Liver Cirrhosis: Liver disease in which the normal microcirculation, the gross vascular anatomy, and the hepatic architecture have been variably destroyed and altered with fibrous septa surrounding regenerated or regenerating parenchymal nodules.Hepatitis C: INFLAMMATION of the LIVER in humans caused by HEPATITIS C VIRUS, a single-stranded RNA virus. Its incubation period is 30-90 days. Hepatitis C is transmitted primarily by contaminated blood parenterally, and is often associated with transfusion and intravenous drug abuse. However, in a significant number of cases, the source of hepatitis C infection is unknown.Hepatitis C, Chronic: INFLAMMATION of the LIVER in humans that is caused by HEPATITIS C VIRUS lasting six months or more. Chronic hepatitis C can lead to LIVER CIRRHOSIS.Liver Cirrhosis, Alcoholic: FIBROSIS of the hepatic parenchyma due to chronic excess ALCOHOL DRINKING.Hepacivirus: A genus of FLAVIVIRIDAE causing parenterally-transmitted HEPATITIS C which is associated with transfusions and drug abuse. Hepatitis C virus is the type species.Hepatitis C Antibodies: Antibodies to the HEPATITIS C ANTIGENS including antibodies to envelope, core, and non-structural proteins.Hepatitis B: INFLAMMATION of the LIVER in humans caused by a member of the ORTHOHEPADNAVIRUS genus, HEPATITIS B VIRUS. It is primarily transmitted by parenteral exposure, such as transfusion of contaminated blood or blood products, but can also be transmitted via sexual or intimate personal contact.Antiviral Agents: Agents used in the prophylaxis or therapy of VIRUS DISEASES. Some of the ways they may act include preventing viral replication by inhibiting viral DNA polymerase; binding to specific cell-surface receptors and inhibiting viral penetration or uncoating; inhibiting viral protein synthesis; or blocking late stages of virus assembly.Ribavirin: A nucleoside antimetabolite antiviral agent that blocks nucleic acid synthesis and is used against both RNA and DNA viruses.Liver Cirrhosis, Experimental: Experimentally induced chronic injuries to the parenchymal cells in the liver to achieve a model for LIVER CIRRHOSIS.Liver Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the LIVER.Interferon-alpha: One of the type I interferons produced by peripheral blood leukocytes or lymphoblastoid cells. In addition to antiviral activity, it activates NATURAL KILLER CELLS and B-LYMPHOCYTES, and down-regulates VASCULAR ENDOTHELIAL GROWTH FACTOR expression through PI-3 KINASE and MAPK KINASES signaling pathways.Liver: A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.Hepatitis B virus: The type species of the genus ORTHOHEPADNAVIRUS which causes human HEPATITIS B and is also apparently a causal agent in human HEPATOCELLULAR CARCINOMA. The Dane particle is an intact hepatitis virion, named after its discoverer. Non-infectious spherical and tubular particles are also seen in the serum.Hepatitis, Alcoholic: INFLAMMATION of the LIVER due to ALCOHOL ABUSE. It is characterized by NECROSIS of HEPATOCYTES, infiltration by NEUTROPHILS, and deposit of MALLORY BODIES. Depending on its severity, the inflammatory lesion may be reversible or progress to LIVER CIRRHOSIS.Liver Diseases, Alcoholic: Liver diseases associated with ALCOHOLISM. It usually refers to the coexistence of two or more subentities, i.e., ALCOHOLIC FATTY LIVER; ALCOHOLIC HEPATITIS; and ALCOHOLIC CIRRHOSIS.Liver Transplantation: The transference of a part of or an entire liver from one human or animal to another.Liver Cirrhosis, Biliary: FIBROSIS of the hepatic parenchyma due to obstruction of BILE flow (CHOLESTASIS) in the intrahepatic or extrahepatic bile ducts (BILE DUCTS, INTRAHEPATIC; BILE DUCTS, EXTRAHEPATIC). Primary biliary cirrhosis involves the destruction of small intra-hepatic bile ducts and bile secretion. Secondary biliary cirrhosis is produced by prolonged obstruction of large intrahepatic or extrahepatic bile ducts from a variety of causes.Hepatitis A: INFLAMMATION of the LIVER in humans caused by a member of the HEPATOVIRUS genus, HUMAN HEPATITIS A VIRUS. It can be transmitted through fecal contamination of food or water.Liver Function Tests: Blood tests that are used to evaluate how well a patient's liver is working and also to help diagnose liver conditions.Liver Diseases: Pathological processes of the LIVER.Carcinoma, Hepatocellular: A primary malignant neoplasm of epithelial liver cells. It ranges from a well-differentiated tumor with EPITHELIAL CELLS indistinguishable from normal HEPATOCYTES to a poorly differentiated neoplasm. The cells may be uniform or markedly pleomorphic, or form GIANT CELLS. Several classification schemes have been suggested.Alcoholics: Persons who have a history of physical or psychological dependence on ETHANOL.Hepatitis: INFLAMMATION of the LIVER.Hepatitis, Viral, Human: INFLAMMATION of the LIVER in humans due to infection by VIRUSES. There are several significant types of human viral hepatitis with infection caused by enteric-transmission (HEPATITIS A; HEPATITIS E) or blood transfusion (HEPATITIS B; HEPATITIS C; and HEPATITIS D).RNA, Viral: Ribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.Alanine Transaminase: An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of L-alanine and 2-oxoglutarate to pyruvate and L-glutamate. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 2.6.1.2.Polyethylene Glycols: Polymers of ETHYLENE OXIDE and water, and their ethers. They vary in consistency from liquid to solid depending on the molecular weight indicated by a number following the name. They are used as SURFACTANTS, dispersing agents, solvents, ointment and suppository bases, vehicles, and tablet excipients. Some specific groups are NONOXYNOLS, OCTOXYNOLS, and POLOXAMERS.Hepatitis B Surface Antigens: Those hepatitis B antigens found on the surface of the Dane particle and on the 20 nm spherical and tubular particles. Several subspecificities of the surface antigen are known. These were formerly called the Australia antigen.Hepatitis, Chronic: INFLAMMATION of the LIVER with ongoing hepatocellular injury for 6 months or more, characterized by NECROSIS of HEPATOCYTES and inflammatory cell (LEUKOCYTES) infiltration. Chronic hepatitis can be caused by viruses, medications, autoimmune diseases, and other unknown factors.Hepatitis B, Chronic: INFLAMMATION of the LIVER in humans caused by HEPATITIS B VIRUS lasting six months or more. It is primarily transmitted by parenteral exposure, such as transfusion of contaminated blood or blood products, but can also be transmitted via sexual or intimate personal contact.Substance Abuse, Intravenous: Abuse, overuse, or misuse of a substance by its injection into a vein.Hepatitis C Antigens: Antigens of the virions of HEPACIVIRUS, their surface, core, or other associated antigens.Egypt: A country in northern Africa, bordering the Mediterranean Sea, between Libya and the Gaza Strip, and the Red Sea north of Sudan, and includes the Asian Sinai Peninsula Its capital is Cairo.Genotype: The genetic constitution of the individual, comprising the ALLELES present at each GENETIC LOCUS.Hepatitis Antibodies: Immunoglobulins raised by any form of viral hepatitis; some of these antibodies are used to diagnose the specific kind of hepatitis.Hepatitis B Antibodies: Antibodies to the HEPATITIS B ANTIGENS, including antibodies to the surface (Australia) and core of the Dane particle and those to the "e" antigens.Pancreatitis, Alcoholic: Acute or chronic INFLAMMATION of the PANCREAS due to excessive ALCOHOL DRINKING. Alcoholic pancreatitis usually presents as an acute episode but it is a chronic progressive disease in alcoholics.Viral Load: The quantity of measurable virus in a body fluid. Change in viral load, measured in plasma, is sometimes used as a SURROGATE MARKER in disease progression.Risk Factors: An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.Fatty Liver, Alcoholic: Lipid infiltration of the hepatic parenchymal cells that is due to ALCOHOL ABUSE. The fatty changes in the alcoholic fatty liver may be reversible, depending on the amounts of TRIGLYCERIDES accumulated.Cryoglobulinemia: A condition characterized by the presence of abnormal quantities of CRYOGLOBULINS in the blood. Upon cold exposure, these abnormal proteins precipitate into the microvasculature leading to restricted blood flow in the exposed areas.Hepatitis B Vaccines: Vaccines or candidate vaccines containing inactivated hepatitis B or some of its component antigens and designed to prevent hepatitis B. Some vaccines may be recombinantly produced.Liver Failure: Severe inability of the LIVER to perform its normal metabolic functions, as evidenced by severe JAUNDICE and abnormal serum levels of AMMONIA; BILIRUBIN; ALKALINE