Vaccines or candidate vaccines containing inactivated hepatitis B or some of its component antigens and designed to prevent hepatitis B. Some vaccines may be recombinantly produced.
INFLAMMATION of the LIVER in humans caused by a member of the ORTHOHEPADNAVIRUS genus, HEPATITIS B VIRUS. It is primarily transmitted by parenteral exposure, such as transfusion of contaminated blood or blood products, but can also be transmitted via sexual or intimate personal contact.
Antibodies to the HEPATITIS B ANTIGENS, including antibodies to the surface (Australia) and core of the Dane particle and those to the "e" antigens.
The type species of the genus ORTHOHEPADNAVIRUS which causes human HEPATITIS B and is also apparently a causal agent in human HEPATOCELLULAR CARCINOMA. The Dane particle is an intact hepatitis virion, named after its discoverer. Non-infectious spherical and tubular particles are also seen in the serum.
Those hepatitis B antigens found on the surface of the Dane particle and on the 20 nm spherical and tubular particles. Several subspecificities of the surface antigen are known. These were formerly called the Australia antigen.
Any vaccine raised against any virus or viral derivative that causes hepatitis.
INFLAMMATION of the LIVER in humans caused by HEPATITIS B VIRUS lasting six months or more. It is primarily transmitted by parenteral exposure, such as transfusion of contaminated blood or blood products, but can also be transmitted via sexual or intimate personal contact.
The hepatitis B antigen within the core of the Dane particle, the infectious hepatitis virion.
Schedule giving optimum times usually for primary and/or secondary immunization.
Two or more vaccines in a single dosage form.
Small synthetic peptides that mimic surface antigens of pathogens and are immunogenic, or vaccines manufactured with the aid of recombinant DNA techniques. The latter vaccines may also be whole viruses whose nucleic acids have been modified.
Administration of vaccines to stimulate the host's immune response. This includes any preparation intended for active immunological prophylaxis.
Suspensions of killed or attenuated microorganisms (bacteria, viruses, fungi, protozoa), antigenic proteins, synthetic constructs, or other bio-molecular derivatives, administered for the prevention, amelioration, or treatment of infectious and other diseases.
A closely related group of antigens found in the plasma only during the infective phase of hepatitis B or in virulent chronic hepatitis B, probably indicating active virus replication; there are three subtypes which may exist in a complex with immunoglobulins G.
Antigens of the virion of the HEPATITIS B VIRUS or the Dane particle, its surface (HEPATITIS B SURFACE ANTIGENS), core (HEPATITIS B CORE ANTIGENS), and other associated antigens, including the HEPATITIS B E ANTIGENS.
INFLAMMATION of the LIVER in humans caused by HEPATITIS C VIRUS, a single-stranded RNA virus. Its incubation period is 30-90 days. Hepatitis C is transmitted primarily by contaminated blood parenterally, and is often associated with transfusion and intravenous drug abuse. However, in a significant number of cases, the source of hepatitis C infection is unknown.
INFLAMMATION of the LIVER in humans caused by a member of the HEPATOVIRUS genus, HUMAN HEPATITIS A VIRUS. It can be transmitted through fecal contamination of food or water.
Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent infection with hepatitis A virus (HEPATOVIRUS).
Any immunization following a primary immunization and involving exposure to the same or a closely related antigen.
Organized services to administer immunization procedures in the prevention of various diseases. The programs are made available over a wide range of sites: schools, hospitals, public health agencies, voluntary health agencies, etc. They are administered to an equally wide range of population groups or on various administrative levels: community, municipal, state, national, international.
Vaccines or candidate vaccines containing antigenic polysaccharides from Haemophilus influenzae and designed to prevent infection. The vaccine can contain the polysaccharides alone or more frequently polysaccharides conjugated to carrier molecules. It is also seen as a combined vaccine with diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis vaccine.
A vaccine consisting of DIPHTHERIA TOXOID; TETANUS TOXOID; and whole-cell PERTUSSIS VACCINE. The vaccine protects against diphtheria, tetanus, and whooping cough.
A suspension of formalin-inactivated poliovirus grown in monkey kidney cell tissue culture and used to prevent POLIOMYELITIS.
Suspensions of attenuated or killed viruses administered for the prevention or treatment of infectious viral disease.
Vaccines in which the infectious microbial nucleic acid components have been destroyed by chemical or physical treatment (e.g., formalin, beta-propiolactone, gamma radiation) without affecting the antigenicity or immunogenicity of the viral coat or bacterial outer membrane proteins.
Antibodies to the HEPATITIS A ANTIGENS including antibodies to envelope, core, and non-structural proteins.
Semisynthetic vaccines consisting of polysaccharide antigens from microorganisms attached to protein carrier molecules. The carrier protein is recognized by macrophages and T-cells thus enhancing immunity. Conjugate vaccines induce antibody formation in people not responsive to polysaccharide alone, induce higher levels of antibody, and show a booster response on repeated injection.
INFLAMMATION of the LIVER.
Suspensions of attenuated or killed bacteria administered for the prevention or treatment of infectious bacterial disease.
An ethylmercury-sulfidobenzoate that has been used as a preservative in VACCINES; ANTIVENINS; and OINTMENTS. It was formerly used as a topical antiseptic. It degrades to ethylmercury and thiosalicylate.
INFLAMMATION of the LIVER in humans due to infection by VIRUSES. There are several significant types of human viral hepatitis with infection caused by enteric-transmission (HEPATITIS A; HEPATITIS E) or blood transfusion (HEPATITIS B; HEPATITIS C; and HEPATITIS D).
Recombinant DNA vectors encoding antigens administered for the prevention or treatment of disease. The host cells take up the DNA, express the antigen, and present it to the immune system in a manner similar to that which would occur during natural infection. This induces humoral and cellular immune responses against the encoded antigens. The vector is called naked DNA because there is no need for complex formulations or delivery agents; the plasmid is injected in saline or other buffers.
INFLAMMATION of the LIVER in humans that is caused by HEPATITIS C VIRUS lasting six months or more. Chronic hepatitis C can lead to LIVER CIRRHOSIS.
Forceful administration into a muscle of liquid medication, nutrient, or other fluid through a hollow needle piercing the muscle and any tissue covering it.
The condition of harboring an infective organism without manifesting symptoms of infection. The organism must be readily transmissible to another susceptible host.
A species in the genus HEPATOVIRUS containing one serotype and two strains: HUMAN HEPATITIS A VIRUS and Simian hepatitis A virus causing hepatitis in humans (HEPATITIS A) and primates, respectively.
A DNA virus that closely resembles human hepatitis B virus. It has been recovered from naturally infected ducks.
Substances added to pharmaceutical preparations to protect them from chemical change or microbial action. They include ANTI-BACTERIAL AGENTS and antioxidants.
An infant during the first month after birth.
INFLAMMATION of the LIVER with ongoing hepatocellular injury for 6 months or more, characterized by NECROSIS of HEPATOCYTES and inflammatory cell (LEUKOCYTES) infiltration. Chronic hepatitis can be caused by viruses, medications, autoimmune diseases, and other unknown factors.
Educational institutions for individuals specializing in the field of nursing.
The formaldehyde-inactivated toxin of Corynebacterium diphtheriae. It is generally used in mixtures with TETANUS TOXOID and PERTUSSIS VACCINE; (DTP); or with tetanus toxoid alone (DT for pediatric use and Td, which contains 5- to 10-fold less diphtheria toxoid, for other use). Diphtheria toxoid is used for the prevention of diphtheria; DIPHTHERIA ANTITOXIN is for treatment.
Vaccines used to prevent infection by MUMPS VIRUS. Best known is the live attenuated virus vaccine of chick embryo origin, used for routine immunization of children and for immunization of adolescents and adults who have not had mumps or been immunized with live mumps vaccine. Children are usually immunized with measles-mumps-rubella combination vaccine.
The forcing into the skin of liquid medication, nutrient, or other fluid through a hollow needle, piercing the top skin layer.
Immunoglobulins raised by any form of viral hepatitis; some of these antibodies are used to diagnose the specific kind of hepatitis.
Agents used in the prophylaxis or therapy of VIRUS DISEASES. Some of the ways they may act include preventing viral replication by inhibiting viral DNA polymerase; binding to specific cell-surface receptors and inhibiting viral penetration or uncoating; inhibiting viral protein synthesis; or blocking late stages of virus assembly.
Vaccines or candidate vaccines containing inactivated HIV or some of its component antigens and designed to prevent or treat AIDS. Some vaccines containing antigens are recombinantly produced.
A combined vaccine used to prevent MEASLES; MUMPS; and RUBELLA.
Immunoglobulins produced in response to VIRAL ANTIGENS.
A type of H. influenzae isolated most frequently from biotype I. Prior to vaccine availability, it was a leading cause of childhood meningitis.
A genus of FLAVIVIRIDAE causing parenterally-transmitted HEPATITIS C which is associated with transfusions and drug abuse. Hepatitis C virus is the type species.
Tetanus toxoid is a purified and chemically inactivated form of the tetanus toxin, used as a vaccine to induce active immunity against tetanus disease by stimulating the production of antibodies.
Substances that augment, stimulate, activate, potentiate, or modulate the immune response at either the cellular or humoral level. The classical agents (Freund's adjuvant, BCG, Corynebacterium parvum, et al.) contain bacterial antigens. Some are endogenous (e.g., histamine, interferon, transfer factor, tuftsin, interleukin-1). Their mode of action is either non-specific, resulting in increased immune responsiveness to a wide variety of antigens, or antigen-specific, i.e., affecting a restricted type of immune response to a narrow group of antigens. The therapeutic efficacy of many biological response modifiers is related to their antigen-specific immunoadjuvanticity.
Antibodies to the HEPATITIS C ANTIGENS including antibodies to envelope, core, and non-structural proteins.
A compound with many biomedical applications: as a gastric antacid, an antiperspirant, in dentifrices, as an emulsifier, as an adjuvant in bacterins and vaccines, in water purification, etc.
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.
The individuals employed by the hospital.
The process of keeping pharmaceutical products in an appropriate location.
Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent infection with NEISSERIA MENINGITIDIS.
Deliberate stimulation of the host's immune response. ACTIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of ANTIGENS or IMMUNOLOGIC ADJUVANTS. PASSIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of IMMUNE SERA or LYMPHOCYTES or their extracts (e.g., transfer factor, immune RNA) or transplantation of immunocompetent cell producing tissue (thymus or bone marrow).
Vaccines consisting of one or more antigens that stimulate a strong immune response. They are purified from microorganisms or produced by recombinant DNA techniques, or they can be chemically synthesized peptides.
INFLAMMATION of the LIVER in animals due to viral infection.
INFLAMMATION of the LIVER in humans caused by HEPATITIS DELTA VIRUS, a defective RNA virus that can only infect HEPATITIS B patients. For its viral coating, hepatitis delta virus requires the HEPATITIS B SURFACE ANTIGENS produced by these patients. Hepatitis D can occur either concomitantly with (coinfection) or subsequent to (superinfection) hepatitis B infection. Similar to hepatitis B, it is primarily transmitted by parenteral exposure, such as transfusion of contaminated blood or blood products, but can also be transmitted via sexual or intimate personal contact.
The transmission of infectious disease or pathogens from one generation to another. It includes transmission in utero or intrapartum by exposure to blood and secretions, and postpartum exposure via breastfeeding.
Any of the viruses that cause inflammation of the liver. They include both DNA and RNA viruses as well viruses from humans and animals.
Aluminum metal sulfate compounds used medically as astringents and for many industrial purposes. They are used in veterinary medicine for the treatment of ulcerative stomatitis, leukorrhea, conjunctivitis, pharyngitis, metritis, and minor wounds.
The production of ANTIBODIES by proliferating and differentiated B-LYMPHOCYTES under stimulation by ANTIGENS.
A reverse transcriptase inhibitor and ZALCITABINE analog in which a sulfur atom replaces the 3' carbon of the pentose ring. It is used to treat HIV disease.
Acute INFLAMMATION of the LIVER in humans; caused by HEPATITIS E VIRUS, a non-enveloped single-stranded RNA virus. Similar to HEPATITIS A, its incubation period is 15-60 days and is enterically transmitted, usually by fecal-oral transmission.
A defective virus, containing particles of RNA nucleoprotein in virion-like form, present in patients with acute hepatitis B and chronic hepatitis. It requires the presence of a hepadnavirus for full replication. This is the lone species in the genus Deltavirus.
A positive-stranded RNA virus species in the genus HEPEVIRUS, causing enterically-transmitted non-A, non-B hepatitis (HEPATITIS E).
EPIDEMIOLOGIC STUDIES based on the detection through serological testing of characteristic change in the serum level of specific ANTIBODIES. Latent subclinical infections and carrier states can thus be detected in addition to clinically overt cases.
A strain of HEPATITIS A VIRUS which causes hepatitis in humans. The virus replicates in hepatocytes and is presumed to reach the intestine via the bile duct. Transmission occurs by the fecal-oral route.
A chronic self-perpetuating hepatocellular INFLAMMATION of unknown cause, usually with HYPERGAMMAGLOBULINEMIA and serum AUTOANTIBODIES.
A primary malignant neoplasm of epithelial liver cells. It ranges from a well-differentiated tumor with EPITHELIAL CELLS indistinguishable from normal HEPATOCYTES to a poorly differentiated neoplasm. The cells may be uniform or markedly pleomorphic, or form GIANT CELLS. Several classification schemes have been suggested.
Vaccines made from antigens arising from any of the four strains of Plasmodium which cause malaria in humans, or from P. berghei which causes malaria in rodents.
(To the best of my knowledge,) 'Alaska' is not a medical term or concept, it is rather a geographical location, being the largest and northernmost state in the United States.
Immunoglobulins produced in a response to BACTERIAL ANTIGENS.
The co-occurrence of pregnancy and an INFECTION. The infection may precede or follow FERTILIZATION.
Penetrating stab wounds caused by needles. They are of special concern to health care workers since such injuries put them at risk for developing infectious disease.
Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent PAPILLOMAVIRUS INFECTIONS. Human vaccines are intended to reduce the incidence of UTERINE CERVICAL NEOPLASMS, so they are sometimes considered a type of CANCER VACCINES. They are often composed of CAPSID PROTEINS, especially L1 protein, from various types of ALPHAPAPILLOMAVIRUS.
Tumors or cancer of the LIVER.
Liver disease in which the normal microcirculation, the gross vascular anatomy, and the hepatic architecture have been variably destroyed and altered with fibrous septa surrounding regenerated or regenerating parenchymal nodules.
INFLAMMATION of the LIVER in non-human animals.
The major immunoglobulin isotype class in normal human serum. There are several isotype subclasses of IgG, for example, IgG1, IgG2A, and IgG2B.
A live attenuated virus vaccine of chick embryo origin, used for routine immunization of children and for immunization of adolescents and adults who have not had measles or been immunized with live measles vaccine and have no serum antibodies against measles. Children are usually immunized with measles-mumps-rubella combination vaccine. (From Dorland, 28th ed)
An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of L-alanine and 2-oxoglutarate to pyruvate and L-glutamate. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 2.6.1.2.
Strains of Neisseria meningitidis which are the most common ones causing infections or disease in infants. Serogroup B strains are isolated most frequently in sporadic cases, and are less common in outbreaks and epidemics.
Vaccines used to prevent TYPHOID FEVER and/or PARATYPHOID FEVER which are caused by various species of SALMONELLA. Attenuated, subunit, and inactivated forms of the vaccines exist.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
Ribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.
I'm sorry for any confusion, but "India" is not a medical term that can be defined in a medical context. It is a geographical location, referring to the Republic of India, a country in South Asia. If you have any questions related to medical topics or definitions, I would be happy to help with those!
Men and women working in the provision of health services, whether as individual practitioners or employees of health institutions and programs, whether or not professionally trained, and whether or not subject to public regulation. (From A Discursive Dictionary of Health Care, 1976)
The term "United States" in a medical context often refers to the country where a patient or study participant resides, and is not a medical term per se, but relevant for epidemiological studies, healthcare policies, and understanding differences in disease prevalence, treatment patterns, and health outcomes across various geographic locations.
Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent infection with CYTOMEGALOVIRUS.
Formerly known as Siam, this is a Southeast Asian nation at the center of the Indochina peninsula. Bangkok is the capital city.
An ORTHOHEPADNAVIRUS causing chronic liver disease and hepatocellular carcinoma in woodchucks. It closely resembles the human hepatitis B virus.
The total number of cases of a given disease in a specified population at a designated time. It is differentiated from INCIDENCE, which refers to the number of new cases in the population at a given time.
The process of intracellular viral multiplication, consisting of the synthesis of PROTEINS; NUCLEIC ACIDS; and sometimes LIPIDS, and their assembly into a new infectious particle.
A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.
One of the type I interferons produced by peripheral blood leukocytes or lymphoblastoid cells. In addition to antiviral activity, it activates NATURAL KILLER CELLS and B-LYMPHOCYTES, and down-regulates VASCULAR ENDOTHELIAL GROWTH FACTOR expression through PI-3 KINASE and MAPK KINASES signaling pathways.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
A genus of PICORNAVIRIDAE causing infectious hepatitis naturally in humans and experimentally in other primates. It is transmitted through fecal contamination of food or water. HEPATITIS A VIRUS is the type species.
"Ducks" is not a recognized medical term or condition in human health; it may refer to various anatomical structures in animals, such as the ducks of the heart valves, but it does not have a standalone medical definition.
A specific immune response elicited by a specific dose of an immunologically active substance or cell in an organism, tissue, or cell.
A suspension of killed Bordetella pertussis organisms, used for immunization against pertussis (WHOOPING COUGH). It is generally used in a mixture with diphtheria and tetanus toxoids (DTP). There is an acellular pertussis vaccine prepared from the purified antigenic components of Bordetella pertussis, which causes fewer adverse reactions than whole-cell vaccine and, like the whole-cell vaccine, is generally used in a mixture with diphtheria and tetanus toxoids. (From Dorland, 28th ed)
The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.
Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.
Antigens of the virions of HEPACIVIRUS, their surface, core, or other associated antigens.
An active immunizing agent and a viable avirulent attenuated strain of Mycobacterium tuberculosis, var. bovis, which confers immunity to mycobacterial infections. It is used also in immunotherapy of neoplasms due to its stimulation of antibodies and non-specific immunity.
Combined vaccines consisting of DIPHTHERIA TOXOID; TETANUS TOXOID; and an acellular form of PERTUSSIS VACCINE. At least five different purified antigens of B. pertussis have been used in various combinations in these vaccines.
Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent and treat RABIES. The inactivated virus vaccine is used for preexposure immunization to persons at high risk of exposure, and in conjunction with rabies immunoglobulin, for postexposure prophylaxis.
A species of the CORONAVIRUS genus causing hepatitis in mice. Four strains have been identified as MHV 1, MHV 2, MHV 3, and MHV 4 (also known as MHV-JHM, which is neurotropic and causes disseminated encephalomyelitis with demyelination as well as focal liver necrosis).
Antigens from any of the hepatitis viruses including surface, core, and other associated antigens.
An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.
Carbon-containing phosphonic acid compounds. Included under this heading are compounds that have carbon bound to either OXYGEN atom or the PHOSPHOROUS atom of the (P=O)O2 structure.
Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent infection with ROTAVIRUS.
Antigens produced by various strains of HEPATITIS D VIRUS.
Studies in which subsets of a defined population are identified. These groups may or may not be exposed to factors hypothesized to influence the probability of the occurrence of a particular disease or other outcome. Cohorts are defined populations which, as a whole, are followed in an attempt to determine distinguishing subgroup characteristics.
Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent infection with VIBRIO CHOLERAE. The original cholera vaccine consisted of killed bacteria, but other kinds of vaccines now exist.
Transmembrane proteins that form the beta subunits of the HLA-DQ antigens.
The genetic constitution of the individual, comprising the ALLELES present at each GENETIC LOCUS.
Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.
Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.
Proteins found mainly in icosahedral DNA and RNA viruses. They consist of proteins directly associated with the nucleic acid inside the NUCLEOCAPSID.
Antigens produced by various strains of HEPATITIS A VIRUS such as the human hepatitis A virus (HEPATITIS A VIRUS, HUMAN).
The quantity of measurable virus in a body fluid. Change in viral load, measured in plasma, is sometimes used as a SURROGATE MARKER in disease progression.
A live VACCINIA VIRUS vaccine of calf lymph or chick embryo origin, used for immunization against smallpox. It is now recommended only for laboratory workers exposed to smallpox virus. Certain countries continue to vaccinate those in the military service. Complications that result from smallpox vaccination include vaccinia, secondary bacterial infections, and encephalomyelitis. (Dorland, 28th ed)
A live, attenuated varicella virus vaccine used for immunization against chickenpox. It is recommended for children between the ages of 12 months and 13 years.
A genus of Sciuridae consisting of 14 species. They are shortlegged, burrowing rodents which hibernate in winter.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
Inbred BALB/c mice are a strain of laboratory mice that have been selectively bred to be genetically identical to each other, making them useful for scientific research and experiments due to their consistent genetic background and predictable responses to various stimuli or treatments.
Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent or treat TUBERCULOSIS.
The complete genetic complement contained in a DNA or RNA molecule in a virus.
An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed.

