The type species of the genus ORTHOHEPADNAVIRUS which causes human HEPATITIS B and is also apparently a causal agent in human HEPATOCELLULAR CARCINOMA. The Dane particle is an intact hepatitis virion, named after its discoverer. Non-infectious spherical and tubular particles are also seen in the serum.
INFLAMMATION of the LIVER in humans caused by a member of the ORTHOHEPADNAVIRUS genus, HEPATITIS B VIRUS. It is primarily transmitted by parenteral exposure, such as transfusion of contaminated blood or blood products, but can also be transmitted via sexual or intimate personal contact.
Those hepatitis B antigens found on the surface of the Dane particle and on the 20 nm spherical and tubular particles. Several subspecificities of the surface antigen are known. These were formerly called the Australia antigen.
INFLAMMATION of the LIVER in humans caused by HEPATITIS B VIRUS lasting six months or more. It is primarily transmitted by parenteral exposure, such as transfusion of contaminated blood or blood products, but can also be transmitted via sexual or intimate personal contact.
Antibodies to the HEPATITIS B ANTIGENS, including antibodies to the surface (Australia) and core of the Dane particle and those to the "e" antigens.
The hepatitis B antigen within the core of the Dane particle, the infectious hepatitis virion.
A closely related group of antigens found in the plasma only during the infective phase of hepatitis B or in virulent chronic hepatitis B, probably indicating active virus replication; there are three subtypes which may exist in a complex with immunoglobulins G.
Vaccines or candidate vaccines containing inactivated hepatitis B or some of its component antigens and designed to prevent hepatitis B. Some vaccines may be recombinantly produced.
A DNA virus that closely resembles human hepatitis B virus. It has been recovered from naturally infected ducks.
Antigens of the virion of the HEPATITIS B VIRUS or the Dane particle, its surface (HEPATITIS B SURFACE ANTIGENS), core (HEPATITIS B CORE ANTIGENS), and other associated antigens, including the HEPATITIS B E ANTIGENS.
INFLAMMATION of the LIVER in humans caused by HEPATITIS C VIRUS, a single-stranded RNA virus. Its incubation period is 30-90 days. Hepatitis C is transmitted primarily by contaminated blood parenterally, and is often associated with transfusion and intravenous drug abuse. However, in a significant number of cases, the source of hepatitis C infection is unknown.
INFLAMMATION of the LIVER in humans caused by a member of the HEPATOVIRUS genus, HUMAN HEPATITIS A VIRUS. It can be transmitted through fecal contamination of food or water.
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.
Agents used in the prophylaxis or therapy of VIRUS DISEASES. Some of the ways they may act include preventing viral replication by inhibiting viral DNA polymerase; binding to specific cell-surface receptors and inhibiting viral penetration or uncoating; inhibiting viral protein synthesis; or blocking late stages of virus assembly.
A reverse transcriptase inhibitor and ZALCITABINE analog in which a sulfur atom replaces the 3' carbon of the pentose ring. It is used to treat HIV disease.
The process of intracellular viral multiplication, consisting of the synthesis of PROTEINS; NUCLEIC ACIDS; and sometimes LIPIDS, and their assembly into a new infectious particle.
A primary malignant neoplasm of epithelial liver cells. It ranges from a well-differentiated tumor with EPITHELIAL CELLS indistinguishable from normal HEPATOCYTES to a poorly differentiated neoplasm. The cells may be uniform or markedly pleomorphic, or form GIANT CELLS. Several classification schemes have been suggested.
INFLAMMATION of the LIVER in humans due to infection by VIRUSES. There are several significant types of human viral hepatitis with infection caused by enteric-transmission (HEPATITIS A; HEPATITIS E) or blood transfusion (HEPATITIS B; HEPATITIS C; and HEPATITIS D).
Any of the viruses that cause inflammation of the liver. They include both DNA and RNA viruses as well viruses from humans and animals.
A species in the genus HEPATOVIRUS containing one serotype and two strains: HUMAN HEPATITIS A VIRUS and Simian hepatitis A virus causing hepatitis in humans (HEPATITIS A) and primates, respectively.
INFLAMMATION of the LIVER in humans that is caused by HEPATITIS C VIRUS lasting six months or more. Chronic hepatitis C can lead to LIVER CIRRHOSIS.
INFLAMMATION of the LIVER with ongoing hepatocellular injury for 6 months or more, characterized by NECROSIS of HEPATOCYTES and inflammatory cell (LEUKOCYTES) infiltration. Chronic hepatitis can be caused by viruses, medications, autoimmune diseases, and other unknown factors.
INFLAMMATION of the LIVER in animals due to viral infection.
Tumors or cancer of the LIVER.
Immunoglobulins raised by any form of viral hepatitis; some of these antibodies are used to diagnose the specific kind of hepatitis.
An ORTHOHEPADNAVIRUS causing chronic liver disease and hepatocellular carcinoma in woodchucks. It closely resembles the human hepatitis B virus.
INFLAMMATION of the LIVER in humans caused by HEPATITIS DELTA VIRUS, a defective RNA virus that can only infect HEPATITIS B patients. For its viral coating, hepatitis delta virus requires the HEPATITIS B SURFACE ANTIGENS produced by these patients. Hepatitis D can occur either concomitantly with (coinfection) or subsequent to (superinfection) hepatitis B infection. Similar to hepatitis B, it is primarily transmitted by parenteral exposure, such as transfusion of contaminated blood or blood products, but can also be transmitted via sexual or intimate personal contact.
A defective virus, containing particles of RNA nucleoprotein in virion-like form, present in patients with acute hepatitis B and chronic hepatitis. It requires the presence of a hepadnavirus for full replication. This is the lone species in the genus Deltavirus.
A genus of FLAVIVIRIDAE causing parenterally-transmitted HEPATITIS C which is associated with transfusions and drug abuse. Hepatitis C virus is the type species.
Virus diseases caused by the HEPADNAVIRIDAE.
Ribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.
Antibodies to the HEPATITIS C ANTIGENS including antibodies to envelope, core, and non-structural proteins.
The condition of harboring an infective organism without manifesting symptoms of infection. The organism must be readily transmissible to another susceptible host.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
Any vaccine raised against any virus or viral derivative that causes hepatitis.
Species of the genus INFLUENZAVIRUS B that cause HUMAN INFLUENZA and other diseases primarily in humans. Antigenic variation is less extensive than in type A viruses (INFLUENZA A VIRUS) and consequently there is no basis for distinct subtypes or variants. Epidemics are less likely than with INFLUENZA A VIRUS and there have been no pandemics. Previously only found in humans, Influenza B virus has been isolated from seals which may constitute the animal reservoir from which humans are exposed.
A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.
Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent infection with hepatitis A virus (HEPATOVIRUS).
Proteins found mainly in icosahedral DNA and RNA viruses. They consist of proteins directly associated with the nucleic acid inside the NUCLEOCAPSID.
Carbon-containing phosphonic acid compounds. Included under this heading are compounds that have carbon bound to either OXYGEN atom or the PHOSPHOROUS atom of the (P=O)O2 structure.
Liver disease in which the normal microcirculation, the gross vascular anatomy, and the hepatic architecture have been variably destroyed and altered with fibrous septa surrounding regenerated or regenerating parenchymal nodules.
An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of L-alanine and 2-oxoglutarate to pyruvate and L-glutamate. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC
A genus of Sciuridae consisting of 14 species. They are shortlegged, burrowing rodents which hibernate in winter.
A family of hepatotropic DNA viruses which contains double-stranded DNA genomes and causes hepatitis in humans and animals. There are two genera: AVIHEPADNAVIRUS and ORTHOHEPADNAVIRUS. Hepadnaviruses include HEPATITIS B VIRUS, duck hepatitis B virus (HEPATITIS B VIRUS, DUCK), heron hepatitis B virus, ground squirrel hepatitis virus, and woodchuck hepatitis B virus (HEPATITIS B VIRUS, WOODCHUCK).
A positive-stranded RNA virus species in the genus HEPEVIRUS, causing enterically-transmitted non-A, non-B hepatitis (HEPATITIS E).
The genetic constitution of the individual, comprising the ALLELES present at each GENETIC LOCUS.
Acute INFLAMMATION of the LIVER in humans; caused by HEPATITIS E VIRUS, a non-enveloped single-stranded RNA virus. Similar to HEPATITIS A, its incubation period is 15-60 days and is enterically transmitted, usually by fecal-oral transmission.
Antibodies to the HEPATITIS A ANTIGENS including antibodies to envelope, core, and non-structural proteins.
Viruses whose genetic material is RNA.
The assembly of VIRAL STRUCTURAL PROTEINS and nucleic acid (VIRAL DNA or VIRAL RNA) to form a VIRUS PARTICLE.
The complete genetic complement contained in a DNA or RNA molecule in a virus.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
EPIDEMIOLOGIC STUDIES based on the detection through serological testing of characteristic change in the serum level of specific ANTIBODIES. Latent subclinical infections and carrier states can thus be detected in addition to clinically overt cases.
The type species of ORTHOPOXVIRUS, related to COWPOX VIRUS, but whose true origin is unknown. It has been used as a live vaccine against SMALLPOX. It is also used as a vector for inserting foreign DNA into animals. Rabbitpox virus is a subspecies of VACCINIA VIRUS.
A purine base and a fundamental unit of ADENINE NUCLEOTIDES.
Any of the processes by which cytoplasmic factors influence the differential control of gene action in viruses.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
The ability of viruses to resist or to become tolerant to chemotherapeutic agents or antiviral agents. This resistance is acquired through gene mutation.
Specific molecular components of the cell capable of recognizing and interacting with a virus, and which, after binding it, are capable of generating some signal that initiates the chain of events leading to the biological response.
The functional hereditary units of VIRUSES.
A strain of HEPATITIS A VIRUS which causes hepatitis in humans. The virus replicates in hepatocytes and is presumed to reach the intestine via the bile duct. Transmission occurs by the fecal-oral route.
The quantity of measurable virus in a body fluid. Change in viral load, measured in plasma, is sometimes used as a SURROGATE MARKER in disease progression.
The mechanism by which latent viruses, such as genetically transmitted tumor viruses (PROVIRUSES) or PROPHAGES of lysogenic bacteria, are induced to replicate and then released as infectious viruses. It may be effected by various endogenous and exogenous stimuli, including B-cell LIPOPOLYSACCHARIDES, glucocorticoid hormones, halogenated pyrimidines, IONIZING RADIATION, ultraviolet light, and superinfecting viruses.
The main structural component of the LIVER. They are specialized EPITHELIAL CELLS that are organized into interconnected plates called lobules.
In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.
Diffusible gene products that act on homologous or heterologous molecules of viral or cellular DNA to regulate the expression of proteins.
A chronic self-perpetuating hepatocellular INFLAMMATION of unknown cause, usually with HYPERGAMMAGLOBULINEMIA and serum AUTOANTIBODIES.
The infective system of a virus, composed of the viral genome, a protein core, and a protein coat called a capsid, which may be naked or enclosed in a lipoprotein envelope called the peplos.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
One of the type I interferons produced by peripheral blood leukocytes or lymphoblastoid cells. In addition to antiviral activity, it activates NATURAL KILLER CELLS and B-LYMPHOCYTES, and down-regulates VASCULAR ENDOTHELIAL GROWTH FACTOR expression through PI-3 KINASE and MAPK KINASES signaling pathways.
Proteins found in any species of virus.
Process of growing viruses in live animals, plants, or cultured cells.
Antigens from any of the hepatitis viruses including surface, core, and other associated antigens.
INFLAMMATION of the LIVER in non-human animals.
Retroviral proteins coded by the pol gene. They are usually synthesized as a protein precursor (POLYPROTEINS) and later cleaved into final products that include reverse transcriptase, endonuclease/integrase, and viral protease. Sometimes they are synthesized as a gag-pol fusion protein (FUSION PROTEINS, GAG-POL). pol is short for polymerase, the enzyme class of reverse transcriptase.
A general term for diseases produced by viruses.
Antigens produced by various strains of HEPATITIS D VIRUS.
Inhibitors of reverse transcriptase (RNA-DIRECTED DNA POLYMERASE), an enzyme that synthesizes DNA on an RNA template.
An enzyme that synthesizes DNA on an RNA template. It is encoded by the pol gene of retroviruses and by certain retrovirus-like elements. EC
A genus of PICORNAVIRIDAE causing infectious hepatitis naturally in humans and experimentally in other primates. It is transmitted through fecal contamination of food or water. HEPATITIS A VIRUS is the type species.
Administration of vaccines to stimulate the host's immune response. This includes any preparation intended for active immunological prophylaxis.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.
The total number of cases of a given disease in a specified population at a designated time. It is differentiated from INCIDENCE, which refers to the number of new cases in the population at a given time.
Substances elaborated by viruses that have antigenic activity.
A protein-nucleic acid complex which forms part or all of a virion. It consists of a CAPSID plus enclosed nucleic acid. Depending on the virus, the nucleocapsid may correspond to a naked core or be surrounded by a membranous envelope.
The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.
A genus of HEPADNAVIRIDAE infecting birds but rarely causing clinical problems. Transmission is predominantly vertical. HEPATITIS B VIRUS, DUCK is the type species.
Antigens of the virions of HEPACIVIRUS, their surface, core, or other associated antigens.
Includes the spectrum of human immunodeficiency virus infections that range from asymptomatic seropositivity, thru AIDS-related complex (ARC), to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS).
The outer protein protective shell of a virus, which protects the viral nucleic acid.
The expelling of virus particles from the body. Important routes include the respiratory tract, genital tract, and intestinal tract. Virus shedding is an important means of vertical transmission (INFECTIOUS DISEASE TRANSMISSION, VERTICAL).
A species of POLYOMAVIRUS originally isolated from Rhesus monkey kidney tissue. It produces malignancy in human and newborn hamster kidney cell cultures.
Viruses which lack a complete genome so that they cannot completely replicate or cannot form a protein coat. Some are host-dependent defectives, meaning they can replicate only in cell systems which provide the particular genetic function which they lack. Others, called SATELLITE VIRUSES, are able to replicate only when their genetic defect is complemented by a helper virus.
Immunoglobulins produced in response to VIRAL ANTIGENS.
Viruses whose nucleic acid is DNA.
The transference of a part of or an entire liver from one human or animal to another.
A country spanning from central Asia to the Pacific Ocean.
A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.
Layers of protein which surround the capsid in animal viruses with tubular nucleocapsids. The envelope consists of an inner layer of lipids and virus specified proteins also called membrane or matrix proteins. The outer layer consists of one or more types of morphological subunits called peplomers which project from the viral envelope; this layer always consists of glycoproteins.
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
The common chimpanzee, a species of the genus Pan, family HOMINIDAE. It lives in Africa, primarily in the tropical rainforests. There are a number of recognized subspecies.
Simultaneous infection of a host organism by two or more pathogens. In virology, coinfection commonly refers to simultaneous infection of a single cell by two or more different viruses.
Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.
The transmission of infectious disease or pathogens from one generation to another. It includes transmission in utero or intrapartum by exposure to blood and secretions, and postpartum exposure via breastfeeding.
INFLAMMATION of the LIVER in humans caused by HEPATITIS DELTA VIRUS in conjunction with HEPATITIS B VIRUS and lasting six months or more.
A human liver tumor cell line used to study a variety of liver-specific metabolic functions.
Viruses parasitic on plants higher than bacteria.
Sites on an antigen that interact with specific antibodies.
The presence of viruses in the blood.
Disease having a short and relatively severe course.
A subtype of INFLUENZA A VIRUS with the surface proteins hemagglutinin 1 and neuraminidase 1. The H1N1 subtype was responsible for the Spanish flu pandemic of 1918.
An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.
An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed.
The type species of ALPHAVIRUS normally transmitted to birds by CULEX mosquitoes in Egypt, South Africa, India, Malaya, the Philippines, and Australia. It may be associated with fever in humans. Serotypes (differing by less than 17% in nucleotide sequence) include Babanki, Kyzylagach, and Ockelbo viruses.
The type species of MORBILLIVIRUS and the cause of the highly infectious human disease MEASLES, which affects mostly children.
Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.
A species of the CORONAVIRUS genus causing hepatitis in mice. Four strains have been identified as MHV 1, MHV 2, MHV 3, and MHV 4 (also known as MHV-JHM, which is neurotropic and causes disseminated encephalomyelitis with demyelination as well as focal liver necrosis).
The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.
Blood tests that are used to evaluate how well a patient's liver is working and also to help diagnose liver conditions.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
Purine or pyrimidine bases attached to a ribose or deoxyribose. (From King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
A nucleoside antimetabolite antiviral agent that blocks nucleic acid synthesis and is used against both RNA and DNA viruses.
Unassigned species, in the family PICORNAVIRIDAE, causing high mortality in ducklings 3 days to 3 weeks old.
DNA sequences which are recognized (directly or indirectly) and bound by a DNA-dependent RNA polymerase during the initiation of transcription. Highly conserved sequences within the promoter include the Pribnow box in bacteria and the TATA BOX in eukaryotes.
DNA molecules capable of autonomous replication within a host cell and into which other DNA sequences can be inserted and thus amplified. Many are derived from PLASMIDS; BACTERIOPHAGES; or VIRUSES. They are used for transporting foreign genes into recipient cells. Genetic vectors possess a functional replicator site and contain GENETIC MARKERS to facilitate their selective recognition.
Antigens produced by various strains of HEPATITIS A VIRUS such as the human hepatitis A virus (HEPATITIS A VIRUS, HUMAN).
The study of the structure, growth, function, genetics, and reproduction of viruses, and VIRUS DISEASES.
A subtype of INFLUENZA A VIRUS comprised of the surface proteins hemagglutinin 5 and neuraminidase 1. The H5N1 subtype, frequently referred to as the bird flu virus, is endemic in wild birds and very contagious among both domestic (POULTRY) and wild birds. It does not usually infect humans, but some cases have been reported.
The type species of LYSSAVIRUS causing rabies in humans and other animals. Transmission is mostly by animal bites through saliva. The virus is neurotropic multiplying in neurons and myotubes of vertebrates.
A genus of tree shrews of the family TUPAIIDAE which consists of about 12 species. One of the most frequently encountered species is T. glis. Members of this genus inhabit rain forests and secondary growth areas in southeast Asia.
Infectious organisms in the BLOOD, of which the predominant medical interest is their contamination of blood-soiled linens, towels, gowns, BANDAGES, other items from individuals in risk categories, NEEDLES and other sharp objects, MEDICAL WASTE and DENTAL WASTE, all of which health workers are exposed to. This concept is differentiated from the clinical conditions of BACTEREMIA; VIREMIA; and FUNGEMIA where the organism is present in the blood of a patient as the result of a natural infectious process.
A subtype of INFLUENZA A VIRUS comprised of the surface proteins hemagglutinin 3 and neuraminidase 2. The H3N2 subtype was responsible for the Hong Kong flu pandemic of 1968.
Pathological processes of the LIVER.
Small synthetic peptides that mimic surface antigens of pathogens and are immunogenic, or vaccines manufactured with the aid of recombinant DNA techniques. The latter vaccines may also be whole viruses whose nucleic acids have been modified.
Any of the covalently closed DNA molecules found in bacteria, many viruses, mitochondria, plastids, and plasmids. Small, polydisperse circular DNA's have also been observed in a number of eukaryotic organisms and are suggested to have homology with chromosomal DNA and the capacity to be inserted into, and excised from, chromosomal DNA. It is a fragment of DNA formed by a process of looping out and deletion, containing a constant region of the mu heavy chain and the 3'-part of the mu switch region. Circular DNA is a normal product of rearrangement among gene segments encoding the variable regions of immunoglobulin light and heavy chains, as well as the T-cell receptor. (Riger et al., Glossary of Genetics, 5th ed & Segen, Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992)
Diseases which have one or more of the following characteristics: they are permanent, leave residual disability, are caused by nonreversible pathological alteration, require special training of the patient for rehabilitation, or may be expected to require a long period of supervision, observation, or care. (Dictionary of Health Services Management, 2d ed)
Genotypic differences observed among individuals in a population.
The co-occurrence of pregnancy and an INFECTION. The infection may precede or follow FERTILIZATION.
Insertion of viral DNA into host-cell DNA. This includes integration of phage DNA into bacterial DNA; (LYSOGENY); to form a PROPHAGE or integration of retroviral DNA into cellular DNA to form a PROVIRUS.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
A pyrimidine nucleoside formed in the body by the deamination of CYTARABINE.
Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.
Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)
A genus of HEPADNAVIRIDAE causing hepatitis in humans, woodchucks (HEPATITIS B VIRUS, WOODCHUCK) and ground squirrels. hepatitis b virus is the type species.
Polymers of ETHYLENE OXIDE and water, and their ethers. They vary in consistency from liquid to solid depending on the molecular weight indicated by a number following the name. They are used as SURFACTANTS, dispersing agents, solvents, ointment and suppository bases, vehicles, and tablet excipients. Some specific groups are NONOXYNOLS, OCTOXYNOLS, and POLOXAMERS.
A potent hepatotoxic and hepatocarcinogenic mycotoxin produced by the Aspergillus flavus group of fungi. It is also mutagenic, teratogenic, and causes immunosuppression in animals. It is found as a contaminant in peanuts, cottonseed meal, corn, and other grains. The mycotoxin requires epoxidation to aflatoxin B1 2,3-oxide for activation. Microsomal monooxygenases biotransform the toxin to the less toxic metabolites aflatoxin M1 and Q1.
DNA-dependent DNA polymerases found in bacteria, animal and plant cells. During the replication process, these enzymes catalyze the addition of deoxyribonucleotide residues to the end of a DNA strand in the presence of DNA as template-primer. They also possess exonuclease activity and therefore function in DNA repair.
INFLAMMATION of the LIVER due to ALCOHOL ABUSE. It is characterized by NECROSIS of HEPATOCYTES, infiltration by NEUTROPHILS, and deposit of MALLORY BODIES. Depending on its severity, the inflammatory lesion may be reversible or progress to LIVER CIRRHOSIS.
Viral proteins that are components of the mature assembled VIRUS PARTICLES. They may include nucleocapsid core proteins (gag proteins), enzymes packaged within the virus particle (pol proteins), and membrane components (env proteins). These do not include the proteins encoded in the VIRAL GENOME that are produced in infected cells but which are not packaged in the mature virus particle,i.e. the so called non-structural proteins (VIRAL NONSTRUCTURAL PROTEINS).
A species of FLAVIVIRUS, one of the Japanese encephalitis virus group (ENCEPHALITIS VIRUSES, JAPANESE). It can infect birds and mammals. In humans, it is seen most frequently in Africa, Asia, and Europe presenting as a silent infection or undifferentiated fever (WEST NILE FEVER). The virus appeared in North America for the first time in 1999. It is transmitted mainly by CULEX spp mosquitoes which feed primarily on birds, but it can also be carried by the Asian Tiger mosquito, AEDES albopictus, which feeds mainly on mammals.
A group of viruses in the PNEUMOVIRUS genus causing respiratory infections in various mammals. Humans and cattle are most affected but infections in goats and sheep have also been reported.
Severe inability of the LIVER to perform its normal metabolic functions, as evidenced by severe JAUNDICE and abnormal serum levels of AMMONIA; BILIRUBIN; ALKALINE PHOSPHATASE; ASPARTATE AMINOTRANSFERASE; LACTATE DEHYDROGENASES; and albumin/globulin ratio. (Blakiston's Gould Medical Dictionary, 4th ed)
The measurement of infection-blocking titer of ANTISERA by testing a series of dilutions for a given virus-antiserum interaction end-point, which is generally the dilution at which tissue cultures inoculated with the serum-virus mixtures demonstrate cytopathology (CPE) or the dilution at which 50% of test animals injected with serum-virus mixtures show infectivity (ID50) or die (LD50).
A species of CERCOPITHECUS containing three subspecies: C. tantalus, C. pygerythrus, and C. sabeus. They are found in the forests and savannah of Africa. The African green monkey (C. pygerythrus) is the natural host of SIMIAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS and is used in AIDS research.
Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.
Viruses that produce tumors.
Abuse, overuse, or misuse of a substance by its injection into a vein.
Membrane glycoproteins from influenza viruses which are involved in hemagglutination, virus attachment, and envelope fusion. Fourteen distinct subtypes of HA glycoproteins and nine of NA glycoproteins have been identified from INFLUENZA A VIRUS; no subtypes have been identified for Influenza B or Influenza C viruses.
Proteins encoded by a VIRAL GENOME that are produced in the organisms they infect, but not packaged into the VIRUS PARTICLES. Some of these proteins may play roles within the infected cell during VIRUS REPLICATION or act in regulation of virus replication or VIRUS ASSEMBLY.
Diagnostic procedures involving immunoglobulin reactions.
Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.
A malignant neoplasm occurring in young children, primarily in the liver, composed of tissue resembling embryonal or fetal hepatic epithelium, or mixed epithelial and mesenchymal tissues. (Stedman, 25th ed)
Production of new arrangements of DNA by various mechanisms such as assortment and segregation, CROSSING OVER; GENE CONVERSION; GENETIC TRANSFORMATION; GENETIC CONJUGATION; GENETIC TRANSDUCTION; or mixed infection of viruses.
Therapy with two or more separate preparations given for a combined effect.
A CELL LINE derived from the kidney of the African green (vervet) monkey, (CERCOPITHECUS AETHIOPS) used primarily in virus replication studies and plaque assays.
A species of SIMPLEXVIRUS that causes vesicular lesions of the mouth in monkeys. When the virus is transmitted to man it causes an acute encephalitis or encephalomyelitis, which is nearly always fatal.
Schedule giving optimum times usually for primary and/or secondary immunization.
A clinical manifestation of HYPERBILIRUBINEMIA, characterized by the yellowish staining of the SKIN; MUCOUS MEMBRANE; and SCLERA. Clinical jaundice usually is a sign of LIVER dysfunction.
Enzymes of the transferase class that catalyze the conversion of L-aspartate and 2-ketoglutarate to oxaloacetate and L-glutamate. EC
The transmission of infectious disease or pathogens. When transmission is within the same species, the mode can be horizontal or vertical (INFECTIOUS DISEASE TRANSMISSION, VERTICAL).
The interactions between a host and a pathogen, usually resulting in disease.
The process by which a DNA molecule is duplicated.
The type species of VESICULOVIRUS causing a disease symptomatically similar to FOOT-AND-MOUTH DISEASE in cattle, horses, and pigs. It may be transmitted to other species including humans, where it causes influenza-like symptoms.
Organized services to administer immunization procedures in the prevention of various diseases. The programs are made available over a wide range of sites: schools, hospitals, public health agencies, voluntary health agencies, etc. They are administered to an equally wide range of population groups or on various administrative levels: community, municipal, state, national, international.
The ability of a pathogenic virus to lie dormant within a cell (latent infection). In eukaryotes, subsequent activation and viral replication is thought to be caused by extracellular stimulation of cellular transcription factors. Latency in bacteriophage is maintained by the expression of virally encoded repressors.
Widely used technique which exploits the ability of complementary sequences in single-stranded DNAs or RNAs to pair with each other to form a double helix. Hybridization can take place between two complimentary DNA sequences, between a single-stranded DNA and a complementary RNA, or between two RNA sequences. The technique is used to detect and isolate specific sequences, measure homology, or define other characteristics of one or both strands. (Kendrew, Encyclopedia of Molecular Biology, 1994, p503)
A family of RNA viruses causing INFLUENZA and other diseases. There are five recognized genera: INFLUENZAVIRUS A; INFLUENZAVIRUS B; INFLUENZAVIRUS C; ISAVIRUS; and THOGOTOVIRUS.
A sequence of successive nucleotide triplets that are read as CODONS specifying AMINO ACIDS and begin with an INITIATOR CODON and end with a stop codon (CODON, TERMINATOR).
Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.
The binding of virus particles to receptors on the host cell surface. For enveloped viruses, the virion ligand is usually a surface glycoprotein as is the cellular receptor. For non-enveloped viruses, the virus CAPSID serves as the ligand.
The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.
A family of the order Rodentia which contains 49 genera. Some of the more common genera are MARMOTA, which includes the marmot and woodchuck; Sciurus, the gray squirrel, S. carolinensis, and the fox squirrel, S. niger; Tamias, the eastern and western chipmunk; and Tamiasciurus, the red squirrel. The flying squirrels, except the scaly-tailed Anomaluridae, also belong to this family.
Human immunodeficiency virus. A non-taxonomic and historical term referring to any of two species, specifically HIV-1 and/or HIV-2. Prior to 1986, this was called human T-lymphotropic virus type III/lymphadenopathy-associated virus (HTLV-III/LAV). From 1986-1990, it was an official species called HIV. Since 1991, HIV was no longer considered an official species name; the two species were designated HIV-1 and HIV-2.
A family of RNA viruses, many of which cause disease in humans and domestic animals. There are three genera FLAVIVIRUS; PESTIVIRUS; and HEPACIVIRUS, as well as several unassigned species.
The transmission of infectious disease or pathogens from health professional or health care worker to patients. It includes transmission via direct or indirect exposure to bacterial, fungal, parasitic, or viral agents.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
A form of rapid-onset LIVER FAILURE, also known as fulminant hepatic failure, caused by severe liver injury or massive loss of HEPATOCYTES. It is characterized by sudden development of liver dysfunction and JAUNDICE. Acute liver failure may progress to exhibit cerebral dysfunction even HEPATIC COMA depending on the etiology that includes hepatic ISCHEMIA, drug toxicity, malignant infiltration, and viral hepatitis such as post-transfusion HEPATITIS B and HEPATITIS C.
Deliberate stimulation of the host's immune response. ACTIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of ANTIGENS or IMMUNOLOGIC ADJUVANTS. PASSIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of IMMUNE SERA or LYMPHOCYTES or their extracts (e.g., transfer factor, immune RNA) or transplantation of immunocompetent cell producing tissue (thymus or bone marrow).
The naturally occurring or experimentally induced replacement of one or more AMINO ACIDS in a protein with another. If a functionally equivalent amino acid is substituted, the protein may retain wild-type activity. Substitution may also diminish, enhance, or eliminate protein function. Experimentally induced substitution is often used to study enzyme activities and binding site properties.
Multi-subunit proteins which function in IMMUNITY. They are produced by B LYMPHOCYTES from the IMMUNOGLOBULIN GENES. They are comprised of two heavy (IMMUNOGLOBULIN HEAVY CHAINS) and two light chains (IMMUNOGLOBULIN LIGHT CHAINS) with additional ancillary polypeptide chains depending on their isoforms. The variety of isoforms include monomeric or polymeric forms, and transmembrane forms (B-CELL ANTIGEN RECEPTORS) or secreted forms (ANTIBODIES). They are divided by the amino acid sequence of their heavy chains into five classes (IMMUNOGLOBULIN A; IMMUNOGLOBULIN D; IMMUNOGLOBULIN E; IMMUNOGLOBULIN G; IMMUNOGLOBULIN M) and various subclasses.
The return of a sign, symptom, or disease after a remission.
Proteins that form the CAPSID of VIRUSES.
Commercially prepared reagent sets, with accessory devices, containing all of the major components and literature necessary to perform one or more designated diagnostic tests or procedures. They may be for laboratory or personal use.