PHOSPHATASE; ASPARTATE AMINOTRANSFERASE; LACTATE DEHYDROGENASES; and albumin/globulin ratio. (Blakiston's Gould Medical Dictionary, 4th ed)Prevalence: The total number of cases of a given disease in a specified population at a designated time. It is differentiated from INCIDENCE, which refers to the number of new cases in the population at a given time.Drug Therapy, Combination: Therapy with two or more separate preparations given for a combined effect.Hepatitis A virus: A species in the genus HEPATOVIRUS containing one serotype and two strains: HUMAN HEPATITIS A VIRUS and Simian hepatitis A virus causing hepatitis in humans (HEPATITIS A) and primates, respectively.Alcoholism: A primary, chronic disease with genetic, psychosocial, and environmental factors influencing its development and manifestations. The disease is often progressive and fatal. It is characterized by impaired control over drinking, preoccupation with the drug alcohol, use of alcohol despite adverse consequences, and distortions in thinking, most notably denial. Each of these symptoms may be continuous or periodic. (Morse & Flavin for the Joint Commission of the National Council on Alcoholism and Drug Dependence and the American Society of Addiction Medicine to Study the Definition and Criteria for the Diagnosis of Alcoholism: in JAMA 1992;268:1012-4)Sexually Transmitted Diseases, Viral: Viral diseases which are transmitted or propagated by sexual conduct.Alcoholic Beverages: Drinkable liquids containing ETHANOL.HIV Infections: Includes the spectrum of human immunodeficiency virus infections that range from asymptomatic seropositivity, thru AIDS-related complex (ARC), to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS).Viral Nonstructural Proteins: Proteins encoded by a VIRAL GENOME that are produced in the organisms they infect, but not packaged into the VIRUS PARTICLES. Some of these proteins may play roles within the infected cell during VIRUS REPLICATION or act in regulation of virus replication or VIRUS ASSEMBLY.Retrospective Studies: Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.Hepatitis B Core Antigens: The hepatitis B antigen within the core of the Dane particle, the infectious hepatitis virion.Hepatitis, Autoimmune: A chronic self-perpetuating hepatocellular INFLAMMATION of unknown cause, usually with HYPERGAMMAGLOBULINEMIA and serum AUTOANTIBODIES.Treatment Outcome: Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.Coinfection: Simultaneous infection of a host organism by two or more pathogens. In virology, coinfection commonly refers to simultaneous infection of a single cell by two or more different viruses.Interferons: Proteins secreted by vertebrate cells in response to a wide variety of inducers. They confer resistance against many different viruses, inhibit proliferation of normal and malignant cells, impede multiplication of intracellular parasites, enhance macrophage and granulocyte phagocytosis, augment natural killer cell activity, and show several other immunomodulatory functions.Fatty Liver: Lipid infiltration of the hepatic parenchymal cells resulting in a yellow-colored liver. The abnormal lipid accumulation is usually in the form of TRIGLYCERIDES, either as a single large droplet or multiple small droplets. Fatty liver is caused by an imbalance in the metabolism of FATTY ACIDS.Recombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.Biopsy: Removal and pathologic examination of specimens in the form of small pieces of tissue from the living body.Hypertension, Portal: Abnormal increase of resistance to blood flow within the hepatic PORTAL SYSTEM, frequently seen in LIVER CIRRHOSIS and conditions with obstruction of the PORTAL VEIN.Rho(D) Immune Globulin: Immunizing agent containing IMMUNOGLOBULIN G anti-Rho(D) used for preventing Rh immunization in Rh-negative individuals exposed to Rh-positive red blood cells.Hepatitis B e Antigens: A closely related group of antigens found in the plasma only during the infective phase of hepatitis B or in virulent chronic hepatitis B, probably indicating active virus replication; there are three subtypes which may exist in a complex with immunoglobulins G.Ascites: Accumulation or retention of free fluid within the peritoneal cavity.Alcoholics Anonymous: An organization of self-proclaimed alcoholics who meet frequently to reinforce their practice of abstinence.Case-Control Studies: Studies which start with the identification of persons with a disease of interest and a control (comparison, referent) group without the disease. The relationship of an attribute to the disease is examined by comparing diseased and non-diseased persons with regard to the frequency or levels of the attribute in each group.Aspartate Aminotransferases: Enzymes of the transferase class that catalyze the conversion of L-aspartate and 2-ketoglutarate to oxaloacetate and L-glutamate. EC 2.6.1.1.Disease Progression: The worsening of a disease over time. This concept is most often used for chronic and incurable diseases where the stage of the disease is an important determinant of therapy and prognosis.Hepatitis A Vaccines: Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent infection with hepatitis A virus (HEPATOVIRUS).Hepatitis B Antigens: Antigens of the virion of the HEPATITIS B VIRUS or the Dane particle, its surface (HEPATITIS B SURFACE ANTIGENS), core (HEPATITIS B CORE ANTIGENS), and other associated antigens, including the HEPATITIS B E ANTIGENS.Hepatic Encephalopathy: A syndrome characterized by central nervous system dysfunction in association with LIVER FAILURE, including portal-systemic shunts. Clinical features include lethargy and CONFUSION (frequently progressing to COMA); ASTERIXIS; NYSTAGMUS, PATHOLOGIC; brisk oculovestibular reflexes; decorticate and decerebrate posturing; MUSCLE SPASTICITY; and bilateral extensor plantar reflexes (see REFLEX, BABINSKI). ELECTROENCEPHALOGRAPHY may demonstrate triphasic waves. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp1117-20; Plum & Posner, Diagnosis of Stupor and Coma, 3rd ed, p222-5)Chronic Disease: Diseases which have one or more of the following characteristics: they are permanent, leave residual disability, are caused by nonreversible pathological alteration, require special training of the patient for rehabilitation, or may be expected to require a long period of supervision, observation, or care. (Dictionary of Health Services Management, 2d ed)Viral Hepatitis Vaccines: Any vaccine raised against any virus or viral derivative that causes hepatitis.Cohort Studies: Studies in which subsets of a defined population are identified. These groups may or may not be exposed to factors hypothesized to influence the probability of the occurrence of a particular disease or other outcome. Cohorts are defined populations which, as a whole, are followed in an attempt to determine distinguishing subgroup characteristics.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Blood Transfusion: The introduction of whole blood or blood component directly into the blood stream. (Dorland, 27th ed)Hepatitis E: Acute INFLAMMATION of the LIVER in humans; caused by HEPATITIS E VIRUS, a non-enveloped single-stranded RNA virus. Similar to HEPATITIS A, its incubation period is 15-60 days and is enterically transmitted, usually by fecal-oral transmission.Esophageal and Gastric Varices: Dilated blood vessels in the ESOPHAGUS or GASTRIC FUNDUS that shunt blood from the portal circulation (PORTAL SYSTEM) to the systemic venous circulation. Often they are observed in individuals with portal hypertension (HYPERTENSION, PORTAL).Severity of Illness Index: Levels within a diagnostic group which are established by various measurement criteria applied to the seriousness of a patient's disorder.Hepatocytes: The main structural component of the LIVER. They are specialized EPITHELIAL CELLS that are organized into interconnected plates called lobules.Hepatitis, Viral, Animal: INFLAMMATION of the LIVER in animals due to viral infection.Hepatitis Viruses: Any of the viruses that cause inflammation of the liver. They include both DNA and RNA viruses as well viruses from humans and animals.Hepatitis E virus: A positive-stranded RNA virus species in the genus HEPEVIRUS, causing enterically-transmitted non-A, non-B hepatitis (HEPATITIS E).Biological Markers: Measurable and quantifiable biological parameters (e.g., specific enzyme concentration, specific hormone concentration, specific gene phenotype distribution in a population, presence of biological substances) which serve as indices for health- and physiology-related assessments, such as disease risk, psychiatric disorders, environmental exposure and its effects, disease diagnosis, metabolic processes, substance