Hepatitis B virus: The type species of the genus ORTHOHEPADNAVIRUS which causes human HEPATITIS B and is also apparently a causal agent in human HEPATOCELLULAR CARCINOMA. The Dane particle is an intact hepatitis virion, named after its discoverer. Non-infectious spherical and tubular particles are also seen in the serum.Hepatitis B: INFLAMMATION of the LIVER in humans caused by a member of the ORTHOHEPADNAVIRUS genus, HEPATITIS B VIRUS. It is primarily transmitted by parenteral exposure, such as transfusion of contaminated blood or blood products, but can also be transmitted via sexual or intimate personal contact.Hepatitis B Surface Antigens: Those hepatitis B antigens found on the surface of the Dane particle and on the 20 nm spherical and tubular particles. Several subspecificities of the surface antigen are known. These were formerly called the Australia antigen.Hepatitis C: INFLAMMATION of the LIVER in humans caused by HEPATITIS C VIRUS, a single-stranded RNA virus. Its incubation period is 30-90 days. Hepatitis C is transmitted primarily by contaminated blood parenterally, and is often associated with transfusion and intravenous drug abuse. However, in a significant number of cases, the source of hepatitis C infection is unknown.Hepatitis B, Chronic: INFLAMMATION of the LIVER in humans caused by HEPATITIS B VIRUS lasting six months or more. It is primarily transmitted by parenteral exposure, such as transfusion of contaminated blood or blood products, but can also be transmitted via sexual or intimate personal contact.Hepatitis, Viral, Human: INFLAMMATION of the LIVER in humans due to infection by VIRUSES. There are several significant types of human viral hepatitis with infection caused by enteric-transmission (HEPATITIS A; HEPATITIS E) or blood transfusion (HEPATITIS B; HEPATITIS C; and HEPATITIS D).Hepatitis B Antibodies: Antibodies to the HEPATITIS B ANTIGENS, including antibodies to the surface (Australia) and core of the Dane particle and those to the "e" antigens.Hepatitis B Vaccines: Vaccines or candidate vaccines containing inactivated hepatitis B or some of its component antigens and designed to prevent hepatitis B. Some vaccines may be recombinantly produced.Hepatitis B Core Antigens: The hepatitis B antigen within the core of the Dane particle, the infectious hepatitis virion.Hepatitis B e Antigens: A closely related group of antigens found in the plasma only during the infective phase of hepatitis B or in virulent chronic hepatitis B, probably indicating active virus replication; there are three subtypes which may exist in a complex with immunoglobulins G.Hepatitis A: INFLAMMATION of the LIVER in humans caused by a member of the HEPATOVIRUS genus, HUMAN HEPATITIS A VIRUS. It can be transmitted through fecal contamination of food or water.Coinfection: Simultaneous infection of a host organism by two or more pathogens. In virology, coinfection commonly refers to simultaneous infection of a single cell by two or more different viruses.Hepatitis B Virus, Duck: A DNA virus that closely resembles human hepatitis B virus. It has been recovered from naturally infected ducks.Hepatitis B Antigens: Antigens of the virion of the HEPATITIS B VIRUS or the Dane particle, its surface (HEPATITIS B SURFACE ANTIGENS), core (HEPATITIS B CORE ANTIGENS), and other associated antigens, including the HEPATITIS B E ANTIGENS.Liver Cirrhosis: Liver disease in which the normal microcirculation, the gross vascular anatomy, and the hepatic architecture have been variably destroyed and altered with fibrous septa surrounding regenerated or regenerating parenchymal nodules.Hepatitis: INFLAMMATION of the LIVER.DNA, Viral: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.Hepatitis C, Chronic: INFLAMMATION of the LIVER in humans that is caused by HEPATITIS C VIRUS lasting six months or more. Chronic hepatitis C can lead to LIVER CIRRHOSIS.Hepatitis A virus: A species in the genus HEPATOVIRUS containing one serotype and two strains: HUMAN HEPATITIS A VIRUS and Simian hepatitis A virus causing hepatitis in humans (HEPATITIS A) and primates, respectively.Antiviral Agents: Agents used in the prophylaxis or therapy of VIRUS DISEASES. Some of the ways they may act include preventing viral replication by inhibiting viral DNA polymerase; binding to specific cell-surface receptors and inhibiting viral penetration or uncoating; inhibiting viral protein synthesis; or blocking late stages of virus assembly.Vaccines: Suspensions of killed or attenuated microorganisms (bacteria, viruses, fungi, protozoa), antigenic proteins, synthetic constructs, or other bio-molecular derivatives, administered for the prevention, amelioration, or treatment of infectious and other diseases.Liver: A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.Hepatitis, Chronic: INFLAMMATION of the LIVER with ongoing hepatocellular injury for 6 months or more, characterized by NECROSIS of HEPATOCYTES and inflammatory cell (LEUKOCYTES) infiltration. Chronic hepatitis can be caused by viruses, medications, autoimmune diseases, and other unknown factors.Hepatitis A Vaccines: Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent infection with hepatitis A virus (HEPATOVIRUS).Hepatitis Antibodies: Immunoglobulins raised by any form of viral hepatitis; some of these antibodies are used to diagnose the specific kind of hepatitis.Hepatitis Viruses: Any of the viruses that cause inflammation of the liver. They include both DNA and RNA viruses as well viruses from humans and animals.Hepacivirus: A genus of FLAVIVIRIDAE causing parenterally-transmitted HEPATITIS C which is associated with transfusions and drug abuse. Hepatitis C virus is the type species.Hepatitis, Viral, Animal: INFLAMMATION of the LIVER in animals due to viral infection.HIV Infections: Includes the spectrum of human immunodeficiency virus infections that range from asymptomatic seropositivity, thru AIDS-related complex (ARC), to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS).Virus Replication: The process of intracellular viral multiplication, consisting of the synthesis of PROTEINS; NUCLEIC ACIDS; and sometimes LIPIDS, and their assembly into a new infectious particle.Lamivudine: A reverse transcriptase inhibitor and ZALCITABINE analog in which a sulfur atom replaces the 3' carbon of the pentose ring. It is used to treat HIV disease.Hepatitis C Antibodies: Antibodies to the HEPATITIS C ANTIGENS including antibodies to envelope, core, and non-structural proteins.Viral Hepatitis Vaccines: Any vaccine raised against any virus or viral derivative that causes hepatitis.Carcinoma, Hepatocellular: A primary malignant neoplasm of epithelial liver cells. It ranges from a well-differentiated tumor with EPITHELIAL CELLS indistinguishable from normal HEPATOCYTES to a poorly differentiated neoplasm. The cells may be uniform or markedly pleomorphic, or form GIANT CELLS. Several classification schemes have been suggested.Hepatitis Delta Virus: A defective virus, containing particles of RNA nucleoprotein in virion-like form, present in patients with acute hepatitis B and chronic hepatitis. It requires the presence of a hepadnavirus for full replication. This is the lone species in the genus Deltavirus.Hepatitis D: INFLAMMATION of the LIVER in humans caused by HEPATITIS DELTA VIRUS, a defective RNA virus that can only infect HEPATITIS B patients. For its viral coating, hepatitis delta virus requires the HEPATITIS B SURFACE ANTIGENS produced by these patients. Hepatitis D can occur either concomitantly with (coinfection) or subsequent to (superinfection) hepatitis B infection. Similar to hepatitis B, it is primarily transmitted by parenteral exposure, such as transfusion of contaminated blood or blood products, but can also be transmitted via sexual or intimate personal contact.Vaccines, Inactivated: Vaccines in which the infectious microbial nucleic acid components have been destroyed by chemical or physical treatment (e.g., formalin, beta-propiolactone, gamma radiation) without affecting the antigenicity or immunogenicity of the viral coat or bacterial outer membrane proteins.Liver Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the LIVER.Vaccines, Synthetic: Small synthetic peptides that mimic surface antigens of pathogens and are immunogenic, or vaccines manufactured with the aid of recombinant DNA techniques. The latter vaccines may also be whole viruses whose nucleic acids have been modified.RNA, Viral: Ribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.Hepatitis E virus: A positive-stranded RNA virus species in the genus HEPEVIRUS, causing enterically-transmitted non-A, non-B hepatitis (HEPATITIS E).Hepatitis E: Acute INFLAMMATION of the LIVER in humans; caused by HEPATITIS E VIRUS, a non-enveloped single-stranded RNA virus. Similar to HEPATITIS A, its incubation period is 15-60 days and is enterically transmitted, usually by fecal-oral transmission.Hepatitis B Virus, Woodchuck: An ORTHOHEPADNAVIRUS causing chronic liver disease and hepatocellular carcinoma in woodchucks. It closely resembles the human hepatitis B virus.Viral Vaccines: Suspensions of attenuated or killed viruses administered for the prevention or treatment of infectious viral disease.Hepatitis A Antibodies: Antibodies to the HEPATITIS A ANTIGENS including antibodies to envelope, core, and non-structural proteins.Vaccines, DNA: Recombinant DNA vectors encoding antigens administered for the prevention or treatment of disease. The host cells take up the DNA, express the antigen, and present it to the immune system in a manner similar to that which would occur during natural infection. This induces humoral and cellular immune responses against the encoded antigens. The vector is called naked DNA because there is no need for complex formulations or delivery agents; the plasmid is injected in saline or other buffers.DucksMolecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Hepatitis A Virus, Human: A strain of HEPATITIS A VIRUS which causes hepatitis in humans. The virus replicates in hepatocytes and is presumed to reach the intestine via the bile duct. Transmission occurs by the fecal-oral route.Vaccination: Administration of vaccines to stimulate the host's immune response. This includes any preparation intended for active immunological prophylaxis.Hepatitis, Autoimmune: A chronic self-perpetuating hepatocellular INFLAMMATION of unknown cause, usually with HYPERGAMMAGLOBULINEMIA and serum AUTOANTIBODIES.Hepadnaviridae Infections: Virus diseases caused by the HEPADNAVIRIDAE.Vaccines, Combined: Two or more vaccines in a single dosage form.Carrier State: The condition of harboring an infective organism without manifesting symptoms of infection. The organism must be readily transmissible to another susceptible host.Alanine Transaminase: An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of L-alanine and 2-oxoglutarate to pyruvate and L-glutamate. