The type species of the genus ORTHOHEPADNAVIRUS which causes human HEPATITIS B and is also apparently a causal agent in human HEPATOCELLULAR CARCINOMA. The Dane particle is an intact hepatitis virion, named after its discoverer. Non-infectious spherical and tubular particles are also seen in the serum.
INFLAMMATION of the LIVER in humans caused by a member of the ORTHOHEPADNAVIRUS genus, HEPATITIS B VIRUS. It is primarily transmitted by parenteral exposure, such as transfusion of contaminated blood or blood products, but can also be transmitted via sexual or intimate personal contact.
Those hepatitis B antigens found on the surface of the Dane particle and on the 20 nm spherical and tubular particles. Several subspecificities of the surface antigen are known. These were formerly called the Australia antigen.
INFLAMMATION of the LIVER in humans caused by HEPATITIS B VIRUS lasting six months or more. It is primarily transmitted by parenteral exposure, such as transfusion of contaminated blood or blood products, but can also be transmitted via sexual or intimate personal contact.
Antibodies to the HEPATITIS B ANTIGENS, including antibodies to the surface (Australia) and core of the Dane particle and those to the "e" antigens.
The hepatitis B antigen within the core of the Dane particle, the infectious hepatitis virion.
A closely related group of antigens found in the plasma only during the infective phase of hepatitis B or in virulent chronic hepatitis B, probably indicating active virus replication; there are three subtypes which may exist in a complex with immunoglobulins G.
Vaccines or candidate vaccines containing inactivated hepatitis B or some of its component antigens and designed to prevent hepatitis B. Some vaccines may be recombinantly produced.
A DNA virus that closely resembles human hepatitis B virus. It has been recovered from naturally infected ducks.
Antigens of the virion of the HEPATITIS B VIRUS or the Dane particle, its surface (HEPATITIS B SURFACE ANTIGENS), core (HEPATITIS B CORE ANTIGENS), and other associated antigens, including the HEPATITIS B E ANTIGENS.
INFLAMMATION of the LIVER in humans caused by HEPATITIS C VIRUS, a single-stranded RNA virus. Its incubation period is 30-90 days. Hepatitis C is transmitted primarily by contaminated blood parenterally, and is often associated with transfusion and intravenous drug abuse. However, in a significant number of cases, the source of hepatitis C infection is unknown.
INFLAMMATION of the LIVER in humans caused by a member of the HEPATOVIRUS genus, HUMAN HEPATITIS A VIRUS. It can be transmitted through fecal contamination of food or water.
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.
Agents used in the prophylaxis or therapy of VIRUS DISEASES. Some of the ways they may act include preventing viral replication by inhibiting viral DNA polymerase; binding to specific cell-surface receptors and inhibiting viral penetration or uncoating; inhibiting viral protein synthesis; or blocking late stages of virus assembly.
A reverse transcriptase inhibitor and ZALCITABINE analog in which a sulfur atom replaces the 3' carbon of the pentose ring. It is used to treat HIV disease.
The process of intracellular viral multiplication, consisting of the synthesis of PROTEINS; NUCLEIC ACIDS; and sometimes LIPIDS, and their assembly into a new infectious particle.
A primary malignant neoplasm of epithelial liver cells. It ranges from a well-differentiated tumor with EPITHELIAL CELLS indistinguishable from normal HEPATOCYTES to a poorly differentiated neoplasm. The cells may be uniform or markedly pleomorphic, or form GIANT CELLS. Several classification schemes have been suggested.
INFLAMMATION of the LIVER in humans due to infection by VIRUSES. There are several significant types of human viral hepatitis with infection caused by enteric-transmission (HEPATITIS A; HEPATITIS E) or blood transfusion (HEPATITIS B; HEPATITIS C; and HEPATITIS D).
Any of the viruses that cause inflammation of the liver. They include both DNA and RNA viruses as well viruses from humans and animals.
A species in the genus HEPATOVIRUS containing one serotype and two strains: HUMAN HEPATITIS A VIRUS and Simian hepatitis A virus causing hepatitis in humans (HEPATITIS A) and primates, respectively.
INFLAMMATION of the LIVER in humans that is caused by HEPATITIS C VIRUS lasting six months or more. Chronic hepatitis C can lead to LIVER CIRRHOSIS.
INFLAMMATION of the LIVER with ongoing hepatocellular injury for 6 months or more, characterized by NECROSIS of HEPATOCYTES and inflammatory cell (LEUKOCYTES) infiltration. Chronic hepatitis can be caused by viruses, medications, autoimmune diseases, and other unknown factors.
INFLAMMATION of the LIVER in animals due to viral infection.
Tumors or cancer of the LIVER.
Immunoglobulins raised by any form of viral hepatitis; some of these antibodies are used to diagnose the specific kind of hepatitis.
An ORTHOHEPADNAVIRUS causing chronic liver disease and hepatocellular carcinoma in woodchucks. It closely resembles the human hepatitis B virus.
INFLAMMATION of the LIVER in humans caused by HEPATITIS DELTA VIRUS, a defective RNA virus that can only infect HEPATITIS B patients. For its viral coating, hepatitis delta virus requires the HEPATITIS B SURFACE ANTIGENS produced by these patients. Hepatitis D can occur either concomitantly with (coinfection) or subsequent to (superinfection) hepatitis B infection. Similar to hepatitis B, it is primarily transmitted by parenteral exposure, such as transfusion of contaminated blood or blood products, but can also be transmitted via sexual or intimate personal contact.
A defective virus, containing particles of RNA nucleoprotein in virion-like form, present in patients with acute hepatitis B and chronic hepatitis. It requires the presence of a hepadnavirus for full replication. This is the lone species in the genus Deltavirus.
A genus of FLAVIVIRIDAE causing parenterally-transmitted HEPATITIS C which is associated with transfusions and drug abuse. Hepatitis C virus is the type species.
Virus diseases caused by the HEPADNAVIRIDAE.
Ribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.
Antibodies to the HEPATITIS C ANTIGENS including antibodies to envelope, core, and non-structural proteins.
The condition of harboring an infective organism without manifesting symptoms of infection. The organism must be readily transmissible to another susceptible host.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
Any vaccine raised against any virus or viral derivative that causes hepatitis.
Species of the genus INFLUENZAVIRUS B that cause HUMAN INFLUENZA and other diseases primarily in humans. Antigenic variation is less extensive than in type A viruses (INFLUENZA A VIRUS) and consequently there is no basis for distinct subtypes or variants. Epidemics are less likely than with INFLUENZA A VIRUS and there have been no pandemics. Previously only found in humans, Influenza B virus has been isolated from seals which may constitute the animal reservoir from which humans are exposed.
A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.
Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent infection with hepatitis A virus (HEPATOVIRUS).
Proteins found mainly in icosahedral DNA and RNA viruses. They consist of proteins directly associated with the nucleic acid inside the NUCLEOCAPSID.
Carbon-containing phosphonic acid compounds. Included under this heading are compounds that have carbon bound to either OXYGEN atom or the PHOSPHOROUS atom of the (P=O)O2 structure.
Liver disease in which the normal microcirculation, the gross vascular anatomy, and the hepatic architecture have been variably destroyed and altered with fibrous septa surrounding regenerated or regenerating parenchymal nodules.
An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of L-alanine and 2-oxoglutarate to pyruvate and L-glutamate. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC
A genus of Sciuridae consisting of 14 species. They are shortlegged, burrowing rodents which hibernate in winter.
A family of hepatotropic DNA viruses which contains double-stranded DNA genomes and causes hepatitis in humans and animals. There are two genera: AVIHEPADNAVIRUS and ORTHOHEPADNAVIRUS. Hepadnaviruses include HEPATITIS B VIRUS, duck hepatitis B virus (HEPATITIS B VIRUS, DUCK), heron hepatitis B virus, ground squirrel hepatitis virus, and woodchuck hepatitis B virus (HEPATITIS B VIRUS, WOODCHUCK).
A positive-stranded RNA virus species in the genus HEPEVIRUS, causing enterically-transmitted non-A, non-B hepatitis (HEPATITIS E).
The genetic constitution of the individual, comprising the ALLELES present at each GENETIC LOCUS.
Acute INFLAMMATION of the LIVER in humans; caused by HEPATITIS E VIRUS, a non-enveloped single-stranded RNA virus. Similar to HEPATITIS A, its incubation period is 15-60 days and is enterically transmitted, usually by fecal-oral transmission.
Antibodies to the HEPATITIS A ANTIGENS including antibodies to envelope, core, and non-structural proteins.
Viruses whose genetic material is RNA.
The assembly of VIRAL STRUCTURAL PROTEINS and nucleic acid (VIRAL DNA or VIRAL RNA) to form a VIRUS PARTICLE.
The complete genetic complement contained in a DNA or RNA molecule in a virus.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
EPIDEMIOLOGIC STUDIES based on the detection through serological testing of characteristic change in the serum level of specific ANTIBODIES. Latent subclinical infections and carrier states can thus be detected in addition to clinically overt cases.
The type species of ORTHOPOXVIRUS, related to COWPOX VIRUS, but whose true origin is unknown. It has been used as a live vaccine against SMALLPOX. It is also used as a vector for inserting foreign DNA into animals. Rabbitpox virus is a subspecies of VACCINIA VIRUS.
A purine base and a fundamental unit of ADENINE NUCLEOTIDES.
Any of the processes by which cytoplasmic factors influence the differential control of gene action in viruses.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
The ability of viruses to resist or to become tolerant to chemotherapeutic agents or antiviral agents. This resistance is acquired through gene mutation.
Specific molecular components of the cell capable of recognizing and interacting with a virus, and which, after binding it, are capable of generating some signal that initiates the chain of events leading to the biological response.
The functional hereditary units of VIRUSES.
A strain of HEPATITIS A VIRUS which causes hepatitis in humans. The virus replicates in hepatocytes and is presumed to reach the intestine via the bile duct. Transmission occurs by the fecal-oral route.
The quantity of measurable virus in a body fluid. Change in viral load, measured in plasma, is sometimes used as a SURROGATE MARKER in disease progression.
The mechanism by which latent viruses, such as genetically transmitted tumor viruses (PROVIRUSES) or PROPHAGES of lysogenic bacteria, are induced to replicate and then released as infectious viruses. It may be effected by various endogenous and exogenous stimuli, including B-cell LIPOPOLYSACCHARIDES, glucocorticoid hormones, halogenated pyrimidines, IONIZING RADIATION, ultraviolet light, and superinfecting viruses.
The main structural component of the LIVER. They are specialized EPITHELIAL CELLS that are organized into interconnected plates called lobules.
In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.
Diffusible gene products that act on homologous or heterologous molecules of viral or cellular DNA to regulate the expression of proteins.
A chronic self-perpetuating hepatocellular INFLAMMATION of unknown cause, usually with HYPERGAMMAGLOBULINEMIA and serum AUTOANTIBODIES.
The infective system of a virus, composed of the viral genome, a protein core, and a protein coat called a capsid, which may be naked or enclosed in a lipoprotein envelope called the peplos.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
One of the type I interferons produced by peripheral blood leukocytes or lymphoblastoid cells. In addition to antiviral activity, it activates NATURAL KILLER CELLS and B-LYMPHOCYTES, and down-regulates VASCULAR ENDOTHELIAL GROWTH FACTOR expression through PI-3 KINASE and MAPK KINASES signaling pathways.
Proteins found in any species of virus.
Process of growing viruses in live animals, plants, or cultured cells.
Antigens from any of the hepatitis viruses including surface, core, and other associated antigens.
INFLAMMATION of the LIVER in non-human animals.
Retroviral proteins coded by the pol gene. They are usually synthesized as a protein precursor (POLYPROTEINS) and later cleaved into final products that include reverse transcriptase, endonuclease/integrase, and viral protease. Sometimes they are synthesized as a gag-pol fusion protein (FUSION PROTEINS, GAG-POL). pol is short for polymerase, the enzyme class of reverse transcriptase.
A general term for diseases produced by viruses.
Antigens produced by various strains of HEPATITIS D VIRUS.
Inhibitors of reverse transcriptase (RNA-DIRECTED DNA POLYMERASE), an enzyme that synthesizes DNA on an RNA template.
An enzyme that synthesizes DNA on an RNA template. It is encoded by the pol gene of retroviruses and by certain retrovirus-like elements. EC
A genus of PICORNAVIRIDAE causing infectious hepatitis naturally in humans and experimentally in other primates. It is transmitted through fecal contamination of food or water. HEPATITIS A VIRUS is the type species.
Administration of vaccines to stimulate the host's immune response. This includes any preparation intended for active immunological prophylaxis.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.
The total number of cases of a given disease in a specified population at a designated time. It is differentiated from INCIDENCE, which refers to the number of new cases in the population at a given time.
Substances elaborated by viruses that have antigenic activity.
A protein-nucleic acid complex which forms part or all of a virion. It consists of a CAPSID plus enclosed nucleic acid. Depending on the virus, the nucleocapsid may correspond to a naked core or be surrounded by a membranous envelope.
The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.
A genus of HEPADNAVIRIDAE infecting birds but rarely causing clinical problems. Transmission is predominantly vertical. HEPATITIS B VIRUS, DUCK is the type species.
Antigens of the virions of HEPACIVIRUS, their surface, core, or other associated antigens.
Includes the spectrum of human immunodeficiency virus infections that range from asymptomatic seropositivity, thru AIDS-related complex (ARC), to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS).
The outer protein protective shell of a virus, which protects the viral nucleic acid.
The expelling of virus particles from the body. Important routes include the respiratory tract, genital tract, and intestinal tract. Virus shedding is an important means of vertical transmission (INFECTIOUS DISEASE TRANSMISSION, VERTICAL).
A species of POLYOMAVIRUS originally isolated from Rhesus monkey kidney tissue. It produces malignancy in human and newborn hamster kidney cell cultures.
Viruses which lack a complete genome so that they cannot completely replicate or cannot form a protein coat. Some are host-dependent defectives, meaning they can replicate only in cell systems which provide the particular genetic function which they lack. Others, called SATELLITE VIRUSES, are able to replicate only when their genetic defect is complemented by a helper virus.
Immunoglobulins produced in response to VIRAL ANTIGENS.
Viruses whose nucleic acid is DNA.
The transference of a part of or an entire liver from one human or animal to another.
A country spanning from central Asia to the Pacific Ocean.
A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.
Layers of protein which surround the capsid in animal viruses with tubular nucleocapsids. The envelope consists of an inner layer of lipids and virus specified proteins also called membrane or matrix proteins. The outer layer consists of one or more types of morphological subunits called peplomers which project from the viral envelope; this layer always consists of glycoproteins.
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
The common chimpanzee, a species of the genus Pan, family HOMINIDAE. It lives in Africa, primarily in the tropical rainforests. There are a number of recognized subspecies.
Simultaneous infection of a host organism by two or more pathogens. In virology, coinfection commonly refers to simultaneous infection of a single cell by two or more different viruses.
Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.
The transmission of infectious disease or pathogens from one generation to another. It includes transmission in utero or intrapartum by exposure to blood and secretions, and postpartum exposure via breastfeeding.
INFLAMMATION of the LIVER in humans caused by HEPATITIS DELTA VIRUS in conjunction with HEPATITIS B VIRUS and lasting six months or more.
A human liver tumor cell line used to study a variety of liver-specific metabolic functions.
Viruses parasitic on plants higher than bacteria.
Sites on an antigen that interact with specific antibodies.
The presence of viruses in the blood.
Disease having a short and relatively severe course.
A subtype of INFLUENZA A VIRUS with the surface proteins hemagglutinin 1 and neuraminidase 1. The H1N1 subtype was responsible for the Spanish flu pandemic of 1918.
An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.
An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed.
The type species of ALPHAVIRUS normally transmitted to birds by CULEX mosquitoes in Egypt, South Africa, India, Malaya, the Philippines, and Australia. It may be associated with fever in humans. Serotypes (differing by less than 17% in nucleotide sequence) include Babanki, Kyzylagach, and Ockelbo viruses.
The type species of MORBILLIVIRUS and the cause of the highly infectious human disease MEASLES, which affects mostly children.
Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.
A species of the CORONAVIRUS genus causing hepatitis in mice. Four strains have been identified as MHV 1, MHV 2, MHV 3, and MHV 4 (also known as MHV-JHM, which is neurotropic and causes disseminated encephalomyelitis with demyelination as well as focal liver necrosis).
The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.
Blood tests that are used to evaluate how well a patient's liver is working and also to help diagnose liver conditions.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
Purine or pyrimidine bases attached to a ribose or deoxyribose. (From King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
A nucleoside antimetabolite antiviral agent that blocks nucleic acid synthesis and is used against both RNA and DNA viruses.
Unassigned species, in the family PICORNAVIRIDAE, causing high mortality in ducklings 3 days to 3 weeks old.
DNA sequences which are recognized (directly or indirectly) and bound by a DNA-dependent RNA polymerase during the initiation of transcription. Highly conserved sequences within the promoter include the Pribnow box in bacteria and the TATA BOX in eukaryotes.
DNA molecules capable of autonomous replication within a host cell and into which other DNA sequences can be inserted and thus amplified. Many are derived from PLASMIDS; BACTERIOPHAGES; or VIRUSES. They are used for transporting foreign genes into recipient cells. Genetic vectors possess a functional replicator site and contain GENETIC MARKERS to facilitate their selective recognition.
Antigens produced by various strains of HEPATITIS A VIRUS such as the human hepatitis A virus (HEPATITIS A VIRUS, HUMAN).
The study of the structure, growth, function, genetics, and reproduction of viruses, and VIRUS DISEASES.
A subtype of INFLUENZA A VIRUS comprised of the surface proteins hemagglutinin 5 and neuraminidase 1. The H5N1 subtype, frequently referred to as the bird flu virus, is endemic in wild birds and very contagious among both domestic (POULTRY) and wild birds. It does not usually infect humans, but some cases have been reported.
The type species of LYSSAVIRUS causing rabies in humans and other animals. Transmission is mostly by animal bites through saliva. The virus is neurotropic multiplying in neurons and myotubes of vertebrates.
A genus of tree shrews of the family TUPAIIDAE which consists of about 12 species. One of the most frequently encountered species is T. glis. Members of this genus inhabit rain forests and secondary growth areas in southeast Asia.
Infectious organisms in the BLOOD, of which the predominant medical interest is their contamination of blood-soiled linens, towels, gowns, BANDAGES, other items from individuals in risk categories, NEEDLES and other sharp objects, MEDICAL WASTE and DENTAL WASTE, all of which health workers are exposed to. This concept is differentiated from the clinical conditions of BACTEREMIA; VIREMIA; and FUNGEMIA where the organism is present in the blood of a patient as the result of a natural infectious process.
A subtype of INFLUENZA A VIRUS comprised of the surface proteins hemagglutinin 3 and neuraminidase 2. The H3N2 subtype was responsible for the Hong Kong flu pandemic of 1968.
Pathological processes of the LIVER.
Small synthetic peptides that mimic surface antigens of pathogens and are immunogenic, or vaccines manufactured with the aid of recombinant DNA techniques. The latter vaccines may also be whole viruses whose nucleic acids have been modified.
Any of the covalently closed DNA molecules found in bacteria, many viruses, mitochondria, plastids, and plasmids. Small, polydisperse circular DNA's have also been observed in a number of eukaryotic organisms and are suggested to have homology with chromosomal DNA and the capacity to be inserted into, and excised from, chromosomal DNA. It is a fragment of DNA formed by a process of looping out and deletion, containing a constant region of the mu heavy chain and the 3'-part of the mu switch region. Circular DNA is a normal product of rearrangement among gene segments encoding the variable regions of immunoglobulin light and heavy chains, as well as the T-cell receptor. (Riger et al., Glossary of Genetics, 5th ed & Segen, Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992)
Diseases which have one or more of the following characteristics: they are permanent, leave residual disability, are caused by nonreversible pathological alteration, require special training of the patient for rehabilitation, or may be expected to require a long period of supervision, observation, or care. (Dictionary of Health Services Management, 2d ed)
Genotypic differences observed among individuals in a population.
The co-occurrence of pregnancy and an INFECTION. The infection may precede or follow FERTILIZATION.
Insertion of viral DNA into host-cell DNA. This includes integration of phage DNA into bacterial DNA; (LYSOGENY); to form a PROPHAGE or integration of retroviral DNA into cellular DNA to form a PROVIRUS.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
A pyrimidine nucleoside formed in the body by the deamination of CYTARABINE.
Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.
Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)
A genus of HEPADNAVIRIDAE causing hepatitis in humans, woodchucks (HEPATITIS B VIRUS, WOODCHUCK) and ground squirrels. hepatitis b virus is the type species.
Polymers of ETHYLENE OXIDE and water, and their ethers. They vary in consistency from liquid to solid depending on the molecular weight indicated by a number following the name. They are used as SURFACTANTS, dispersing agents, solvents, ointment and suppository bases, vehicles, and tablet excipients. Some specific groups are NONOXYNOLS, OCTOXYNOLS, and POLOXAMERS.
A potent hepatotoxic and hepatocarcinogenic mycotoxin produced by the Aspergillus flavus group of fungi. It is also mutagenic, teratogenic, and causes immunosuppression in animals. It is found as a contaminant in peanuts, cottonseed meal, corn, and other grains. The mycotoxin requires epoxidation to aflatoxin B1 2,3-oxide for activation. Microsomal monooxygenases biotransform the toxin to the less toxic metabolites aflatoxin M1 and Q1.
DNA-dependent DNA polymerases found in bacteria, animal and plant cells. During the replication process, these enzymes catalyze the addition of deoxyribonucleotide residues to the end of a DNA strand in the presence of DNA as template-primer. They also possess exonuclease activity and therefore function in DNA repair.
INFLAMMATION of the LIVER due to ALCOHOL ABUSE. It is characterized by NECROSIS of HEPATOCYTES, infiltration by NEUTROPHILS, and deposit of MALLORY BODIES. Depending on its severity, the inflammatory lesion may be reversible or progress to LIVER CIRRHOSIS.
Viral proteins that are components of the mature assembled VIRUS PARTICLES. They may include nucleocapsid core proteins (gag proteins), enzymes packaged within the virus particle (pol proteins), and membrane components (env proteins). These do not include the proteins encoded in the VIRAL GENOME that are produced in infected cells but which are not packaged in the mature virus particle,i.e. the so called non-structural proteins (VIRAL NONSTRUCTURAL PROTEINS).
A species of FLAVIVIRUS, one of the Japanese encephalitis virus group (ENCEPHALITIS VIRUSES, JAPANESE). It can infect birds and mammals. In humans, it is seen most frequently in Africa, Asia, and Europe presenting as a silent infection or undifferentiated fever (WEST NILE FEVER). The virus appeared in North America for the first time in 1999. It is transmitted mainly by CULEX spp mosquitoes which feed primarily on birds, but it can also be carried by the Asian Tiger mosquito, AEDES albopictus, which feeds mainly on mammals.
A group of viruses in the PNEUMOVIRUS genus causing respiratory infections in various mammals. Humans and cattle are most affected but infections in goats and sheep have also been reported.
Severe inability of the LIVER to perform its normal metabolic functions, as evidenced by severe JAUNDICE and abnormal serum levels of AMMONIA; BILIRUBIN; ALKALINE PHOSPHATASE; ASPARTATE AMINOTRANSFERASE; LACTATE DEHYDROGENASES; and albumin/globulin ratio. (Blakiston's Gould Medical Dictionary, 4th ed)
The measurement of infection-blocking titer of ANTISERA by testing a series of dilutions for a given virus-antiserum interaction end-point, which is generally the dilution at which tissue cultures inoculated with the serum-virus mixtures demonstrate cytopathology (CPE) or the dilution at which 50% of test animals injected with serum-virus mixtures show infectivity (ID50) or die (LD50).
A species of CERCOPITHECUS containing three subspecies: C. tantalus, C. pygerythrus, and C. sabeus. They are found in the forests and savannah of Africa. The African green monkey (C. pygerythrus) is the natural host of SIMIAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS and is used in AIDS research.
Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.
Viruses that produce tumors.
Abuse, overuse, or misuse of a substance by its injection into a vein.
Membrane glycoproteins from influenza viruses which are involved in hemagglutination, virus attachment, and envelope fusion. Fourteen distinct subtypes of HA glycoproteins and nine of NA glycoproteins have been identified from INFLUENZA A VIRUS; no subtypes have been identified for Influenza B or Influenza C viruses.
Proteins encoded by a VIRAL GENOME that are produced in the organisms they infect, but not packaged into the VIRUS PARTICLES. Some of these proteins may play roles within the infected cell during VIRUS REPLICATION or act in regulation of virus replication or VIRUS ASSEMBLY.
Diagnostic procedures involving immunoglobulin reactions.
Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.
A malignant neoplasm occurring in young children, primarily in the liver, composed of tissue resembling embryonal or fetal hepatic epithelium, or mixed epithelial and mesenchymal tissues. (Stedman, 25th ed)
Production of new arrangements of DNA by various mechanisms such as assortment and segregation, CROSSING OVER; GENE CONVERSION; GENETIC TRANSFORMATION; GENETIC CONJUGATION; GENETIC TRANSDUCTION; or mixed infection of viruses.
Therapy with two or more separate preparations given for a combined effect.
A CELL LINE derived from the kidney of the African green (vervet) monkey, (CERCOPITHECUS AETHIOPS) used primarily in virus replication studies and plaque assays.
A species of SIMPLEXVIRUS that causes vesicular lesions of the mouth in monkeys. When the virus is transmitted to man it causes an acute encephalitis or encephalomyelitis, which is nearly always fatal.
Schedule giving optimum times usually for primary and/or secondary immunization.
A clinical manifestation of HYPERBILIRUBINEMIA, characterized by the yellowish staining of the SKIN; MUCOUS MEMBRANE; and SCLERA. Clinical jaundice usually is a sign of LIVER dysfunction.
Enzymes of the transferase class that catalyze the conversion of L-aspartate and 2-ketoglutarate to oxaloacetate and L-glutamate. EC
The transmission of infectious disease or pathogens. When transmission is within the same species, the mode can be horizontal or vertical (INFECTIOUS DISEASE TRANSMISSION, VERTICAL).
The interactions between a host and a pathogen, usually resulting in disease.
The process by which a DNA molecule is duplicated.
The type species of VESICULOVIRUS causing a disease symptomatically similar to FOOT-AND-MOUTH DISEASE in cattle, horses, and pigs. It may be transmitted to other species including humans, where it causes influenza-like symptoms.
Organized services to administer immunization procedures in the prevention of various diseases. The programs are made available over a wide range of sites: schools, hospitals, public health agencies, voluntary health agencies, etc. They are administered to an equally wide range of population groups or on various administrative levels: community, municipal, state, national, international.
The ability of a pathogenic virus to lie dormant within a cell (latent infection). In eukaryotes, subsequent activation and viral replication is thought to be caused by extracellular stimulation of cellular transcription factors. Latency in bacteriophage is maintained by the expression of virally encoded repressors.
Widely used technique which exploits the ability of complementary sequences in single-stranded DNAs or RNAs to pair with each other to form a double helix. Hybridization can take place between two complimentary DNA sequences, between a single-stranded DNA and a complementary RNA, or between two RNA sequences. The technique is used to detect and isolate specific sequences, measure homology, or define other characteristics of one or both strands. (Kendrew, Encyclopedia of Molecular Biology, 1994, p503)
A family of RNA viruses causing INFLUENZA and other diseases. There are five recognized genera: INFLUENZAVIRUS A; INFLUENZAVIRUS B; INFLUENZAVIRUS C; ISAVIRUS; and THOGOTOVIRUS.
A sequence of successive nucleotide triplets that are read as CODONS specifying AMINO ACIDS and begin with an INITIATOR CODON and end with a stop codon (CODON, TERMINATOR).
Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.
The binding of virus particles to receptors on the host cell surface. For enveloped viruses, the virion ligand is usually a surface glycoprotein as is the cellular receptor. For non-enveloped viruses, the virus CAPSID serves as the ligand.
The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.
A family of the order Rodentia which contains 49 genera. Some of the more common genera are MARMOTA, which includes the marmot and woodchuck; Sciurus, the gray squirrel, S. carolinensis, and the fox squirrel, S. niger; Tamias, the eastern and western chipmunk; and Tamiasciurus, the red squirrel. The flying squirrels, except the scaly-tailed Anomaluridae, also belong to this family.
Human immunodeficiency virus. A non-taxonomic and historical term referring to any of two species, specifically HIV-1 and/or HIV-2. Prior to 1986, this was called human T-lymphotropic virus type III/lymphadenopathy-associated virus (HTLV-III/LAV). From 1986-1990, it was an official species called HIV. Since 1991, HIV was no longer considered an official species name; the two species were designated HIV-1 and HIV-2.
A family of RNA viruses, many of which cause disease in humans and domestic animals. There are three genera FLAVIVIRUS; PESTIVIRUS; and HEPACIVIRUS, as well as several unassigned species.
The transmission of infectious disease or pathogens from health professional or health care worker to patients. It includes transmission via direct or indirect exposure to bacterial, fungal, parasitic, or viral agents.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
A form of rapid-onset LIVER FAILURE, also known as fulminant hepatic failure, caused by severe liver injury or massive loss of HEPATOCYTES. It is characterized by sudden development of liver dysfunction and JAUNDICE. Acute liver failure may progress to exhibit cerebral dysfunction even HEPATIC COMA depending on the etiology that includes hepatic ISCHEMIA, drug toxicity, malignant infiltration, and viral hepatitis such as post-transfusion HEPATITIS B and HEPATITIS C.
Deliberate stimulation of the host's immune response. ACTIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of ANTIGENS or IMMUNOLOGIC ADJUVANTS. PASSIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of IMMUNE SERA or LYMPHOCYTES or their extracts (e.g., transfer factor, immune RNA) or transplantation of immunocompetent cell producing tissue (thymus or bone marrow).
The naturally occurring or experimentally induced replacement of one or more AMINO ACIDS in a protein with another. If a functionally equivalent amino acid is substituted, the protein may retain wild-type activity. Substitution may also diminish, enhance, or eliminate protein function. Experimentally induced substitution is often used to study enzyme activities and binding site properties.
Multi-subunit proteins which function in IMMUNITY. They are produced by B LYMPHOCYTES from the IMMUNOGLOBULIN GENES. They are comprised of two heavy (IMMUNOGLOBULIN HEAVY CHAINS) and two light chains (IMMUNOGLOBULIN LIGHT CHAINS) with additional ancillary polypeptide chains depending on their isoforms. The variety of isoforms include monomeric or polymeric forms, and transmembrane forms (B-CELL ANTIGEN RECEPTORS) or secreted forms (ANTIBODIES). They are divided by the amino acid sequence of their heavy chains into five classes (IMMUNOGLOBULIN A; IMMUNOGLOBULIN D; IMMUNOGLOBULIN E; IMMUNOGLOBULIN G; IMMUNOGLOBULIN M) and various subclasses.
The return of a sign, symptom, or disease after a remission.
Proteins that form the CAPSID of VIRUSES.
Commercially prepared reagent sets, with accessory devices, containing all of the major components and literature necessary to perform one or more designated diagnostic tests or procedures. They may be for laboratory or personal use.