abuse, pregnancy, cell line development, epidemiologic studies, etc.Recurrence: The return of a sign, symptom, or disease after a remission.Hepatitis A Antibodies: Antibodies to the HEPATITIS A ANTIGENS including antibodies to envelope, core, and non-structural proteins.Acute Disease: Disease having a short and relatively severe course.Viremia: The presence of viruses in the blood.Viral Core Proteins: Proteins found mainly in icosahedral DNA and RNA viruses. They consist of proteins directly associated with the nucleic acid inside the NUCLEOCAPSID.Hepatitis, Animal: INFLAMMATION of the LIVER in non-human animals.Hepatitis D: INFLAMMATION of the LIVER in humans caused by HEPATITIS DELTA VIRUS, a defective RNA virus that can only infect HEPATITIS B patients. For its viral coating, hepatitis delta virus requires the HEPATITIS B SURFACE ANTIGENS produced by these patients. Hepatitis D can occur either concomitantly with (coinfection) or subsequent to (superinfection) hepatitis B infection. Similar to hepatitis B, it is primarily transmitted by parenteral exposure, such as transfusion of contaminated blood or blood products, but can also be transmitted via sexual or intimate personal contact.Liver Regeneration: Repair or renewal of hepatic tissue.Prospective Studies: Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.Follow-Up Studies: Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.Hepatitis A Virus, Human: A strain of HEPATITIS A VIRUS which causes hepatitis in humans. The virus replicates in hepatocytes and is presumed to reach the intestine via the bile duct. Transmission occurs by the fecal-oral route.Polymerase Chain Reaction: In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.Hepatitis Delta Virus: A defective virus, containing particles of RNA nucleoprotein in virion-like form, present in patients with acute hepatitis B and chronic hepatitis. It requires the presence of a hepadnavirus for full replication. This is the lone species in the genus Deltavirus.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Cardiomyopathy, Alcoholic: Disease of CARDIAC MUSCLE resulting from chronic excessive alcohol consumption. Myocardial damage can be caused by: (1) a toxic effect of alcohol; (2) malnutrition in alcoholics such as THIAMINE DEFICIENCY; or (3) toxic effect of additives in alcoholic beverages such as COBALT. This disease is usually manifested by DYSPNEA and palpitations with CARDIOMEGALY and congestive heart failure (HEART FAILURE).Liver Circulation: The circulation of BLOOD through the LIVER.Virus Replication: The process of intracellular viral multiplication, consisting of the synthesis of PROTEINS; NUCLEIC ACIDS; and sometimes LIPIDS, and their assembly into a new infectious particle.Carbon Tetrachloride: A solvent for oils, fats, lacquers, varnishes, rubber waxes, and resins, and a starting material in the manufacturing of organic compounds. Poisoning by inhalation, ingestion or skin absorption is possible and may be fatal. (Merck Index, 11th ed)Incidence: The number of new cases of a given disease during a given period in a specified population. It also is used for the rate at which new events occur in a defined population. It is differentiated from PREVALENCE, which refers to all cases, new or old, in the population at a given time.Ethanol: A clear, colorless liquid rapidly absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract and distributed throughout the body. It has bactericidal activity and is used often as a topical disinfectant. It is widely used as a solvent and preservative in pharmaceutical preparations as well as serving as the primary ingredient in ALCOHOLIC BEVERAGES.Drug-Induced Liver Injury: A spectrum of clinical liver diseases ranging from mild biochemical abnormalities to ACUTE LIVER FAILURE, caused by drugs, drug metabolites, and chemicals from the environment.Thioacetamide: A crystalline compound used as a laboratory reagent in place of HYDROGEN SULFIDE. It is a potent hepatocarcinogen.Microsomes, Liver: Closed vesicles of fragmented endoplasmic reticulum created when liver cells or tissue are disrupted by homogenization. They may be smooth or rough.DNA, Viral: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.GB virus C: A species of virus (unassigned to a genus) in the family FLAVIVIRIDAE. It is genetically heterogeneous, of human origin, and transmitted by blood or blood products. Despite its alternate name (Hepatitis G virus), its pathogenicity remains controversial.Flaviviridae Infections: Infections with viruses of the family FLAVIVIRIDAE.Portal System: A system of vessels in which blood, after passing through one capillary bed, is conveyed through a second set of capillaries before it returns to the systemic circulation. It pertains especially to the hepatic portal system.Portal Vein: A short thick vein formed by union of the superior mesenteric vein and the splenic vein.Cross-Sectional Studies: Studies in which the presence or absence of disease or other health-related variables are determined in each member of the study population or in a representative sample at one particular time. This contrasts with LONGITUDINAL STUDIES which are followed over a period of time.Temperance: Habitual moderation in the indulgence of a natural appetite, especially but not exclusively the consumption of alcohol.alpha-Fetoproteins: The first alpha-globulins to appear in mammalian sera during FETAL DEVELOPMENT and the dominant serum proteins in early embryonic life.Blood DonorsBase Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Seroepidemiologic Studies: EPIDEMIOLOGIC STUDIES based on the detection through serological testing of characteristic change in the serum level of specific ANTIBODIES. Latent subclinical infections and carrier states can thus be detected in addition to clinically overt cases.Gastrointestinal Hemorrhage: Bleeding in any segment of the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT from ESOPHAGUS to RECTUM.Renal Dialysis: Therapy for the insufficient cleansing of the BLOOD by the kidneys based on dialysis and including hemodialysis, PERITONEAL DIALYSIS, and HEMODIAFILTRATION.Replicon: Any DNA sequence capable of independent replication or a molecule that possesses a REPLICATION ORIGIN and which is therefore potentially capable of being replicated in a suitable cell. (Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)Flaviviridae: A family of RNA viruses, many of which cause disease in humans and domestic animals. There are three genera FLAVIVIRUS; PESTIVIRUS; and HEPACIVIRUS, as well as several unassigned species.Murine hepatitis virus: A species of the CORONAVIRUS genus causing hepatitis in mice. Four strains have been identified as MHV 1, MHV 2, MHV 3, and MHV 4 (also known as MHV-JHM, which is neurotropic and causes disseminated encephalomyelitis with demyelination as well as focal liver necrosis).Alcohol Drinking: Behaviors associated with the ingesting of alcoholic beverages, including social drinking.Risk Assessment: The qualitative or quantitative estimation of the likelihood of adverse effects that may result from exposure to specified health hazards or from the absence of beneficial influences. (Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 1988)Bilirubin: A bile pigment that is a degradation product of HEME.Botswana: A republic in southern Africa, between NAMIBIA and ZAMBIA. It was formerly called Bechuanaland. Its capital is Gaborone. The Kalahari Desert is in the west and southwest.Antigens, CD81: Tetraspanin proteins that are involved in a variety of cellular functions including BASEMENT MEMBRANE assembly, and in the formation of a molecular complexes on the surface of LYMPHOCYTES.Portal Pressure: The venous pressure measured in the PORTAL VEIN.Liver Failure, Acute: A form of rapid-onset LIVER FAILURE, also known as fulminant hepatic failure, caused by severe liver injury or massive loss of HEPATOCYTES. It is characterized by sudden development of liver dysfunction and JAUNDICE. Acute liver failure may progress to exhibit cerebral dysfunction even HEPATIC COMA depending on the etiology that includes hepatic ISCHEMIA, drug toxicity, malignant infiltration, and viral hepatitis such as post-transfusion HEPATITIS B and HEPATITIS C.Mitochondria, Liver: Mitochondria in hepatocytes. As in all mitochondria, there are an outer membrane and an inner membrane, together creating two separate mitochondrial compartments: the internal matrix space and a much narrower intermembrane space. In the liver mitochondrion, an estimated 67% of the total mitochondrial proteins is located in the matrix. (From Alberts et al., Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2d ed, p343-4)Hepatovirus: A genus of PICORNAVIRIDAE causing infectious hepatitis naturally in humans and experimentally in other primates. It is transmitted through fecal contamination of food or water. HEPATITIS A VIRUS is the type species.Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay: An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed.Alcoholic Neuropathy: A condition where damage to the peripheral nervous system (including the peripheral elements of the autonomic nervous system) is associated with chronic ingestion of alcoholic beverages. The disorder may be caused by a direct effect of alcohol, an associated nutritional deficiency, or a combination of factors. Clinical manifestations include variable degrees of weakness; ATROPHY; PARESTHESIAS; pain; loss of reflexes; sensory loss; diaphoresis; and postural hypotension. (From Arch Neurol 1995;52(1):45-51; Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1146)Logistic Models: Statistical models which describe the relationship between a qualitative dependent variable (that is, one which can take only certain discrete values, such as the presence or absence of a disease) and an independent variable. A common application is in epidemiology for estimating an individual's risk (probability of a disease) as a function of a given risk factor.Hepatectomy: Excision of all or part of the liver. (Dorland, 28th ed)Psychoses, Alcoholic: A group of mental disorders associated with organic brain damage and caused by poisoning from alcohol.Hepatorenal Syndrome: Functional KIDNEY FAILURE in patients with liver disease, usually LIVER CIRRHOSIS or portal hypertension (HYPERTENSION, PORTAL), and in the absence of intrinsic renal disease or kidney abnormality. It is characterized by intense renal vasculature constriction, reduced renal blood flow, OLIGURIA, and sodium retention.Hepatitis Antigens: Antigens from any of the hepatitis viruses including surface, core, and other associated antigens.End Stage Liver Disease: Final stage of a liver disease when the liver failure is irreversible and LIVER TRANSPLANTATION is needed.Hydrothorax: A collection of watery fluid in the pleural cavity. (Dorland, 27th ed)TaiwanHepatitis A Antigens: Antigens produced by various strains of HEPATITIS A VIRUS such as the human hepatitis A virus (HEPATITIS A VIRUS, HUMAN).Genome, Viral: The complete genetic complement contained in a DNA or RNA molecule in a virus.Substance-Related Disorders: Disorders related to substance abuse.Hepatic Veins: Veins which drain the liver.Hepatitis delta Antigens: Antigens produced by various strains of HEPATITIS D VIRUS.United StatesHepatitis D, Chronic: INFLAMMATION of the LIVER in humans caused by HEPATITIS DELTA VIRUS in conjunction with HEPATITIS B VIRUS and lasting six months or more.Prognosis: A prediction of the probable outcome of a disease based on a individual's condition and the usual course of the disease as seen in similar situations.Pan troglodytes: The common chimpanzee, a species of the genus Pan, family HOMINIDAE. It lives in Africa, primarily in the tropical rainforests. There are a number of recognized subspecies.Viral Envelope Proteins: Layers of protein which surround the capsid in animal viruses with tubular nucleocapsids. The envelope consists of an inner layer of lipids and virus specified proteins also called membrane or matrix proteins. The outer layer consists of one or more types of morphological subunits called peplomers which project from the viral envelope; this layer always consists of glycoproteins.Paracentesis: A procedure in which fluid is withdrawn from a body cavity or organ via a trocar and cannula, needle, or other hollow instrument.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Jaundice: A clinical manifestation of HYPERBILIRUBINEMIA, characterized by the yellowish staining of the SKIN; MUCOUS MEMBRANE; and SCLERA. Clinical jaundice usually is a sign of LIVER dysfunction.Sensitivity and Specificity: Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Carrier State: The condition of harboring an infective organism without manifesting symptoms of infection. The organism must be readily transmissible to another susceptible host.Hepatitis B Virus, Duck: A DNA virus that closely resembles human hepatitis B virus. It has been recovered from naturally infected ducks.Liver Neoplasms, Experimental: Experimentally induced tumors of the LIVER.HIV-1: The type species of LENTIVIRUS and the etiologic agent of AIDS. It is characterized by its cytopathic effect and affinity for the T4-lymphocyte.Splenic Vein: Vein formed by the union (at the hilus of the spleen) of several small veins from the stomach, pancreas, spleen and mesentery.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Platelet Count: The number of PLATELETS per unit volume in a sample of venous BLOOD.Bile Ducts: The channels that collect and transport the bile secretion from the BILE CANALICULI, the smallest branch of the BILIARY TRACT in the LIVER, through the bile ductules, the bile ducts out the liver, and to the GALLBLADDER for storage.Elasticity Imaging Techniques: Non-invasive imaging methods based on the mechanical response of an object to a vibrational or impulsive force. It is used for determining the viscoelastic properties of tissue, and thereby differentiating soft from hard inclusions in tissue such as microcalcifications, and some cancer lesions. Most techniques use ultrasound to create the images - eliciting the response with an ultrasonic radiation force and/or recording displacements of the tissue by Doppler ultrasonography.Cholestasis: Impairment of bile flow due to obstruction in small bile ducts (INTRAHEPATIC CHOLESTASIS) or obstruction in large bile ducts (EXTRAHEPATIC CHOLESTASIS).Phylogeny: The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.Statistics, Nonparametric: A class of statistical methods applicable to a large set of probability distributions used to test for correlation, location, independence, etc. In most nonparametric statistical tests, the original scores or observations are replaced by another variable containing less information. An important class of nonparametric tests employs the ordinal properties of the data. Another class of tests uses information about whether an observation is above or below some fixed value such as the median, and a third class is based on the frequency of the occurrence of runs in the data. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed, p1284; Corsini, Concise Encyclopedia of Psychology, 1987, p764-5)Alcohol Amnestic Disorder: A mental disorder associated with chronic ethanol abuse (ALCOHOLISM) and nutritional deficiencies characterized by short term memory loss, confabulations, and disturbances of attention. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1139)Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction: A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.gamma-Glutamyltransferase: An enzyme, sometimes called GGT, with a key role in the synthesis and degradation of GLUTATHIONE; (GSH, a tripeptide that protects cells from many toxins). It catalyzes the transfer of the gamma-glutamyl moiety to an acceptor amino acid.Lamivudine: A reverse transcriptase inhibitor and ZALCITABINE analog in which a sulfur atom replaces the 3' carbon of the pentose ring. It is used to treat HIV disease.Liver Abscess: Solitary or multiple collections of PUS within the liver as a result of infection by bacteria, protozoa, or other agents.Hepatitis B Virus, Woodchuck: An ORTHOHEPADNAVIRUS causing chronic liver disease and hepatocellular carcinoma in woodchucks. It closely resembles the human hepatitis B virus.Ursodeoxycholic Acid: An epimer of chenodeoxycholic acid. It is a mammalian bile acid found first in the bear and is apparently either a precursor or a product of chenodeoxycholate. Its administration changes the composition of bile and may dissolve gallstones. It is used as a cholagogue and choleretic.Fatal Outcome: Death resulting from the presence of a disease in an individual, as shown by a single case report or a limited number of patients. This should be differentiated from DEATH, the physiological cessation of life and from MORTALITY, an epidemiological or statistical concept.Hepatic Stellate Cells: Perisinusoidal cells of the liver, located in the space of Disse between HEPATOCYTES and sinusoidal endothelial cells.Age Factors: Age as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or the effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from AGING, a physiological process, and TIME FACTORS which refers only to the passage of time.Beer: An alcoholic beverage usually made from malted cereal grain (as barley), flavored with hops, and brewed by slow fermentation.