Cloning and characterization of the promoter region of human telomerase reverse transcriptase gene. (1/4254)

Activation of telomerase is one of the rate-limiting steps in human cell immortalization and carcinogenesis Human telomerase is composed of at least two protein subunits and an RNA component. Regulation of expression of the catalytic subunit, human telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT), is suggested as the major determinant of the enzymatic activity. We report here the cloning and characterization of the 5'-regulatory region of the hTERT gene. The highly GC-rich content of the 5' end of the hTERT cDNA spans to the 5'-flanking region and intron 1, making a CpG island. A 1.7-kb DNA fragment encompassing the hTERT gene promoter was placed upstream of the luciferase reporter gene and transiently transfected into human cell lines of fibroblastic and epithelial origins that differed in their expression of the endogenous hTERT gene. Endogenous hTERT-expressing cells, but not nonexpressing cells, showed high levels of luciferase activity, suggesting that the regulation of hTERT gene expression occurs mainly at the transcriptional level. Additional luciferase assays using a series of constructs containing unidirectionally deleted fragments revealed that a 59-bp region (-208 to -150) is required for the maximal promoter activity. The region contains a potential Myc oncoprotein binding site (E-box), and cotransfection of a c-myc expression plasmid markedly enhanced the promoter activity, suggesting a role of the Myc protein in telomerase activation. Identification of the regulatory regions of the hTERT promoter sequence will be essential in understanding the molecular mechanisms of positive and negative regulation of telomerase.  (+info)

Core promoter mutations and genotypes in relation to viral replication and liver damage in East Asian hepatitis B virus carriers. (2/4254)

Virus load and liver damage, as measured by quantitative polymerase chain reaction and histology activity index, were related to genotype and core promoter mutations in 43 chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) carriers of East Asian origin. T-1762 mutants were more frequent in genotype C strains and were associated with more inflammation (P=.0036) and fibrosis (P=.0088) of the liver but not with hepatitis B e antigen (HBeAg) status or virus load. Conversely, precore mutations were associated with less liver inflammation (P=. 08), which was linked to HBeAg negativity and lower viral replication. Carriers with genotype C were more often HBeAg positive (P=.03) with precore wild type strains and more-severe liver inflammation (P=.009) than were those with genotype B. These findings suggest that pathogenic differences between genotypes may exist and that the T-1762 mutation may be useful as a marker for progressive liver damage but seem to contradict that down-regulation of HBeAg production is the major effect of this mutation.  (+info)

Transcriptional repression of human hepatitis B virus genes by a bZIP family member, E4BP4. (3/4254)

Box alpha is an essential element of both the upstream regulatory sequence of the core promoter and the second enhancer, which positively regulate the transcription of human hepatitis B virus (HBV) genes. In this paper, we describe the cloning and characterization of a box alpha binding protein, E4BP4. E4BP4 is a bZIP type of transcription factor. Overexpression of E4BP4 represses the stimulating activity of box alpha in the upstream regulatory sequence of the core promoter and the second enhancer in differentiated human hepatoma cell lines. E4BP4 can also suppress the transcription of HBV genes and the production of HBV virions in a transient-transfection system that mimics the viral infection in vivo. Expression of an E4BP4 antisense transcript can, instead, elevate the transcription of the core promoter. A low abundance of E4BP4 protein and mRNA in differentiated human hepatoma cell lines is detected, and E4BP4 is not a major component of box alpha binding proteins in untransfected differentiated human hepatoma cell lines. C/EBPalpha and C/EBPbeta, in contrast, are major components of the box alpha binding activity present in nuclear extracts. E4BP4 has a stronger binding affinity towards box alpha than the endogenous box alpha binding activity present in nuclear extracts. Structure and function analysis of E4BP4 reveals that DNA binding activity is sufficient to confer the negative regulatory function of E4BP4. These results indicate that binding site occlusion is the mechanism whereby E4BP4 suppresses transcription in HBV.  (+info)

Mutations in the carboxyl-terminal domain of the small hepatitis B virus envelope protein impair the assembly of hepatitis delta virus particles. (4/4254)

The carboxyl-terminal domain of the small (S) envelope protein of hepatitis B virus was subjected to mutagenesis to identify sequences important for the envelopment of the nucleocapsid during morphogenesis of hepatitis delta virus (HDV) virions. The mutations consisted of carboxyl-terminal truncations of 4 to 64 amino acid residues and small combined deletions and insertions spanning the entire hydrophobic domain between residues 163 and 224. Truncation of as few as 14 residues partially inhibited glycosylation and secretion of S and prevented assembly or stability of HDV virions. Short internal combined deletions and insertions were tolerated for secretion of subviral particles with the exceptions of those affecting residues 164 to 173 and 219 to 223. However, mutants competent for subviral particle secretion had a reduced capacity for HDV assembly compared to that of the wild type. One exception was a mutant carrying a deletion of residues 214 to 218, which exhibited a twofold increase in HDV assembly (or stability), whereas deletions of residues 179 to 183, 194 to 198, and 199 to 203 were the most inhibitory. Substitutions of single amino acids between residues 194 and 198 demonstrated that HDV assembly deficiency could be assigned to the replacement of the tryptophan residue at position 196. We concluded that assembly of stable HDV particles requires a specific function of the carboxyl terminus of S which is mediated at least in part by Trp-196.  (+info)

Intronless mRNA transport elements may affect multiple steps of pre-mRNA processing. (5/4254)

We have reported recently that a small element within the mouse histone H2a-coding region permits efficient cytoplasmic accumulation of intronless beta-globin cDNA transcripts. This sequence lowers the levels of spliced products from intron-containing constructs and can functionally replace Rev and the Rev-responsive element (RRE) in the nuclear export of unspliced HIV-1-related mRNAs. In work reported here, we further investigate the molecular mechanisms by which this element might work. We demonstrate here through both in vivo and in vitro assays that, in addition to promoting mRNA nuclear export, this element acts as a polyadenylation enhancer and as a potent inhibitor of splicing. Surprisingly, two other described intronless mRNA transport elements (from the herpes simplex virus thymidine kinase gene and hepatitis B virus) appear to function in a similar manner. These findings prompt us to suggest that a general feature of intronless mRNA transport elements might be a collection of phenotypes, including the inhibition of splicing and the enhancement of both polyadenylation and mRNA export.  (+info)

Functional analysis of mutations conferring lamivudine resistance on hepatitis B virus. (6/4254)

Two patterns of mutation are commonly observed in the polymerase gene of lamivudine [(-)2'-deoxy-3'-thiacytidine]-resistant hepatitis B virus (HBV). The M539I substitution in the conserved YMDD motif occurs independently of other changes, whereas the M539V substitution is associated with an additional upstream change (L515M). These mutations were introduced into a common background and their effects on HBV DNA replication and lamivudine resistance studied. The L515M and M539V mutations provided only partial resistance while the M539I mutation conferred a high degree of lamivudine resistance. The combination of the L515M and M539V mutations gave an intermediate level of replication competence, compared with either mutation alone, and increased resistance to lamivudine. This probably accounts for these two mutations always being observed together. The M539I mutation reduced replication competence.  (+info)

A cellular protein which binds hepatitis B virus but not hepatitis B surface antigen. (7/4254)

The envelope of hepatitis B virus (HBV) consists of three related proteins known as the large (L), middle (M) and small (S) hepatitis B surface antigens (HBsAg). L-HBsAg has a 108-119 amino acid extension at the N terminus compared with M-HBsAg and contains the preS1 sequence of the HBV envelope. Previous research has identified this region as the likely virus attachment protein which is thought to interact with the cellular receptor for the virus. However, as the receptor has still not been identified unequivocally, we used the preS1 region of L-HBsAg to screen a human liver cDNA library by the yeast two-hybrid system. Several positive clones were isolated which encoded cellular proteins that interacted with the HBV preS1 protein. The specificity was examined in an independent manner in experiments in which baculovirus-derived glutathione S-transferase (GST)-preS1 was incubated with 35S-labelled protein expressed by in vitro translation from the positive clones. The intensity of the interactions using this alternative approach mirrored those observed in the yeast two-hybrid system and two proteins (an unidentified protein and a mitochondrial protein) were selected for further study. The specificity of the binding reaction between the preS1 protein and these two proteins was further confirmed in a competition assay; HBV purified from serum, but not purified HBsAg, was able to compete with preS1 and thus block GST-preS1 binding to the unidentified protein but not to the mitochondrial protein. The unidentified protein was then expressed as a fusion protein with GST and this was able to bind HBV virions in a direct manner.  (+info)

Phosphorylation-dependent binding of hepatitis B virus core particles to the nuclear pore complex. (8/4254)

Although many viruses replicate in the nucleus, little is known about the processes involved in the nuclear import of viral genomes. We show here that in vitro generated core particles of human hepatitis B virus bind to nuclear pore complexes (NPCs) in digitonin-permeabilized mammalian cells. This only occurred if the cores contained phosphorylated core proteins. Binding was inhibited by wheat germ agglutinin, by antinuclear pore complex antibodies, and by peptides corresponding either to classical nuclear localization signals (NLS) or to COOH-terminal sequences of the core protein. Binding was dependent on the nuclear transport factors importins (karyopherins) alpha and beta. The results suggested that phosphorylation induces exposure of NLS in the COOH-terminal portion of the core protein that allows core binding to the NPCs by the importin- (karyopherin-) mediated pathway. Thus, phosphorylation of the core protein emerged as an important step in the viral replication cycle necessary for transport of the viral genome to the nucleus.  (+info)