A case-control study of risk factors for Haemophilus influenzae type B disease in Navajo children. (1/1003)

To understand the potential risk factors and protective factors for invasive Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) disease, we conducted a case-control study among Navajo children less than two years of age resident on the Navajo Nation. We analyzed household interview data for 60 cases that occurred between August 1988 and February 1991, and for 116 controls matched by age, gender, and geographic location. The Hib vaccine recipients were excluded from the analyses. Conditional logistic regression models were fit to examine many variables relating to social and environmental conditions. Risk factors determined to be important were never breast fed (odds ratio [OR] = 3.55, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.52, 8.26), shared care with more than one child less than two years of age (OR = 2.32, 95% CI = 0.91, 5.96); wood heating (OR = 2.14, 95% CI = 0.91, 5.05); rodents in the home (OR = 8.18, 95% CI = 0.83, 80.7); and any livestock near the home (OR = 2.18, 95% CI = 0.94, 5.04).  (+info)

Altered helper T lymphocyte function associated with chronic hepatitis B virus infection and its role in response to therapeutic vaccination in humans. (2/1003)

Theradigm-hepatitis B virus (HBV) is an experimental lipopeptide vaccine designed to stimulate induction of HBV-specific CTL responses in HLA-A2 individuals. Previous studies had demonstrated high immunogenicity in healthy volunteers, but comparatively weak CTL responses in chronically infected HBV patients. Herein, we examined helper T lymphocyte (HTL) responses in chronically infected patients. Despite normal proliferation and IL-2 secretion, IL-12 and IFN-gamma secretion in vitro in response to the vaccine was reduced compared with healthy volunteers. A similar pattern of cytokine secretion was observed following mitogen stimulation, suggesting a general altered balance of Th1/Th2 responses. Further analysis indicated that HTL recall responses to whole tetanus toxoid protein were reduced in chronically infected subjects, and reduced responsiveness correlated with the outcome of Theradigm-HBV immunization. Finally, experiments in HBV transgenic mice indicated that the nonnatural Pan DR HTL epitope, PADRE, is capable of inducing high levels of IFN-gamma secretion and that its inclusion in a lipopeptide incorporating an immunodominant Ld-restricted CTL epitope resulted in breaking tolerance at the CTL level. Overall, our results demonstrate an alteration in the quality of HTL responses induced in chronically infected HBV patients and suggest that use of a potent HTL epitope may be important to overcome CTL tolerance against specific HBV Ags.  (+info)

Home delivery of heat-stable vaccines in Indonesia: outreach immunization with a prefilled, single-use injection device. (3/1003)

Extending immunization coverage to underserved populations will require innovative immunization strategies. This study evaluated one such strategy: the use of a prefilled, single-use injection device for outreach immunization by village midwives. The device, UniJect, is designed to prevent refilling or reuse. Stored at ambient temperatures for up to 1 month in midwives' homes, vaccine-filled UniJect devices were immediately available for outreach. Between July 1995 and April 1996, 110 midwives on the Indonesia islands of Lombok and Bali visited the homes of newborn infants to deliver hepatitis B vaccine to the infants and tetanus toxoid to their mothers. Observations and interviews showed that the midwives used the device properly and safely to administer approximately 10,000 sterile injections in home settings. There were no problems with excessive heat exposure during the storage or delivery of vaccine. Injection recipients and midwives expressed a strong preference for the UniJect device over a standard syringe. Use of the prefilled device outside the cold chain simplified the logistics and facilitated the speed and efficiency of home visits, while the single-dose format minimized vaccine wastage.  (+info)

Update on diagnosis, management, and prevention of hepatitis B virus infection. (4/1003)

Acute and chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is a leading cause of liver disease worldwide. It is estimated that approximately 350 million people worldwide have chronic HBV infection and that 1 million persons die each year from HBV-related chronic liver disease. In the past decade, significant progress in the understanding of the molecular virology and pathogenesis of HBV infection has been made. In addition, effective treatment modalities have been developed for persons with chronic infection. Worldwide, prevention of HBV transmission has become a high priority. In 1992, the Global Advisory Group to the World Health Organization recommended that all countries integrate hepatitis B vaccine into national immunization programs by 1997. Currently, 80 countries have done so and several others are planning to. Many countries have reported dramatic reductions in the prevalence of chronic HBV infection among children born since the hepatitis B vaccine was introduced into infant immunization schedules. Recent reports from Taiwan indicate a reduction in the incidence of liver cancer among children as a result of widespread hepatitis B vaccination programs.  (+info)

Immunogenicity of hepatitis B vaccine in preterm infants. (5/1003)

AIM: To assess the immunogenicity of hepatitis B vaccine in preterm and term infants, given in a sequence of three doses beginning soon after birth. METHOD: The immunogenicity of hepatitis B vaccine was assessed in 176 preterm infants (< 35 weeks of gestation), immunised soon after birth, and compared with that in 46 term infants. Titres of hepatitis B antibodies were determined one to two months after the third vaccine. The significance of the differences between the term and preterm groups was determined using Student's t test. RESULTS: A similar proportion of infants in both preterm and term groups attained protective titres of hepatitis B antibodies (88.7% vs 93.4%, respectively; p = NS). However, the term infants had a higher geometric mean titre of antibodies after the third vaccine than did the preterm infants (701.2 (745.0) vs 469.1 (486.2) mU/ml, respectively; p < 0.03). CONCLUSION: Hepatitis B vaccine is effective in most preterm infants when given soon after birth. It may be advisable to determine the immune response at 12-24 months of age to booster the non-responders.  (+info)

Intracellular retention of hepatitis B virus surface proteins reduces interleukin-2 augmentation after genetic immunizations. (6/1003)

We have previously shown that hepatitis B virus (HBV) surface antigens (HBsAgs) are highly immunogenic after genetic immunization. Compared to the secreted middle HBV surface proteins (MHBs) or small HBV surface proteins (SHBs), the nonsecreted large HBV surface protein (LHBs), however, induced significantly weaker humoral and cellular immune responses that could not be augmented by genetic coimmunizations with cytokine expression plasmids. In order to understand the mechanisms underlying this phenomenon, we examined the effect of coimmunizations with an interleukin-2 (IL-2) DNA expression plasmid on the immunogenicity at the B- and T-cell level of nonsecreted wild-type LHBs, a secreted mutant LHBs, wild-type SHBs, and a nonsecreted mutant SHBs. Coimmunizations of mice with plasmids encoding wild-type SHBs or the secreted mutant LHBs and IL-2 increased anti-HBs responses, helper T-cell proliferative activity and cytotoxic T-lymphocyte killing. By contrast, coimmunizations of plasmids encoding wild-type LHBs or nonsecreted mutant SHBs and IL-2 had no significant effects on immune responses. Interestingly, mice immunized with cytokine expression plasmids 14 days after the injection of the wild-type LHBs plasmid showed augmented immune responses compared to animals simultaneously injected with both expression constructs. Anti-HBs responses in mice injected with plasmids encoding secreted forms of HBsAgs were detectable about 10 days earlier than those in mice immunized with plasmids encoding nonsecreted forms of HBsAgs. Based on these observations, we conclude that cytokines produced by DNA plasmids at the initial site of antigen presentation cannot augment LHBs specific immune responses because LHBs is not produced at high enough levels or is not accessible for uptake by antigen-presenting cells.  (+info)

A mathematical model predicting anti-hepatitis B virus surface antigen (HBs) decay after vaccination against hepatitis B. (7/1003)

The determination of serum levels of antibodies against hepatitis B virus surface antigen (anti-HBs) after hepatitis B vaccination is currently the only simple test available to predict the decay of protection and to plan the administration of booster doses. A total of 3085 vaccine recipients of plasma-derived and recombinant vaccine have been followed for 10 years to determine the kinetics of anti-HBs production and to construct a mathematical model which could efficiently predict the anti-HBs level decline. The anti-HBs peak level was reached 68 days after the last dose of recombinant vaccine and 138 days after the last dose of plasma-derived vaccines. The age of vaccinees negatively influenced the anti-HBs levels and also the time necessary to reach the anti-HBs peak. A bilogarithmic mathematical model (log10 level, log10 time) of anti-HBs decay has been constructed on a sample of recombinant vaccine recipients and subsequently validated on different samples of recombinant or plasma-derived vaccine recipients. Age, gender, type of vaccine (recombinant or plasma-derived), number of vaccine doses (three or four) did not influence the mathematical model of antibody decay. The program can be downloaded at the site: http:@www2.stat.unibo.it/palareti/vaccine.htm . Introducing an anti-HBs determination obtained after the peak, the program calculates a prediction of individual anti-HBs decline and allows planning of an efficient booster policy.  (+info)

Hepatitis B vaccination in high-risk infants: 10-year follow-up. (8/1003)

The long-term efficacy of hepatitis B vaccination among high-risk infants was determined in 805 vaccine responders, immunized at birth in Taiwan during 1981-1984 and followed to age 10 years, via life table survival and Cox multivariate analyses. At 10 years, cumulative persistence of antibody to hepatitis B surface antigen (anti-HBs) was 85%, and cumulative incidence of hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection was 15%. Three children became carriers. Twelve-month anti-HBs titer was the strongest predictor of efficacy. The higher the initial titer, the lower the risk of anti-HBs loss (relative risk [RR], 0.26 for titer of 100-999 mIU/mL; RR, 0.08 for titer >1000 mIU/mL; P<.001) and HBV infection (RR, 0.55 and 0.27; P<.05). Maternal hepatitis B e antigen positivity but not hepatitis B immunoglobulin dose or gender predicted greater antibody persistence to age 10 years. Because the level of antibody persistence remained high and few became carriers, booster revaccination within 10 years seems unnecessary.  (+info)

"Hepatitis B vaccines are vaccines that prevent infection caused by the hepatitis B virus. They work by introducing a small and harmless piece of the virus to your body, which triggers your immune system to produce antibodies to fight off the infection. These antibodies remain in your body and provide protection if you are exposed to the real hepatitis B virus in the future.

The hepatitis B vaccine is typically given as a series of three shots over a six-month period. It is recommended for all infants, children and adolescents who have not previously been vaccinated, as well as for adults who are at increased risk of infection, such as healthcare workers, people who inject drugs, and those with certain medical conditions.

It's important to note that hepatitis B vaccine does not provide protection against other types of viral hepatitis, such as hepatitis A or C."

Hepatitis B is a viral infection that attacks the liver and can cause both acute and chronic disease. The virus is transmitted through contact with infected blood, semen, and other bodily fluids. It can also be passed from an infected mother to her baby at birth.

Acute hepatitis B infection lasts for a few weeks to several months and often causes no symptoms. However, some people may experience mild to severe flu-like symptoms, yellowing of the skin and eyes (jaundice), dark urine, and fatigue. Most adults with acute hepatitis B recover completely and develop lifelong immunity to the virus.

Chronic hepatitis B infection can lead to serious liver damage, including cirrhosis and liver cancer. People with chronic hepatitis B may experience long-term symptoms such as fatigue, joint pain, and depression. They are also at risk for developing liver failure and liver cancer.

Prevention measures include vaccination, safe sex practices, avoiding sharing needles or other drug injection equipment, and covering wounds and skin rashes. There is no specific treatment for acute hepatitis B, but chronic hepatitis B can be treated with antiviral medications to slow the progression of liver damage.

Hepatitis B antibodies are proteins produced by the immune system in response to the presence of the Hepatitis B virus. There are two main types of Hepatitis B antibodies:

1. Hepatitis B surface antibody (anti-HBs): This is produced when a person has recovered from a Hepatitis B infection or has been successfully vaccinated against the virus. The presence of anti-HBs indicates immunity to Hepatitis B.
2. Hepatitis B core antibody (anti-HBC): This is produced during a Hepatitis B infection and remains present for life, even after the infection has been cleared. However, the presence of anti-HBC alone does not indicate immunity to Hepatitis B, as it can also be present in people who have a chronic Hepatitis B infection.

It's important to note that testing for Hepatitis B antibodies is typically done through blood tests and can help determine whether a person has been infected with the virus, has recovered from an infection, or has been vaccinated against it.

Hepatitis B virus (HBV) is a DNA virus that belongs to the Hepadnaviridae family and causes the infectious disease known as hepatitis B. This virus primarily targets the liver, where it can lead to inflammation and damage of the liver tissue. The infection can range from acute to chronic, with chronic hepatitis B increasing the risk of developing serious liver complications such as cirrhosis and liver cancer.

The Hepatitis B virus has a complex life cycle, involving both nuclear and cytoplasmic phases. It enters hepatocytes (liver cells) via binding to specific receptors and is taken up by endocytosis. The viral DNA is released into the nucleus, where it is converted into a covalently closed circular DNA (cccDNA) form, which serves as the template for viral transcription.

HBV transcribes several RNAs, including pregenomic RNA (pgRNA), which is used as a template for reverse transcription during virion assembly. The pgRNA is encapsidated into core particles along with the viral polymerase and undergoes reverse transcription to generate new viral DNA. This process occurs within the cytoplasm of the hepatocyte, resulting in the formation of immature virions containing partially double-stranded DNA.

These immature virions are then enveloped by host cell membranes containing HBV envelope proteins (known as surface antigens) to form mature virions that can be secreted from the hepatocyte and infect other cells. The virus can also integrate into the host genome, which may contribute to the development of hepatocellular carcinoma in chronic cases.

Hepatitis B is primarily transmitted through exposure to infected blood or bodily fluids containing the virus, such as through sexual contact, sharing needles, or from mother to child during childbirth. Prevention strategies include vaccination, safe sex practices, and avoiding needle-sharing behaviors. Treatment for hepatitis B typically involves antiviral medications that can help suppress viral replication and reduce the risk of liver damage.

Hepatitis B Surface Antigens (HBsAg) are proteins found on the surface of the Hepatitis B virus. They are present in the blood of individuals infected with the Hepatitis B virus and are used as a marker for the presence of a current Hepatitis B infection. The detection of HBsAg in the blood indicates that an individual is infectious and can transmit the virus to others. It is typically used in diagnostic tests to detect and diagnose Hepatitis B infections, monitor treatment response, and assess the risk of transmission.

Viral hepatitis vaccines are vaccines that prevent infection caused by various hepatitis viruses, including hepatitis A and B. These vaccines contain antigens that stimulate the immune system to produce antibodies that protect against infection with the corresponding virus. The vaccines are typically administered through injection and may require multiple doses for full protection.

The hepatitis A vaccine is made from inactivated hepatitis A virus, while the hepatitis B vaccine is made from recombinant hepatitis B surface antigen. Both vaccines have been shown to be highly effective in preventing infection and reducing the risk of complications associated with viral hepatitis, such as liver disease and liver cancer.

It's important to note that there are no vaccines available for other types of viral hepatitis, such as hepatitis C, D, or E. Prevention strategies for these types of viral hepatitis typically involve measures to reduce exposure to the virus, such as safe injection practices and avoiding high-risk behaviors like sharing needles or having unprotected sex with infected individuals.

Chronic Hepatitis B is a persistent infection of the liver caused by the hepatitis B virus (HBV), which can lead to chronic inflammation and scarring of the liver over time. It is defined as the presence of hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) in the blood for more than six months.

The infection can be asymptomatic or may cause nonspecific symptoms such as fatigue, loss of appetite, nausea, and joint pain. A small percentage of people with chronic HBV infection may develop serious complications, including cirrhosis, liver failure, and liver cancer. Treatment options for chronic hepatitis B include antiviral medications that can help to suppress the virus and reduce the risk of liver damage. Vaccination is available to prevent hepatitis B infection.

Hepatitis B core antigen (HBcAg) is a protein found in the core of the hepatitis B virus (HBV). It is present during active replication of the virus and plays a crucial role in the formation of the viral capsid or core. The antibodies produced against HBcAg (anti-HBc) can be detected in the blood, which serves as a marker for current or past HBV infection. It is important to note that HBcAg itself is not detectable in the blood because it is confined within the viral particle. However, during the serological testing of hepatitis B, the detection of anti-HBc IgM indicates a recent acute infection, while the presence of anti-HBc IgG suggests either a past resolved infection or an ongoing chronic infection.

An immunization schedule is a series of planned dates when a person, usually a child, should receive specific vaccines in order to be fully protected against certain preventable diseases. The schedule is developed based on scientific research and recommendations from health organizations such as the World Health Organization (WHO) and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).

The immunization schedule outlines which vaccines are recommended, the number of doses required, the age at which each dose should be given, and the minimum amount of time that must pass between doses. The schedule may vary depending on factors such as the individual's age, health status, and travel plans.

Immunization schedules are important for ensuring that individuals receive timely protection against vaccine-preventable diseases, and for maintaining high levels of immunity in populations, which helps to prevent the spread of disease. It is important to follow the recommended immunization schedule as closely as possible to ensure optimal protection.

Combined vaccines are defined in medical terms as vaccines that contain two or more antigens from different diseases, which are given to provide protection against multiple diseases at the same time. This approach reduces the number of injections required and simplifies the immunization schedule, especially during early childhood. Examples of combined vaccines include:

1. DTaP-Hib-IPV (e.g., Pentacel): A vaccine that combines diphtheria, tetanus, pertussis (whooping cough), Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) disease, and poliovirus components in one injection to protect against these five diseases.
2. MMRV (e.g., ProQuad): A vaccine that combines measles, mumps, rubella, and varicella (chickenpox) antigens in a single injection to provide immunity against all four diseases.
3. HepA-HepB (e.g., Twinrix): A vaccine that combines hepatitis A and hepatitis B antigens in one injection, providing protection against both types of hepatitis.
4. MenACWY-TT (e.g., MenQuadfi): A vaccine that combines four serogroups of meningococcal bacteria (A, C, W, Y) with tetanus toxoid as a carrier protein in one injection for the prevention of invasive meningococcal disease caused by these serogroups.
5. PCV13-PPSV23 (e.g., Vaxneuvance): A vaccine that combines 13 pneumococcal serotypes with PPSV23, providing protection against a broader range of pneumococcal diseases in adults aged 18 years and older.

Combined vaccines have been thoroughly tested for safety and efficacy to ensure they provide a strong immune response and an acceptable safety profile. They are essential tools in preventing various infectious diseases and improving overall public health.

Synthetic vaccines are artificially produced, designed to stimulate an immune response and provide protection against specific diseases. Unlike traditional vaccines that are derived from weakened or killed pathogens, synthetic vaccines are created using synthetic components, such as synthesized viral proteins, DNA, or RNA. These components mimic the disease-causing agent and trigger an immune response without causing the actual disease. The use of synthetic vaccines offers advantages in terms of safety, consistency, and scalability in production, making them valuable tools for preventing infectious diseases.

Vaccination is a simple, safe, and effective way to protect people against harmful diseases, before they come into contact with them. It uses your body's natural defenses to build protection to specific infections and makes your immune system stronger.

A vaccination usually contains a small, harmless piece of a virus or bacteria (or toxins produced by these germs) that has been made inactive or weakened so it won't cause the disease itself. This piece of the germ is known as an antigen. When the vaccine is introduced into the body, the immune system recognizes the antigen as foreign and produces antibodies to fight it.

If a person then comes into contact with the actual disease-causing germ, their immune system will recognize it and immediately produce antibodies to destroy it. The person is therefore protected against that disease. This is known as active immunity.

Vaccinations are important for both individual and public health. They prevent the spread of contagious diseases and protect vulnerable members of the population, such as young children, the elderly, and people with weakened immune systems who cannot be vaccinated or for whom vaccination is not effective.

A vaccine is a biological preparation that provides active acquired immunity to a particular infectious disease. It typically contains an agent that resembles the disease-causing microorganism and is often made from weakened or killed forms of the microbe, its toxins, or one of its surface proteins. The agent stimulates the body's immune system to recognize the agent as a threat, destroy it, and "remember" it, so that the immune system can more easily recognize and destroy any of these microorganisms that it encounters in the future.

Vaccines can be prophylactic (to prevent or ameliorate the effects of a future infection by a natural or "wild" pathogen), or therapeutic (to fight disease that is already present). The administration of vaccines is called vaccination. Vaccinations are generally administered through needle injections, but can also be administered by mouth or sprayed into the nose.

The term "vaccine" comes from Edward Jenner's 1796 use of cowpox to create immunity to smallpox. The first successful vaccine was developed in 1796 by Edward Jenner, who showed that milkmaids who had contracted cowpox did not get smallpox. He reasoned that exposure to cowpox protected against smallpox and tested his theory by injecting a boy with pus from a cowpox sore and then exposing him to smallpox, which the boy did not contract. The word "vaccine" is derived from Variolae vaccinae (smallpox of the cow), the term devised by Jenner to denote cowpox. He used it in 1798 during a conversation with a fellow physician and later in the title of his 1801 Inquiry.

Hepatitis B e antigen (HBeAg) is a protein produced by the hepatitis B virus (HBV) during its replication process. It can be found in the blood of individuals infected with HBV. The presence of HBeAg generally indicates that the virus is actively replicating in the liver and that the individual has high levels of viral load.

HBeAg is a serological marker used to assess the severity and activity of HBV infection, as well as the response to antiviral treatment. In particular, the disappearance of HBeAg from the blood (known as seroconversion) is often associated with a decrease in viral replication and an improvement in liver disease. However, the presence of HBeAg does not necessarily mean that the individual will develop symptoms or liver damage, as some people can remain asymptomatic carriers of the virus for many years.

It's important to note that not all HBV strains produce HBeAg, and some mutant strains may not produce detectable levels of this antigen even when the virus is actively replicating. Therefore, additional tests may be needed to confirm the presence or absence of HBV infection in these cases.

Hepatitis B antigens are proteins or particles present on the surface (HBsAg) or inside (HBcAg, HBeAg) the hepatitis B virus.

1. HBsAg (Hepatitis B surface antigen): This is a protein found on the outer surface of the hepatitis B virus. Its presence in the blood indicates an active infection with hepatitis B virus. It's also used as a marker to diagnose hepatitis B infection and monitor treatment response.

2. HBcAg (Hepatitis B core antigen): This is a protein found inside the hepatitis B virus core. It's not usually detected in the blood, but its antibodies (anti-HBc) are used to diagnose past or present hepatitis B infection.

3. HBeAg (Hepatitis B e antigen): This is a protein found inside the hepatitis B virus core and is associated with viral replication. Its presence in the blood indicates high levels of viral replication, increased infectivity, and higher risk of liver damage. It's used to monitor disease progression and treatment response.

These antigens play a crucial role in the diagnosis, management, and prevention of hepatitis B infection.

Hepatitis C is a liver infection caused by the hepatitis C virus (HCV). It's primarily spread through contact with contaminated blood, often through sharing needles or other equipment to inject drugs. For some people, hepatitis C is a short-term illness but for most — about 75-85% — it becomes a long-term, chronic infection that can lead to serious health problems like liver damage, liver failure, and even liver cancer. The virus can infect and inflame the liver, causing symptoms like jaundice (yellowing of the skin and eyes), abdominal pain, fatigue, and dark urine. Many people with hepatitis C don't have any symptoms, so they might not know they have the infection until they experience complications. There are effective treatments available for hepatitis C, including antiviral medications that can cure the infection in most people. Regular testing is important to diagnose and treat hepatitis C early, before it causes serious health problems.

Hepatitis A is a viral infection that specifically targets the liver, causing inflammation and impaired function. This disease is caused by the hepatitis A virus (HAV), which spreads primarily through the fecal-oral route, often due to poor sanitation and hygiene. Individuals can become infected by consuming food or water contaminated with HAV or by coming into direct contact with an infected person's stool.

The symptoms of hepatitis A may include fatigue, loss of appetite, nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain, dark urine, clay-colored bowel movements, joint pain, and jaundice (yellowing of the skin and eyes). However, in some cases, particularly in children under six years old, the infection may be asymptomatic.

While hepatitis A can be unpleasant and cause serious complications, it is rarely fatal and most people recover completely within a few months. Preventive measures include vaccination, practicing good hygiene, and avoiding potentially contaminated food and water.

Hepatitis A vaccines are inactivated or live attenuated viral vaccines that are administered to prevent infection and illness caused by the hepatitis A virus. The vaccine contains antigens that stimulate an immune response in the body, leading to the production of antibodies that protect against future infection with the virus.

The inactivated hepatitis A vaccine is made from viruses that have been chemically treated to destroy their ability to cause disease while preserving their ability to stimulate an immune response. This type of vaccine is typically given in two doses, six months apart, and provides long-term protection against the virus.

The live attenuated hepatitis A vaccine contains a weakened form of the virus that is unable to cause illness but can still stimulate an immune response. This type of vaccine is given as a single dose and provides protection against the virus for at least 20 years.

Hepatitis A vaccines are recommended for people who are at increased risk of infection, including travelers to areas where hepatitis A is common, men who have sex with men, people who use injection drugs, and people with chronic liver disease or clotting factor disorders. The vaccine is also recommended for children in certain states and communities where hepatitis A is endemic.

Secondary immunization, also known as "anamnestic response" or "booster," refers to the enhanced immune response that occurs upon re-exposure to an antigen, having previously been immunized or infected with the same pathogen. This response is characterized by a more rapid and robust production of antibodies and memory cells compared to the primary immune response. The secondary immunization aims to maintain long-term immunity against infectious diseases and improve vaccine effectiveness. It usually involves administering additional doses of a vaccine or booster shots after the initial series of immunizations, which helps reinforce the immune system's ability to recognize and combat specific pathogens.