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 2.6.1.2.Hepatitis, Animal: INFLAMMATION of the LIVER in non-human animals.Viral Core Proteins: Proteins found mainly in icosahedral DNA and RNA viruses. They consist of proteins directly associated with the nucleic acid inside the NUCLEOCAPSID.Bacterial Vaccines: Suspensions of attenuated or killed bacteria administered for the prevention or treatment of infectious bacterial disease.Influenza B virus: Species of the genus INFLUENZAVIRUS B that cause HUMAN INFLUENZA and other diseases primarily in humans. Antigenic variation is less extensive than in type A viruses (INFLUENZA A VIRUS) and consequently there is no basis for distinct subtypes or variants. Epidemics are less likely than with INFLUENZA A VIRUS and there have been no pandemics. Previously only found in humans, Influenza B virus has been isolated from seals which may constitute the animal reservoir from which humans are exposed.Marmota: A genus of Sciuridae consisting of 14 species. They are shortlegged, burrowing rodents which hibernate in winter.Genotype: The genetic constitution of the individual, comprising the ALLELES present at each GENETIC LOCUS.Organophosphonates: Carbon-containing phosphonic acid compounds. Included under this heading are compounds that have carbon bound to either OXYGEN atom or the PHOSPHOROUS atom of the (P=O)O2 structure.AIDS Vaccines: Vaccines or candidate vaccines containing inactivated HIV or some of its component antigens and designed to prevent or treat AIDS. Some vaccines containing antigens are recombinantly produced.Antibodies, Viral: Immunoglobulins produced in response to VIRAL ANTIGENS.Interferon-alpha: One of the type I interferons produced by peripheral blood leukocytes or lymphoblastoid cells. In addition to antiviral activity, it activates NATURAL KILLER CELLS and B-LYMPHOCYTES, and down-regulates VASCULAR ENDOTHELIAL GROWTH FACTOR expression through PI-3 KINASE and MAPK KINASES signaling pathways.Genome, Viral: The complete genetic complement contained in a DNA or RNA molecule in a virus.Hepadnaviridae: A family of hepatotropic DNA viruses which contains double-stranded DNA genomes and causes hepatitis in humans and animals. There are two genera: AVIHEPADNAVIRUS and ORTHOHEPADNAVIRUS. Hepadnaviruses include HEPATITIS B VIRUS, duck hepatitis B virus (HEPATITIS B VIRUS, DUCK), heron hepatitis B virus, ground squirrel hepatitis virus, and woodchuck hepatitis B virus (HEPATITIS B VIRUS, WOODCHUCK).Seroepidemiologic Studies: EPIDEMIOLOGIC STUDIES based on the detection through serological testing of characteristic change in the serum level of specific ANTIBODIES. Latent subclinical infections and carrier states can thus be detected in addition to clinically overt cases.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Hepatovirus: A genus of PICORNAVIRIDAE causing infectious hepatitis naturally in humans and experimentally in other primates. It is transmitted through fecal contamination of food or water. HEPATITIS A VIRUS is the type species.Hepatitis Antigens: Antigens from any of the hepatitis viruses including surface, core, and other associated antigens.Hepatitis C Antigens: Antigens of the virions of HEPACIVIRUS, their surface, core, or other associated antigens.Hepatitis delta Antigens: Antigens produced by various strains of HEPATITIS D VIRUS.Viral Load: The quantity of measurable virus in a body fluid. Change in viral load, measured in plasma, is sometimes used as a SURROGATE MARKER in disease progression.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Vaccinia virus: The type species of ORTHOPOXVIRUS, related to COWPOX VIRUS, but whose true origin is unknown. It has been used as a live vaccine against SMALLPOX. It is also used as a vector for inserting foreign DNA into animals. Rabbitpox virus is a subspecies of VACCINIA VIRUS.Hepatocytes: The main structural component of the LIVER. They are specialized EPITHELIAL CELLS that are organized into interconnected plates called lobules.Polymerase Chain Reaction: In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Adenine: A purine base and a fundamental unit of ADENINE NUCLEOTIDES.Gene Expression Regulation, Viral: Any of the processes by which cytoplasmic factors influence the differential control of gene action in viruses.Drug Resistance, Viral: The ability of viruses to resist or to become tolerant to chemotherapeutic agents or antiviral agents. This resistance is acquired through gene mutation.Virus Assembly: The assembly of VIRAL STRUCTURAL PROTEINS and nucleic acid (VIRAL DNA or VIRAL RNA) to form a VIRUS PARTICLE.Murine hepatitis virus: A species of the CORONAVIRUS genus causing hepatitis in mice. Four strains have been identified as MHV 1, MHV 2, MHV 3, and MHV 4 (also known as MHV-JHM, which is neurotropic and causes disseminated encephalomyelitis with demyelination as well as focal liver necrosis).RNA Viruses: Viruses whose genetic material is RNA.Vaccines, Subunit: Vaccines consisting of one or more antigens that stimulate a strong immune response. They are purified from microorganisms or produced by recombinant DNA techniques, or they can be chemically synthesized peptides.Blood DonorsGenes, Viral: The functional hereditary units of VIRUSES.Vaccines, Conjugate: Semisynthetic vaccines consisting of polysaccharide antigens from microorganisms attached to protein carrier molecules. The carrier protein is recognized by macrophages and T-cells thus enhancing immunity. Conjugate vaccines induce antibody formation in people not responsive to polysaccharide alone, induce higher levels of antibody, and show a booster response on repeated injection.Viral Proteins: Proteins found in any species of virus.Virion: The infective system of a virus, composed of the viral genome, a protein core, and a protein coat called a capsid, which may be naked or enclosed in a lipoprotein envelope called the peplos.Virus Activation: The mechanism by which latent viruses, such as genetically transmitted tumor viruses (PROVIRUSES) or PROPHAGES of lysogenic bacteria, are induced to replicate and then released as infectious viruses. It may be effected by various endogenous and exogenous stimuli, including B-cell LIPOPOLYSACCHARIDES, glucocorticoid hormones, halogenated pyrimidines, IONIZING RADIATION, ultraviolet light, and superinfecting viruses.Receptors, Virus: Specific molecular components of the cell capable of recognizing and interacting with a virus, and which, after binding it, are capable of generating some signal that initiates the chain of events leading to the biological response.Trans-Activators: Diffusible gene products that act on homologous or heterologous molecules of viral or cellular DNA to regulate the expression of proteins.Antigens, Viral: Substances elaborated by viruses that have antigenic activity.Prevalence: The total number of cases of a given disease in a specified population at a designated time. It is differentiated from INCIDENCE, which refers to the number of new cases in the population at a given time.Hepatitis A Antigens: Antigens produced by various strains of HEPATITIS A VIRUS such as the human hepatitis A virus (HEPATITIS A VIRUS, HUMAN).Ribavirin: A nucleoside antimetabolite antiviral agent that blocks nucleic acid synthesis and is used against both RNA and DNA viruses.Phylogeny: The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.Viral Envelope Proteins: Layers of protein which surround the capsid in animal viruses with tubular nucleocapsids. The envelope consists of an inner layer of lipids and virus specified proteins also called membrane or matrix proteins. The outer layer consists of one or more types of morphological subunits called peplomers which project from the viral envelope; this layer always consists of glycoproteins.Liver Transplantation: The transference of a part of or an entire liver from one human or animal to another.Recombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.Gene Products, pol: Retroviral proteins coded by the pol gene. They are usually synthesized as a protein precursor (POLYPROTEINS) and later cleaved into final products that include reverse transcriptase, endonuclease/integrase, and viral protease. Sometimes they are synthesized as a gag-pol fusion protein (FUSION PROTEINS, GAG-POL). pol is short for polymerase, the enzyme class of reverse transcriptase.Virus Cultivation: Process of growing viruses in live animals, plants, or cultured cells.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Immunization Schedule: Schedule giving optimum times usually for primary and/or secondary immunization.Virus Diseases: A general term for diseases produced by viruses.Protein PrecursorsReverse Transcriptase Inhibitors: Inhibitors of reverse transcriptase (RNA-DIRECTED DNA POLYMERASE), an enzyme that synthesizes DNA on an RNA template.Hepatitis D, Chronic: INFLAMMATION of the LIVER in humans caused by HEPATITIS DELTA VIRUS in conjunction with HEPATITIS B VIRUS and lasting six months or more.Hepatitis, Alcoholic: INFLAMMATION of the LIVER due to ALCOHOL ABUSE. It is characterized by NECROSIS of HEPATOCYTES, infiltration by NEUTROPHILS, and deposit of MALLORY BODIES. Depending on its severity, the inflammatory lesion may be reversible or progress to LIVER CIRRHOSIS.Pan troglodytes: The common chimpanzee, a species of the genus Pan, family HOMINIDAE. It lives in Africa, primarily in the tropical rainforests. There are a number of recognized subspecies.Malaria Vaccines: Vaccines made from antigens arising from any of the four strains of Plasmodium which cause malaria in humans, or from P. berghei which causes malaria in rodents.Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay: An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed.RNA-Directed DNA Polymerase: An enzyme that synthesizes DNA on an RNA template. It is encoded by the pol gene of retroviruses and by certain retrovirus-like elements. EC 2.7.7.49.Virus Shedding: The expelling of virus particles from the body. Important routes include the respiratory tract, genital tract, and intestinal tract. Virus shedding is an important means of vertical transmission (INFECTIOUS DISEASE TRANSMISSION, VERTICAL).Transfection: The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.Viral Nonstructural Proteins: Proteins encoded by a VIRAL GENOME that are produced in the organisms they infect, but not packaged into the VIRUS PARTICLES. Some of these proteins may play roles within the infected cell during VIRUS REPLICATION or act in regulation of virus replication or VIRUS ASSEMBLY.Nucleocapsid: A protein-nucleic acid complex which forms part or all of a virion. It consists of a CAPSID plus enclosed nucleic acid. Depending on the virus, the nucleocapsid may correspond to a naked core or be surrounded by a membranous envelope.Sequence Analysis, DNA: A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.Capsid: The outer protein protective shell of a virus, which protects the viral nucleic acid.China: A country spanning from central Asia to the Pacific Ocean.Papillomavirus Vaccines: Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent PAPILLOMAVIRUS INFECTIONS. Human vaccines are intended to reduce the incidence of UTERINE CERVICAL NEOPLASMS, so they are sometimes considered a type of CANCER VACCINES. They are often composed of CAPSID PROTEINS, especially L1 protein, from various types of ALPHAPAPILLOMAVIRUS.Plasmids: Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.Viremia: The presence of viruses in the blood.Avihepadnavirus: A genus of HEPADNAVIRIDAE infecting birds but rarely causing clinical problems. Transmission is predominantly vertical. HEPATITIS B VIRUS, DUCK is the type species.Acute Disease: Disease having a short and relatively severe course.Immunization: Deliberate stimulation of the host's immune response. ACTIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of ANTIGENS or IMMUNOLOGIC ADJUVANTS. PASSIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of IMMUNE SERA or LYMPHOCYTES or their extracts (e.g., transfer factor, immune RNA) or transplantation of immunocompetent cell producing tissue (thymus or bone marrow).Defective Viruses: Viruses which lack a complete genome so that they cannot completely replicate or cannot form a protein coat. Some are host-dependent defectives, meaning they can replicate only in cell systems which provide the particular genetic function which they lack. Others, called SATELLITE VIRUSES, are able to replicate only when their genetic defect is complemented by a helper virus.Immunization, Secondary: Any immunization following a primary immunization and involving exposure to the same or a closely related antigen.Influenza A Virus, H1N1 Subtype: A subtype of INFLUENZA A VIRUS with the surface proteins hemagglutinin 1 and neuraminidase 1. The H1N1 subtype was responsible for the Spanish flu pandemic of 1918.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Risk Factors: An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.Liver Function Tests: Blood tests that are used to evaluate how well a patient's liver is working and also to help diagnose liver conditions.Polyethylene Glycols: Polymers of ETHYLENE OXIDE and water, and their ethers. They vary in consistency from liquid to solid depending on the molecular weight indicated by a number following the name. They are used as SURFACTANTS, dispersing agents, solvents, ointment and suppository bases, vehicles, and tablet excipients. Some specific groups are NONOXYNOLS, OCTOXYNOLS, and POLOXAMERS.Genetic Vectors: DNA molecules capable of autonomous replication within a host cell and into which other DNA sequences can be inserted and thus amplified. Many are derived from PLASMIDS; BACTERIOPHAGES; or VIRUSES. They are used for transporting foreign genes into recipient cells. Genetic vectors possess a functional replicator site and contain GENETIC MARKERS to facilitate their selective recognition.Infectious Disease Transmission, Vertical: The transmission of infectious disease or pathogens from one generation to another. It includes transmission in utero or intrapartum by exposure to blood and secretions, and postpartum exposure via breastfeeding.Simian virus 40: A species of POLYOMAVIRUS originally isolated from Rhesus monkey kidney tissue. It produces malignancy in human and newborn hamster kidney cell cultures.DNA Viruses: Viruses whose nucleic acid is DNA.Immunization Programs: Organized services to administer immunization procedures in the prevention of various diseases. The programs are made available over a wide range of sites: schools, hospitals, public health agencies, voluntary health agencies, etc. They are administered to an equally wide range of population groups or on various administrative levels: community, municipal, state, national, international.Neutralization Tests: The measurement of infection-blocking titer of ANTISERA by testing a series of dilutions for a given virus-antiserum interaction end-point, which is generally the dilution at which tissue cultures inoculated with the serum-virus mixtures demonstrate cytopathology (CPE) or the dilution at which 50% of test animals injected with serum-virus mixtures show infectivity (ID50) or die (LD50).Meningococcal Vaccines: Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent infection with NEISSERIA MENINGITIDIS.Liver Diseases: Pathological processes of the LIVER.Poliovirus Vaccine, Inactivated: A suspension of formalin-inactivated poliovirus grown in monkey kidney cell tissue culture and used to prevent POLIOMYELITIS.Epitopes: Sites on an antigen that interact with specific antibodies.Hep G2 Cells: A human liver tumor cell line used to study a variety of liver-specific metabolic functions.DNA Primers: Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.Haemophilus Vaccines: Vaccines or candidate vaccines containing antigenic polysaccharides from Haemophilus influenzae and designed to prevent infection. The vaccine can contain the polysaccharides alone or more frequently polysaccharides conjugated to carrier molecules. It is also seen as a combined vaccine with diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis vaccine.Chronic Disease: Diseases which have one or more of the following characteristics: they are permanent, leave residual disability, are caused by nonreversible pathological alteration, require special training of the patient for rehabilitation, or may be expected to require a long period of supervision, observation, or care. (Dictionary of Health Services Management, 2d ed)Immunoglobulin G: The major immunoglobulin isotype class in normal human serum. There are several isotype subclasses of IgG, for example, IgG1, IgG2A, and IgG2B.Influenza A Virus, H5N1 Subtype: A subtype of INFLUENZA A VIRUS comprised of the surface proteins hemagglutinin 5 and neuraminidase 1. The H5N1 subtype, frequently referred to as the bird flu virus, is endemic in wild birds and very contagious among both domestic (POULTRY) and wild birds. It does not usually infect humans, but some cases have been reported.Treatment Outcome: Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.Hepatitis Virus, Duck: Unassigned species, in the family PICORNAVIRIDAE, causing high mortality in ducklings 3 days to 3 weeks old.Influenza A Virus, H3N2 Subtype: A subtype of INFLUENZA A VIRUS comprised of the surface proteins hemagglutinin 3 and neuraminidase 2. The H3N2 subtype was responsible for the Hong Kong flu pandemic of 1968.Measles virus: The type species of MORBILLIVIRUS and the cause of the highly infectious human disease MEASLES, which affects mostly children.Adjuvants, Immunologic: Substances that augment, stimulate, activate, potentiate, or modulate the immune response at either the cellular or humoral level. The classical agents (Freund's adjuvant, BCG, Corynebacterium parvum, et al.) contain bacterial antigens. Some are endogenous (e.g., histamine, interferon, transfer factor, tuftsin, interleukin-1). Their mode of action is either non-specific, resulting in increased immune responsiveness to a wide variety of antigens, or antigen-specific, i.e., affecting a restricted type of immune response to a narrow group of antigens. The therapeutic efficacy of many biological response modifiers is related to their antigen-specific immunoadjuvanticity.GuanineInfluenza, Human: An acute viral infection in humans involving the respiratory tract. It is marked by inflammation of the NASAL MUCOSA; the PHARYNX; and conjunctiva, and by headache and severe, often generalized, myalgia.Measles Vaccine: A live attenuated virus vaccine of chick embryo origin, used for routine immunization of children and for immunization of adolescents and adults who have not had measles or been immunized with live measles vaccine and have no serum antibodies against measles. Children are usually immunized with measles-mumps-rubella combination vaccine. (From Dorland, 28th ed)Pregnancy Complications, Infectious: The co-occurrence of pregnancy and an INFECTION. The infection may precede or follow FERTILIZATION.Substance Abuse, Intravenous: Abuse, overuse, or misuse of a substance by its injection into a vein.Genetic Variation: Genotypic differences observed among individuals in a population.Transcription, Genetic: The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.Rabies virus: The type species of LYSSAVIRUS causing rabies in humans and other animals. Transmission is mostly by animal bites through saliva. The virus is neurotropic multiplying in neurons and myotubes of vertebrates.Mice, Inbred BALB CDiphtheria-Tetanus-Pertussis Vaccine: A vaccine consisting of DIPHTHERIA TOXOID; TETANUS TOXOID; and whole-cell PERTUSSIS VACCINE. The vaccine protects against diphtheria, tetanus, and whooping cough.Blood-Borne Pathogens: Infectious organisms in the BLOOD, of which the predominant medical interest is their contamination of blood-soiled linens, towels, gowns, BANDAGES, other items from individuals in risk categories, NEEDLES and other sharp objects, MEDICAL WASTE and DENTAL WASTE, all of which health workers are exposed to. This concept is differentiated from the clinical conditions of BACTEREMIA; VIREMIA; and FUNGEMIA where the organism is present in the blood of a patient as the result of a natural infectious process.Virology: The study of the structure, growth, function, genetics, and reproduction of viruses, and VIRUS DISEASES.Nucleosides: Purine or pyrimidine bases attached to a ribose or deoxyribose. (From King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Drug Therapy, Combination: Therapy with two or more separate preparations given for a combined effect.Plant Viruses: Viruses parasitic on plants higher than bacteria.Rabies Vaccines: Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent and treat RABIES. The inactivated virus vaccine is used for preexposure immunization to persons at high risk of exposure, and in conjunction with rabies immunoglobulin, for postexposure prophylaxis.Liver Failure: Severe inability of the LIVER to perform its normal metabolic functions, as evidenced by severe JAUNDICE and abnormal serum levels of AMMONIA; BILIRUBIN; ALKALINE PHOSPHATASE; ASPARTATE AMINOTRANSFERASE; LACTATE DEHYDROGENASES; and albumin/globulin ratio. (Blakiston's Gould Medical Dictionary, 4th ed)Promoter Regions, Genetic: DNA sequences which are recognized (directly or indirectly) and bound by a DNA-dependent RNA polymerase during the initiation of transcription. Highly conserved sequences within the promoter include the Pribnow box in bacteria and the TATA BOX in eukaryotes.