Cloning and characterization of the promoter region of human telomerase reverse transcriptase gene. (1/4254)

Activation of telomerase is one of the rate-limiting steps in human cell immortalization and carcinogenesis Human telomerase is composed of at least two protein subunits and an RNA component. Regulation of expression of the catalytic subunit, human telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT), is suggested as the major determinant of the enzymatic activity. We report here the cloning and characterization of the 5'-regulatory region of the hTERT gene. The highly GC-rich content of the 5' end of the hTERT cDNA spans to the 5'-flanking region and intron 1, making a CpG island. A 1.7-kb DNA fragment encompassing the hTERT gene promoter was placed upstream of the luciferase reporter gene and transiently transfected into human cell lines of fibroblastic and epithelial origins that differed in their expression of the endogenous hTERT gene. Endogenous hTERT-expressing cells, but not nonexpressing cells, showed high levels of luciferase activity, suggesting that the regulation of hTERT gene expression occurs mainly at the transcriptional level. Additional luciferase assays using a series of constructs containing unidirectionally deleted fragments revealed that a 59-bp region (-208 to -150) is required for the maximal promoter activity. The region contains a potential Myc oncoprotein binding site (E-box), and cotransfection of a c-myc expression plasmid markedly enhanced the promoter activity, suggesting a role of the Myc protein in telomerase activation. Identification of the regulatory regions of the hTERT promoter sequence will be essential in understanding the molecular mechanisms of positive and negative regulation of telomerase.  (+info)

Core promoter mutations and genotypes in relation to viral replication and liver damage in East Asian hepatitis B virus carriers. (2/4254)

Virus load and liver damage, as measured by quantitative polymerase chain reaction and histology activity index, were related to genotype and core promoter mutations in 43 chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) carriers of East Asian origin. T-1762 mutants were more frequent in genotype C strains and were associated with more inflammation (P=.0036) and fibrosis (P=.0088) of the liver but not with hepatitis B e antigen (HBeAg) status or virus load. Conversely, precore mutations were associated with less liver inflammation (P=. 08), which was linked to HBeAg negativity and lower viral replication. Carriers with genotype C were more often HBeAg positive (P=.03) with precore wild type strains and more-severe liver inflammation (P=.009) than were those with genotype B. These findings suggest that pathogenic differences between genotypes may exist and that the T-1762 mutation may be useful as a marker for progressive liver damage but seem to contradict that down-regulation of HBeAg production is the major effect of this mutation.  (+info)

Transcriptional repression of human hepatitis B virus genes by a bZIP family member, E4BP4. (3/4254)

Box alpha is an essential element of both the upstream regulatory sequence of the core promoter and the second enhancer, which positively regulate the transcription of human hepatitis B virus (HBV) genes. In this paper, we describe the cloning and characterization of a box alpha binding protein, E4BP4. E4BP4 is a bZIP type of transcription factor. Overexpression of E4BP4 represses the stimulating activity of box alpha in the upstream regulatory sequence of the core promoter and the second enhancer in differentiated human hepatoma cell lines. E4BP4 can also suppress the transcription of HBV genes and the production of HBV virions in a transient-transfection system that mimics the viral infection in vivo. Expression of an E4BP4 antisense transcript can, instead, elevate the transcription of the core promoter. A low abundance of E4BP4 protein and mRNA in differentiated human hepatoma cell lines is detected, and E4BP4 is not a major component of box alpha binding proteins in untransfected differentiated human hepatoma cell lines. C/EBPalpha and C/EBPbeta, in contrast, are major components of the box alpha binding activity present in nuclear extracts. E4BP4 has a stronger binding affinity towards box alpha than the endogenous box alpha binding activity present in nuclear extracts. Structure and function analysis of E4BP4 reveals that DNA binding activity is sufficient to confer the negative regulatory function of E4BP4. These results indicate that binding site occlusion is the mechanism whereby E4BP4 suppresses transcription in HBV.  (+info)

Mutations in the carboxyl-terminal domain of the small hepatitis B virus envelope protein impair the assembly of hepatitis delta virus particles. (4/4254)

The carboxyl-terminal domain of the small (S) envelope protein of hepatitis B virus was subjected to mutagenesis to identify sequences important for the envelopment of the nucleocapsid during morphogenesis of hepatitis delta virus (HDV) virions. The mutations consisted of carboxyl-terminal truncations of 4 to 64 amino acid residues and small combined deletions and insertions spanning the entire hydrophobic domain between residues 163 and 224. Truncation of as few as 14 residues partially inhibited glycosylation and secretion of S and prevented assembly or stability of HDV virions. Short internal combined deletions and insertions were tolerated for secretion of subviral particles with the exceptions of those affecting residues 164 to 173 and 219 to 223. However, mutants competent for subviral particle secretion had a reduced capacity for HDV assembly compared to that of the wild type. One exception was a mutant carrying a deletion of residues 214 to 218, which exhibited a twofold increase in HDV assembly (or stability), whereas deletions of residues 179 to 183, 194 to 198, and 199 to 203 were the most inhibitory. Substitutions of single amino acids between residues 194 and 198 demonstrated that HDV assembly deficiency could be assigned to the replacement of the tryptophan residue at position 196. We concluded that assembly of stable HDV particles requires a specific function of the carboxyl terminus of S which is mediated at least in part by Trp-196.  (+info)

Intronless mRNA transport elements may affect multiple steps of pre-mRNA processing. (5/4254)

We have reported recently that a small element within the mouse histone H2a-coding region permits efficient cytoplasmic accumulation of intronless beta-globin cDNA transcripts. This sequence lowers the levels of spliced products from intron-containing constructs and can functionally replace Rev and the Rev-responsive element (RRE) in the nuclear export of unspliced HIV-1-related mRNAs. In work reported here, we further investigate the molecular mechanisms by which this element might work. We demonstrate here through both in vivo and in vitro assays that, in addition to promoting mRNA nuclear export, this element acts as a polyadenylation enhancer and as a potent inhibitor of splicing. Surprisingly, two other described intronless mRNA transport elements (from the herpes simplex virus thymidine kinase gene and hepatitis B virus) appear to function in a similar manner. These findings prompt us to suggest that a general feature of intronless mRNA transport elements might be a collection of phenotypes, including the inhibition of splicing and the enhancement of both polyadenylation and mRNA export.  (+info)

Functional analysis of mutations conferring lamivudine resistance on hepatitis B virus. (6/4254)

Two patterns of mutation are commonly observed in the polymerase gene of lamivudine [(-)2'-deoxy-3'-thiacytidine]-resistant hepatitis B virus (HBV). The M539I substitution in the conserved YMDD motif occurs independently of other changes, whereas the M539V substitution is associated with an additional upstream change (L515M). These mutations were introduced into a common background and their effects on HBV DNA replication and lamivudine resistance studied. The L515M and M539V mutations provided only partial resistance while the M539I mutation conferred a high degree of lamivudine resistance. The combination of the L515M and M539V mutations gave an intermediate level of replication competence, compared with either mutation alone, and increased resistance to lamivudine. This probably accounts for these two mutations always being observed together. The M539I mutation reduced replication competence.  (+info)

A cellular protein which binds hepatitis B virus but not hepatitis B surface antigen. (7/4254)

The envelope of hepatitis B virus (HBV) consists of three related proteins known as the large (L), middle (M) and small (S) hepatitis B surface antigens (HBsAg). L-HBsAg has a 108-119 amino acid extension at the N terminus compared with M-HBsAg and contains the preS1 sequence of the HBV envelope. Previous research has identified this region as the likely virus attachment protein which is thought to interact with the cellular receptor for the virus. However, as the receptor has still not been identified unequivocally, we used the preS1 region of L-HBsAg to screen a human liver cDNA library by the yeast two-hybrid system. Several positive clones were isolated which encoded cellular proteins that interacted with the HBV preS1 protein. The specificity was examined in an independent manner in experiments in which baculovirus-derived glutathione S-transferase (GST)-preS1 was incubated with 35S-labelled protein expressed by in vitro translation from the positive clones. The intensity of the interactions using this alternative approach mirrored those observed in the yeast two-hybrid system and two proteins (an unidentified protein and a mitochondrial protein) were selected for further study. The specificity of the binding reaction between the preS1 protein and these two proteins was further confirmed in a competition assay; HBV purified from serum, but not purified HBsAg, was able to compete with preS1 and thus block GST-preS1 binding to the unidentified protein but not to the mitochondrial protein. The unidentified protein was then expressed as a fusion protein with GST and this was able to bind HBV virions in a direct manner.  (+info)

Phosphorylation-dependent binding of hepatitis B virus core particles to the nuclear pore complex. (8/4254)

Although many viruses replicate in the nucleus, little is known about the processes involved in the nuclear import of viral genomes. We show here that in vitro generated core particles of human hepatitis B virus bind to nuclear pore complexes (NPCs) in digitonin-permeabilized mammalian cells. This only occurred if the cores contained phosphorylated core proteins. Binding was inhibited by wheat germ agglutinin, by antinuclear pore complex antibodies, and by peptides corresponding either to classical nuclear localization signals (NLS) or to COOH-terminal sequences of the core protein. Binding was dependent on the nuclear transport factors importins (karyopherins) alpha and beta. The results suggested that phosphorylation induces exposure of NLS in the COOH-terminal portion of the core protein that allows core binding to the NPCs by the importin- (karyopherin-) mediated pathway. Thus, phosphorylation of the core protein emerged as an important step in the viral replication cycle necessary for transport of the viral genome to the nucleus.  (+info)