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Sequence Analysis, DNA: A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.BrazilCytochrome P-450 CYP2E1: An ethanol-inducible cytochrome P450 enzyme that metabolizes several precarcinogens, drugs, and solvents to reactive metabolites. Substrates include ETHANOL; INHALATION ANESTHETICS; BENZENE; ACETAMINOPHEN and other low molecular weight compounds. CYP2E1 has been used as an enzyme marker in the study of alcohol abuse.Predictive Value of Tests: In screening and diagnostic tests, the probability that a person with a positive test is a true positive (i.e., has the disease), is referred to as the predictive value of a positive test; whereas, the predictive value of a negative test is the probability that the person with a negative test does not have the disease. Predictive value is related to the sensitivity and specificity of the test.Comorbidity: The presence of co-existing or additional diseases with reference to an initial diagnosis or with reference to the index condition that is the subject of study. Comorbidity may affect the ability of affected individuals to function and also their survival; it may be used as a prognostic indicator for length of hospital stay, cost factors, and outcome or survival.Multivariate Analysis: A set of techniques used when variation in several variables has to be studied simultaneously. In statistics, multivariate analysis is interpreted as any analytic method that allows simultaneous study of two or more dependent variables.ROC Curve: A graphic means for assessing the ability of a screening test to discriminate between healthy and diseased persons; may also be used in other studies, e.g., distinguishing stimuli responses as to a faint stimuli or nonstimuli.CD4 Lymphocyte Count: The number of CD4-POSITIVE T-LYMPHOCYTES per unit volume of BLOOD. Determination requires the use of a fluorescence-activated flow cytometer.Liver Extracts: Extracts of liver tissue containing uncharacterized specific factors with specific activities; a soluble thermostable fraction of mammalian liver is used in the treatment of pernicious anemia.PrisonersDrug Resistance, Viral: The ability of viruses to resist or to become tolerant to chemotherapeutic agents or antiviral agents. This resistance is acquired through gene mutation.Portasystemic Shunt, Surgical: Surgical venous shunt between the portal and systemic circulation to effect decompression of the portal circulation. It is performed primarily in the treatment of bleeding esophageal varices resulting from portal hypertension. Types of shunt include portacaval, splenorenal, mesocaval, splenocaval, left gastric-caval (coronary-caval), portarenal, umbilicorenal, and umbilicocaval.Fibrosis: Any pathological condition where fibrous connective tissue invades any organ, usually as a consequence of inflammation or other injury.Disease Models, Animal: Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.Kupffer Cells: Specialized phagocytic cells of the MONONUCLEAR PHAGOCYTE SYSTEM found on the luminal surface of the hepatic sinusoids. They filter bacteria and small foreign proteins out of the blood, and dispose of worn out red blood cells.Carbon Tetrachloride PoisoningTattooing: The indelible marking of TISSUES, primarily SKIN, by pricking it with NEEDLES to imbed various COLORING AGENTS. Tattooing of the CORNEA is done to colorize LEUKOMA spots.Rats, Wistar: A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.Portasystemic Shunt, Transjugular Intrahepatic: A type of surgical portasystemic shunt to reduce portal hypertension with associated complications of esophageal varices and ascites. It is performed percutaneously through the jugular vein and involves the creation of an intrahepatic shunt between the hepatic vein and portal vein. The channel is maintained by a metallic stent. The procedure can be performed in patients who have failed sclerotherapy and is an additional option to the surgical techniques of portocaval, mesocaval, and splenorenal shunts. It takes one to three hours to perform. (JAMA 1995;273(23):1824-30)
HRS can affect individuals with cirrhosis, severe alcoholic hepatitis, or liver failure, and usually occurs when liver function ... Some viral infections of the liver, including hepatitis B and hepatitis C can also lead to inflammation of the glomerulus of ... it is most common in individuals with alcoholic cirrhosis, particularly if there is concomitant alcoholic hepatitis ... These include bacterial infection, acute alcoholic hepatitis, or bleeding in the upper gastrointestinal tract. Spontaneous ...
... infection Alcohol dependence Alcohol fetopathy Alcohol withdrawal syndrome Alcoholic hepatitis Alcoholic liver cirrhosis ... propionic Acitretine antenatal infection Ackerman syndrome Acne rosacea Acne vulgaris; often called acne Acoustic neuroma ... Angiomyomatous hamartoma Angioneurotic edema hereditary due to C1 esterase deficiency Angiosarcoma Angiosarcoma of the liver ... disorder Aughton syndrome Ausems Wittebol Post Hennekam syndrome Autism Autoimmune hemolytic anemia Autoimmune hepatitis ...
... including fatty liver disease, alcoholic hepatitis, and cirrhosis. Analogous terms such as "drug-induced" or "toxic" liver ... A common form of liver disease is viral infection. Viral hepatitides such as Hepatitis B virus and Hepatitis C virus can be ... alcoholic fatty liver disease, cirrhosis, and liver cancer. In the earlier stages of alcoholic liver disease, fat builds up in ... Hepatitis, inflammation of the liver, is caused by various viruses (viral hepatitis) also by some liver toxins (e.g. alcoholic ...
... alcoholic hepatitis, and chronic hepatitis with liver fibrosis or cirrhosis. It is the major cause of liver disease in Western ... Hepatitis C infection: A concomitant hepatitis C infection significantly accelerates the process of liver injury. Genetic ... such as concomitant chronic viral hepatitis. Among patients with alcoholic hepatitis, progression to liver cirrhosis occurs at ... Alcoholic liver disease is a term that encompasses the liver manifestations of alcohol overconsumption, including fatty liver, ...
Many years of infection may cause cirrhosis. Sometimes, people with cirrhosis also have liver failure or liver cancer. They can ... Rambaldi, A; Jacobs, BP, Gluud, C (2007-10-17). "Milk thistle for alcoholic and/or hepatitis B or C virus liver diseases.". ... Hepatitis C can cause serious problems, like cirrhosis and liver cancer.[3] Hepatitis C leads to cirrhosis in 10-30% (between ... Hepatitis C is an infection that mostly affects the liver. The hepatitis C virus (HCV) causes this disease.[1] Often, a person ...
... whether in the form of viral hepatitis (e.g. hepatitis B or hepatitis C), alcoholic liver disease, or cirrhosis of the liver ... hepatitis C infection) were responsible for the association. Infection with the bacteria Helicobacter bilis and Helicobacter ... "Incidence of primary cholangiocellular carcinoma of the liver in Japanese patients with hepatitis C virus-related cirrhosis". ... infection with the parasitic liver flukes Opisthorchis viverrini or Clonorchis sinensis, some congenital liver malformations, ...
... steatohepatitis or non-alcoholic fatty liver disease). "Acute on chronic liver failure" is said to exist when someone with ... Chronic liver failure usually occurs in the context of cirrhosis, itself potentially the result of many possible causes, such ... A number of underlying causes may precipitate this, such as alcohol misuse or infection. People with ACLF can be critically ill ... as excessive alcohol intake, hepatitis B or C, autoimmune, hereditary and metabolic causes (such as iron or copper overload, ...
Chronic (rather than acute) infection with hepatitis B virus or hepatitis C virus is the main cause of liver cancer. Globally, ... fatty liver, and cirrhosis. Factors contributing to the development of alcoholic liver diseases are not only the quantity and ... Living donor liver transplantation is a technique in which a portion of a living person's liver is removed (hepatectomy) and ... Hepatitis E). Hepatitis D virus is a "satellite" of hepatitis B virus (can only infect in the presence of hepatitis B), and co- ...
Chronic liver disease and cirrhosis (571.0) Fatty liver, alcoholic (571.2) Cirrhosis, liver, alcoholic (571.4) Hepatitis, ... Retroperitoneal infections (567.31), Psoas muscle abscess (568), Other disorders of peritoneum (568.0), Peritoneal adhesions ( ... 571.5) Cirrhosis, NOS (571.6) Primary biliary cirrhosis (571.9) Liver disease, chronic, unspec. (572) Liver abscess and ... Other disorders of liver (573.3) Hepatitis, toxic (574) Cholelithiasis (574.3) Choledocholithiasis (575) Other disorders of ...