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Flaviviridae: A family of RNA viruses, many of which cause disease in humans and domestic animals. There are three genera FLAVIVIRUS; PESTIVIRUS; and HEPACIVIRUS, as well as several unassigned species.Tupaia: A genus of tree shrews of the family TUPAIIDAE which consists of about 12 species. One of the most frequently encountered species is T. glis. Members of this genus inhabit rain forests and secondary growth areas in southeast Asia.Sensitivity and Specificity: Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Pertussis Vaccine: A suspension of killed Bordetella pertussis organisms, used for immunization against pertussis (WHOOPING COUGH). It is generally used in a mixture with diphtheria and tetanus toxoids (DTP). There is an acellular pertussis vaccine prepared from the purified antigenic components of Bordetella pertussis, which causes fewer adverse reactions than whole-cell vaccine and, like the whole-cell vaccine, is generally used in a mixture with diphtheria and tetanus toxoids. (From Dorland, 28th ed)Sindbis Virus: The type species of ALPHAVIRUS normally transmitted to birds by CULEX mosquitoes in Egypt, South Africa, India, Malaya, the Philippines, and Australia. It may be associated with fever in humans. Serotypes (differing by less than 17% in nucleotide sequence) include Babanki, Kyzylagach, and Ockelbo viruses.Retrospective Studies: Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.Jaundice: A clinical manifestation of HYPERBILIRUBINEMIA, characterized by the yellowish staining of the SKIN; MUCOUS MEMBRANE; and SCLERA. Clinical jaundice usually is a sign of LIVER dysfunction.Aspartate Aminotransferases: Enzymes of the transferase class that catalyze the conversion of L-aspartate and 2-ketoglutarate to oxaloacetate and L-glutamate. EC 2.6.1.1.BCG Vaccine: An active immunizing agent and a viable avirulent attenuated strain of Mycobacterium tuberculosis, var. bovis, which confers immunity to mycobacterial infections. It is used also in immunotherapy of neoplasms due to its stimulation of antibodies and non-specific immunity.Hemagglutinin Glycoproteins, Influenza Virus: Membrane glycoproteins from influenza viruses which are involved in hemagglutination, virus attachment, and envelope fusion. Fourteen distinct subtypes of HA glycoproteins and nine of NA glycoproteins have been identified from INFLUENZA A VIRUS; no subtypes have been identified for Influenza B or Influenza C viruses.Cercopithecus aethiops: A species of CERCOPITHECUS containing three subspecies: C. tantalus, C. pygerythrus, and C. sabeus. They are found in the forests and savannah of Africa. The African green monkey (C. pygerythrus) is the natural host of SIMIAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS and is used in AIDS research.Viral Structural Proteins: Viral proteins that are components of the mature assembled VIRUS PARTICLES. They may include nucleocapsid core proteins (gag proteins), enzymes packaged within the virus particle (pol proteins), and membrane components (env proteins). These do not include the proteins encoded in the VIRAL GENOME that are produced in infected cells but which are not packaged in the mature virus particle,i.e. the so called non-structural proteins (VIRAL NONSTRUCTURAL PROTEINS).Disease Outbreaks: Sudden increase in the incidence of a disease. The concept includes EPIDEMICS and PANDEMICS.Tumor Cells, Cultured: Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.Serologic Tests: Diagnostic procedures involving immunoglobulin reactions.Orthohepadnavirus: A genus of HEPADNAVIRIDAE causing hepatitis in humans, woodchucks (HEPATITIS B VIRUS, WOODCHUCK) and ground squirrels. hepatitis b virus is the type species.Rotavirus Vaccines: Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent infection with ROTAVIRUS.Injections, Intramuscular: Forceful administration into a muscle of liquid medication, nutrient, or other fluid through a hollow needle piercing the muscle and any tissue covering it.Arabinofuranosyluracil: A pyrimidine nucleoside formed in the body by the deamination of CYTARABINE.DNA, Circular: Any of the covalently closed DNA molecules found in bacteria, many viruses, mitochondria, plastids, and plasmids. Small, polydisperse circular DNA's have also been observed in a number of eukaryotic organisms and are suggested to have homology with chromosomal DNA and the capacity to be inserted into, and excised from, chromosomal DNA. It is a fragment of DNA formed by a process of looping out and deletion, containing a constant region of the mu heavy chain and the 3'-part of the mu switch region. Circular DNA is a normal product of rearrangement among gene segments encoding the variable regions of immunoglobulin light and heavy chains, as well as the T-cell receptor. (Riger et al., Glossary of Genetics, 5th ed & Segen, Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992)Interferons: Proteins secreted by vertebrate cells in response to a wide variety of inducers. They confer resistance against many different viruses, inhibit proliferation of normal and malignant cells, impede multiplication of intracellular parasites, enhance macrophage and granulocyte phagocytosis, augment natural killer cell activity, and show several other immunomodulatory functions.Smallpox Vaccine: A live VACCINIA VIRUS vaccine of calf lymph or chick embryo origin, used for immunization against smallpox. It is now recommended only for laboratory workers exposed to smallpox virus. Certain countries continue to vaccinate those in the military service. Complications that result from smallpox vaccination include vaccinia, secondary bacterial infections, and encephalomyelitis. (Dorland, 28th ed)Cholera Vaccines: Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent infection with VIBRIO CHOLERAE. The original cholera vaccine consisted of killed bacteria, but other kinds of vaccines now exist.Vero Cells: A CELL LINE derived from the kidney of the African green (vervet) monkey, (CERCOPITHECUS AETHIOPS) used primarily in virus replication studies and plaque assays.Antibody Formation: The production of ANTIBODIES by proliferating and differentiated B-LYMPHOCYTES under stimulation by ANTIGENS.Infant, Newborn: An infant during the first month after birth.
Houghton, M; Law, J; Tyrrell, DL (2013). "An inactivated hepatitis C virus vaccine on the horizon?". Gastroenterology. 145: 285 ... "A hepatitis C virus (HCV) vaccine comprising envelope glycoproteins gpE1/gpE2 derived from a single isolate elicits broad cross ... of Alberta showed that a vaccine derived from a single strain of Hepatitis C was effective against all strains of the virus. ... De Bisceglie, AM; Alter, H; Kuo, G; Houghton, M; Hoofnagle, JH (1989). "Detection of antibody to hepatitis C virus in patients ...
Hepatitis Viruses in: Baron's Medical Microbiology (4th ed.). Univ of Texas Medical Branch. (via NCBI Bookshelf) ISBN 0-9631172 ... 1. Wang L, Zhuang H (2004). "Hepatitis E: an overview and recent advances in vaccine research". World J Gastroenterol. 10 (15 ... Vibrio parahaemolyticus Escherichia coli Campylobacter Hepatitis A Hepatitis E Enteroviruses Norovirus acute gastroenteritis ... Diseases caused by fecal-oral transmission include diarrhea, typhoid, cholera, polio and hepatitis. The foundations for the "F- ...
Nonstructural protein 5B (NS5B) is a viral protein found in the hepatitis C virus (HCV). It is an RNA polymerase, having the ... Vaccine Immunol. 16 (2): 163-71. doi:10.1128/CVI.00287-08. PMC 2643538 . PMID 19091993. Jin, Z; Leveque, V; Ma, H; Johnson, K. ... O'Farrell, D; Trowbridge, R; Rowlands, D; Jäger, J (2003). "Substrate complexes of hepatitis C virus RNA polymerase (HC-J4): ... Moradpour, D; Penin, F; Rice, CM (2007). "Replication of hepatitis C virus". Nature Reviews. Microbiology. 5 (6): 453-63. doi: ...
A characteristic example is the subunit vaccine against Hepatitis B virus. Most vaccines are given by hypodermic or ... Examples are vaccines against flu, cholera, plague, and hepatitis A. Most vaccines of this type are likely to require booster ... In 1798, Edward Jenner introduced the far safer method of deliberate infection with cowpox virus, (smallpox vaccine), which ... Artificially acquired active immunity can be induced by a vaccine, a substance that contains antigen. A vaccine stimulates a ...
Baruch S. Blumberg discovered hepatitis B virus in 1966 and developed the first vaccine against it 1969. He was awarded the ... Up to 80% of liver cancers can be attributed to either hepatitis B or hepatitis C virus. In terms of mortality, the former is ... identified the hepatitis C virus, which had previously been known as non-A, non-B hepatitis and could not be detected in the ... More than two billion people have been infected with hepatitis B virus at some point in their life, and approximately 350 ...
E2 is a viral structural protein found in the hepatitis C virus. It is present on the viral membrane and functions as a host ... It is a key target for the design of entry inhibitors and vaccine immunogens. Garcia JE, Puentes A, Súarez J, López R, Vera R, ... Bartosch B, Dubuisson J, Cosset FL (2003). "Infectious hepatitis C virus pseudo-particles containing functional E1-E2 envelope ... "Hepatitis C virus (HCV) E1 and E2 protein regions that specifically bind to HepG2 cells". Journal of Hepatology. 36 (2): 254-62 ...