TY - JOUR. T1 - Bone marrow-derived stem cells and hepatocarcinogenesis in hepatitis B virus transgenic mice. AU - Barone, Michele. AU - Scavo, Maria Principia. AU - Maiorano, Eugenio. AU - Di Leo, Alfredo. AU - Francavilla, Antonio. PY - 2014/3. Y1 - 2014/3. N2 - Background: Several studies have demonstrated that cancer can develop with the contribution of bone marrow-derived cancer stem cells. We evaluated the possible involvement of bone marrow-derived stem cells in hepatocarcinogenesis in a hepatitis B virus (HBV) transgenic mouse model. Methods: Bone marrow cells from wild type male mice were transplanted into sublethally irradiated, female, HBV transgenic mice with hepatocarcinoma nodules. Four months later, liver tissue was examined to localize neoplastic nodules/foci and characterize cells by evaluating the Y-chromosome and the hepatocyte lineage marker hepatocyte nuclear factor-1 (HNF1), as well as the HBsAg encoding gene (HBs-Eg) and HBsAg protein (HBs-Pr) (present only in cells of ...
Objectives: A number of studies have shown that chronic hepatitis B virus infection is implicated insusceptibility to pancreatic cancer. However, the results are still controversial. This meta-analysis aimed toquantitatively assess the relationship between chronic hepatitis B virus infection and incidence of pancreaticcancer of cohort and case-control studies. Methods: A literature search was performed for entries from 1990 to2012 using PUBMED and EMBASE. Studies were included if they reported odds ratios (ORs) and corresponding95% CIs of pancreatic cancer with respect to the infection of hepatitis B virus. Results: Eight studies met theinclusion criteria, which included five case-control studies and three cohort studies. Compared with individualswho have not infection of hepatitis B virus, the pooled OR of pancreatic cancer was 1.403 (95%CI: 1.139-1.729,P=0.001) for patients with hepatitis B virus infection. Sub-group analysis by study design showed that thesummary OR was 1.43 (95%CI: 1.06-1.94, P=0
Hepatocyte expression of pre-S1 and pre-S2 in relation to hepatitis B virus replication (hepatitis B virus-DNA in serum and HBcAg in the liver), histological activity and hepatitis delta virus superinfection was studied by indirect immunofluorescence on frozen sections of liver specimens from 68 patients with chronic hepatitis B virus infection. All 44 patients with chronic type B hepatitis had pre-S1 and pre-S2 display in the liver. The distribution of pre-S1 in the liver was membranous in one, mixed membranous and cytoplasmic in 12, and cytoplasmic in 31. The distribution of pre-S2 was membranous in one, mixed membranous and cytoplasmic in 26, and cytoplasmic in 17. Membranous expression of pre-S1 was significantly more prevalent in patients with active hepatitis B virus replication than in those without (13/28 v 0/16, p , 0.001), regardless of the histological activity, as was membranous expression of pre-S2 (27/28 v 0/16, p , 0.001). In contrast, a significantly higher extent of cytoplasmic ...
Get the inner blade of the sample report @ Data records on the hepatitis B virus core antibody diagnostic kit market. Current Development Status and Future Market Trends: This report will be a valuable appraisal for newcomers who want to enter the market for Hepatitis B Virus Core Antibody Diagnostic Kits as they predict not only current market trends but also future trends. This will help them carefully select their genres to be equal to compete with the global giants who have to end the development studios with huge production capabilities that have years of experience.. Forecast Market by 2025: This comprehensive research is valuable to everyone who is part of the Hepatitis B virus lifting antibody diagnostic kit market. This will help you understand the full view of the entire Hepatitis B Virus Core Antibody Diagnostic Kits market.. Global Hepatitis B Virus ...
1. Hepatitis B: World Health Organization Fact Sheet 204. 2000 : World Health Organization. 2. Gust ID. Epidemiology of hepatitis B infection in the Western Pacific and South East Asia. Gut. 1996 ;38(suppl 2):S18-S23 3. Lok AS. Chronic hepatitis B. N Engl J Med. 2002 ;346:1682-1683 4. Mahoney FJ. Update on diagnosis, management, and prevention of hepatitis B virus infection. Clin Microbiol Rev. 1999 ;12:351-366 5. Lee WM. Hepatitis B infection. N Engl J Med. 1997 ;337:1733-1745 6. Margolis HS, Alter MJ, Hadler SC. Hepatitis B: evolving epidemiology and implications for control. Semin Liver Dis. 1991 ;11:84-92 7. Alter M. Epidemiology of hepatitis B in Europe and worldwide. J Hepatol. 2003 ;39:S64-S69 8. Toukan A. Strategy for the control of hepatitis B virus infection in the Middle East and North Africa. Vaccine. 1990 ;8(suppl):S117-S121 9. McQuillan GM, Townsend TR, Fields HA, Carroll M, Leahy M, Polk BF. Seroepidemiology of hepatitis B virus ...
Since its widespread introduction, the hepatitis B vaccine has become an essential part of infant immunization programmes globally. The vaccine has been particularly important for countries where the incidence of hepatitis B virus-related hepatocellular carcinoma is high. Effective treatment options for individuals with chronic hepatitis B infection were limited until 1998 when lamivudine, the first nucleoside analogue drug, was introduced. As a single treatment agent, however, lamivudine has a significant drawback: it induces lamivudine-resistant hepatitis B virus strains that may pose a risk to the global hepatitis B immunization programme. Mutations associated with drug treatment can cause changes to the surface antigen protein, the precise part of the virus that the hepatitis B vaccine mimics. However, the emergence of antiviral drug-associated potential vaccine escape mutants (ADAP-VEMs) in treated patients does not necessarily pose a significant, imminent threat to the global hepatitis B ...
1. Kao JH, Chen DS. Global control of hepatitis B virus infection. The Lancet Infectious diseases. 2002;2:395-403 2. Liaw YF, Chu CM. Hepatitis B virus infection. Lancet. 2009;373:582-92 3. Ren JJ, Liu Y, Ren W, Qiu Y, Wang B, Chen P. et al. Role of general practitioners in prevention and treatment of hepatitis B in China. Hepatobiliary & pancreatic diseases international: HBPD INT. 2014;13:495-500 4. Dandri M, Burda MR, Will H, Petersen J. Increased hepatocyte turnover and inhibition of woodchuck hepatitis B virus replication by adefovir in vitro do not lead to reduction of the closed circular DNA. Hepatology. 2000;32:139-46 5. Moraleda G, Saputelli J, Aldrich CE, Averett D, Condreay L, Mason WS. Lack of effect of antiviral therapy in nondividing hepatocyte cultures on the closed circular DNA of woodchuck hepatitis virus. Journal of virology. 1997;71:9392-9 6. Yuen MF, Lai CL. Treatment of chronic hepatitis B: Evolution over two decades. Journal of gastroenterology and hepatology. 2011;26(Suppl ...
A precore mutant is a variety of hepatitis B virus that does not produce hepatitis B virus e antigen (HBeAg). These mutants are important because infections caused by these viruses are difficult to treat, and can cause infections of prolonged duration and with a higher risk of liver cirrhosis. The mutations are changes in DNA bases from guanine to adenine at base position 1896 (G1896A), and from cytosine to thymine at position 1858 (C1858T) in the precore region of the viral genome. The HBV has four genes: S, P, C, and X. The S gene codes for the major envelope protein (HBsAg). The largest gene is P. It codes for DNA polymerase. The C gene codes for HBeAg and HBcAg. The C gene has a precore and a core region. If translation is initiated at the precore region, the protein product is HBeAg. If translation begins with the core region, HBcAg is the protein product. HBeAg is a marker of HBV replication and infectivity. The precore region is not necessary for viral replication. Precore mutants can ...
The role of hepatitis B virus (HBV) X protein (HBx) in the regulation of HBV replication remains controversial. In the present study, the role of HBx in regulating HBV replication was initially investigated in both HepG2 and Huh7 in vitro cell lines with a transient transfection system. Next, the regions of HBx responsible for transcriptional transactivation and promotion of HBV replication were mapped in an HBV replication mouse model by in vivo transfection of a series of HBx expression plasmids. In an in vitro setting, HBx deficiency had little effect on HBV replication in Huh7 cells, but impaired HBV replication in HepG2 cells. In an in vivo setting, HBx had a strong enhancing effect on HBV transcription and replication. For the C-terminal two-thirds of the protein (amino acids [aa] 51 to 154) was required for this function of HBx, and the regions spanning aa 52 to 72 and 88 to 154 were found to be important for the stimulatory function of HBx on HBV replication. In conclusion, the role of HBx in
The role of hepatitis B virus (HBV) X protein (HBx) in the regulation of HBV replication remains controversial. In the present study, the role of HBx in regulating HBV replication was initially investigated in both HepG2 and Huh7 in vitro cell lines with a transient transfection system. Next, the regions of HBx responsible for transcriptional transactivation and promotion of HBV replication were mapped in an HBV replication mouse model by in vivo transfection of a series of HBx expression plasmids. In an in vitro setting, HBx deficiency had little effect on HBV replication in Huh7 cells, but impaired HBV replication in HepG2 cells. In an in vivo setting, HBx had a strong enhancing effect on HBV transcription and replication. For the C-terminal two-thirds of the protein (amino acids [aa] 51 to 154) was required for this function of HBx, and the regions spanning aa 52 to 72 and 88 to 154 were found to be important for the stimulatory function of HBx on HBV replication. In conclusion, the role of HBx in
The proliferative response of PBMC to hepatitis B virus (HBV) envelope, core, and e Ag was analyzed prospectively in 21 patients with acute self-limited HBV infection and compared with the response of patients with chronic HBV infection and different levels of HBV replication (i.e., hepatitis e Ag (HBeAg)- or anti-HBe-positive) and liver damage (i.e., chronic active hepatitis or chronic asymptomatic carriers). Our results indicate that: 1) HBV-infected subjects who develop a self-limited acute hepatitis show a vigorous PBMC response to hepatitis B core Ag and HBeAg, as expression of T cell activation; 2) appearance of a detectable lymphocyte response to HBV nucleocapsid Ag is temporally associated with the clearance of HBV envelope Ag; 3) in patients with chronic HBV infection the level of T cell responsiveness to hepatitis B core Ag and to HBeAg is significantly lower than that observed during acute infection; 4) T cell sensitization to HBV envelope Ag in acute and chronic HBV infection is ...
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Histologic analyses of liver fibrosis have been limited by small sample sizes and the predominance of samples from patients with active hepatitis. METHODS: We performed a prospective study of transient elastography in treatment-naive patients with chronic hepatitis B, to investigate the relationship between hepatitis B virus (HBV) genotype and liver fibrosis. A validated liver stiffness measurement algorithm was used to define insignificant fibrosis and advanced fibrosis. RESULTS: Of 1106 patients, 711 (64%) were older than age 40, 370 (34%) had positive test results for hepatitis B e antigen (HBeAg), and 386 (35%) had increased serum levels of alanine aminotransferase. Of the patients, 524 (49%) had genotype B and 582 (51%) had genotype C HBV infection. Patients with genotype C infection had insignificant fibrosis less often (42% vs 55%; P ...
Quantitation of low hepatitis B virus (HBV) DNA levels in patients with chronic hepatitis B is important for monitoring natural history of disease and treatment efficacy. This study aimed to compare the quantitation range and analytical sensitivity of the newly developed COBAS TaqMan™ HBV test (TaqMan test) with the COBAS Amplicor™ HBV Monitor Test (Amplicor test), using the Eurohep HBV reference plasma and serum samples from patients. Serial dilutions (2.7 × 101-2.7 × 108 copies/ml) of the Eurohep HBV reference plasma and 50 serum samples from chronic hepatitis B patients were tested by both assays. The TaqMan test could detect seven (2.7 × 102-2.7 × 108 copies/ml) of eight dilutions of the reference plasma, while the Amplicor test could only detect three of them (2.7 × 103-2.7 × 105 copies/ml). The HBV DNA values measured by the TaqMan test correlated very well with the theoretical Eurohep standard values (r = 0.998, P , 0.001). There were good correlations between the HBV DNA levels ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Hepatitis B virus X protein represses LKB1 expression to promote tumor progression and poor postoperative outcome in hepatocellular carcinoma. AU - Wu, Cheng Chung. AU - Wu, De Wei. AU - Lin, Ying Yu. AU - Lin, Po Lin. AU - Lee, Huei. PY - 2018/1/1. Y1 - 2018/1/1. N2 - Background: Hepatitis B virus X (HBx) protein plays critical roles in hepatitis B virus (HBV)-associated hepatocellular tumorigenesis through different molecular mechanisms, including inactivation of p53, a key transcription factor of liver kinase B1 (LKB1). We hypothesized that p53 inactivation by HBx protein could decrease LKB1 expression, thereby promoting tumor progression and poor outcomes in patients with HBV-associated hepatocellular carcinoma. Methods: Manipulation strategies for HBx protein and/or p53 were used to verify that loss of LKB1 could promote colony formation and invasiveness in HepG2 and Hep3B cells. The expressions of HBx protein and LKB1 in 93 hepatocellular carcinomas (HCC) were also ...
Tong, S.P.; Brotman, B.; Li, J.S.; Vitvitski, L.; Pascal, D.; Prince, A.M.; Trépo, C., 1991: In vitro and in vivo replication capacity of the precore region defective hepatitis B virus variants
PubMed journal article: Occult hepatitis B virus infection in HBs antigen-negative hepatocellular carcinoma in a Japanese population: involvement of HBx and p53. Download Prime PubMed App to iPhone, iPad, or Android
TY - JOUR. T1 - Two core promotor mutations identified in a hepatitis B virus strain associated with fulminant hepatitis result in enhanced viral replication. AU - Baumert, Thomas F.. AU - Rogers, Steven A.. AU - Hasegawa, Kiyoshi. AU - Liang, T. Jake. PY - 1996/11/15. Y1 - 1996/11/15. N2 - Viral mutations have been implicated in alteration of the biological phenotype of hepatitis B virus (HBV). We recently cloned and sequenced the viral genome of an HBV strain associated with an outbreak of fulminant hepatitis (FH strain). The FH strain contained numerous mutations in all genomic regions and was functionally characterized by a more efficient encapsidation of pregenomic RNA leading to highly enhanced replication. To define the responsible mutation(s) for the enhanced replication, we introduced individual mutations of the FH strain into a wild-type construct by oligonucleotide-directed mutagenesis. Analysis of viral replication showed that two adjacent mutations in the HBV core promotor (C to T ...
1] 中華醫學會肝病學分會、感染病學分會. 慢性乙型肝炎防治指南. 中華肝臟病雜志, 2005,13(12):881-891.. [2] Seeger C, Mason WS. Hepatitis B virus biology. Microbiol Mol Biol Rev, 2000,64(1):51-68.. [3] Scaglioni PP, Melegari M, Wands JR. Biologic properties of hepatitis B viral genomes with mutations in the precore promoter and precore open reading frame. Virology, 1997,233(2):374-81.. [4] Tran TT, Trinh TN, Abe K. New complex recombinant genotype of hepatitis B virus identified in Vietnam. J Virol, 2008,82(11):5657-63.. [5] Olinger CM, Jutavijittum P, Hubschen JM, et al. Possible new hepatitis B virus genotype, southeast Asia. Emerg Infect Dis, 2008,14(11):1777-80.. [6] Chu CJ, Hussain M, Lok AS. Hepatitis B virus genotype B is associated with earlier HBeAg seroconversion compared with hepatitis B virus genotype C. Gastroenterology, 2002,122(7):1756-62.. [7] Chu CM, Liaw YF. Genotype C hepatitis B virus infection is associated with a higher risk of reactivation of ...
Co-infection with HIV and hepatitis B virus (HBV) has become an important factor of co-morbidity and mortality. The aim of this study was to determine the seroprevalence of HIV/HBV co-infection and its effect on the disease progression in people living with HIV/AIDS identified in Yaoundé Central Hospital. Blood samples from 75 HIV positive patients were collected in Yaoundé Central Hospital from November 2015 to February 2016, for the determination of hepatitis B virus surface antigen (HBsAg) using immunoassays. Cluster of differentiation 4 (CD4) T-cells count and biochemical markers of liver function were also collected and analyzed. The socio-demographic data were also collected. The effect sizes were confirmed using G*Power version software. The data were entered and analyzed using the SPSS Version 22.1 software.  The statistical tests performed were x2, and Pearson correlation, with significant difference at the threshold p ≤ 0.05. Hepatitis B virus surface antigen
Blood and blood products are the main routes through which Hepatitis B virus is transmitted. In fact, only 0.00004 ml of blood is sufficient for transmission. Any technique that allows the transfer of blood or serum from one individual to another is potentially likely to transmit Hepatitis B virus. Hepatitis B infection is especially common amongst IV drug abusers, Many cases occured following blood transfusion before the advent of screening. It is also particularly common amongst homosexuals where the practice of anal intercourse is particularly traumatic and frequently results in bleeding. Acupuncture, tatooing and ear piercing have also led to many reported cases of Hepatitis B infection. Hepatitis B is a known occupational hazard and the risk to health workers following accidental innoculation is 6-20%. Health personnel in renal dialysis units are particularly vulnerable. It has become clear that Hepatitis B virus is not spread exclusively by blood and blood products. The virus is infective ...
Hepatitis B, caused by infection with the hepatitis B virus, is a contagious liver disease that ranges in severity from a mild illness lasting a few weeks to a serious, lifelong illness. Acute hepatitis B is a short-term illness that occurs within the first 6 months after someone is exposed to the virus. Acute infection may lead to chronic infection. Chronic hepatitis B virus infection is a long-term illness that occurs when the hepatitis B virus remains in a persons body. This can eventually lead to serious health problems, including liver damage, liver cancer, and even death.. Not all people with acute hepatitis B have symptoms. However, if they appear, symptoms can include fever, fatigue, loss of appetite, nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain, dark urine, clay-colored bowel movements, joint pain, and jaundice (yellow color in the skin or the eyes).. Hepatitis B is spread when blood, semen, or other body fluid infected with the hepatitis B virus enters the body of a person who is not infected. ...
Background: Serial monitoring of hepatitis B virus (HBV) DNA and serum alanine transaminase (ALT) for at least one year is recommended to define an inactive carrier state. Recent studies proposed HBsAg levels as a marker for monitoring HBV infected patients. The aim of our study is to evaluate spontaneous HBV DNA fluctuations among Tunisian HBV infected patients and to assess the role of HBsAg quantification in the determination of viral disease activity. Methods: Seventy three untreated HBeAg negative asymptomatic HBV infected patients were followed up prospectively during a one year period (2014). Patients with persistently serum HBV DNA levels , 2000 IU/ml and persistently normal ALT for at least one year,were considered as inactive carrier of HBsAg. Patients with HBV DNA level fluctuation ≥2000 IU/ml and/or ALT elevation were classified as chronic hepatitis B (CHB) patients.Serum samples for HBV DNA and ALT quantification were obtained at three times with an interval of 6 months (M0, M6 ...
Hepatitis B virus (HBV) genotype influences chronic hepatitis B disease profile but its relevance in liver transplantation (LTx) is not known. HBV genotype was identified by direct sequencing from pre-transplant sera of 119 patients who underwent LTx using lamivudine prophylaxis (genotype A,1; B,43; C,74; D,1). The baseline characteristics and outcome of 43 genotype B and 74 genotype C patients were compared. Genotype B patients had significantly more pre-transplant acute flare, worse liver functions and higher model for end-stage liver disease score. Fewer genotype B patients had HBeAg (13% vs. 32%; p = 0.017), but HBV DNA seropositivity (by bDNA assay) was comparable (26% vs. 23%; p = 0.727). The 3-year graft survival was 83% for genotype B and 89% for genotype C (p = 0.2). The rate of HBsAg clearance or seroreversion was the same. The cumulative rate of viral breakthrough due to lamivudine-resistant mutants at 3 years was 4% for genotype B and 21% for genotype C (p = 0.017). Liver biopsy ...
Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is a global public health challenge. Prevalence of current hepatitis B virus infection in the general population in Uganda is about 10%. Health care workers (HCW) have an extra risk of getting infected from their workplace and yet they are not routinely vaccinated against HBV infection. This study aimed at estimating prevalence of hepatitis B virus infection and associated risk factors among health care workers in a tertiary hospital in Uganda. Data were obtained from a cross sectional survey conducted in Mulago, a national referral and teaching hospital in Uganda among health care workers in 2003. A proportionate to size random sample was drawn per health care worker category. A structured questionnaire was used to collect data on socio-demographic characteristics and risk factors. ELISA was used to test sera for HBsAg, anti-HBs and total anti-HBc. Descriptive and logistic regression models were used for analysis. Among the 370 participants, the sero-prevalence of
Hepatitis B vaccination is the most effective measure to prevent hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection and its consequences, including cirrhosis of the liver, liver cancer, liver failure, and death. In adults, ongoing HBV transmission occurs primarily among unvaccinated persons with behavioral risks for HBV transmission (e.g., heterosexuals with multiple sex partners, injection-drug users [IDUs], and men who have sex with men [MSM]) and among household contacts and sex partners of persons with chronic HBV infection. This report, the second of a two-part statement from the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP), provides updated recommendations to increase hepatitis B vaccination of adults at risk for HBV infection. The first part of the ACIP statement, which provided recommendations for immunization of infants, children, and adolescents, was published previously (CDC. A comprehensive immunization strategy to eliminate transmission of hepatitis B virus infection in the United States:
Tanaka, Y., Esumi, M. and Shikata, T. (1990), Persistence of hepatitis B virus DNA after serological clearance of hepatitis B virus. Liver, 10: 6-10. doi: 10.1111/j.1600-0676.1990.tb00429.x ...
Chronic hepatitis B virus infection is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality due to end stage liver disease and liver cancer. Although significant progress has been made in hepatitis B therapy, current knowledge about how to manage the infection is limited. To improve current knowledge on the disease and long-term disease progression, the Hepatitis B Research Network is collecting health and disease information from individuals who have been diagnosed with hepatitis B.. The objectives of this study are to study individuals with acute and chronic hepatitis B to identify factors that affect disease progression. Individuals at least 18 years of age who have been diagnosed with hepatitis B will be eligible to participate. Participants will be screened with a physical examination and medical history. Health information will be collected through questionnaires and surveys on health behaviors and family history of liver disease. Participants will also provide blood samples, and those who have had ...
As a leading supplier of antigens, Creative Diagnostics is proud to launch the new Hepatitis B Virus Antigens for research community all over the world. Along with extensive research, development, and validation, the newly released products are able to help scientists accelerate more scientific discoveries with highest standards of product performance.. Hepatitis B virus, abbreviated HBV, is a species of the genus Orthohepadnavirus, which is likewise a part of the Hepadnaviridae family of viruses. HBV causes the disease hepatitis B. As far as known, HBV is only susceptible to infect human beings and primates, causing hepatitis B disease. Hepatitis B virus has been found by Dana in 1965. The diameter of this virus is 42 nm and viral particle contains two parts, named shell and core.. HBV belongs to the family of hepadnaviridae, and the genome of this species consists of a double-stranded circular DNA possessing 3.2 Kb. HBVs have wide tolerance to various stress conditions, such as boiling in 65 ...