Other risk factors include iron overload, alcoholic cirrhosis and some congenital disorders. Five year survival rates for liver ... The incidence of HCC is increasing due to increased rates of chronic infection with Hepatitis B and Hepatitis C in Asia. ... is the most common form of liver cancer, responsible for about 90% of the primary malignant liver tumours in adults. Liver ... "Liver Cancer Home Page - National Cancer Institute". Cancer.gov. Retrieved 2010-07-29. "Liver cancer , Better Health Channel". ...
Chronic infection after several years may cause cirrhosis or liver cancer. The liver enzymes are normal in 7-53%. Late relapses ... Cirrhosis is more common in those also infected with hepatitis B, schistosoma, or HIV, in alcoholics and in those of male ... Those who develop cirrhosis or liver cancer may require a liver transplant. Hepatitis C is the leading reason for liver ... Being infected with hepatitis B in addition to hepatitis C increases this risk further. Liver cirrhosis may lead to portal ...
... to cirrhosis to liver cancer, similar to the spectrum of alcoholic liver disease. Non-alcoholic liver disease occurs in people ... There is some evidence of hepatitis E infection of animals, serving as a reservoir for human infection. Alcoholic hepatitis (AH ... alcoholic hepatitis, cirrhosis, and liver cancer (most severe, least reversible). Hepatitis usually develops over years-long ... Alcoholic hepatitis can vary from asymptomatic hepatomegaly (enlarged liver) to symptoms of acute or chronic hepatitis to liver ...
Hepatitis (A, B or C) Liver abscess (pyogenic abscess) Malaria Amoeba infections Hydatid cyst Leptospirosis Actinomycosis ... Haemochromatosis Cholesteryl ester storage disease Porphyria Wilson's disease Niemann Pick disease Non-alcoholic fatty liver ... In primary biliary cirrhosis ursodeoxycholic acid helps the bloodstream remove bile which may increase survival in some ... Glycogen Storage Disease Alcohol abuse Drug-induced hepatitis Hemolytic anemia Polycystic Liver Disease Sickle cell disease ...
For example, elevated IgA indicates alcoholic cirrhosis, elevated IgM indicates viral hepatitis and primary biliary cirrhosis, ... If those antibodies are not present, either the person is not infected or the infection occurred a very long time ago, and the ... Elevations in different classes of immunoglobulins are sometimes useful in determining the cause of liver damage in patients ... while IgG is elevated in viral hepatitis, autoimmune hepatitis and cirrhosis. Autoimmune disorders can often be traced to ...
... cirrhosis, drug-induced hepatitis and alcoholic liver disease. Cell necrosis reduces the liver's ability to metabolize and ... High conjugated bilirubin may be due to liver diseases such as cirrhosis or hepatitis, infections, medications, or blockage of ... This remains the case in most hepatic disorders except for hepatitis (viral or hepatotoxic). Alcoholic liver damage may see ... ALT ratio can be a good indicator of whether the disorder is alcoholic liver damage (above 10), some other form of liver damage ...
... haemochromatosis patients affected with other liver ailments such as hepatitis or alcoholic liver disease suffer worse liver ... For example, similar to alcoholism, haemochromatosis can cause cirrhosis of the liver. The liver is a primary storage area for ... Vibrio vulnificus infections from eating seafood or wound infection Listeria monocytogenes Yersinia enterocolica Salmonella ... This is mainly due to excess mortality from cirrhosis and liver cancer. Patients who were treated with phlebotomy lived longer ...
... hepatitis (including toxic hepatitis, liver damage caused by medicines or alcohol abuse), cirrhosis of the liver, and ... that Essentiale protects and improves liver function in diabetic subjects with non alcoholic fatty liver and chronic infections ... Disturbance in liver function in somatic diseases; Hepatic cirrhosis; Necrosis of the liver cells, liver failure, liver coma; ... Essentiale is used to treat the following diseases: Hepatitis (acute and chronic), toxic hepatitis, medicinal and alcoholic ...
There is dispute about the cause of Beethoven's death; alcoholic cirrhosis, syphilis, infectious hepatitis, lead poisoning, ... Scholars disagree over whether Beethoven's liver damage was the result of heavy alcohol consumption, hepatic infection, or both ... Hepatitis B and C are causes of cirrhosis, but they spread from contact with contaminated body fluids and were extremely rare ... although it does not cause liver cirrhosis or permanent organ damage. Heavy metal contamination is thought to be a contributing ...
... caused by hepatitis C and alcoholic liver disease are the most common reasons for liver transplant. Chronic hepatitis ... "The contributions of hepatitis B virus and hepatitis C virus infections to cirrhosis and primary liver cancer worldwide". J. ... Cirrhosis is most commonly caused by alcohol, hepatitis B, hepatitis C, and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. Typically, more ... Chronic hepatitis C. Infection with the hepatitis C virus causes inflammation of the liver and a variable grade of damage to ...
... and it is frequently elevated in an alcoholic liver disease pattern in patients with hepatitis C who have developed cirrhosis. ... Chronic hepatitis C virus infection: Wide variability, typically normal to less than twice the ULN, rarely more than 10 times ... Alcoholic fatty liver disease: AST > 8 times the ULN; ALT > 5 times the ULN Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease: AST and ALT > 4 ... In addition, patients with Wilson's disease or cirrhosis due to viral hepatitis may have an AST that is greater than the ALT, ...
... hepatitis B, and alcoholic liver disease. non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. They are most useful for cirrhosis and less useful ... chronic hepatitis B, chronic hepatitis C or B with HIV co-infection, alcoholic liver diseases (steatosis and steatohepatitis), ... for the prediction of liver fibrosis in patients with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease". BMC Gastroenterology. 6: 6. doi: ... Naveau S (2009). "Diagnostic and prognostic values of non-invasive biomarkers of fibrosis in patients with alcoholic liver ...
The test has been validated for patients with hepatitis B, hepatitis C and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. APRI is a quick ... An Accurate Validated Predictor of Liver Fibrosis in Chronic Hepatitis C Infection". Clinical Chemistry. 51 (10): 1867-73. doi: ... Primary biliary cirrhosis and primary sclerosing cholangitis may require biopsy, although other diagnostic modalities have made ... Alcoholic liver disease and tuberculosis of the liver may be diagnosed through biopsy. Direct biopsy of tumors of the liver may ...
Alcoholic liver disease may also develop as a result of chronic alcohol use, which may also cause alcoholic hepatitis. ... Chronic liver disease, such as cirrhosis, may be a cause of liver failure, a state where the liver is unable to compensate for ... Inflammation of the stomach by infection from any cause is called gastritis, and when including other parts of the ... Hepatitis refers to inflammation of liver tissue, and may be acute or chronic. Infectious viral hepatitis, such as hepatitis A ...
It occurs in the setting of chronic liver inflammation, and is most closely linked to chronic viral hepatitis infection ( ... alcoholic liver cirrhosis or hemochromatosis. Both active and latent genetic carriers of acute hepatic porphyrias are at risk ... Liver transplantation, replacing the diseased liver with a cadaveric or a living donor liver, plays an increasing role in ... In order to maintain liver function, residual liver volume should exceed 25% of total liver volume in a non-cirrhotic liver, ...
"Approximately 5 percent of people with cirrhosis develop liver cancer. Cirrhosis is a disease that develops when liver cells ... September 1997). "Hepatitis B and C virus infection, alcohol drinking, and hepatocellular carcinoma: a case-control study in ... "Alcoholics had only a modest 40% excess risk of pancreatic cancer … The excess risk for pancreatic cancer among alcoholics is ... Alcohol is a risk factor for liver cancer, through cirrhosis.[60][61][62] "Cirrhosis results from scar formation within the ...
Liver. *Hepatitis *Viral hepatitis. *Autoimmune hepatitis. *Alcoholic hepatitis. *Cirrhosis *PBC. *Fatty liver *NASH ... The underlying mechanism is believed to involve a combination of poor blood flow and infection of the intestines.[2] Diagnosis ... In the United States of America it caused 355 deaths per 100,000 live births in 2013, down from 484 per 100,000 live births in ...