Hepatitis B and the Prevention of Primary Cancer of the Liver. Retrieved 19 August 2012. "Hepatitis B vaccine production using ... He is also credited with the discovery of the structural units of hepatitis virus. This discovery was crucial for the invention ... of vaccine against Hepatitis. Dr. Bayer has won the Japanese Society for the Promotion in Science award. He was an editorial ... He was the first person to visualize yellow fever virus in cultured cells and to obtain ultra-thin sections of the cell wall of ...
... and their teams were successful in the development of a vaccine for hepatitis C; the vaccine, a mixture of virus-like particles ... 430-. ISBN 978-81-317-3220-5. "A novel vaccine against Hepatitis C Virus customized for the Indian population". Elsevier. 2017 ... He also coordinates the functioning of the Centre of Excellence for Research on Hepatitis C virus, a research arm of the ... The team of scientists led by Das concentrates on the regulation of transcription and translation, especially hepatitis C virus ...
Blumberg identified the hepatitis B virus, and later developed its diagnostic test and vaccine. Blumberg was born in Brooklyn, ... Deployment of the vaccine reduced the infection rate of hepatitis B in children in China from 15% to 1% in 10 years. Blumberg ... Blumberg and his team were able to develop a screening test for the hepatitis B virus, to prevent its spread in blood donations ... "Hepatitis B: The Hunt for a Killer Virus" ''Princeton University Press.''". Press.princeton.edu. 2010-10-28. Retrieved 2011-04- ...
Worldwide experience with the CR326F-derived inactivated hepatitis A virus vaccine in pediatric and adult populations: an ... Nalin's work with Hepatitis A vaccine. Mumps, measles, and rubella vaccination and encephalitis. Nalin DR. BMJ. 1989 Nov 11;299 ... later Director of Vaccine Scientific Affairs at Merck's Vaccine Division. 2002 - Dr. Nalin received the first ever Pollin Prize ...
Every injector they tested had detectable blood in a quantity sufficient to pass on a virus such as hepatitis B.[21] ... or Chronic Hepatitis C "CHC or HCV"". Vaccine. 19 (28-29): 4020-7. doi:10.1016/S0264-410X(01)00106-2. PMID 11427278.. ... Alternative Vaccine Delivery Methods [Chapter 61]. In: Plotkin SA, Orenstein WA, Offit PA, eds. Vaccines, 6th ed. Philadelphia ... After administering injections to hepatitis B patients, researchers found hepatitis B had penetrated the protective cap and ...
... or Medicine is awarded to Baruch Blumberg for his discovery of the Hepatitis B virus and development of the HBV vaccine, the ... 1967 Discovery of the Hepatitis B virus and development of the blood test for Hepatitis B by Baruch Blumberg. 1962 The first ... awarded the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine in 1976 for discovery of Hepatitis B and the Hepatitis B vaccine Wafik El- ... Manfred Bayer, electron microscopist who obtained the earliest images of hepatitis B virus Helen M. Berman, former director of ...
The aim of the HEPACIVAC project is to develop efficacious prophylactic and therapeutic vaccines to Hepatitis C virus (HCV). ... In particular the development of a therapeutic vaccine for the treatment of chronic hepatitis C would be one of the first ... HEPACIVAC stands for "New preventative and therapeutic Hepatitis C vaccines: from pre-clinical to phase 1". HEPACIVAC is a ... The vaccine showed excellent safety and immunogenicity. In the last year of the project the vaccine will be tested in healthy ...
Blumberg identified the Hepatitis B virus, and later developed the diagnostic test and vaccine for it. Maritime historian ...
The hepatitis B vaccine prevents infection with hepatitis B virus and thus decreases the risk of liver cancer. The ... hepatitis B and hepatitis C viruses (hepatocellular carcinoma) and human T-cell leukemia virus-1 (T-cell leukemias). Bacterial ... Vaccines have been developed that prevent infection by some carcinogenic viruses. Human papillomavirus vaccine (Gardasil and ... Oncoviruses (viruses that can cause cancer) include human papillomavirus (cervical cancer), Epstein-Barr virus (B-cell ...
The hepatitis B vaccine prevents infection with hepatitis B virus and thus decreases the risk of liver cancer. The ... hepatitis B virus [HBV] and hepatitis C virus [HCV]), stomach (Helicobacter pylori [H pylori]), lymphoid tissues (Epstein-Barr ... Vaccines have been developed that prevent infection by some carcinogenic viruses. Human papillomavirus vaccine (Gardasil and ... "Cancer Vaccine Fact Sheet". NCI. 8 June 2006. Retrieved 15 November 2008. Lertkhachonsuk AA, Yip CH, Khuhaprema T, Chen DS, ...
... hepatitis B vaccine in the 1980s, was made from HBsAg extracted from the blood plasma of hepatitis patients. Current vaccines ... is the surface antigen of the hepatitis B virus (HBV). It indicates current hepatitis B infection. The viral envelope of an ... It was discovered to be part of the virus that caused serum hepatitis by virologist Alfred Prince in 1968. Heptavax, a "first- ... Positive HBsAg tests can be due to recent vaccination against Hepatitis B virus but this positivity is unlikely to persist ...
"Vaccination for hepatitis C virus: closing in on an evasive target". Expert Review of Vaccines. 10 (5): 659-672. doi:10.1586/ ... "Involvement of Hepatitis C Virus NS5A Hyperphosphorylation Mediated by Casein Kinase I- in Infectious Virus Production". ... Fridell, R. A.; Qiu, D.; Wang, C.; Valera, L.; Gao, M. (28 June 2010). "Resistance Analysis of the Hepatitis C Virus NS5A ... Grakoui, A; Wychowski, C; Lin, C; Feinstone, S M; Rice, C M (1 March 1993). "Expression and identification of hepatitis C virus ...
Antiviral and Vaccine Targets. ACS Infect. Dis. 2016, 2, 749-762. Abdelwahab, K. S.; Said, Z. N. A. Status of hepatitis C virus ... E1 is one of two subunits of the envelope glycoprotein found in the virus hepatitis C virus. The other subunit is E2 This ... "Identification of Novel Functions for Hepatitis C virus Envelope Glycoprotein E1 in Virus Entry and Assembly". Journal of ... Antiviral and Vaccine Targets. ACS Infect. Dis. 2016, 2, 749-762. Abdelwahab, K. S.; Said, Z. N. A. Status of hepatitis C virus ...
... developing vaccines targeted at rapidly mutating virus infections such as HIV, Hepatitis C and Influenza. The company is also a ... Other vaccines include humoral, antibody-mediated peptide-based therapeutic HIV-1 vaccine Vacc-C5, that aims to guide the ... even if the virus mutates. Persistent immune responses against this part of the virus (the HIV p24 protein) has been shown to ... "The HIV Vaccine Vacc-4x". Bionor Pharma. Retrieved 11 June 2013. "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2014-05-05. ...
In order to develop a vaccine, Millman and Blumberg developed a method of detaching the coatings from the virus. Donald G. ... McNeil, Jr., April 26, 2012, Irving Millman Dies at 88; Worked to Stop Hepatitis B, The New York Times. His Hepatitis B Vaccine ... found that the blood of individuals who carried the hepatitis B virus contained particles of the outside coating of the virus. ... thereby preventing the spread of the virus. Later research by the team led to a vaccine that is now commonly given to neonates ...
... is an American virologist whose main area of research is hepatitis C virus. He is a professor of virology at ... The strain of yellow fever virus he used for this work was eventually used for the development of the yellow fever vaccine. ... This led him to his work in the related hepatitis C virus for which he has won many awards. 1986 Pew Charitable Trust ... In 1981, he received his PhD in biochemistry from the California Institute of Technology, where he studied RNA viruses in the ...
Controlled release microparticles as a single dose hepatitis B vaccine; evaluation of immunogenicity in mice. Vaccine 1997; 15: ... Wang's patent for diagnostic Hepatitis C virus (HCV) peptide epitopes was the first such patent issued in the United States for ... Wang's valiant effort to put forth extensive technical arguments challenging the validity of Chiron's HCV Hepatitis C virus ... Improved serodiagnosis of hepaptis C virus Hepatitis C infection with synthetic peptide antigen from capsid protein. Proc Natl ...
... an inactivated-virus Hepatitis A vaccine, and Engerix-B, a recombinant Hepatitis B vaccine. Twinrix, Havrix and Engerix-B are ... Hepatitis A vaccine Hepatitis B vaccine http://us.gsk.com/products/assets/us_twinrix.pdf "FDA approval for a combined hepatitis ... Twinrix is a vaccine against hepatitis A and hepatitis B, manufactured by GlaxoSmithKline. Twinrix is administered over three ... The CDC reports that clinical trials found the following levels of protection against Hep A and Hep B one month after each dose ...
Activity of Vaccinia Virus Recombinants Expressing the Hepatitis B Virus Surface Antigen and the Herpes Simplex Virus ... hepatitis B or influenza). The efforts resulted in multiple veterinary vaccines and the development of the first DNA vaccine ... the researchers were able to transform ordinary smallpox vaccine into vaccines that may be able to prevent other diseases. ... Biological Activity of Recombinant Vaccinia Virus Expressing Influenza Virus Hemagglutinin" Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 80:5364- ...
A precore mutant is a variety of hepatitis B virus that does not produce hepatitis B virus e antigen (HBeAg). These mutants are important because infections caused by these viruses are difficult to treat, and can cause infections of prolonged duration and with a higher risk of liver cirrhosis. The mutations are changes in DNA bases from guanine to adenine at base position 1896 (G1896A), and from cytosine to thymine at position 1858 (C1858T) in the precore region of the viral genome. The HBV has four genes: S, P, C, and X. The S gene codes for the "major" envelope protein (HBsAg). The largest gene is P. It codes for DNA polymerase. The C gene codes for HBeAg and HBcAg. The C gene has a precore and a core region. If translation is initiated at the precore region, the protein product is HBeAg. If translation begins with the core region, HBcAg is the protein product. HBeAg is a marker of HBV ...