As a leading supplier of antigens, Creative Diagnostics is proud to launch the new Hepatitis B Virus Antigens for research community all over the world. Along with extensive research, development, and validation, the newly released products are able to help scientists accelerate more scientific discoveries with highest standards of product performance.. Hepatitis B virus, abbreviated HBV, is a species of the genus Orthohepadnavirus, which is likewise a part of the Hepadnaviridae family of viruses. HBV causes the disease hepatitis B. As far as known, HBV is only susceptible to infect human beings and primates, causing hepatitis B disease. Hepatitis B virus has been found by Dana in 1965. The diameter of this virus is 42 nm and viral particle contains two parts, named shell and core.. HBV belongs to the family of hepadnaviridae, and the genome of this species consists of a double-stranded circular DNA possessing 3.2 Kb. HBVs have wide tolerance to various stress conditions, such as boiling in 65 ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - The acceptable duration between occupational exposure to hepatitis B virus and hepatitis B immunoglobulin injection. T2 - Results from a Korean nationwide, multicenter study. AU - Chang, Hyun Ha. AU - Lee, Won Kee. AU - Moon, Chisook. AU - Choi, Wonseok. AU - Yoon, Hee Jung. AU - Kim, Jieun. AU - Ryu, Seong Yeol. AU - Kim, Hyun Ah. AU - Jo, Yu Mi. AU - Kwon, Ki Tae. AU - Kim, Hye In. AU - Sohn, Jang Wook. AU - Yoon, Young Kyung. AU - Jung, Sook In. AU - Park, Kyung Hwa. AU - Kwon, Hyun Hee. AU - Lee, Mi Suk. AU - Kim, Young Keun. AU - Kim, Yeon Sook. AU - Hur, Jian. AU - Kim, Shin Woo. PY - 2016/2/1. Y1 - 2016/2/1. N2 - Background Postexposure prophylaxis for occupational exposure to hepatitis B virus (HBV) plays an important role in the prevention of HBV infections in health care workers (HCWs). We examined data concerning the acceptable duration between occupational exposure and administration of a hepatitis B immunoglobulin (HBIG) injection in an occupational clinical setting. ...
Hepatitis B virus (HBV) DNA in serum of chronically infected patients declines by 3-4 log10 units at loss of HBe antigen (HBeAg) from serum. The mechanisms behind this decline, and the much smaller decline of surface antigen (HBsAg) levels, are still not well known. The aim of this study was to get a better understanding of this process by analysing both serum and intrahepatic markers of HBV replication. Levels of HBV DNA and HBsAg in serum, and covalently closed circular DNA (cccDNA), pregenomic RNA (pgRNA) and S-RNA and total intrahepatic HBV DNA (ihDNA) in liver biopsies from 84 chronically infected patients (16 positive and 68 negative for HBeAg) were analysed. Lower HBV DNA levels within HBeAg-positive stage reflected lower levels of cccDNA and pgRNA with strong correlation. In HBeAg-negative patients, ihDNA levels were greater and HBV DNA levels in serum lower than expected from pgRNA levels. A lower HBV DNA/HBsAg ratio corresponded with lower pgRNA/cccDNA (p | 0.01) and higher S-RNA/cccDNA (p | 0
Hepatitis B is the most probable life-threatening liver infection that is caused by the hepatitis B virus. This is a major universal health problem. This can cause chronic infection and put people at high risk of death from liver cancer and cirrhosis.. Hepatitis B is a virus that affects the liver. Most people have it for a short time and then get better. It is called acute hepatitis B.. Sometimes this virus causes a long-term infection, named chronic hepatitis B. Over time this could damage your liver. Infants and young kids infected with the virus are more prone to get chronic hepatitis B.. Most of the people with hepatitis B do not know that they have it, because they do not have any indications. If you do have symptoms, you may only experience it like you have the flue.. Symptoms consist of:. ...
The Global Hepatitis B Virus Core Antibody Diagnostic Kits Market report offers a summary of a substantial number of statistics in the Global Hepatitis B Virus Core Antibody Diagnostic Kits Market . Data collected in the report highlights the current market trends. Also, it provides the users with the detailed statistics of the Global Hepatitis…. ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Lack of susceptibility of baboons to infection with hepatitis B virus. AU - Michaels, Marian G.. AU - Lanford, Robert. AU - Demetris, Anthony J.. AU - Chavez, Deborah. AU - Brasky, Kathleen. AU - Fung, John. AU - Starzl, Thomas E.. PY - 1996/2/15. Y1 - 1996/2/15. N2 - Historically, hepatitis B virus (HBV) has been considered species specific and unable to infect baboons. Based on this premise, two patients with HBV end-stage liver disease underwent baboon liver xenotransplantation. To study whether baboons are susceptible to HBV infection, four baboons (two receiving immunosuppressive therapy) were inoculated with HBV. Animals were followed for 6 months: clinical examinations and biochemical studies were normal, hepatitis B surface antigen and hepatitis B core antigen staining of biopsies was negative, and HBV serology remained negative. HBV polymerase chain reaction was transiently positive in one animal, which most likely reflects the initial inoculation. This pilot study ...
The nucleic acid polymers REP 2139 and REP 2165 led to hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) reduction or clearance when combined with tenofovir and pegylated interferon, according to early results from a small study presented as a late-breaker at the 2016 AASLD Liver Meeting this month in Boston. This combination may potentially enable functional control of hepatitis B if confirmed in larger studies.. Over years or decades chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection can lead to advanced liver disease including cirrhosis and liver cancer. Antiviral therapy using nucleoside/nucleotide analogues such as entecavir (Baraclude) or tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (Viread) is the mainstay of treatment for chronic hepatitis B. While these drugs can suppress HBV replication during therapy, and can thereby reduce the risk of liver disease progression, they usually do not lead to a cure - as indicated by HBsAg loss and anti-HBs antibody seroconversion - and long-term treatment is generally needed. Researchers ...
|p|Timely public health follow-up is required for acute cases of hepatitis B, including immunoprophylaxis of susceptible contacts. Passive public health follow-up is provided for chronic cases. The majority of cases of hepatitis B virus in VCH are chronic. Positive hepatitis B virus surface antigen (HBSAg) results are reported once only - subsequent positive results do not get reported.   Public Health also works in conjuction with external providers to ensure delivery of prenatal, antenatal, and 7-mos follow-up for infants at high risk of hepatitis B infection.|/p|
Hepatitis B virus (HBV) core protein (HBc) can shuttle between nucleus and cytoplasm. Cytoplasm-predominant HBc is clinically associated with severe liver inflammation. Previously, we found that HBc arginine-rich domain (ARD) can associate with a host factor NXF1 (TAP) by coimmunoprecipitation. It is well known that NXF1-p15 heterodimer can serve as a major export receptor of nuclear mRNA as a ribonucleoprotein complex (RNP). In the NXF1-p15 pathway, TREX (transcription/export) complex plays an important role in coupling nuclear pre-mRNA processing with mRNA export in mammalian cells. Here, we tested the hypothesis whether HBc and HBV specific RNA can be exported via the TREX and NXF1-p15 mediated pathway. We demonstrated here that HBc can physically and specifically associate with TREX components, and the NXF1-p15 export receptor by coimmunoprecipitation. Accumulation of HBc protein in the nucleus can be induced by the interference with TREX and NXF1-p15 mediated RNA export machinery. HBV transcripts
Summary The entire nucleotide sequence of genomic DNA was determined for hepatitis B virus (HBV) of subtype ayr, which had been derived from the blood of a Japanese asymptomatic carrier. The genome was 3215 nucleotides long, and differed in DNA sequence by 10% from that of subtypes adw or ayw, but by only 2% from that of subtype adr. Amino acid sequences coded for by the S, C, P and X genes, as well as by the pre-S region, closely resembled those of subtype adr, indicating that the evolution of HBV/ayr from HBV/adr was more recent than the differentiation of the other three subtypes. In the product of the S gene, the mutually exclusive subtypic determinants of the surface antigen, d and y, were associated with variation of amino acid residues at only the 68th and 122nd positions from the N terminus, in contrast to the variation at as many as seven positions for the other set of subtypic determinants, w and r. Sequences representing high local hydrophilicity in the product of the S gene were involved in
During that investigation several cats, that had previously died as a result of FIV, also seemed infected with a virus. The virus itself was elusive and it showed only 73-94% amino acid identity with known Hepatitis B viruses. This suggested the presence of a novel virus that was divergent from currently known Hepatitis B viruses. Such a large genetic distance merits assignment of a new species within the genus Orthohepadnavirus, which was tentatively named Domestic Cat Hepadnavirus or Domestic Cat Hepatitis B Virus ...
World Health Organization. World Health Organization Hepatitis B Factsheet. Geneva: World Health Organization, 2017. S. Baig, A. A. Siddiqui, W. Ahmed, H. Qureshi and A. Arif. The association of complex liver disorders with HBV genotypes prevalent in Pakistan. Virology Journal, vol. 4, no. 1, p. 128, 2007. G. Fattovich. Natural history of hepatitis B. Journal of Hepatology, vol. 39, pp. 50-58, 2003. I. Pita, A. M. Horta-Vale, H. Cardoso and G. Macedo. Hepatitis B inactive carriers: An overlooked population? GE Portuguese Journal of Gastroenterology, vol. 21, no. 6, pp. 241-249, 2014. L. M. Villar, H. M. Cruz, J. R. Barbosa, C. S. Bezerra, M. M. Portilho and L. de Paula Scalioni. Update on hepatitis B and C virus diagnosis. World Journal of Virology, vol. 4, no. 4, p. 323, 2015. I. J. Radii and A. M. Saud. Comparative assessment between serological and molecular diagnosis for patients groups with hepatitis b virus. International Journal of Current Microbiology and Applied Science, ...
Hepatitis B virus strains of subgenotype A2 with an identical sequence spreading rapidly from the capital region to all over Japan in patients with acute hepatitis B ...
The authors followed 147 children from 113 families who were susceptible to hepatitis B virus infection for a total of 275 person-years. Among these children, 19 became infected with the hepatitis B virus and thus became new subclinical cases. In this cohort study, parents played a minor role in hepatitis B virus horizontal transmission. On the...
There is currently no universally accepted numbering convention for the antiviral drug-related resistance mutations in the reverse transcriptase (rt) domain of the human hepatitis B virus (HBV) polymerase. The published inconsistencies have resulted from different HBV genotypes. A standardized numbering system for HBV polymerase is proposed. The new system is based on functional observations of HBV surface gene proteins (preS1, preS2, and HBsAg) and on the current convention used for human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) polymerase proteins (protease, rt, and integrase), in which the amino acid numbering restarts at the first codon position of each domain. The HBV polymerase protein can be divided into 4 domains (terminal protein, spacer, rt, ribonuclease H) and each of these can be numbered separately. In this proposal, the HBV rt domain starts with the highly conserved EDWGPCDEHG motif, contains 344 amino acids, and the lamivudine-related resistance mutations are found at amino acid ...
Corresponding author. Mailing address: Department of Medical and Molecular Science, Division of Frontier Medical Science, Programs for Biomedical Research, Graduate School of Biomedical Science, Hiroshima University, 1-2-3 Kasumi, Minami-ku, Hiroshima 734-8551, Japan. Phone: 81-82-257-5190. Fax: 81-82-255-6220. E-mail: chayama{at} ...
Rapid Quantification of Hepatitis B Virus DNA by Automated Sample Preparation and Real-Time PCR: Monitoring of hepatitis B virus (HBV) DNA in serum by molecular
Background/Purpose: The prevalence of chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is high in China. 4% patients with HBV infection can present with polyarthritis and positive rheumatic factor similar to RA, which implied similar pathogenic mechanism.We aimed to investigate the association between HBV infection and serological, radiological or histological disease status in RA. Methods: 223 continuous hospitalized Chinese patients with RA were enrolled retrospectively. Clinical and laboratory data including HBV detection, and hand X ray were collected. Among 133 active RA patients, synovium was obtained by closed-needle biopsy from inflamed knee joint. Serial tissue sections were stained immunohistochemically for HBV surface antigen (HBsAg), CD79a, CD20, CD38, CD68, CD3, and CD34. Densities of positive-staining cells and synovitis score were determined. Results: According to HBV infection status, 25/223 had chronic HBV infection (including 4 chronic hepatitis B and 21 HBV carriers), 72/223 had past ...
Omata, M.; Ehata, T.; Yokosuka, O.; Hosoda, K.; Ohto, M., 1991: Mutations in the precore region of hepatitis B virus DNA in patients with fulminant and severe hepatitis
Shop a large selection of products and learn more about Hepatitis B Virus X antigen Mouse anti-Virus, Alexa Fluor 594, Clone: X36C, Hepatitis B Virus X antigen Antibody; Alexa
Hepatitis B virus (HBV) X gene encodes a multifunctional protein that can regulate cellular signaling pathways, interact with cellular transcription factors, and induce hepatocellular oncogenesis. In spite of its diverse activities, the precise role of the X protein in the viral life cycle of HBV remains unclear. To investigate this question, we have produced transgenic mice that carry either the wild-type HBV genome or a mutated HBV genome incapable of expressing the 16.5-kDa X protein. Our results indicate that while the X protein is not absolutely essential for HBV replication or its maturation in transgenic mice, it can enhance viral replication, apparently by activating viral gene expression. These results demonstrate a transactivation role of the X protein in HBV replication in transgenic mice. ...
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1. European Association For The Study Of The L. EASL clinical practice guidelines: Management of chronic hepatitis B virus infection. Journal of hepatology. 2012;57:167-85 2. Wang J, Shen T, Huang X, Kumar GR, Chen X, Zeng Z. et al. Serum hepatitis B virus RNA is encapsidated pregenome RNA that may be associated with persistence of viral infection and rebound. Journal of hepatology. 2016;65:700-10 3. Bertoletti A, Ferrari C. Innate and adaptive immune responses in chronic hepatitis B virus infections: towards restoration of immune control of viral infection. Gut. 2012;61:1754-64 4. Seetharam A, Perrillo R, Gish R. Immunosuppression in Patients with Chronic Hepatitis B. Current hepatology reports. 2014;13:235-44 5. Pang J, Zhang G, Lin Y, Xie Z, Liu H, Tang L. et al. Transforming growth factor beta-activated kinase 1 transcriptionally suppresses hepatitis B virus replication. Scientific reports. 2017;7:39901 6. Matsumoto T, Takahashi K, Inuzuka T, Kim SK, Kurosaki T, Kawakami S. et al. Activation ...
Mouse monoclonal antibody raised against recombinant hepatitis B virus core antigen Recombinant protein corresponding to hepatitis B virus core antigen core. (MAB5403) - Products - Abnova
Mouse monoclonal antibody raised against recombinant hepatitis B virus core antigen Recombinant protein corresponding to hepatitis B virus core antigen core. (MAB5402) - Products - Abnova
For additional information on hepatitis B virus (HBV) and HIV, see HIV/Hepatitis B (HBV) Coinfection in the Adult and Adolescent Guidelines1 and Hepatitis B Virus Infection in the Adult and Adolescent OI Guidelines.2 The management of HIV/HBV coinfection in pregnancy is complex and consultation with an expert in HIV and HBV infection is strongly recommended.. Screening and Vaccination All women living with HIV should be screened for HBV and hepatitis C virus (HCV) at entry into general HIV care. All pregnant women living with HIV should be screened during each pregnancy for HBV unless they are known to have HIV/HBV coinfection and for HCV unless they are known to have HIV/HCV coinfection. Screening for HBV should include hepatitis B surface antigen [HBsAg], hepatitis B core antibody [anti-HBc], and hepatitis B surface antibody [anti-HBs]. Women who test positive for HBsAg should have follow-up testing that includes liver function tests, prothrombin time, HB e antigen, HB e antibody, and HBV DNA ...
Buy our Recombinant Hepatitis B Virus E Antigen protein. Ab91273 is an active full length protein produced in Escherichia coli and has been validated in WB…
During previous studies of susceptibility to hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection, HBV DNA was detected in 2/6 wildcaught baboons. In the present study, HBV DNA was amplified from 15/69 wild-caught baboons. All animals were negative for HBV surface antigen and antibody against HBV core antigen. Liver tissue from 1 baboon was immunohistochemically negative for HBV surface antigen but positive for HBV core antigen. The complete HBV genome of an isolate from this liver clustered with subgenotype A2. Reverse transcription PCR of liver RNA amplified virus precore and surface protein genes, indicating replication of virus in baboon liver tissue. Four experimentally naive baboons were injected with serum from HBV DNA-positive baboons. These 4 baboons showed transient seroconversion, and HBV DNA was amplified from serum at various times after infection. The presence of HBV DNA at relatively low levels and in the absence of serologic markers in the baboon, a nonhuman primate, indicates an occult infection ...
BioAssay record AID 378283 submitted by ChEMBL: Inhibition of Hepatitis B virus E antigen activity in human MS-G2 cells at 10 ug/mL.
Background: Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is a major global health burden with distinct geographic public health significance. Oman is a country with intermediate HBV carrier prevalence; however, little is known about the incidence of HBV variants in circulation. We investigated the HBV genotype distribution, the occurrence of antiviral resistance, and HBV surface antigen (HBsAg) escape mutations in HBsAg-positive patients in Oman. Methods: Serum samples were collected from 179 chronically HBV-infected patients enrolled in various gastroenterology clinics in Oman. HBV genotypes were determined by sequencing and phylogenetic analysis. Mutations in the HBV polymerase and the HBsAg gene were characterized by mutational analysis. Results: HBV genotypes D (130/170; 76.47%) and A (32/170; 18.28%) are predominant in Oman. The HBV genotypes C and E were less frequent (each 1.18%), while the HBV genotypes B, G, F, and H were not detected. Four patients revealed HBV genotype mixtures (HBV-A/D and ...
Yum, J. S., B. C. Ahn, H. J. Jo, D. Y. Kim, K. H. Kim, H. S. Kim, Y. C. Sung, J. Yoon, J. Morrey, and H. M. Moon. 2012. Use of pre-s protein-containing hepatitis B virus surface antigens and a powerful adjuvant to develop an immune therapy for chronic hepatitis B virus infection. Clin Vaccine Immunol 19:120-127. PMID22155769. ...
The underlying mechanisms for earlier hepatitis B e antigen (HBeAg) seroconversion in patients with chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) genotype B when compared with genotype C are unknown. We aimed to determine whether there were any differences in the T helper (Th) responses during hepatitis flares in HBeAg-positive patients with genotypes B and C. Proliferative response measured by 3H-thymidine uptake and Th responses measured by Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Spot assays for interleukin (IL)-2, interferon-gamma (IFN-γ), IL-4, IL-5 and IL-10 were performed in 10 patients with genotype B and 10 with genotype C with hepatitis flares. HBV genotypes, core promoter, precore mutations, sequence of HBV core region and HBV DNA levels were determined. There was no difference in the HBV DNA levels during hepatitis flares between patients with genotypes B and C. Patients with genotype B had a significantly higher number of IFN-γ producing cells [with hepatitis B core antigen (HBcAg) stimulation] and lower ...
References for Abcams Recombinant Hepatitis B Virus Core Antigen protein (ab119471). Please let us know if you have used this product in your publication
Hepatitis B virus (HBV) is one of the major causes of chronic hepatitis, cirrhosis and liver cancer. In combating HBV infections, HBV diagnosis and vaccination are therefore critical. The hepatitis B virus surface antigen (HBsAg) is a key target molecule in developing vaccines and diagnostic systems. To date, although HBsAg has been expressed in bacteria, yeasts and mammalian cells, there are still limitations in the existing ones, which leave the necessity for searching new HBsAg production methods. In this study, a simple phage display-based method was developed to produce the purified full-length HBsAg molecules for further immunization studies. For this purpose, the HBsAg coding gene was cloned into a pCANTAB5E phagemid vector and expressed on the surface of M13 filamentous phages. The HBsAg-expressing phage nanosystem was then used as immunization agent in BALB/cJ mice. The ELISA results for sera obtained from mice immunized with HBsAg-displaying phage particles revealed an immune response ...
The purpose of this study is to identify the effect of prophylactic entecavir in HBsAg Negative/HBcAb Positive/hepatitis B virus DNA Negative patients with lymphoma are randomized into entecavir prophylaxis group or observation group. In entecavir prophylaxis group, entecavir 0.5 mg/day orally is initiate on day 1 of the first course of antitumor therapy, and will be continued until at least 6 months after completion of antitumor therapy. In observation group, entecavir 0.5mg daily will be prescribed for patients with hepatitis B virus reactivation ...
Chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection in endemic areas usually starts since infancy and early childhood and persists lifelong. The clinical course varies among different chronic infected subjects. Majority of chronic HBV infected children present with immune-tolerant status initially, experience the immune clearance phase with various degree of liver injury during or beyond puberty, and then enter the inactive phase after hepatitis B e antigen (HBeAg) seroconversion. Part of them may have HBV DNA titers elevation with hepatitis flare after HBeAg seroconversion, the so call HBeAg-negative hepatitis flare. Liver cirrhosis, and even hepatocellular carcinoma may develop afterward. The complex course of chronic HBV infection is associated with the age/route of viral acquisition, host factors such as immune and endocrine factors, viral factors, and host-viral interactions. The adrenarche and puberty onset modulate the start of immune clearance and the severity of liver inflammation in chronic HBV infected
Hepatitis B Virus Core Antigen antibody [H3A4] for ELISA, WB. Anti-Hepatitis B Virus Core Antigen mAb (GTX28255) is tested in Hepatitis B virus samples. 100% Ab-Assurance.
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HBc IgM ELISA Screening, 96 wells (EIA4085) - An Enzyme ImmunoAssay (ELISA) for determination of IgM class antibodies to Hepatitis B Virus core Antigen in plasma and sera with the capture system.
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SPEARMAN, C W N et al. South African guideline for the management of chronic hepatitis B: 2013. SAMJ, S. Afr. med. j. [online]. 2013, vol.103, n.5, pp.335-349. ISSN 2078-5135.. Hepatitis B remains a significant yet preventable health issue in South Africa. The introduction of the hepatitis B vaccine into the country some 18 years ago has demonstrated benefit, but the exposure to, and prevalence of chronic HBsAg positivity remain unacceptably high. Those with chronic hepatitis B virus infection have an elevated risk of developing cirrhosis with end-stage liver disease and a markedly elevated risk of hepatocellular carcinoma, independent of the presence of cirrhosis. The challenge in South Africa remains prevention through the universal vaccination coverage of all children and the identification of those with chronic hepatitis B virus infection. Over the last decade our understanding of hepatitis B and its behaviour and natural history in those with chronic infection has significantly improved. ...