IgA class autoantibodies in alcoholic liver cirrhosis: a hint toward bacterial translocation and their pathogenetic role in ... soluble CD163 is an independent predictor of short-term mortality in patients with cirrhosis and bacterial infection., LIVER ... ne Dosage and Chance of Remission in Patients With Autoimmune Hepatitis., Clin. Gastroenterol. Hepatol. "Accepted by Publisher ... soluble CD163 is an independent predictor of short-term mortality in patients with cirrhosis and bacterial infection., LIVER ...
For that an Alcoholic Liver Cirrhosis Homework & Assignment Help Los Angeles solution is mosting likely to give you with the ... Adenoiditis: An Infection Of Your Infection-Fighting Tissue. Alibre Design. Acute Stress Disorder. 2d Vectors In Engineering. ... Autoimmune Hepatitis. Behavioral Finance. Bending. Barriers To Entry. Aseptic Technique. Anterior Vaginal Wall Repair. ... Alcoholic Liver Cirrhosis Homework & Assignment Help Los Angeles. Alcoholic Liver Cirrhosis Homework & Assignment Help Los ...
The list of hepatitis virus is becoming longer, hepa D, E, G and TTV are added. Fortunately, a treatment for hepa B prevents ... "If you have chronic viral infection, then you are at risk for developing cirrhosis and/or liver cancer.... ... The Symptoms of Alcoholic Hepatitis, Nausea, Fatigue, Abdominal Pain, Weight Loss, Loss of Appetite.... by recovering addict. ... Hepatitis virus D cannot live without hepatitis B virus. Hepatitis is simply inflammation of the liver. This inflammation is ...
Liver disease. Tesamorelin reduces liver fat and fibrosis progression in people with HIV and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease ... Hepatitis & HIV. Just 18% of people with hepatitis/HIV co-infection and cirrhosis are screened for liver cancer as often as ... Participants had co-infection with hepatitis B (13%), hepatitis C (80%) or both (7%). They had been diagnosed with cirrhosis ... Over years or decades, chronic hepatitis B or C can cause serious liver disease including both cirrhosis and liver cancer ( ...
Alcoholic cirrhosis). *Primary biliary cirrhosis. *Long-term (chronic) active infection (hepatitis). *Liver (hepatic) vein clot ... Birth defects of the liver or bile ducts (biliary atresia). *Metabolic disorders associated with liver failure (for example, ... A liver transplant may be recommended for:. *Liver damage due to alcoholism ( ... A liver transplant may be recommended for: ...
Liver cancer is the fastest-growing cause of cancer deaths in the United States, according to new data from the American Cancer ... have chronic hepatitis B or C infection. *have diabetes. *have alcoholic liver disease or cirrhosis ... A key reason for the liver cancer surge is a higher rate of hepatitis C virus infection among baby boomers. Among people born ... Alcoholic fatty liver disease also raises the risk of cancer, which seems to kick in largely among heavy drinkers. "Most of the ...
Liver Cirrhosis - Free download as Powerpoint Presentation (.ppt), PDF File (.pdf), Text File (.txt) or view presentation ... Viral infection are suscepted in some cases. Pathophysiology. Alcoholic cirrhosis accumulation of fat and scar formation in ... fatty liver, alcoholic hepatitis, cirrhosis. Biliary cirrhosis. Primary Biliary Cirrhosis: Progressive destruction of small ... Cirrhosis of the liver. Definition. Cirrhosis is a common chronic, progressive and diffusive liver disease, caused by one or ...
Liver damage due to alcoholism (alcoholic cirrhosis ). *Other forms of end-stage liver disease (such as primary biliary ... Long-term (chronic) active inflammation or infection (hepatitis). *Hepatic (liver) vein clot (thrombosis) ... The healthy liver is obtained from a donor who has not suffered liver injury. The healthy liver is transported in a cooled ... Liver transplant - series. Normal anatomy. The liver is in the right upper abdomen. The liver serves many functions, including ...
Liver failure occurs when the liver loses its ability to perform its normal functions of regeneration or repair. It can be a ... Chronic hepatitis C and B infections that cause inflammation and injury. *Primary biliary cirrhosis where the bile dusts get ... Alcoholic Liver Disease. Encyclopedia section of medindia gives general information about Alcoholic Liver Disease. ... What are the Causes of Liver Failure?. 1. Acute Liver Failure. *Chronic infections by viruses such as Hepatitis viruses (A, B ...
... or other hepatitis; cirrhosis; fatty liver; and inherited liver disease. *Current or chronic hepatitis B or C infection, or ... Known clinically significant liver disease, including active viral, alcoholic, ... Treatment with a live, attenuated vaccine within 4 weeks prior to initiation of study treatment, or anticipation of need for ... Patients with uncontrolled active infection (viral, bacterial, and fungal) are not eligible ...
It is found that blood cytochrome c levels quantified for non-alcoholic steatohepatitis patients are higher than those for ... liver cirrhosis, and finally hepatoma. The major cause thereof is hepatitis C virus or hepatitis B virus infection. In addition ... hepatitis C virus infection accounts for a little less than about 80% of the causes of onset of hepatoma, and non-alcoholic ... and it has also been elucidated that non-alcoholic steatohepatitis progresses to liver cirrhosis and hepatoma. ...
Chronic liver disease due to cirrhosis of liver, hepatitis B & C virus infection. ... Chronic alcoholic.. *Non-complaint patients.. *Migrant patients.. *Serious form of pulmonary or extrapulmonary tuberculosis e.g ... Drug associated toxicities specially hepatitis were assessed in the subjects by performing liver function tests every 4 weeks ... A complete haemogram, liver and kidney function tests will be obtained at all these visits. CD4 counts will be measured at 8 ...
The Roberts Hepatobiliary Cancer Lab at Mayo Clinic targets liver cancer genes and works to prevent hepatitis B and C ... The major causes of hepatocellular carcinoma include chronic infection with hepatitis B or hepatitis C; alcoholic cirrhosis; ... Contact us about our research on targeting liver cancer genes and preventing hepatitis B and hepatitis C infections, and about ... such as cirrhosis, chronic viral hepatitis B and hepatitis C infection, alcohol use, and the metabolic syndrome spectrum, ...
Liver disease, particularly alcoholic hepatitis and cirrhosis, is commonly associated with tuberculosis. In one study, the ... However, progressive liver damage and clinical hepatitis may occur. The frequency of progressive liver damage generally ... Persons with HIV infection and persons with risk factors for HIV infection whose HIV infection status is unknown but who are ... 3) Acute or unstable liver disease of any etiology. Hepatitis B surface antigen positivity per se is not a contraindication. * ...
... and clinical studies related to all aspects of hepatitis. ... Hepatitis Research and Treatment is a peer-reviewed, Open ... Most patients had cirrhosis due to alcoholic liver disease (Table 1). The remaining patients had autoimmune liver diseases (4 ... chronic hepatitis C infection (3), hemochromatosis (1), or cryptogenic cirrhosis (3). ... other causes of cirrhosis than alcohol (. ; ), and a low BMI (. ; ). The association with BMI was independent of the presence ...
Liver problems, such as hepatitis B or hepatitis C, cirrhosis, liver failure, and autoimmune and alcoholic hepatitis ... Intestinal problems, such as polyps and cancer, infections, celiac disease, Crohn disease, ulcerative colitis, diverticulitis, ... The digestive tract is made up of the esophagus (food tube), stomach, large and small intestines, liver, pancreas, and the ... Organ transplants can be performed on the liver, pancreas, and small intestine. ...
persons with a history of liver disease (e.g., hepatitis B or C, alcoholic hepatitis or cirrhosis) ... Current: Tuberculin Skin Test Screening and Treatment of Latent TB Infection. Guidelines for Tuberculin Skin Test Screening and ... GUIDELINES FOR TUBERCULIN SKIN TEST SCREENING AND TREATMENT OF LATENT TB INFECTION. Why screen for tuberculosis? ... The goal of screening programs is to identify persons with latent TB infection (LTBI) who are at high risk for progressing to ...