... , abbreviated HBV, is a double stranded DNA virus, a species of the genus Orthohepadnavirus, and a member of the Hepadnaviridae family of viruses. This virus causes the disease hepatitis B. In addition to causing hepatitis, infection with HBV can lead to cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. It has also been suggested that it may increase the risk of pancreatic cancer. Viral infection by hepatitis B virus (HBV) causes many hepatocyte changes due to direct action of a protein coded for by the virus, HBx, and to indirect changes due to a large increase in intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) after infection. HBx appears to dysregulate a number of cellular pathways. HBx causes dysregulation in part by binding to genomic DNA, changing expression patterns of miRNAs, affecting histone ...
... is liver inflammation due to a viral infection. It may present in acute (recent infection, relatively rapid onset) or chronic forms. The most common causes of viral hepatitis are the five unrelated hepatotropic viruses hepatitis A, hepatitis B, hepatitis C, hepatitis D, and hepatitis E. In addition to the nominal hepatitis viruses, other viruses that can also cause liver inflammation include cytomegalovirus, Epstein-Barr virus, and yellow fever. Up to 1997 there has been also 52 cases of viral hepatitis caused by herpes simplex virus. There is the opportunity to prevent or treat the most common types. ...
The Hepatitis B virus PRE stem-loop beta (HBV PRE SL-beta) is an RNA structure that is shown to play a role in nuclear export of HBV mRNAs.. The minimal HBV PREbeta structure consists of a 23 nt stem-loop, with a 9 nt apical loop. The conserved stem-loop was predicted within the HBV PRE sequence and confirmed by mutagenesis.[1][2]. ...
... (also known as the Australia antigen) is the surface antigen of the hepatitis B virus (HBV). It indicates current hepatitis B infection. The viral envelope of an enveloped virus has different surface proteins from the rest of the virus which act as antigens. These antigens are recognized by antibody proteins that bind specifically to one of these surface proteins. Today, these antigen-proteins can be genetically manufactured (e.g. transgene E. coli) to produce material for a simple antigen test, which detects the presence of HBV. It is present in the sera of patients with viral hepatitis B (with or without clinical symptoms). Patients who developed antibodies against HBsAg (anti-HBsAg seroconversion) are usually considered non-infectious. HBsAg detection by immunoassay is used in blood screening, to establish a diagnosis of ...
A helper dependent virus also termed a gutless virus is a synthetic viral vector dependent on the assistance of a helper virus in order to replicate. Hepatitis D virus (HDV) is an example of a replication defective, helper dependent ssRNA virus because it requires Hepatitis B virus (HBV) to provide HBV surface antigen (HBsAg) for the encapsidation of its genome. The envelope proteins on the outer surface of HDV are entirely provided by HBV. Since the genome of the gutless virus does not include genes encoding the enzymes and/or structural proteins required to replicate, it is deemed safe for use in gene therapy since an infection cannot occur except in the presence of a suitable helper virus. Well established protocols allow scientists to propagate helper dependent viruses in the lab. ...
Hepatitis B is a disease of the liver. It is caused by a virus. The virus is not spread by food or casual contact. It can be spread by blood or body fluids from an infected person. A baby can get it from its mother during childbirth. It can also be spread by sexual contact,[1] reuse of needles,[2] and transfusions of blood with the virus in it.[3]. Infection with hepatitis B can be prevented by vaccination, where an injection is given which makes the body immune to the virus. It is recommended that all people are given a series of three vaccines over a few months when they are babies to ensure good protection against this virus. However, vaccination only provides 90% protection, it does not completely remove the risk of infection.[4]. Some people who are infected are able to beat the virus quickly. Many people are infected ...
Harvey James Alter (born September 12, 1935) is an American medical researcher, virologist, and physician who is best known for his work that led to the discovery of the hepatitis C virus. Alter is the chief of the infectious disease section and the associate director for research of the Department of Transfusion Medicine at the Warren Grant Magnuson Clinical Center in the National Institutes of Health (NIH). In the mid-1970s, Alter and his research team demonstrated that most post-transfusion hepatitis cases were not due to hepatitis A and hepatitis B viruses. Working independently, Alter and Edward Tabor, a scientist at the U.S. Food and Drug Administration, proved through transmission studies in chimpanzees that a new form of hepatitis, initially called "non-A, non-B ...
... is the branch of medicine that incorporates the study of liver, gallbladder, biliary tree, and pancreas as well as management of their disorders. Although traditionally considered a sub-specialty of gastroenterology, rapid expansion has led in some countries to doctors specializing solely on this area, who are called hepatologists. Diseases and complications related to viral hepatitis and alcohol are the main reason for seeking specialist advice. More than two billion people have been infected with hepatitis B virus at some point in their life, and approximately 350 million have become persistent carriers. Up to 80% of liver cancers can be attributed to either hepatitis B or hepatitis C virus. In terms of mortality, the former is second only to smoking among known agents causing cancer. With more widespread implementation of vaccination ...
In liver pathology, a ground glass hepatocyte, abbreviated GGH, is a liver parenchymal cell with a flat hazy and uniformly dull appearing cytoplasm on light microscopy. The cytoplasm's granular homogeneous eosinophilic staining is caused by the presence of HBsAg. The appearance is classically associated with abundant hepatitis B antigen in the endoplasmic reticulum, but may also be drug-induced. In the context of hepatitis B, GGHs are only seen in chronic infections, i.e. they are not seen in acute hepatitis B. GGHs were first described by Hadziyannis et al. Several different types of GGHs are recognized: Type I - morphologically consist of GGHs that are scattered singly and have weak Pre-S2 positive immunostaining. Type II - morphologically consist of GGHs that are in clusters and have Pre-S2 negative immunostaining. There is some evidence to suggest that type II GGHs predispose to hepatocellular carcinoma. ...
... , also known as viral burden, viral titre or viral titer, is a numerical expression of the quantity of virus in a given volume. It is often expressed as viral particles, or infectious particles per mL depending on the type of assay. A higher viral burden, titre, or viral load often correlates with the severity of an active viral infection. The quantity of virus / mL can be calculated by estimating the live amount of virus in an involved body fluid. For example, it can be given in RNA copies per millilitre of blood plasma. Tracking viral load is used to monitor therapy during chronic viral infections, and in immunocompromised patients such as those recovering from bone marrow or solid organ transplantation. Currently, routine testing is available for HIV-1, cytomegalovirus, hepatitis B virus, and hepatitis C virus. Viral load monitoring ...
... is a genus of viruses, in the family Hepadnaviridae. Human and mammals serve as natural hosts. There are currently five species in this genus including the type species Hepatitis B virus. Diseases associated with this genus include: hepatitis, hepatocellular carcinoma (chronic infections), cirrhosis. Viruses in Orthohepadnavirus are enveloped, with spherical geometries, and T=4 symmetry. The diameter is around 42 nm. Genomes are circular, around 3.2kb in length. The genome codes for 7 proteins. Viral replication is nucleo-cytoplasmic. Replication follows the dsDNA(RT) replication model. DNA-templated transcription, specifically dsDNA(RT) transcription, with some alternative splicing mechanism is the method of transcription. Translation takes place by leaky scanning. The virus exits the host cell by budding, and nuclear pore export. Human and mammals ...
Choi B.H., Park G.T., Rho H.M. (1999). Interaction of hepatitis B viral X protein and CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein alpha synergistically activates the hepatitis B viral enhancer II/pregenomic promoter.. J. Biol. Chem. 274: 2858 - 2865. PubMed DOI:10.1074/jbc.274.5.2858 ...
... it is fortunate that safe and effective vaccinations are available against both the hepatitis A and hepatitis B viruses. ... While vaccines have not yet been developed for the rest of the alphabet of infectious hepatitis, ... Hepatitis A is a virus known to infect the liver, and infection can result in a monthlong illness featuring fever, vomiting and ... Hepatitis A vaccines are inactivated, not live, and cannot cause disease. Vaccine side effects in children can include one to ...
Inactivated Hepatitis B Virus Vaccine Introduction Worldwide, recommendations for using hepatitis B virus (HBV) vaccine will ... Vaccine Hepatitis B virus vaccine is a suspension of inactivated, alum-adsorbed 22-nm surface antigen particles that have been ... Hepatitis B vaccine administered to chronic carriers of hepatitis B surface antigen. Ann Intern Med 1982;96:575-9. 7.Szmuness W ... Hepatitis B immunoglobulin (HBIG) efficacy in the interruption of perinantal transmission of hepatitis B virus carrier state. ...
Hepatitis B virus vaccine response in hemodialysis: baseline patient characteristics.. Chin AI1. ... Hepatitis B vaccine nonresponders on HD are older, are more likely to have DM, are more malnourished, and have lower spKt/V( ... Hepatitis B virus (HBV) vaccination is recommended for all individuals with renal failure. Nevertheless, the response rate for ... Analyzed patients were HBV antibody and antigen negative and hepatitis C virus antibody negative at the start of HD, who ...
HEPATITIS B SURFACE ANTIGEN (hepatitis b virus subtype adw hbsag surface protein antigen) liquid. NDC Code(s): 69806-0002-0 * ... TWINRIX (hepatitis a and hepatitis b (recombinant) vaccine) injection, suspension. NDC Code(s): 50090-1645-0, 50090-1645-9 * ... TWINRIX (hepatitis a and hepatitis b (recombinant) vaccine) injection, suspension. NDC Code(s): 58160-815-43, 58160-815-52 * ... SEARCH RESULTS for: Inactivated Hepatitis A Virus Vaccine [Drug Class] (14 results) ...