TY - JOUR. T1 - Bone marrow-derived stem cells and hepatocarcinogenesis in hepatitis B virus transgenic mice. AU - Barone, Michele. AU - Scavo, Maria Principia. AU - Maiorano, Eugenio. AU - Di Leo, Alfredo. AU - Francavilla, Antonio. PY - 2014/3. Y1 - 2014/3. N2 - Background: Several studies have demonstrated that cancer can develop with the contribution of bone marrow-derived cancer stem cells. We evaluated the possible involvement of bone marrow-derived stem cells in hepatocarcinogenesis in a hepatitis B virus (HBV) transgenic mouse model. Methods: Bone marrow cells from wild type male mice were transplanted into sublethally irradiated, female, HBV transgenic mice with hepatocarcinoma nodules. Four months later, liver tissue was examined to localize neoplastic nodules/foci and characterize cells by evaluating the Y-chromosome and the hepatocyte lineage marker hepatocyte nuclear factor-1 (HNF1), as well as the HBsAg encoding gene (HBs-Eg) and HBsAg protein (HBs-Pr) (present only in cells of ...
Objectives: A number of studies have shown that chronic hepatitis B virus infection is implicated insusceptibility to pancreatic cancer. However, the results are still controversial. This meta-analysis aimed toquantitatively assess the relationship between chronic hepatitis B virus infection and incidence of pancreaticcancer of cohort and case-control studies. Methods: A literature search was performed for entries from 1990 to2012 using PUBMED and EMBASE. Studies were included if they reported odds ratios (ORs) and corresponding95% CIs of pancreatic cancer with respect to the infection of hepatitis B virus. Results: Eight studies met theinclusion criteria, which included five case-control studies and three cohort studies. Compared with individualswho have not infection of hepatitis B virus, the pooled OR of pancreatic cancer was 1.403 (95%CI: 1.139-1.729,P=0.001) for patients with hepatitis B virus infection. Sub-group analysis by study design showed that thesummary OR was 1.43 (95%CI: 1.06-1.94, P=0
Hepatocyte expression of pre-S1 and pre-S2 in relation to hepatitis B virus replication (hepatitis B virus-DNA in serum and HBcAg in the liver), histological activity and hepatitis delta virus superinfection was studied by indirect immunofluorescence on frozen sections of liver specimens from 68 patients with chronic hepatitis B virus infection. All 44 patients with chronic type B hepatitis had pre-S1 and pre-S2 display in the liver. The distribution of pre-S1 in the liver was membranous in one, mixed membranous and cytoplasmic in 12, and cytoplasmic in 31. The distribution of pre-S2 was membranous in one, mixed membranous and cytoplasmic in 26, and cytoplasmic in 17. Membranous expression of pre-S1 was significantly more prevalent in patients with active hepatitis B virus replication than in those without (13/28 v 0/16, p , 0.001), regardless of the histological activity, as was membranous expression of pre-S2 (27/28 v 0/16, p , 0.001). In contrast, a significantly higher extent of cytoplasmic ...
Get the inner blade of the sample report @ Data records on the hepatitis B virus core antibody diagnostic kit market. Current Development Status and Future Market Trends: This report will be a valuable appraisal for newcomers who want to enter the market for Hepatitis B Virus Core Antibody Diagnostic Kits as they predict not only current market trends but also future trends. This will help them carefully select their genres to be equal to compete with the global giants who have to end the development studios with huge production capabilities that have years of experience.. Forecast Market by 2025: This comprehensive research is valuable to everyone who is part of the Hepatitis B virus lifting antibody diagnostic kit market. This will help you understand the full view of the entire Hepatitis B Virus Core Antibody Diagnostic Kits market.. Global Hepatitis B Virus ...
1. Hepatitis B: World Health Organization Fact Sheet 204. 2000 : World Health Organization. 2. Gust ID. Epidemiology of hepatitis B infection in the Western Pacific and South East Asia. Gut. 1996 ;38(suppl 2):S18-S23 3. Lok AS. Chronic hepatitis B. N Engl J Med. 2002 ;346:1682-1683 4. Mahoney FJ. Update on diagnosis, management, and prevention of hepatitis B virus infection. Clin Microbiol Rev. 1999 ;12:351-366 5. Lee WM. Hepatitis B infection. N Engl J Med. 1997 ;337:1733-1745 6. Margolis HS, Alter MJ, Hadler SC. Hepatitis B: evolving epidemiology and implications for control. Semin Liver Dis. 1991 ;11:84-92 7. Alter M. Epidemiology of hepatitis B in Europe and worldwide. J Hepatol. 2003 ;39:S64-S69 8. Toukan A. Strategy for the control of hepatitis B virus infection in the Middle East and North Africa. Vaccine. 1990 ;8(suppl):S117-S121 9. McQuillan GM, Townsend TR, Fields HA, Carroll M, Leahy M, Polk BF. Seroepidemiology of hepatitis B virus ...
Since its widespread introduction, the hepatitis B vaccine has become an essential part of infant immunization programmes globally. The vaccine has been particularly important for countries where the incidence of hepatitis B virus-related hepatocellular carcinoma is high. Effective treatment options for individuals with chronic hepatitis B infection were limited until 1998 when lamivudine, the first nucleoside analogue drug, was introduced. As a single treatment agent, however, lamivudine has a significant drawback: it induces lamivudine-resistant hepatitis B virus strains that may pose a risk to the global hepatitis B immunization programme. Mutations associated with drug treatment can cause changes to the surface antigen protein, the precise part of the virus that the hepatitis B vaccine mimics. However, the emergence of antiviral drug-associated potential vaccine escape mutants (ADAP-VEMs) in treated patients does not necessarily pose a significant, imminent threat to the global hepatitis B ...
1. Kao JH, Chen DS. Global control of hepatitis B virus infection. The Lancet Infectious diseases. 2002;2:395-403 2. Liaw YF, Chu CM. Hepatitis B virus infection. Lancet. 2009;373:582-92 3. Ren JJ, Liu Y, Ren W, Qiu Y, Wang B, Chen P. et al. Role of general practitioners in prevention and treatment of hepatitis B in China. Hepatobiliary & pancreatic diseases international: HBPD INT. 2014;13:495-500 4. Dandri M, Burda MR, Will H, Petersen J. Increased hepatocyte turnover and inhibition of woodchuck hepatitis B virus replication by adefovir in vitro do not lead to reduction of the closed circular DNA. Hepatology. 2000;32:139-46 5. Moraleda G, Saputelli J, Aldrich CE, Averett D, Condreay L, Mason WS. Lack of effect of antiviral therapy in nondividing hepatocyte cultures on the closed circular DNA of woodchuck hepatitis virus. Journal of virology. 1997;71:9392-9 6. Yuen MF, Lai CL. Treatment of chronic hepatitis B: Evolution over two decades. Journal of gastroenterology and hepatology. 2011;26(Suppl ...
A precore mutant is a variety of hepatitis B virus that does not produce hepatitis B virus e antigen (HBeAg). These mutants are important because infections caused by these viruses are difficult to treat, and can cause infections of prolonged duration and with a higher risk of liver cirrhosis. The mutations are changes in DNA bases from guanine to adenine at base position 1896 (G1896A), and from cytosine to thymine at position 1858 (C1858T) in the precore region of the viral genome. The HBV has four genes: S, P, C, and X. The S gene codes for the major envelope protein (HBsAg). The largest gene is P. It codes for DNA polymerase. The C gene codes for HBeAg and HBcAg. The C gene has a precore and a core region. If translation is initiated at the precore region, the protein product is HBeAg. If translation begins with the core region, HBcAg is the protein product. HBeAg is a marker of HBV replication and infectivity. The precore region is not necessary for viral replication. Precore mutants can ...
The role of hepatitis B virus (HBV) X protein (HBx) in the regulation of HBV replication remains controversial. In the present study, the role of HBx in regulating HBV replication was initially investigated in both HepG2 and Huh7 in vitro cell lines with a transient transfection system. Next, the regions of HBx responsible for transcriptional transactivation and promotion of HBV replication were mapped in an HBV replication mouse model by in vivo transfection of a series of HBx expression plasmids. In an in vitro setting, HBx deficiency had little effect on HBV replication in Huh7 cells, but impaired HBV replication in HepG2 cells. In an in vivo setting, HBx had a strong enhancing effect on HBV transcription and replication. For the C-terminal two-thirds of the protein (amino acids [aa] 51 to 154) was required for this function of HBx, and the regions spanning aa 52 to 72 and 88 to 154 were found to be important for the stimulatory function of HBx on HBV replication. In conclusion, the role of HBx in
The role of hepatitis B virus (HBV) X protein (HBx) in the regulation of HBV replication remains controversial. In the present study, the role of HBx in regulating HBV replication was initially investigated in both HepG2 and Huh7 in vitro cell lines with a transient transfection system. Next, the regions of HBx responsible for transcriptional transactivation and promotion of HBV replication were mapped in an HBV replication mouse model by in vivo transfection of a series of HBx expression plasmids. In an in vitro setting, HBx deficiency had little effect on HBV replication in Huh7 cells, but impaired HBV replication in HepG2 cells. In an in vivo setting, HBx had a strong enhancing effect on HBV transcription and replication. For the C-terminal two-thirds of the protein (amino acids [aa] 51 to 154) was required for this function of HBx, and the regions spanning aa 52 to 72 and 88 to 154 were found to be important for the stimulatory function of HBx on HBV replication. In conclusion, the role of HBx in
The proliferative response of PBMC to hepatitis B virus (HBV) envelope, core, and e Ag was analyzed prospectively in 21 patients with acute self-limited HBV infection and compared with the response of patients with chronic HBV infection and different levels of HBV replication (i.e., hepatitis e Ag (HBeAg)- or anti-HBe-positive) and liver damage (i.e., chronic active hepatitis or chronic asymptomatic carriers). Our results indicate that: 1) HBV-infected subjects who develop a self-limited acute hepatitis show a vigorous PBMC response to hepatitis B core Ag and HBeAg, as expression of T cell activation; 2) appearance of a detectable lymphocyte response to HBV nucleocapsid Ag is temporally associated with the clearance of HBV envelope Ag; 3) in patients with chronic HBV infection the level of T cell responsiveness to hepatitis B core Ag and to HBeAg is significantly lower than that observed during acute infection; 4) T cell sensitization to HBV envelope Ag in acute and chronic HBV infection is ...
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Histologic analyses of liver fibrosis have been limited by small sample sizes and the predominance of samples from patients with active hepatitis. METHODS: We performed a prospective study of transient elastography in treatment-naive patients with chronic hepatitis B, to investigate the relationship between hepatitis B virus (HBV) genotype and liver fibrosis. A validated liver stiffness measurement algorithm was used to define insignificant fibrosis and advanced fibrosis. RESULTS: Of 1106 patients, 711 (64%) were older than age 40, 370 (34%) had positive test results for hepatitis B e antigen (HBeAg), and 386 (35%) had increased serum levels of alanine aminotransferase. Of the patients, 524 (49%) had genotype B and 582 (51%) had genotype C HBV infection. Patients with genotype C infection had insignificant fibrosis less often (42% vs 55%; P ...
Quantitation of low hepatitis B virus (HBV) DNA levels in patients with chronic hepatitis B is important for monitoring natural history of disease and treatment efficacy. This study aimed to compare the quantitation range and analytical sensitivity of the newly developed COBAS TaqMan™ HBV test (TaqMan test) with the COBAS Amplicor™ HBV Monitor Test (Amplicor test), using the Eurohep HBV reference plasma and serum samples from patients. Serial dilutions (2.7 × 101-2.7 × 108 copies/ml) of the Eurohep HBV reference plasma and 50 serum samples from chronic hepatitis B patients were tested by both assays. The TaqMan test could detect seven (2.7 × 102-2.7 × 108 copies/ml) of eight dilutions of the reference plasma, while the Amplicor test could only detect three of them (2.7 × 103-2.7 × 105 copies/ml). The HBV DNA values measured by the TaqMan test correlated very well with the theoretical Eurohep standard values (r = 0.998, P , 0.001). There were good correlations between the HBV DNA levels ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Hepatitis B virus X protein represses LKB1 expression to promote tumor progression and poor postoperative outcome in hepatocellular carcinoma. AU - Wu, Cheng Chung. AU - Wu, De Wei. AU - Lin, Ying Yu. AU - Lin, Po Lin. AU - Lee, Huei. PY - 2018/1/1. Y1 - 2018/1/1. N2 - Background: Hepatitis B virus X (HBx) protein plays critical roles in hepatitis B virus (HBV)-associated hepatocellular tumorigenesis through different molecular mechanisms, including inactivation of p53, a key transcription factor of liver kinase B1 (LKB1). We hypothesized that p53 inactivation by HBx protein could decrease LKB1 expression, thereby promoting tumor progression and poor outcomes in patients with HBV-associated hepatocellular carcinoma. Methods: Manipulation strategies for HBx protein and/or p53 were used to verify that loss of LKB1 could promote colony formation and invasiveness in HepG2 and Hep3B cells. The expressions of HBx protein and LKB1 in 93 hepatocellular carcinomas (HCC) were also ...
Tong, S.P.; Brotman, B.; Li, J.S.; Vitvitski, L.; Pascal, D.; Prince, A.M.; Trépo, C., 1991: In vitro and in vivo replication capacity of the precore region defective hepatitis B virus variants
PubMed journal article: Occult hepatitis B virus infection in HBs antigen-negative hepatocellular carcinoma in a Japanese population: involvement of HBx and p53. Download Prime PubMed App to iPhone, iPad, or Android
TY - JOUR. T1 - Two core promotor mutations identified in a hepatitis B virus strain associated with fulminant hepatitis result in enhanced viral replication. AU - Baumert, Thomas F.. AU - Rogers, Steven A.. AU - Hasegawa, Kiyoshi. AU - Liang, T. Jake. PY - 1996/11/15. Y1 - 1996/11/15. N2 - Viral mutations have been implicated in alteration of the biological phenotype of hepatitis B virus (HBV). We recently cloned and sequenced the viral genome of an HBV strain associated with an outbreak of fulminant hepatitis (FH strain). The FH strain contained numerous mutations in all genomic regions and was functionally characterized by a more efficient encapsidation of pregenomic RNA leading to highly enhanced replication. To define the responsible mutation(s) for the enhanced replication, we introduced individual mutations of the FH strain into a wild-type construct by oligonucleotide-directed mutagenesis. Analysis of viral replication showed that two adjacent mutations in the HBV core promotor (C to T ...
1] 中華醫學會肝病學分會、感染病學分會. 慢性乙型肝炎防治指南. 中華肝臟病雜志, 2005,13(12):881-891.. [2] Seeger C, Mason WS. Hepatitis B virus biology. Microbiol Mol Biol Rev, 2000,64(1):51-68.. [3] Scaglioni PP, Melegari M, Wands JR. Biologic properties of hepatitis B viral genomes with mutations in the precore promoter and precore open reading frame. Virology, 1997,233(2):374-81.. [4] Tran TT, Trinh TN, Abe K. New complex recombinant genotype of hepatitis B virus identified in Vietnam. J Virol, 2008,82(11):5657-63.. [5] Olinger CM, Jutavijittum P, Hubschen JM, et al. Possible new hepatitis B virus genotype, southeast Asia. Emerg Infect Dis, 2008,14(11):1777-80.. [6] Chu CJ, Hussain M, Lok AS. Hepatitis B virus genotype B is associated with earlier HBeAg seroconversion compared with hepatitis B virus genotype C. Gastroenterology, 2002,122(7):1756-62.. [7] Chu CM, Liaw YF. Genotype C hepatitis B virus infection is associated with a higher risk of reactivation of ...
Co-infection with HIV and hepatitis B virus (HBV) has become an important factor of co-morbidity and mortality. The aim of this study was to determine the seroprevalence of HIV/HBV co-infection and its effect on the disease progression in people living with HIV/AIDS identified in Yaoundé Central Hospital. Blood samples from 75 HIV positive patients were collected in Yaoundé Central Hospital from November 2015 to February 2016, for the determination of hepatitis B virus surface antigen (HBsAg) using immunoassays. Cluster of differentiation 4 (CD4) T-cells count and biochemical markers of liver function were also collected and analyzed. The socio-demographic data were also collected. The effect sizes were confirmed using G*Power version software. The data were entered and analyzed using the SPSS Version 22.1 software.  The statistical tests performed were x2, and Pearson correlation, with significant difference at the threshold p ≤ 0.05. Hepatitis B virus surface antigen
Blood and blood products are the main routes through which Hepatitis B virus is transmitted. In fact, only 0.00004 ml of blood is sufficient for transmission. Any technique that allows the transfer of blood or serum from one individual to another is potentially likely to transmit Hepatitis B virus. Hepatitis B infection is especially common amongst IV drug abusers, Many cases occured following blood transfusion before the advent of screening. It is also particularly common amongst homosexuals where the practice of anal intercourse is particularly traumatic and frequently results in bleeding. Acupuncture, tatooing and ear piercing have also led to many reported cases of Hepatitis B infection. Hepatitis B is a known occupational hazard and the risk to health workers following accidental innoculation is 6-20%. Health personnel in renal dialysis units are particularly vulnerable. It has become clear that Hepatitis B virus is not spread exclusively by blood and blood products. The virus is infective ...
Hepatitis B, caused by infection with the hepatitis B virus, is a contagious liver disease that ranges in severity from a mild illness lasting a few weeks to a serious, lifelong illness. Acute hepatitis B is a short-term illness that occurs within the first 6 months after someone is exposed to the virus. Acute infection may lead to chronic infection. Chronic hepatitis B virus infection is a long-term illness that occurs when the hepatitis B virus remains in a persons body. This can eventually lead to serious health problems, including liver damage, liver cancer, and even death.. Not all people with acute hepatitis B have symptoms. However, if they appear, symptoms can include fever, fatigue, loss of appetite, nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain, dark urine, clay-colored bowel movements, joint pain, and jaundice (yellow color in the skin or the eyes).. Hepatitis B is spread when blood, semen, or other body fluid infected with the hepatitis B virus enters the body of a person who is not infected. ...
Background: Serial monitoring of hepatitis B virus (HBV) DNA and serum alanine transaminase (ALT) for at least one year is recommended to define an inactive carrier state. Recent studies proposed HBsAg levels as a marker for monitoring HBV infected patients. The aim of our study is to evaluate spontaneous HBV DNA fluctuations among Tunisian HBV infected patients and to assess the role of HBsAg quantification in the determination of viral disease activity. Methods: Seventy three untreated HBeAg negative asymptomatic HBV infected patients were followed up prospectively during a one year period (2014). Patients with persistently serum HBV DNA levels , 2000 IU/ml and persistently normal ALT for at least one year,were considered as inactive carrier of HBsAg. Patients with HBV DNA level fluctuation ≥2000 IU/ml and/or ALT elevation were classified as chronic hepatitis B (CHB) patients.Serum samples for HBV DNA and ALT quantification were obtained at three times with an interval of 6 months (M0, M6 ...
Hepatitis B virus (HBV) genotype influences chronic hepatitis B disease profile but its relevance in liver transplantation (LTx) is not known. HBV genotype was identified by direct sequencing from pre-transplant sera of 119 patients who underwent LTx using lamivudine prophylaxis (genotype A,1; B,43; C,74; D,1). The baseline characteristics and outcome of 43 genotype B and 74 genotype C patients were compared. Genotype B patients had significantly more pre-transplant acute flare, worse liver functions and higher model for end-stage liver disease score. Fewer genotype B patients had HBeAg (13% vs. 32%; p = 0.017), but HBV DNA seropositivity (by bDNA assay) was comparable (26% vs. 23%; p = 0.727). The 3-year graft survival was 83% for genotype B and 89% for genotype C (p = 0.2). The rate of HBsAg clearance or seroreversion was the same. The cumulative rate of viral breakthrough due to lamivudine-resistant mutants at 3 years was 4% for genotype B and 21% for genotype C (p = 0.017). Liver biopsy ...
Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is a global public health challenge. Prevalence of current hepatitis B virus infection in the general population in Uganda is about 10%. Health care workers (HCW) have an extra risk of getting infected from their workplace and yet they are not routinely vaccinated against HBV infection. This study aimed at estimating prevalence of hepatitis B virus infection and associated risk factors among health care workers in a tertiary hospital in Uganda. Data were obtained from a cross sectional survey conducted in Mulago, a national referral and teaching hospital in Uganda among health care workers in 2003. A proportionate to size random sample was drawn per health care worker category. A structured questionnaire was used to collect data on socio-demographic characteristics and risk factors. ELISA was used to test sera for HBsAg, anti-HBs and total anti-HBc. Descriptive and logistic regression models were used for analysis. Among the 370 participants, the sero-prevalence of
Hepatitis B vaccination is the most effective measure to prevent hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection and its consequences, including cirrhosis of the liver, liver cancer, liver failure, and death. In adults, ongoing HBV transmission occurs primarily among unvaccinated persons with behavioral risks for HBV transmission (e.g., heterosexuals with multiple sex partners, injection-drug users [IDUs], and men who have sex with men [MSM]) and among household contacts and sex partners of persons with chronic HBV infection. This report, the second of a two-part statement from the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP), provides updated recommendations to increase hepatitis B vaccination of adults at risk for HBV infection. The first part of the ACIP statement, which provided recommendations for immunization of infants, children, and adolescents, was published previously (CDC. A comprehensive immunization strategy to eliminate transmission of hepatitis B virus infection in the United States:
Tanaka, Y., Esumi, M. and Shikata, T. (1990), Persistence of hepatitis B virus DNA after serological clearance of hepatitis B virus. Liver, 10: 6-10. doi: 10.1111/j.1600-0676.1990.tb00429.x ...
Chronic hepatitis B virus infection is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality due to end stage liver disease and liver cancer. Although significant progress has been made in hepatitis B therapy, current knowledge about how to manage the infection is limited. To improve current knowledge on the disease and long-term disease progression, the Hepatitis B Research Network is collecting health and disease information from individuals who have been diagnosed with hepatitis B.. The objectives of this study are to study individuals with acute and chronic hepatitis B to identify factors that affect disease progression. Individuals at least 18 years of age who have been diagnosed with hepatitis B will be eligible to participate. Participants will be screened with a physical examination and medical history. Health information will be collected through questionnaires and surveys on health behaviors and family history of liver disease. Participants will also provide blood samples, and those who have had ...
As a leading supplier of antigens, Creative Diagnostics is proud to launch the new Hepatitis B Virus Antigens for research community all over the world. Along with extensive research, development, and validation, the newly released products are able to help scientists accelerate more scientific discoveries with highest standards of product performance.. Hepatitis B virus, abbreviated HBV, is a species of the genus Orthohepadnavirus, which is likewise a part of the Hepadnaviridae family of viruses. HBV causes the disease hepatitis B. As far as known, HBV is only susceptible to infect human beings and primates, causing hepatitis B disease. Hepatitis B virus has been found by Dana in 1965. The diameter of this virus is 42 nm and viral particle contains two parts, named shell and core.. HBV belongs to the family of hepadnaviridae, and the genome of this species consists of a double-stranded circular DNA possessing 3.2 Kb. HBVs have wide tolerance to various stress conditions, such as boiling in 65 ...
As a leading supplier of antigens, Creative Diagnostics is proud to launch the new Hepatitis B Virus Antigens for research community all over the world. Along with extensive research, development, and validation, the newly released products are able to help scientists accelerate more scientific discoveries with highest standards of product performance.. Hepatitis B virus, abbreviated HBV, is a species of the genus Orthohepadnavirus, which is likewise a part of the Hepadnaviridae family of viruses. HBV causes the disease hepatitis B. As far as known, HBV is only susceptible to infect human beings and primates, causing hepatitis B disease. Hepatitis B virus has been found by Dana in 1965. The diameter of this virus is 42 nm and viral particle contains two parts, named shell and core.. HBV belongs to the family of hepadnaviridae, and the genome of this species consists of a double-stranded circular DNA possessing 3.2 Kb. HBVs have wide tolerance to various stress conditions, such as boiling in 65 ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - The acceptable duration between occupational exposure to hepatitis B virus and hepatitis B immunoglobulin injection. T2 - Results from a Korean nationwide, multicenter study. AU - Chang, Hyun Ha. AU - Lee, Won Kee. AU - Moon, Chisook. AU - Choi, Wonseok. AU - Yoon, Hee Jung. AU - Kim, Jieun. AU - Ryu, Seong Yeol. AU - Kim, Hyun Ah. AU - Jo, Yu Mi. AU - Kwon, Ki Tae. AU - Kim, Hye In. AU - Sohn, Jang Wook. AU - Yoon, Young Kyung. AU - Jung, Sook In. AU - Park, Kyung Hwa. AU - Kwon, Hyun Hee. AU - Lee, Mi Suk. AU - Kim, Young Keun. AU - Kim, Yeon Sook. AU - Hur, Jian. AU - Kim, Shin Woo. PY - 2016/2/1. Y1 - 2016/2/1. N2 - Background Postexposure prophylaxis for occupational exposure to hepatitis B virus (HBV) plays an important role in the prevention of HBV infections in health care workers (HCWs). We examined data concerning the acceptable duration between occupational exposure and administration of a hepatitis B immunoglobulin (HBIG) injection in an occupational clinical setting. ...
