Those hepatitis B antigens found on the surface of the Dane particle and on the 20 nm spherical and tubular particles. Several subspecificities of the surface antigen are known. These were formerly called the Australia antigen.
INFLAMMATION of the LIVER in humans caused by a member of the ORTHOHEPADNAVIRUS genus, HEPATITIS B VIRUS. It is primarily transmitted by parenteral exposure, such as transfusion of contaminated blood or blood products, but can also be transmitted via sexual or intimate personal contact.
The type species of the genus ORTHOHEPADNAVIRUS which causes human HEPATITIS B and is also apparently a causal agent in human HEPATOCELLULAR CARCINOMA. The Dane particle is an intact hepatitis virion, named after its discoverer. Non-infectious spherical and tubular particles are also seen in the serum.
Antibodies to the HEPATITIS B ANTIGENS, including antibodies to the surface (Australia) and core of the Dane particle and those to the "e" antigens.
Vaccines or candidate vaccines containing inactivated hepatitis B or some of its component antigens and designed to prevent hepatitis B. Some vaccines may be recombinantly produced.
Antigens of the virion of the HEPATITIS B VIRUS or the Dane particle, its surface (HEPATITIS B SURFACE ANTIGENS), core (HEPATITIS B CORE ANTIGENS), and other associated antigens, including the HEPATITIS B E ANTIGENS.
The hepatitis B antigen within the core of the Dane particle, the infectious hepatitis virion.
INFLAMMATION of the LIVER in humans caused by HEPATITIS B VIRUS lasting six months or more. It is primarily transmitted by parenteral exposure, such as transfusion of contaminated blood or blood products, but can also be transmitted via sexual or intimate personal contact.
A closely related group of antigens found in the plasma only during the infective phase of hepatitis B or in virulent chronic hepatitis B, probably indicating active virus replication; there are three subtypes which may exist in a complex with immunoglobulins G.
INFLAMMATION of the LIVER in humans caused by HEPATITIS C VIRUS, a single-stranded RNA virus. Its incubation period is 30-90 days. Hepatitis C is transmitted primarily by contaminated blood parenterally, and is often associated with transfusion and intravenous drug abuse. However, in a significant number of cases, the source of hepatitis C infection is unknown.
The condition of harboring an infective organism without manifesting symptoms of infection. The organism must be readily transmissible to another susceptible host.
INFLAMMATION of the LIVER in humans caused by a member of the HEPATOVIRUS genus, HUMAN HEPATITIS A VIRUS. It can be transmitted through fecal contamination of food or water.
Antigens on surfaces of cells, including infectious or foreign cells or viruses. They are usually protein-containing groups on cell membranes or walls and may be isolated.
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.
Any vaccine raised against any virus or viral derivative that causes hepatitis.
INFLAMMATION of the LIVER in humans due to infection by VIRUSES. There are several significant types of human viral hepatitis with infection caused by enteric-transmission (HEPATITIS A; HEPATITIS E) or blood transfusion (HEPATITIS B; HEPATITIS C; and HEPATITIS D).
INFLAMMATION of the LIVER in humans caused by HEPATITIS DELTA VIRUS, a defective RNA virus that can only infect HEPATITIS B patients. For its viral coating, hepatitis delta virus requires the HEPATITIS B SURFACE ANTIGENS produced by these patients. Hepatitis D can occur either concomitantly with (coinfection) or subsequent to (superinfection) hepatitis B infection. Similar to hepatitis B, it is primarily transmitted by parenteral exposure, such as transfusion of contaminated blood or blood products, but can also be transmitted via sexual or intimate personal contact.
Immunoglobulins raised by any form of viral hepatitis; some of these antibodies are used to diagnose the specific kind of hepatitis.
A reverse transcriptase inhibitor and ZALCITABINE analog in which a sulfur atom replaces the 3' carbon of the pentose ring. It is used to treat HIV disease.
A primary malignant neoplasm of epithelial liver cells. It ranges from a well-differentiated tumor with EPITHELIAL CELLS indistinguishable from normal HEPATOCYTES to a poorly differentiated neoplasm. The cells may be uniform or markedly pleomorphic, or form GIANT CELLS. Several classification schemes have been suggested.
Antibodies to the HEPATITIS C ANTIGENS including antibodies to envelope, core, and non-structural proteins.
Tumors or cancer of the LIVER.
Agents used in the prophylaxis or therapy of VIRUS DISEASES. Some of the ways they may act include preventing viral replication by inhibiting viral DNA polymerase; binding to specific cell-surface receptors and inhibiting viral penetration or uncoating; inhibiting viral protein synthesis; or blocking late stages of virus assembly.
A defective virus, containing particles of RNA nucleoprotein in virion-like form, present in patients with acute hepatitis B and chronic hepatitis. It requires the presence of a hepadnavirus for full replication. This is the lone species in the genus Deltavirus.