... vaccine should consider several important issues because they may greatly influence the choice of immunogen used in the vaccine ... 0/Vaccines, Attenuated; 0/Vaccines, Combined; 0/Vaccines, DNA; 0/Vaccines, Subunit; 0/Viral Hepatitis Vaccines ... Vaccines, DNA / immunology, standards. Vaccines, Subunit / immunology, standards. Viral Hepatitis Vaccines / immunology*. ... Hepatitis C / immunology*, prevention & control, virology. Humans. Mice. Pan troglodytes. Vaccination / methods. Vaccines, ...
... vaccine,and,Hepatitis,Virus,biological,biology news articles,biology news today,latest biology news,current biology news, ... Live vaccines more effective against horse herpes virus. 8. NIAID begins clinical trial of West Nile virus vaccine. 9. ... Norovirus, AIDS vaccine and Hepatitis Virus. Norovirus Prevalent in Those Suffering from Travelers Diarrhea ...Norovirus may ... Hepatitis B (HBV) and C (HCV) are viruses that infect the liver, and in some cases can cause liver failure requiring a ...
... based vaccine technologies in the development and commercialization of potential new vaccine regimens against hepatitis B virus ... HBV) and the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-1). This agreement stems from... ... based vaccine technologies in the development and commercialization of potential new vaccine regimens against hepatitis B virus ... Janssen Enters Collaboration with Bavarian Nordic to Develop Vaccines Against Hepatitis B Virus and HIV-1. Collaboration to ...
About 2 billion infected individuals globally, 350 million chronic hepatitis .. ... Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is one of the major public health concerns. ... Hepatitis B Virus Infection. Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is one of the major public health concerns. About 2 billion ... Approximately 75% of patients with chronic hepatitis live in Asia and Africa and up to 15-45% of HBV infected patients grows to ...
Considerations for Patients and PhysiciansHepatitis C Virus and Hepatitis C Vaccine DevelopmentHemochromatosis and the HFE Gene ... Describe the rationale for attempts to develop a HCV vaccine. *Discuss the heterogeneity of HCV and likely mechanisms of viral ... Hepatitis C Virus and Hepatitis C Vaccine Development CME credit is no longer available for this conference. ...
... takes researchers a step closer to understanding the molecular-level activity that takes place when the hepatitis C virus ... Structure of Hepatitis C Virus Envelope Protein an Early Step Toward Vaccine, Therapies. October 10, 2014 ... Hepatitis C, an infectious disease of the liver caused by the hepatitis C virus (HCV), affects 160 million people worldwide. It ... There is no vaccine for HCV and the few treatments that are available do not work on all variants of the virus. Before ...
While it is the job of nurses and CNAs to administer vaccines, its up to the billers to ensure your facility is being ... For all residents in a long-term care facility, but for residents with chronic conditions especially, vaccines are an important ... Billing for pneumococcal pneumonia, influenza virus, and Hepatitis B vaccines. MDS 3.0 Insider, July 20, 2017. Want to receive ...
Host genetic factors and vaccine-induced immunity to hepatitis B virus infection. ... Host genetic factors and vaccine-induced immunity to hepatitis B virus infection ...
Home / Documenten en publicaties / Host genetic factors and vaccine-induced immunity to hepatitis B virus infection ... Host genetic factors and vaccine-induced immunity to hepatitis B virus infection. Publicatiedatum:. 05-09-2008. Artikelnummer: ...
HBcAg-pulsed dendritic cell vaccine induces Th1 polarization and production of hepatitis B virus-specific cytotoxic T ... B cells from patients with chronic hepatitis B virus infection as antigen presenting cells to induce hepatitis B virus specific ... Aim: Dendritic cells (DCs) pulsed with HBsAg efficiently reverse the immune tolerance to hepatitis B virus (HBV) and induce HBV ... Adam J. Gehring, June Ann DAngelo, Dissecting the dendritic cell controversy in chronic hepatitis B virus infection, Cellular ...
DNA Vaccine Therapy in Treating Patients With Chronic Hepatitis C Virus Infection. The safety and scientific validity of this ...
Hepatitis B virus (HBV) vaccines which contain the small envelope protein (S-HBs) of the virus provide significant protection ... 1997) Improvement of hepatitis B virus DNA vaccines by plasmids coexpressing hepatitis B surface antigen and interleukin-2. J. ... 1996) Kinetics of duck hepatitis B virus infection following low dose virus inoculation: one virus DNA genome is infectious in ... Protective Efficacy of DNA Vaccines against Duck Hepatitis B Virus Infection. M. Triyatni, A. R. Jilbert, M. Qiao, D. S. Miller ...
1 and hepatitis C virus (HCV) are major contributors to the global disease burden with many experts recognizing the requirement ... 1 and hepatitis C virus (HCV) are major contributors to the global disease burden with many experts recognizing the requirement ... The most promising vaccine candidates that have advanced into pre-clinical models and the clinic to eliminate or provide ... The most promising vaccine candidates that have advanced into pre-clinical models and the clinic to eliminate or provide ...
Biological: Hepatitis B virus vaccine with GM-CSF adjuvant Biological: Hepatitis B virus vaccine Phase 2 ... Biological: Hepatitis B virus vaccine with GM-CSF adjuvant Arm B participants will receive 40 mcg of HBV vaccine and 250 mcg of ... Biological: Hepatitis B virus vaccine Arm A participants will receive 40 mcg of HBV vaccine at study entry, Week 4, and Week 12 ... DNA Virus Infections. Hepatitis, Viral, Human. Hepatitis. Liver Diseases. Digestive System Diseases. Vaccines. Immunologic ...
... to prevent the emergence of vaccine-escaping variants. ... Six hepatitis A virus antigenic variants that likely escaped ... the protective effect of available vaccines were isolated, mostly from men who have sex with men. The need to complete the ... Hepatitis A Virus Vaccine Escape Variants and Potential New Serotype Emergence. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2011;17(4):734- ... Hepatitis A Virus Vaccine Escape Variants and Potential New Serotype Emergence On This Page ...
... to prevent the emergence of vaccine-escaping variants. ... Six hepatitis A virus antigenic variants that likely escaped ... the protective effect of available vaccines were isolated, mostly from men who have sex with men. The need to complete the ... Hepatitis A Virus Vaccine Escape Variants and Potential New Serotype Emergence Unai Pérez-Sautu1, M. Isabel Costafreda1, Joan ... Hepatitis A Virus Vaccine Escape Variants and Potential New Serotype Emergence*Figure 1 ...
Avhandling: Development of vaccines and mouse models for chronic hepatitis C virus infection. ... Development of vaccines and mouse models for chronic hepatitis C virus infection. Detta är en avhandling från Stockholm : ... Thus, DNA-based vaccines may be explored as a therapeutic or prophylactic tool in hepatitis C. There are many ways to make a ... Sammanfattning: Chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is a major causative agent for severe liver disease and cancer ...
Another element in vaccine design is based on information on how the virus escapes from broadly neutralizing antibodies. Escape ... Another element in vaccine design is based on information on how the virus escapes from broadly neutralizing antibodies. Escape ... An effective vaccine is of paramount importance to control and prevent HCV infection. While this vaccine will need to induce ... An effective vaccine is of paramount importance to control and prevent HCV infection. While this vaccine will need to induce ...
Hepatitis,C,Virus,DNA,Vaccine,Using,Inovios,Electroporation,Delivery,Technology,medicine,advanced medical technology,medical ... About Hepatitis C Virus. Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is the most common chronic blood borne infection in the United ... DNA vaccine for hepatitis C virus (HCV), delivered by Inovios proprietary electroporation DNA vaccine delivery technology, in ... Total health costs associated with hepatitis C virus in the U.S. are estimated at more than $15 billion per year. No vaccine ...
The HBV vaccine, even at low coverage for the full South African Expanded Programme on Immunisation schedule, reduced the ... The impact of the hepatitis B virus vaccine on the incidence of hepatitis B virus-associated membranous nephropathy Arch ... Background: The hepatitis B virus (HBV) vaccine has resulted in a decline in the incidence of HBV carriage and hepatocellular ... Hepatitis B virus status was determined using a radioimmunoassay (January 1, 1984-March 31, 1991) or an enzyme-linked ...
Cell Culture of Sporadic Hepatitis E Virus in China. Rutong Huang, Derong Li, Shaojing Wei, Qinghong Li, Xitong Yuan, Liqing ... Cell Culture of Sporadic Hepatitis E Virus in China. Rutong Huang, Derong Li, Shaojing Wei, Qinghong Li, Xitong Yuan, Liqing ... Cell Culture of Sporadic Hepatitis E Virus in China. Rutong Huang, Derong Li, Shaojing Wei, Qinghong Li, Xitong Yuan, Liqing ... Cell Culture of Sporadic Hepatitis E Virus in China Message Subject (Your Name) has forwarded a page to you from Clinical and ...