Immunization programs, also known as vaccination programs, are organized efforts to administer vaccines to populations or communities in order to protect individuals from vaccine-preventable diseases. These programs are typically implemented by public health agencies and involve the planning, coordination, and delivery of immunizations to ensure that a high percentage of people are protected against specific infectious diseases.

Immunization programs may target specific age groups, such as infants and young children, or populations at higher risk of certain diseases, such as travelers, healthcare workers, or individuals with weakened immune systems. The goals of immunization programs include controlling and eliminating vaccine-preventable diseases, reducing the morbidity and mortality associated with these diseases, and protecting vulnerable populations from outbreaks and epidemics.

Immunization programs may be delivered through a variety of settings, including healthcare facilities, schools, community centers, and mobile clinics. They often involve partnerships between government agencies, healthcare providers, non-governmental organizations, and communities to ensure that vaccines are accessible, affordable, and acceptable to the populations they serve. Effective immunization programs require strong leadership, adequate funding, robust data systems, and ongoing monitoring and evaluation to assess their impact and identify areas for improvement.

Haemophilus vaccines are vaccines that are designed to protect against Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib), a bacterium that can cause serious infections such as meningitis, pneumonia, and epiglottitis. There are two main types of Hib vaccines:

1. Polysaccharide vaccine: This type of vaccine is made from the sugar coating (polysaccharide) of the bacterial cells. It is not effective in children under 2 years of age because their immune systems are not yet mature enough to respond effectively to this type of vaccine.
2. Conjugate vaccine: This type of vaccine combines the polysaccharide with a protein carrier, which helps to stimulate a stronger and more sustained immune response. It is effective in infants as young as 6 weeks old.

Hib vaccines are usually given as part of routine childhood immunizations starting at 2 months of age. They are administered through an injection into the muscle. The vaccine is safe and effective, with few side effects. Vaccination against Hib has led to a significant reduction in the incidence of Hib infections worldwide.

The Diphtheria-Tetanus-Pertussis (DTaP) vaccine is a combination immunization that protects against three bacterial diseases: diphtheria, tetanus (lockjaw), and pertussis (whooping cough).

Diphtheria is an upper respiratory infection that can lead to breathing difficulties, heart failure, paralysis, or even death. Tetanus is a bacterial infection that affects the nervous system and causes muscle stiffness and spasms, leading to "lockjaw." Pertussis is a highly contagious respiratory infection characterized by severe coughing fits, which can make it difficult to breathe and may lead to pneumonia, seizures, or brain damage.

The DTaP vaccine contains inactivated toxins (toxoids) from the bacteria that cause these diseases. It is typically given as a series of five shots, with doses administered at 2 months, 4 months, 6 months, 15-18 months, and 4-6 years of age. The vaccine helps the immune system develop protection against the diseases without causing the actual illness.

It is important to note that there are other combination vaccines available that protect against these same diseases, such as DT (diphtheria and tetanus toxoids) and Tdap (tetanus, diphtheria, and acellular pertussis), which contain higher doses of the diphtheria and pertussis components. These vaccines are recommended for different age groups and may be used as booster shots to maintain immunity throughout adulthood.

Poliovirus Vaccine, Inactivated (IPV) is a vaccine used to prevent poliomyelitis (polio), a highly infectious disease caused by the poliovirus. IPV contains inactivated (killed) polioviruses of all three poliovirus types. It works by stimulating an immune response in the body, but because the viruses are inactivated, they cannot cause polio. After vaccination, the immune system recognizes and responds to the inactivated viruses, producing antibodies that protect against future infection with wild, or naturally occurring, polioviruses. IPV is typically given as an injection in the leg or arm, and a series of doses are required for full protection. It is a safe and effective way to prevent polio and its complications.

A viral vaccine is a biological preparation that introduces your body to a specific virus in a way that helps your immune system build up protection against the virus without causing the illness. Viral vaccines can be made from weakened or inactivated forms of the virus, or parts of the virus such as proteins or sugars. Once introduced to the body, the immune system recognizes the virus as foreign and produces an immune response, including the production of antibodies. These antibodies remain in the body and provide immunity against future infection with that specific virus.

Viral vaccines are important tools for preventing infectious diseases caused by viruses, such as influenza, measles, mumps, rubella, polio, hepatitis A and B, rabies, rotavirus, chickenpox, shingles, and some types of cancer. Vaccination programs have led to the control or elimination of many infectious diseases that were once common.

It's important to note that viral vaccines are not effective against bacterial infections, and separate vaccines must be developed for each type of virus. Additionally, because viruses can mutate over time, it is necessary to update some viral vaccines periodically to ensure continued protection.

Inactivated vaccines, also known as killed or non-live vaccines, are created by using a version of the virus or bacteria that has been grown in a laboratory and then killed or inactivated with chemicals, heat, or radiation. This process renders the organism unable to cause disease, but still capable of stimulating an immune response when introduced into the body.

Inactivated vaccines are generally considered safer than live attenuated vaccines since they cannot revert back to a virulent form and cause illness. However, they may require multiple doses or booster shots to maintain immunity because the immune response generated by inactivated vaccines is not as robust as that produced by live vaccines. Examples of inactivated vaccines include those for hepatitis A, rabies, and influenza (inactivated flu vaccine).

Hepatitis A antibodies are proteins produced by the immune system in response to a Hepatitis A virus infection or after vaccination. There are two types of Hepatitis A antibodies:

1. IgM anti-HAV (Hepatitis A Virus) antibodies: These are the first type of antibodies produced by the immune system during a Hepatitis A infection. They appear in the blood within 2 to 4 weeks after exposure to the virus and remain detectable for up to 12 weeks. The presence of IgM anti-HAV antibodies indicates a recent or ongoing Hepatitis A infection.

2. IgG anti-HAV antibodies: These are the second type of antibodies produced by the immune system during a Hepatitis A infection, and they appear in the blood several weeks after the onset of illness. IgG anti-HAV antibodies remain detectable for many years, providing long-term immunity against future Hepatitis A infections. After vaccination, only IgG anti-HAV antibodies are produced, indicating immunity to Hepatitis A.

Testing for Hepatitis A antibodies is used to diagnose acute or past Hepatitis A infections and to assess immunity following vaccination.

Conjugate vaccines are a type of vaccine that combines a part of a bacterium with a protein or other substance to boost the body's immune response to the bacteria. The bacterial component is usually a polysaccharide, which is a long chain of sugars that makes up part of the bacterial cell wall.

By itself, a polysaccharide is not very immunogenic, meaning it does not stimulate a strong immune response. However, when it is conjugated or linked to a protein or other carrier molecule, it becomes much more immunogenic and can elicit a stronger and longer-lasting immune response.

Conjugate vaccines are particularly effective in protecting against bacterial infections that affect young children, such as Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) and pneumococcal disease. These vaccines have been instrumental in reducing the incidence of these diseases and their associated complications, such as meningitis and pneumonia.

Overall, conjugate vaccines work by mimicking a natural infection and stimulating the immune system to produce antibodies that can protect against future infections with the same bacterium. By combining a weakly immunogenic polysaccharide with a protein carrier, these vaccines can elicit a stronger and more effective immune response, providing long-lasting protection against bacterial infections.

Hepatitis is a medical condition characterized by inflammation of the liver, often resulting in damage to liver cells. It can be caused by various factors, including viral infections (such as Hepatitis A, B, C, D, and E), alcohol abuse, toxins, medications, and autoimmune disorders. Symptoms may include jaundice, fatigue, abdominal pain, loss of appetite, nausea, vomiting, and dark urine. The severity of the disease can range from mild illness to severe, life-threatening conditions, such as liver failure or cirrhosis.

Bacterial vaccines are types of vaccines that are created using bacteria or parts of bacteria as the immunogen, which is the substance that triggers an immune response in the body. The purpose of a bacterial vaccine is to stimulate the immune system to develop protection against specific bacterial infections.

There are several types of bacterial vaccines, including:

1. Inactivated or killed whole-cell vaccines: These vaccines contain entire bacteria that have been killed or inactivated through various methods, such as heat or chemicals. The bacteria can no longer cause disease, but they still retain the ability to stimulate an immune response.
2. Subunit, protein, or polysaccharide vaccines: These vaccines use specific components of the bacterium, such as proteins or polysaccharides, that are known to trigger an immune response. By using only these components, the vaccine can avoid using the entire bacterium, which may reduce the risk of adverse reactions.
3. Live attenuated vaccines: These vaccines contain live bacteria that have been weakened or attenuated so that they cannot cause disease but still retain the ability to stimulate an immune response. This type of vaccine can provide long-lasting immunity, but it may not be suitable for people with weakened immune systems.

Bacterial vaccines are essential tools in preventing and controlling bacterial infections, reducing the burden of diseases such as tuberculosis, pneumococcal disease, meningococcal disease, and Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) disease. They work by exposing the immune system to a harmless form of the bacteria or its components, which triggers the production of antibodies and memory cells that can recognize and fight off future infections with that same bacterium.

It's important to note that while vaccines are generally safe and effective, they may cause mild side effects such as pain, redness, or swelling at the injection site, fever, or fatigue. Serious side effects are rare but can occur, so it's essential to consult with a healthcare provider before receiving any vaccine.

Thimerosal is a mercury-containing organic compound that has been used as a preservative in various pharmaceutical products, including vaccines, to prevent contamination by bacteria. It is metabolized or degraded into ethylmercury and thiosalicylate. Ethylmercury is an organomercurial compound that is less toxic than methylmercury and is excreted from the body more quickly. Thimerosal has been used in vaccines since the 1930s, and its use has been thoroughly studied and reviewed by regulatory agencies and health organizations worldwide. No evidence has been found to link thimerosal-containing vaccines to any harmful effects, except for minor reactions at the injection site. However, due to unfounded concerns about its safety, thimerosal was removed from or reduced in most childhood vaccines in the United States and other countries as a precautionary measure, starting in the late 1990s. Despite the removal of thimerosal from most vaccines, autism rates have not decreased, which supports the conclusion that thimerosal does not cause autism.

Viral hepatitis in humans refers to inflammation of the liver caused by infection with viruses that primarily target the liver. There are five main types of human viral hepatitis, designated as Hepatitis A, B, C, D, and E virus (HAV, HBV, HCV, HDV, and HEV). These viruses can cause a range of illnesses, from acute self-limiting hepatitis to chronic hepatitis, which can lead to cirrhosis and liver cancer.

1. Hepatitis A virus (HAV) is typically spread through the fecal-oral route, often through contaminated food or water. It usually results in an acute self-limiting infection, but rarely can cause chronic hepatitis in individuals with weakened immune systems.
2. Hepatitis B virus (HBV) is primarily transmitted through contact with infected blood, semen, and other bodily fluids. It can lead to both acute and chronic hepatitis, which may result in cirrhosis and liver cancer if left untreated.
3. Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is predominantly spread through exposure to infected blood, such as through sharing needles or receiving contaminated blood transfusions. Chronic hepatitis C is common, and it can lead to serious liver complications like cirrhosis and liver cancer if not treated.
4. Hepatitis D virus (HDV) is an incomplete virus that requires the presence of HBV for its replication. HDV infection occurs only in individuals already infected with HBV, leading to more severe liver disease compared to HBV monoinfection.
5. Hepatitis E virus (HEV) is primarily transmitted through the fecal-oral route, often through contaminated food or water. It usually results in an acute self-limiting infection but can cause chronic hepatitis in pregnant women and individuals with weakened immune systems.

Prevention measures include vaccination for HAV and HBV, safe sex practices, avoiding sharing needles, and ensuring proper hygiene and sanitation to prevent fecal-oral transmission.

I could not find a specific medical definition for "Vaccines, DNA." However, I can provide you with some information about DNA vaccines.

DNA vaccines are a type of vaccine that uses genetically engineered DNA to stimulate an immune response in the body. They work by introducing a small piece of DNA into the body that contains the genetic code for a specific antigen (a substance that triggers an immune response). The cells of the body then use this DNA to produce the antigen, which prompts the immune system to recognize and attack it.

DNA vaccines have several advantages over traditional vaccines. They are relatively easy to produce, can be stored at room temperature, and can be designed to protect against a wide range of diseases. Additionally, because they use DNA to stimulate an immune response, DNA vaccines do not require the growth and culture of viruses or bacteria, which can make them safer than traditional vaccines.

DNA vaccines are still in the experimental stages, and more research is needed to determine their safety and effectiveness. However, they have shown promise in animal studies and are being investigated as a potential tool for preventing a variety of infectious diseases, including influenza, HIV, and cancer.

Chronic Hepatitis C is a liver infection caused by the hepatitis C virus (HCV) that lasts for more than six months. This long-term infection can lead to scarring of the liver (cirrhosis), which can cause serious health problems, such as liver failure or liver cancer, in some individuals. The infection is usually asymptomatic until complications arise, but it can be detected through blood tests that identify antibodies to the virus or viral RNA. Chronic hepatitis C is typically managed with antiviral therapy, which can help clear the virus from the body and reduce the risk of liver damage.

"Intramuscular injections" refer to a medical procedure where a medication or vaccine is administered directly into the muscle tissue. This is typically done using a hypodermic needle and syringe, and the injection is usually given into one of the large muscles in the body, such as the deltoid (shoulder), vastus lateralis (thigh), or ventrogluteal (buttock) muscles.

Intramuscular injections are used for a variety of reasons, including to deliver medications that need to be absorbed slowly over time, to bypass stomach acid and improve absorption, or to ensure that the medication reaches the bloodstream quickly and directly. Common examples of medications delivered via intramuscular injection include certain vaccines, antibiotics, and pain relievers.

It is important to follow proper technique when administering intramuscular injections to minimize pain and reduce the risk of complications such as infection or injury to surrounding tissues. Proper site selection, needle length and gauge, and injection technique are all critical factors in ensuring a safe and effective intramuscular injection.

A carrier state is a condition in which a person carries and may be able to transmit a genetic disorder or infectious disease, but does not show any symptoms of the disease themselves. This occurs when an individual has a recessive allele for a genetic disorder or is infected with a pathogen, but does not have the necessary combination of genes or other factors required to develop the full-blown disease.

For example, in the case of cystic fibrosis, which is caused by mutations in the CFTR gene, a person who carries one normal allele and one mutated allele for the disease is considered a carrier. They do not have symptoms of cystic fibrosis themselves, but they can pass the mutated allele on to their offspring, who may then develop the disease if they inherit the mutation from both parents.

Similarly, in the case of infectious diseases, a person who is infected with a pathogen but does not show any symptoms may still be able to transmit the infection to others. This is known as being an asymptomatic carrier or a healthy carrier. For example, some people who are infected with hepatitis B virus (HBV) may not develop any symptoms of liver disease, but they can still transmit the virus to others through contact with their blood or other bodily fluids.

It's important to note that in some cases, carriers of certain genetic disorders or infectious diseases may have mild or atypical symptoms that do not meet the full criteria for a diagnosis of the disease. In these cases, they may be considered to have a "reduced penetrance" or "incomplete expression" of the disorder or infection.

Hepatitis A virus (HAV) is the causative agent of hepatitis A, a viral infection that causes inflammation of the liver. It is a small, non-enveloped, single-stranded RNA virus belonging to the Picornaviridae family and Hepatovirus genus. The virus primarily spreads through the fecal-oral route, often through contaminated food or water, or close contact with an infected person. After entering the body, HAV infects hepatocytes in the liver, leading to liver damage and associated symptoms such as jaundice, fatigue, abdominal pain, and nausea. The immune system eventually clears the infection, providing lifelong immunity against future HAV infections. Preventive measures include vaccination and practicing good hygiene to prevent transmission.

Duck hepatitis B virus (DHBV) is not a medical definition related to human health, but it is a species of hepatitis B virus that primarily infects various species of ducks and other Anseriformes (waterfowl). It is closely related to the human hepatitis B virus (HBV), but it is not known to infect humans or other mammals.

DHBV, like HBV, is a DNA virus that targets the liver and can cause both acute and chronic infections. The virus is transmitted through the fecal-oral route and primarily affects young ducklings. Infection with DHBV can lead to liver damage and death in infected birds.

Researchers study DHBV as a model system for understanding HBV infection and pathogenesis, due to their similarities in viral structure, replication strategy, and host-virus interactions. However, it is important to note that DHBV is not a human health concern and does not pose a risk of infection to humans or other mammals.

Pharmaceutical preservatives are substances that are added to medications, pharmaceutical products, or biological specimens to prevent degradation, contamination, or spoilage caused by microbial growth, chemical reactions, or environmental factors. These preservatives help extend the shelf life and ensure the stability, safety, and efficacy of the pharmaceutical formulation during storage and use.

Commonly used pharmaceutical preservatives include:

1. Antimicrobials: These are further classified into antifungals (e.g., benzalkonium chloride, chlorhexidine, thimerosal), antibacterials (e.g., parabens, phenol, benzyl alcohol), and antivirals (e.g., phenolic compounds). They work by inhibiting the growth of microorganisms like bacteria, fungi, and viruses.
2. Antioxidants: These substances prevent or slow down oxidation reactions that can degrade pharmaceutical products. Examples include ascorbic acid (vitamin C), tocopherols (vitamin E), sulfites, and butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA) and butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT).
3. Chelating agents: These bind to metal ions that can catalyze degradation reactions in pharmaceutical products. Ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) is an example of a chelating agent used in pharmaceuticals.

The choice of preservative depends on the type of formulation, route of administration, and desired shelf life. The concentration of the preservative should be optimized to maintain product stability while minimizing potential toxicity or adverse effects. It is essential to conduct thorough safety and compatibility studies before incorporating any preservative into a pharmaceutical formulation.

A newborn infant is a baby who is within the first 28 days of life. This period is also referred to as the neonatal period. Newborns require specialized care and attention due to their immature bodily systems and increased vulnerability to various health issues. They are closely monitored for signs of well-being, growth, and development during this critical time.

Chronic hepatitis is a type of liver inflammation that lasts for more than six months and can lead to scarring of the liver (cirrhosis), liver failure, and even liver cancer in some cases. It can be caused by various factors, including viral infections such as Hepatitis B and C, autoimmune disorders, alcohol abuse, and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. The symptoms of chronic hepatitis may include fatigue, loss of appetite, nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain, joint pain, dark urine, and jaundice (yellowing of the skin and eyes). Treatment for chronic hepatitis depends on the underlying cause and may include antiviral medications, immunosuppressive drugs, or lifestyle changes.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Schools, Nursing" is not a recognized medical term or concept. It seems like there might be some misunderstanding or missing context in your request.

Nursing, as a profession, involves the provision of care to individuals, families, and communities so they may attain, maintain, or recover optimal health and quality of life. Nursing education, therefore, typically takes place in schools of nursing, which are institutions dedicated to providing theoretical and practical education for future nurses.

If you're referring to a specific medical condition, treatment, or concept that you think might be related to "Schools, Nursing," could you please provide more context or clarify your question? I'd be happy to help with more information.

Diphtheria toxoid is a modified form of the diphtheria toxin that has been made harmless but still stimulates an immune response. It is used in vaccines to provide immunity against diphtheria, a serious bacterial infection that can cause breathing difficulties, heart failure, and paralysis. The toxoid is typically combined with other components in a vaccine, such as tetanus toxoid and pertussis vaccine, to form a combination vaccine that protects against multiple diseases.

The diphtheria toxoid is made by treating the diphtheria toxin with formaldehyde, which modifies the toxin's structure and makes it nontoxic while still retaining its ability to stimulate an immune response. When the toxoid is introduced into the body through vaccination, the immune system recognizes it as a foreign substance and produces antibodies against it. These antibodies then provide protection against future infections with the diphtheria bacteria.

The diphtheria toxoid vaccine is usually given as part of a routine childhood immunization schedule, starting at 2 months of age. Booster shots are recommended throughout childhood and adolescence, and adults may also need booster shots if they have not received them previously or if their immune status has changed.

The Mumps Vaccine is a biological preparation intended to induce immunity against mumps, a contagious viral infection that primarily affects the salivary glands. The vaccine contains live attenuated (weakened) mumps virus, which stimulates the immune system to develop a protective response without causing the disease.

There are two types of mumps vaccines available:

1. The Jeryl Lynn strain is used in the United States and is part of the Measles, Mumps, and Rubella (MMR) vaccine and the Measles, Mumps, Rubella, and Varicella (MMRV) vaccine. This strain is derived from a clinical isolate obtained from the throat washings of a child with mumps in 1963.
2. The Urabe AM9 strain was used in some countries but has been discontinued in many places due to an increased risk of meningitis as a rare complication.

The MMR vaccine is typically given to children at 12-15 months of age and again at 4-6 years of age, providing long-lasting immunity against mumps in most individuals. The vaccine has significantly reduced the incidence of mumps and its complications worldwide.

An "injection, intradermal" refers to a type of injection where a small quantity of a substance is introduced into the layer of skin between the epidermis and dermis, using a thin gauge needle. This technique is often used for diagnostic or research purposes, such as conducting allergy tests or administering immunizations in a way that stimulates a strong immune response. The injection site typically produces a small, raised bump (wheal) that disappears within a few hours. It's important to note that intradermal injections should be performed by trained medical professionals to minimize the risk of complications.

Hepatitis antibodies are proteins produced by the immune system in response to an infection caused by a hepatitis virus. There are several types of hepatitis viruses, including A, B, C, D, and E, each with their own specific antibodies.

The presence of hepatitis antibodies in the blood can indicate a current or past infection with the corresponding hepatitis virus. For example, the detection of anti-HAV (hepatitis A virus) antibodies indicates a past infection or immunization against hepatitis A, while the detection of anti-HBs (hepatitis B surface antigen) antibodies indicates immunity due to vaccination or recovery from a hepatitis B infection.

It's important to note that some hepatitis antibodies may not provide immunity to future infections, and individuals can still be infected with the virus even if they have previously produced antibodies against it. Therefore, regular testing and vaccination are essential for preventing the spread of hepatitis viruses and protecting public health.

Antiviral agents are a class of medications that are designed to treat infections caused by viruses. Unlike antibiotics, which target bacteria, antiviral agents interfere with the replication and infection mechanisms of viruses, either by inhibiting their ability to replicate or by modulating the host's immune response to the virus.

Antiviral agents are used to treat a variety of viral infections, including influenza, herpes simplex virus (HSV) infections, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection, hepatitis B and C, and respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infections.

These medications can be administered orally, intravenously, or topically, depending on the type of viral infection being treated. Some antiviral agents are also used for prophylaxis, or prevention, of certain viral infections.

It is important to note that antiviral agents are not effective against all types of viruses and may have significant side effects. Therefore, it is essential to consult with a healthcare professional before starting any antiviral therapy.

An AIDS vaccine is a type of preventive vaccine that aims to stimulate the immune system to produce an effective response against the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), which causes acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). The goal of an AIDS vaccine is to induce the production of immune cells and proteins that can recognize and eliminate HIV-infected cells, thereby preventing the establishment of a persistent infection.

Despite decades of research, there is still no licensed AIDS vaccine available. This is due in part to the unique challenges posed by HIV, which has a high mutation rate and can rapidly evolve to evade the immune system's defenses. However, several promising vaccine candidates are currently being tested in clinical trials around the world, and researchers continue to explore new approaches and strategies for developing an effective AIDS vaccine.