Results: Of the 1000 samples 55 (5.5%) were found to be reactive, of which 87.3% (48/55) were positive for hepatitis B surface antibody, indicating immunity as a result of previous infection however, that does not exclude active infection with escaped mutant HBV. Nested PCR results showed the presence of hepatitis B viral DNA in all the 55 samples that were positive for core protein, which is in agreement with the hepatitis B surface antibody result ...
Occult Hepatitis B infection is characterized by the presence of HBV DNA without detectable HBsAg, with or without the presence of HBV antibodies outside the acute phase window period [8]. A number of possible mechanisms have been suggested for the pathogenesis of occult Hepatitis B infection, although it is most likely multifactorial, depending upon both host and viral factors. The majority of cases are secondary to overt HBV infection and represent a residual low level viraemia suppressed by a robust immune response, together with abnormal histological findings on liver biopsy which developed either during the acute or chronic phase of HBV infection [9,10].. In our study, a sensitive real time quantitative PCR assay was used to determine the presence of occult Hepatitis B infection in a large cohort of inner city adult patients receiving maintenance haemodialysis. We did find occult HBV, although the prevalence and levels of detectable circulating HBV were low.. Some studies have observed a ...
OBJECTIVES: Chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is associated with a higher risk of liver diseases. Substantial uncertainty remains, however, about the associations of HBV infection with mortality from extrahepatic causes, especially from subtypes of cardiovascular diseases. We prospectively examined the association of chronic HBV infection with total and cause-specific mortality. DESIGN: Population-based prospective cohort study. SETTING: China Kadoorie Biobank in which participants from 10 geographically diverse areas across China were enrolled between 2004 and 2008. PARTICIPANTS: 475 801 participants 30-79 years of age without reporting major chronic diseases at baseline were enrolled. Hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) was tested using an on-site rapid test strip at baseline. PRIMARY AND SECONDARY OUTCOME MEASURES: Total and cause-specific mortality. RESULTS: A total of 35 822 deaths were recorded during ~10 years of follow-up. In multivariable-adjusted analyses, compared with HBsAg-negative
Hepatitis B is a serious liver infection caused by Hepatitis B virus. Chronic Hepatitis B infection leads to increased risk for liver cirrhosis, liver cancer and consequent death due to these conditions. The major modes of transmission include mother to child during birth, blood exposure and during sexual contact. The Hepatitis B infection can be prevented through three doses of Hepatitis B vaccination given over a period of six months and the control of Hepatitis B infections includes costly antiviral medications. As per World Health Organization (WHO), the regions of the world with hepatitis B prevalence rate less than 2% have low endemicity, those having prevalence rate of 2-7% are of medium endemicity and regions with prevalence rate greater than 7% are categorized as highly endemic. India falls in medium endemic region with Hepatitis B prevalence rate ranging from 2-7%.. In the context of the exile Tibetan population, Department of Health, CTA recognizes Hepatitis B as a major public health ...
Lamivudine is an oral nucleoside analogue widely used for the treatment of chronic hepatitis B. The main limitation of lamivudine use is the selection of resistant mutations that increases with time of utilization. Hepatitis B virus (HBV) isolates have been classified into eight genotypes (A to H) with distinct geographical distributions. HBV genotypes may also influence pathogenic properties and therapeutic features. Here, we analyzed the HBV genotype distribution and the nature and frequency of lamivudine resistant mutations among 36 patients submitted to lamivudine treatment for 12 to 84 months. Half of the patients were homosexual men. Only 4/36 (11%) patients were HBV DNA negative. As expected for a Brazilian group, genotypes A (24/32 positive individuals, 75%), D (3/32, 9.3%) and F (1/32, 3%) were present. One sample was from genotype C, which is a genotype rarely found in Brazil. Three samples were from genotype G, which had not been previously detected in Brazil. Lamivudine resistance mutations
Screening and identification of interacting proteins with hepatitis B virus core protein in leukocytes and cloning of new gene C1
The mechanisms of hepatitis B virus (HBV) persistent infection are not completely understood. Interleukin (IL)-35, which is a newly identified cytokine belongs to IL-12 family, has been demonstrated to induce immunotolerance. Thus, the aim of current study was to investigate the role of IL-35 during chronic HBV infection. A total of 61 patients with chronic HBV infection (37 chronic hepatitis B [CHB] and 24 asymptomatic HBV carriers [ASC]) and 20 healthy individuals were enrolled. IL-35 concentration as well as the modulatory function of IL-35 on CD4+CD25+CD127dim/- regulatory T cells (Tregs) and on HBV antigen-specific CD8+ T cells was investigated. IL-35 expression was significantly increased in both CHB and ASC, and was positively correlated with the levels of HBV DNA. Inhibition of viral replication induced the reduction in serum levels of IL-35. IL-35 stimulation led to inhibition of proinflammatory cytokine productions and elevation of apoptosis in peripheral blood mononuclear cells, but not in
Hepatitis B The disease known as Hepatitis B is caused by the infectuous Hepatitis B virus (HBV). HBV alone has infected about 400 million people in the world, which makes HBV one of the most common pathogens. Almost 700 million U.S. Dollars are spent every year for treating Hepatitis patients. Structure: HBV is a 42 nm doubleshelled deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) virus of the class Hepadnaviridae. The outer surface membrane contains Hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg), which also circulates in blood as 22 nm spherical and tubular particles. The inner core of the virus contains Hepatitis B core antigen (HBcAG), Hepatitis B e antigen (HBeAg), a single molecule of partially doublestranded DNA, and DNA dependent DNA polymerase.. How it is transmitted? Hepatitis B is transmitted by sexual contact or by blood. People who are at risk by being infected by HBV are drug users, homosexuals, active heterosexuals, infants born from infected mothers and children of immigrants from disease-endemic areas. ...
The objective of the practice guideline is to update the natural history of hepatitis B virus infection and to give recommendations for optimal management of chronic hepatitis B.. The guideline is based on the best available evidence. The goal of treatment of chronic hepatitis B is to improve quality of life and survival by preventing progression of hepatitis to cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma.. The progression of liver disease is associated with HBV DNA level in the blood. In HBeAgpositive and HBeAg-negative patients, the ideal end-point of treatment is sustained HBsAg loss. Maintained undetectable HBV DNA under long-term antiviral treatment in HBeAg-positive patients who do not achieve antiHBe seroconversion and in HBeAg-negative patients is the next most desirable end point.. Indication for treatment is identical for HBeAg-positive and HBeAg-negative patients and is based on a combination of serum HBV DNA level, ALAT elevation, and liver histology.. Treatment should be considered in ...
1) Most positive HBsAg results picked up on ante-natal screening represent chronic infection? T/F. True, probably more than 95% of such results represent chronic infection, most of whom have probably had the infection for years or even since birth.. 2) IgM Anti-HBc can be used to differentiate acute from chronic Hepatitis B infection? T/F. True, but in my opinion only occasionally needed to confirm acute infection in someone who is either symptomatic or has had a recent contact with Hepatitis B. For the majority of cases, chronic infection can be assumed.. 3) A patient with negative HBeAg will always have a low HBV viral load? T/F. False. Hepatitis B viruses containing pre-core mutants may be HBeAg -ve but still have high HBV DNA levels.. 4) Anti-HBc (total) is usually negative in chronic Hepatitis B infection? T/F. False: Anti-HBc should always be positive in chronic Hepatitis B infection. If it is negative, it should prompt you to look at the validity of your HBsAg result.. 5) A patient who ...
Co-infections of hepatitis B and C viruses are frequent with HIV due to shared routes of transmission. In most of the tertiary care health settings, HIV reactive patients are routinely tested for HBsAg and anti-HCV antibodies to rule out these co-infections. However, using the routine serological markers one can only detect active HBV infection while the occult HBV infection may be missed. There is insufficient data from India on HIV-HBV co-infection and even scarce on occult HBV infection in this group. We estimated the burden of HBV infection in patients who were tested positive for HIV at a tertiary care centre in north India. We also attempted to determine the prevalence and clinical characteristics of occult HBV infection among these treatment-naïve patients and compare their demographic features with other HIV patients. During a period of 6 years between January 2002 to December 2007, 837 HIV positive patients (631 males and 206 females (M: F :: 3.06:1) were tested for serological markers of HBV
Abstract Current estimates put the prevalence of hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection in Kenya at 5-8%. We determined the HBV infection prevalence in the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-negative Kenyan adult and adolescent population based on samples collected from a national survey. We analyzed data from HIV-negative participants in the 2007 Kenya AIDS Indicator Survey to estimate the HBV infection prevalence. We defined past or present HBV infection as presence of total hepatitis B core antibody (HBcAb), and chronic HBV infection (CHBI) as presence of both total HBcAb and hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg). We calculated crude and adjusted odds of HBV infection by demographic characteristics and risk factors using logistic regression analyses. Of 1,091 participants aged 15-64 years, approximately 31.5% (95% confidence interval [CI] = 28.0-35.3%) had exposure to HBV, corresponding to approximately 6.1 million (CI = 5.4-6.8 million) with past or present HBV infection. The estimated prevalence of CHBI
Hepatitis B virus (HBV) is a major global health problem especially in sub-Saharan Africa and in East Asia. Ten hepatitis B virus genotypes have been described that differ by geographic distribution, disease progression, and response to treatment. Escape mutations within the surface open reading frame (ORF) affect HBV antigenicity leading to failures in diagnosis, vaccine and hepatitis B immunoglobulin therapy. However, the molecular characteristics of HBV in Botswana, a highly endemic country, are unknown. We describe the molecular characteristics of HBV and prevalence of escape mutants among HIV/HBV coinfected individuals Botswana. DNA was extracted from archived plasma samples from 81 HIV/HBV co-infected participants from various clinical studies at the Botswana Harvard AIDS Institute Partnership. A 415 base pair (bp) fragment of the polymerase gene was amplified by semi-nested PCR. In a subset of samples, a 2100 bp fragment was amplified. The PCR product was genotyped using Big Dye sequencing
TY - JOUR. T1 - The mannose receptor acts as hepatitis B virus surface antigen receptor mediating interaction with intrahepatic dendritic cells. AU - den Brouw, M.L.O.. AU - Binda, R.S.. AU - Geijtenbeek, T.B.H.. AU - Janssen, H.-G.. AU - Woltman, A.M.. PY - 2009. Y1 - 2009. U2 - 10.1016/j.virol.2009.07.015. DO - 10.1016/j.virol.2009.07.015. M3 - Article. VL - 393. SP - 84. EP - 90. JO - Virology. JF - Virology. SN - 0042-6822. IS - 1. ER - ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Serological subtype (serotype) of hepatitis B virus surface antigen. AU - Iwasaki, Yoshiaki. AU - Tsuji, T.. PY - 1995/10. Y1 - 1995/10. UR - UR - M3 - Article. VL - 53 Suppl. SP - 293. EP - 298. JO - Nippon rinsho. Japanese journal of clinical medicine. JF - Nippon rinsho. Japanese journal of clinical medicine. SN - 0047-1852. IS - Pt 2. ER - ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Retroviral-mediated transfer and expression of hepatitis B e antigen in human primary skin fibroblasts and Esptein-Barr virus-transformed B lymphocytes. AU - Raney, A. K.. AU - Milich, D. R.. AU - Hughes, J. L.. AU - Sorge, J.. AU - Chisari, F. V.. AU - Mondelli, M. U.. AU - McLachlan, A.. PY - 1989. Y1 - 1989. N2 - Previously, an amphotropic retroviral expression system coding for the neomycin resistance gene was developed and used to synthesize hepatitis B e antigen (HBeAg) and hepatitis B core/e antigen (HBc/eAg) in transfected mouse NIH 3T3 fibroblasts (A. McLachlan et al., 1987, J. Virol. 61, 683-692). In the present study, these transfected cell lines were infected with a helper amphotropic murine leukemia virus resulting in the production of infectious recombinant retrovirus. The recombinant retrovirus was examined for its capacity to transmit resistance to the antibiotic, G418, and to express hepatitis B virus antigens in mouse NIH 3T3 fibroblasts, human primary skin ...
The hepatitis B virus core (HBc) virus-like particle (VLP) is known as one of the most immunogenic antigens and carrier vehicles in different immunization strategies. Recent findings are suggesting the potential of the HBc VLPs as an oral immunogen. Here, we focus on the induction of serum humoral responses by oral administration of HBc VLPs in preparations substantially free of lipopolysaccharide and immunomodulating encapsidated RNA. The full-length HBc antigen was used, because the C-terminal arginine-rich tail may contribute to the immunogenicity of the antigen as the region is involved in cell surface heparan sulfate binding and internalization of the protein. Serum antibody levels and isotypes were determined following oral administration of the HBc VLPs with the perspective of using the HBc VLP as an immunostimulatory and carrier molecule for epitopes of blood-borne diseases in oral immunization vaccination strategies. Following oral administration of the HBc VLP preparations to mice, a strong
Hepatitis B is NOT spread through sneezing, coughing, hugging or breastfeeding. Even though the virus can be found in saliva, you cant get it from kissing or sharing forks, spoons, or knives with someone whos infected.. If you dont have hepatitis B, get vaccinated and ask your partner to get vaccinated, too. Vaccination is the best way to prevent hepatitis B.. Hepatitis B and pregnancy. If you have hepatitis B during pregnancy and its not treated, you can pass it to your baby. This can happen during a vaginal delivery or a c-section. About 9 out of 10 babies (90 percent) infected at birth develop chronic hepatitis B infection. This infection can cause life-long liver problems for your baby.. Getting tested for hepatitis B is a routine part of prenatal care. Your health care provider will test for hepatitis B and other infections at your first prenatal care checkup.. If you do test positive for hepatitis B, your health care provider may prescribe you an antiviral medication during your ...
May is Hepatitis Awareness Month and Saturday, May 19this National Hepatitis Testing Day in the United States. This day is an opportunity to increase awareness and testing for both hepatitis B and C. It is also a reminder for health care providers and the public of the importance of testing for viral hepatitis.. Why is hepatitis B testing necessary? Hepatitis B is largely asymptomatic, which means that symptoms dont always occur or are not obvious. Some people will not know that they have hepatitis B until it is too late, or they may learn of their infection from a blood donation screening or lab work. There are groups of people who have a greater risk of hepatitis B compared to others, so it doesnt hurt to be sure. here are some places around the world that have an extremely high hepatitis B prevalence (where many people are infected). It is important that people who are at high risk for a hepatitis B infection see a doctor to get tested, to find out if they have a hepatitis B infection. ...
Co-infection of Hepatitis B and various other viruses can also occur. Hepatitis C, Hepatitis D (a satellite virus of Hepatitis ... The distinction between Hepatitis A virus and Hepatitis B virus was not determined until 1947 when they were recognized as ... Hepatitis B virus causes the disease Hepatitis. Hepatitis is considered to be the leading cause of liver cancer worldwide ( ... The life cycle of Hepatitis B virus is complex. Hepatitis B is one of a few known non-retroviral viruses which use reverse ...
Wikimedia Commons has media related to Hepatitis C virus. Wikispecies has information related to Hepatitis C virus. Academic ... disease Cancer virus Discovery and development of NS5A inhibitors HCV IRES Hepatitis C virus stem-loop VII Hepatitis C virus 3′ ... positive-sense single-stranded RNA virus of the family Flaviviridae. The hepatitis C virus is the cause of hepatitis C and some ... Several additional viruses in the genus have been described in bats and rodents. The hepatitis C virus particle consists of a ...
... (WHV) is a species of the genus Orthohepadnavirus. It was first discovered in 1977 in a captive ... Tennant, W. C. (1999). "The Woodchuck Model of Hepatitis B Virus Infection". Handbook of animal models of infection: ... Tyler, Gail V.; Summers, Jesse W.; Synder, Robert L. (1981). "Woodchuck Hepatitis Virus in Natural Woodchuck Populations". ... this has led to the use of WHV in woodchucks as a model for human Hepatitis B virus infections. ...
Duck hepatitis is an acute and fatal disease in ducklings caused by the Avihepatovirus DHV-1 and DHV-3. It causes opisthotonus ... and hepatitis. DHV-1 is found worldwide. It causes disease in young ducklings, usually ...
A subsequently-discovered virus thought to cause hepatitis was named Hepatitis G, though its role in hepatitis has not been ... Hepatitis F is a hypothetical virus linked to viral hepatitis. Several hepatitis F candidates emerged in the 1990s; however, ... and the virus was named hepatitis F or Toga virus. Further investigations failed to confirm the existence of the virus, and it ... doi:10.1002/hep.1840190532. PMID 8175156. Bowden, S. (2001). "New Hepatitis Viruses: Contenders and Pretenders". J. ...
... , abbreviated DHBV, is part of the genus Avihepadnavirus of the Hepadnaviridae, and is the causal agent ... Cooper A, Paran N, Shaul Y (2003-07-11). "The earliest steps in hepatitis B virus infection". Biochimica et Biophysica Acta ( ... Jilbert AR, Kotlarski I (March-April 2000). "Immune responses to duck hepatitis B virus infection". Developmental and ... Duck hepatitis B virus has provided a basis for the use of vaccines and prophylactic treatments for individuals at high risk of ...
The hepatitis delta virus (HDV) ribozyme is a non-coding RNA found in the hepatitis delta virus that is necessary for viral ... Modahl LE, Lai MM (July 1998). "Transcription of hepatitis delta antigen mRNA continues throughout hepatitis delta virus (HDV) ... Page for Hepatitis delta virus ribozyme at Rfam Subviral RNA database entry for HDV ribozyme (Articles to be expanded from May ... In the hepatitis delta virus, this substrate nucleotide sequence begins with uridine and is known as U(-1), however, the ...
... is a partially double-stranded DNA virus that is closely related to human Hepatitis B virus (HBV) and Woodchuck hepatitis virus ... Characterization of the protein kinase reaction associated with ground squirrel hepatitis virus and hepatitis B virus". Journal ... "Core particles of hepatitis B virus and ground squirrel hepatitis virus. II. ... Ground squirrel hepatitis virus is distinguished from related viruses by its lack of pathogenic effect, even though it is ...
Hepatitis C alternative reading frame stem-loop Hepatitis C stem-loop IV Hepatitis C virus stem-loop VII Hepatitis C virus (HCV ... Page for Hepatitis C virus 3′X element at Rfam v t e (Articles with short description, Short description matches Wikidata, All ... The hepatitis C virus 3′X element is an RNA element which contains three stem-loop structures that are essential for ... Yi M, Lemon SM (March 2003). "Structure-function analysis of the 3′ stem-loop of hepatitis C virus genomic RNA and its role in ...
... , like other hepatitis B viruses, is transmitted through bodily fluids, and from a mother to her ... WMHBV, like other hepatitis viruses, infects the hepatocytes, or liver cells, of its host organism. It can cause hepatitis, ... The woolly monkey hepatitis B virus (WMHBV) is a viral species of the Orthohepadnavirus genus of the Hepadnaviridae family. Its ... Woolly monkey hepatitis B virus was isolated in 1998 from serum samples of a brown woolly monkey (Lagothrix lagotricha) that ...
Hepatitis B virus PRE alpha HBV RNA encapsidation signal epsilon Hepatitis B virus PRE 1151-1410 Smith Gj, 3rd; Donello, JE; ... The Hepatitis B virus PRE stem-loop beta (HBV PRE SL-beta) is an RNA structure that is shown to play a role in nuclear export ... v t e (Rfam pages needing a picture, Cis-regulatory RNA elements, Hepatitis B virus, All stub articles, Molecular and cellular ... "The hepatitis B virus post-transcriptional regulatory element contains two conserved RNA stem-loops which are required for ...
Hepatitis B virus PRE beta HBV RNA encapsidation signal epsilon Hepatitis_B virus PRE 1151-1410 Smith Gj, 3rd; Donello, JE; ... The Hepatitis B virus PRE stem-loop alpha (HBV PRE SL alpha) is an RNA structure that is shown to play a role in nuclear export ... Lim, CS; Brown, CM (September 2016). "Hepatitis B virus nuclear export elements: RNA stem-loop α and β, key parts of the HBV ... v t e (Rfam pages needing a picture, Cis-regulatory RNA elements, Hepatitis B virus, All stub articles, Molecular and cellular ...
A precore mutant is a variety of hepatitis B virus that does not produce hepatitis B virus e antigen (HBeAg). These mutants are ... ISBN 0-12-375147-0. Wei Y, Neuveut C, Tiollais P, Buendia MA (August 2010). "Molecular biology of the hepatitis B virus and ... Buti M, Rodriguez-Frias F, Jardi R, Esteban R (December 2005). "Hepatitis B virus genome variability and disease progression: ... Lin CL, Kao JH (January 2011). "The clinical implications of hepatitis B virus genotype: Recent advances". Journal of ...
... is a hepatitis B viral protein. It is a DNA polymerase that can use either DNA or RNA ... doi:10.1002/hep.510290340. PMID 10051501. Shaw T, Mok SS, Locarnini SA (November 1996). "Inhibition of hepatitis B virus DNA ... Hepatitis B virus, All stub articles, Virus stubs). ... The Hepatitis B virus (HBV) polymerase is a multifunctional ... Ono-Nita SK, Kato N, Shiratori Y, Masaki T, Lan KH, Carrilho FJ, Omata M (March 1999). "YMDD motif in hepatitis B virus DNA ...
Hepatitis C alternative reading frame stem-loop Hepatitis C virus (HCV) cis-acting replication element (CRE) Hepatitis C virus ... Page for Hepatitis C virus stem-loop VII at Rfam v t e (Cis-regulatory RNA elements, Hepatitis C virus, All stub articles, ... Hepatitis C virus stem-loop VII is a regulatory element found in the coding region of the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase gene, ... "cis-acting RNA signals in the NS5B C-terminal coding sequence of the hepatitis C virus genome". Journal of Virology. 78 (20): ...
The hepatitis E virus cis-reactive element is a RNA element that is thought to be essential for "some step in gene expression ... Page for Hepatitis E virus cis-reactive element at Rfam v t e (Cis-regulatory RNA elements, Hepeviridae, All stub articles, ... "The open reading frame 3 gene of hepatitis E virus contains a cis-reactive element and encodes a protein required for infection ... ". The mutation of this element resulted in hepatitis E strains which were unable to infect rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta). ...
... (HBV post-transcriptional regulatory element, nucleotides 1151-1410) is a part of 500 base pair ... Heise T, Sommer G, Reumann K, Meyer I, Will H, Schaal H (2006). "The hepatitis B virus PRE contains a splicing regulatory ... Huang J, Liang TJ (December 1993). "A novel hepatitis B virus (HBV) genetic element with Rev response element-like properties ... Huang ZM, Yen TS (May 1994). "Hepatitis B virus RNA element that facilitates accumulation of surface gene transcripts in the ...