  • Dendritic cells (DCs) pulsed with HBsAg efficiently reverse the immune tolerance to hepatitis B virus (HBV) and induce HBV-specific cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) responses in transgenic mice and healthy volunteers. (wiley.com)
  • The hepatitis virus consists of a core containing DNA ( HBV-DNA ) with an enzyme known as DNA polymerase that assists with viral replication and is surrounded by surface proteins ( HBsAg ). (healthhype.com)
  • At birth, HBV genome,uas detected by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) in the peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) of a large majority (28 out of 34) of these non-responder newborns but never in the other newborns who responded to the HBsAg vaccine. (istanbul.edu.tr)
  • Unresponsiveness was specific to the HBV envelope protein since all late responders and 15-months-non-responders to the HBsAg vaccine produced normal levels of Abs to the three poliovirus serotypes, to tetanus toroid and to the pneumococcus polysaccharides, An in utero induced immune tolerance to low doses of HBsAg appears as the most plausible hypothesis to explain this unresponsiveness to HBV vaccine. (istanbul.edu.tr)
  • However, identification of linear B-cell epitopes that can stimulate B-cell response is one of the major tasks of peptide-based vaccine development. (biomedcentral.com)
  • IRMS-BE may also apply to predict B-cell epitopes for other viruses, which benefits the improvement of vaccines development of these viruses without significant modification. (biomedcentral.com)
  • find that the two HLA epitopes may contribute to design the HCV vaccine for the Chinese population [ 4 ] and Aqsa, et al. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Four epitopes ( 367 GIALTLFNL 375 , 379 LLGGLPTEL 387 , 389 SSAGGQLFY 397 and 394 QLFYSRPVV 402 ) interacted with MHC class-I with high affinity and specificity and hence were proposed as vaccine candidates. (sciepub.com)
  • Thirteen epitopes were predicted eliciting B and T cells and proposed as vaccine candidates against HEV. (sciepub.com)
  • Viral vectored hepatitis C virus vaccines generate pan-genotypic T cell responses to conserved subdominant epitopes. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Compared to the ChAd-Gt1b-NS vaccine, these vaccines generated significantly greater responses against conserved non-gt-1 antigens, including conserved subdominant epitopes that were not targeted by ChAd-Gt1b-NS. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Epitopes targeted by the conserved segment HCV vaccine induced T cells, displayed 96.6% mean sequence homology between all HCV subtypes (100% sequence homology for the majority of genotype-1, -2, -4 sequences and 94% sequence homology for gt-3, -6, -7, and -8) in contrast to 85.1% mean sequence homology for epitopes targeted by ChAd-Gt1b-NS induced T cells. (ox.ac.uk)
  • CONCLUSIONS: We have demonstrated that genetically adjuvanted ChAd vectored HCV T cell vaccines encoding genetic sequences conserved between genotypes are immunogenic, activating T cells that target subdominant conserved HCV epitopes. (ox.ac.uk)
  • The major aim of the project was the development of virus-like particles (VLP) displaying B- and T-cell epitopes of hepatitis C virus (HCV) proteins. (nih.gov)
  • To this end, hepatitis B virus core (HBc) particles were used as a carrier of HCV epitopes. (nih.gov)
  • The virus is divided into four major serotypes (adr, adw, ayr, ayw) based on antigenic epitopes present on its envelope proteins. (wikipedia.org)
  • While vaccines have not yet been developed for the rest of the "alphabet" of infectious hepatitis, it is fortunate that safe and effective vaccinations are available against both the hepatitis A and hepatitis B viruses. (dailyherald.com)
  • AAP infectious disease experts report that most hepatitis A-infected children under the age of 6 show no symptoms of the disease, while more than two-thirds of affected older kids and adults will develop jaundice. (dailyherald.com)
  • Our objective is to identify functional cures for HIV and HBV to control the viruses and prevent potential disease progression without the need for life-long treatment, said Johan Van Hoof M.D., Global R&D Head, Janssen Infectious Diseases & Vaccines. (webwire.com)
  • Hepatitis C, an infectious disease of the liver caused by the hepatitis C virus (HCV), affects 160 million people worldwide. (bnl.gov)
  • Hepatitis is the term for inflammation of the liver and may be due to infectious or non-infectious causes. (healthhype.com)
  • The five types of hepatitis viruses are common infectious causes of liver inflammation, and some like hepatitis A (HAV), B (HBV) and C (HCV) are more frequently seen infectious agents. (healthhype.com)
  • Hepatitis B is one of the most common infectious diseases in the world and a major health problem. (medcraveonline.com)
  • This was the first report of a two-part study (IOM, 1985a,b) conducted by the Committee on Issues and Priorities for New Vaccine Development at the request of the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID) of the National Institutes of Health (NIH). (nap.edu)
  • The Department of Defense (DoD) administers 17 different vaccines, as outlined in the Joint Instruction on Immunizations and Chemoprophylaxis (Secretaries of the Air Force, Army, Navy, and Transportation, 1995), for the prevention of infectious diseases among military personnel, where appropriate. (nap.edu)
  • Table 3-1 provides an overview of the major infectious disease threats to U.S. military personnel and displays whether the appropriate vaccine product is available for military use, is licensed in the United States by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA), is an investigational new drug (IND), or is in development. (nap.edu)
  • Vaccines have contributed to a significant reduction in many childhood infectious diseases, such as diphtheria, measles, and Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib). (fda.gov)
  • Some infectious diseases, such as polio have been eliminated in the United States due to effective vaccines. (fda.gov)
  • Vaccines to prevent infectious diseases are given to millions of babies, children, adolescents and adults and it is critical that they are demonstrated to be safe and effective. (fda.gov)
  • Parents should know that the risk of being harmed by a vaccine is significantly smaller than the risk of serious illness from infectious diseases," says Marion Gruber, Ph.D., director of the Office of Vaccines Research and Review in CBER. (fda.gov)
  • The present invention discloses nucleic acid sequences which encode infectious hepatitis C viruses and the use of these sequences, and polypeptides encoded by all or part of these sequences, in the development of vaccines and diagnostics for HCV and in the development of screening assays for the identification. (google.com)
  • 16. A method for producing a hepatitis C virus comprising step (A) transfecting a host cell with the RNA transcript of claim 13 and step (B) expressing said transcript resulting in replication and production of virus which is infectious in vivo. (google.com)
  • Since the initial study from Wolff and colleagues which showed that DNA represents a vector that can be used to express transgenes durably in vivo , DNA has been regularly evaluated as a vaccine vector albeit with limited success in large animal models and humans. (frontiersin.org)
  • The phase I clinical trial was performed in treatment naive HCV genotype 1 patients, receiving four monthly vaccinations in the deltoid muscles with 167, 500, or 1,500 μg codon-optimized HCV nonstructural (NS) 3/4A-expressing DNA vaccine delivered by in vivo electroporation (EP). (avhandlingar.se)
  • however, the virus genotype in this area is not known. (springer.com)
  • This difference in timing means that, relative to drugs, vaccines tend to keep pathogens from ever achieving large population sizes within hosts. (pnas.org)
  • Table 2-1 presents the 1985 committee's final list of pathogens for which vaccines were analyzed. (nap.edu)
  • For several pathogens two different forms of vaccine were considered (e.g., attenuated live virus or glycoprotein). (nap.edu)
  • By varying different assumptions (e.g., utilization, discount rates), vaccines against the first five pathogens retained highest priority. (nap.edu)
  • This has greatly restored confidence in childhood immunizations, which had been eroded previously by concerns about whole-cell pertussis vaccines. (nap.edu)
  • For hepatitis A, varicella, and tetanus-diphtheria-acellular pertussis vaccines, elevated risks were based on one to two vaccine-exposed cases. (aappublications.org)
  • Because of the small number of exposed cases and potential confounding, the possible association of ITP with hepatitis A, varicella, and tetanus-diphtheria-acellular pertussis vaccines in older children requires further investigation. (aappublications.org)
  • Despite some degree of nucleotide heterogeneity at the capsid region of hepatitis A virus (HAV) ( 5 , 6 ), there is not an equivalent degree of amino acid variation ( 7 ). (cdc.gov)
  • 9. A purified and isolated nucleic acid molecule which encodes human hepatitis C virus, wherein expression of said molecule in transfected cells results in production of virus, wherein a fragment of said molecule which encodes the structural region of hepatitis C virus has been replaced by the structural region from the genome of another hepatitis C virus strain. (google.com)
  • In the U.S., 85 percent of travel-related cases of hepatitis A occur following travel to Mexico, Central America or South America. (dailyherald.com)
  • We investigated the presence of antigenic variants among sporadic and outbreak cases of hepatitis A. (cdc.gov)
  • While you should always talk to your doc before you leave the country, Africa, Asia, and Central and South America have particularly high risk of hep A transmission, according to the World Health Organization . (womenshealthmag.com)
  • HBcAg-pulsed DC vaccine derived from CHB patients efficiently induced autologous T cell polarization to Th1 and generation of HBV core 18-27 specific CTLs. (wiley.com)
  • More significantly, 83% of the participants (5 of 6 patients) who were monitored for an extended period of time, continued to be free of the virus six months after they completed SOC. (bio-medicine.org)
  • SOC treatment alone usually results in about 40-50% of patients reaching undetectable virus levels after six months of treatment. (bio-medicine.org)
  • Dr. J. Joseph Kim, Inovio's president and CEO, said: "We are encouraged by the phase I results showing the improved cure rate in patients who received the HCV vaccine followed by a SOC drug therapy. (bio-medicine.org)
  • Recently, the Food and Drug Administration approved several new drugs that could cure many patients infected with hepatitis C in as little as 12 weeks. (blogspot.com)
  • Among patients who transiently controlled virus replication we observed loss of function, and/or physical deletion of tetramer+ CD4+ T cells before viral recrudescence. (ox.ac.uk)
  • In some patients with chronic hepatitis C very low numbers of tetramer+ cells were detectable in peripheral blood, compared to robust responses detected in spontaneous resolvers. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Hepatitis treatment is expensive and only successful in half of patients. (eurekalert.org)
  • If my patients will be spending time in developing countries where hepatitis A is prevalent, we give them the vaccine, especially if they won't be able to control what they drink or where their fruits and vegetables are washed," says Flamm. (womenshealthmag.com)
  • Hepatitis B virus DNA polymerase gene polymorphism based prediction of genotypes in chronic HBV patients from Western India. (springer.com)