The Measles-Mumps-Rubella (MMR) vaccine is a combination immunization that protects against three infectious diseases: measles, mumps, and rubella. It contains live attenuated viruses of each disease, which stimulate an immune response in the body similar to that produced by natural infection but do not cause the diseases themselves.

The MMR vaccine is typically given in two doses, the first at 12-15 months of age and the second at 4-6 years of age. It is highly effective in preventing these diseases, with over 90% effectiveness reported after a single dose and near 100% effectiveness after the second dose.

Measles is a highly contagious viral disease that can cause fever, rash, cough, runny nose, and red, watery eyes. It can also lead to serious complications such as pneumonia, encephalitis (inflammation of the brain), and even death.

Mumps is a viral infection that primarily affects the salivary glands, causing swelling and tenderness in the cheeks and jaw. It can also cause fever, headache, muscle aches, and fatigue. Mumps can lead to serious complications such as deafness, meningitis (inflammation of the membranes surrounding the brain and spinal cord), and inflammation of the testicles or ovaries.

Rubella, also known as German measles, is a viral infection that typically causes a mild fever, rash, and swollen lymph nodes. However, if a pregnant woman becomes infected with rubella, it can cause serious birth defects such as hearing impairment, heart defects, and developmental delays in the fetus.

The MMR vaccine is an important tool in preventing these diseases and protecting public health.

Antibodies, viral are proteins produced by the immune system in response to an infection with a virus. These antibodies are capable of recognizing and binding to specific antigens on the surface of the virus, which helps to neutralize or destroy the virus and prevent its replication. Once produced, these antibodies can provide immunity against future infections with the same virus.

Viral antibodies are typically composed of four polypeptide chains - two heavy chains and two light chains - that are held together by disulfide bonds. The binding site for the antigen is located at the tip of the Y-shaped structure, formed by the variable regions of the heavy and light chains.

There are five classes of antibodies in humans: IgA, IgD, IgE, IgG, and IgM. Each class has a different function and is distributed differently throughout the body. For example, IgG is the most common type of antibody found in the bloodstream and provides long-term immunity against viruses, while IgA is found primarily in mucous membranes and helps to protect against respiratory and gastrointestinal infections.

In addition to their role in the immune response, viral antibodies can also be used as diagnostic tools to detect the presence of a specific virus in a patient's blood or other bodily fluids.

Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) is a bacterial subtype that can cause serious infections, particularly in children under 5 years of age. Although its name may be confusing, Hib is not the cause of influenza (the flu). It is defined medically as a gram-negative, coccobacillary bacterium that is a member of the family Pasteurellaceae.

Hib is responsible for several severe and potentially life-threatening infections such as meningitis (inflammation of the membranes surrounding the brain and spinal cord), epiglottitis (swelling of the tissue located at the base of the tongue that can block the windpipe), pneumonia, and bacteremia (bloodstream infection).

Before the introduction of the Hib vaccine in the 1980s and 1990s, Haemophilus influenzae type b was a leading cause of bacterial meningitis in children under 5 years old. Since then, the incidence of invasive Hib disease has decreased dramatically in vaccinated populations.

Hepacivirus is a genus of viruses in the family Flaviviridae. The most well-known member of this genus is Hepatitis C virus (HCV), which is a major cause of liver disease worldwide. HCV infection can lead to chronic hepatitis, cirrhosis, and liver cancer.

Hepaciviruses are enveloped viruses with a single-stranded, positive-sense RNA genome. They have a small icosahedral capsid and infect a variety of hosts, including humans, non-human primates, horses, and birds. The virus enters the host cell by binding to specific receptors on the cell surface and is then internalized through endocytosis.

HCV has a high degree of genetic diversity and is classified into seven major genotypes and numerous subtypes based on differences in its RNA sequence. This genetic variability can affect the virus's ability to evade the host immune response, making treatment more challenging.

In addition to HCV, other hepaciviruses have been identified in various animal species, including equine hepacivirus (EHCV), rodent hepacivirus (RHV), and bat hepacivirus (BtHepCV). These viruses are being studied to better understand the biology of hepaciviruses and their potential impact on human health.

Tetanus toxoid is a purified and inactivated form of the tetanus toxin, which is derived from the bacterium Clostridium tetani. It is used as a vaccine to induce active immunity against tetanus, a potentially fatal disease caused by this toxin. The toxoid is produced through a series of chemical treatments that modify the toxic properties of the tetanus toxin while preserving its antigenic qualities. This allows the immune system to recognize and develop protective antibodies against the toxin without causing illness. Tetanus toxoid is often combined with diphtheria and/or pertussis toxoids in vaccines such as DTaP, Tdap, and Td.

Immunologic adjuvants are substances that are added to a vaccine to enhance the body's immune response to the antigens contained in the vaccine. They work by stimulating the immune system and promoting the production of antibodies and activating immune cells, such as T-cells and macrophages, which help to provide a stronger and more sustained immune response to the vaccine.

Immunologic adjuvants can be derived from various sources, including bacteria, viruses, and chemicals. Some common examples include aluminum salts (alum), oil-in-water emulsions (such as MF59), and bacterial components (such as lipopolysaccharide or LPS).

The use of immunologic adjuvants in vaccines can help to improve the efficacy of the vaccine, particularly for vaccines that contain weak or poorly immunogenic antigens. They can also help to reduce the amount of antigen needed in a vaccine, which can be beneficial for vaccines that are difficult or expensive to produce.

It's important to note that while adjuvants can enhance the immune response to a vaccine, they can also increase the risk of adverse reactions, such as inflammation and pain at the injection site. Therefore, the use of immunologic adjuvants must be carefully balanced against their potential benefits and risks.

Hepatitis C antibodies are proteins produced by the immune system in response to an infection with the hepatitis C virus (HCV). Detection of these antibodies in the blood indicates a past or present HCV infection. However, it does not necessarily mean that the person is currently infected, as antibodies can persist for years even after the virus has been cleared from the body. Additional tests are usually needed to confirm whether the infection is still active and to guide treatment decisions.

Aluminum hydroxide is a medication that contains the active ingredient aluminum hydroxide, which is an inorganic compound. It is commonly used as an antacid to neutralize stomach acid and relieve symptoms of acid reflux and heartburn. Aluminum hydroxide works by reacting with the acid in the stomach to form a physical barrier that prevents the acid from backing up into the esophagus.

In addition to its use as an antacid, aluminum hydroxide is also used as a phosphate binder in patients with kidney disease. It works by binding to phosphate in the gut and preventing it from being absorbed into the bloodstream, which can help to control high phosphate levels in the body.

Aluminum hydroxide is available over-the-counter and by prescription in various forms, including tablets, capsules, and liquid suspensions. It is important to follow the dosage instructions carefully and to talk to a healthcare provider if symptoms persist or worsen.

Viral DNA refers to the genetic material present in viruses that consist of DNA as their core component. Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) is one of the two types of nucleic acids that are responsible for storing and transmitting genetic information in living organisms. Viruses are infectious agents much smaller than bacteria that can only replicate inside the cells of other organisms, called hosts.

Viral DNA can be double-stranded (dsDNA) or single-stranded (ssDNA), depending on the type of virus. Double-stranded DNA viruses have a genome made up of two complementary strands of DNA, while single-stranded DNA viruses contain only one strand of DNA.

Examples of dsDNA viruses include Adenoviruses, Herpesviruses, and Poxviruses, while ssDNA viruses include Parvoviruses and Circoviruses. Viral DNA plays a crucial role in the replication cycle of the virus, encoding for various proteins necessary for its multiplication and survival within the host cell.

'Hospital Personnel' is a general term that refers to all individuals who are employed by or provide services on behalf of a hospital. This can include, but is not limited to:

1. Healthcare professionals such as doctors, nurses, pharmacists, therapists, and technicians.
2. Administrative staff who manage the hospital's operations, including human resources, finance, and management.
3. Support services personnel such as maintenance workers, food service workers, housekeeping staff, and volunteers.
4. Medical students, interns, and trainees who are gaining clinical experience in the hospital setting.

All of these individuals play a critical role in ensuring that the hospital runs smoothly and provides high-quality care to its patients.

"Drug storage" refers to the proper handling, maintenance, and preservation of medications in a safe and suitable environment to ensure their effectiveness and safety until they are used. Proper drug storage includes:

1. Protecting drugs from light, heat, and moisture: Exposure to these elements can degrade the quality and potency of medications. Therefore, it is recommended to store most drugs in a cool, dry place, away from direct sunlight.

2. Keeping drugs out of reach of children and pets: Medications should be stored in a secure location, such as a locked cabinet or medicine chest, to prevent accidental ingestion or harm to young children and animals.

3. Following storage instructions on drug labels and packaging: Some medications require specific storage conditions, such as refrigeration or protection from freezing. Always follow the storage instructions provided by the manufacturer or pharmacist.

4. Regularly inspecting drugs for signs of degradation or expiration: Check medications for changes in color, consistency, or odor, and discard any that have expired or show signs of spoilage.

5. Storing drugs separately from one another: Keep different medications separate to prevent cross-contamination, incorrect dosing, or accidental mixing of incompatible substances.

6. Avoiding storage in areas with high humidity or temperature fluctuations: Bathrooms, kitchens, and garages are generally not ideal for storing medications due to their exposure to moisture, heat, and temperature changes.

Proper drug storage is crucial for maintaining the safety, efficacy, and stability of medications. Improper storage can lead to reduced potency, increased risk of adverse effects, or even life-threatening situations. Always consult a healthcare professional or pharmacist for specific storage instructions and recommendations.

Meningococcal vaccines are vaccines that protect against Neisseria meningitidis, a type of bacteria that can cause serious infections such as meningitis (inflammation of the lining of the brain and spinal cord) and septicemia (bloodstream infection). There are several types of meningococcal vaccines available, including conjugate vaccines and polysaccharide vaccines. These vaccines work by stimulating the immune system to produce antibodies that can protect against the different serogroups of N. meningitidis, including A, B, C, Y, and W-135. The specific type of vaccine used and the number of doses required may depend on a person's age, health status, and other factors. Meningococcal vaccines are recommended for certain high-risk populations, such as infants, young children, adolescents, and people with certain medical conditions, as well as for travelers to areas where meningococcal disease is common.

Immunization is defined medically as the process where an individual is made immune or resistant to an infectious disease, typically through the administration of a vaccine. The vaccine stimulates the body's own immune system to recognize and fight off the specific disease-causing organism, thereby preventing or reducing the severity of future infections with that organism.

Immunization can be achieved actively, where the person is given a vaccine to trigger an immune response, or passively, where antibodies are transferred to the person through immunoglobulin therapy. Immunizations are an important part of preventive healthcare and have been successful in controlling and eliminating many infectious diseases worldwide.

A subunit vaccine is a type of vaccine that contains a specific piece or component of the microorganism (such as a protein, sugar, or part of the bacterial outer membrane), instead of containing the entire organism. This piece of the microorganism is known as an antigen, and it stimulates an immune response in the body, allowing the development of immunity against the targeted infection without introducing the risk of disease associated with live vaccines.

Subunit vaccines offer several advantages over other types of vaccines. They are generally safer because they do not contain live or weakened microorganisms, making them suitable for individuals with weakened immune systems or specific medical conditions that prevent them from receiving live vaccines. Additionally, subunit vaccines can be designed to focus on the most immunogenic components of a pathogen, potentially leading to stronger and more targeted immune responses.

Examples of subunit vaccines include the Hepatitis B vaccine, which contains a viral protein, and the Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) vaccine, which uses pieces of the bacterial polysaccharide capsule. These vaccines have been crucial in preventing serious infectious diseases and reducing associated complications worldwide.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Viral Hepatitis, Animal" is not a standard medical classification or definition. Hepatitis refers to inflammation of the liver, and viral hepatitis refers to inflammation caused by a virus. The term "animal" in this context doesn't provide a clear meaning.

However, it's worth noting that some animals can contract viral hepatitis, similar to humans. For instance, there are hepatitis A, B, and C-like viruses that have been identified in various animal species. These are typically not transmissible to humans.

If you're referring to a specific medical condition or context, could you please provide more details? I'd be happy to help further with more information.

Hepatitis D, also known as Delta hepatitis, is a viral infection of the liver that can only occur in people who have a current infection with the hepatitis B virus (HBV). It's caused by the hepatitis delta virus (HDV), which is a small, enveloped, single-stranded RNA virus.

HDV requires the presence of HBV for its replication and survival, so it can't infect someone who doesn't already have HBV. When both viruses are present, they can interact in ways that lead to more severe liver disease than either virus would cause alone.

Hepatitis D can be an acute or chronic infection, and it can range from mild to severe, with symptoms similar to those of other types of viral hepatitis, such as jaundice, fatigue, loss of appetite, nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain, and joint pain. In some cases, hepatitis D can lead to serious complications, including liver failure and death.

Hepatitis D is primarily spread through contact with infected blood or other bodily fluids, such as during sexual contact, sharing needles, or mother-to-child transmission during childbirth. It's preventable through vaccination against hepatitis B, which provides immunity to both viruses. There is no specific treatment for hepatitis D, but antiviral therapy for hepatitis B can help manage the infection and prevent complications.

Vertical transmission of infectious diseases refers to the spread of an infection from an infected mother to her offspring during pregnancy, childbirth, or breastfeeding. This mode of transmission can occur through several pathways:

1. Transplacental transmission: The infection crosses the placenta and reaches the fetus while it is still in the womb. Examples include HIV, syphilis, and toxoplasmosis.
2. Intrauterine infection: The mother's infection causes direct damage to the developing fetus or its surrounding tissues, leading to complications such as congenital defects. Examples include rubella and cytomegalovirus (CMV).
3. Perinatal transmission: This occurs during childbirth when the infant comes into contact with the mother's infected genital tract or bodily fluids. Examples include group B streptococcus, herpes simplex virus (HSV), and hepatitis B.
4. Postnatal transmission: This occurs after birth, often through breastfeeding, when the infant ingests infected milk or comes into contact with the mother's contaminated bodily fluids. Examples include HIV and HTLV-I (human T-lymphotropic virus type I).

Vertical transmission is a significant concern in public health, as it can lead to severe complications, congenital disabilities, or even death in newborns. Preventive measures, such as prenatal screening, vaccination, and antimicrobial treatment, are crucial for reducing the risk of vertical transmission and ensuring better outcomes for both mothers and their offspring.

Hepatitis viruses refer to a group of viral agents that primarily target the liver, causing inflammation and damage to hepatocytes (liver cells). This results in various clinical manifestations, ranging from an acute infection to a chronic, persistent infection. There are five main types of hepatitis viruses, named Hepatitis A, B, C, D, and E virus, each with distinct genetic material, modes of transmission, and disease severity.

1. Hepatitis A Virus (HAV): This is a single-stranded RNA virus that is primarily transmitted through the fecal-oral route, often via contaminated food or water. Infected individuals may experience symptoms such as jaundice, fatigue, abdominal pain, and loss of appetite. While most people recover completely within a few months, severe complications can occur in rare cases. A vaccine is available to prevent HAV infection.
2. Hepatitis B Virus (HBV): This is a double-stranded DNA virus that is primarily transmitted through contact with infected blood or bodily fluids, such as during sexual contact, sharing needles, or from mother to child during childbirth. HBV can cause both acute and chronic hepatitis, which may lead to severe liver complications like cirrhosis and liver cancer if left untreated. A vaccine is available to prevent HBV infection.
3. Hepatitis C Virus (HCV): This is a single-stranded RNA virus that is primarily transmitted through contact with infected blood, often through sharing needles or during medical procedures using contaminated equipment. Like HBV, HCV can cause both acute and chronic hepatitis, which may lead to severe liver complications if left untreated. No vaccine is currently available for HCV; however, antiviral treatments can cure the infection in many cases.
4. Hepatitis D Virus (HDV): This is a defective RNA virus that requires the presence of HBV to replicate and cause infection. HDV is primarily transmitted through contact with infected blood or bodily fluids, similar to HBV. Co-infection with both HBV and HDV can result in more severe liver disease compared to HBV infection alone. Antiviral treatments are available for HDV; however, a vaccine is not.
5. Hepatitis E Virus (HEV): This is a single-stranded RNA virus that primarily causes acute hepatitis and is usually transmitted through the fecal-oral route, often through contaminated food or water. In most cases, HEV infection resolves on its own without treatment. However, in pregnant women and individuals with weakened immune systems, HEV can cause severe liver complications. No vaccine is currently available for HEV in the United States; however, a vaccine has been approved in some countries.

Alum compounds are a type of double sulfate salt, typically consisting of aluminum sulfate and another metal sulfate. The most common variety is potassium alum, or potassium aluminum sulfate (KAl(SO4)2·12H2O). Alum compounds have a wide range of uses, including water purification, tanning leather, dyeing and printing textiles, and as a food additive for baking powder and pickling. They are also used in medicine as astringents to reduce bleeding and swelling, and to soothe skin irritations. Alum compounds have the ability to make proteins in living cells become more stable, which can be useful in medical treatments.

Antibody formation, also known as humoral immune response, is the process by which the immune system produces proteins called antibodies in response to the presence of a foreign substance (antigen) in the body. This process involves several steps:

1. Recognition: The antigen is recognized and bound by a type of white blood cell called a B lymphocyte or B cell, which then becomes activated.
2. Differentiation: The activated B cell undergoes differentiation to become a plasma cell, which is a type of cell that produces and secretes large amounts of antibodies.
3. Antibody production: The plasma cells produce and release antibodies, which are proteins made up of four polypeptide chains (two heavy chains and two light chains) arranged in a Y-shape. Each antibody has two binding sites that can recognize and bind to specific regions on the antigen called epitopes.
4. Neutralization or elimination: The antibodies bind to the antigens, neutralizing them or marking them for destruction by other immune cells. This helps to prevent the spread of infection and protect the body from harmful substances.

Antibody formation is an important part of the adaptive immune response, which allows the body to specifically recognize and respond to a wide variety of pathogens and foreign substances.

Lamivudine is an antiretroviral medication used in the treatment and management of HIV (Human Immunodeficiency Virus) infection and HBV (Hepatitis B Virus) infection. It is a nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NRTI), which means it works by blocking the action of the reverse transcriptase enzyme that the viruses need to multiply. By doing this, Lamivudine helps to reduce the amount of the virus in the body, which in turn helps to slow down or prevent the damage that the virus can cause to the immune system and improve the patient's quality of life.

The medical definition of Lamivudine is: "A synthetic nucleoside analogue with activity against both HIV-1 and HBV. It is used in the treatment of HIV infection and AIDS, as well as chronic hepatitis B."

Hepatitis E is a viral infection that specifically affects the liver, caused by the hepatitis E virus (HEV). The disease is primarily transmitted through the fecal-oral route, often through contaminated water or food. It can also be spread through blood transfusions and vertical transmission from mother to fetus.

The incubation period for hepatitis E ranges from 2 to 10 weeks. Symptoms of the disease are similar to other types of viral hepatitis and may include jaundice (yellowing of the skin and eyes), fatigue, loss of appetite, abdominal pain, nausea, vomiting, joint pain, and dark urine.

In most cases, hepatitis E is a self-limiting disease, meaning that it resolves on its own within a few weeks to months. However, in some individuals, particularly those with weakened immune systems, the infection can lead to severe complications such as acute liver failure and death. Pregnant women, especially those in the third trimester, are at higher risk of developing severe disease and have a mortality rate of up to 25%.

Prevention measures include maintaining good hygiene practices, practicing safe food handling and preparation, and ensuring access to clean water sources. Currently, there is no specific treatment for hepatitis E, but supportive care can help manage symptoms. Vaccines are available in some countries to prevent the disease.

Hepatitis Delta Virus (HDV) is not a traditional virus but rather a defective RNA particle that requires the assistance of the hepatitis B virus (HBV) to replicate. It's also known as delta agent or hepatitis D. HDV is a unique pathogen that only infects individuals who are already infected with HBV.

The virus causes a more severe form of viral hepatitis than HBV alone, leading to a higher risk of fulminant hepatitis (acute liver failure) and chronic hepatitis, which can progress to cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. HDV is primarily transmitted through percutaneous or sexual contact with infected blood or body fluids.

Prevention strategies include vaccination against HBV, which also prevents HDV infection, and avoiding high-risk behaviors such as intravenous drug use and unprotected sex with multiple partners. There is no specific treatment for HDV; however, antiviral therapy for HBV can help manage the infection.

Hepatitis E virus (HEV) is a single-stranded, positive-sense RNA virus that belongs to the family Hepeviridae and genus Orthohepevirus. It primarily infects the liver, causing acute hepatitis in humans. The virus is transmitted through the fecal-oral route, often through contaminated water or food sources. Ingestion of raw or undercooked pork or deer meat can also lead to HEV infection.

HEV infection typically results in self-limiting acute hepatitis, characterized by symptoms such as jaundice, fatigue, loss of appetite, abdominal pain, and dark urine. In some cases, particularly among pregnant women and individuals with weakened immune systems, HEV infection can lead to severe complications, including fulminant hepatic failure and death.

There are four main genotypes of HEV that infect humans: genotype 1 and 2 are primarily found in developing countries and are transmitted through contaminated water; genotype 3 and 4 are found worldwide and can be transmitted through both zoonotic and human-to-human routes.

Prevention measures include improving sanitation, access to clean water, and food safety practices. Currently, there is no specific antiviral treatment for HEV infection, but supportive care can help manage symptoms. A vaccine against HEV is available in China and has shown efficacy in preventing the disease.

Seroepidemiologic studies are a type of epidemiological study that measures the presence and levels of antibodies in a population's blood serum to investigate the prevalence, distribution, and transmission of infectious diseases. These studies help to identify patterns of infection and immunity within a population, which can inform public health policies and interventions.

Seroepidemiologic studies typically involve collecting blood samples from a representative sample of individuals in a population and testing them for the presence of antibodies against specific pathogens. The results are then analyzed to estimate the prevalence of infection and immunity within the population, as well as any factors associated with increased or decreased risk of infection.

These studies can provide valuable insights into the spread of infectious diseases, including emerging and re-emerging infections, and help to monitor the effectiveness of vaccination programs. Additionally, seroepidemiologic studies can also be used to investigate the transmission dynamics of infectious agents, such as identifying sources of infection or tracking the spread of antibiotic resistance.

Hepatitis A Virus, Human (HAV): A single-stranded, positive-sense RNA virus belonging to the Picornaviridae family, specifically the Hepatovirus genus. It is the causative agent of Hepatitis A, a viral infection that primarily affects the liver. The virus is typically transmitted through the fecal-oral route, often via contaminated food or water, or close contact with an infected individual. Following incubation (15-50 days), symptoms may include jaundice, fatigue, abdominal pain, loss of appetite, nausea, diarrhea, and fever. Most people recover completely within a few weeks; however, severe complications and death are possible, especially in individuals with preexisting liver disease. Prevention is primarily achieved through vaccination and practicing good hygiene.

Autoimmune hepatitis is a chronic (long-term) disease in which the body's immune system mistakenly attacks the liver, leading to inflammation and damage. This results in decreased liver function over time if not treated. The exact cause of autoimmune hepatitis is unknown, but it is believed to be associated with genetic factors and exposure to certain environmental triggers, such as viral infections or medications.