The Hepatitis C virus internal ribosome entry site, or HCV IRES, is an RNA structure within the 5'UTR of the HCV genome that ... Page for Hepatitis C virus internal ribosome entry site at Rfam (GO template errors, All articles with unsourced statements, ... In contrast, translation of hepatitis C virus (HCV) mRNA is initiated by a different mechanism from the usual 5' cap-binding ... Beales LP, Rowlands DJ, Holzenburg A (May 2001). "The internal ribosome entry site (IRES) of hepatitis C virus visualized by ...
Hepatitis C virus cis-acting replication element Yang, Y; Yi, M; Evans, DJ; Simmonds, P; Lemon, SM (October 2008). " ... In molecular biology, the Hepatitis A virus cis-acting replication element (CRE) is an RNA element which is found in the coding ... region of the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase in Hepatitis A virus (HAV). It is larger than the CREs found in related Picornavirus ...
Hepatitis C alternative reading frame stem-loop Hepatitis C virus 3'X element Hepatitis C virus stem-loop VII Hepatitis C stem- ... Page for Hepatitis C virus (HCV) cis-acting replication element (CRE) at Rfam v t e (Cis-regulatory RNA elements, Hepatitis C ... The Hepatitis C virus (HCV) cis-acting replication element (CRE) is an RNA element which is found in the coding region of the ... cis-acting replication element in the sequence encoding the NS5B RNA-dependent RNA polymerase is required for hepatitis C virus ...
... nontranslated region of hepatitis A virus RNA: comparison with the IRES of encephalomyocarditis virus". Journal of Virology. 68 ... Page for Hepatitis A virus internal ribosome entry site (IRES) at Rfam (GO template errors, Cis-regulatory RNA elements, ... This family represents the internal ribosome entry site (IRES) of the hepatitis A virus. HAV IRES is a 450 nucleotide long ... Glass MJ, Jia XY, Summers DF (April 1993). "Identification of the hepatitis A virus internal ribosome entry site: in vivo and ...
"Prevalence of hepatitis D virus infection among hepatitis B virus-infected individuals in India". Indian J Gastroenterol. 34 (2 ... "Hepatitis delta virus infection in a large cohort of chronic hepatitis B patients in Ethiopia". Liver Int. 38 (6): 1000-1009. ... "Prevalence and risk factors of hepatitis D virus infection in patients with chronic hepatitis B infection attending the three ... "Clade homogeneity and low rate of delta virus despite hyperendemicity of hepatitis B virus in Ethiopia". Virol. J. 14 (1): 176 ...
A hepatitis C vaccine, a vaccine capable of protecting against the hepatitis C virus (HCV), is not yet available. Although ... "The hepatitis C virus". WHO. Archived from the original on 4 October 2013. Retrieved 1 October 2013. Torresi J (7 November 2017 ... Clinical trial number NCT02772003 for "DNA Vaccine Therapy in Treating Patients With Chronic Hepatitis C Virus Infection" at ... Most vaccines work through inducing an antibody response that targets the outer surfaces of viruses. However, the HCV virus is ...
... was originally known as "serum hepatitis". Acute infection with hepatitis B virus is associated with acute viral ... Watashi K, Wakita T (August 2015). "Hepatitis B Virus and Hepatitis D Virus Entry, Species Specificity, and Tissue Tropism". ... Schaefer S (January 2007). "Hepatitis B virus taxonomy and hepatitis B virus genotypes". World Journal of Gastroenterology. 13 ... Hepatitis B is an infectious disease caused by the Hepatitis B virus (HBV) that affects the liver; it is a type of viral ...
Hepatitis B is endemic in China. Of the 350 million individuals worldwide infected with the hepatitis B virus (HBV), one-third ... "In the Hepatitis Camp" (in English) Hepatitis B Carriers BBS-"In the Hepatitis Camp" (CS1 Chinese-language sources (zh), CS1 ... Of the 350 million to 400 million individuals worldwide infected with the hepatitis B virus (HBV), one-third reside in China, ... Some kindergartens refuse admission to children who are carriers of the virus. The hepatitis problem is a reflection of the ...
... hepatitis B virus (HBV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) are the most common oncoviruses. In the United States, HPV causes most ... hepatitis B and hepatitis C viruses (hepatocellular carcinoma), and Human T-cell leukemia virus-1 (T-cell leukemias). In ... Individuals with chronic hepatitis B virus infection are more than 200 times more likely to develop liver cancer than ... Sung MW, Thung SN, Acs G (2000). Hepatitis Viruses. BC Decker. Pagano JS, Blaser M, Buendia MA, Damania B, Khalili K, Raab- ...
... hepatitis B virus (HBV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) are the most frequently encountered oncogenic DNA viruses. Worldwide, HPV ... Infection by some hepatitis viruses, especially hepatitis B and hepatitis C, can induce a long-term viral infection that leads ... World-wide, liver cancer mortality is more often due to hepatitis B virus (HBV) (33%), less often due to hepatitis C virus (HCV ... Liver cancer in the United States is primarily due to three main factors: hepatitis C virus (HCV) (22%), hepatitis B virus (HBV ...
In those who have been exposed to the hepatitis B virus (HBV) but not immunized, hepatitis B immune globulin should be given in ... Hepatitis B vaccination, hepatitis B immunoglobulin, and the combination of hepatitis B vaccine plus hepatitis B immunoglobulin ... Blumberg, Baruch (2002), Hepatitis B: The Hunt for a Killer Virus, Princeton: Princeton University Press. "World Hepatitis Day ... Those who still fail to respond will require hepatitis B immunoglobulin (HBIG) if later exposed to the hepatitis B virus. Poor ...
... (GBV-C), formerly known as hepatitis G virus (HGV) and also known as human pegivirus - HPgV is a virus in the family ... Hepatitis G virus and GB virus C (GBV-C) are RNA viruses that were independently identified in 1995, and were subsequently ... GB-C virus does not appear to encode a C (core or nucleocapsid) protein like, for instance, hepatitis C virus. Nevertheless, ... "Detection of the GBV-C Hepatitis Virus Genome in Serum from Patients with Fulminant Hepatitis of Unknown Aetiology". Lancet. ...
... epsilon Duck HBV RNA encapsidation signal epsilon Hepatitis B virus PRE alpha Hepatitis B virus PRE beta Hepatitis B virus PRE ... Beck, J; Nassal, M (2003). "Efficient Hsp90-independent in vitro activation by Hsc70 and Hsp40 of duck hepatitis B virus ... Page for HBV RNA encapsidation signal epsilon at Rfam HBVRegDB Hepatitis B Virus HBV Regulatory Sequence Database (HBVRegDB) v ... "Hepatitis B virus replication". World J. Gastroenterol. 13 (1): 48-64. doi:10.3748/wjg.v13.i1.48. PMC 4065876. PMID 17206754. ...
He is also credited with the isolation of Hepatitis E virus and the introduction of a new therapeutic protocol of the Hepatitis ... Hema Gupta; Bhanu Iyenger; Badri Nath Tandon (February 1993). "Localization of a new enteric non-A, non-B [HEV] virus in target ... E as well as Hepatitis C using herbal plants. His researches have been documented in over 225 medical papers and four ...
Patients with chronic hepatitis B or hepatitis C virus infection who harbor a HSPA1B-1267 single nucleotide polymorphism have a ...
While COVID-19 refers to the disease and SARS-CoV-2 refers to the virus which causes it, referring to the "COVID-19 virus" has ... non-B Hepatitis. They have also pointed out that future researchers will benefit from consistency when reviewing past data and ... From January to March 2020, US President Donald Trump repeatedly described the virus as the "Chinese virus". In March 2020, the ... "Chinese virus" amid instances of bigotry against Asians in the USA. Trump referred to it as "the China Virus" at least as late ...
The most harmful strain-hepatitis C genotype I virus-can be treated with a 60-80% success rate with the current standard-of- ... Viruses that inhibit IFN signaling include Japanese Encephalitis Virus (JEV), dengue type 2 virus (DEN-2), and viruses of the ... Both hepatitis B and hepatitis C are treated with IFN-α, often in combination with other antiviral drugs. Some of those treated ... Some viruses escape the anti-viral activities of interferons by gene (and thus protein) mutation. The H5N1 influenza virus, ...
AIDS is a disease of the human immune system caused by the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Primary modes of HIV ... hepatitis A, norovirus), and protozoa (schistosomiasis). According to UNICEF, 3,000 children die every day, worldwide due to ... Borkow G, Bentwich Z (May 2002). "Host background immunity and human immunodeficiency virus protective vaccines, a major ... Contaminated water enables the spread of various waterborne-pathogens, including bacteria (E. coli, cholera), viruses ( ...
... measles virus, mumps vaccine virus and rubella vaccine virus, and wild strains of the aforementioned viruses) results in ileal ... Delayed acquisition of neonatal reflexes in newborn primates receiving a thimerosal-containing Hepatitis B vaccine: Influence ... They reported finding 99% of the samples contained no trace of the measles virus, and the samples that did contain the virus ... "If you give three viruses together, three live viruses, then you potentially increase the risk of an adverse event occurring, ...
... a protein necessary for hepatitis C virus replication and assembly. Velpatasvir reaches highest blood plasma levels three hours ... Velpatasvir is an NS5A inhibitor (by Gilead) which is used together with sofosbuvir in the treatment of hepatitis C infection ... Heo YA, Deeks ED (April 2018). "Sofosbuvir/Velpatasvir/Voxilaprevir: A Review in Chronic Hepatitis C". Drugs. 78 (5): 577-587. ...
"Role of polypyrimidine tract binding protein in the function of the hepatitis B virus posttranscriptional regulatory element". ... Virus Genes. 12 (3): 275-285. doi:10.1007/bf00284648. PMID 8883365. S2CID 11678179. Huang S, Deerinck TJ, Ellisman MH, Spector ... of a group of cellular cofactors that stimulate the binding of RNA polymerase II and TRP-185 to human immunodeficiency virus 1 ...
Many viruses that cause human disease express viroporins. These viruses include hepatitis C virus, HIV-1, influenza A virus, ... while hepatitis C virus is incapable of propagation without its p7 protein viroporin, influenza A virus and HIV-1 see decreases ... Carrasco L (August 1995). "Modification of membrane permeability by animal viruses". Advances in Virus Research. 45: 61-112. ... Most viruses encoding viroporins can replicate their genomes in the absence of the viroporin, even if they are impaired in ...
"MicroRNA gene expression profile of hepatitis C virus-associated hepatocellular carcinoma". Hepatology. 47 (4): 1223-32. doi: ... 10.1002/hep.22158. PMID 18307259. Hansen T, Olsen L, Lindow M, Jakobsen KD, Ullum H, Jonsson E, Andreassen OA, Djurovic S, ...
... is a genus of viruses in the subfamily Parvovirinae of the virus family Parvoviridae. Humans, cattle, and dogs ... They may be able to cause hepatitis in an immunosuppressed host. Bocaparvoviruses have been isolated from human colon and lung ... "ICTV 10th Report (2018)". "Virus Taxonomy: 2020 Release". International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses (ICTV). March 2021. ... In Canine minute virus NP1 has been shown to be essential for an early step in viral replication and is also required for the ...
Épidémie du virus Ebola - Nomination d'un envoyé spécial (16 juillet 2019) Ministry of Europe and Foreign Affairs, press ... Lévy became scientific director of the vaccine programme of the French National Agency for Research on AIDS and Viral Hepatitis ...
It is also known that TLR2/6 binds some viral products, among them hepatitis C core and NS3 protein from the hepatitis C virus ... some viruses and even protozoa. TLR6 has been shown to interact in a heterodimer form with TLR2. Synergistic interactions of ...
Duvet S, Op De Beeck A, Cocquerel L, Wychowski C, Cacan R, Dubuisson J (February 2002). "Glycosylation of the hepatitis C virus ...
This led to the first genetic map of the virus, which aided in the development of blood tests for HIV.. In the late 1970s, Wong ... Recognizing the need for improved drugs for hepatitis C (HCV), she transitioned Immusol to an HCV therapeutics focus and ... Gallo, conducted research on the human retrovirus, human T cell leukemia virus (HTLV), and determined that it was the causative ... Clark, Cheryl (November 11, 1992). "Researcher Stays Hot on the Trail of Deadly Virus". San Diego Union Tribune. pp. C-1. " ...
... serum drawn from a chronic Hepatitis B Virus (HBV) carrier would contaminate the Yellow Fever Vaccine. In 1941, researchers at ... "World War II Hepatitis Outbreak Was Biggest in History". Associated Press. 16 April 1987. "Hepatitis B". Retrieved ... Portals: Medicine Viruses (Articles with short description, Short description matches Wikidata, Use dmy dates from November ... Following the work of Ernest Goodpasture, Theiler used chicken eggs to culture the virus. After field trials in Brazil, over ...
Severe side effects include reactivation of hepatitis B in those previously infected, progressive multifocal ... myasthenia gravis and Epstein-Barr virus-positive mucocutaneous ulcers. It is given by slow injection into a vein. Biosimilars ...
Prevalence of hepatocellular carcinoma in individuals exposed to aflatoxin, increases with co-infection of hepatitis B virus. ... those infected with hepatitis B virus were at a fourfold risk; and those with the aflatoxin bio-markers and infected with ... especially given co-infection with hepatitis B virus. These effects seem to be largely mediated by mutations at guanine in ... hepatitis B virus were at a 60 times greater risk for hepatocellular carcinoma than the normal population. Several aflatoxin B1 ...
In contrast to medical wisdom in the 1960s and 1970s, Huebner was confident that viruses were a cause of cancer in humans and ... Research on retroviruses led to the development of a vaccine for hepatitis B, which has led to major decreases in rates of ... While trying to grow common cold viruses, he and his colleague Dr. Wallace Rowe first tried to use adenoid and tonsil tissue, ... W.K. "NOTES ON SCIENCE; Aureomycin Is Effective Against Virus Pneumonia -- Acoustics", The New York Times, May 15, 1949. ...
... where he studied Murray Valley encephalitis virus and respiratory viruses alongside Macfarlane Burnet. Marmion returned to the ... Shortly after he arrived in Edinburgh, he was involved in investigating an outbreak of hepatitis B in the local dialysis unit; ... He moved to Leeds as the head of the new PHLS virus laboratory in 1955. At Leeds, he published the first description of Q fever ... This investigation laid the groundwork for the principles of bloodborne virus control that would later be applied to HIV. In ...
Helped advance a new treatment which moved from animal to human trials for chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection. ... Developing vaccine strategies for Ebola, HIV, Lassa virus, West Nile virus, Japanese encephalitis viruses, and herpes. ... Studying ways of preventing or treating diseases caused by respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), herpes simplex virus, and dengue ... Developing an animal model to test vaccines to protect people against the Zika virus. On April 14, 2018, four baboons escaped ...
... and also shows activity against other viral diseases such as Zika virus and foot and mouth disease virus. Merimepodib was ... doi:10.1002/hep.23204. PMID 19852040. S2CID 2497811. Tong X, Smith J, Bukreyeva N, Koma T, Manning JT, Kalkeri R, et al. ( ... It progressed as far as Phase 2b human clinical trials against Hepatitis C but showed only modest benefits in comparison to ... January 2018). "Merimepodib, an IMPDH inhibitor, suppresses replication of Zika virus and other emerging viral pathogens". ...
The following orders are recognized: Blubervirales (e.g. hepatitis B virus) Ortervirales (retroviruses, Caulimoviridae and ... Viruses, Virus classes, All stub articles, Virus stubs). ... Revtraviricetes is a class of viruses that contains all viruses ... The group includes all ssRNA-RT viruses (including the retroviruses) and dsDNA-RT viruses. It is the sole class in the phylum ... "Virus Taxonomy: 2019 Release". International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses. Archived from the original ...
Nicolau and Galloway were also the first to identify the sensitivity of the Borna disease virus to lipid solvents, an ... Viral hepatitis]. București: Editura Academiei Republicii Populare Romîne. OCLC 14659226. Nicolau, Ștefan S. (1955). Cancer și ... In his studies, Nicolau underscored the macromolecular nature of viruses and the significance of their genomic nucleic acid. ... he began to recruit researchers to work on isolation and cultivation of human and animal viruses. He was the director of the ...
Friday was reported to be in a London hospital suffering from an unknown virus which had caused him to lose 2 stone (13 kg; 28 ... he claimed to have been suffering from hepatitis, but medical tests disproved this. However, it has since been discovered by ...
... viruses such as hepatitis C virus, Flaviviridae viruses and bovine viral diarrheal virus could enter cells indirectly via LDLR- ... Agnello V, Abel G, Elfahal M, Knight GB, Zhang QX (October 1999). "Hepatitis C virus and other flaviviridae viruses enter cells ... LDLR has been identified as the primary mode of entry for the Vesicular stomatitis virus in mice and humans. In addition, LDLR ... "LDL receptor and its family members serve as the cellular receptors for vesicular stomatitis virus". Proceedings of the ...
Ribavirin was approved in 2002 to treat Hepatitis C and viral hemorrhagic fever. As a nucleoside inhibitor, the guanosine ... Anti-RNA virus drugs, Drug discovery, Cell biology, Molecular biology, RNA). ... Specific Recognition of Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 TAR RNA by Small Organic Molecules". Biochemistry. 37 (40): 14204- ...
... and other blood tests may be used to investigate the presence of the Hepatitis viruses in the blood, and ultrasound used. If ... Hepatitis refers to inflammation of liver tissue, and may be acute or chronic. Infectious viral hepatitis, such as hepatitis A ... Epstein-Barr virus infection is another factor to induce gastric cancer. As well as peptic ulcers, vomiting blood may result ... Alcoholic liver disease may also develop as a result of chronic alcohol use, which may also cause alcoholic hepatitis. ...
Viral hepatitis is caused by five unrelated hepatotropic viruses (A-E) and may be treated with antiviral drugs depending on the ... and viruses. Disinfectants: Destroy or inactivate microorganisms (bacteria, fungi, viruses,) but may not act as sporicides (as ... Herpes viruses, best known for causing cold sores and genital herpes, are usually treated with the nucleoside analogue ... They are active against a wide range of bacteria, fungi and viruses. Today phenol derivatives such as thymol and cresol are ...
... human papilloma virus, Japanese encephalitis, rotavirus and hepatitis B. In May 2020, as part the WHO's aim to coordinate ... human papilloma virus, Japanese encephalitis, rotavirus and hepatitis B. In May 2020, during the global emergency of COVID-19 ...
Hepatitis C is a liver infection caused by the hepatitis C virus (HCV), spread by contact with infected blood. Infection can be ... Hepatitis C is a liver disease caused by the hepatitis C virus. When someone is first infected with the hepatitis C virus, they ... Hepatitis is most often caused by a virus. In the United States, the most common types of viral hepatitis are hepatitis A, ... How is hepatitis C spread?. The hepatitis C virus is usually spread when someone comes into contact with blood from an infected ...
... hepatitis B, or hepatitis C. It can screen blood samples for more than one kind of hepatitis ... The hepatitis virus panel is a series of blood tests used to detect current or past infection by hepatitis A, ... The hepatitis virus panel is a series of blood tests used to detect current or past infection by hepatitis A, hepatitis B, or ... Hepatitis A antibody test; Hepatitis B antibody test; Hepatitis C antibody test; Hepatitis D antibody test ...
Does it have any value in treating hepatitis C? ... Hepatitis C Virus Disparities: Strategies for Bridging the Gap ... Hepatocellular Carcinoma and Hepatitis C Virus Treatments: The Bold and the Beautiful Journal Article ... In vitro studies have demonstrated antiviral, anti-inflammatory properties of silymarin in hepatitis C virus (HCV) replicon ... Testing to Sustain Hepatitis C Elimination Targets in People Who Inject Drugs Journal Article ...
... 0-9. A. B. C. D. E. F. G. H. I. J. K. L. M. N. O. P. Q. R. S. T. U. V ... First consultation of the Regional Expert Panel for verification of Hepatitis B Control in the South-East Asia Region New Delhi ...
This study provides hepatitis C virus (HCV) screening to members of the World Trade Center cohort followed at the Icahn School ...
Collaborative study to establish a World Health Organization international standard for hepatitis D virus RNA for nucleic acid ...
Hepatitis B Virus: A Comprehensive Strategy for Eliminating Transmission in the United States Through Universal Childhood ... EPIDEMIOLOGY AND PREVENTION OF HEPATITIS DELTA VIRUS INFECTION. Hepatitis delta virus (HDV) is a defective virus that causes ... Yeast-recombinant hepatitis B vaccine: efficacy with hepatitis B immune globulin in prevention of perinatal hepatitis B virus ... Prevention of maternal-infant hepatitis B virus transmission by immunization: role of serum hepatitis B virus DNA. Hepatology ...
On 2 March 2022 Namibians applauded their government for declaring an end to the Hepatitis E Virus (HEV) outbreak. The 4-year ... End of the Hepatitis E Virus Outbreak in Namibia 04 March 2022. ... End of the Hepatitis E Virus Outbreak in Namibia health topics ... On 2 March 2022 Namibians applauded their government for declaring an end to the Hepatitis E Virus (HEV) outbreak. The 4-year ... 4 million from the Government of Japan which strengthened the support WHO provided to the government to control the HEP E Virus ...
The discovery of infectious hepatitis E virus in retail pork products may help explain the purported association between liver ... Republishing "Hepatitis E Virus in Pork". × Terms You may republish this material online or in print under our Creative Commons ... Hepatitis E Virus in Pork. License Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International (CC BY-NC 4.0). Content URL ... Hepatitis E Virus in Pork. Michael Greger M.D. FACLM · October 8, 2010 · Volume 4 ...
Occult Hepatitis B Infection (OBI) is simply defined as serologically undetectable hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg-ve), ... Hepatitis B virus (HBV) remains a major public health problem worldwide. Egypt is considered an area of intermediate endemicity ... Hepatitis B virus (HBV) presents a high residual risk of transmission by transfusion. Photo credit: WHOHepatitis B virus (HBV) ... The study was undertaken on 3167 blood donors negative for anti-hepatitis C virus (HCV), anti-human immunodeficiency virus (HIV ...
CDC works with countries to identify children infected with hepatitis B virus and generate the evidence for hepatitis B vaccine ... CDC works with countries to identify children infected with hepatitis B virus and generate the evidence for hepatitis B vaccine ... Around the world, approximately 257 million people are infected with hepatitis B virus (HBV), and about 700,000 die every year ... offers the hepatitis B vaccine birth dose followed by 3 doses of the hepatitis B vaccine, but not enough children receive all ...
... tests that check for hepatitis B infection. Looks at most common HBV tests. Explains how tests are done and how to prepare for ... Hepatitis B testing. Hepatitis B Hepatitis B antibodies and/or antigens are found. More tests may be needed to see if you have ... Hepatitis B DNA, which is the viruss genetic material. Hepatitis antibodies can take weeks or months to develop. So an ... You may have been exposed to the hepatitis B virus. You are more likely to have been exposed to the virus if you inject drugs, ...
Increases in acute hepatitis C virus infection related to a growing opioid epidemic and associated injection drug use, United ... Chronic infection with hepatitis C virus (HCV) can cause significant morbidity to individuals due to inflammatory damage to the ... Emerging epidemic of hepatitis C virus infections among young nonurban persons who inject drugs in the United States, 2006-2012 ... Screening for hepatitis C virus infection in adolescents and adults: US Preventive Services Task Force Recommendation Statement ...
... ... Team Finds Promising Vaccine Targets on Hepatitis C Virus ... Team Finds Promising Vaccine Targets on Hepatitis C Virus A team led by scientists at The Scripps Research Institute has found ... "Antibody-based treatment has worked extremely well for liver transplants to patients with hepatitis B virus, and we hope the ... "Human broadly neutralizing antibodies to the envelope glycoprotein complex of hepatitis C virus," were Marcus Dorner, Charles M ...
... Am Fam Physician. 2021 Apr 15;103(8):493-494. ...