EPIDEMIOLOGIC STUDIES based on the detection through serological testing of characteristic change in the serum level of specific ANTIBODIES. Latent subclinical infections and carrier states can thus be detected in addition to clinically overt cases.
INFLAMMATION of the LIVER with ongoing hepatocellular injury for 6 months or more, characterized by NECROSIS of HEPATOCYTES and inflammatory cell (LEUKOCYTES) infiltration. Chronic hepatitis can be caused by viruses, medications, autoimmune diseases, and other unknown factors.
Substances that are recognized by the immune system and induce an immune reaction.
Liver disease in which the normal microcirculation, the gross vascular anatomy, and the hepatic architecture have been variably destroyed and altered with fibrous septa surrounding regenerated or regenerating parenchymal nodules.
Antigens produced by various strains of HEPATITIS D VIRUS.
An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of L-alanine and 2-oxoglutarate to pyruvate and L-glutamate. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC
INFLAMMATION of the LIVER in humans that is caused by HEPATITIS C VIRUS lasting six months or more. Chronic hepatitis C can lead to LIVER CIRRHOSIS.
Immunoglobulins produced in response to VIRAL ANTIGENS.
Sites on an antigen that interact with specific antibodies.
Aluminum metal sulfate compounds used medically as astringents and for many industrial purposes. They are used in veterinary medicine for the treatment of ulcerative stomatitis, leukorrhea, conjunctivitis, pharyngitis, metritis, and minor wounds.
Any of the viruses that cause inflammation of the liver. They include both DNA and RNA viruses as well viruses from humans and animals.
Classic quantitative assay for detection of antigen-antibody reactions using a radioactively labeled substance (radioligand) either directly or indirectly to measure the binding of the unlabeled substance to a specific antibody or other receptor system. Non-immunogenic substances (e.g., haptens) can be measured if coupled to larger carrier proteins (e.g., bovine gamma-globulin or human serum albumin) capable of inducing antibody formation.
A genus of FLAVIVIRIDAE causing parenterally-transmitted HEPATITIS C which is associated with transfusions and drug abuse. Hepatitis C virus is the type species.
Antigens from any of the hepatitis viruses including surface, core, and other associated antigens.
Small synthetic peptides that mimic surface antigens of pathogens and are immunogenic, or vaccines manufactured with the aid of recombinant DNA techniques. The latter vaccines may also be whole viruses whose nucleic acids have been modified.
A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.
Antibodies to the HEPATITIS A ANTIGENS including antibodies to envelope, core, and non-structural proteins.
The total number of cases of a given disease in a specified population at a designated time. It is differentiated from INCIDENCE, which refers to the number of new cases in the population at a given time.
The co-occurrence of pregnancy and an INFECTION. The infection may precede or follow FERTILIZATION.
The common chimpanzee, a species of the genus Pan, family HOMINIDAE. It lives in Africa, primarily in the tropical rainforests. There are a number of recognized subspecies.
Administration of vaccines to stimulate the host's immune response. This includes any preparation intended for active immunological prophylaxis.
The transmission of infectious disease or pathogens from one generation to another. It includes transmission in utero or intrapartum by exposure to blood and secretions, and postpartum exposure via breastfeeding.
INFLAMMATION of the LIVER in humans caused by HEPATITIS DELTA VIRUS in conjunction with HEPATITIS B VIRUS and lasting six months or more.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed.
A genus of PICORNAVIRIDAE causing infectious hepatitis naturally in humans and experimentally in other primates. It is transmitted through fecal contamination of food or water. HEPATITIS A VIRUS is the type species.
Sensitive tests to measure certain antigens, antibodies, or viruses, using their ability to agglutinate certain erythrocytes. (From Stedman, 26th ed)
Antigens produced by various strains of HEPATITIS A VIRUS such as the human hepatitis A virus (HEPATITIS A VIRUS, HUMAN).
Deliberate stimulation of the host's immune response. ACTIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of ANTIGENS or IMMUNOLOGIC ADJUVANTS. PASSIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of IMMUNE SERA or LYMPHOCYTES or their extracts (e.g., transfer factor, immune RNA) or transplantation of immunocompetent cell producing tissue (thymus or bone marrow).
Substances elaborated by viruses that have antigenic activity.
A technique using antibodies for identifying or quantifying a substance. Usually the substance being studied serves as antigen both in antibody production and in measurement of antibody by the test substance.
Substances elaborated by bacteria that have antigenic activity.
Immunoelectrophoresis in which immunoprecipitation occurs when antigen at the cathode is caused to migrate in an electric field through a suitable medium of diffusion against a stream of antibody migrating from the anode as a result of endosmotic flow.
A DNA virus that closely resembles human hepatitis B virus. It has been recovered from naturally infected ducks.