There are two main types of autoimmune hepatitis:

1. Type 1 (classic) autoimmune hepatitis: This form can affect both adults and children, and it is more common in women than men. People with this type may also have other autoimmune disorders, such as rheumatoid arthritis, thyroid disease, or ulcerative colitis.
2. Type 2 autoimmune hepatitis: This form primarily affects children and young women. It is less common than type 1 and tends to be more severe. People with this type may also have other autoimmune disorders, such as celiac disease or chronic candidiasis.

Symptoms of autoimmune hepatitis can vary widely, from mild to severe. They may include fatigue, loss of appetite, nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain, joint pain, jaundice (yellowing of the skin and eyes), dark urine, and light-colored stools.

Diagnosis typically involves blood tests, imaging studies, and sometimes a liver biopsy to assess the extent of damage. Treatment usually includes medications that suppress the immune system, such as corticosteroids and immunosuppressants, which can help reduce inflammation and slow or stop liver damage. In some cases, lifestyle changes and supportive care may also be necessary.

Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the most common type of primary liver cancer in adults. It originates from the hepatocytes, which are the main functional cells of the liver. This type of cancer is often associated with chronic liver diseases such as cirrhosis caused by hepatitis B or C virus infection, alcohol abuse, non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), and aflatoxin exposure.

The symptoms of HCC can vary but may include unexplained weight loss, lack of appetite, abdominal pain or swelling, jaundice, and fatigue. The diagnosis of HCC typically involves imaging tests such as ultrasound, CT scan, or MRI, as well as blood tests to measure alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) levels. Treatment options for Hepatocellular carcinoma depend on the stage and extent of the cancer, as well as the patient's overall health and liver function. Treatment options may include surgery, radiation therapy, chemotherapy, targeted therapy, or liver transplantation.

Malaria vaccines are biological preparations that induce immunity against malaria parasites, thereby preventing or reducing the severity of malaria disease. They typically contain antigens (proteins or other molecules derived from the parasite) that stimulate an immune response in the recipient, enabling their body to recognize and neutralize the pathogen upon exposure.

The most advanced malaria vaccine candidate is RTS,S/AS01 (Mosquirix), which targets the Plasmodium falciparum parasite's circumsporozoite protein (CSP). This vaccine has shown partial protection in clinical trials, reducing the risk of severe malaria and hospitalization in young children by about 30% over four years. However, it does not provide complete immunity, and additional research is ongoing to develop more effective vaccines against malaria.

I apologize for any confusion, but "Alaska" is not a medical term or concept. It is a geographical location, being the largest state in the United States, located in the northernmost and westernmost portion of the country. If you have any questions related to medical terminology or health-related topics, I would be happy to try and help answer those for you.

Bacterial antibodies are a type of antibodies produced by the immune system in response to an infection caused by bacteria. These antibodies are proteins that recognize and bind to specific antigens on the surface of the bacterial cells, marking them for destruction by other immune cells. Bacterial antibodies can be classified into several types based on their structure and function, including IgG, IgM, IgA, and IgE. They play a crucial role in the body's defense against bacterial infections and provide immunity to future infections with the same bacteria.

Infectious pregnancy complications refer to infections that occur during pregnancy and can affect the mother, fetus, or both. These infections can lead to serious consequences such as preterm labor, low birth weight, birth defects, stillbirth, or even death. Some common infectious agents that can cause pregnancy complications include:

1. Bacteria: Examples include group B streptococcus, Escherichia coli, and Listeria monocytogenes, which can cause sepsis, meningitis, or pneumonia in the mother and lead to preterm labor or stillbirth.
2. Viruses: Examples include cytomegalovirus, rubella, varicella-zoster, and HIV, which can cause congenital anomalies, developmental delays, or transmission of the virus to the fetus.
3. Parasites: Examples include Toxoplasma gondii, which can cause severe neurological damage in the fetus if transmitted during pregnancy.
4. Fungi: Examples include Candida albicans, which can cause fungal infections in the mother and lead to preterm labor or stillbirth.

Preventive measures such as vaccination, good hygiene practices, and avoiding high-risk behaviors can help reduce the risk of infectious pregnancy complications. Prompt diagnosis and treatment of infections during pregnancy are also crucial to prevent adverse outcomes.

Needlestick injuries are sharp object injuries typically involving hollow-bore needles, which can result in exposure to bloodborne pathogens. They often occur during the use or disposal of contaminated needles in healthcare settings. These injuries pose a significant risk for transmission of infectious diseases such as HIV, Hepatitis B, and Hepatitis C. It is essential to follow strict protocols for handling and disposing of needles and other sharp objects to minimize the risk of needlestick injuries.

Papillomavirus vaccines are vaccines that have been developed to prevent infection by human papillomaviruses (HPV). HPV is a DNA virus that is capable of infecting the skin and mucous membranes. Certain types of HPV are known to cause cervical cancer, as well as other types of cancer such as anal, penile, vulvar, and oropharyngeal cancers. Other types of HPV can cause genital warts.

There are currently two papillomavirus vaccines that have been approved for use in the United States: Gardasil and Cervarix. Both vaccines protect against the two most common cancer-causing types of HPV (types 16 and 18), which together cause about 70% of cervical cancers. Gardasil also protects against the two most common types of HPV that cause genital warts (types 6 and 11).

Papillomavirus vaccines are given as a series of three shots over a period of six months. They are most effective when given to people before they become sexually active, as this reduces the risk of exposure to HPV. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) recommends that all boys and girls get vaccinated against HPV at age 11 or 12, but the vaccine can be given to people as young as age 9 and as old as age 26.

It is important to note that papillomavirus vaccines do not protect against all types of HPV, and they do not treat existing HPV infections or cervical cancer. They are intended to prevent new HPV infections and the cancers and other diseases that can be caused by HPV.

Liver neoplasms refer to abnormal growths in the liver that can be benign or malignant. Benign liver neoplasms are non-cancerous tumors that do not spread to other parts of the body, while malignant liver neoplasms are cancerous tumors that can invade and destroy surrounding tissue and spread to other organs.

Liver neoplasms can be primary, meaning they originate in the liver, or secondary, meaning they have metastasized (spread) to the liver from another part of the body. Primary liver neoplasms can be further classified into different types based on their cell of origin and behavior, including hepatocellular carcinoma, cholangiocarcinoma, and hepatic hemangioma.

The diagnosis of liver neoplasms typically involves a combination of imaging studies, such as ultrasound, CT scan, or MRI, and biopsy to confirm the type and stage of the tumor. Treatment options depend on the type and extent of the neoplasm and may include surgery, radiation therapy, chemotherapy, or liver transplantation.

Liver cirrhosis is a chronic, progressive disease characterized by the replacement of normal liver tissue with scarred (fibrotic) tissue, leading to loss of function. The scarring is caused by long-term damage from various sources such as hepatitis, alcohol abuse, nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, and other causes. As the disease advances, it can lead to complications like portal hypertension, fluid accumulation in the abdomen (ascites), impaired brain function (hepatic encephalopathy), and increased risk of liver cancer. It is generally irreversible, but early detection and treatment of underlying causes may help slow down its progression.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Animal Hepatitis" is not a medical term used to describe a specific disease. Hepatitis refers to inflammation of the liver, and it can be caused by various factors, including viruses, alcohol, drugs, and certain medical conditions.

However, there are several viral hepatitis types that can infect animals, such as Hepatitis A, B, and C, which primarily affect humans. But there are also other hepatitis viruses that are species-specific and primarily infect animals, such as:

1. Canine Hepatitis (Adenovirus Type 1): This is a viral infection that affects dogs and causes liver damage, respiratory signs, and occasionally death.
2. Feline Infectious Peritonitis (FIP) Virus: While not strictly a hepatitis virus, this feline coronavirus can cause severe inflammation of the liver and other organs in cats.
3. Equine Infectious Anemia Virus (EIAV): This retrovirus affects horses and causes cyclic fever, anemia, and occasionally liver disease.
4. Avian Hepatitis E Virus: A recently discovered virus that infects birds and can cause hepatitis and other systemic signs in chickens and other avian species.

If you're looking for information on a specific animal hepatitis virus or a different medical term, please provide more context so I can give you a more accurate answer.

Immunoglobulin G (IgG) is a type of antibody, which is a protective protein produced by the immune system in response to foreign substances like bacteria or viruses. IgG is the most abundant type of antibody in human blood, making up about 75-80% of all antibodies. It is found in all body fluids and plays a crucial role in fighting infections caused by bacteria, viruses, and toxins.

IgG has several important functions:

1. Neutralization: IgG can bind to the surface of bacteria or viruses, preventing them from attaching to and infecting human cells.
2. Opsonization: IgG coats the surface of pathogens, making them more recognizable and easier for immune cells like neutrophils and macrophages to phagocytose (engulf and destroy) them.
3. Complement activation: IgG can activate the complement system, a group of proteins that work together to help eliminate pathogens from the body. Activation of the complement system leads to the formation of the membrane attack complex, which creates holes in the cell membranes of bacteria, leading to their lysis (destruction).
4. Antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC): IgG can bind to immune cells like natural killer (NK) cells and trigger them to release substances that cause target cells (such as virus-infected or cancerous cells) to undergo apoptosis (programmed cell death).
5. Immune complex formation: IgG can form immune complexes with antigens, which can then be removed from the body through various mechanisms, such as phagocytosis by immune cells or excretion in urine.

IgG is a critical component of adaptive immunity and provides long-lasting protection against reinfection with many pathogens. It has four subclasses (IgG1, IgG2, IgG3, and IgG4) that differ in their structure, function, and distribution in the body.

A measles vaccine is a biological preparation that induces immunity against the measles virus. It contains an attenuated (weakened) strain of the measles virus, which stimulates the immune system to produce antibodies that protect against future infection with the wild-type (disease-causing) virus. Measles vaccines are typically administered in combination with vaccines against mumps and rubella (German measles), forming the MMR vaccine.

The measles vaccine is highly effective, with one or two doses providing immunity in over 95% of people who receive it. It is usually given to children as part of routine childhood immunization programs, with the first dose administered at 12-15 months of age and the second dose at 4-6 years of age.

Measles vaccination has led to a dramatic reduction in the incidence of measles worldwide and is considered one of the greatest public health achievements of the past century. However, despite widespread availability of the vaccine, measles remains a significant cause of morbidity and mortality in some parts of the world, particularly in areas with low vaccination coverage or where access to healthcare is limited.

Alanine transaminase (ALT) is a type of enzyme found primarily in the cells of the liver and, to a lesser extent, in the cells of other tissues such as the heart, muscles, and kidneys. Its primary function is to catalyze the reversible transfer of an amino group from alanine to another alpha-keto acid, usually pyruvate, to form pyruvate and another amino acid, usually glutamate. This process is known as the transamination reaction.

When liver cells are damaged or destroyed due to various reasons such as hepatitis, alcohol abuse, nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, or drug-induced liver injury, ALT is released into the bloodstream. Therefore, measuring the level of ALT in the blood is a useful diagnostic tool for evaluating liver function and detecting liver damage. Normal ALT levels vary depending on the laboratory, but typically range from 7 to 56 units per liter (U/L) for men and 6 to 45 U/L for women. Elevated ALT levels may indicate liver injury or disease, although other factors such as muscle damage or heart disease can also cause elevations in ALT.

Neisseria meningitidis, Serogroup B is a subtype of the bacterium Neisseria meningitidis, also known as meningococcus. This bacterium can cause serious infections such as meningitis (inflammation of the lining of the brain and spinal cord) and septicemia (blood poisoning).

Serogroup B is one of the five main serogroups of Neisseria meningitidis, which are classified based on the chemical structure of their capsular polysaccharides. Serogroup B strains are responsible for a significant proportion of invasive meningococcal disease cases in many parts of the world.

The availability of vaccines that protect against some but not all serogroups of Neisseria meningitidis has led to efforts to develop effective vaccines against Serogroup B strains, which have been challenging due to their chemical structure and variability. In recent years, several vaccines targeting Serogroup B have been developed and licensed for use in various countries.

Typhoid-Paratyphoid vaccines are immunizations that protect against typhoid fever and paratyphoid fevers, which are caused by the Salmonella enterica serovars Typhi and Paratyphi, respectively. These vaccines contain inactivated or attenuated bacteria or specific antigens that stimulate an individual's immune system to develop immunity against these diseases without causing the illness itself. There are several types of typhoid-paratyphoid vaccines available, including:

1. Ty21a (oral live attenuated vaccine): This is a live but weakened form of the Salmonella Typhi bacteria. It is given orally in capsule form and requires a series of 4 doses taken every other day. The vaccine provides protection for about 5-7 years.
2. Vi polysaccharide (ViPS) typhoid vaccine: This vaccine contains purified Vi antigens from the Salmonella Typhi bacterium's outer capsular layer. It is given as an injection and provides protection for approximately 2-3 years.
3. Combined typhoid-paratyphoid A and B vaccines (Vi-rEPA): This vaccine combines Vi polysaccharide antigens from Salmonella Typhi and Paratyphi A and B. It is given as an injection and provides protection for about 3 years against typhoid fever and paratyphoid fevers A and B.
4. Typhoid conjugate vaccines (TCVs): These vaccines combine the Vi polysaccharide antigen from Salmonella Typhi with a protein carrier to enhance the immune response, particularly in children under 2 years of age. TCVs are given as an injection and provide long-lasting protection against typhoid fever.

It is important to note that none of these vaccines provides 100% protection, but they significantly reduce the risk of contracting typhoid or paratyphoid fevers. Additionally, good hygiene practices, such as handwashing and safe food handling, can further minimize the risk of infection.

In the field of medicine, "time factors" refer to the duration of symptoms or time elapsed since the onset of a medical condition, which can have significant implications for diagnosis and treatment. Understanding time factors is crucial in determining the progression of a disease, evaluating the effectiveness of treatments, and making critical decisions regarding patient care.

For example, in stroke management, "time is brain," meaning that rapid intervention within a specific time frame (usually within 4.5 hours) is essential to administering tissue plasminogen activator (tPA), a clot-busting drug that can minimize brain damage and improve patient outcomes. Similarly, in trauma care, the "golden hour" concept emphasizes the importance of providing definitive care within the first 60 minutes after injury to increase survival rates and reduce morbidity.

Time factors also play a role in monitoring the progression of chronic conditions like diabetes or heart disease, where regular follow-ups and assessments help determine appropriate treatment adjustments and prevent complications. In infectious diseases, time factors are crucial for initiating antibiotic therapy and identifying potential outbreaks to control their spread.

Overall, "time factors" encompass the significance of recognizing and acting promptly in various medical scenarios to optimize patient outcomes and provide effective care.

A viral RNA (ribonucleic acid) is the genetic material found in certain types of viruses, as opposed to viruses that contain DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid). These viruses are known as RNA viruses. The RNA can be single-stranded or double-stranded and can exist as several different forms, such as positive-sense, negative-sense, or ambisense RNA. Upon infecting a host cell, the viral RNA uses the host's cellular machinery to translate the genetic information into proteins, leading to the production of new virus particles and the continuation of the viral life cycle. Examples of human diseases caused by RNA viruses include influenza, COVID-19 (SARS-CoV-2), hepatitis C, and polio.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "India" is not a medical term or concept. It is a country in South Asia, the second-most populous country in the world, known for its rich history, diverse culture, and numerous contributions to various fields including medicine. If you have any questions related to medical topics, I would be happy to help answer them!

"Health personnel" is a broad term that refers to individuals who are involved in maintaining, promoting, and restoring the health of populations or individuals. This can include a wide range of professionals such as:

1. Healthcare providers: These are medical doctors, nurses, midwives, dentists, pharmacists, allied health professionals (like physical therapists, occupational therapists, speech therapists, dietitians, etc.), and other healthcare workers who provide direct patient care.

2. Public health professionals: These are individuals who work in public health agencies, non-governmental organizations, or academia to promote health, prevent diseases, and protect populations from health hazards. They include epidemiologists, biostatisticians, health educators, environmental health specialists, and health services researchers.

3. Health managers and administrators: These are professionals who oversee the operations, finances, and strategic planning of healthcare organizations, such as hospitals, clinics, or public health departments. They may include hospital CEOs, medical directors, practice managers, and healthcare consultants.

4. Health support staff: This group includes various personnel who provide essential services to healthcare organizations, such as medical records technicians, billing specialists, receptionists, and maintenance workers.

5. Health researchers and academics: These are professionals involved in conducting research, teaching, and disseminating knowledge related to health sciences, medicine, public health, or healthcare management in universities, research institutions, or think tanks.

The World Health Organization (WHO) defines "health worker" as "a person who contributes to the promotion, protection, or improvement of health through prevention, treatment, rehabilitation, palliation, health promotion, and health education." This definition encompasses a wide range of professionals working in various capacities to improve health outcomes.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "United States" is a geopolitical entity, specifically the name of the country consisting of 50 states, and it is not a medical term or concept. Therefore, I can't provide a medical definition for it. If you have any questions related to health, medicine, or biology, I would be happy to try to help answer those!

Cytomegalovirus (CMV) vaccines are medical products being developed to prevent or ameliorate infection and disease caused by the human cytomegalovirus. CMV is a type of herpesvirus that can cause serious health problems in people with weakened immune systems, such as those undergoing organ transplantation, people living with HIV/AIDS, and newborns infected with the virus before birth (congenital CMV infection).

There are currently no approved vaccines for CMV. However, several vaccine candidates are being investigated in clinical trials to evaluate their safety, immunogenicity, and efficacy. These vaccine candidates use various approaches, such as:

1. Live-attenuated viruses: These vaccines contain weakened forms of the virus that can stimulate an immune response without causing disease. An example is the Towne vaccine, which has been studied in clinical trials for several decades.
2. Recombinant proteins: These vaccines use specific viral proteins to induce an immune response. For instance, a glycoprotein B (gB) subunit vaccine has shown promising results in phase II clinical trials.
3. Virus-like particles (VLPs): VLPs mimic the structure of the virus but do not contain any viral genetic material. They can be used to induce an immune response without causing infection.
4. DNA vaccines: These vaccines use plasmids containing CMV genes to stimulate an immune response. A DNA vaccine encoding the CMV phosphoprotein 65 (pp65) has been tested in clinical trials.
5. mRNA vaccines: Similar to DNA vaccines, mRNA vaccines use genetic material to induce an immune response. Moderna Therapeutics is developing an mRNA vaccine candidate for CMV.

The development of a safe and effective CMV vaccine remains a significant public health priority, as CMV infection can lead to severe complications in vulnerable populations.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Thailand" is not a medical term. It is a country located in Southeast Asia. If you have any questions about medical terms or concepts, I would be happy to help answer those for you!

Hepatitis B virus (Woodchuck) refers to the hepadnavirus that naturally infects North American woodchucks (Marmota monax). This virus is closely related to the human Hepatitis B virus (HBV), and it is used as a model for studying HBV infection and related liver diseases in woodchucks. The woodchuck hepatitis virus (WHV) can cause both acute and chronic hepatitis, liver fibrosis, cirrhosis, and liver cancer in its natural host. The virus-host interactions and the disease progression in woodchucks closely mimic those observed in humans with HBV infection. Therefore, studies of WHV infection in woodchucks have contributed significantly to our understanding of HBV biology, host immune responses, and the development of novel therapies for HBV infection in humans.

Prevalence, in medical terms, refers to the total number of people in a given population who have a particular disease or condition at a specific point in time, or over a specified period. It is typically expressed as a percentage or a ratio of the number of cases to the size of the population. Prevalence differs from incidence, which measures the number of new cases that develop during a certain period.

Virus replication is the process by which a virus produces copies or reproduces itself inside a host cell. This involves several steps:

1. Attachment: The virus attaches to a specific receptor on the surface of the host cell.
2. Penetration: The viral genetic material enters the host cell, either by invagination of the cell membrane or endocytosis.
3. Uncoating: The viral genetic material is released from its protective coat (capsid) inside the host cell.
4. Replication: The viral genetic material uses the host cell's machinery to produce new viral components, such as proteins and nucleic acids.
5. Assembly: The newly synthesized viral components are assembled into new virus particles.
6. Release: The newly formed viruses are released from the host cell, often through lysis (breaking) of the cell membrane or by budding off the cell membrane.

The specific mechanisms and details of virus replication can vary depending on the type of virus. Some viruses, such as DNA viruses, use the host cell's DNA polymerase to replicate their genetic material, while others, such as RNA viruses, use their own RNA-dependent RNA polymerase or reverse transcriptase enzymes. Understanding the process of virus replication is important for developing antiviral therapies and vaccines.

The liver is a large, solid organ located in the upper right portion of the abdomen, beneath the diaphragm and above the stomach. It plays a vital role in several bodily functions, including:

1. Metabolism: The liver helps to metabolize carbohydrates, fats, and proteins from the food we eat into energy and nutrients that our bodies can use.
2. Detoxification: The liver detoxifies harmful substances in the body by breaking them down into less toxic forms or excreting them through bile.
3. Synthesis: The liver synthesizes important proteins, such as albumin and clotting factors, that are necessary for proper bodily function.
4. Storage: The liver stores glucose, vitamins, and minerals that can be released when the body needs them.
5. Bile production: The liver produces bile, a digestive juice that helps to break down fats in the small intestine.
6. Immune function: The liver plays a role in the immune system by filtering out bacteria and other harmful substances from the blood.

Overall, the liver is an essential organ that plays a critical role in maintaining overall health and well-being.

Interferon-alpha (IFN-α) is a type I interferon, which is a group of signaling proteins made and released by host cells in response to the presence of viruses, parasites, and tumor cells. It plays a crucial role in the immune response against viral infections. IFN-α has antiviral, immunomodulatory, and anti-proliferative effects.

IFN-α is produced naturally by various cell types, including leukocytes (white blood cells), fibroblasts, and epithelial cells, in response to viral or bacterial stimulation. It binds to specific receptors on the surface of nearby cells, triggering a signaling cascade that leads to the activation of genes involved in the antiviral response. This results in the production of proteins that inhibit viral replication and promote the presentation of viral antigens to the immune system, enhancing its ability to recognize and eliminate infected cells.

In addition to its role in the immune response, IFN-α has been used as a therapeutic agent for various medical conditions, including certain types of cancer, chronic hepatitis B and C, and multiple sclerosis. However, its use is often limited by side effects such as flu-like symptoms, depression, and neuropsychiatric disorders.

Molecular sequence data refers to the specific arrangement of molecules, most commonly nucleotides in DNA or RNA, or amino acids in proteins, that make up a biological macromolecule. This data is generated through laboratory techniques such as sequencing, and provides information about the exact order of the constituent molecules. This data is crucial in various fields of biology, including genetics, evolution, and molecular biology, allowing for comparisons between different organisms, identification of genetic variations, and studies of gene function and regulation.

Hepatovirus is a genus of viruses in the Picornaviridae family, and it's most notably represented by the Human Hepatitis A Virus (HAV). These viruses are non-enveloped, with a single-stranded, positive-sense RNA genome. They primarily infect hepatocytes, causing liver inflammation and disease, such as hepatitis. Transmission of hepatoviruses typically occurs through the fecal-oral route, often via contaminated food or water. The virus causes an acute infection that does not usually become chronic, and recovery is usually complete within a few weeks. Immunity after infection is solid and lifelong.