Hepatitis B virus (HBV) DNA in serum of chronically infected patients declines by 3-4 log10 units at loss of HBe antigen (HBeAg) from serum. The mechanisms behind this decline, and the much smaller decline of surface antigen (HBsAg) levels, are still not well known. The aim of this study was to get a better understanding of this process by analysing both serum and intrahepatic markers of HBV replication. Levels of HBV DNA and HBsAg in serum, and covalently closed circular DNA (cccDNA), pregenomic RNA (pgRNA) and S-RNA and total intrahepatic HBV DNA (ihDNA) in liver biopsies from 84 chronically infected patients (16 positive and 68 negative for HBeAg) were analysed. Lower HBV DNA levels within HBeAg-positive stage reflected lower levels of cccDNA and pgRNA with strong correlation. In HBeAg-negative patients, ihDNA levels were greater and HBV DNA levels in serum lower than expected from pgRNA levels. A lower HBV DNA/HBsAg ratio corresponded with lower pgRNA/cccDNA (p | 0.01) and higher S-RNA/cccDNA (p | 0
Hepatitis B is the most probable life-threatening liver infection that is caused by the hepatitis B virus. This is a major universal health problem. This can cause chronic infection and put people at high risk of death from liver cancer and cirrhosis.. Hepatitis B is a virus that affects the liver. Most people have it for a short time and then get better. It is called acute hepatitis B.. Sometimes this virus causes a long-term infection, named chronic hepatitis B. Over time this could damage your liver. Infants and young kids infected with the virus are more prone to get chronic hepatitis B.. Most of the people with hepatitis B do not know that they have it, because they do not have any indications. If you do have symptoms, you may only experience it like you have the flue.. Symptoms consist of:. ...
The Global Hepatitis B Virus Core Antibody Diagnostic Kits Market report offers a summary of a substantial number of statistics in the Global Hepatitis B Virus Core Antibody Diagnostic Kits Market . Data collected in the report highlights the current market trends. Also, it provides the users with the detailed statistics of the Global Hepatitis…. ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Lack of susceptibility of baboons to infection with hepatitis B virus. AU - Michaels, Marian G.. AU - Lanford, Robert. AU - Demetris, Anthony J.. AU - Chavez, Deborah. AU - Brasky, Kathleen. AU - Fung, John. AU - Starzl, Thomas E.. PY - 1996/2/15. Y1 - 1996/2/15. N2 - Historically, hepatitis B virus (HBV) has been considered species specific and unable to infect baboons. Based on this premise, two patients with HBV end-stage liver disease underwent baboon liver xenotransplantation. To study whether baboons are susceptible to HBV infection, four baboons (two receiving immunosuppressive therapy) were inoculated with HBV. Animals were followed for 6 months: clinical examinations and biochemical studies were normal, hepatitis B surface antigen and hepatitis B core antigen staining of biopsies was negative, and HBV serology remained negative. HBV polymerase chain reaction was transiently positive in one animal, which most likely reflects the initial inoculation. This pilot study ...
The nucleic acid polymers REP 2139 and REP 2165 led to hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) reduction or clearance when combined with tenofovir and pegylated interferon, according to early results from a small study presented as a late-breaker at the 2016 AASLD Liver Meeting this month in Boston. This combination may potentially enable functional control of hepatitis B if confirmed in larger studies.. Over years or decades chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection can lead to advanced liver disease including cirrhosis and liver cancer. Antiviral therapy using nucleoside/nucleotide analogues such as entecavir (Baraclude) or tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (Viread) is the mainstay of treatment for chronic hepatitis B. While these drugs can suppress HBV replication during therapy, and can thereby reduce the risk of liver disease progression, they usually do not lead to a cure - as indicated by HBsAg loss and anti-HBs antibody seroconversion - and long-term treatment is generally needed. Researchers ...
|p|Timely public health follow-up is required for acute cases of hepatitis B, including immunoprophylaxis of susceptible contacts. Passive public health follow-up is provided for chronic cases. The majority of cases of hepatitis B virus in VCH are chronic. Positive hepatitis B virus surface antigen (HBSAg) results are reported once only - subsequent positive results do not get reported.   Public Health also works in conjuction with external providers to ensure delivery of prenatal, antenatal, and 7-mos follow-up for infants at high risk of hepatitis B infection.|/p|
Hepatitis B virus (HBV) core protein (HBc) can shuttle between nucleus and cytoplasm. Cytoplasm-predominant HBc is clinically associated with severe liver inflammation. Previously, we found that HBc arginine-rich domain (ARD) can associate with a host factor NXF1 (TAP) by coimmunoprecipitation. It is well known that NXF1-p15 heterodimer can serve as a major export receptor of nuclear mRNA as a ribonucleoprotein complex (RNP). In the NXF1-p15 pathway, TREX (transcription/export) complex plays an important role in coupling nuclear pre-mRNA processing with mRNA export in mammalian cells. Here, we tested the hypothesis whether HBc and HBV specific RNA can be exported via the TREX and NXF1-p15 mediated pathway. We demonstrated here that HBc can physically and specifically associate with TREX components, and the NXF1-p15 export receptor by coimmunoprecipitation. Accumulation of HBc protein in the nucleus can be induced by the interference with TREX and NXF1-p15 mediated RNA export machinery. HBV transcripts
Summary The entire nucleotide sequence of genomic DNA was determined for hepatitis B virus (HBV) of subtype ayr, which had been derived from the blood of a Japanese asymptomatic carrier. The genome was 3215 nucleotides long, and differed in DNA sequence by 10% from that of subtypes adw or ayw, but by only 2% from that of subtype adr. Amino acid sequences coded for by the S, C, P and X genes, as well as by the pre-S region, closely resembled those of subtype adr, indicating that the evolution of HBV/ayr from HBV/adr was more recent than the differentiation of the other three subtypes. In the product of the S gene, the mutually exclusive subtypic determinants of the surface antigen, d and y, were associated with variation of amino acid residues at only the 68th and 122nd positions from the N terminus, in contrast to the variation at as many as seven positions for the other set of subtypic determinants, w and r. Sequences representing high local hydrophilicity in the product of the S gene were involved in
During that investigation several cats, that had previously died as a result of FIV, also seemed infected with a virus. The virus itself was elusive and it showed only 73-94% amino acid identity with known Hepatitis B viruses. This suggested the presence of a novel virus that was divergent from currently known Hepatitis B viruses. Such a large genetic distance merits assignment of a new species within the genus Orthohepadnavirus, which was tentatively named Domestic Cat Hepadnavirus or Domestic Cat Hepatitis B Virus ...
World Health Organization. World Health Organization Hepatitis B Factsheet. Geneva: World Health Organization, 2017. S. Baig, A. A. Siddiqui, W. Ahmed, H. Qureshi and A. Arif. The association of complex liver disorders with HBV genotypes prevalent in Pakistan. Virology Journal, vol. 4, no. 1, p. 128, 2007. G. Fattovich. Natural history of hepatitis B. Journal of Hepatology, vol. 39, pp. 50-58, 2003. I. Pita, A. M. Horta-Vale, H. Cardoso and G. Macedo. Hepatitis B inactive carriers: An overlooked population? GE Portuguese Journal of Gastroenterology, vol. 21, no. 6, pp. 241-249, 2014. L. M. Villar, H. M. Cruz, J. R. Barbosa, C. S. Bezerra, M. M. Portilho and L. de Paula Scalioni. Update on hepatitis B and C virus diagnosis. World Journal of Virology, vol. 4, no. 4, p. 323, 2015. I. J. Radii and A. M. Saud. Comparative assessment between serological and molecular diagnosis for patients groups with hepatitis b virus. International Journal of Current Microbiology and Applied Science, ...
Hepatitis B virus strains of subgenotype A2 with an identical sequence spreading rapidly from the capital region to all over Japan in patients with acute hepatitis B ...
The authors followed 147 children from 113 families who were susceptible to hepatitis B virus infection for a total of 275 person-years. Among these children, 19 became infected with the hepatitis B virus and thus became new subclinical cases. In this cohort study, parents played a minor role in hepatitis B virus horizontal transmission. On the...
There is currently no universally accepted numbering convention for the antiviral drug-related resistance mutations in the reverse transcriptase (rt) domain of the human hepatitis B virus (HBV) polymerase. The published inconsistencies have resulted from different HBV genotypes. A standardized numbering system for HBV polymerase is proposed. The new system is based on functional observations of HBV surface gene proteins (preS1, preS2, and HBsAg) and on the current convention used for human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) polymerase proteins (protease, rt, and integrase), in which the amino acid numbering restarts at the first codon position of each domain. The HBV polymerase protein can be divided into 4 domains (terminal protein, spacer, rt, ribonuclease H) and each of these can be numbered separately. In this proposal, the HBV rt domain starts with the highly conserved EDWGPCDEHG motif, contains 344 amino acids, and the lamivudine-related resistance mutations are found at amino acid ...
Corresponding author. Mailing address: Department of Medical and Molecular Science, Division of Frontier Medical Science, Programs for Biomedical Research, Graduate School of Biomedical Science, Hiroshima University, 1-2-3 Kasumi, Minami-ku, Hiroshima 734-8551, Japan. Phone: 81-82-257-5190. Fax: 81-82-255-6220. E-mail: chayama{at} ...
Rapid Quantification of Hepatitis B Virus DNA by Automated Sample Preparation and Real-Time PCR: Monitoring of hepatitis B virus (HBV) DNA in serum by molecular
Background/Purpose: The prevalence of chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is high in China. 4% patients with HBV infection can present with polyarthritis and positive rheumatic factor similar to RA, which implied similar pathogenic mechanism.We aimed to investigate the association between HBV infection and serological, radiological or histological disease status in RA. Methods: 223 continuous hospitalized Chinese patients with RA were enrolled retrospectively. Clinical and laboratory data including HBV detection, and hand X ray were collected. Among 133 active RA patients, synovium was obtained by closed-needle biopsy from inflamed knee joint. Serial tissue sections were stained immunohistochemically for HBV surface antigen (HBsAg), CD79a, CD20, CD38, CD68, CD3, and CD34. Densities of positive-staining cells and synovitis score were determined. Results: According to HBV infection status, 25/223 had chronic HBV infection (including 4 chronic hepatitis B and 21 HBV carriers), 72/223 had past ...
Omata, M.; Ehata, T.; Yokosuka, O.; Hosoda, K.; Ohto, M., 1991: Mutations in the precore region of hepatitis B virus DNA in patients with fulminant and severe hepatitis
Shop a large selection of products and learn more about Hepatitis B Virus X antigen Mouse anti-Virus, Alexa Fluor 594, Clone: X36C, Hepatitis B Virus X antigen Antibody; Alexa
Hepatitis B virus (HBV) X gene encodes a multifunctional protein that can regulate cellular signaling pathways, interact with cellular transcription factors, and induce hepatocellular oncogenesis. In spite of its diverse activities, the precise role of the X protein in the viral life cycle of HBV remains unclear. To investigate this question, we have produced transgenic mice that carry either the wild-type HBV genome or a mutated HBV genome incapable of expressing the 16.5-kDa X protein. Our results indicate that while the X protein is not absolutely essential for HBV replication or its maturation in transgenic mice, it can enhance viral replication, apparently by activating viral gene expression. These results demonstrate a transactivation role of the X protein in HBV replication in transgenic mice. ...
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1. European Association For The Study Of The L. EASL clinical practice guidelines: Management of chronic hepatitis B virus infection. Journal of hepatology. 2012;57:167-85 2. Wang J, Shen T, Huang X, Kumar GR, Chen X, Zeng Z. et al. Serum hepatitis B virus RNA is encapsidated pregenome RNA that may be associated with persistence of viral infection and rebound. Journal of hepatology. 2016;65:700-10 3. Bertoletti A, Ferrari C. Innate and adaptive immune responses in chronic hepatitis B virus infections: towards restoration of immune control of viral infection. Gut. 2012;61:1754-64 4. Seetharam A, Perrillo R, Gish R. Immunosuppression in Patients with Chronic Hepatitis B. Current hepatology reports. 2014;13:235-44 5. Pang J, Zhang G, Lin Y, Xie Z, Liu H, Tang L. et al. Transforming growth factor beta-activated kinase 1 transcriptionally suppresses hepatitis B virus replication. Scientific reports. 2017;7:39901 6. Matsumoto T, Takahashi K, Inuzuka T, Kim SK, Kurosaki T, Kawakami S. et al. Activation ...
Mouse monoclonal antibody raised against recombinant hepatitis B virus core antigen Recombinant protein corresponding to hepatitis B virus core antigen core. (MAB5402) - Products - Abnova
Mouse monoclonal antibody raised against recombinant hepatitis B virus core antigen Recombinant protein corresponding to hepatitis B virus core antigen core. (MAB5403) - Products - Abnova
For additional information on hepatitis B virus (HBV) and HIV, see HIV/Hepatitis B (HBV) Coinfection in the Adult and Adolescent Guidelines1 and Hepatitis B Virus Infection in the Adult and Adolescent OI Guidelines.2 The management of HIV/HBV coinfection in pregnancy is complex and consultation with an expert in HIV and HBV infection is strongly recommended.. Screening and Vaccination All women living with HIV should be screened for HBV and hepatitis C virus (HCV) at entry into general HIV care. All pregnant women living with HIV should be screened during each pregnancy for HBV unless they are known to have HIV/HBV coinfection and for HCV unless they are known to have HIV/HCV coinfection. Screening for HBV should include hepatitis B surface antigen [HBsAg], hepatitis B core antibody [anti-HBc], and hepatitis B surface antibody [anti-HBs]. Women who test positive for HBsAg should have follow-up testing that includes liver function tests, prothrombin time, HB e antigen, HB e antibody, and HBV DNA ...
Buy our Recombinant Hepatitis B Virus E Antigen protein. Ab91273 is an active full length protein produced in Escherichia coli and has been validated in WB…
During previous studies of susceptibility to hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection, HBV DNA was detected in 2/6 wildcaught baboons. In the present study, HBV DNA was amplified from 15/69 wild-caught baboons. All animals were negative for HBV surface antigen and antibody against HBV core antigen. Liver tissue from 1 baboon was immunohistochemically negative for HBV surface antigen but positive for HBV core antigen. The complete HBV genome of an isolate from this liver clustered with subgenotype A2. Reverse transcription PCR of liver RNA amplified virus precore and surface protein genes, indicating replication of virus in baboon liver tissue. Four experimentally naive baboons were injected with serum from HBV DNA-positive baboons. These 4 baboons showed transient seroconversion, and HBV DNA was amplified from serum at various times after infection. The presence of HBV DNA at relatively low levels and in the absence of serologic markers in the baboon, a nonhuman primate, indicates an occult infection ...
BioAssay record AID 378283 submitted by ChEMBL: Inhibition of Hepatitis B virus E antigen activity in human MS-G2 cells at 10 ug/mL.
Background: Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is a major global health burden with distinct geographic public health significance. Oman is a country with intermediate HBV carrier prevalence; however, little is known about the incidence of HBV variants in circulation. We investigated the HBV genotype distribution, the occurrence of antiviral resistance, and HBV surface antigen (HBsAg) escape mutations in HBsAg-positive patients in Oman. Methods: Serum samples were collected from 179 chronically HBV-infected patients enrolled in various gastroenterology clinics in Oman. HBV genotypes were determined by sequencing and phylogenetic analysis. Mutations in the HBV polymerase and the HBsAg gene were characterized by mutational analysis. Results: HBV genotypes D (130/170; 76.47%) and A (32/170; 18.28%) are predominant in Oman. The HBV genotypes C and E were less frequent (each 1.18%), while the HBV genotypes B, G, F, and H were not detected. Four patients revealed HBV genotype mixtures (HBV-A/D and ...
Yum, J. S., B. C. Ahn, H. J. Jo, D. Y. Kim, K. H. Kim, H. S. Kim, Y. C. Sung, J. Yoon, J. Morrey, and H. M. Moon. 2012. Use of pre-s protein-containing hepatitis B virus surface antigens and a powerful adjuvant to develop an immune therapy for chronic hepatitis B virus infection. Clin Vaccine Immunol 19:120-127. PMID22155769. ...
The underlying mechanisms for earlier hepatitis B e antigen (HBeAg) seroconversion in patients with chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) genotype B when compared with genotype C are unknown. We aimed to determine whether there were any differences in the T helper (Th) responses during hepatitis flares in HBeAg-positive patients with genotypes B and C. Proliferative response measured by 3H-thymidine uptake and Th responses measured by Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Spot assays for interleukin (IL)-2, interferon-gamma (IFN-γ), IL-4, IL-5 and IL-10 were performed in 10 patients with genotype B and 10 with genotype C with hepatitis flares. HBV genotypes, core promoter, precore mutations, sequence of HBV core region and HBV DNA levels were determined. There was no difference in the HBV DNA levels during hepatitis flares between patients with genotypes B and C. Patients with genotype B had a significantly higher number of IFN-γ producing cells [with hepatitis B core antigen (HBcAg) stimulation] and lower ...
References for Abcams Recombinant Hepatitis B Virus Core Antigen protein (ab119471). Please let us know if you have used this product in your publication
Hepatitis B virus (HBV) is one of the major causes of chronic hepatitis, cirrhosis and liver cancer. In combating HBV infections, HBV diagnosis and vaccination are therefore critical. The hepatitis B virus surface antigen (HBsAg) is a key target molecule in developing vaccines and diagnostic systems. To date, although HBsAg has been expressed in bacteria, yeasts and mammalian cells, there are still limitations in the existing ones, which leave the necessity for searching new HBsAg production methods. In this study, a simple phage display-based method was developed to produce the purified full-length HBsAg molecules for further immunization studies. For this purpose, the HBsAg coding gene was cloned into a pCANTAB5E phagemid vector and expressed on the surface of M13 filamentous phages. The HBsAg-expressing phage nanosystem was then used as immunization agent in BALB/cJ mice. The ELISA results for sera obtained from mice immunized with HBsAg-displaying phage particles revealed an immune response ...
The purpose of this study is to identify the effect of prophylactic entecavir in HBsAg Negative/HBcAb Positive/hepatitis B virus DNA Negative patients with lymphoma are randomized into entecavir prophylaxis group or observation group. In entecavir prophylaxis group, entecavir 0.5 mg/day orally is initiate on day 1 of the first course of antitumor therapy, and will be continued until at least 6 months after completion of antitumor therapy. In observation group, entecavir 0.5mg daily will be prescribed for patients with hepatitis B virus reactivation ...
Chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection in endemic areas usually starts since infancy and early childhood and persists lifelong. The clinical course varies among different chronic infected subjects. Majority of chronic HBV infected children present with immune-tolerant status initially, experience the immune clearance phase with various degree of liver injury during or beyond puberty, and then enter the inactive phase after hepatitis B e antigen (HBeAg) seroconversion. Part of them may have HBV DNA titers elevation with hepatitis flare after HBeAg seroconversion, the so call HBeAg-negative hepatitis flare. Liver cirrhosis, and even hepatocellular carcinoma may develop afterward. The complex course of chronic HBV infection is associated with the age/route of viral acquisition, host factors such as immune and endocrine factors, viral factors, and host-viral interactions. The adrenarche and puberty onset modulate the start of immune clearance and the severity of liver inflammation in chronic HBV infected
Hepatitis B Virus Core Antigen antibody [H6F5] for ELISA, WB. Anti-Hepatitis B Virus Core Antigen mAb (GTX22045) is tested in Hepatitis B virus samples. 100% Ab-Assurance.
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HBc IgM ELISA Screening, 96 wells (EIA4085) - An Enzyme ImmunoAssay (ELISA) for determination of IgM class antibodies to Hepatitis B Virus core Antigen in plasma and sera with the capture system.
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SPEARMAN, C W N et al. South African guideline for the management of chronic hepatitis B: 2013. SAMJ, S. Afr. med. j. [online]. 2013, vol.103, n.5, pp.335-349. ISSN 2078-5135.. Hepatitis B remains a significant yet preventable health issue in South Africa. The introduction of the hepatitis B vaccine into the country some 18 years ago has demonstrated benefit, but the exposure to, and prevalence of chronic HBsAg positivity remain unacceptably high. Those with chronic hepatitis B virus infection have an elevated risk of developing cirrhosis with end-stage liver disease and a markedly elevated risk of hepatocellular carcinoma, independent of the presence of cirrhosis. The challenge in South Africa remains prevention through the universal vaccination coverage of all children and the identification of those with chronic hepatitis B virus infection. Over the last decade our understanding of hepatitis B and its behaviour and natural history in those with chronic infection has significantly improved. ...
Results: Of the 1000 samples 55 (5.5%) were found to be reactive, of which 87.3% (48/55) were positive for hepatitis B surface antibody, indicating immunity as a result of previous infection however, that does not exclude active infection with escaped mutant HBV. Nested PCR results showed the presence of hepatitis B viral DNA in all the 55 samples that were positive for core protein, which is in agreement with the hepatitis B surface antibody result ...
Occult Hepatitis B infection is characterized by the presence of HBV DNA without detectable HBsAg, with or without the presence of HBV antibodies outside the acute phase window period [8]. A number of possible mechanisms have been suggested for the pathogenesis of occult Hepatitis B infection, although it is most likely multifactorial, depending upon both host and viral factors. The majority of cases are secondary to overt HBV infection and represent a residual low level viraemia suppressed by a robust immune response, together with abnormal histological findings on liver biopsy which developed either during the acute or chronic phase of HBV infection [9,10].. In our study, a sensitive real time quantitative PCR assay was used to determine the presence of occult Hepatitis B infection in a large cohort of inner city adult patients receiving maintenance haemodialysis. We did find occult HBV, although the prevalence and levels of detectable circulating HBV were low.. Some studies have observed a ...
OBJECTIVES: Chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is associated with a higher risk of liver diseases. Substantial uncertainty remains, however, about the associations of HBV infection with mortality from extrahepatic causes, especially from subtypes of cardiovascular diseases. We prospectively examined the association of chronic HBV infection with total and cause-specific mortality. DESIGN: Population-based prospective cohort study. SETTING: China Kadoorie Biobank in which participants from 10 geographically diverse areas across China were enrolled between 2004 and 2008. PARTICIPANTS: 475 801 participants 30-79 years of age without reporting major chronic diseases at baseline were enrolled. Hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) was tested using an on-site rapid test strip at baseline. PRIMARY AND SECONDARY OUTCOME MEASURES: Total and cause-specific mortality. RESULTS: A total of 35 822 deaths were recorded during ~10 years of follow-up. In multivariable-adjusted analyses, compared with HBsAg-negative
Hepatitis B is a serious liver infection caused by Hepatitis B virus. Chronic Hepatitis B infection leads to increased risk for liver cirrhosis, liver cancer and consequent death due to these conditions. The major modes of transmission include mother to child during birth, blood exposure and during sexual contact. The Hepatitis B infection can be prevented through three doses of Hepatitis B vaccination given over a period of six months and the control of Hepatitis B infections includes costly antiviral medications. As per World Health Organization (WHO), the regions of the world with hepatitis B prevalence rate less than 2% have low endemicity, those having prevalence rate of 2-7% are of medium endemicity and regions with prevalence rate greater than 7% are categorized as highly endemic. India falls in medium endemic region with Hepatitis B prevalence rate ranging from 2-7%.. In the context of the exile Tibetan population, Department of Health, CTA recognizes Hepatitis B as a major public health ...
Lamivudine is an oral nucleoside analogue widely used for the treatment of chronic hepatitis B. The main limitation of lamivudine use is the selection of resistant mutations that increases with time of utilization. Hepatitis B virus (HBV) isolates have been classified into eight genotypes (A to H) with distinct geographical distributions. HBV genotypes may also influence pathogenic properties and therapeutic features. Here, we analyzed the HBV genotype distribution and the nature and frequency of lamivudine resistant mutations among 36 patients submitted to lamivudine treatment for 12 to 84 months. Half of the patients were homosexual men. Only 4/36 (11%) patients were HBV DNA negative. As expected for a Brazilian group, genotypes A (24/32 positive individuals, 75%), D (3/32, 9.3%) and F (1/32, 3%) were present. One sample was from genotype C, which is a genotype rarely found in Brazil. Three samples were from genotype G, which had not been previously detected in Brazil. Lamivudine resistance mutations