Hepatitis B virus-associated polyarteritis nodosa (HBV-PAN) is a typical form of classi ... hepatitis B virus, HBV-PAN = hepatitis B virus-associated polyarteritis nodosa, HCV = hepatitis C virus, HIV = human ... In contrast, patients mounting a normal response to the virus rarely develop chronic liver disease. In acute hepatitis, virus ... Hepatitis B virus-associated polyarteritis nodosa (HBV-PAN) is a typical form of classic PAN whose pathogenesis has been ...
Hepatitis C; Maintenance of Certification; American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases; International Antiviral ... HCV: Hepatitis C Virus. Facebook Twitter LinkedIn Email Viral hepatitis is a silent epidemic. According to the United States ... CDC Recommendations for Screening of Persons Born During 1945-1965 for Chronic Hepatitis C Virus Infection ... 2012 Update on the Management and Treatment of Hepatitis C Virus Infection ...
Welcome to the Pathology Education Informational Resource (PEIR) Digital Library, a multidisciplinary public access image database for use in medical education. ...
Prevention and control of Hepatitis A Virus (HAV) and Norovirus (NoV). Hepatitis A virus (HAV) and Norovirus (NoV) are an ... Guidance for the prevention and control of Hepatitis A Virus (HAV) and Norovirus (NoV). ... FAO has recently developed guidance on possible strategies to prevent and control virus contamination in ready-to-eat semi- ... The semi processed food may not undergo treatment sufficient to inactivate this viruses, therefore, manufactures may consider ...
Percentage of persons newly reported with a positive result from a hepatitis C virus (HCV) antibody test only among all new ... TABLE 2. Number and rate per 100,000 population of persons newly reported with positive test results for hepatitis C virus (HCV ... TABLE 1. Percentage of persons newly reported with positive test results for hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection, by birth cohort ... Evaluation of Hepatitis C Virus Infection Testing and Reporting - Eight U.S. Sites, 2005-2011. Abstract. Background: Hepatitis ...
Milich D, Liang J. Exploring the biological basis of hepatitis B e antigen in hepatitis B virus infection. Hepatology. 2003 ;38 ... A hepatitis B virus mutant associated with an epidemic of fulminant hepatitis B. New Engl. J. Med. 1991 ;324:1705-1709 ... Enhanced replication of a hepatitis B virus mutant associated with an epidemic of fulminant hepatitis. J. Virol. 1994 ;68:1651- ... The complete nucleotide sequence of a pre-core mutant of hepatitis B virus implicated in fulminant hepatitis and its biological ...
The genotypes of French hepatitis C virus (HCV) isolates were investigated by amplification of a domain from the non-structural ... Heterogeneity of hepatitis C virus genotypes in France D. Qu O. Hantz Manolo Gouy 1 L. Vitvitski J.S. Li F. Berby S.P. Tong C. ... D. Qu, O. Hantz, Manolo Gouy, L. Vitvitski, J.S. Li, et al.. Heterogeneity of hepatitis C virus genotypes in France. Journal of ... Abstract : The genotypes of French hepatitis C virus (HCV) isolates were investigated by amplification of a domain from the non ...
... investigating a case of human infection of rat Hepatitis E virus (HEV) and urged members of... ... CHP investigates case of human infection of rat Hepatitis E virus. CHP investigates case of human infection of rat Hepatitis E ... investigating a case of human infection of rat Hepatitis E virus (HEV) and urged members of the public to be vigilant against ... To prevent hepatitis E infection, members of the public should maintain good personal, food and environmental hygiene. For ...
In order to eradicate hepatitis C virus (HCV) from a patients body, the right combinations of direct-acting antivirals (DAAs) ... Personalized Hepatitis C Antiviral Drug Therapy Could Eliminate Virus. .social-ris-container { display: flex; justify-content: ... "It may indicate that we have not yet found the right combination of drugs to eradicate the virus in a particular patient. With ... View More503B Compounding PharmacyBrain HealthCardiovascular HealthCoronavirusDermatologyDiabetesFluHeart FailureHepatitis ...
We review the commonly dysregulated miRNAs in liver tumor tissues and plasma/serum of hepatitis B virus (HBV)-related ... We review the common dysregulated miRNAs in liver tumor tissues and in plasma/serum of hepatitis B virus (HBV)-related ... Hepatitis B virus and microRNAs: complex interactions affecting hepatitis B virus replication and hepatitis B virus-associated ... Major risk factors for HCC are chronic infection by hepatitis B virus (HBV) or hepatitis C virus (HCV) (3). HCC is usually ...
Structure of the p7 channel of Hepatitis C virus, genotype 5a ... Hepatitis C virus (isolate EUH1480). Mutation(s): 5 EC: 3.4.22 ... Unusual architecture of the p7 channel from hepatitis C virus. OuYang, B., Xie, S., Berardi, M.J., Zhao, X., Dev, J., Yu, W., ... The hepatitis C virus (HCV) has developed a small membrane protein, p7, which remarkably can self-assemble into a large channel ... The hepatitis C virus (HCV) has developed a small membrane protein, p7, which remarkably can self-assemble into a large channel ...
Compounds effective in inhibiting replication of Hepatitis C virus (HCV) are described. This invention also relates to ... Heterocyclic compounds as inhibitors of hepatitis C virus (HCV) Download PDF Info. Publication number. EP2455376A1. EP2455376A1 ... EP2455376A1 - Heterocyclic compounds as inhibitors of hepatitis C virus (HCV) - Google Patents. ...
Clinical Pathology advises against Hepatitis C virus antibody testing in patients with a previous positive Hepatitis C virus ( ... Do not repeat Hepatitis C virus antibody testing in patients with a previous positive Hepatitis C virus (HCV) test. Instead, ... Getting Started Lists of Recommendations Search Recommendations Gastroenterology, Infectious Disease ASCP - Hepatitis C virus ... Viral Hepatitis - Hepatitis C Information. Hepatitis C FAQs for health professionals. Accessed on July 22, 2016 at http://www. ...
  • In the United States, the most common types of viral hepatitis are hepatitis A, hepatitis B, and hepatitis C. Although all types of viral hepatitis can cause similar symptoms, they are spread in different ways, have different treatments, and some are more serious than others. (
  • Pawlotsky J-M. Acute viral hepatitis. (
  • Recommendations concerning the prevention of other types of viral hepatitis are found in MMWR 1990;39(No. RR-2): 1-8, 22-26. (
  • Viral hepatitis is a silent epidemic. (
  • See also Overview of Acute Viral Hepatitis and Overview of Chronic Hepatitis. (
  • Overview of Acute Viral Hepatitis Acute viral hepatitis is inflammation of the liver, generally meaning inflammation caused by infection with one of the five hepatitis viruses. (
  • Gene polymorphisms of these cytokines can affect their expression and serum level and may be associated with liver disease severity in patients with viral hepatitis. (
  • Contribution In a case series of 220 pregnant women with jaundice and acute viral hepatitis, the authors observed that women with HEV infection more often died and had more obstetric complications and worse fetal outcomes than did women with other forms of viral hepatitis. (
  • The acute viral hepatitis E infection in pregnant women is associated with maternal morbidities and high mortality rate. (
  • Viral hepatitis is the most common cause of jaundice in pregnancy with HEV being the predominant cause, so water supply should be of high quality complying with drinking water standards and safe sanitation should be given priority. (
  • IMSEAR at SEARO: Occurrence & nucleotide sequence analysis of hepatitis G virus in patients with acute viral hepatitis & fulminant hepatitis. (
  • Kumar D, Gupta RK, Anand R, Pasha ST, Rai A, Das BC, Kar P. Occurrence & nucleotide sequence analysis of hepatitis G virus in patients with acute viral hepatitis & fulminant hepatitis. (
  • BACKGROUND & OBJECTIVE: Association of hepatitis G virus (HGV) with acute viral hepatitis (AVH) and fulminant hepatitis (FH) is not clearly understood.This study was designed to asses the occurrence of HGV infection and its relationship with other hepatotropic viruses in patients with FH and AVH and also to determine the nucleotide sequence of HGV isolates. (
  • Viral hepatitis is a statutorily notifiable disease in Hong Kong Special Administrative Region (SAR). (
  • Viral hepatitis has been a statutorily notifiable disease since 1974 in Hong Kong SAR. (
  • Collation and analysis of surveillance data obtained from various sources were compiled in the annual reports of surveillance of viral hepatitis by the Department of Health, Hong Kong SAR. (
  • Other types of viral hepatitis, HIV , and some infections can mean that a person can't give blood. (
  • Other types of viral hepatitis include:Hepatitis AHepatitis BHepat. (
  • Antibody and antigen tests can detect each of the different hepatitis viruses. (
  • Testing to identify pregnant women who are hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg)-positive and providing their infants with immunoprophylaxis effec- tively prevents HBV transmission during the perinatal period (4,5). (
  • The risk of perinatal HBV infection among infants born to HBV-infected mothers ranges from 10% to 85%, depending on each mother's hepatitis B e antigen (HBeAg) status (3,7,8). (
  • HBV transmission by hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) negative components occurs partly during the serologically-negative window period, but more often during later stages of infection, which is known as occult HBV infection (OBI). (
  • Hepatitis B surface antigen shows an active infection. (
  • Hepatitis B e-antigen shows an active infection. (
  • Hepatitis B virus-associated polyarteritis nodosa (HBV-PAN) is a typical form of classic PAN whose pathogenesis has been attributed to immune-complex deposition with antigen excess. (
  • The virus was first discovered as "Australia antigen", later renamed HBsAg (for hepatitis B surface antigen), in patient blood [ 6 ]. (
  • HBeAg (hepatitis B e antigen) was identified several years later as a marker for patients at high risk for transmission of the disease [ 20 ]. (
  • Hepatitis B patients also contain circulating antibodies against HBcAg (hepatitis B core antigen), and will develop antibodies against HBeAg and HBsAg (anti-HBe and anti-HBs) at later stages of infection. (
  • Hepatitis D virus (HDV) is a small, defective RNA virus that requires hepatitis B virus (HBV) to complete its replication cycle within host cells [2], and infects only HBV surface antigen (HBsAg) positive individuals [3]. (
  • The purpose of this study is to assess changes in intrahepatic hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) between baseline and on-treatment liver biopsy in response to JNJ-3989-based combination treatment. (
  • The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) among the general population and the risk factors associated with HBV infection in Anhui province, China. (
  • Adults at risk by sexual exposure (sex partners of hepatitis B surface antigen [HBsAg]-positive persons, sexually active persons who are not in a mutually monogamous relationship, persons seeking evaluation or treatment for a sexually transmitted infection, and men who have sex with men). (
  • 7 We extracted HBV-specific data from the reports, including acute HBV infection notification data for the period 1988 to 2014 and hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) seroprevalence data from 1990 to 2014. (
  • Antibodies against hepatitis B surface antigen (AbHBs) were measured in vaccinated children using the ELISA Kit AbHBs Quantitative EIA. (
  • Serological diagnosis in pregnant women revealed 22 (9.28%) hepatitis B surface antigen ( HBsAg ) positive samples of which 21 were positive for viral DNA by real-time PCR . (
  • Estimates of past or present infection with hepatitis B virus are based on tests for antibody to hepatitis B core antigen in serum collected during the examination component of the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. (
  • Antigen tests detect proteins of the SARS-CoV-2 virus that form during the infection cycle and indicate that a person has an active infection. (
  • More than 90% of these infections can be prevented if HBsAg-positive mothers are identified so that their infants can receive hepatitis B vaccine and hepatitis B immune globulin (HBIG) soon after birth (4,5). (
  • The study was undertaken on 3167 blood donors negative for anti-hepatitis C virus (HCV), anti-human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and HBsAg: 16.6% of blood units were positive for total anti-core, of these 64% were anti-HBsAg positive. (
  • Infants born to HBsAg-positive mothers should receive hepatitis B immune globulin (HBIG) and the first dose of hepatitis B vaccine within 12 hours of birth, followed by the second and third doses of vaccine at 1 and 6 months of age, respectively. (
  • Pregnant women who are at risk for hepatitis B virus infection during pregnancy (eg, having more than 1 sex partner during the previous 6 months, having been evaluated or treated for a sexually transmitted infection, recent or current injection drug use, or having an HBsAg-positive sex partner). (
  • Clinicians should provide or refer all patients identified with HBV (HBsAg-positive) for posttest counseling and hepatitis B-directed care. (
  • Annual acute hepatitis B notification and HBsAg seroprevalence data were compared for trends. (
  • HBsAg seroprevalence data were also analysed among specific groups, including at-risk groups that are defined as groups with risk of blood-borne or sexual transmission of hepatitis B. All analysis was done by Excel (Microsoft Excel 2010, Redmond, USA). (
  • This prevention strategy includes making hepatitis B vaccine a part of routine vaccination schedules for all infants. (
  • Integrating hepatitis B vaccine into childhood vaccination schedules in populations with high rates of childhood infection (e.g. (
  • The recommendations for implementing this strategy include making hepatitis B vaccine a part of routine vaccination schedules for infants. (
  • It also can show that you got a hepatitis B vaccination. (
  • As a pediatric infectious disease doctor and an epidemiologist with CDC's Global Immunization Division, my primary commitment is to the health of children around the world, which includes helping countries follow WHO hepatitis B vaccination guidelines. (
  • CDC will continue to provide technical and financial support to generate the evidence to introduce the birth dose and improve hepatitis B vaccination around the world to avoid the tragic consequences of hepatitis B as we work toward the worldwide hepatitis B 2030 elimination goal. (
  • In order to prevent hepatitis A, vaccination is an important method. (
  • United States guidelines recommend hepatitis A virus (HAV) vaccination for persons living with HIV (PLWH) who are at increased risk for HAV infection, including men who have sex with men (MSM) and persons who inject drugs (PWID). (
  • By then, China had fully integrated hepatitis B vaccination as part of its routine immunization for infants. (
  • To evaluate whether the impact of the hepatitis B vaccination program since 1992 in Anhui province is similar to the rest of the country, this paper examined an updated Hepatitis B serosurvey to (1) measure the prevalence of hepatitis B among the general population and (2) determine the ongoing risk factors for hepatitis B infection. (
  • The best way to prevent hepatitis A infection is through vaccination with the hepatitis A vaccine. (
  • 20% of all hepatitis A cases reported to CDC, but no large outbreaks have occurred among persons who use drugs since adoption of the recommendation for hepatitis A vaccination of persons who use injection and non-injection drugs was made in 1996. (
  • Hepatitis B Vaccination, Screening, and Linkage to Care: Best Practice Advice From the American College of Physicians and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (
  • The core promoter mutants have been associated with the development of fulminant hepatitis during acute infection and liver cancer during chronic infection. (
  • Individuals with HBV-HDV co-infection may have more severe acute disease and be at greater risk of fulminant hepatitis, cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) than those with HBV infection alone [6] [7]. (
  • Perinatal hepatitis B in the newborn may range from asymptomatic to fulminant hepatitis. (
  • 2 Severe infections can result in cholestatic hepatitis, relapsing hepatitis, and fulminant hepatitis leading to death. (
  • The reported incidence of acute hepatitis B increased by 37% from 1979 to 1989, and an estimated 200,000-300,000 new infections occurred annually during the period 1980- 1991. (
  • As a member of the Western Pacific Region, the Philippines has set its goal to reduce the number of hepatitis B infections to less than 1 out 100 children. (
  • The World Health Organization (WHO) estimates that the virus has established mostly silent infections in 130 to 170 million people worldwide-nearly 3 percent of the human population-and spreads to 3 to 4 million new people annually. (
  • Force screening for HCV is not currently performed during U.S. Air Force (USAF) Basic Military Training (BMT) although screening is completed for other viral infections (including HIV, hepatitis A, and hepatitis B). As a result, the true prevalence of chronic HCV infection cannot be ascertained in the basic trainee population. (
  • You will experience very severe infections when the virus gets into your mouth by eating or drinking polluted foods and beverages. (
  • Thus, our sample size was determined according to the Schwartz formula: n = (z) 2 p(1 − p)/d 2 with n = sample size, z = 95% confidence level, z = 1.96, p = HDV prevalence in Brazzaville (11.12%) taking into account the study on Seroprevalence and Molecular Biodiversity of Hepatitis B and Delta Virus Infections in the Republic of Congo [12], d = 0.05 margin of error allowed. (
  • We infected the horses with the same virus strain five months after they had cleared the infections," explains the co-investigator from the Horses Clinics, PD Dr. Jessika Cavalleri. (
  • And the horses were also immune against another variant of the virus, as further infections could show some months later. (
  • WATERTOWN, Mass.--(BUSINESS WIRE)--Enanta Pharmaceuticals, Inc., (NASDAQ: ENTA), a clinical stage biotechnology company dedicated to creating small molecule drugs for viral infections and liver diseases, today announced that it has dosed the first subject in its Phase 1 clinical trial of EDP-721, a novel, oral hepatitis B virus (HBV) RNA destabilizer being developed for use in an all-oral combination regimen for chronic HBV patients. (
  • Infectious causes of glomerulonephritis included streptococcal infections, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection, and hepatitis viral infections, both hepatitis C (HCV) and hepatitis B (HBV). (
  • This Health Alert Network (HAN) Advisory alerts public health departments, healthcare facilities, and programs providing services to affected populations about these outbreaks of hepatitis A infections and provides guidance to assist in identifying and preventing new infections. (
  • however, when this disease affects populations with already poor health (e.g., hepatitis B and C infections, chronic liver disease), infection can lead to serious outcomes, including death. (
  • From January 2017 to April 2018, CDC has received more than 2,500 reports of hepatitis A infections associated with person-to-person transmission from multiple states. (
  • 12,13 Outbreaks of hepatitis A infections among homeless persons have occurred in other countries, but large outbreaks among the homeless have not been described previously in the United States. (
  • Hepatitis can also occur with Epstein-Barr virus and cytomegalovirus infections. (
  • HIV causes AIDS, a late stage of the virus characterized by serious infections, malignancies and neurologic dysfunctions. (
  • Observations of infections with and illness due to parainfluenza, mumps and respiratory syncytial viruses and Mycoplasma pneumoniae. (
  • Immunization with hepatitis B vaccine is the most effective means of preventing HBV infection and its consequences. (
  • Yet, they could be protected by at least three hepatitis B vaccine shots, with the first shot given within 24 hours of birth (birth dose) followed by 2 or 3 additional shots during infancy, according to the World Health Organization (WHO) recommendations. (
  • Some countries want to know the number of children infected with HBV either before introducing hepatitis B vaccine birth dose or to ensure all children have access to the vaccine. (
  • Haiti's MOH can use the results from the survey to guide them on the importance of adding the hepatitis B vaccine birth dose to the recommended vaccine schedule. (
  • In the Philippines, the National Immunization Program (NIP) offers the hepatitis B vaccine birth dose followed by 3 doses of the hepatitis B vaccine, but not enough children receive all the vaccines. (
  • These two surveys highlight CDC's role assisting countries find out how many children have HBV infection, and find out how well the country's immunization program is doing to reach children with the hepatitis B vaccine. (
  • One of the big goals of HCV vaccine development has been to find an accessible spot on the virus that doesn't change constantly," said Law. (
  • The locations on the virus where those broadly neutralizing antibodies bind mark the vulnerable viral structures that can be used as the bases of a broadly effective, antibody-stimulating vaccine. (
  • The vaccine used to treat hepatitis A is completely different from the immune globulin (IG) that most of you receive after an outbreak. (
  • This vaccine provides protection for very long period and is generally given before you are exposed to hepatitis A. Often it is suggested for people who are at risk for infection and if you want to obtain immunity to hepatitis A. After taking the first dose of the vaccine, the protection against hepatitis A begins. (
  • Hepatitis A vaccine is safe for those who suffer from the condition. (
  • This vaccine protects against hepatitis A for 25 years in adults and at least 14-20 years in children. (
  • If you have any chronic health conditions or you are a pregnant woman , then you should consult your doctor before getting the hepatitis vaccine. (
  • Doctor's advice is must for everyone who is taking hepatitis A vaccine. (
  • Till now there is no cure discovered for chronic hepatitis C nor there is any approved vaccine for this virus. (
  • The hepatitis B vaccine and sometimes hepatitis B immune globulin are given to newborns to protect them against the infection. (
  • In spite of a vaccine available in 1982, the hepatitis B virus (HBV) remains a serious global public health problem. (
  • An unimpressive 75.8% of the sample received the three doses of the hepatitis B vaccine, and a meager 27.0% was tested for hepatitis B surface antibodies (anti-HBs). (
  • Hepatitis A infection is a vaccine-preventable illness. (
  • However, both CDC and vaccine manufacturers continue to closely monitor ongoing demand for adult hepatitis A vaccine in the United States. (
  • Persons who have already completed the hepatitis A vaccine series are not at risk of developing hepatitis A virus infection from this potential exposure. (
  • The Hepatitis A vaccine or immune globulin is only effective within two weeks of exposure to the virus. (
  • Patrons who ate in Casa-di-Pizza restaurant or banquet room on the specified dates (and have not been previously vaccinated against hepatitis A) should receive the hepatitis A vaccine or immune globulin as soon as possible. (
  • The virus already is responsible for about a quarter of annual US cases of liver cirrhosis and primary liver cancer, and it is the leading cause of liver transplants. (
  • According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), an estimated 68% of people with chronic hepatitis B are unaware of their infection, 3 and many remain asymptomatic until onset of cirrhosis or end-stage liver disease. (
  • Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection carries high risk for progression to chronic status and liver complications, such as cirrhosis and cancer. (
  • The polymorphisms of the promoter region of IL-10 and IL-18 genes are closely associated with susceptibility to chronic active hepatitis B and development of hepatic cirrhosis. (
  • Using quantitative reverse transcription-PCR ELISA assays, we studied hepatic mRNA expression of MMP-1, -2, -3, -7, -9, -10, -11, -13 and -14 in patients with chronic hepatitis C and hepatitis C virus-induced end-stage liver cirrhosis and controls. (
  • [ 11 ] Over the past decade, deaths from HCC on top of post-hepatitis cirrhosis increased by 21.1%, while the number of HCC deaths unrelated to alcohol or HCV remained consistent. (