Let netfit exaplain about Cirrhosis of the liver, its causes and treatment. Netfit.co.uk your online guide to health and ... Cirrhosis of the liver is a serious condition, with several causes including alcohol and hepatitis infection. Alcoholic ... in the case of alcoholic cirrhosis or treating hepatitis with antiviral drugs. There is a point however, where the liver can ... cirrhosis is the most common and well known cause of liver cirrhosis. However, it is a misconception that only alcoholics ...
3p were significantly higher in extracellular vesicles and liver cancer tissues compared with serum and the distal liver ... 3p were significantly higher in extracellular vesicles and liver cancer tissues compared with serum and the distal liver ... METHODS: The serum extracellular vesicles were purified from seventeen healthy donors, sixteen chronic hepatitis B (CHB) ... sixteen chronic hepatitis B (CHB) patients and twenty-four HCC patients. The sequenced microRNAs in the purified extracellular ...
This condition involves fatty infiltration of the liver and may lead to the development of liver fibrosis and cirrhosis. Weight ... In some cases NASH is linked to hepatitis C infection, especially genotype 3. So probably the first order of business is clear ... NASH stands for non-alcoholic steatohepatitis. ... Hep C & NASH. Jul 15, 2007. I have Hep C & NASH and just ... Can I take SAM-e with this? My liver biopsy said I was stage 3 teetering towards stage 4, I know I have to get rid of the Hep, ...
Liver diseases are of different types such as hepatitis, liver cancer, non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, and liver cirrhosis. ... of which hepatitis C is the biggest and fastest growing segment. The liver diseases caused by viral infections, alcoholism, ... Some of the diseases are not curable such as liver cirrhosis or non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, and are usually not ... This leads to the substantial damage of the liver, which proves to be life-threatening. Some types of hepatitis are preventable ...
... chronic liver disease (cirrhosis, alcoholic hepatitis, chronic liver disease, end-stage liver disease, hepatitis B, hepatitis C ... This report describes decedents with laboratory-confirmed infection with SARS-CoV-2, the virus that causes COVID-19, using data ... Includes decedents with cirrhosis, alcoholic hepatitis, chronic liver disease, end-stage liver disease, hepatitis B, hepatitis ... Includes decedents who died in a long-term care facility, skilled nursing facility, assisted living facility, or nursing home. ...
... infection and around the central vein in alcoholic liver disease. In chronic HCV infection, fibrosis progression manifests as ... Disease reversibility in patients with post-Hepatitis C cirrhosis: is the point of no return the same before and after liver ... A possible fibrogenic niche in cirrhosis. The pattern of cirrhosis following liver injury depends on the causative agent. ... Mechanical stiffness of liver tissues in relation to integrin β1 expression may influence the development of hepatic cirrhosis ...
Fatty liver, alcoholic hepatitis, cirrhosis, acute-on-chronic liver failure, and hepatocellular carcinoma are all risks of ... patients suspected of having alcoholic liver disease should also be tested for hepatitis C and hepatitis B virus infection.[5,6 ... Alcoholic Hepatitis. The mechanism that results in the progression of alcoholic liver injury to alcoholic hepatitis remains ... When alcoholic hepatitis develops on a background of alcoholic cirrhosis, acute-on-chronic liver failure may also result in ...
... liver, pancreas and stem cell transplantation. The journal welcomes submissions focusing on the histocompatibility as well as ... Autoimmune liver diseases including primary sclerosing cholangitis, primary biliary cirrhosis, and autoimmune hepatitis were ... Prevalence of alcoholic liver disease was comparable in the 3 groups (. ). Patients who had pdHCC had significantly better ... Patients with iHCC and pdHCC had significantly higher HCV infection (,0.001). HBV infection was significantly more prevalent ...
  • Certain metabolic ailments can contribute to the development of liver failure. (medindia.net)
  • Galactosemia - an uncommon hereditary condition which usually causes liver cirrhosis in infants is caused by increased levels of galactose, (which is a kind of sugar found in milk) in the blood because of deficiency of the liver enzyme required for its metabolic breakdown. (medindia.net)
  • Research presented earlier this year at The International Liver Congress showed that the prevalence of NAFLD more than doubled among people with HIV between 2006 and 2016 and accounted for 25% of cases of liver disease diagnosed in people living with HIV in the United States receiving Medicare insurance. (aidsmap.com)
  • A study presented at the same conference showed that almost a third of people living with HIV in cohorts in Italy and Canada had NAFLD, and a quarter of these were at risk of progressing to advanced liver disease. (aidsmap.com)
  • The authors of the study published this week say that NAFLD will soon become the greatest cause of liver-related ill health and deaths in people living with HIV, as more people are cured of hepatitis C. (aidsmap.com)
  • NAFLD may lead to liver inflammation (NASH), scarring and hardening of the liver (fibrosis) and to liver cancer. (aidsmap.com)
  • As people with HIV live longer, conditions such as NAFLD are emerging as new health problems which require monitoring and management. (aidsmap.com)
  • To investigate the potential of tesamorelin as a treatment for NAFLD in people living with HIV, investigators at Massachusetts General Hospital and the US National Institutes of Health randomised 61 people living with HIV who had hepatic steatosis (liver fat content of 5% or greater) to receive either tesamorelin 2mg once daily or a placebo for 12 months, followed by open-label tesamorelin treatment for all participants for six months. (aidsmap.com)
  • In fact, next to hepatitis C and alcoholic liver disease, NAFLD is one of the most common reasons this procedure is being done in the US. (brightkite.com)
  • If liver function is impaired, the blood levels of bilirubin rise and the pigment is then deposited into the skin tissues, giving the skin the yellow tinge associated with jaundice. (netfit.co.uk)
  • Approach to the patient with jaundice or abnormal liver tests. (ucsfhealth.org)
  • A cirrhotic liver cannot perform its chemical tasks, leading to wide-ranging impairment of bodily functions, such as the development of jaundice (yellowing of the skin due to unprocessed toxins), mental confusion, emaciation, and skin changes. (epnet.com)
  • Jaundice can be an early warning sign of liver disease. (liver.ca)
  • Many babies have "newborn jaundice" lasting three to five days after birth because their liver is not yet fully developed, however, jaundice that does not clear up after 14 days of life, dark urine and/or pale stools, an enlarged abdomen and vomiting are signs that your baby should be seen by his or her doctor. (liver.ca)
  • Signs of liver cancer include abdominal swelling and yellowing of the eyes and skin (jaundice). (uillinois.edu)
  • The earliest sign of liver disease is jaundice (Lieber). (brightkite.com)
  • Jaundice or yellowing of the skin because a diseased liver does not remove enough bilirubin, a blood waste product from your blood. (thefilipinodoctor.com)
  • Twenty percent had a poor HRQOL judged by the Chronic Liver Disease Questionnaire score and 45% had covert hepatic encephalopathy. (hindawi.com)
  • Because the damaged liver is unable to neutralize toxic substances, particularly ammonia, a build-up of toxins in the bloodstream can cause a condition called hepatic encephalopathy , resulting in delirium, lethargy, confusion, slurred speech, hallucinations, and coma. (nutritionmd.org)
  • cirrhosis is often complicated by hepatic encephalopathy (HE), a condition characterized by cognitive impairment and poor survival ( 2 , 8 ). (physiology.org)
  • Individuals with cirrhosis of the liver should not take any medications, herbs or dietary supplements without first consulting a physician. (epnet.com)
  • A double-blind, placebo controlled trial that enrolled 172 individuals with cirrhosis for 4 years also found reductions in mortality, but they just missed the conventional cutoff for statistical significance. (epnet.com)
  • Hepatorenal syndrome (often abbreviated HRS) is a life-threatening medical condition that consists of rapid deterioration in kidney function in individuals with cirrhosis or fulminant liver failure. (wikipedia.org)
  • Development of liver damage and cirrhosis (ALD) related to alcohol consumption is complex. (springer.com)
  • Careful studies of the patterns and levels of consumption of alcoholic beverages in genetically well-characterized populations are needed to understand the complex interaction between genes and the environment in the development of liver injury due to alcohol. (springer.com)