The mechanisms of hepatitis B virus (HBV) persistent infection are not completely understood. Interleukin (IL)-35, which is a newly identified cytokine belongs to IL-12 family, has been demonstrated to induce immunotolerance. Thus, the aim of current study was to investigate the role of IL-35 during chronic HBV infection. A total of 61 patients with chronic HBV infection (37 chronic hepatitis B [CHB] and 24 asymptomatic HBV carriers [ASC]) and 20 healthy individuals were enrolled. IL-35 concentration as well as the modulatory function of IL-35 on CD4+CD25+CD127dim/- regulatory T cells (Tregs) and on HBV antigen-specific CD8+ T cells was investigated. IL-35 expression was significantly increased in both CHB and ASC, and was positively correlated with the levels of HBV DNA. Inhibition of viral replication induced the reduction in serum levels of IL-35. IL-35 stimulation led to inhibition of proinflammatory cytokine productions and elevation of apoptosis in peripheral blood mononuclear cells, but not in
Hepatitis B The disease known as Hepatitis B is caused by the infectuous Hepatitis B virus (HBV). HBV alone has infected about 400 million people in the world, which makes HBV one of the most common pathogens. Almost 700 million U.S. Dollars are spent every year for treating Hepatitis patients. Structure: HBV is a 42 nm doubleshelled deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) virus of the class Hepadnaviridae. The outer surface membrane contains Hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg), which also circulates in blood as 22 nm spherical and tubular particles. The inner core of the virus contains Hepatitis B core antigen (HBcAG), Hepatitis B e antigen (HBeAg), a single molecule of partially doublestranded DNA, and DNA dependent DNA polymerase.. How it is transmitted? Hepatitis B is transmitted by sexual contact or by blood. People who are at risk by being infected by HBV are drug users, homosexuals, active heterosexuals, infants born from infected mothers and children of immigrants from disease-endemic areas. ...
The objective of the practice guideline is to update the natural history of hepatitis B virus infection and to give recommendations for optimal management of chronic hepatitis B.. The guideline is based on the best available evidence. The goal of treatment of chronic hepatitis B is to improve quality of life and survival by preventing progression of hepatitis to cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma.. The progression of liver disease is associated with HBV DNA level in the blood. In HBeAgpositive and HBeAg-negative patients, the ideal end-point of treatment is sustained HBsAg loss. Maintained undetectable HBV DNA under long-term antiviral treatment in HBeAg-positive patients who do not achieve antiHBe seroconversion and in HBeAg-negative patients is the next most desirable end point.. Indication for treatment is identical for HBeAg-positive and HBeAg-negative patients and is based on a combination of serum HBV DNA level, ALAT elevation, and liver histology.. Treatment should be considered in ...
1) Most positive HBsAg results picked up on ante-natal screening represent chronic infection? T/F. True, probably more than 95% of such results represent chronic infection, most of whom have probably had the infection for years or even since birth.. 2) IgM Anti-HBc can be used to differentiate acute from chronic Hepatitis B infection? T/F. True, but in my opinion only occasionally needed to confirm acute infection in someone who is either symptomatic or has had a recent contact with Hepatitis B. For the majority of cases, chronic infection can be assumed.. 3) A patient with negative HBeAg will always have a low HBV viral load? T/F. False. Hepatitis B viruses containing pre-core mutants may be HBeAg -ve but still have high HBV DNA levels.. 4) Anti-HBc (total) is usually negative in chronic Hepatitis B infection? T/F. False: Anti-HBc should always be positive in chronic Hepatitis B infection. If it is negative, it should prompt you to look at the validity of your HBsAg result.. 5) A patient who ...
Co-infections of hepatitis B and C viruses are frequent with HIV due to shared routes of transmission. In most of the tertiary care health settings, HIV reactive patients are routinely tested for HBsAg and anti-HCV antibodies to rule out these co-infections. However, using the routine serological markers one can only detect active HBV infection while the occult HBV infection may be missed. There is insufficient data from India on HIV-HBV co-infection and even scarce on occult HBV infection in this group. We estimated the burden of HBV infection in patients who were tested positive for HIV at a tertiary care centre in north India. We also attempted to determine the prevalence and clinical characteristics of occult HBV infection among these treatment-naïve patients and compare their demographic features with other HIV patients. During a period of 6 years between January 2002 to December 2007, 837 HIV positive patients (631 males and 206 females (M: F :: 3.06:1) were tested for serological markers of HBV
Abstract Current estimates put the prevalence of hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection in Kenya at 5-8%. We determined the HBV infection prevalence in the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-negative Kenyan adult and adolescent population based on samples collected from a national survey. We analyzed data from HIV-negative participants in the 2007 Kenya AIDS Indicator Survey to estimate the HBV infection prevalence. We defined past or present HBV infection as presence of total hepatitis B core antibody (HBcAb), and chronic HBV infection (CHBI) as presence of both total HBcAb and hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg). We calculated crude and adjusted odds of HBV infection by demographic characteristics and risk factors using logistic regression analyses. Of 1,091 participants aged 15-64 years, approximately 31.5% (95% confidence interval [CI] = 28.0-35.3%) had exposure to HBV, corresponding to approximately 6.1 million (CI = 5.4-6.8 million) with past or present HBV infection. The estimated prevalence of CHBI
Hepatitis B virus (HBV) is a major global health problem especially in sub-Saharan Africa and in East Asia. Ten hepatitis B virus genotypes have been described that differ by geographic distribution, disease progression, and response to treatment. Escape mutations within the surface open reading frame (ORF) affect HBV antigenicity leading to failures in diagnosis, vaccine and hepatitis B immunoglobulin therapy. However, the molecular characteristics of HBV in Botswana, a highly endemic country, are unknown. We describe the molecular characteristics of HBV and prevalence of escape mutants among HIV/HBV coinfected individuals Botswana. DNA was extracted from archived plasma samples from 81 HIV/HBV co-infected participants from various clinical studies at the Botswana Harvard AIDS Institute Partnership. A 415 base pair (bp) fragment of the polymerase gene was amplified by semi-nested PCR. In a subset of samples, a 2100 bp fragment was amplified. The PCR product was genotyped using Big Dye sequencing
TY - JOUR. T1 - The mannose receptor acts as hepatitis B virus surface antigen receptor mediating interaction with intrahepatic dendritic cells. AU - den Brouw, M.L.O.. AU - Binda, R.S.. AU - Geijtenbeek, T.B.H.. AU - Janssen, H.-G.. AU - Woltman, A.M.. PY - 2009. Y1 - 2009. U2 - 10.1016/j.virol.2009.07.015. DO - 10.1016/j.virol.2009.07.015. M3 - Article. VL - 393. SP - 84. EP - 90. JO - Virology. JF - Virology. SN - 0042-6822. IS - 1. ER - ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Serological subtype (serotype) of hepatitis B virus surface antigen. AU - Iwasaki, Yoshiaki. AU - Tsuji, T.. PY - 1995/10. Y1 - 1995/10. UR - UR - M3 - Article. VL - 53 Suppl. SP - 293. EP - 298. JO - Nippon rinsho. Japanese journal of clinical medicine. JF - Nippon rinsho. Japanese journal of clinical medicine. SN - 0047-1852. IS - Pt 2. ER - ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Retroviral-mediated transfer and expression of hepatitis B e antigen in human primary skin fibroblasts and Esptein-Barr virus-transformed B lymphocytes. AU - Raney, A. K.. AU - Milich, D. R.. AU - Hughes, J. L.. AU - Sorge, J.. AU - Chisari, F. V.. AU - Mondelli, M. U.. AU - McLachlan, A.. PY - 1989. Y1 - 1989. N2 - Previously, an amphotropic retroviral expression system coding for the neomycin resistance gene was developed and used to synthesize hepatitis B e antigen (HBeAg) and hepatitis B core/e antigen (HBc/eAg) in transfected mouse NIH 3T3 fibroblasts (A. McLachlan et al., 1987, J. Virol. 61, 683-692). In the present study, these transfected cell lines were infected with a helper amphotropic murine leukemia virus resulting in the production of infectious recombinant retrovirus. The recombinant retrovirus was examined for its capacity to transmit resistance to the antibiotic, G418, and to express hepatitis B virus antigens in mouse NIH 3T3 fibroblasts, human primary skin ...
The hepatitis B virus core (HBc) virus-like particle (VLP) is known as one of the most immunogenic antigens and carrier vehicles in different immunization strategies. Recent findings are suggesting the potential of the HBc VLPs as an oral immunogen. Here, we focus on the induction of serum humoral responses by oral administration of HBc VLPs in preparations substantially free of lipopolysaccharide and immunomodulating encapsidated RNA. The full-length HBc antigen was used, because the C-terminal arginine-rich tail may contribute to the immunogenicity of the antigen as the region is involved in cell surface heparan sulfate binding and internalization of the protein. Serum antibody levels and isotypes were determined following oral administration of the HBc VLPs with the perspective of using the HBc VLP as an immunostimulatory and carrier molecule for epitopes of blood-borne diseases in oral immunization vaccination strategies. Following oral administration of the HBc VLP preparations to mice, a strong
Hepatitis B is NOT spread through sneezing, coughing, hugging or breastfeeding. Even though the virus can be found in saliva, you cant get it from kissing or sharing forks, spoons, or knives with someone whos infected.. If you dont have hepatitis B, get vaccinated and ask your partner to get vaccinated, too. Vaccination is the best way to prevent hepatitis B.. Hepatitis B and pregnancy. If you have hepatitis B during pregnancy and its not treated, you can pass it to your baby. This can happen during a vaginal delivery or a c-section. About 9 out of 10 babies (90 percent) infected at birth develop chronic hepatitis B infection. This infection can cause life-long liver problems for your baby.. Getting tested for hepatitis B is a routine part of prenatal care. Your health care provider will test for hepatitis B and other infections at your first prenatal care checkup.. If you do test positive for hepatitis B, your health care provider may prescribe you an antiviral medication during your ...
May is Hepatitis Awareness Month and Saturday, May 19this National Hepatitis Testing Day in the United States. This day is an opportunity to increase awareness and testing for both hepatitis B and C. It is also a reminder for health care providers and the public of the importance of testing for viral hepatitis.. Why is hepatitis B testing necessary? Hepatitis B is largely asymptomatic, which means that symptoms dont always occur or are not obvious. Some people will not know that they have hepatitis B until it is too late, or they may learn of their infection from a blood donation screening or lab work. There are groups of people who have a greater risk of hepatitis B compared to others, so it doesnt hurt to be sure. here are some places around the world that have an extremely high hepatitis B prevalence (where many people are infected). It is important that people who are at high risk for a hepatitis B infection see a doctor to get tested, to find out if they have a hepatitis B infection. ...
The aim of the study was to investigate correlations between intrahepatic hepatitis B virus total DNA, covalently closed circular DNA (cccDNA), and serum HBsAg in treatment-naive chronic hepatitis B and HBV related hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Liver tissues were taken from 42 HBV related HCC and 36 patients with chronic hepatitis B. A fraction of DNA extracted from liver tissue was digested with a plasmid-safe ATP-dependent DNase and used for HBV cccDNA detection. The remaining DNA was used for the detection of HBV total DNA and beta-globin, the latter of which is a housekeeping gene and quantified for normalization by real-time PCR. Quantitation of serum HBsAg was performed by a chemiluminescence assay. Serum HBsAg had positive correlations with serum HBV DNA (r?=?0.636, P ...
Poor immune function, autoimmune diseases, Helicobacter pylori infection, hepatitis C, obesity, Epstein-Barr virus infection[1] ... Hepatitis C virus: associated with splenic marginal zone lymphoma, lymphoplasmacytic lymphoma and diffuse large B-cell lymphoma ... hepatitis C, obesity and Epstein-Barr virus infection.[1][3] The World Health Organization (WHO) classifies lymphomas into five ... Epstein-Barr virus: associated with Burkitt's lymphoma, Hodgkin's lymphoma, follicular dendritic cell sarcoma, extranodal NK-T- ...
Hepatitis C virus. miR-122 Antiviral. pHIV7-shI-TAR-CCR5RZ. HIV. HIV Tat protein, HIV TAR RNA, human CCR5 ... Immunity against viruses or transposons[edit]. RNA silencing is the mechanism that our cells (and cells from all kingdoms) use ... Adeno-associated virus (AAV). ~4.5Kb. ssDNA vector, small packaging capacity, mildly immunogenic, lasting expression in non- ... In the case of RNA viruses, these get destroyed immediately by the mechanism cited above. In the case of transposons, it's a ...
Hepatitis C virus[15]. Pathogenesis[edit]. Porphyria cutanea tarda is primarily caused by uroporphyrinogen decarboxylase ... One of the most common risk factors observed is infection with the Hepatitis C virus.[11] One review of a collection of PCT ... due to the strong association between PCT and Hepatitis C, the treatment of Hepatitis C (if present) is vital to the effective ... Studies have suggested that the cytopathic effect of the virus on hepatocytes can lead to the release of free iron. This iron ...
Some of the more common viruses removed by these methods are the HIV-1 and HIV-2 viruses; hepatitis A, B, and C; and ... Virus removal[edit]. This overarching process, which has come to be known simply as virus removal, is one in which all of the ... Viral inactivation renders viruses inactive, or unable to infect. Many viruses contain lipid or protein coats that can be ... Virus removal processes using nanofiltration techniques[1] remove viruses specifically by size exclusion. This type of process ...
Nonstructural protein 5B (NS5B) is a viral protein found in the hepatitis C virus (HCV). It is an RNA polymerase, having the ... O'Farrell, D; Trowbridge, R; Rowlands, D; Jäger, J (2003). "Substrate complexes of hepatitis C virus RNA polymerase (HC-J4): ... Moradpour, D; Penin, F; Rice, CM (2007). "Replication of hepatitis C virus". Nature Reviews. Microbiology. 5 (6): 453-63. doi: ... "Crystal structures of the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase genotype 2a of hepatitis C virus reveal two conformations and suggest ...
... the pathogen-host interactomes of Hepatitis C Virus/Human (2008),[63] Epstein Barr virus/Human (2008), Influenza virus/Human ( ... "Hepatitis C virus infection protein network". Molecular Systems Biology. 4 (4): 230. doi:10.1038/msb.2008.66. PMC 2600670. PMID ... "The Hepatitis E virus intraviral interactome". Sci Rep. 5: 13872. Bibcode:2015NatSR...513872O. doi:10.1038/srep13872. PMC ... Viral interactomes are connected to their host interactomes, forming virus-host interaction networks.[37] Some published virus ...
eds.). Hepatitis Viruses in: Baron's Medical Microbiology (4th ed.). Univ of Texas Medical Branch. ISBN 978-0-9631172-1-2. . ( ... Diseases caused by fecal-oral transmission include diarrhea, typhoid, cholera, polio and hepatitis. ... "Hepatitis E: an overview and recent advances in vaccine research". World J Gastroenterol. 10 (15): 2157-62. doi:10.3748/wjg. ...
Hepatitis B virus reactivation may also occur.[5] Interactions[edit]. Nilotinib has been reported as a substrate for OATP1B1 ...
... hepatitis C virus, hantaviruses, rotaviruses, poliovirus type 1, human respiratory syncytial virus, murine leukemia viruses and ... Azzam HS, Goertz C, Fritts M, Jonas WB (2007). "Natural products and chronic hepatitis C virus". Liver Int. 27 (1): 17-25. doi: ... Beside interacting with the cell membrane, lactoferrin also directly binds to viral particles, such as the hepatitis viruses. ... Lactoferrin also suppresses virus replication after the virus penetrated into the cell. Such an indirect antiviral effect is ...
They called it "Hepatitis Delta Virus" (HDV). This new virus was found to be defective. HDV needed HBV to act as a helper ... Incubation of Hepatitis D typically lasts for thirty five days. Most often Hepatitis D is a co-infection with Hepatitis B or a ... HDV is still considered an unusual form of hepatitis. Agents of this virus resemble that of plant viroids. It is still hard to ... Normally Hepatitis B is transmitted through blood or any type of blood product. In South America Hepatitis D was found to be ...
... hepatitis B virus (HBV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) are the most common oncoviruses. In the United States, HPV causes most ... hepatitis B and hepatitis C viruses (hepatocellular carcinoma), and Human T-cell leukemia virus-1 (T-cell leukemias). In ... Individuals with chronic hepatitis B virus infection are more than 200 times more likely to develop liver cancer than ... Sung MW, Thung SN, Acs G (2000). Hepatitis Viruses. BC Decker. Pagano JS, Blaser M, Buendia MA, Damania B, Khalili K, Raab- ...
... hepatitis B virus (HBV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) are the most frequently encountered oncogenic DNA viruses. Worldwide, HPV ... Infection by some hepatitis viruses, especially hepatitis B and hepatitis C, can induce a long-term viral infection that leads ... World-wide, liver cancer mortality is more often due to hepatitis B virus (HBV) (33%), less often due to hepatitis C virus (HCV ... Liver cancer in the United States is primarily due to three main factors: hepatitis C virus (HCV) (22%), hepatitis B virus (HBV ...
Li Y, Zhang T, Ho C, Orange JS, Douglas SD, Ho WZ (December 2004). "Natural killer cells inhibit hepatitis C virus expression ... The virus integrates the receptor into the T cells' genome. The cells are expanded non-specifically and/or stimulated. The ... Kida K, Isozumi R, Ito M (December 2000). "Killing of human Herpes virus 6-infected cells by lymphocytes cultured with ... The therapy has been tested against Hepatitis C,[28][29][30] Chronic fatigue syndrome[31][32] and HHV6 infection.[33] ...
The hepatitis C virus (HCV) is first identified. July 17 - The Northrop Grumman B-2 Spirit "Stealth Bomber" aircraft, developed ... for releasing a computer virus, making him the first person to be prosecuted under the 1986 Computer Fraud and Abuse Act in the ...
Species Murine hepatitis virus; Puffinosis coronavirus; Rat coronavirus (these are to be united in a new species Murine ... "Mouse Hepatitis Virus (MHV)" (PDF). Division of Animal Resources, University of Illinois, Urbana. Baker, David G. (1998). " ... Prior to the discovery of SARS-CoV, M-CoV (specifically the strain Mouse hepatitis virus, MHV) had been the best-studied ... Barthold, Stephen W.; Smith, Abigail L. (2006). "Mouse hepatitis virus". In Fox, James; Barthold; Davisson, Muriel; Newcomer, ...
A new virus has been described in fish - White sucker hepatitis B virus.[3] This is the first hepadnavirus described from fish ... the first known hepatitis with a viral etiological agent was Hepatitis A, in the picornaviridae family. Hepatis B Virus (HBV) ... "Deciphering the Origin and Evolution of Hepatitis B Viruses by Means of a Family of Non-enveloped Fish Viruses". Cell Host & ... Endogenous hepatitis B virus genomes have been described in crocodilian, snake and turtle genomes.[7] This suggests that these ...
Yin P, Hong Z, Yang X, Chung RT, Zhang L (Aug 2015). "A role for retromer in hepatitis C virus replication". Cellular and ... Retromer also seems to play a role in Hepatitis C Virus replication.[15] ...
Resistance to hepatitis C virus infectionEdit. There is evidence that genetic heterozygosity in humans provides increased ... "Evidence for human leukocyte antigen heterozygote advantage against hepatitis C virus infection". Hepatology. 46 (6): 1713-21. ... doi:10.1002/hep.21889. PMID 17935228.. *^ Rikowski A, Grammer K (May 1999). "Human body odour, symmetry and attractiveness". ...
... epsilon Duck HBV RNA encapsidation signal epsilon Hepatitis B virus PRE alpha Hepatitis B virus PRE beta Hepatitis B virus PRE ... Beck, J; Nassal, M (2003). "Efficient Hsp90-independent in vitro activation by Hsc70 and Hsp40 of duck hepatitis B virus ... Page for HBV RNA encapsidation signal epsilon at Rfam HBVRegDB Hepatitis B Virus HBV Regulatory Sequence Database (HBVRegDB) v ... "Hepatitis B virus replication". World J. Gastroenterol. 13 (1): 48-64. doi:10.3748/wjg.v13.i1.48. PMC 4065876. PMID 17206754. ...
"Hepatitis B Virus/HIV Coinfection , Special Populations , Antepartum Care , Perinatal , ClinicalInfo". ... Hepatitis B, hepatitis C, tuberculosis and injection drug use are some of the most common comorbidities associated with HIV. ... and Hepatitis A vaccine and Hepatitis B vaccine following a conversation with her provider. Vaccination is important to prevent ... Hepatitis A, B, and C Screening should be performed in all pregnant women with HIV because coinfection is common. Further ...
Inactivated hepatitis B virus vaccine". Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report. 31 (24): 317-22, 327-8. PMID 6811846. " ... Hib vaccine combined with diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis-polio vaccines and Hepatitis B vaccines are available in the United ... hepatitis B and Haemophilus influenzae B (HIB)". Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews (4): CD005530. doi:10.1002/14651858. ... and in combination with the hepatitis B vaccine, among others. All Hib vaccines that are currently used are conjugate vaccine. ...
"Biochemical and genetic evidence for the hepatitis B virus replication strategy". Science. 232: 477-484. doi:10.1126/science. ... elucidation of aspects of the replication cycle of hepatitis B virus (with Donald Ganem[15]); discovery of ribosomal ... that gave rise to the v-src oncogene of Rous Sarcoma Virus, a cancer-causing virus first isolated from a chicken sarcoma by ... Jacks, T. and Varmus, H.E. Expression of the Rous sarcoma virus pol gene by ribosomal frameshifting. Science 230:1237, 1985. ...
"Genetic variation in IL28B and spontaneous clearance of hepatitis C virus". Nature. 461 (7265): 798-801. Bibcode:2009Natur.461 ... Some viruses once acquired never leave the body. A typical example is the herpes virus, which tends to hide in nerves and ... Viruses are also usually identified using alternatives to growth in culture or animals. Some viruses may be grown in ... demonstrated that the same genetic variants are also associated with the natural clearance of the genotype 1 hepatitis C virus ...
Diseases associated with this family include: hepatitis; high mortality rate during pregnancy; and avian hepatitis E virus is ... The virus that causes Hepatitis E belongs to the Orthohepevirus genus. Group: ssRNA+ Order: Unassigned Family: Hepeviridae ... Kelly AG, Netzler NE, White PA (2016) Ancient recombination events and the origins of hepatitis E virus. BMC Evol Biol 16(1): ... Replication follows the positive stranded RNA virus replication model. Positive stranded rna virus transcription is the method ...
"Hepatitis C Virus and Alcohol". Warren Alpert Medical School of Brown University; Larry Siu, Julie Foont, dan Jack R. Wands. ... atau hepatitis C, patogen serupa hepatitis B yang disebabkan oleh infeksi virus RNA dengan fokus infeksi berupa metilasi DNA, ... "Downregulation of Gadd45beta expression by hepatitis C virus leads to defective cell cycle arrest". Institut National de la ... "Evidence that methylation of hepatitis B virus covalently closed circular DNA in liver tissues of patients with chronic ...
Hepatitis B virus); Jonas Salk and Albert Sabin (developers of the Polio vaccines); Paul Ehrlich (discovery of the Blood-brain ...
... (INN) is an investigational medication to treat hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection. It is a novel and potent acyclic ... CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link) Lin CL, Yang HC, Kao JH (4 January 2016). "Hepatitis B virus: new therapeutic ...
Imran Ahmad, R. Prasida Holla, Shahid Jameel (2011). "Molecular Virology of Hepatitis E Virus". Virus Res. 161 (1): 47-58. doi: ... "Hepatitis viruses and the MAPK pathway: is this a survival strategy?". Virus Res. 92 (2): 131-40. doi:10.1016/s0168-1702(02) ... he is known to have carried out studies on the molecular biology of hepatitis E virus (HEV) and human immunodeficiency virus ( ... Known for his research in hepatitis E virus, Jameel is an elected fellow of all the three major Indian science academies viz. ...
Tanaka M, Katayama F, Kato H, Tanaka H, Wang J, Qiao YL, Inoue M (2011). "Hepatitis B and C virus infection and hepatocellular ... to hepatitis C. Chronic hepatitis C causes HCC through the stage of cirrhosis. In chronic hepatitis B, however, the integration ... Chronic viral hepatitis (estimated cause of 80% cases globally) Chronic hepatitis B (about 50% cases) Chronic hepatitis C ( ... The incidence of HCC in the United States and other developing countries is increasing due to an increase in hepatitis C virus ...
Hepatitis B Virus-Specific CD8+ T Cells Maintain Functional Exhaustion after Antigen Reexposure in an Acute Activation Immune ... Role of regulatory T cells during virus infection. Immunological Reviews. September 2013, 255 (1): 182-96. PMC 3748387. PMID ... Cell-intrinsic transforming growth factor-beta signaling mediates virus-specific CD8+ T cell deletion and viral persistence in ... IL-10 Induces T Cell Exhaustion During Transplantation of Virus Infected Hearts. Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry. 2016, 38 ...
Genus Deltavirus, mit einziger Species Hepatitis-D-Virus (HDV). Einzelstrang-RNA-Viren mit positiver Polarität (ss(+)RNA: ... Usutu-Virus - en. Usutu virus (USUV), Zika-Virus - en. Zika virus (ZIKV), sowie Gelbfieber-Virus - en. Yellow fever virus (YFV) ... Genus ‚Negevirus', mit Species ‚Blackford virus', ‚Bofa virus', ‚Buckhurst virus', ‚Marsac virus', sowie ‚Muthill virus'[53] ... Sorghum mosaic virus (SrMV), Lily-Mottle-Virus - en. Lily mottle virus (LMoV), sowie Sellerie-Virus Y - en. Apium virus Y (ApVY ...