"Ducks" is not a medical term. It is a common name used to refer to a group of birds that belong to the family Anatidae, which also includes swans and geese. Some ducks are hunted for their meat, feathers, or down, but they do not have any specific medical relevance. If you have any questions about a specific medical term or concept, I would be happy to help if you could provide more information!

A dose-response relationship in immunology refers to the quantitative relationship between the dose or amount of an antigen (a substance that triggers an immune response) and the magnitude or strength of the resulting immune response. Generally, as the dose of an antigen increases, the intensity and/or duration of the immune response also increase, up to a certain point. This relationship helps in determining the optimal dosage for vaccines and immunotherapies, ensuring sufficient immune activation while minimizing potential adverse effects.

A Pertussis vaccine is a type of immunization used to protect against pertussis, also known as whooping cough. It contains components that stimulate the immune system to produce antibodies against the bacteria that cause pertussis, Bordetella pertussis. There are two main types of pertussis vaccines: whole-cell pertussis (wP) vaccines and acellular pertussis (aP) vaccines. wP vaccines contain killed whole cells of B. pertussis, while aP vaccines contain specific components of the bacteria, such as pertussis toxin and other antigens. Pertussis vaccines are often combined with diphtheria and tetanus to form combination vaccines, such as DTaP (diphtheria, tetanus, and acellular pertussis) and TdaP (tetanus, diphtheria, and acellular pertussis). These vaccines are typically given to young children as part of their routine immunization schedule.

Pregnancy is a physiological state or condition where a fertilized egg (zygote) successfully implants and grows in the uterus of a woman, leading to the development of an embryo and finally a fetus. This process typically spans approximately 40 weeks, divided into three trimesters, and culminates in childbirth. Throughout this period, numerous hormonal and physical changes occur to support the growing offspring, including uterine enlargement, breast development, and various maternal adaptations to ensure the fetus's optimal growth and well-being.

Treatment outcome is a term used to describe the result or effect of medical treatment on a patient's health status. It can be measured in various ways, such as through symptoms improvement, disease remission, reduced disability, improved quality of life, or survival rates. The treatment outcome helps healthcare providers evaluate the effectiveness of a particular treatment plan and make informed decisions about future care. It is also used in clinical research to compare the efficacy of different treatments and improve patient care.

Hepatitis C antigens refer to the proteins present on the surface of the hepatitis C virus (HCV). The most commonly studied and clinically relevant antigen is the core protein, which plays a crucial role in the viral replication process. Detection of HCV antigens in serum or plasma can indicate an ongoing infection, as they appear during the early stages of infection and usually persist until the development of a humoral immune response, which leads to the production of antibodies against these antigens.

The detection of HCV core antigen (HCVcAg) has been used as an alternative diagnostic marker for HCV infection, especially in resource-limited settings where nucleic acid testing (NAT), such as polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for HCV RNA, might not be readily available. However, the sensitivity and specificity of HCVcAg detection are generally lower than those of NAT methods. Nonetheless, it remains a valuable tool in monitoring treatment response and disease progression in individuals with chronic hepatitis C infection.

BCG (Bacillus Calmette-Guérin) vaccine is a type of immunization used primarily to prevent tuberculosis (TB). It contains a live but weakened strain of Mycobacterium bovis, which is related to the bacterium that causes TB in humans (Mycobacterium tuberculosis).

The BCG vaccine works by stimulating an immune response in the body, enabling it to better resist infection with TB bacteria if exposed in the future. It is often given to infants and children in countries where TB is common, and its use varies depending on the national immunization policies. The protection offered by the BCG vaccine is moderate and may not last for a very long time.

In addition to its use against TB, the BCG vaccine has also been investigated for its potential therapeutic role in treating bladder cancer and some other types of cancer. The mechanism of action in these cases is thought to be related to the vaccine's ability to stimulate an immune response against abnormal cells.

Diphtheria-Tetanus-acellular Pertussis (DTaP) vaccines are a type of combination vaccine that protect against three serious diseases caused by bacteria: diphtheria, tetanus, and pertussis (also known as whooping cough).

Diphtheria is a highly contagious respiratory infection that can cause breathing difficulties, heart failure, paralysis, and even death. Tetanus, also known as lockjaw, is a bacterial infection that affects the nervous system and causes muscle stiffness and spasms, which can be severe enough to cause broken bones or suffocation. Pertussis is a highly contagious respiratory infection that causes severe coughing fits, making it difficult to breathe, eat, or drink.

The "a" in DTaP stands for "acellular," which means that the pertussis component of the vaccine contains only parts of the bacteria, rather than the whole cells used in older vaccines. This reduces the risk of side effects associated with the whole-cell pertussis vaccine while still providing effective protection against the disease.

DTaP vaccines are typically given as a series of five shots, starting at 2 months of age and ending at 4-6 years of age. Booster doses may be recommended later in life to maintain immunity. DTaP vaccines are an essential part of routine childhood immunization schedules and have significantly reduced the incidence of these diseases worldwide.

Rabies vaccines are medical products that contain antigens of the rabies virus, which stimulate an immune response in individuals who receive them. The purpose of rabies vaccines is to prevent the development of rabies, a viral disease that is almost always fatal once symptoms appear.

There are two primary types of rabies vaccines available:

1. Pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) vaccines: These vaccines are given to individuals who are at high risk of coming into contact with the rabies virus, such as veterinarians, animal handlers, and travelers visiting areas where rabies is common. The vaccine series typically consists of three doses given over a period of 28 days.
2. Post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP) vaccines: These vaccines are administered to individuals who have already been exposed to the rabies virus, usually through a bite or scratch from an infected animal. The vaccine series typically consists of four doses given over a period of 14 days, along with a dose of rabies immune globulin (RIG) to provide immediate protection while the immune system responds to the vaccine.

Both types of rabies vaccines are highly effective at preventing the disease, but it is essential to receive them as soon as possible after exposure or before potential exposure, as the virus can be fatal if left untreated.

Murine hepatitis virus (MHV) is a type of coronavirus that primarily infects laboratory mice. It is not related to the human hepatitis viruses A, B, C, D, or E. MHV causes a range of diseases in mice, including hepatitis (liver inflammation), encephalomyelitis (inflammation of the brain and spinal cord), and enteritis (inflammation of the intestine). The virus is transmitted through fecal-oral route and respiratory droplets. It's widely used in research to understand the pathogenesis, immunity, and molecular biology of coronaviruses.

Hepatitis antigens are proteins or molecules present on the surface or inside the hepatitis viruses (hepatitis A, B, C, D, and E) that can stimulate an immune response in the body. These antigens are targeted by the immune system to produce antibodies to fight against the infection.

For example, the Hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) is a protein found on the surface of the hepatitis B virus and its presence in the blood indicates an ongoing infection or evidence of past infection/vaccination. Similarly, the core antigen (HBcAg) is a protein found inside the hepatitis B virus and is a marker of active viral replication.

Detection of these antigens in clinical samples such as blood is useful for diagnosing hepatitis infections and monitoring the effectiveness of treatment.

Medical Definition:

"Risk factors" are any attribute, characteristic or exposure of an individual that increases the likelihood of developing a disease or injury. They can be divided into modifiable and non-modifiable risk factors. Modifiable risk factors are those that can be changed through lifestyle choices or medical treatment, while non-modifiable risk factors are inherent traits such as age, gender, or genetic predisposition. Examples of modifiable risk factors include smoking, alcohol consumption, physical inactivity, and unhealthy diet, while non-modifiable risk factors include age, sex, and family history. It is important to note that having a risk factor does not guarantee that a person will develop the disease, but rather indicates an increased susceptibility.

Organophosphonates are a class of organic compounds characterized by the presence of a carbon-phosphorus bond. They contain a phosphonic acid group, which consists of a phosphorus atom bonded to four oxygen or nitrogen atoms, with one of those bonds being replaced by a carbon atom.

In a medical context, organophosphonates are commonly used as radiopharmaceuticals in diagnostic nuclear medicine procedures, such as bone scans. These compounds have the ability to bind to hydroxyapatite, the mineral component of bones, and can be labeled with radioactive isotopes for imaging purposes. They may also be used in therapeutic settings, including as treatments for conditions such as tumor-induced hypercalcemia and Paget's disease of bone.

It is important to note that organophosphonates are distinct from organophosphates, another class of compounds that contain a phosphorus atom bonded to three oxygen or sulfur atoms and one carbon atom. Organophosphates have been widely used as pesticides and chemical warfare agents, and can pose significant health risks due to their toxicity.

Rotavirus vaccines are preventive measures used to protect against rotavirus infections, which are the leading cause of severe diarrhea and dehydration among infants and young children worldwide. These vaccines contain weakened or inactivated forms of the rotavirus, a pathogen that infects and causes symptoms by multiplying inside cells lining the small intestine.

The weakened or inactivated virus in the vaccine stimulates an immune response in the body, enabling it to recognize and fight off future rotavirus infections more effectively. The vaccines are usually administered orally, as a liquid droplet or on a sugar cube, to mimic natural infection through the gastrointestinal tract.

There are currently two licensed rotavirus vaccines available globally:

1. Rotarix (GlaxoSmithKline): This vaccine contains an attenuated (weakened) strain of human rotavirus and is given in a two-dose series, typically at 2 and 4 months of age.
2. RotaTeq (Merck): This vaccine contains five reassortant viruses, combining human and animal strains to provide broader protection. It is administered in a three-dose series, usually at 2, 4, and 6 months of age.

Rotavirus vaccines have been shown to significantly reduce the incidence of severe rotavirus gastroenteritis and related hospitalizations among infants and young children. The World Health Organization (WHO) recommends the inclusion of rotavirus vaccination in national immunization programs, particularly in countries with high child mortality rates due to diarrheal diseases.

Hepatitis Delta Antigens (HDAg) are proteins found on the surface of the Hepatitis Delta Virus (HDV), a defective virus that requires the assistance of the Hepatitis B Virus (HBV) to replicate. There are two types of HDAg: small (S-HDAg) and large (L-HDAg). S-HDAg is a 195-amino acid protein that is essential for viral replication, while L-HDAg is a 214-amino acid protein that regulates the packaging of the viral genome into new virus particles. The presence of HDAg can be used to diagnose HDV infection and distinguish it from other forms of hepatitis.

A cohort study is a type of observational study in which a group of individuals who share a common characteristic or exposure are followed up over time to determine the incidence of a specific outcome or outcomes. The cohort, or group, is defined based on the exposure status (e.g., exposed vs. unexposed) and then monitored prospectively to assess for the development of new health events or conditions.

Cohort studies can be either prospective or retrospective in design. In a prospective cohort study, participants are enrolled and followed forward in time from the beginning of the study. In contrast, in a retrospective cohort study, researchers identify a cohort that has already been assembled through medical records, insurance claims, or other sources and then look back in time to assess exposure status and health outcomes.

Cohort studies are useful for establishing causality between an exposure and an outcome because they allow researchers to observe the temporal relationship between the two. They can also provide information on the incidence of a disease or condition in different populations, which can be used to inform public health policy and interventions. However, cohort studies can be expensive and time-consuming to conduct, and they may be subject to bias if participants are not representative of the population or if there is loss to follow-up.

Cholera vaccines are preventive measures used to protect against the infection caused by the bacterium Vibrio cholerae. There are several types of cholera vaccines available, including:

1. Inactivated oral vaccine (ICCV): This vaccine contains killed whole-cell bacteria and is given in two doses, with each dose administered at least 14 days apart. It provides protection for up to six months and can be given to adults and children over the age of one year.
2. Live attenuated oral vaccine (LCV): This vaccine contains weakened live bacteria that are unable to cause disease but still stimulate an immune response. The most commonly used LCV is called CVD 103-HgR, which is given in a single dose and provides protection for up to three months. It can be given to adults and children over the age of six years.
3. Injectable cholera vaccine: This vaccine contains inactivated bacteria and is given as an injection. It is not widely available and its effectiveness is limited compared to oral vaccines.

Cholera vaccines are recommended for travelers visiting areas with known cholera outbreaks, particularly if they plan to eat food or drink water that may be contaminated. They can also be used in response to outbreaks to help control the spread of the disease. However, it is important to note that vaccination alone is not sufficient to prevent cholera infection and good hygiene practices, such as handwashing and safe food handling, should always be followed.

HLA-DQ beta-chains are a type of human leukocyte antigen (HLA) molecule found on the surface of cells in the human body. The HLAs are a group of proteins that play an important role in the immune system by helping the body recognize and respond to foreign substances, such as viruses and bacteria.

The HLA-DQ beta-chains are part of the HLA-DQ complex, which is a heterodimer made up of two polypeptide chains: an alpha chain (HLA-DQ alpha) and a beta chain (HLA-DQ beta). These chains are encoded by genes located on chromosome 6 in the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) region.

The HLA-DQ complex is involved in presenting peptides to CD4+ T cells, which are a type of white blood cell that plays a central role in the immune response. The peptides presented by the HLA-DQ complex are derived from proteins that have been processed within the cell, and they are used to help the CD4+ T cells recognize and respond to infected or abnormal cells.

Variations in the genes that encode the HLA-DQ beta-chains can affect an individual's susceptibility to certain diseases, including autoimmune disorders and infectious diseases.

Genotype, in genetics, refers to the complete heritable genetic makeup of an individual organism, including all of its genes. It is the set of instructions contained in an organism's DNA for the development and function of that organism. The genotype is the basis for an individual's inherited traits, and it can be contrasted with an individual's phenotype, which refers to the observable physical or biochemical characteristics of an organism that result from the expression of its genes in combination with environmental influences.

It is important to note that an individual's genotype is not necessarily identical to their genetic sequence. Some genes have multiple forms called alleles, and an individual may inherit different alleles for a given gene from each parent. The combination of alleles that an individual inherits for a particular gene is known as their genotype for that gene.

Understanding an individual's genotype can provide important information about their susceptibility to certain diseases, their response to drugs and other treatments, and their risk of passing on inherited genetic disorders to their offspring.

Prospective studies, also known as longitudinal studies, are a type of cohort study in which data is collected forward in time, following a group of individuals who share a common characteristic or exposure over a period of time. The researchers clearly define the study population and exposure of interest at the beginning of the study and follow up with the participants to determine the outcomes that develop over time. This type of study design allows for the investigation of causal relationships between exposures and outcomes, as well as the identification of risk factors and the estimation of disease incidence rates. Prospective studies are particularly useful in epidemiology and medical research when studying diseases with long latency periods or rare outcomes.

Retrospective studies, also known as retrospective research or looking back studies, are a type of observational study that examines data from the past to draw conclusions about possible causal relationships between risk factors and outcomes. In these studies, researchers analyze existing records, medical charts, or previously collected data to test a hypothesis or answer a specific research question.

Retrospective studies can be useful for generating hypotheses and identifying trends, but they have limitations compared to prospective studies, which follow participants forward in time from exposure to outcome. Retrospective studies are subject to biases such as recall bias, selection bias, and information bias, which can affect the validity of the results. Therefore, retrospective studies should be interpreted with caution and used primarily to generate hypotheses for further testing in prospective studies.

Viral core proteins are the structural proteins that make up the viral capsid or protein shell, enclosing and protecting the viral genome. These proteins play a crucial role in the assembly of the virion, assist in the infection process by helping to deliver the viral genome into the host cell, and may also have functions in regulating viral replication. The specific composition and structure of viral core proteins vary among different types of viruses.

Hepatitis A antigens refer to the proteins or molecules present on the surface of the Hepatitis A virus (HAV) that can stimulate an immune response in the body. There are two main types of HAV antigens:

1. Hepatitis A Virus Capsid Antigen (also known as HAV VP1): This is a structural protein that makes up the outer shell or capsid of the HAV particle. It contains several epitopes (regions that can be recognized by the immune system) that can induce the production of antibodies in infected individuals.
2. Hepatitis A Virus Non-structural Antigen (also known as HAV NS1): This is a non-structural protein produced during the replication of the HAV genome. It plays a crucial role in the replication and assembly of new HAV particles, but it is not present in the mature virion. However, its detection in serum or liver tissue can indicate an ongoing HAV infection.

The presence of antibodies against these antigens (anti-HAV antibodies) in a person's blood can be used to diagnose past or recent Hepatitis A infections and immunity acquired through vaccination.

Viral load refers to the amount or quantity of virus (like HIV, Hepatitis C, SARS-CoV-2) present in an individual's blood or bodily fluids. It is often expressed as the number of virus copies per milliliter of blood or fluid. Monitoring viral load is important in managing and treating certain viral infections, as a higher viral load may indicate increased infectivity, disease progression, or response to treatment.

The Smallpox vaccine is not a live virus vaccine but is instead made from a vaccinia virus, which is a virus related to the variola virus (the virus that causes smallpox). The vaccinia virus used in the vaccine does not cause smallpox, but it does cause a milder illness with symptoms such as a fever and a rash of pustules or blisters at the site of inoculation.

The smallpox vaccine was first developed by Edward Jenner in 1796 and is one of the oldest vaccines still in use today. It has been highly effective in preventing smallpox, which was once a major cause of death and disability worldwide. In fact, smallpox was declared eradicated by the World Health Organization (WHO) in 1980, thanks in large part to the widespread use of the smallpox vaccine.

Despite the eradication of smallpox, the smallpox vaccine is still used today in certain circumstances. For example, it may be given to laboratory workers who handle the virus or to military personnel who may be at risk of exposure to the virus. The vaccine may also be used as an emergency measure in the event of a bioterrorism attack involving smallpox.

It is important to note that the smallpox vaccine is not without risks and can cause serious side effects, including a severe allergic reaction (anaphylaxis), encephalitis (inflammation of the brain), and myocarditis (inflammation of the heart muscle). As a result, it is only given to people who are at high risk of exposure to the virus and who have been determined to be good candidates for vaccination by a healthcare professional.

The chickenpox vaccine, also known as varicella vaccine, is a preventive measure against the highly contagious viral infection caused by the varicella-zoster virus. The vaccine contains a live but weakened form of the virus, which stimulates the immune system to produce a response without causing the disease itself.

The chickenpox vaccine is typically given in two doses, with the first dose administered between 12 and 15 months of age and the second dose between 4 and 6 years of age. In some cases, the vaccine may be given to older children, adolescents, or adults who have not previously been vaccinated or who have never had chickenpox.

The chickenpox vaccine is highly effective at preventing severe cases of the disease and reducing the risk of complications such as bacterial infections, pneumonia, and encephalitis. It is also effective at preventing transmission of the virus to others.

Like any vaccine, the chickenpox vaccine can cause mild side effects such as soreness at the injection site, fever, or a mild rash. However, these side effects are generally mild and short-lived. Serious side effects are rare but may include allergic reactions or severe immune responses.

Overall, the chickenpox vaccine is a safe and effective way to prevent this common childhood disease and its potential complications.

"Marmota" is a genus of large ground squirrels that are native to North America and Eurasia. These animals, also known as woodchucks or whistle pigs, are well-known for their ability to hibernate during the winter months. They typically live in burrows that they dig themselves, and their diet consists mainly of grasses, leaves, and shrubs. Marmotas are social creatures and often live in colonies with a dominant male and several females. While "Marmota" is a valid term in medical literature, it is more commonly found in the fields of biology and zoology rather than medicine.

A base sequence in the context of molecular biology refers to the specific order of nucleotides in a DNA or RNA molecule. In DNA, these nucleotides are adenine (A), guanine (G), cytosine (C), and thymine (T). In RNA, uracil (U) takes the place of thymine. The base sequence contains genetic information that is transcribed into RNA and ultimately translated into proteins. It is the exact order of these bases that determines the genetic code and thus the function of the DNA or RNA molecule.

BALB/c is an inbred strain of laboratory mouse that is widely used in biomedical research. The strain was developed at the Institute of Cancer Research in London by Henry Baldwin and his colleagues in the 1920s, and it has since become one of the most commonly used inbred strains in the world.

BALB/c mice are characterized by their black coat color, which is determined by a recessive allele at the tyrosinase locus. They are also known for their docile and friendly temperament, making them easy to handle and work with in the laboratory.

One of the key features of BALB/c mice that makes them useful for research is their susceptibility to certain types of tumors and immune responses. For example, they are highly susceptible to developing mammary tumors, which can be induced by chemical carcinogens or viral infection. They also have a strong Th2-biased immune response, which makes them useful models for studying allergic diseases and asthma.

BALB/c mice are also commonly used in studies of genetics, neuroscience, behavior, and infectious diseases. Because they are an inbred strain, they have a uniform genetic background, which makes it easier to control for genetic factors in experiments. Additionally, because they have been bred in the laboratory for many generations, they are highly standardized and reproducible, making them ideal subjects for scientific research.

A tuberculosis vaccine, also known as the BCG (Bacillus Calmette-Guérin) vaccine, is a type of immunization used to prevent tuberculosis (TB), a bacterial infection caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis. The BCG vaccine contains a weakened strain of the bacteria that causes TB in cattle.

The BCG vaccine works by stimulating an immune response in the body, which helps to protect against severe forms of TB, such as TB meningitis and TB in children. However, it is not very effective at preventing pulmonary TB (TB that affects the lungs) in adults.

The BCG vaccine is not routinely recommended for use in the United States due to the low risk of TB infection in the general population. However, it may be given to people who are at high risk of exposure to TB, such as healthcare workers, laboratory personnel, and people traveling to countries with high rates of TB.

It is important to note that the BCG vaccine does not provide complete protection against TB and that other measures, such as testing and treatment for latent TB infection, are also important for controlling the spread of this disease.

A viral genome is the genetic material (DNA or RNA) that is present in a virus. It contains all the genetic information that a virus needs to replicate itself and infect its host. The size and complexity of viral genomes can vary greatly, ranging from a few thousand bases to hundreds of thousands of bases. Some viruses have linear genomes, while others have circular genomes. The genome of a virus also contains the information necessary for the virus to hijack the host cell's machinery and use it to produce new copies of the virus. Understanding the genetic makeup of viruses is important for developing vaccines and antiviral treatments.

An Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA) is a type of analytical biochemistry assay used to detect and quantify the presence of a substance, typically a protein or peptide, in a liquid sample. It takes its name from the enzyme-linked antibodies used in the assay.

In an ELISA, the sample is added to a well containing a surface that has been treated to capture the target substance. If the target substance is present in the sample, it will bind to the surface. Next, an enzyme-linked antibody specific to the target substance is added. This antibody will bind to the captured target substance if it is present. After washing away any unbound material, a substrate for the enzyme is added. If the enzyme is present due to its linkage to the antibody, it will catalyze a reaction that produces a detectable signal, such as a color change or fluorescence. The intensity of this signal is proportional to the amount of target substance present in the sample, allowing for quantification.

ELISAs are widely used in research and clinical settings to detect and measure various substances, including hormones, viruses, and bacteria. They offer high sensitivity, specificity, and reproducibility, making them a reliable choice for many applications.