  • [ 12 ] Post-hepatitis C cirrhosis is responsible for 10-20% of virus-associated HCC, [ 13 ] while the rate of HCC in non-cirrhotic HCV-infected patients is 1% to 3% over 30 years. (
  • Adults with chronic liver disease, including but not limited to hepatitis C virus infection, cirrhosis, fatty liver disease, alcoholic liver disease, autoimmune hepatitis, and an alanine aminotransferase (ALT) or aspartate aminotransferase (AST) level greater than twice the upper limit of normal. (
  • Of the people who have chronic hepatitis C, 10 to 20 percent eventually develop cirrhosis and one to five percent develop hepatocellular carcinoma. (
  • Advanced liver disease caused by hepatitis B virus (HBV) -- including hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and decompensated cirrhosis -- accounted for more than 40% of deaths of people with chronic hepatitis B in a large health maintenance organization, researchers reported in the December 12, 2012, advance online edition of Hepatology . (
  • Antiviral drugs including entecavir (Baraclude), lamivudine (Epivir-HBV), telbivudine (Tyzeka), and tenofovir (Viread) are generally well-tolerated and effective against hepatitis B virus (HBV) in people with liver cirrhosis, and may lower mortality even among patients with severe decompensated cirrhosis, according to 2 recently published studies. (
  • A related study presented at the Digestive Disease Week conference (DDW 2010) last week in New Orleans found that more than half of people with compensated cirrhosis (mostly due to hepatitis C) showed signs of neurocognitive impairment, indicating that mild hepatic encephalopathy is common even among individuals without severe liver disease. (
  • Morpho-biometric aspects of liver cirrhosis and prevalence of portal hypertension in chronic carriers of the hepatitis B virus in Bogodogo (Burkina Faso). (
  • Hepatitis B virus (HBV) chronically infects 300 million people worldwide, and increases their risk to develop hepatocellular carcinoma by a hundred fold [ 3 ]. (
  • We review the commonly dysregulated miRNAs in liver tumor tissues and plasma/serum of hepatitis B virus (HBV)-related hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) patients. (
  • The occurrence of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is one of the most serious complications of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection. (
  • IMSEAR at SEARO: Hepatitis C virus and hemodialysis. (
  • IMSEAR at SEARO: Hepatitis C virus is transmitted from mother-to-child. (
  • The genotypes of French hepatitis C virus (HCV) isolates were investigated by amplification of a domain from the non-structural region 3 (NS3) using nested PCR, followed by hybridization with two genotype- specific probes, FI (HCV type I-specific) and F2 (HCV type II-specific). (
  • Researchers in Germany report that viral genotype and load, as well as liver enzyme levels, are predictors for treatment outcomes in chronic hepatitis C. Their multicentre, retrospective investigation examined the data for 260 patients in Europe who were treated with pegylated interferon alfa, or with standard interferon. (
  • The hepatitis C virus (HCV), which currently infects an estimated 3% of people worldwide, has been present in some human populations for several centuries, notably HCV genotypes 1 and 2 in West Africa and genotype 6 in Southeast Asia . (
  • Simply defined, genotype is a classification given to a virus based on genetic material found inside its strands. (
  • Hepatitis E Virus refl ects the total adult population with respect to age, Seroprevalence sex, and geographic region, but persons with migration background are underrepresented (non-German citizenship among Adults, 4.6% in the sample vs. 8.7% in the total adult population). (
  • HCV seroprevalence was not significantly different regardless of whether or not participants sought care for reasons associated with hepatitis. (
  • Incidence and seroprevalence of hepatitis E virus infection in pregnant women infected with hepatitis B virus and antibody placental transfer in infants. (
  • 2 (6) : 398-403 Prevalence of hepatitis C virus infection in potentially malignant disorders and oral squamous cell carcinoma-an immunohistochemical study. (
  • The development of anti-HBe antibody in hepatitis B patients usually correlates with reduction of HBV viremia. (
  • Do not repeat Hepatitis C virus antibody testing in patients with a previous positive Hepatitis C virus (HCV) test. (
  • A common reason for unnecessary repeat testing is the inclusion of this test in order sets (eg, hepatitis and/or opioid screening order sets), or a result of problematic follow-up of HCV positive patients in an outpatient setting. (
  • The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) has received an increased number of reports of newly acquired hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection among patients undergoing hemodialysis. (
  • During 2017-2019, a total of 88/753 (11.7%) of patients 5-90 years of age in hospitals in Saravan Province, Laos, were seropositive for hepatitis C virus antibodies. (
  • Can we consider the right hepatic lobe size/albumin ratio a noninvasive predictor of oesophageal varices in hepatitis C virus-related liver cirrhotic Egyptian patients? (
  • 103 patients carriers of hepatitis C virus antibodies detected by the Cuban diagnostic system (Anti HCV, CIGB, Havana) were studied. (
  • Chronic hemodialysis patients are at higher risk for acquiring hepatitis C virus (HCV). (
  • Patients with ALT elevations were monitored for possible acute hepatitis C. (
  • In chronic renal patients, hepatitis C virus infection is often difficult to evaluate. (
  • Prediction of treatment outcome in patients with chronic hepatitis C: significance of baseline parameters and viral dynamics during therapy," was published in Hepatology (2003;37(3):600-609). (
  • METHODS: The study included 100 patients of FH and 125 of AVH on the basis of clinical examination, liver function test and serology for hepatitis A, B, C and E virus. (
  • RESULTS: Of the 100 patients with FH, 30 were negative for hepatitis viruses A, B, C and E by serology (non A-non E) while 60 were negative in the AVH group. (
  • Although hepatitis B virus (HBV) reactivation was seen in patients with RA treated with DMARDs, including BARI, who had serology suggestive of prior infection, reactivation was transient even with continued BARI treatment and did not account for any clinically relevant AEs.Reactivation of HBV replication is a recognised complication in patients receiving biologic agents for RA, such as DMARDs. (
  • The aim of this study was to assess HBV reactivation in clinical trials of BARI.In pooled analysis of four Phase 3 and one LTE study, with all patients receiving at least one dose of BARI, a total of 269 of 2890 patients had baseline serology suggestive of prior hepatitis B infection. (
  • When 290 patients underwent HBV DNA testing post-baseline (215 hepatitis B core antibody (HBcAb)+ and 75 HBcAb- at baseline), 36 (12%) had detectable HBV DNA at some point following treatment. (
  • There was no clinical evidence of hepatitis and all had AST and ALT levels within normal limits, suggesting that patients with prior HBV infection without clinical indications of active infection can be treated with DMARDs, including BARI, while monitoring for potential reactivation.Additional data will be needed to fully characterize the potential risk for reactivation of HBV in the context of JAK inhibitors administered in an RA population. (
  • and the HIV-HBV Cohort Study of the Hepatitis B Research Network 2019, ' Spectrum of Liver Disease in Hepatitis B Virus (HBV) Patients Co-infected with Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV): Results of the HBV-HIV Cohort Study ', American Journal of Gastroenterology , vol. 114, no. 5, pp. 746-757. (
  • In addition to today's regulatory milestones, an application to approve the new dispersible tablet of the fixed dose combination of abacavir, dolutegravir and lamivudine for the treatment of paediatric patients with human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) and to extend the current approved Marketing Authorisation of Triumeq tablets to include a paediatric indication for children is currently under review by the European Medicines Agency (EMA). (
  • Currently, transplant patients must be tested for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), hepatitis B virus (HBV), and hepatitis C virus (HCV) while in the hospital for their transplant surgery. (
  • The Liver Center provides patients outstanding patient care through its Hepatitis Clinic and Transplant Program," said Kuo, a lead researcher in the HCV clinical trials. (
  • Treatment with tenofovir (Viread) lowers HBV viral load, reduces liver injury, and decreases the risk of death in patients with acute-on-chronic liver failure due to hepatitis B reactivation. (
  • In a head-to-head comparison, entecavir (Baraclude) demonstrated superior virological efficacy compared to adefovir (Hepsera) in hepatitis B patients with decompensated liver disease. (
  • More than 300 million people worldwide are chronically infected with hepatitis B virus (HBV). (
  • July 28 is World Hepatitis Day, drawing attention to the 240 million people chronically infected with the hepatitis B virus and 150 million people with the hepatitis C virus. (
  • Only for short-term, IG can be used and it helps in boosting your immune system to keep you away from getting sick and with hepatitis A after exposure. (
  • They show no symptoms, or in a few cases mild symptoms, and usually their immune system has eliminated the virus after a few weeks. (
  • The immune system had eliminated the virus in one case after only one week and in the other two cases after eight weeks," says Stephanie Pfänder. (
  • This type of knowledge could help support research about how the virus spreads within communities and immune responses to vaccines. (
  • The FSA has commissioned Campden BRI, in collaboration with Glasgow University, to undertake a study which will assess the best way to detect hepatitis E virus (HEV) in pork meat and pork products. (
  • Hepatitis viruses are from A to G and some other viruses include cytomegalovirus, Epstein - Barr virus, yellow fever, etc. (
  • The patient had no history of prior liver disease or drug intake, and major causes of acute hepatitis, including hepatitis A, B, C, cytomegalovirus, Epstein-Barr, herpes simplex and varicella zoster viruses were ruled out using serological and/or molecular testing. (
  • The discovery of infectious hepatitis E virus in retail pork products may help explain the purported association between liver failure and pork consumption. (
  • This was the first report demonstrating that commercial pig livers from grocery stores contain infectious hepatitis E virus. (
  • To prevent hepatitis E infection, members of the public should maintain good personal, food and environmental hygiene. (
  • This document provides the rationale for a comprehensive strategy to eliminate transmission of hepatitis B virus in the United States. (
  • to check the knowledge presented by the nursing staff on the mode of transmission of hepatitis B virus (HBV) and the resulting damage to human health and to identify the knowledge of the nursing staff on prevention measures used to avoid occupational infection by this virus and, further, to investigate the immunization situation of the nursing staff against HBV. (
  • Multiple genotypes of influenza B virus circulated between 1979 and 2003. (
  • Generally, those who develop hepatitis C virus (HCV) are only infected with one of the six distinct genotypes of the virus. (
  • One recent study published in the journal Hepatology checked the prevalence of hep C genotypes worldwide. (
  • One of the biggest problems in developing new approaches against HCV is the extremely narrow host range of the virus: it infects only humans and chimpanzees. (
  • Hepatitis C virus infects millions around the world, causing a chronic and lethal disease. (
  • The main variable influencing the risk for HCC in hepatitis B virus (HBV)-HCV coinfection is the HBV replication status. (
  • Antibodies to hepatitis C can most often be detected 4 to 10 weeks after you get the infection. (
  • Aspects morphométriques du foie de cirrhose et prévalence de l'hypertension portale chez les porteurs chroniques du virus de l'hépatique B à Bogodogo (Burkina Faso). (
  • In another ACIP meeting, the group unanimously voted to recommend universal hepatitis B virus (HBV) immunization in all adults aged 59 or younger. (
  • Immunization programs should continue to focus on adults, and interventions should be taken to reduce risk factors associated with being infected with Hepatitis B. (
  • 1992 was also the year that the Ministry of Health recommended a nationwide hepatitis B routine immunization [ 5 ]. (
  • The county is activating these response clinics to ensure any dining room patron who may have been exposed to hepatitis A can speak to qualified health care professionals about their chance of being infected and receive an immunization shot if necessary. (
  • These results could facilitate the development of vaccines for hepatitis C," says Eike Steinmann. (
  • Other vaccines that use the same model as Novavax include diphtheria toxoid vaccines, tetanus toxoid vaccines, the hepatitis B virus, and others. (
  • When someone is first infected with the hepatitis C virus, they can have a very mild illness with few or no symptoms or a serious condition requiring hospitalization. (
  • Many people with hepatitis C do not have symptoms and do not know they are infected. (
  • People with chronic hepatitis C can live for years without symptoms or feeling sick. (
  • When symptoms appear with chronic hepatitis C, they often are a sign of advanced liver disease. (
  • People can live with hepatitis C without symptoms or feeling sick. (
  • You have symptoms of hepatitis. (
  • Most newborns who have hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection have no symptoms at birth but continue to carry the infection in their bodies. (
  • About 30 million Chinese have developed acute Hepatitis B, which is accompanied by severe medical symptoms and may easily lead to death. (
  • A case of acute hepatitis B is defined as a person having clinically compatible acute hepatitis illness with laboratory confirmation of hepatitis B core antibody immunoglobulin M positive result. (
  • Hepatitis C is a liver disease caused by the hepatitis C virus. (
  • It is a major cause of severe acute and chronic hepatitis B. The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence and risk factors of HDV in blood donors. (
  • Context Hepatitis E virus (HEV) infection causes severe liver disease in pregnant women. (
  • Active chronic hepatitis (23.2 %) was the predominant histological lesion, although there were 2 cases with acute severe hepatitis due to a combined infection with A and B viruses. (
  • Left untreated, chronic hepatitis C can cause serious health problems including liver disease, liver failure, liver cancer, and even death. (
  • Note: Hepatitis D only causes disease in people who also have hepatitis B. It is not routinely checked on a hepatitis antibody panel. (
  • This document provides the rationale for a comprehensive strategy to eliminate transmission of HBV and ultimately reduce the incidence of hepatitis B and hepatitis B-associated chronic liver disease in the United States. (
  • It is now known that hepatitis E is a zoonotic disease-an animal-to-human disease-and pigs are the reservoirs of the hepatitis E virus. (
  • Around the world, approximately 257 million people are infected with hepatitis B virus (HBV), and about 700,000 die every year as result of the long-term, chronic health threats from HBV, including liver disease and cancer. (
  • Hepatitis A virus (HAV) and Norovirus (NoV) are an important cause of food borne disease. (
  • Hepatitis C is a commonly reported disease predominantly affecting persons born during 1945-1965, with deaths more frequent among persons of relatively young age. (
  • Hepatitis is a liver disease which occurs due to the presence of inflammatory cells in your liver tissue. (
  • The main reason for this disease is group of hepatitis viruses which cause liver damage. (
  • This is propagated only in the presence of the hepatitis B virus and it increases the severity of the disease. (
  • Liver Blood Tests Liver tests are blood tests that represent a noninvasive way to screen for the presence of liver disease (for example, hepatitis in donated blood) and to measure the severity and progress of. (
  • Although scientific research has demonstrated that the Hepatitis B virus, the virus that causes the liver disease Hepatitis B, can only be transmitted through the exchange of bodily fluids or from mother to child, there has been widespread belief in China that the virus can be spread through casual contact during dining or co-habitation. (
  • Hepatic mRNA expression data identified differentially regulated groups of MMPs during the course of chronic hepatitis C, showing either steadily increasing mRNA expression with disease progression (MMP-1, -2, -7 and -14) or transiently elevated expression (MMP-9, -11 and -13). (
  • Hepatitis B is a viral infection that attacks the liver and can cause both acute and chronic disease. (
  • Enanta's research and development efforts have produced clinical candidates for the following disease targets: respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), hepatitis B virus (HBV), non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), and SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19). (
  • The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) and state health departments are investigating hepatitis A outbreaks in multiple states among persons reporting drug use and/or homelessness and their contacts. (
  • Infectious hepatitis includes disease caused by viruses such as A, B, C, and other possible agents of non-A, non-B hepatitis. (
  • Hepatitis A is a contagious liver disease that results from exposure to the Hepatitis A virus. (
  • Hepatitis C is a viral disease that leads to swelling (inflammation) of the liver. (
  • Formerly called serum hepatitis, it is caused by the hepatitis B virus (HBV). (
  • Hepatitis B core antibody shows that you have been infected with hepatitis B. It does not tell the difference between a past or present infection. (
  • The prevalence of past or present infection with hepatitis B virus among adults aged ≥18 years declined from 5.7% in 1999-2002 to 4.3% in 2015-2018. (
  • In order to eradicate hepatitis C virus (HCV) from a patient's body, the right combinations of direct-acting antivirals (DAAs) must be chosen, a recent study found. (
  • The hepatitis virus panel is a series of blood tests used to detect current or past infection by hepatitis A , hepatitis B , or hepatitis C . It can screen blood samples for more than one kind of hepatitis virus at the same time. (
  • Major risk factors for HCC are chronic infection by hepatitis B virus (HBV) or hepatitis C virus (HCV) ( 3 ). (
  • The aim of this study was analyze the follow up of newly acquired acute hepatitis C cases, during the period from January 2002 to May 2005, in the Hemodialysis Center, located in the Southwest region of Parana State, Brazil and to analyze the effectiveness of the measures to restrain the appearance of new cases of acute hepatitis C. (
  • Hepatitis C virus (HCV) prevalence differs among hemodialysis units according to their geographical location, health care procedures, socioeconomic factors, reuse of lines, hygiene and sterilization of equipment, patient rotation of machines and the undertaking of rigorous universal precaution rules. (
  • Mehta K, Hakim A. Hepatitis C virus and hemodialysis. (
  • Considering the very short generation time for a virus, and the high error rate associated with the reverse transcription step of HBV replication, decades of HBV infection are probably equivalent to million years of human evolution. (
  • The resulting high error rate during replication induces an elevated incidence of mutations in the virus and facilitates the development of viral resistance to treatment regimens. (
  • Hepatitis D virus (HDV) is a defective virus that requires the presence of hepatitis B virus (HBV) for replication. (
  • In addition, EDP-514, our potent core inhibitor inhibits several stages of HBV replication, from uncoating and nuclear import of the virus, to capsid assembly and recycling. (
  • Two essential steps in the HIV life cycle are replication - when the virus turns its RNA copy into DNA - and integration - the moment when viral DNA becomes part of the host cell's DNA. (
  • Resveratrol is a natural polyphenol stilbenoid found in plants that has been shown to inhibit or enhance replication of a number of viruses, but the effect of resveratrol on poxvirus replication is unknown. (
  • In the present study, we found that resveratrol dramatically suppressed the replication of vaccinia virus (VACV), the prototypic member of poxviruses, in various cell types. (
  • Resveratrol also significantly reduced the replication of monkeypox virus, a zoonotic virus that is endemic in Western and Central Africa and causes human mortality. (
  • number of viruses, but the effect of resveratrol on poxvirus replication is unknown. (
  • Hepatitis means inflammation of the liver. (
  • Hepatitis B virus infection causes inflammation of the liver. (
  • Hepatitis B, Acute Acute hepatitis B is inflammation of the liver that is caused by the hepatitis B virus and that lasts from a few weeks up to 6 months. (
  • Overview of Chronic Hepatitis Chronic hepatitis is inflammation of the liver that lasts at least 6 months. (
  • Hepatitis, an inflammation of the liver, can be caused by various viruses such as hepatitis A, B, C, D and E. Some of these are transmitted through food, while others are transmitted exclusively through blood and contaminated blood products [1]. (
  • Hepatitis B is irritation and swelling (inflammation) of the liver due to infection with the hepatitis B virus (HBV). (
  • International travelers to regions with high or intermediate levels of endemic hepatitis B virus infection. (
  • Some connective tissue diseases such as lupus erythematosus are associated with a specific type of hepatitis. (
  • To recognize this worldwide awareness day, BPS asked member Ian Thorpe, Assistant Professor of Chemistry and Biochemistry at the University of Maryland Baltimore County, to answer a few questions about his research on hepatitis C. (
  • The acute and chronic consequences of hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection are major health problems in the United States. (
  • Less common causes are environmental exposures, resulting in either acute or chronic toxic hepatitis. (
  • Chronic infection with hepatitis C virus (HCV) can cause significant morbidity to individuals due to inflammatory damage to the liver. (
  • An estimated 862,000 persons in the US are living with chronic infection with hepatitis B virus (HBV). (
  • Because those who clear the virus remain HCV antibody positive, testing for viral RNA is essential for diagnosis of chronic infection ( 1 ). (
  • Hepatitis B Virus-Associated Polyarteritis Nodosa: Clinical. (
  • To determine the clinical phenotype and outcome in hepatitis E virus-associated neuralgic amyotrophy (HEV-NA). (
  • 4 An HAV-infected person can be viremic up to six weeks through their clinical course and excrete virus in stool for up to two weeks prior to becoming symptomatic, making identifying exposures particularly difficult. (
  • Due to the urgency in choosing either clinical treatment or immediate surgical intervention, the study of the prolonged neonatal cholestasis involves two basic aims: the differential diagnosis between biliary atresia and neonatal hepatitis and the research into the associated etiological agents. (
  • A collaborative partnership between the UC San Diego Liver Center and Antiviral Research Center (AVRC) has resulted in 19 clinical trials for hepatitis C virus (HCV), focused on developing more effective and well-tolerated HCV treatments. (
  • There is a need to address the lack of standardised methods for detection across industry, so researchers aim to optimise elements of existing HEV extraction and detection methods which could be easily integrated into food laboratories capable of performing virus related work. (
  • The current methods of HEV extraction will be compared and then virus recovery optimised, with a high level of consistency. (
  • Molecular methods of measurement of hepatitis B virus, hepatitis C virus, and human immunodeficiency virus infection: implications for occupational health practice. (
  • Such work thus revealed that those eight most important factors when differentiating biliary atresia from neonatal hepatitis remain as fundamental indicators and, when employed alongside other diagnostic methods, can help in the assembling of a multifactorial strategy less and less invasive and more precise. (