Hepatitis D je oblika hepatitisa, ki ga povzroča virus hepatitisa D (VHD); le-ta za svoj razvoj potrebuje virus hepatitisa B. ... Glej glavni članek Virus hepatitisa D. Povzročitelj virus hepatitisa D je majhen krožen virus RNK z ovojnico. Spada med. t. i. ... hepatitis G. Viri[uredi , uredi kodo]. *↑, Slovenski medicinski e- ... Taylor JM (2006). "Hepatitis delta virus". Virology. 344 (1): 71-76. doi:10.1016/j.virol.2005.09.033. PMID 16364738.. ...
The four are Bundibugyo virus (BDBV), Sudan virus (SUDV), Taï Forest virus (TAFV) and one simply called Ebola virus (EBOV, ... and viral hepatitis among others.[104] ... "Ebola virus disease". Retrieved 28 May 2020.. *^ " ... The virus responsible for the initial outbreak, first thought to be Marburg virus, was later identified as a new type of virus ... Main articles: Ebola virus cases in the United States, Ebola virus disease in Spain, and Ebola virus disease in the United ...
Duvet S, Op De Beeck A, Cocquerel L, Wychowski C, Cacan R, Dubuisson J (February 2002). "Glycosylation of the hepatitis C virus ...
"Chronic Hepatitis After Hepatitis E Virus Infection in a Patient With Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma Taking Rituximab" (PDF). Retrieved ... PML is caused by activation of JC virus, a common virus in the brain which is usually latent. Reactivation of the JC virus ... Rituximab has been reported as a possible cofactor in a chronic Hepatitis E infection in a person with lymphoma. Hepatitis E ... myasthenia gravis and Epstein-Barr virus-positive mucocutaneous ulcers.[2][3][4][5] It is given by slow injection into a vein.[ ...
"Large-scale candidate gene analysis of spontaneous clearance of hepatitis C virus". J. Infect. Dis. 201 (9): 1371-80. doi: ...
Hepatitis B reactivation. *Other viral infections. *Progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML) caused by JC virus ... PML is caused by activation of JC virus, a common virus in the brain which is usually latent. Reactivation of the JC virus ... Rituximab has been reported as a possible cofactor in a chronic Hepatitis E infection in a person with lymphoma. Hepatitis E ... myasthenia gravis and Epstein-Barr virus-positive mucocutaneous ulcers.[2][3][4][5] It is given by slow injection into a vein.[ ...
... hepatitis B, rabies, HIV, anthrax and respiratory syncytial virus.[41] Korean scientists are looking at using the tomato to ...
In autoimmune hepatitis[edit]. In 1972, a link between "HLA A1,8" (current:HLA A1-B8) active chronic hepatitis, subsequently B8 ... Type 1 diabetes has a risk associated with coxsackie 4B virus, there is a potential for involvement of class I loci, ... doi:10.1002/hep.1840210411. PMID 7705806.. *^ Muratori P, Czaja AJ, Muratori L, et al. (March 2005). "Genetic distinctions ... "HLA-C genes and susceptibility to type 1 autoimmune hepatitis". Hepatology. 26 (4): 1023-6. doi:10.1002/hep.510260434. PMID ...
Lujo virus. References[edit]. *^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad "Lassa fever". WHO. March 2016 ... Confirmation is by laboratory testing to detect the virus's RNA, antibodies for the virus, or the virus itself in cell culture. ... The Lassa virus is one of several viruses identified by WHO as a likely cause of a future epidemic. They therefore list it for ... Lassa virus is a member of the Arenavirida family of viruses.[7] Specifically it is an old world arenavirus, which is enveloped ...
"Origin of measles virus: divergence from rinderpest virus between the 11th and 12th centuries.", Virol. J., 7 (52). ... Gujarat hepatitis (2009). *W. African meningitis (2009-2010). *Haiti cholera (2010-2019) ... "Origin of the Measles Virus: Divergence from Rinderpest Virus Between the 11th and 12th Centuries". Virology. 7: 52-55. doi ...
... ribavirin in reducing liver pathology in yellow fever virus infection may be similar to its activity in treatment of hepatitis ... Other viral hemorrhagic fevers, such as Ebola virus, Lassa virus, Marburg virus, and Junin virus, must be excluded as the cause ... Viruses reach the stomach of the mosquito, and if the virus concentration is high enough, the virions can infect epithelial ... Yellow fever is caused by yellow fever virus, a 40- to 50-nm-wide enveloped RNA virus, the type species and namesake of the ...
The viruses in this family can cause a range of diseases including paralysis, meningitis, hepatitis and poliomyelitis. ... deformed wing virus, acute bee paralysis virus, Drosophila C virus, Rhopalosiphum padi virus, and Himetobi P virus. Several ... This family includes Infectious flacherie virus and SeIV-1 virus. Another virus is Nora virus from Drosophila melanogaster. ... Bovine rhinitis A virus Bovine rhinitis B virus Equine rhinitis A virus Foot-and-mouth disease virus Genus: Aquamavirus ...
It is likely that the refugees and ships carried the yellow fever virus and mosquitoes. The virus is transmitted by mosquito ... or hepatitis. See: Saul Jarcho (1957) "John Mitchell, Benjamin Rush, and Yellow fever," Bulletin of the History of Medicine, 31 ...
... like with hepatitis B.[20] In epidemic situations, such as the 2014-2016 West African Ebola virus epidemic or the 2003 SARS ... Health professionals are also at risk for contracting blood-borne diseases like hepatitis B, hepatitis C, and HIV/AIDS through ... "Does your workplace culture help protect you from hepatitis?". National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health. Archived ...
Serious side effects included allergic reactions and abnormal liver function in patients who were also infected with hepatitis ... for the treatment of Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) infected adults, adolescents and children above six years of age.[3] ...
... hepatitis and chicken pox. Other campaigns included a program to reduce the infant mortality rate in 1970 directed at maternal ... when little was known about the virus, Cuba compulsorily tested thousands of its citizens for HIV. Those who tested positive ...
Hepatitis. DNA virus. HBV (B). RNA virus. CBV. HAV (A). HCV (C). HDV (D). HEV (E). HGV (G). ... DNA virus. JCV Progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy. RNA virus. MeV Subacute sclerosing panencephalitis. LCV Lymphocytic ... The JC virus or John Cunningham virus is a type of human polyomavirus (formerly known as papovavirus). It was identified by ... DNA virus. HBV Hepatocellular carcinoma. HPV Cervical cancer. Anal cancer. Penile cancer. Vulvar cancer. Vaginal cancer. ...
Anthrax is now known to be caused by a bacterium, and rabies is known to be caused by a virus. The microscopes of the time ... a virus, or a prion. At present, the science to understand this process is available but not the technology to perform it.[25] ... could reasonably be expected to show bacteria, but imaging of viruses had to wait until the development of electron microscopes ...
... hepatitis - hepatitis C and HIV coinfection - hepatomegaly - herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) - herpes simplex virus 2 (HSV-2) - ... human papilloma virus (HPV) - human T cell lymphotropic virus type I (HTLV-I) - human T cell lymphotropic virus type II (HTLV- ... human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) - human immunodeficiency virus type 2 (HIV-2) - human leukocyte antigens (HLA) - ... herpes varicella zoster virus (VZV) - herpes viruses - highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) - histocompatibility ...
CD8+ cytotoxic T cells: virus-infected and tumor cells.. *γδ T cells: bridge between innate and adaptive immune responses; ... Infectious diseases - viral (AIDS, SARS, West Nile encephalitis, hepatitis, herpes, measles, others), bacterial (TB, typhoid, ... Natural killer cells: virus-infected and tumor cells.. Deeply staining, eccentric. NK-cells and cytotoxic (CD8+) T-cells. Years ... These cells bind antigens presented on MHC I complex of virus-infected or tumour cells and kill them. Nearly all nucleated ...
F02.4) Dementia in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) disease. *(F03) Unspecified dementia. *(F04) Organic amnesic syndrome, ...
Hepatitis B virus) viruses. Once inside the host cell's cytoplasm, the virus uses its own reverse transcriptase enzyme to ... "Deciphering the Origin and Evolution of Hepatitis B Viruses by Means of a Family of Non-enveloped Fish Viruses". Cell Host & ... Family Nackednaviridae - e.g. African cichlid nackednavirus (ACNDV), formerly named African cichlid hepatitis B virus (ACHBV).[ ... Genus Betaretrovirus; type species: Mouse mammary tumour virus. *Genus Gammaretrovirus; type species: Murine leukemia virus; ...
This worldwide biomedical research organization based in Paris was the first to isolate HIV, the virus that causes AIDS, in ... In 1985, the first human vaccine obtained by genetic engineering from animal cells, the vaccine against hepatitis B, was ... One area of particular interest is the study of human papilloma viruses (HPV) and their role in cervical cancers. Researchers ... Luc Montagnier, Françoise Barré-Sinoussi and colleagues discovered the two HIV viruses that cause AIDS, in 1983 and 1985, was ...
"Hepatitis viruses: not always what it seems to be". Rev Med Chil. 138 (10), s. 1302-11. doi:10.4067/S0034-98872010001100016. ... Arenavirus: Guanarito virus,[2] Junín virus,[2] Lassa fever virus,[2] Lujo virus,[3] Machupo virus[2] ve Sabiá virus[2] ... Hantaan virus,[6] Puumala virus,[7] Rift Valley fever virus,[8] Seoul virus[9] ve SFTS virus[10] ... Flavivirus: Akhurma virus,[13]Dengue,[14] Hepatit C, Kyasanur Forest disease virus,[15] Omsk hemorrhagic fever virus,[15] Sarı ...
Interaction of CLEC5A and dengue virus also induces osteolytic activity.[8] Another pathogen is influenza virus and its ... "New genetic associations detected in a host response study to hepatitis B vaccine". Genes and Immunity. 11 (3): 232-8. doi ... virus receptor activity. • GO:0001948 protein binding. Cellular component. • integral component of membrane. • integral ... May 2008). "CLEC5A is critical for dengue-virus-induced lethal disease". Nature. 453 (7195): 672-6. Bibcode:2008Natur.453..672C ...
inflammation (swelling) of the liver, called hepatitis. This is caused by a virus. The virus can spread and may lead to ... Jaundice can also be caused by other diseases, like malaria, hepatitis, or gallstones. ...
... has the ability to inhibit the replication of viruses that are resistant to other protease inhibitors and it ... Some side effects include intracranial hemorrhage, hepatitis, hepatic decompensation, hyperglycemia and diabetes mellitus. The ...
10-fold increase in tuberculosis, hepatitis B and hepatitis C virus, 20-fold increase in chlamydia, 40-fold increase in ...
CDC and USPSTF recommendations for hepatitis C (HCV) screening among adults in the United States along with testing sequence ... Screening for Hepatitis C Virus Infectionexternal icon. The USPSTF recommends screening for hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection ... CDC Recommendations for Hepatitis C Screening Among Adults in the United States. *Universal hepatitis C screening: *Hepatitis C ... Interpretation of Results of Tests for Hepatitis C Virus (HCV) Infection and Further Actions pdf icon[PDF- 1 page] ...
Hepatitis. DNA virus. HBV (B). RNA virus. CBV. HAV (A). HCV (C). HDV (D). HEV (E). HGV (G). ... Further information: Hepatitis C § Epidemiology. Hepatitis C virus is predominantly a blood-borne virus, with very low risk of ... positive-sense single-stranded RNA virus of the family Flaviviridae. The hepatitis C virus is the cause of hepatitis C and some ... Main article: Hepatitis C vaccine. Unlike hepatitis A and B, there is currently no vaccine to prevent hepatitis C infection.[60 ...
... and it is considered the most pathogenic among all hepatotropic viruses. HDV infection occurs worldwide, but highly endemic ... The hepatitis D virus (HDV) was described in 1977, ... High prevalence of hepatitis B virus and hepatitis D virus in ... Hepatitis B virus (HBV)/hepatitis D virus (HDV) coinfection in outbreaks of acute hepatitis in the Peruvian Amazon basin: the ... Hepatitis D virus and hepatitis B virus infection in Amerindian communities of the Amazonas state, Colombia. Virol J 12:172-175 ...
Viral hepatitis materials for health professionals and patients, with links to MMWR publications and education campaigns, ... Know Hepatitis B encourages hepatitis B testing for Asian Americans and Pacific Islanders (AAPIs) ... Content source: Division of Viral Hepatitis, National Center for HIV/AIDS, Viral Hepatitis, STD, and TB Prevention ... AtlasPlus is a tool to create customized tables, maps, and charts with CDCs viral hepatitis surveillance data ...
Hepatitis B virus PRE 1151-1410. References[edit]. *^ a b c Smith Gj, 3rd; Donello, JE; Lück, R; Steger, G; Hope, TJ (1998). " ... The Hepatitis B virus PRE stem-loop beta (HBV PRE SL-beta) is an RNA structure that is shown to play a role in nuclear export ... "The hepatitis B virus post-transcriptional regulatory element contains two conserved RNA stem-loops which are required for ... "Prospects for inhibiting the post-transcriptional regulation of gene expression in hepatitis B virus". World Journal of ...
Infection with hepatitis D virus (HDV), also called the delta agent, can occur only in association with HBV infection, because ... cause of hepatitis. * In hepatitis: Hepatitis D. Infection with hepatitis D virus (HDV), also called the delta agent, can occur ... hepatitis B virus serves as a helper for replication of hepatitis delta virus, the virions of which contain hepatitis B surface ... In virus: Chronic and slowly progressive diseases. …that causes hepatitis is designated hepatitis delta virus, which has not ...
The availability of serological tests for hepatitis A and B viruses in the 1970s made it clear that most parenterally ... Hepatitis C Virus. BMJ 1995; 310 doi: (Published 28 January 1995) Cite this as: BMJ ... transmitted hepatitis was due to neither of these viruses. It was not until 1988 that the identification of a cDNA clone made ... possible the first reliable diagnostic test for hepatitis C virus, the agent responsible for the vast majority of non-A, non-B ...
This is particularly important in understanding hepatitis C because HCV infection alone is not cell lytic. Mechanisms ... Lipid and Lipoprotein Components Play Important Roles the Egress and Infectivity of Hepatitis C Virions ... early virus-cell interactions including identification of various cellular receptors, HCV gene expression studied using the HCV ...
... hepatitis: Hepatitis F and G: …virus isolated in 1996, the hepatitis G virus (HGV), is believed to be responsible for a large ... number of sexually transmitted and bloodborne cases of hepatitis. HGV causes acute and chronic forms of the disease and often ... Other articles where Hepatitis G virus is discussed: ... cause of hepatitis. * In hepatitis: Hepatitis F and G. …virus ... the hepatitis G virus (HGV), is believed to be responsible for a large number of sexually transmitted and bloodborne cases of ...
Haemagglutination in Virus Hepatitis. Br Med J 1963; 2 doi: (Published 09 November 1963 ...
... hepatitis B, or hepatitis C. It can screen blood samples for more than one kind of hepatitis ... The hepatitis virus panel is a series of blood tests used to detect current or past infection by hepatitis A, ... The hepatitis virus panel is a series of blood tests used to detect current or past infection by hepatitis A, hepatitis B, or ... Hepatitis A antibody test; Hepatitis B antibody test; Hepatitis C antibody test; Hepatitis D antibody test ...
razors, toothbrushes, and tattoo needles also could carry and transmit the virus ... the hepatitis c virus spreads most often among people who share needles for injected drugs, and through sexual contact. ... How does the hepatitis C virus spread?. ANSWER The hepatitis C virus spreads most often among people who share needles for ... Merck Manual: "Hepatitis C, Chronic," "Hepatitis C, Acute," "Overview of Chronic Hepatitis." ...
... in the Center for Infection and Immunity at Columbia Universitys Mailman School of Public Health have discovered a new virus ... "Hepatitis A-like virus identified in seals ." Medical News Today. MediLexicon, Intl., 25 Aug. 2015. Web.. 20 Apr. 2019. ,https ... "Our data suggest that hepatitis A and this new virus share a common ancestor, which means that a spillover event must have ... "It raises the question of whether hepatitis A originated in animals, like many other viruses that are now adapted to humans." ...
... Antonio Massimo Ippolito, MD; Angelo Iacobellis, MD; Michele Milella, MD; Fabio ... Objectives To determine whether older adults with the hepatitis C virus (HCV) achieve a sustained viral response (SVR) after ... New epidemiological data indicate that the prevalence of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is almost null in young and middle- ... Table 1. Baseline Characteristics and Sustained Viral Response (SVR) of Individuals with Hepatitis C Virus Infection After ...
Hepatitis B, Perinatal Infection , 2017 Case Definition ( ... Hepatitis B, Perinatal Virus Infection , 1995 Case Definition ( ... Hepatitis C, Perinatal Infection ( ... virus-infection/case-definition/1995/) Related Condition(s). * Hepatitis A, acute ( ...
The thermal stability of virulent hepatitis E virus (HEV) and hepatitis A virus (HAV) was compared. Fecal suspensions of virus ... Thermal stability of hepatitis E virus.. Emerson SU1, Arankalle VA, Purcell RH. ... and residual infectivity was determined in a cell culture system that was permissive for both viruses. Although HEV was less ...
Viral dynamics in hepatitis B virus infection. M A Nowak, S Bonhoeffer, A M Hill, R Boehme, H C Thomas, and H McDade ... Treatment of chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infections with the reverse transcriptase inhibitor lamivudine leads to a rapid ... daily turnover of the free virus population. Total viral release into the periphery is approximately 10(11) virus particles per ... The total daily production of plasma virus is, on average, higher in chronic HBV carriers than in HIV-infected patients, but ...
Hepatitis B, Perinatal Infection , 2017 Case Definition ( ... Infants born to HBsAg-positive mothers should receive hepatitis B immune globulin (HBIG) and the first dose of hepatitis B ... Perinatal hepatitis B in the newborn may range from asymptomatic to fulminant hepatitis. ... Hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) positive. Case Classification. Confirmed. HBsAg positivity in any infant aged ,1-24 months ...
virus assembly. Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is an important human pathogen that infects the liver and establishes chronic infection ... Ultrastructural analysis of hepatitis C virus particles. Maria Teresa Catanese, Kunihiro Uryu, Martina Kopp, Thomas J. Edwards ... Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is a major cause of chronic liver disease, with an estimated 170 million people infected worldwide. Low ... 2013) Hepatitis C virus-specific directly acting antiviral drugs. Curr Top Microbiol Immunol 369:289-320. ...
... used options and get the best deals for Hepatitis C Virus (ExLib) at the best online prices at eBay! Free shipping for many ... "Hepatitis C Virus by A copy that has been read, but remains in excellent condition. Pages are intact and are not marred by ...
Peptide antigens which are immunoreactive with sera from individuals infected with hepatitis C virus (HCV) are disclosed. ... Viral hepatitis resulting from a virus other than hepatitis A virus (HAV) and hepatitis B virus (HBV) has been referred to as ... is serologically distinct from hepatitis A virus (HAV), hepatitis B virus (HBV), and hepatitis E virus (HEV). ... 1. "Parenterally transmitted non-A, non-B hepatitis viral agent (PT-NANBH)" means a virus, virus type, or virus class which (i ...
Hepatitis C virus infection.. Lauer GM1, Walker BD.. Author information. 1. Infectious Disease Division and Partners AIDS ... Hepatitis C virus infection. [N Engl J Med. 2001]. *Hepatitis C virus infection. [N Engl J Med. 2001] ... Hepatitis C virus infection. [N Engl J Med. 2001]. *Hepatitis C virus infection. [N Engl J Med. 2001] ... Hepatitis C virus infection. [N Engl J Med. 2001]. *Hepatitis C virus infection. [N Engl J Med. 2001] ...
What Hepatitis E is, the ways it can spread and advice on how to avoid it when cooking pork. ... Hepatitis E is an infection caused by the hepatitis E virus (also known as HEV). Both humans and animals can be infected by HEV ... This is so that we can better assess the risk from hepatitis E virus in the food chain. Well then be able to take steps to ... While its possible to identify the hepatitis E virus in food, we cant tell whether its infectious and capable of making us ...
Hepatitis C Virus) - Forecast and Market Analysis to 2022 Summary Hepatitis C is a liver infection caused by ... Hepatitis C is a liver infection caused by the hepatitis C virus (HCV) that results in acute or chronic presentation. The ... just published a new market research report: Vaniprevir (Hepatitis C Virus) - Forecast and Market Analysis to ... Vaniprevir (Hepatitis C Virus) - Forecast and Market Analysis to 2022. ...
Duck hepatitis is caused by at least three different viruses, previously referred to as types I, II and III (Tseng and Tsai, ... Identification of chicken enterovirus-like viruses, duck hepatitis virus type 2 and duck hepatitis virus type 3 as astroviruses ... DHV I, the most common of the three viruses, with international distribution, is now known as duck hepatitis A virus (DHAV) in ... Classification of duck hepatitis virus into three genotypes based on molecular evolutionary analysis. Virus Genes, 37(1):52-59 ...
The Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), human herpes virus 8, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and Human T-cell lymphoma viruses I and ... Hepatitis B virus (HBV) is a hepatotropic DNA virus. However, it also exhibits a significant capacity to infect and replicate ... HBV, hepatitis B virus; NHL, non-Hodgkin lymphoma; patient control, diagnosed with other cancers (except HCC); health control, ... HBV, hepatitis B virus; NHL non-Hodgkin lymphoma; CI, confidence interval, sOR, summary odds ratio; patient control, diagnosed ...
Read the full medical definition of hepatitis E viral infection including symptoms, causes, vaccine, and recovery time. ... Hepatitis E virus is a form of hepatitis infection that is spread by drinking water, under cooked, or uncooked meats that have ... Hepatitis E: a type of liver disease caused by the hepatitis E virus (HEV). HEV is found throughout the world but is most ... Humans develop the infection when the virus is shed in the stool of an infected person and then contaminates water or food ...
1994) Transmission of hepatitis C virus from mothers to infants: the Vertical Transmission of Hepatitis C Virus Collaborative ... hepatitis C virus • ALT = alanine aminotransferase • anti-HCV = antibody to HCV • HIV = human immunodeficiency virus • PCR = ... persistence of anti-hepatitis C virus in children is associated with the mothers anti-hepatitis C virus immunoblotting pattern ... Most cases of blood-borne non-A, non-B hepatitis have been proven to be caused by hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection, one of the ...
Researchers have now identified the entry point of hepatitis C virus - the first step leading to the chronic infection- thus ... London, Jan 25 (ANI): Researchers have now identified the entry point of hepatitis C virus - the first step leading to the ... They used the drug to block the receptor before, during and after inoculation with the virus, in cell culture and in a small- ... embedded in the membrane of human liver cells that aids in cholesterol absorption also allows the entry of hepatitis C virus. ...
Transplantation of a kidney from a hepatitis C virus (HCV)-infected kidney donor may cause HCV infection in the recipient. HCV ... Impact of donor hepatitis C virus infection status on death and need for liver transplant in hepatitis C virus-positive kidney ... Shorter waiting times for hepatitis C virus seropositive recipients of cadaveric renal allografts from hepatitis C virus ... Prevalence of hepatitis C virus RNA in organ donors positive for hepatitis C antibody and in the recipients of their organs. N ...
  • See complete Recommended Testing Sequence for Identifying Current Hepatitis C Virus (HCV) Infection . (
  • The USPSTF recommends screening for hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection in adults aged 18 to 79 years. (
  • Barros A, Gomes-gouvêa B, Pinho B, Alvarado-mora BA, Dos Santos A, Mendes-corrêa AJM, Caldas AMT, Sousa MDC, Santos SP, Ferreira ASP (2011) Hepatitis delta virus genotype 8 infection in northeast Brazil: inheritance from african slaves. (
  • Braga WS, Castilho Mda C, Borges FG, Leão JR, Martinho AC, Rodrigues IS, Azevedo EP, Barros Júnior GM, Paraná R (2012) Hepatitis D virus infection in the Western Brazilian Amazon-far from a vanishing disease. (
  • Infection with hepatitis D virus (HDV), also called the delta agent, can occur only in association with HBV infection, because HDV requires HBV to replicate. (
  • This is particularly important in understanding hepatitis C because HCV infection alone is not cell lytic. (
  • The hepatitis virus panel is a series of blood tests used to detect current or past infection by hepatitis A , hepatitis B , or hepatitis C . It can screen blood samples for more than one kind of hepatitis virus at the same time. (
  • You currently have a hepatitis infection. (
  • This may be a new infection (acute hepatitis), or it may be an infection that you have had for a long time ( chronic hepatitis). (
  • You had a hepatitis infection in the past, but you no longer have the infection and can't spread it to others. (
  • Antibodies to hepatitis C can most often be detected 4 to 10 weeks after you get the infection. (
  • Other types of tests may be done to decide on treatment and monitor the hepatitis C infection. (
  • Scientists in the Center for Infection and Immunity at Columbia University's Mailman School of Public Health have discovered a new virus in seals that is the closest known relative of the human hepatitis A virus. (
  • Hepatitis A viral infection, which impacts 1.4 million people worldwide annually, can cause mild to severe illness. (
  • New epidemiological data indicate that the prevalence of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is almost null in young and middle-aged individuals and is peaking in older adults (≥70). (
  • Elderly adults with chronic hepatitis C infection are more likely than younger individuals to have progressed to the cirrhotic stage and to be at risk of liver-related complications. (
  • This study also represents a comparison for recent findings on the dynamics of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. (
  • Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is an important human pathogen that infects the liver and establishes chronic infection in the majority of cases, leading to cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) over the course of many years. (