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"Hepatitis B". www.who.int. Retrieved 2 December 2022. "Safety Information for Hepatitis B Vaccines , Vaccine Safety , CDC". www ... Co-infection of hepatitis B and various other viruses can also occur. hepatitis C, hepatitis D (a satellite virus of hepatitis ... hepatitis B virus infection is easily avoided by receiving one of the hepatitis B vaccines. The plasma-derived HepB vaccine was ... Despite there being a vaccine to prevent hepatitis B, HBV remains a global health problem. Hepatitis B can be acute and later ...
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"WHO: Hepatitis vaccine" (PDF). Retrieved 10 Oct 2021. Lee, B. (2020). "Rotavirus vaccine". Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics ... "Hepatitis A Questions and Answers for the Public". CDC. CDC. Retrieved 1 November 2020. "MMR Vaccine and MMRV Vaccine". CDC. ... "Meningococcal vaccines". Retrieved 10 Oct 2021. "HPV vaccines". Food and Drug Administration. Retrieved 10 Oct 2021. "Hepatitis ... Hepatitis A, like Hepatitis B is inflammation of the liver. Hepatitis A is a contagious liver disease that results form ...
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Most affected children had not received a COVID-19 vaccine. The WHO's report of 23 April confirmed that 114 have been reported ... doi:10.1002/hep.32682. ISSN 1527-3350. PMID 35862247. "Joint ECDC-WHO Regional Office for Europe Hepatitis of Unknown Origin in ... "Overview: Children with Hepatitis of Unknown Cause". www.cdc.gov. 7 June 2022. Retrieved 9 June 2022. "Acute hepatitis: ... "Acute hepatitis of unknown aetiology (disease outbreak news)". www.who.int. Retrieved 25 April 2022. "Increase in hepatitis ( ...
First vaccine for hepatitis B (first vaccine to target a cause of cancer) 1984 - First vaccine for chicken pox 1985 - First ... First oral polio vaccine (Sabin vaccine) 1963 - First vaccine for measles 1967 - First vaccine for mumps 1970 - First vaccine ... First vaccine for Hantavirus hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome 1991 - First vaccine for hepatitis A 1998 - First vaccine ... First vaccine for hepatitis E 2012 - First quadrivalent (4-strain) influenza vaccine 2013 - First vaccine for enterovirus 71, ...
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"Screening for hepatitis B, HIV and syphilis". www.nhs.uk. 2018-01-10. Retrieved 2018-06-09. "Vaccines". medlineplus.gov. ... Vamos, Cheryl A.; McDermott, Robert J.; Daley, Ellen M. (June 2008). "The HPV Vaccine: Framing the Arguments FOR and AGAINST ... For example, mothers are routinely screened for HIV and Hepatitis B during pregnancy. Detection during pregnancy can prevent ...
Hepatitis 'C' Vaccine Trials". youtube.com. BBC News. 28 February 2008. Retrieved 17 February 2010. "On behalf of the SPALDING ... As someone formerly affected by hepatitis C, he appeared on BBC Oxford on 28 July 2008 to promote a vaccine trial for the ... Toyah-The Changeling tour programme (1982). Hepatitis "C" Vaccine Trials. BBC TV. 28 July 2008 Phil Spalding discography at ... Spalding started a patient support group called Hep C Positive in Swindon, and worked with the charity Liver4Life to raise ...
Clinical and Vaccine Immunology. 16 (2): 163-71. doi:10.1128/CVI.00287-08. PMC 2643538. PMID 19091993. Jin Z, Leveque V, Ma H, ... Nonstructural protein 5B (NS5B) is a viral protein found in the hepatitis C virus (HCV). It is an RNA-dependent RNA polymerase ... O'Farrell D, Trowbridge R, Rowlands D, Jäger J (February 2003). "Substrate complexes of hepatitis C virus RNA polymerase (HC-J4 ... Gehring S, Gregory SH, Wintermeyer P, Aloman C, Wands JR (February 2009). "Generation of immune responses against hepatitis C ...
"Storage for RECOMBIVAX HB® [Hepatitis B Vaccine (Recombinant)]". MerckVaccines.com. Retrieved 2021-11-19. (All articles with ... Due to the abundant number of vaccines, pharmaceutics combines two or more vaccines to save more time. These types of vaccines ... The storage are necessary to improve vaccine shelf life and transport vaccine worldwide. Vaccine storage was first developed in ... and rubella II vaccines, which are transported between −25 °C and −15 °C. Some vaccines, such as the COVID-19 vaccine, require ...
Manufacturers recommend that hepatitis B vaccines be stored at 2-8 °C, but the vaccines actually tolerate ambient and even high ... Zweig, S. (2006). "Advances in vaccine stability monitoring technology". Vaccine. 24 (33-34): 5977-5985. doi:10.1016/j.vaccine. ... In 1996 the vaccine vial monitor was first used in a vaccine project, and by the next year it was widely accepted for use on ... The vaccine vial monitor is intended for use on vaccines which may travel outside of the cold chain, but its use on certain ...
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ISBN 978-0-06-122795-0. "Vaccines for hepatitis B and other infectious diseases". "Stephen Goldby, Saul Krugman, M. H. ... 40 Offit, Paul A. (2007). The Cutter Incident: How America's First Polio Vaccine Led to the Growing Vaccine Crisis. Yale ... While examining blood samples from patients with hepatitis at NYU, Krugman discovered that heating blood containing hepatitis B ... Krugman was the first to distinguish hepatitis A from hepatitis B, and made great strides in describing their different ...
Examples include IPV (polio vaccine), hepatitis A vaccine, rabies vaccine and most influenza vaccines. Toxoid vaccines are made ... The subgroup of genetic vaccines encompass viral vector vaccines, RNA vaccines and DNA vaccines. Viral vector vaccines use a ... RNA vaccines and DNA vaccines are examples of third generation vaccines. In 2016 a DNA vaccine for the Zika virus began testing ... Vaccine cooler Vaccine failure Vaccine hesitancy Vaccinov Viral vector Virus-like particle Nasal vaccine "Expanded Practice ...
Diseases such as measles and hepatitis lead to deaths in countries where the people cannot afford the high costs of vaccines, ... Biotech potato provides hepatitis vaccine. The Atlanta Journal-Constitution. February 15, 2005. Pg. 3A. Biotechnology Venture ... cholera, anthrax, and plague vaccines, albumin, interferon for liver diseases including hepatitis C, elastin, 4HB, and insulin- ... Maintaining a temperature controlled supply chain of vaccines is often difficult when delivering vaccines to developing ...
Exposure to vaccines: The only vaccine proven related to ADEM is the Semple form of the rabies vaccine, but hepatitis B, ... Karaali-Savrun F, Altintaş A, Saip S, Siva A (November 2001). "Hepatitis B vaccine related-myelitis?". European Journal of ... Institute of Medicine (US) Vaccine Safety Committee) (1994). Adverse Events Associated with Childhood Vaccines: Evidence ... of MMR vaccine or smallpox vaccine) do not show increased risk of ADEM following vaccination. An upper bound for the risk of ...
"Black disease vaccine for sheep". CSIROpedia. Retrieved November 11, 2016. Wikimedia Commons has media related to infectious ... Infectious necrotic hepatitis is a disease of large animals, especially sheep, caused by Clostridium novyi infection. The ... Stampfi, Henry (March 2014). "Infectious Necrotic Hepatitis". The Merck Veterinary Manual. Merck Sharp & Dohme Corp. Retrieved ... necrotic hepatitis. (Articles with short description, Short description matches Wikidata, Commons category link is on Wikidata ...
Only the 17D vaccine remains in use today. Theiler's vaccine was responsible for the largest outbreak of Hepatitis B in history ... Live vaccines, Vaccines, World Health Organization essential medicines (vaccines), Yellow fever, Wikipedia medicine articles ... "Hepatitis B". www.who.int. Retrieved 28 April 2022. Hettrick GR (Winter 2012). "Vaccine Production in the Bitterroot Valley ... At the time, chronic infectious hepatitis was not known, so when human serum was used in vaccine preparation, serum drawn from ...
Jahani, M (2003). "Hepatitis B carriers in large vehicle drivers of Iran". Vaccine. 21 (17-18): 1948-1951. doi:10.1016/S0264- ...
Mandates have been effective at increasing uptake of other vaccines, such as mumps, measles, rubella, and hepatitis B (which is ... The vaccine is officially called the MEL-1 vaccine but also known as the MVA-E2 vaccine. In a study it has been suggested that ... vaccines are vaccines that prevent infection by certain types of human papillomavirus (HPV). Available HPV vaccines protect ... Vaccine. 33 (29): 3422-3428. doi:10.1016/j.vaccine.2015.04.014. PMID 25869893. "HPV Vaccine and Pregnancy". eMedTV. Archived ...
The latest safety information from CDC on the Hepatitis B vaccines: safety studies, common side effects, vaccine package ... Combination vaccines with hepatitis B: These shots contain hepatitis B vaccine plus other vaccines, combined into a single dose ... Who Should Get Hepatitis B Vaccine. Hepatitis B vaccine is given as a series of 2, 3, or 4 shots, depending on the vaccine ... Vaccine. 2007;25(31):5938-5943.. Woo EJ, Miller NB, Ball R. Adverse events after hepatitis A B combination vaccine. Vaccine. ...
... www.cdc.gov/vaccines/hcp/vis/vis-statements/hep-a.html. ... www.cdc.gov/vaccines/hcp/vis/vis-statements/hep-a.html. ... All content below is taken in its entirety from the CDC Hepatitis A Vaccine Information Statement (VIS): ... All content below is taken in its entirety from the CDC Hepatitis A Vaccine Information Statement (VIS): ... Hepatitis A vaccine can prevent hepatitis A.. Hepatitis A is a serious liver disease. It is usually spread through close, ...
Why Does My Baby Need Hepatitis B Vaccine? ... Why Does My Baby Need Hepatitis B Vaccine? CDC/NCPS/DIV ...
The four most common hepatitis viruses are hepatitis A, B, C and E. In addition, there is hepatitis D, which is rarer. ... Hepatitis is an inflammation of the liver. It is mainly caused by viral infection. ... WHO position papers on vaccines, including hepatitis Immunological basis for immunization series, including hepatitis vaccines ... The four most common hepatitis viruses are hepatitis A, B, C and E. In addition, there is hepatitis D, which is rarer. ...
... is a vaccine against hepatitis A and hepatitis B. Pediarix is a vaccine against diphtheria, tetanus, pertussis, hepatitis B, ... Hepatitis B vaccination, hepatitis B immunoglobulin, and the combination of hepatitis B vaccine plus hepatitis B immunoglobulin ... Hepatitis B, Cancer vaccines, GSK plc brands, Merck & Co. brands, Recombinant proteins, Subunit vaccines, Hepatitis vaccines, ... Hepatitis B vaccine is a vaccine that prevents hepatitis B. The first dose is recommended within 24 hours of birth with either ...
Find out when and why your child needs this vaccine. ... Hepatitis A. *Your Childs Vaccines: Hepatitis A Vaccine (HepA) ... What Is Hepatitis B?. Hepatitis B is an infection of the liver caused by the hepatitis B virus. People who get infected can ... How Vaccines Help Vaccines keep millions of people healthy each year by preparing the body to fight illness. Learn how vaccines ... Sometimes doctors give the HepB vaccine in combination with other vaccines, such as DTaP, IPV, Hib, or HepA vaccines. ...
Learn more about the benefits of the hepatitis B vaccine here. ... B vaccine to prevent them from contracting the hepatitis B ... the hepatitis B vaccine cannot cause hepatitis B. Although manufacturers use parts of the hepatitis B virus to create the ... While vaccines exist for hepatitis A and B, researchers are still developing a vaccine for hepatitis C. Learn more about future ... Experts consider the hepatitis B vaccine to be safe and effective.. People should ideally receive the vaccine at as young an ...
... the Hep Team will fan out across New York City this summer to promote vaccinations for ... A key issue in the vaccine campaign is ensuring that those people who get their first shot from the Hep Team go on to receive ... Hepatitis Vaccine Drive Begins. BY DUNCAN OSBORNE Posted on May 31, 2006. ... GSK makes a product that contains both the hepatitis A and B vaccines that confer long-lasting immunity. Previously, five shots ...
... hepatitis A vaccine inactivated), frequency-based adverse effects, comprehensive interactions, contraindications, pregnancy & ... encoded search term (hepatitis A vaccine inactivated (Vaqta%2C Havrix)) and hepatitis A vaccine inactivated (Vaqta, Havrix) ... dengue vaccine. Monitor Closely (1)dengue vaccine, hepatitis A vaccine inactivated. unspecified interaction mechanism. Use ... dengue vaccine. dengue vaccine, hepatitis A vaccine inactivated. unspecified interaction mechanism. Use Caution/Monitor. Data ...
Research team will seek to develop a novel prophylactic vaccine to prevent HCV. ... NIH Awards $6 Million Grant for Hepatitis C Vaccine. June 15, 2017. Lauren Santye, Assistant Editor ... 6 million grant to develop a hepatitis C virus (HCV) vaccine, according to a press release. ... "The SBVD team is one example of several programs at the Institute engaged in novel vaccine development, next generation protein ...
GeoVaxs vaccines can provoke the desired immune responses, and those vaccines can be used effectively as a primary or booster ... based vaccine platform. On this platform, MVA, a large virus capable of carrying several vaccine antigens, expresses proteins ... GeoVaxs vaccines will be safe for human use, GeoVaxs vaccines will effectively prevent targeted infections in humans, ... as well as therapeutic vaccines against multiple cancers. The Company has designed a preventive HIV vaccine candidate to fight ...
Hepatitis B Vaccine - Explore from the MSD Manuals - Medical Consumer Version. ... The hepatitis B vaccine helps protect against hepatitis B Hepatitis B, Acute Acute hepatitis B is inflammation of the liver ... A vaccine that combines hepatitis A and hepatitis B vaccine is also available. This vaccine is given as a series of three or ... Administration of Hepatitis B Vaccine The hepatitis B vaccine is typically given in a series of two or three injections into a ...
But the vaccine may face minor hurdles from insurance companies and states. ... The success of a 1999 program to vaccinate children in high-risk areas against Hepatitis A prompted the Advisory Committee on ... Advisory Committee Recommends Hepatitis A Vaccine for All Children. November 8, 2005. Article ... And of these, two mandated the vaccine only in selected counties.. This is good news for vaccine advocates. "Its a lot of work ...
... a hepatitis E vaccine, in children and HIV-positive adults. Hecolin is the only hepatitis E vaccine currently available. Our ... International Vaccine Institute - Hepatitis E Vaccine Trial Open Philanthropy recommended a grant of $4,000,000 over three ... International Vaccine Institute - Hepatitis E and Leptospirosis Study Open Philanthropy recommended a grant of $742,176 over ... International Vaccine Institute - Cholera Vaccine Clinical Trial Open Philanthropy recommended a grant of $2,500,000 over three ...
We offer a private hepatitis A vaccination for both adults and children. You can book an appointment online, via email or by ... How does the hepatitis A vaccine work?. The hepatitis A vaccine contains inactivated hepatitis A virus.. The vaccine contains ... Hepatitis A vaccine is available alone as a "single antigen" vaccine, or in combination with hepatitis B vaccine. ... Combination hepatitis A / hepatitis B vaccines (such as TwinRix) contain a lower dose of the hepatitis A component, so three or ...
Islam, N, Krajden, M, Shoveller, J, Gustafson, P, Gilbert, M, Wong, J, Tyndall, MW, Janjua, ...
Medical information for Hepatitis A Vaccine on Pediatric Oncall including Mechanism, Indication, Contraindications, Dosing, ... Hepatitis A Vaccine. Mechanism : There are 2 types of Hepatitis A vaccine. Liver viral vaccine and recombinant vaccine. ... Hepatitis A Vaccine is a non-infectious vaccine. The virus strain HM175, is propagated in MRC-5 human diploid cells. After ... This vaccine is contraindicated in patients with previous hypersensitivity to any hepatitis A-containing vaccine. ...
Introduction status of Hepatitis A vaccine over time derived from official country reporting to the World Health Organization. ... Introduction of Hepatitis A vaccine. Introduction status of Hepatitis A vaccine over time. These data summarize country ... introduction status of Hepatitis A vaccine in the national immunization programme. Data are updated regularly and are derived ...
... ... Diaz-Mitoma, Francisco (2022). Safety & immunogenicity of a 3-Antigen hepatitis B vaccine, PreHevbrio™ [Hepatitis B vaccine ( ... Title : Safety & immunogenicity of a 3-Antigen hepatitis B vaccine, PreHevbrio™ [Hepatitis B vaccine (recombinant)] Personal ... Diaz-Mitoma, Francisco "Safety & immunogenicity of a 3-Antigen hepatitis B vaccine, PreHevbrio™ [Hepatitis B vaccine ( ...
The hepatitis B virus (HBV), discovered in 1966, infects more than 350 million people worldwide. HBV can cause acute and ... Hepatitis A vaccine, inactivated, and hepatitis B vaccine (Twinrix). *View full drug information ... Vaccines, Viral, Prevention. Class Summary. Hepatitis B vaccine is used for active immunization against disease caused by HBV. ... This combined hepatitis A-hepatitis B vaccine is used for active immunization of persons older than 18 years against disease ...
The war against hepatitis B : a history of the international task force on hepatitis B immunization / dWilliam Muraskin. by ... Hepatitis B as an occupational hazard. by World Health Organization. Regional Office for Europe , Viral Hepatitis Prevention ... operational field guidelines for delivery of the birth dose of hepatitis B vaccine. by World Health Organization. Regional ... by International Conference on the Control of Hepatitis B in the Developing World (1991: Yaoundé, Cameroon) , World Health ...
... specific antibodies against the hepatitis B virus. Current hepatitis vaccines use alum as an adjuvant, which stimulate a more ... on a hepatitis B vaccine that is more immunogenic in populations that dont respond optimally to current vaccines. ... The Impact of Hepatitis C Burden: An Evidence-Based Approach * Opportunities for Treating Chronic Hepatitis B and C Virus ... Heplisav was also designed to overcome the problem of the reduced immunogenicity seen with current hepatitis B vaccines among ...
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In spite of this concern, the risk of hepatitis continues to be the greater occupational threat. ... Recombinant vaccine used to provide immunization against all known subtypes of hepatitis B virus. ... Recommendations for Postexposure Interventions to Prevent Infections with Hepatitis B Virus, Hepatitis C Virus, or Human ... Vaccines containing epitopes that can elicit an immune response are very effective in inducing a protective response. ...
This report describes the status of introductions globally for eight new and underutilized vaccines recommended by the World ... 2010comvax-hepatitis-b-vaccine-haemophilus-influenzae-type-b-vaccine-343220. Drugs hepatitis b vaccine/haemophilus influenzae ... HIV vaccine * diphtheria & tetanus toxoids/acellular pertussis vaccine/poliovirus vaccine inactivated/hepatitis b/haemophilus ... universal hepatitis B vaccine birth dose; Hib = Haemophilus influenzae type b vaccine; HPV = human papillomavirus vaccine; MCV2 ...
  • There are 5 licensed hepatitis B vaccines currently available in the United States: 3 single antigen vaccines and 2 combination vaccines. (cdc.gov)
  • Studies have found that that immune memory against HepB is sustained for at least 30 years after vaccination, and protects against clinical disease and chronic HepB infection, even in cases where anti-hepatitis B surface antigen (anti-Hbs) levels decline below detectable levels. (wikipedia.org)
  • Any person testing positive for hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) is potentially infectious to both household and sexual contacts. (cdc.gov)
  • Hepatitis A vaccine is available alone as a "single antigen" vaccine, or in combination with hepatitis B vaccine. (fleetstreetclinic.com)
  • An initial dose of single antigen Hepatitis A vaccine provides protection for one year. (fleetstreetclinic.com)
  • Title : Safety & immunogenicity of a 3-Antigen hepatitis B vaccine, PreHevbrio™ [Hepatitis B vaccine (recombinant)] Personal Author(s) : Diaz-Mitoma, Francisco Corporate Authors(s) : VBI Vaccines Conference Author(s) : United States. (cdc.gov)
  • Ideally, candidates for interferon therapy have evidence of ongoing viral replication (presence of hepatitis e antigen [HBeAg] or HBV DNA) for at least 6 months and either persistently increased serum aminotransferase activity or evidence of chronic hepatitis B infection on liver biopsy findings. (medscape.com)
  • A substance or combination of substances used in conjunction with a vaccine antigen to enhance (for example, increase, accelerate, prolong and/or possibly target) or modulate a specific immune response to the vaccine antigen in order to enhance the clinical effectiveness of the vaccine. (who.int)
  • Heplisav differs from currently licensed hepatitis B vaccines in its adjuvant, a toll-like receptor 9 agonist that elicits hepatitis B surface antigen (HBs)-specific antibodies against the hepatitis B virus . (medscape.com)
  • First called the "Australian antigen," it was discovered to be the hepatitis B virus and provided a source for the vaccine created in 1969. (procon.org)
  • Hepatitis B is a liver infection caused by the hepatitis B virus. (cdc.gov)
  • Other causes of hepatitis include bacterial infection, liver injury caused by a toxin and certain medical conditions. (who.int)
  • Many countries routinely vaccinate infants against hepatitis B. In countries with high rates of hepatitis B infection, vaccination of newborns has not only reduced the risk of infection, but has also led to a marked reduction in liver cancer. (wikipedia.org)
  • People who fail to respond (anti-Hbs antibody level below 10 mIU/ml) should be tested to exclude current or past hepatitis B infection, and given a repeat course of three vaccinations, followed by further retesting 1-4 months after the second course. (wikipedia.org)
  • Hepatitis B is caused by infection with the hepatitis B virus (HBV), a partially double-stranded DNA virus of the family hepadnaviridae. (cdc.gov)
  • [6] Although the consequences of acute hepatitis B can be severe, most of the serious sequelae occur in persons in whom chronic infection develops. (cdc.gov)
  • 10 ] Based on testing from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, the age-adjusted prevalence of hepatitis B core antibody (anti-HBc) in the US population, which indicates past or present infection, decreased steadily from 5.5% during 1988-1994, to 4.8% during 1999-2006, and to 3.7% during 2007-2012 among all persons 6 years of age and older. (cdc.gov)
  • Hepatitis B is an infection of the liver caused by the hepatitis B virus . (kidshealth.org)
  • Most infants who get the HepB series are protected from hepatitis B infection beyond childhood, into their adult years. (kidshealth.org)
  • It can help to prevent hepatitis B infection. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Hepatitis B is a serious liver infection. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Doctors call hepatitis B a silent infection because many people do not have symptoms when they first contract it. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • If a newborn contracts hepatitis B, there is a significant chance that this infection will be chronic, meaning it will persist for a long time. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • According to the CDC , the vaccine is very safe, and the full series of the vaccine provides the highest possible level of protection from a hepatitis B infection. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Both can cause serious illness and hepatitis B can result in a chronic infection of the liver and lead to cancer of the liver. (gaycitynews.com)
  • The compositions and methods of the present invention are useful both prophylactically and therapeutically and may be used to prevent and/or treat an infection caused by hepatitis B virus. (gabio.org)
  • Multiple vaccines exist to protect against HBV infection, but they cannot help patients already diagnosed with the disease. (gabio.org)
  • There is no vaccine to prevent hepatitis D. However, prevention of hepatitis B with hepatitis B vaccine also protects against future hepatitis D infection. (killerinsideme.com)
  • Acute hepatitis E is a short-term infection. (killerinsideme.com)
  • A vaccine also is available to prevent hepatitis B. There is no vaccine for hepatitis C, but new treatments have the potential to cure hepatitis C infection in most people and prevent long-term complications. (killerinsideme.com)
  • Hepatitis B and hepatitis C can also begin as short-term infections but in some people, the virus remains in the body and causes chronic, or lifelong, infection. (killerinsideme.com)
  • The hepatitis B vaccine is recommended for all infants, all children or adolescents younger than 19 years of age who have not been vaccinated, all adults age 19 through 59 years, and adults age 60 years or older with risk factors for hepatitis B infection. (killerinsideme.com)
  • Hepatitis A and hepatitis B combination vaccine is recommended for all persons 18 years of age or older who are at risk from infection from their jobs or some behaviors, or from traveling to the following parts of the world: Africa. (killerinsideme.com)
