including HBV vaccine. (natap.org)
  • Inactivated hepatitis A vaccine: reactogenicity, immunogenicity, and long-term antibody persistence. (factbites.com)
  • Hepatitis B is vaccine-preventable infection with significant degradation of health for. (privatebloodtests.ie)
  • Perform heat mediated antigen retrieval with Tris/EDTA buffer pH 9.0 before commencing with IHC staining protocol. (abcam.com)
  • Applications: Antigen in ELISA and Western blots, excellent antigen for detection of HBV with minimal specificity problems. (fishersci.com)
  • Botelho-Souza LF, dos Santos AO, Borzacov LM, Honda ER, Villalobos-Salcedo JM, Vieira DS (2014) Development of a reverse transcription quantitative real-time PCR-based system for rapid detection and quantitation of hepatitis delta virus in the western Amazon region of Brazil. (springer.com)
  • The present standard of care treatment for HDV yields suboptimal results, but insights into the virology of hepatitis D are stimulating the search for novel therapeutic approaches, particularly the development of prenylation inhibitors and viral entry inhibitors. (lww.com)
  • Over the past 15 years, a number of observations have culminated in the localization of viral antigens in liver tissue by the use of routine histology, immunohistochemistry, electron microscopy (EM), and immuno-electron microscopy (IEM). (springer.com)
  • Analysis of risk factors indicates that HBV is transmitted mainly horizontally within the family from a chronic "active" carrier for hepatitis B "e" antigen (HBeAg-positive), though a strong possibility of vertical transmission remains. (ajtmh.org)
  • In conclusion natural beta interferon given intramuscularly is effective in HBeAg positive patients suffering from chronic hepatitis B with optimal compliance. (tripdatabase.com)