  • This invention relates to specific peptide viral antigens which are immunoreactive with sera from patients infected with parenterally transmitted non-A, non-B hepatitis virus (PT-NANBH, now called Hepatitis C Virus), to polynucleotide sequences which encode the peptides, to an expression system capable of producing the peptides, and to methods of using the peptides for detecting PT-NANBH infection in human sera. (
  • Hepatitis C virus infection. (
  • Hepatitis E is an infection caused by the hepatitis E virus (also known as HEV). (
  • Hepatitis C is a liver infection caused by the hepatitis C virus (HCV) that results in acute or chronic presentation. (
  • Previous studies have focused on the relationship between hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection and non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL). (
  • [ 5 ] Studies on the aetiology of lymphoma have indicated that virus infection is the primary risk factor for NHL. (
  • Humans develop the infection when the virus is shed in the stool of an infected person and then contaminates water or food sources and is ingested (known as fecal-oral transmission). (
  • Symptoms begin an average of 5-6 weeks after infection and are similar to those of other types of hepatitis . (
  • Most cases of blood-borne non-A, non-B hepatitis have been proven to be caused by hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection, one of the most common causes of chronic hepatitis in developed societies. (
  • The incubation period of hepatitis C infection averages 6 to 7 weeks, with a range of 2 weeks to 6 months. (
  • Jaundice occurs in only 25% of patients, and elevations in alanine aminotransferase (ALT) generally are lower than those in hepatitis B virus infection. (
  • 5 This rapid mutation appears to be a mechanism that allows the virus to escape immune surveillance by the host and to maintain persistent infection. (
  • Because antibodies elicited by one virus type do not recognize other virus types, previous infection does not protect against reinfection with the same or different genotypes of the virus. (
  • London, Jan 25 (ANI): Researchers have now identified the entry point of hepatitis C virus - the first step leading to the chronic infection- thus opening the door to a number of possibilities for therapeutics. (
  • They used the drug to block the receptor before, during and after inoculation with the virus, in cell culture and in a small-animal model, to evaluate the receptor's role in infection and the drug's potential as an anti-hepatitis agent. (
  • Transplantation of a kidney from a hepatitis C virus (HCV)-infected kidney donor may cause HCV infection in the recipient [ 1,2 ]. (
  • See 'Hepatitis C infection in kidney transplant candidates and recipients' and 'Hepatitis C virus infection in patients on maintenance dialysis' . (
  • See 'Screening for chronic hepatitis C virus infection' . (
  • See 'Hepatitis C infection in kidney transplant candidates and recipients', section on 'Epidemiology' . (
  • In industrialized countries, hepatitis E virus (HEV) were borderline (n = 70) were excluded from further has long been regarded as a rare imported infection. (
  • Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is a global public health problem involving chronic infection of the liver, which can cause liver disease and is linked with liver cancer. (
  • In recent years, a lot has been written about hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection in people who also have HIV (co-infection). (
  • HIV/hepatitis B virus (HBV) is another common co-infection and, like HIV/HCV co-infection, can cause severe liver damage and death. (
  • HIV/HBV co-infection is relatively common because the viruses are transmitted similarly, although HBV is transmitted more easily. (
  • In chronic infection, the virus continues to reproduce in the liver, which can cause severe liver damage over time, such as cirrhosis (scarring) and liver cancer (hepatocellular carcinoma or HCC). (
  • Overall, about 95% of adults infected with HBV clear the virus following initial (acute) infection. (
  • Women are routinely tested for hepatitis B during pregnancy , and infants born to women with chronic HBV are vaccinated and given hepatitis B immune globulin (HBIG) shortly after birth to avoid infection. (
  • We also encourage residents at high-risk for infection to get vaccinated for hepatitis A. (
  • One in 10 sausages and processed pork meat products in England and Wales could cause hepatitis E virus (HEV) infection if undercooked, experts warn. (
  • However, he said, the figure of 1 in 10 sausages presenting a potential risk of hepatitis E infection if undercooked should be interpreted with caution. (
  • Antigenic and genetic variation in cytopathic hepatitis A virus variants arising during persistent infection: evidence for genetic recombination. (
  • In humans, hepatitis D virus infection only occurs in the presence of hepatitis B infection. (
  • Hepatitis D virus infection is transmitted by blood and blood products. (
  • The risk factors for infection are similar to those for hepatitis B virus infection. (
  • A patient can acquire hepatitis D virus infection at the same time as he/she is infected with the hepatitis B virus. (
  • A patient with hepatitis B can be infected with hepatitis D virus at any time after acute hepatitis B virus infection. (
  • Hepatitis D virus super-infection should be suspected in a patient with chronic hepatitis B whose condition suddenly worsens. (
  • A particularly aggressive acute hepatitis B infection could suggest hepatitis D co-infection. (
  • Co-infection or super-infection with hepatitis D virus in a patient with hepatitis B is diagnosed by the presence of antibodies against the hepatitis D virus. (
  • Disease: Coinfection: acute infection with hepatitis B virus. (
  • Superinfection: acute HDV infection on chronic hepatitis B. (
  • Infection may occur simultaneously with Hepatitis B virus (coinfection) or it may be acquired after B (superinfection). (
  • In the case of coinfection the patient displays two transaminases peaks, the first apparently due to hepatitis B and the second, which occurs weeks later, due to hepatitis D infection. (
  • Hepatitis D does not increase the incidence of extrahepatic disease hepatocellular carcinoma over hepatitis B infection. (
  • In order for the hepatitis D virus to replicate and cause infection, the virus causing hepatitis B must also be present in the body to supply the proteins necessary to form its protein coat. (
  • A study of patients infected with acute hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection found that women had higher rates of spontaneous viral clearance - undetectable levels of the virus without initiating drug therapy. (
  • One hepatitis virus could help treat infection by another, say Chinese researchers. (
  • Stopping the replication of hepatitis B, which affects most people in developing countries in childhood, effectively cures the infection. (
  • By using a related hepatitis virus, which targets only the liver, the researchers ensured that treatment would be specific to the site of infection. (
  • Recently, another team showed that injecting the 'molecular scissors' alone into the bloodstream of hepatitis B patients helped treat the infection (see Hope for hepatitis B treatment ). (
  • Hepatitis B is the most common serious cause of liver infection and a leading cause of liver cancer. (
  • Hepatitis C (HCV) is a contagious viral infection that causes inflammation of the liver. (
  • Symptoms of Hepatitis A infection usually appear two to six weeks after exposure and include fever, fatigue, loss of appetite, abdominal discomfort, dark urine, diarrhea, and yellow skin and eyes. (
  • Infection with the hepatitis B virus (HBV). (
  • The word hepatitis means inflammation of the liver and with HBV infection the liver is often enlarged and tender. (
  • All pregnant women living with HIV should be screened during the current pregnancy for hepatitis B virus (HBV) and unless they are known to have HIV/HBV coinfection and for hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection unless they are known to have HIV/HCV coinfection (see HIV/Hepatitis C Virus Coinfection ) (AIII) . (
  • Women with chronic HBV infection who have not already received the hepatitis A virus (HAV) vaccine series should be screened for immunity to HAV because they are at increased risk of complications from coinfection with other viral hepatitis infections. (
  • Within 12 hours of birth, infants born to women with HBV infection should receive hepatitis B immune globulin and the first dose of the HBV vaccine series (AI) . (
  • For additional information on hepatitis B virus (HBV) and HIV, see HIV/Hepatitis B (HBV) Coinfection in the Adult and Adolescent Guidelines 1 and Hepatitis B Virus Infection in the Adult and Adolescent OI Guidelines . (
  • Hepatitis B tests are blood tests that show whether you have an active hepatitis B infection. (
  • This antigen is the earliest sign of an active hepatitis B infection. (
  • This antigen is only present during an active hepatitis B infection. (
  • This antibody shows that a hepatitis B infection has occurred within the last 6 months. (
  • It can also mean that a chronic hepatitis B infection has flared up again. (
  • This antibody shows that the active stage of a hepatitis B infection is almost over, and your risk of spreading the virus is a lot lower. (
  • This infection occurs only in people who are already infected with hepatitis B. It's rare in the United States and Canada, except among people who inject illegal drugs and those who are often exposed to blood products. (
  • Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection has the dubious distinction of being the most common chronic blood-borne infection in the U.S., with an estimated 3.2 million people chronically infected. (
  • Projections based on the current prevalence of infection and anticipated rates of progression have raised concerns about the potential impact of the virus during the next 2 decades. (
  • HCV infection causes acute hepatitis, chronic hepatitis, cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). (
  • Acute infection is diagnosed by antibody tests or by molecular techniques like PCR that detect the presence of RNA from the virus. (
  • The U.S. Food and Drug Administration today approved Olysio (simeprevir), a new therapy to treat chronic hepatitis C virus infection. (
  • In clinical studies, Olysio was evaluated in combination with peginterferon-alfa and ribavirin, two drugs also used to treat hepatitis C virus infection. (
  • Olysio is the third FDA-approved protease inhibitor to treat chronic hepatitis C virus infection, and provides health professionals and patients with a new, effective treatment for this serious disease," said Edward Cox, M.D., director of the Office of Antimicrobial Products in the FDA's Center for Drug Evaluation and Research. (
  • The studies were designed to measure whether a participant's hepatitis C virus was no longer detected in the blood at least 12 weeks after finishing treatment (sustained virologic response), suggesting a participant's infection had been cured. (
  • Olysio should not be used alone to treat chronic hepatitis C infection. (
  • Unlike hepatitis A, which is transmitted via food or water and causes an acute infection that can last a few weeks, hepatitis B and C are transmitted through blood. (
  • Unravelling these important mechanisms of virus-host interaction will contribute to the development of novel strategies to prevent and control HCV infection. (
  • Effective treatment options for individuals with chronic hepatitis B infection were limited until 1998 when lamivudine, the first nucleoside analogue drug, was introduced. (
  • Treatment is currently intended to prevent the long-term complications of hepatitis B virus infection, with little consideration given to potential adverse public health impacts. (
  • The study showed that exosomes secreted from uMSC inhibited HCV infection in lab culture - "mainly, we think, because it targeted the virus as it tried to replicate," Dr. Qi said. (
  • Hepatitis B is inflammation of the liver due to infection with the hepatitis B virus. (
  • Hepatitis is a viral infection that attacks the liver. (
  • Autochthonous hepatitis E occurring in developed countries is caused by genotypes 3 and 4 and is a zoonotic infection. (
  • The purpose of the study is to investigate the immune response to hepatitis C virus to determine why some people clear the virus and others develop chronic infection. (
  • We will analyze the peripheral (blood) and intrahepatic (liver) immune response in hepatitis C infection in patients with clear hepatitis C infection and those who develop chronic infection. (
  • No previous studies have examined HBV DNA in sweat or blood as a potential route of transmission of the virus, but animal studies with occultly infected blood suggest that it can transmit infection even though it contains extremely small numbers of virus particles, Dr. Bereket-Yücel said. (
  • Several mechanisms conducive to occult HBV infection have been suggested, such as an altered immune system response, infection of peripheral blood mononuclear cells by integration in the chromosomes of the host, or co-infection with other hepatropic viruses and mutations in HBV genes," Dr. Bereket-Yücel said. (
  • Infection can lead to acute disease, chronic hepatitis, and primary cancer of the liver. (
  • Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is a major cause of chronic liver disease, affecting ∼3% of the world's population ( 1 , 2 ). (
  • In addition, the prevalence of chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection, which shares similar epidemiological factors of transmision with HCV, has not been found higher in type 2 diabetic patients than in the general population ( 19 , 21 , 22 , 25 , 26 ). (
  • The CDC recommendations are key to increasing the early diagnosis of chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection, since many of the estimated 800,000 1.4 million Americans with chronic HBV infection have no symptoms and are unaware of their disease. (
  • For more information chronic hepatitis B infection, visit or . (
  • More than 240 million people worldwide are chronically infected with this virus and over 887,000 people die each year from the long-term consequences of the infection, such as liver cirrhosis and liver cancer. (
  • New ways to study HBV pathogenesis are emerging from the discovery of an unusual HBV in shrews: this virus lacks an important immune modulator that is important for the chronification of infection. (
  • As an immunomodulator, it suppresses the body's specific immune defence against HBV, so that the infection cannot heal and becomes chronic - often with very high virus concentrations in the blood. (
  • Since the virus is unable to infect human liver cells, an infection of humans with these viruses can very probably be ruled out. (
  • The findings potentially explain how the hepatitis B virus (HBV) establishes and maintains chronic infection, and could lead to the development of novel therapeutic strategies. (
  • Chronic HBV infection is associated with impaired virus-specific T-cell responses. (
  • In addition, the hepatitis B e-antigen (HBeAg) - a hepatitis B viral protein -- may represent a viral strategy to establish persistent infection, but the mechanism remains largely unknown. (
  • Hepatitis A is a virus known to infect the liver, and infection can result in a monthlong illness featuring fever, vomiting and diarrhea, dark urine, clay-colored stools and jaundice. (
  • The research of Associate Professor Joseph Marcotrigiano has isolated and examined an outer region of hepatitis C that enables the virus to evade the body's natural immune system response, which causes persistent, chronic infection. (
  • These proteins will be present in your blood if you have a hepatitis C infection now or have had one in the past. (
  • It is important to identify the type of hepatitis virus causing the infection, to prevent its spread and choose the proper treatment. (
  • HCV genetic material (RNA) testing uses polymerase chain reaction (PCR) to identify an active hepatitis C infection. (
  • Find out if a hepatitis C infection is the cause of abnormal liver function tests. (
  • Screen people (such as doctors, dentists, and nurses) who have an increased chance of getting or spreading a hepatitis C infection. (
  • Identify the type of hepatitis C virus causing the infection. (
  • Okabe et al 1 studied the association of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection with chronic active myocarditis, a variant form of chronic myocarditis characterized by numerous lymphocytic clusters and myocardial cell damage, in 3 patients. (
  • 2 4 Second, HCV infection of lymphocytic cells in patients with chronic hepatitis C has been documented. (
  • Okabe M, Fukuda K, Arakawa K, Kikuchi M. Chronic variant of myocarditis associated with hepatitis C virus infection. (
  • Zignego AL, De Carli M, Monti M, Careccia G, La Villa G, Giannini C, D'Elios MM, Del Prete G, Gentilini P. Hepatitis C virus infection of mononuclear cells from peripheral blood and liver infiltrates in chronically infected patients. (
  • Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is a major cause of chronic hepatitis, liver cirrhosis, and hepatocellular carcinoma. (
  • In addition to causing hepatitis, infection with HBV can lead to cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. (
  • Viral infection by Hepatitis B virus (HBV) causes many hepatocyte changes due to the direct action of a protein encoded by the virus, HBx, and to indirect changes due to a large increase in intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) after infection. (
  • Chronic HBV/HDV coinfection leads to the most severe form of chronic viral hepatitis, so it is important to elucidate the molecular mechanisms regulating virus-host interplay and pathogenesis. (
  • Pawlotsky J-M. Acute viral hepatitis. (
  • A mild form of viral hepatitis, without jaundice. (
  • Friend C, Braunsteiner H. Viral hepatitis associated with transplantable mouse leukemia. (
  • Delta hepatitis is considered to be the most severe viral hepatitis. (
  • ANTHC has led statewide viral hepatitis efforts for decades. (
  • Unlike other forms of viral hepatitis, HBV cannot be transmitted by contaminated food or water. (
  • Pawlotsky J-M, Wedemeyer H. Acute viral hepatitis. (
  • Monday, July 28, 2014 is World Hepatitis Day--a day organized by WHO to increase awareness and understanding of viral hepatitis. (
  • Each month, the distinguished Editorial Board monitors and selects only the best articles on subjects such as immunology, chronic hepatitis, viral hepatitis, cirrhosis, genetic and metabolic liver diseases and their complications, liver cancer, and drug metabolism. (
  • John McLauchlan, a professor of viral hepatitis at the University of Glasgow, called the three laureates "pioneers" and said their discovery made the global elimination of the disease possible. (
  • These new recommendations are critical to identifying people who are living with the disease without the benefits of medical attention, said John W. Ward, M.D., director of CDC′s Division of Viral Hepatitis. (
  • Viral hepatitis is a silent epidemic. (
  • The hepatitis C virus is the cause of hepatitis C and some cancers such as liver cancer ( hepatocellular carcinoma , abbreviated HCC) and lymphomas in humans. (
  • 2 Hepatocellular carcinoma develops in a small proportion of patients who have chronic hepatitis, but the true rate of this complication is unknown. (
  • Omata, M. Hepatitis C Virus and Hepatocellular Carcinoma. (
  • The vaccine has been particularly important for countries where the incidence of hepatitis B virus-related hepatocellular carcinoma is high. (
  • That may induce hepatocellular carcinoma, peliosis hepatitis, and general liver dysfunction," Dr. Bereket-Yücel said. (
  • However, integrated parts of the Hepatitis B virus genome are found in the chromosomes of many hepatocellular carcinoma patients. (
  • Infants born to HBsAg-positive mothers should receive hepatitis B immune globulin (HBIG) and the first dose of hepatitis B vaccine within 12 hours of birth, followed by the second and third doses of vaccine at 1 and 6 months of age, respectively. (
  • The hepatitis B vaccine has been around for almost 25 years and has significantly reduced the number of new infections. (
  • The hepatitis B vaccine is a series of three shots injected into the muscle of the upper arm over a six-month period. (
  • All measures that prevent hepatitis B will prevent HDV, including HBV vaccine. (
  • CVS ), is encouraging unvaccinated Ohio residents to receive the Hepatitis A vaccine following an increase in confirmed cases of the virus. (
  • All 64 MinuteClinic locations in Ohio have the Hepatitis A vaccine available for people who have not yet been vaccinated. (
  • Hepatitis A vaccine may provide protection against the disease if given within two weeks after exposure. (
  • People who have had Hepatitis A disease or previously received two doses of the Hepatitis A vaccine do not need to be immunized for Hepatitis A again. (
  • MinuteClinic providers can provide the Hepatitis A vaccine to children 24 months and older and to adults. (
  • Developing an effective vaccine has been challenging because the virus mutates frequently, thereby evading immunologic surveillance. (
  • Since its widespread introduction, the hepatitis B vaccine has become an essential part of infant immunization programmes globally. (
  • Mutations associated with drug treatment can cause changes to the surface antigen protein, the precise part of the virus that the hepatitis B vaccine mimics. (
  • However, the emergence of antiviral drug-associated potential vaccine escape mutants (ADAP-VEMs) in treated patients does not necessarily pose a significant, imminent threat to the global hepatitis B immunization programme. (
  • The medical world may be one step closer to an affordable, effective therapeutic vaccine for hepatitis C virus (HCV), according to a new study appearing in the latest issue of STEM CELLS Translational Medicine. (
  • Hepatitis A vaccine is available that is 95% effective in preventing the disease. (
  • It was not, initially, directed to the discovery of hepatitis B virus (HBV), the development of a vaccine, and the prevention of a common cancer. (
  • The first inactivated hepatitis A vaccine was licensed for use in 1995. (
  • The AAP estimates that there were approximately 300,000 cases of hepatitis A infections per year in the United States prior to vaccine licensure. (
  • By 2003, hepatitis A disease rates were already 76 percent lower than rates seen during the pre-vaccine years. (
  • AAP researchers find that an impressive 97 percent of children and 95 percent of adults develop protective antibodies within one month of their first hepatitis A vaccination, and "virtually 100 percent" of patients are protected after the second dose of the vaccine. (
  • In the 2012 Yellow Book on travelers' health, Umid M. Sharapov of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention states that hepatitis A is often seen in the developing world and is "one of the most common vaccine-preventable infections acquired during travel. (
  • Protective hepatitis A antibodies have been shown to persist for at least five to 12 years and mathematical models predict that protection will last for at least 20 years following completion of the hepatitis A vaccine series. (
  • There is no vaccine available to prevent hepatitis C. (
  • This virus causes the disease hepatitis B. Despite there being a vaccine to prevent Hepatitis B, HBV remains a global health problem. (
  • hepatitis B virus serves as a helper for replication of hepatitis delta virus, the virions of which contain hepatitis B surface antigen (HB s Ag). (
  • Antibody and antigen tests can detect each of the different hepatitis viruses. (
  • Although we have no direct measurement of the infected cell mass, we can estimate the turnover rate of these cells in two ways: (i) by comparing the rate of viral production before and after therapy or (ii) from the decline of hepatitis B antigen during treatment. (
  • This antigen was detected by immunofluorescence in the nuclei of liver cells in patients infected with hepatitis B and looked similar to hepatitis B core antigen. (
  • Therefore came the suspicion that the new antigen might belong to a different virus. (
  • Hepatitis B e-antigen. (
  • This paper examines the mechanism of antiviral drug-selected changes in the portion of the viral genome that also affects the surface antigen, and explores their potential impact on current hepatitis B immunization programmes. (
  • The MP Diagnostics (MPD) Anti-HBs ELISA 4.0 is an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) intended for the detection of antibodies to Hepatitis B Virus Surface Antigen (anti-HBs) in human serum or plasma samples. (
  • The MP Diagnostics ASSURE HBsAg Rapid Test (Whole Blood/Serum/Plasma) is a lateral flow chromatographic immunoassay for the qualitative detection of Hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) in human whole blood, serum or plasma. (
  • The surface antigen is sometimes extended as a tubular tail on one side of the virus particle. (
  • Alvarado-Mora MV, Romano CM, Gomes-Gouvêa MS, Gutierrez MF, Carrilho FJ, Pinho JR (2011) Dynamics of hepatitis D (delta) virus genotype 3 in the Amazon region of South America. (
  • Casey L, Brown TL, Colan EJ, Wignall F, Gerin JL (1993) A genotype of hepatitis D virus that occurs in northern America. (
  • These compounds were investigated for their anti-HCV activities using genotype 2a JFH-1 subgenomic replicons and infectious virus systems. (
  • This tool is designed to use phylogenetic methods in order to identify the Hepatitis E virus genotype of a nucleotide sequence. (
  • In one of the largest prevalence studies to date, researchers from the U.K. provide national, regional, and global genotype prevalence estimates for the hepatitis C virus (HCV). (
  • A reduction in Olysio's effectiveness was observed in participants infected with the genotype 1a hepatitis C virus with an NS3 Q80K polymorphism, a strain of the hepatitis C virus commonly found in the United States. (
  • However, genotype 3 (HEV 3) can lead to chronic hepatitis in immuno-compromised patients such as organ-transplant recipients and patients with haematological malignancies. (
  • HCV viral genotyping is used to find out which genotype of the HCV virus is present. (
  • Treatment of chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infections with the reverse transcriptase inhibitor lamivudine leads to a rapid decline in plasma viremia and provides estimates for crucial kinetic constants of HBV replication. (
  • With both infections there is more incidence of fulminant hepatitis and the mortality rate is 5% versus 1% with hepatitis B alone. (