  • The Hepatitis A and hepatitis B combination vaccine are recommended for anyone over the age of 18 who's at risk of infection from their jobs or certain behaviors. (solvhealth.com)
  • By 2003 the rate of Hepatitis A infection in these states was in line with the rates in other states, dropping from 21.1 cases per 100,000 in the 1990s to 2.5 cases per 100,000 people-a decline of 86 percent. (pharmexec.com)
  • Hepatitis A is a highly contagious viral infection which is spread through food and water contaminated with the virus. (fleetstreetclinic.com)
  • Since the risk of infection within the UK is low, hepatitis A vaccine is not part of the routine childhood vaccination schedule. (fleetstreetclinic.com)
  • This stimulates the body to produce antibodies which will fight and prevent hepatitis A infection. (fleetstreetclinic.com)
  • However, in studies where people have been vaccinated immediately following a known contact with hepatitis A, the vaccine has proven to be rapidly effective in averting infection. (fleetstreetclinic.com)
  • Hepatitis A is a highly contagious liver infection caused by the hepatitis A virus (HAV). (fleetstreetclinic.com)
  • It is approved to treat chronic hepatitis B infection in children aged 12 years or older who weigh at least 35 kg. (medscape.com)
  • Because Heptavax-B used human serum and the fear of HIV infection was high, a new recombinant DNA vaccine, Recombivax HB, was licensed on June 23, 1986 that did not use human serum. (procon.org)
  • Vaccination is the most effective way to prevent Hepatitis B (HB) infection . (bvsalud.org)
  • Like hepatitis A virus (HAV), HEV can lead to serious illness during the acute stage of infection-up to 3 percent of the general population and up to 25 percent of pregnant women can die of the disease-but does not lead to chronic infection. (hepmag.com)
  • Hepatitis B, Acute Acute hepatitis B is inflammation of the liver that is caused by the hepatitis B virus and that lasts from a few weeks up to 6 months. (msdmanuals.com)
  • The Health Assembly is invited to note the draft road map for access to medicines, vaccines and other health products, 2019-2023, as contained in the Annex. (who.int)
  • Hepatitis A vaccine can prevent hepatitis A . (medlineplus.gov)
  • Research indicates that hepatitis B vaccines are a safe and effective way to prevent hepatitis B infections. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Vaccines or candidate vaccines containing inactivated hepatitis B or some of its component antigens and designed to prevent hepatitis B. Some vaccines may be recombinantly produced. (childrensmercy.org)
  • The research will be conducted over a 5-year period, as investigators examine the efficacy of immune responses in animal models using its HCV vaccine candidates to determine which candidate has the highest efficacy in protecting against most HCV genotypes. (pharmacytimes.com)
  • Hence, determining the frequency of memory B- cell (MBC) subsets is an important indicator of vaccine efficacy . (bvsalud.org)
  • Of note, the vaccine efficacy was equally high when the analysis was expanded to include participants who only got two doses and reached 95.5 percent among those who got at least one dose. (hepmag.com)
  • However, both are preventable with vaccines whose efficacy and long lasting protection has been demonstrated. (uandes.cl)
  • The World Health Organization (WHO) recommends a pentavalent vaccine, combining vaccines against diphtheria, tetanus, pertussis and Haemophilus influenzae type B with the vaccine against hepatitis B.[medical citation needed] There is not yet sufficient evidence on how effective this pentavalent vaccine is in relation to the individual vaccines. (wikipedia.org)
  • A pentavalent vaccine combining vaccines against diphtheria, tetanus, pertussis, hepatitis B, and poliomyelitis is approved in the U.S. and is recommended by the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP). (wikipedia.org)
  • Administer if immunization status is unclear or patient is allergic to diphtheria/tetanus vaccine. (medscape.com)
  • Both types of the vaccine, the plasma-derived vaccine (PDV) and recombinant vaccine (RV), seems to be able to elicit similar protective anti-HBs levels. (wikipedia.org)
  • Liver viral vaccine and recombinant vaccine. (pediatriconcall.com)
  • Primary vaccination schedule for recombinant vaccine: 2 doses, the second being administered 6-18 months after the first dose. (pediatriconcall.com)
  • Recombinant vaccine used to provide immunization against all known subtypes of hepatitis B virus. (medscape.com)
  • Hepatitis B vaccine is safe and effective at preventing hepatitis B infections. (cdc.gov)
  • Wearing bright orange T-shirts, white shorts, and boxing gloves, the Hep Team will fan out across New York City this summer to promote vaccinations for hepatitis A and B to "knock out" those viral infections among gay and bisexual men. (gaycitynews.com)
  • In most cases, people are able to recover from and fight off the acute hepatitis D and B infections and the viruses go away. (killerinsideme.com)
  • The hepatitis A and B vaccine is used to prevent infections caused by the hepatitis A and hepatitis B viruses. (solvhealth.com)
  • Before hepatitis A vaccination was introduced in the 1990s, hepatitis A was one of the commonest of all travel-related infections. (fleetstreetclinic.com)
  • Adults who were not vaccinated previously and want to be protected against hepatitis A can also get the vaccine. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Open Philanthropy recommended a grant of $3,500,000 over three years to the International Vaccine Institute to support a clinical trial led by Dr. Julia Lynch testing the safety of Hecolin, a hepatitis E vaccine, in children and HIV-positive adults. (openphilanthropy.org)
  • Hepatitis A is a 2 dose vaccination schedule for both adults and children. (fleetstreetclinic.com)
  • Hepatitis A affects the liver causing jaundice, and whilst most people make a full recovery, it can result in severe liver failure - more often in adults - and death. (fleetstreetclinic.com)
  • Hepatitis A vaccine is suitable for adults and for children aged over 1 year. (fleetstreetclinic.com)
  • This agent is indicated for adults with HBeAg-positive and HBeAg-negative chronic hepatitis B with compensated liver disease and evidence of viral replication and liver inflammation. (medscape.com)
  • SILVER SPRING, Maryland - A federal advisory panel has voted to support the effectiveness but not the safety of a novel hepatitis B vaccine for adults aged 18 to 70 years. (medscape.com)
  • Heplisav was also designed to overcome the problem of the reduced immunogenicity seen with current hepatitis B vaccines among several groups of high-risk adults for whom the vaccine is recommended, including older adults, men, obese individuals, smokers, people with diabetes, and those who are immunocompromised . (medscape.com)
  • This vaccine is given as a two dose series routinely to some children older than 2 years, and to some adults and people who travel outside the United States. (cdc.gov)
  • The hepatitis B vaccine is recommended for all people up to age 59 who were not previously vaccinated. (msdmanuals.com)
  • The compositions and methods described herein relate to a modified vaccina Ankara (MVA) vector encoding one or more viral antigens for generating a protective immune response to a hepatitis B virus, in the subject to which the vector is administered. (gabio.org)
  • On this platform, MVA, a large virus capable of carrying several vaccine antigens, expresses proteins that assemble into VLP immunogens in the person receiving the vaccine. (gabio.org)
  • This report describes the status of introductions globally for eight World Health Organization (WHO)-recommended new and underutilized vaccines, comprising 10 individual vaccine antigens. (medscape.com)
  • However, if people who have been vaccinated are exposed to the virus, a doctor measures their antibody levels against hepatitis B. If the antibody levels are low, they may need another injection of hepatitis B vaccine. (msdmanuals.com)
  • In 1965, Baruch Blumberg, an American doctor who won the Nobel Prize in Medicine (1976) for his work on hepatitis B, matched a protein found in an Australian aborigine's blood with an antibody found in an American hemophiliac. (procon.org)
  • IMQ questionnaire data was collected on a full sample of respondents and can be analyzed in conjunction with results from MEC laboratory data, which has measures of hepatitis A antibody (on those age 6 or more years, LBXHA) and hepatitis B surface antibody (on those age 2 or more years, LBXHBS). (cdc.gov)
  • These vaccines have been shown to be highly effective but may also be sensitive to mutations that may impair neutralizing antibody responses to these vaccines, and may not provide protection against other or new SARS-CoVs. (ki.se)
  • Infants 6 through 11 months old traveling outside the United States when protection against hepatitis A is recommended should receive 1 dose of hepatitis A vaccine. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Hepatitis D Serology Training - CDC offers an online training that covers the serology of hepatitis D and other types of viral hepatitis. (killerinsideme.com)
  • Viral Hepatitis Prevention Board. (who.int)
  • Viral hepatitis is a major health problem with approximately half a billion people infected world-wide. (ki.se)
  • Six hepatitis A virus antigenic variants that likely escaped the protective effect of available vaccines were isolated, mostly from men who have sex with men. (cdc.gov)
  • In areas where hepatitis A has low to moderate endemicity, introduction of the virus occurs through consumption of imported foods, traveling, or through immigration flows ( 1 - 3 ). (cdc.gov)
  • In those who have been exposed to the hepatitis B virus (HBV) but not immunized, hepatitis B immune globulin should be given in addition to the vaccine. (wikipedia.org)
  • Hepatitis B vaccination, hepatitis B immunoglobulin, and the combination of hepatitis B vaccine plus hepatitis B immunoglobulin, all are considered as preventive for babies born to mothers infected with hepatitis B virus (HBV). (wikipedia.org)
  • If a newborn's mother carries the hepatitis B virus in her blood, the baby must get the vaccine within 12 hours after birth . (kidshealth.org)
  • The baby also needs another shot - hepatitis B immune globulin (HBIG) - to provide protection against the virus right away. (kidshealth.org)
  • If a newborn's mother doesn't have the virus in her blood, the baby can get the HepB vaccine within 24 hours after birth . (kidshealth.org)
  • People who don't know they're infected can spread the hepatitis B virus. (kidshealth.org)
  • Although manufacturers use parts of the hepatitis B virus to create the vaccine, these are inactive. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • The Institute for Bioscience and Biotechnology Research (IBBR) at the University of Maryland was recently awarded a $6 million grant to develop a hepatitis C virus (HCV) vaccine, according to a press release . (pharmacytimes.com)
  • ATLANTA, GA, July 07, 2021 (GLOBE NEWSWIRE) - via NewMediaWire - GeoVax Labs, Inc. (Nasdaq: GOVX) ("GeoVax" or the "Company"), a biotechnology company developing human immunotherapies and vaccines against infectious diseases and cancer, today announced that the U.S. Patent and Trademark Office has issued Patent No. 11,052,148, entitled "Composition and Methods of Generating an Immune Response to Hepatitis B Virus. (gabio.org)
  • The abstract contained in the Company's patent application describes the invention as follows: "The compositions and methods are described for generating an immune response to a hepatitis B virus. (gabio.org)
  • GeoVax Labs, Inc. is a clinical-stage biotechnology company developing human vaccines against infectious diseases and cancer using a novel patented Modified Vaccinia Ankara-Virus Like Particle (MVA-VLP) based vaccine platform. (gabio.org)
  • The MVA-VLP derived vaccines can elicit durable immune responses in the host similar to a live-attenuated virus, while providing the safety characteristics of a replication-defective vector. (gabio.org)
  • To examine changes in seroprevalence of antibodies to hepatitis A virus (HAV) during a period in which universal vaccine recommendations for all U.S. children were implemented, results from serologic testing from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) from 2003-2010 were analyzed among 7,989 participants age 6-19 years, born in the U.S. in two birth cohorts (1986-1996 and 1997-2004). (mdpi.com)
  • Hepatitis A Acute hepatitis A is inflammation of the liver that is caused by the hepatitis A virus and that lasts less than 6 months. (msdmanuals.com)
  • The main reason there is no vaccine for hepatitis C is because this virus has many strains, called genotypes, and many subtypes. (killerinsideme.com)
  • If you are infected with the hepatitis C virus, your baby should be tested, usually when your baby is at least 18 months old. (killerinsideme.com)
  • In particular, he has been able to define the molecular mechanisms employed by the hepatitis B virus. (weizmann.ac.il)
  • A recent research by UC Davis researchers has revealed that empty shells of Hepatitis E virus can carry drugs or vaccines into the body. (ibtimes.com.au)
  • The scientists have developed a way by which virus-like particles, based on Hepatitis E proteins, could be used to attack cancer. (ibtimes.com.au)
  • According to the study , Hepatitis E virus can be feco-orally transmitted. (ibtimes.com.au)
  • The researchers used Hepatitis E proteins to prepare virus-like particles. (ibtimes.com.au)
  • Thus, when one drinks the vaccines, the virus-like particles pass through the stomach unharmed, get absorbed in the intestine and then deliver the vaccines to the body. (ibtimes.com.au)
  • If the research proves effective in humans, there will come a day when cancer patients will simply drink the vaccine and the virus-like particles, carrying cancer cure drugs would start killing the cancer cells. (ibtimes.com.au)
  • The hepatitis A vaccine contains inactivated hepatitis A virus. (fleetstreetclinic.com)
  • The vaccine contains purified killed hepatitis A virus, grown in human cell culture. (fleetstreetclinic.com)
  • Tenofovir is a nucleotide analogue (adenosine monophosphate) reverse-transcriptase and hepatitis B virus (HBV) polymerase inhibitor. (medscape.com)
  • Recommendations for follow-up of health-care workers after occupational exposure to hepatitis C virus. (medscape.com)
  • Because the virus could not be recreated in a lab, the first vaccine was a heat-treated form of the virus. (procon.org)
  • Prevention is available by prophylactic vaccines for hepatitis A, B and D, but not for hepatitis C and E. Antiviral treatments are available for hepatitis B, C and D, but with varying responses depending on the type of infecting virus. (ki.se)
  • In this European Union funded project we are developing a vaccine against CCHF virus. (ki.se)
  • The success of a 1999 program to vaccinate children in high-risk areas against Hepatitis A prompted the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices to recommend universal use. (pharmexec.com)
  • Preventing mother-to-child transmission of hepatitis B : operational field guidelines for delivery of the birth dose of hepatitis B vaccine. (who.int)
  • In many areas, vaccination against hepatitis B is also required for all health-care and laboratory staff. (wikipedia.org)
  • The US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) issued recommendations for vaccination against hepatitis B among patients with diabetes mellitus. (wikipedia.org)
  • Since protection is long-lasting and commonly recommended for so many destinations, vaccination against hepatitis A is a sensible precaution for all frequent travellers. (fleetstreetclinic.com)
  • The American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) and Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) both recommend that newborns receive their first dose of the hepatitis B vaccine within their first 24 hours of life. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • FDA approved this combination vaccine in 2002 for use in infants and children 6 weeks through 6 years old. (cdc.gov)
  • Doctors usually recommend that infants receive their initial hepatitis B vaccine during their first day of life. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • This vaccine is given in three separate doses and has been recommended for all newborn infants since 1991. (cdc.gov)
  • For more information, see the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's (CDC) Hepatitis B vaccine information statement . (msdmanuals.com)
  • GSK makes a product that contains both the hepatitis A and B vaccines that confer long-lasting immunity. (gaycitynews.com)
  • Chronic hepatitis B can lead to serious health issues, like cirrhosis or liver cancer. (cdc.gov)
  • 1 ] HBV replicates in the liver and causes both acute and chronic hepatitis. (cdc.gov)
  • Around 25% of people with chronic hepatitis B develop scarring of the liver (cirrhosis), liver failure, or liver cancer. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Except for the rare occurrence of chronic hepatitis E in people with compromised immune systems, most people recover fully from the disease without any complications. (killerinsideme.com)
  • Vaccines containing epitopes that can elicit an immune response are very effective in inducing a protective response. (medscape.com)
  • They are available both by themselves and in combination with other vaccines. (wikipedia.org)
  • Sometimes doctors give the HepB vaccine in combination with other vaccines, such as DTaP, IPV, Hib, or HepA vaccines. (kidshealth.org)
  • The hepatitis A and hepatitis B vaccines can be given separately or as a combination vaccine. (killerinsideme.com)
  • Combination hepatitis A / hepatitis B vaccines (such as TwinRix) contain a lower dose of the hepatitis A component, so three or more doses may be needed for full protection. (fleetstreetclinic.com)
  • The panel's main concerns were that the safety database was too small to detect rare adverse events, that the vaccine hadn't been studied in sufficient numbers of ethnic minority populations, and that it hadn't been studied in combination with the administration of other adult vaccines . (medscape.com)
  • As of July 2014, two hepatitis B vaccines are used, Engerix-B and Recombivax, as well as Twinrix (a hepatitis A and hepatitis B combination vaccine). (procon.org)
  • Towards the elimination of hepatitis B : a guide to the implementation of national immunization programs in the developing world. (who.int)
  • Year WHO recommended inclusion of vaccine in all national routine immunization programs. (medscape.com)
  • Additionally, if the infant was born prematurely with low birth weight, they will receive three extra doses of the vaccine. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • In 1998 nearly 600,000 doses of the vaccine were distributed, the authors found. (pharmexec.com)
  • The World Health Organization (WHO) estimates that 296 million people live with hepatitis B globally. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Areas of high risk for hepatitis A include Central and South America, Africa, Eastern Europe, Middle-East, Asia, and the Indian Subcontinent. (fleetstreetclinic.com)
  • The CDC recommends that children receive the first dose of the hepatitis B vaccination at birth. (procon.org)
  • Research team will seek to develop a novel prophylactic vaccine to prevent HCV. (pharmacytimes.com)
  • That said, I don't think the safety database is sufficiently large to support a recommendation for use in the general adult population, given that this vaccine contains a new adjuvant," she explained. (medscape.com)
  • There are safe and effective vaccines that can protect against hepatitis B. (cdc.gov)
  • Both hepatitis A and hepatitis B can be prevented with safe, effective vaccines. (killerinsideme.com)
  • Doctors are likely to include give the vaccine as a matter of routine in private practices, Allen said, because it is also recommended the American Academy of Family Physicians and the American Academy of Pediatrics. (pharmexec.com)
  • IA2030, endorsed by the World Health Assembly, includes a target to achieve 500 new and underutilized vaccine introductions in low-income and middle-income countries' routine immunization schedules by 2030. (medscape.com)
  • Routine infant hepatitis B vaccination recommendations. (childrensmercy.org)
  • In contrast, there were 15 cases of hepatitis E among study subjects in the placebo group. (hepmag.com)
  • Having hepatitis B or hepatitis C or fatty liver disease, or drinking. (msdmanuals.com)
  • However, outbreaks of hepatitis A among unvaccinated people still happen. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Men who have sex with men (MSM) comprise a high-risk group for hepatitis A, and several outbreaks affecting this group have been reported across Europe ( 4 ). (cdc.gov)
  • During hepatitis E outbreaks, the overall case-fatality rate is about 1% (10). (killerinsideme.com)
  • The objective of our research is to better understand the immunology of SARS to develop a vaccine that activate a broad humoral and cellular immune response against several SARS-CoVs. (ki.se)
  • To achieve this goal we use more than one protein in our vaccine thereby activating a broadly reactive immune response. (ki.se)
  • Until recently, hepatitis B was one of the most frequently reported vaccine-preventable diseases in the United States, with 15,000-20,000 cases reported annually to the National Notifiable Diseases Surveillance System (NNDSS). (cdc.gov)
  • Hepatitis A is easily preventable through vaccination. (fleetstreetclinic.com)
  • In conclusion, long-lived anti-HEV antibodies and HEV-specific memory B cells are maintained for several years in hepatitis E recovered individuals. (killerinsideme.com)
  • Persons who may be exposed to other people's blood, such as health care workers, also may have received the vaccine. (cdc.gov)
  • Frequency of B-Cell Subpopulations in Low Responders in Comparison with High Responders to Hepatitis B Vaccine Among Health Care Workers. (bvsalud.org)
  • In 5 to 10% of people, hepatitis B becomes chronic and can lead to cirrhosis and liver cancer. (msdmanuals.com)
  • Hepatitis is an inflammation of the liver. (who.int)
  • The four most common hepatitis viruses are hepatitis A, B, C and E. In addition, there is hepatitis D, which is rarer. (who.int)
  • Vaccines contain either noninfectious components of bacteria or viruses or whole forms of these organisms that have been weakened. (msdmanuals.com)
  • The vaccine is also recommended for anyone in close contact with a person who has hepatitis A, people with long-term liver disease, men who have sex with other men, using drugs with others, and those who may be exposed to hepatitis A through their occupation. (fleetstreetclinic.com)
  • Our research is focused on basic research but also on development of vaccines and new immune-therapies against viral diseases and cancer. (ki.se)
  • The incubation period for acute hepatitis B ranges from 45 to 180 days (average 120 days). (cdc.gov)
  • In 2016, 3,218 cases of acute hepatitis B were reported. (cdc.gov)
  • Interferon may prevent the progression of acute hepatitis to the chronic stage and may promote more rapid resolution of viremia and normalization of serum aminotransferase levels. (medscape.com)
  • She said she was "glad to see work being done" on a hepatitis B vaccine that is more immunogenic in populations that don't respond optimally to current vaccines. (medscape.com)
  • The majority of current vaccines on the market target only the spike protein. (ki.se)
  • Universal infant hepatitis B immunization has been recommended since 1991, and universal adolescent (age 11-12 years) hepatitis B immunization since 1995. (cdc.gov)
  • This was reported in Taiwan where the implementation of a nationwide hepatitis B vaccination program in 1984 was associated with a decline in the incidence of childhood hepatocellular carcinoma. (wikipedia.org)
  • Hepatitis A vaccination is an important precaution for people travelling to parts of the world where hepatitis A is common due to poor food hygiene and poor sanitation. (fleetstreetclinic.com)
  • To be effective, a vaccine must be able to protect against all or most of the genotypes and subtypes. (killerinsideme.com)
  • Hepatitis C has at least 7 genotypes and more than 80 subtypes. (killerinsideme.com)
  • FDA approved this vaccine in 2017 for use in people 18 years and older. (cdc.gov)
  • This vaccine is given as a series of three or four doses in people 18 years of age and older. (msdmanuals.com)
  • Open Philanthropy recommended a grant of $2,500,000 over three years to the International Vaccine Institute (IVI) to support a phase I clinical trial of a conjugate vaccine for. (openphilanthropy.org)
  • Pneumococcal conjugate vaccine, rubella-containing vaccine, measles-containing vaccine second dose, and Haemophilus influenzae type b vaccine have been introduced by 78%, 89%, 94%, and 99% of all countries, respectively. (medscape.com)
  • He also predicted resistance from some parents, because there are already so many recommended or required childhood vaccines. (pharmexec.com)
  • Hepatitis E is more common in developing countries, where sanitation is poor and access to clean water is limited. (killerinsideme.com)