  • Infections with HAV can produce effects that range in severity from asymptomatic to death from fulminant hepatitis. (
  • Most of these people then go on to develop chronic hepatitis C. Some will also develop scarring and poor liver function (cirrhosis) over many years, which can lead to complications such as bleeding, jaundice (yellowish eyes or skin), fluid accumulation in the abdomen, infections or liver cancer. (
  • Hepatitis virus panel is a series of blood tests to diagnose infections caused by hepatitis A, B and C viruses. (
  • One of these interferons, called interferon-alpha, has been used for many years to treat chronic hepatitis C virus infections, either alone or in concert with an antiviral called ribavirin. (
  • Infections with the hepatitis B virus (HBV) are one of the major global health problems. (
  • Transplantation of hepatitis C (HCV) kidneys: Defining the risks (abstract). (
  • Bensag A (1983) Labrea hepatitis and other fulminant hepatitis in Serra Madureira Acre and Boca de Acre Amazonas Brasil. (
  • Perinatal hepatitis B in the newborn may range from asymptomatic to fulminant hepatitis. (
  • In rare cases, fulminant hepatitis (acute liver failure) can result and be life-threatening. (
  • Fulminant hepatitis occurs but is extremely uncommon. (
  • Note: Hepatitis D only causes disease in people who also have hepatitis B. It is not routinely checked on a hepatitis antibody panel. (
  • We assessed hepatitis E virus (HEV) antibody software (Mikrogen). (
  • Hepatitis B core antibody. (
  • HCV RNA testing may be done to double-check a positive result on an HCV antibody test, measure the level of virus in the blood (called viral load), or show how well a person with HCV is responding to treatment. (
  • Hepatitis C virus has a positive sense single-stranded RNA genome . (
  • The proteins of this virus are arranged along the genome in the following order: N terminal-core-envelope (E1)-E2-p7-nonstructural protein 2 (NS2)-NS3-NS4A-NS4B-NS5A-NS5B-C terminal. (
  • This volume is composed of chapters that review important fundamental aspects of HCV biology and disease pathogenesis including, for example, the discovery and identification of the HCV genome, early virus-cell interactions including identification of various cellular receptors, HCV gene expression studied using the HCV replicon system, identification and characterization of HCV structural- and non-structural HCV proteins, HCV replication in cultured cells, and host factors involved in viral replication. (
  • Hepatitis B virus subtype ADR DNA, complete genome, isolate:HBV-115. (
  • HCV is a single-stranded RNA virus with a genome of approximately 9,400 nucleotides that encodes six to eight proteins. (
  • Long-fingered bat hepatitis B virus isolate 776, complete genome. (
  • The Hepatitis B genome makes 4 mRNAs. (
  • Although expression of Core as well as E1 and E2 envelope proteins produces virus-like particles in heterologous expression systems, there is increasing evidence that non-structural viral proteins and p7 are also required for the production of infectious particles, suggesting that HCV genome replication and virion assembly are closely linked. (
  • Hepatitis C virus is a positive-stranded RNA virus, and its ∼9.6-kb genome contains an open reading frame encoding a polyprotein of ∼3000 amino acids (aa) flanked by untranslated regions (UTRs) at both ends. (
  • NS1 (p7) protein is dispensable for viral genome replication but plays a critical role in virus morphogenesis. (
  • Determining prevalence: In the absence of existing data for hepatitis C prevalence, health care providers should initiate universal hepatitis C screening until they establish that the prevalence of HCV RNA positivity in their population is less than 0.1%, at which point universal screening is no longer explicitly recommended but may occur at the provider's discretion. (
  • About 2%-3% of the world's population is infected with hepatitis C virus (HCV), with an estimated prevalence of 0.8% in Canada or more than 240 000 Canadians infected. (
  • The average age at a hepatitis C diagnosis ranges from 40 to 59 years : 4 million affected (prevalence 1%) and 10 000-20 000 deaths a year. (
  • See for other geographic areas with an intermediate or high prevalence of the hepatitis A virus. (
  • Objectives To determine whether older adults with the hepatitis C virus (HCV) achieve a sustained viral response (SVR) after treatment with direct-acting antiviral therapy. (
  • Their discovery also allowed the rapid development of antiviral drugs directed at hepatitis C," it added. (
  • As the first study to identify exosomes with antiviral potency, this research suggests the potential for a new therapy for hepatitis C to address some of challenges with current treatment, including non-response in some patients and side effects, said Anthony Atala, MD, Editor-in-Chief of STEM CELLS Translational Medicine and director of the Wake Forest Institute for Regenerative Medicine. (
  • In the latest study, lead author Abigail Jarret, now a graduate student at Yale University, and her group showed that hepatitis C virus sabotages the antiviral defenses of liver cells by blunting the effect of key immune proteins called interferons. (
  • Thus, these hepatitis C virus-induced microRNAs can blunt liver cell interferon-driven antiviral defenses in two ways, Jarret explained. (
  • The Nature Medicine article is " Hepatitis-C-virus-induced microRNAs dampen interferon-mediated antiviral signalling . (
  • New research sheds light on how a hepatitis B viral protein stimulates the expansion of immune cells that impair antiviral responses, according to a study published April 18 in the open-access journal PLOS Pathogens by Haitao Guo of the Indiana University School of Medicine, Bin Wang and Jiming Zhang of Fudan University, and colleagues. (
  • The availability of serological tests for hepatitis A and B viruses in the 1970s made it clear that most parenterally transmitted hepatitis was due to neither of these viruses. (
  • There are different tests for hepatitis A and hepatitis B. A positive test is considered abnormal. (
  • They discovered a new virus that was genetically similar to hepatitis A and named it phopivirus. (
  • Viruses similar to hepatitis B have been found in all apes (orangutans, gibbons, gorillas and chimpanzees), in Old World monkeys, and in New World woolly monkeys (the woolly monkey hepatitis B virus), suggesting an ancient origin for this virus in primates. (
  • virus isolated in 1996, the hepatitis G virus (HGV), is believed to be responsible for a large number of sexually transmitted and bloodborne cases of hepatitis. (
  • The new hepatitis virus was first identified by a scientific team led by researchers at the U.S. National Institutes of Health after they analyzed blood samples from 92 people in China who had serious cases of hepatitis not caused by any of the five known hepatitis viruses . (
  • The Lake County Health Department is informing the public that there has been a recent increase in reported cases of hepatitis A virus (HAV) throughout the State of Illinois and in Lake County. (
  • CLEVELAND, Ohio -- Cases of hepatitis A and the number of mosquitoes carrying West Nile Virus continue to rise in Ohio, according to the Ohio Department of Health (ODH). (
  • WHO estimates there are over 70 million cases of hepatitis C worldwide and 400,000 deaths from it each year. (
  • In the U.S., 85 percent of travel-related cases of hepatitis A occur following travel to Mexico, Central America or South America. (
  • Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is a major cause of chronic liver disease, with an estimated 170 million people infected worldwide. (
  • a type of liver disease caused by the hepatitis E virus (HEV). (
  • Hepatitis C virus (HCV) has become the most significant cause of chronic liver disease of infectious etiology in the United States. (
  • Hepatitis C virus (HCV), a major causative agent of chronic liver disease, is spread throughout the world and around 170 million people are persistently infected. (
  • Human hepatitis delta virus , or HDV, is harmless when on its own, but can cause devastating liver disease when it teams up with the hepatitis B virus. (
  • Hepatitis B virus (HBV) is the most prevalent cause of human liver disease [4,5]. (
  • The first major study of virus has reported that those infected by means other than blood transfusions did not develop chronic liver disease. (
  • STOCKHOLM-Americans Harvey J. Alter and Charles M. Rice and British-born scientist Michael Houghton jointly won the Nobel Prize for medicine on Monday for their discovery of the hepatitis C virus, a major source of liver disease that affects millions worldwide. (
  • Our studies allowed us to understand the gender disparity of HBV carriers, and why this virus tends to cause more severe liver disease in men than in women," says principal investigator James Ou of the University of Southern California. (
  • The U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) today published new recommendations for health care providers that are designed to increase routine testing in the United States for chronic hepatitis B, a major cause of liver disease and liver cancer. (
  • More than 170 million individuals are currently infected with hepatitis C virus (HCV) worldwide and are at continuous risk of developing chronic liver disease. (
  • The non-infectious hepatitis B particles are composed of HBsAg only and come in the form of filaments and spheres. (
  • Routine screening of blood donors for HBsAg and the elimination of commercial blood sources in the early 1970s reduced the frequency of, but did not eliminate, transfusion-associated hepatitis. (
  • Overview of Hepatitis C, including epidemiology, etiology, symptoms, diagnosis, pathology and treatment guidelines as well as an overview on the competitive landscape. (
  • The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention makes available a chart on how to interpret hepatitis C test results and any subsequent additional tests that may be required to obtain a comprehensive diagnosis. (
  • We find that in persistently infected patients, HBV particles are cleared from the plasma with a half-life of approximately 1.0 day, which implies a 50% daily turnover of the free virus population. (
  • These two independent methods give equivalent results: we find a wide distribution of half-lives for virus-producing cells, ranging from 10 to 100 days in different patients, which may reflect differences in rates of lysis of infected cells by immune responses. (
  • The total daily production of plasma virus is, on average, higher in chronic HBV carriers than in HIV-infected patients, but the half-life of virus-producing cells is much shorter in HIV. (
  • In separate research, Dr. Charles Chiu and colleagues at UCSF discovered the same virus -- called parvovirus-like hybrid virus (PHV) -- in a different set of hepatitis patients whose disease did not appear to be caused by known viruses . (
  • At first we thought this was a genuine hepatitis virus, but later we found it in data sets from patients with many other diseases and even from animals," Chiu, a professor of laboratory medicine and director of the UCSF Viral Diagnostics and Discovery Center, said in a UCSF news release. (
  • We now know that there are more people, particularly immunosuppressed patients, with hepatitis E who haven't travelled abroad. (
  • Giving hepatitis B patients the modified hepatitis delta virus reduced levels of the virus in their blood by nearly 90 per cent. (
  • However, this method means that if patients are re-infected with hepatitis B, they need another injection. (
  • Because it was only identified recently, it isn't clear at this time how widespread hepatitis G is and what its precise effects are on infected patients. (
  • Hepatitis diet should be carefully monitored and prepared for easy and quick recovery of hepatitis patients. (
  • For this reason it is vital that patients get tested for hepatitis C if you think they may have been exposed to the virus (Hepatitis Australia 2019). (
  • These treatments helped many patients get rid of the virus, but the treatment fails to cure more than 60 percent of patients. (
  • If patients are also HIV+, the effect of antiretroviral therapy on the recovery of hepatitis C immunity will be investigated. (
  • For those patients enrolled who begin hepatitis C treatment, we will evaluate the immune system of people who respond compared to those who do not respond. (
  • Patients who begin hepatitis C therapy or antiretroviral therapy if HIV coinfected will provide serial specimens for examination. (
  • Patients who undergo liver biopsy as a part of their routine hepatitis care will provide a sample for further studies of the immune response to see if it is different in the liver compared to the blood. (
  • The recommendations, published today in CDC′s Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report (MMWR) Recommendations & Reports, also for the first time give health professionals guidance for effective management of chronically infected hepatitis B patients. (
  • Hepatitis A vaccines (Havrix or Vaqta) can be administered to children as young as 1 year of age, with a larger adult dose given to patients 19 years of age and up. (
  • The Department of Veterans Affairs Hepatitis C Resource Center Program and the National Hepatitis C Program Office developed updated recommendations for standard of care for hepatitis C patients. (
  • Positive and negative strand of hepatitis C virus RNA sequences in peripheral blood mononuclear cells in patients with chronic hepatitis C: no correlation with viral genotypes 1b, 2a, and 2b. (
  • We appreciate the comments of Drs Kao and Hwang regarding the reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) we used for genomic analysis of hepatitis C virus (HCV) R1 in 3 patients with chronic active myocarditis. (
  • Total viral release into the periphery is approximately 10(11) virus particles per day. (
  • The mechanism of the flavonoid 2 block to virus entry was demonstrated to be by both the direct action on virus particles and the interference on the host cells. (
  • 1985). These viruses are considered to be highly infectious and illness can be caused by as few as 10 viral particles (Teunis, 2008). (
  • These factors necessitate that isolated virus particles be sufficiently concentrated in order to detect their presence in foods. (
  • Hepadnaviruses have the smallest genomes of all known viruses, consisting of two uneven strands of DNA: a (-)sense strand whose size varies between hepadnaciruses and a (+)sense strandwhose size varies between different particles. (
  • The virus forms small round-shaped particles ranging from 50 to 80 nm in diameter. (
  • Viruses are very small and often highly contagious pathogenic agents which cause disease. (
  • A high level of this DNA means that the virus is multiplying in your body and you are very contagious. (
  • Hepatitis A is a highly contagious illness caused by the hepatitis A virus. (
  • HCV Guidance: Recommendations for Testing, Managing, and Treating Hepatitis C. (Accessed on November 25, 2017). (
  • WHO Guidelines on Hepatitis B and C Testing, 2017. (
  • The genotypes have a distinct geographical distribution and are used in tracing the evolution and transmission of the virus. (
  • After the exclusion of anti-HCV-positive plasma units from the donor pool, rare, sporadic instances have occurred of hepatitis C among recipients of immune globulin (IG) preparations for intravenous (but not intramuscular) use. (
  • What are symptoms of acute and chronic hepatitis C? (
  • Learn about hepatitis symptoms, vaccines, and treatments. (
  • For most people, the symptoms of hepatitis E are mild and clear up within four weeks, but in rare cases the disease can be fatal. (
  • Only about 1 in every 150 people who contract West Nile virus will develop these serious symptoms. (
  • Most people infected with the hepatitis C virus have no symptoms of the disease until liver damage becomes apparent, which may take several years. (
  • Symptoms may appear six or seven weeks following exposure to the virus (Health Direct 2018). (
  • Unfortunately, people with chronic hepatitis C often do not experience symptoms until their liver is damaged, which in some cases takes years (Hepatitis Australia 2019). (
  • AAP infectious disease experts report that most hepatitis A-infected children under the age of 6 show no symptoms of the disease, while more than two-thirds of affected older kids and adults will develop jaundice. (
  • Until now, we didn't know that hepatitis A had any close relatives, and we thought that only humans and other primates could be infected by such viruses," said lead author Simon Anthony, assistant professor of Epidemiology. (
  • Exosomes, although isolated from unfractionated culture media, were absent in highly infectious, purified virus preparations. (
  • Some viruses can survive and remain infectious in foods and the environment for prolonged periods of time. (
  • We suspect that these cases may be due to exposure to infectious hepatitis E virus in pork and pork products. (
  • While it's possible to identify the hepatitis E virus in food, we can't tell whether it's infectious and capable of making us ill. (
  • Recommendations for Testing, Managing, and Treating Hepatitis C. Joint panel from the American Association of the Study of Liver Diseases and the Infectious Diseases Society of America. (
  • Authorities suspect that those who consumed food from McDonald's Greenlane on the evening of Dec 15th carry the risk of contracting Hepatitis A. The medical officer confirmed that a particular food handler working on the 7pm to 2am shift was suffering the highly infectious stage of the virus. (
  • Margaret Littlejohn of the Victorian Infectious Diseases Reference Laboratory noted that there are also differences in the virus among the 30 communities that offered samples for testing, which allowed the scientists to study its possible transmission routes, and determine when the virus may have first appeared in Australia. (
  • While vaccines have not yet been developed for the rest of the "alphabet" of infectious hepatitis, it is fortunate that safe and effective vaccinations are available against both the hepatitis A and hepatitis B viruses. (
  • In response to action taken by some State Medicaid programs to restrict the specialties of providers who can prescribe drug therapies to treat hepatitis C virus (HCV), IDSA has developed an appeals letter template recommending that Infectious Diseases (ID) Specialists and other HIV providers be covered prescribers of all HCV medications. (
  • It raises the question of whether hepatitis A originated in animals, like many other viruses that are now adapted to humans. (
  • In the natural history of phopivirus and hepatitis A, it is unclear whether a common ancestor (virus) spilled over from humans to seals, vice versa, or from a third unrelated host that has not yet been identified. (
  • Another project might study humans who eat seal meat to see if the seal virus has ever spilled over. (
  • 7. An isolated polynucleotide encoding a polypeptide which is immunoreactive with sera from humans infected with hepatitis C virus (HCV), said polynucleotide consisting essentially of the polynucleotide sequence presented as SEQ ID NO:1. (
  • In earlier work, this team of scientists was able to show that mammals other than humans carry their own HBV species and that some of these animal viruses can even infect human cells. (
  • Only humans and chimpanzees are susceptible to Hepatitis B virus. (
  • HCV is a significant problem for many people with HIV, but it isn't the only virus that can cause hepatitis (inflammation of the liver). (
  • 702 words - 3 pages Hepatitis A is an inflammation of the liver caused by the hepatitis A virus. (
  • Hepatitis B is an inflammation of the liver caused by the hepatitis B virus. (
  • 1260 words - 6 pages Hepatitis is a medical condition defined by the inflammation of the liver and characterized by the presence of inflammatory cells in the tissue of the organ. (
  • The name is from the Greek hêpar (ἧπαρ), the stem of which is hēpat- (ἡπατ-), meaning of the liver, and suffix -itis, meaning "inflammation" [1] hepatitis virus have A, B C and D types. (
  • Hepatitis C is an inflammation of the liver's cells and tissues caused by the hepatitis C virus (HCV). (
  • Hepatitis C is a viral disease that causes inflammation of the liver that can lead to diminished liver function or liver failure. (
  • Neonatal hepatitis is an inflammation of the liver that usually occurs in early infancy and is typically transmitted to the baby by the infected mother. (
  • Arboleda M, Castilho MC, Fonseca JCF, Albuquerque BC, Saboia RC, Yoshida CFT (1995) Epidemiological aspects of hepatitis B and D virus in the northern region of Amazonas, Brazil. (
  • Hepatitis G is transmitted by blood-borne routes and was just discovered in 1995. (
  • Virus: Incomplete RNA virus, dependent on HBV envelope proteins. (
  • These in turn spur hundreds of genes that generate virus-fighting proteins within the cell. (
  • Hepatitis C virus (HCV) test is a blood test that looks for the genetic material ( RNA ) of the virus that causes hepatitis or for the proteins ( antibodies ) the body makes against HCV. (
  • The virus is divided into four major serotypes (adr, adw, ayr, ayw) based on antigenic epitopes present on its envelope proteins. (
  • Hepatitis C virus is blood-borne, which means it is spread through blood and blood products (Grady). (
  • Announcing the prize, the Nobel Committee noted that the trio's work identified a major source of blood-borne hepatitis that couldn't be explained by the previously discovered hepatitis A and B viruses. (
  • Hepatitis B Virus (HBV) is a double-stranded DNA virus in the Hepadnaviridae family. (
  • Hepatitis B virus (HBV), is a partially double-stranded DNA virus, a species of the genus Orthohepadnavirus and a member of the Hepadnaviridae family of viruses. (
  • What Causes Hepatitis A? (
  • The virus that causes hepatitis C protects itself by blocking signals that call up immune defenses in liver cells, according to University of Washington researchers and colleagues reporting Nov. 14 in Nature Medicine . (
  • Also known as serum hepatitis, Hepatitis B spread through blood and sexual sexual contact. (
  • Although the frequency of transfusion-associated hepatitis C fell as a result of blood donor screening, the overall frequency of hepatitis C remained the same until the early 1990s, when the overall frequency fell by 80%, in parallel with a reduction in the number of new cases in injection drug users. (
  • However, they caution that further research is needed in mature seals, because if it acts anything like hepatitis A it might only cause disease in adults. (
  • Hepatitis E Virus refl ects the total adult population with respect to age, Seroprevalence sex, and geographic region, but persons with migration background are underrepresented (non-German citizenship among Adults, 4.6% in the sample vs. 8.7% in the total adult population). (
  • A series of three combination hepatitis A-hepatitis B shots (Twinrix) is also available for use in adults 18 years and older. (
  • Deaths are rare, according to data from the American Academy of Pediatrics, with a hepatitis A case fatality rate of .01 percent to 2 percent. (
  • The hepatitis C virus particle consists of a lipid membrane envelope that is 55 to 65 nm in diameter. (
  • This hypothesis, tenaciously postulated by Dr. Rizzetto, was confirmed some years later by experimentally infecting chimpanzees and obtaining a new viral particle which was given the name of Hepatitis D Virus (HDV). (
  • The virus particle, called Dane particle (virion), consists of an outer lipid envelope and an icosahedral nucleocapsid core composed of protein. (
  • The hepatitis C virus ( HCV ) [2] is a small (55-65 nm in size), enveloped , positive-sense single-stranded RNA virus of the family Flaviviridae . (
  • HCV is a small, single-stranded RNA virus in the family Flaviviridae . (
  • The Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), human herpes virus 8, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and Human T-cell lymphoma viruses I and II have been regarded as causative agents of the development of NHL. (
  • "Hepatitis C treatment factsheet: Harvoni (sofosbuvir + ledipasvir). (
  • Hepatitis C Online: "Goals and Benefits with HCV Treatment," "Ledipasvir-Sofosbuvir (Harvoni). (
  • Daar added that this method of delivering treatment could be developed for other pathogenic viruses, especially the HIV and hepatitis C viruses. (
  • See how well treatment of chronic hepatitis B is working. (
  • A test reagent comprises cloned hepatitis B virus-DNA that has been repurified by treatment with a restriction enzyme and labelled to high specific. (
  • In 2011, the FDA approved Victrelis (boceprevir) and Incivek (telaprevir) for the treatment of hepatitis C. Olysio was reviewed under the FDA's priority review program, which provides for an expedited review of drugs that, if approved, would provide safe and effective therapy when no satisfactory alternative therapy exists, or offer significant improvement compared to available therapies. (
  • For someone who is HIV Positive and has Hep C, went through 48 weeks of treatment and the virus came back within three months, was put on treatment again with another peg for 12 months, is it possible to clear the virus with this course of second treatment? (
  • Global control of hepatitis B virus: does treatment-induced antigenic change affect immunization? (
  • As a single treatment agent, however, lamivudine has a significant drawback: it induces lamivudine-resistant hepatitis B virus strains that may pose a risk to the global hepatitis B immunization programme. (
  • Prior to March 2016, hepatitis C treatment involved weekly injections and oral medications that were known to bring on unwanted side effects and health complications. (
  • 20-25% of people with hepatitis C will experience acute hepatitis, however, their body will be able to cure the virus without treatment. (
  • Any treatment for hepatitis C or HIV will be determined by the patient's primary physician and will not be affected by enrollment in the study. (
  • The researchers discovered the new virus while investigating a deadly strain of avian influenza that killed over 150 harbor seals off the coast of New England in 2011. (
  • Strain demonstrates a rapid replication/cytopathic effect (RR/CPE+) phenotype in BS-C-1 cells, but retains antigenic characteristics of low cell culture passage hepatitis A virus. (
  • NORTHERN TERRITORY, AUSTRALIA-According to an Australian Broadcasting Corporation report, a new study has found that the hepatitis B virus affecting between 10 and 20 percent of the Aboriginal people living in northern Australia today is a unique strain named HBV/C4. (
  • The virions of Hepatitis B virus are 42 nm in diameter and possess an isometric nucleocapsid, the core, of 27nm in diameter, surrounded by an outer coat approximately 4nm thick. (