The major immunoglobulin isotype class in normal human serum. There are several isotype subclasses of IgG, for example, IgG1, IgG2A, and IgG2B.
A species in the genus HEPATOVIRUS containing one serotype and two strains: HUMAN HEPATITIS A VIRUS and Simian hepatitis A virus causing hepatitis in humans (HEPATITIS A) and primates, respectively.
Recombinant DNA vectors encoding antigens administered for the prevention or treatment of disease. The host cells take up the DNA, express the antigen, and present it to the immune system in a manner similar to that which would occur during natural infection. This induces humoral and cellular immune responses against the encoded antigens. The vector is called naked DNA because there is no need for complex formulations or delivery agents; the plasmid is injected in saline or other buffers.
The production of ANTIBODIES by proliferating and differentiated B-LYMPHOCYTES under stimulation by ANTIGENS.
Proteins, glycoprotein, or lipoprotein moieties on surfaces of tumor cells that are usually identified by monoclonal antibodies. Many of these are of either embryonic or viral origin.
Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.
Vaccines or candidate vaccines derived from edible plants. Transgenic plants (PLANTS, TRANSGENIC) are used as recombinant protein production systems and the edible plant tissue functions as an oral vaccine.
The mechanism by which latent viruses, such as genetically transmitted tumor viruses (PROVIRUSES) or PROPHAGES of lysogenic bacteria, are induced to replicate and then released as infectious viruses. It may be effected by various endogenous and exogenous stimuli, including B-cell LIPOPOLYSACCHARIDES, glucocorticoid hormones, halogenated pyrimidines, IONIZING RADIATION, ultraviolet light, and superinfecting viruses.
The transference of a part of or an entire liver from one human or animal to another.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
Immunologic techniques based on the use of: (1) enzyme-antibody conjugates; (2) enzyme-antigen conjugates; (3) antienzyme antibody followed by its homologous enzyme; or (4) enzyme-antienzyme complexes. These are used histologically for visualizing or labeling tissue specimens.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
Pathological processes of the LIVER.
The introduction of whole blood or blood component directly into the blood stream. (Dorland, 27th ed)
The complex formed by the binding of antigen and antibody molecules. The deposition of large antigen-antibody complexes leading to tissue damage causes IMMUNE COMPLEX DISEASES.
Carbon-containing phosphonic acid compounds. Included under this heading are compounds that have carbon bound to either OXYGEN atom or the PHOSPHOROUS atom of the (P=O)O2 structure.
Multi-subunit proteins which function in IMMUNITY. They are produced by B LYMPHOCYTES from the IMMUNOGLOBULIN GENES. They are comprised of two heavy (IMMUNOGLOBULIN HEAVY CHAINS) and two light chains (IMMUNOGLOBULIN LIGHT CHAINS) with additional ancillary polypeptide chains depending on their isoforms. The variety of isoforms include monomeric or polymeric forms, and transmembrane forms (B-CELL ANTIGEN RECEPTORS) or secreted forms (ANTIBODIES). They are divided by the amino acid sequence of their heavy chains into five classes (IMMUNOGLOBULIN A; IMMUNOGLOBULIN D; IMMUNOGLOBULIN E; IMMUNOGLOBULIN G; IMMUNOGLOBULIN M) and various subclasses.
A class of immunoglobulin bearing mu chains (IMMUNOGLOBULIN MU-CHAINS). IgM can fix COMPLEMENT. The name comes from its high molecular weight and originally being called a macroglobulin.
Ribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.
Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent infection with hepatitis A virus (HEPATOVIRUS).
The genetic constitution of the individual, comprising the ALLELES present at each GENETIC LOCUS.
The process of intracellular viral multiplication, consisting of the synthesis of PROTEINS; NUCLEIC ACIDS; and sometimes LIPIDS, and their assembly into a new infectious particle.
INFLAMMATION of the LIVER in animals due to viral infection.
One of the type I interferons produced by peripheral blood leukocytes or lymphoblastoid cells. In addition to antiviral activity, it activates NATURAL KILLER CELLS and B-LYMPHOCYTES, and down-regulates VASCULAR ENDOTHELIAL GROWTH FACTOR expression through PI-3 KINASE and MAPK KINASES signaling pathways.
The property of antibodies which enables them to react with some ANTIGENIC DETERMINANTS and not with others. Specificity is dependent on chemical composition, physical forces, and molecular structure at the binding site.
An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.
The individuals employed by the hospital.
Radioimmunoassay of proteins using antibody coupled to an immunosorbent.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
Disease having a short and relatively severe course.
The quantity of measurable virus in a body fluid. Change in viral load, measured in plasma, is sometimes used as a SURROGATE MARKER in disease progression.
Diseases which have one or more of the following characteristics: they are permanent, leave residual disability, are caused by nonreversible pathological alteration, require special training of the patient for rehabilitation, or may be expected to require a long period of supervision, observation, or care. (Dictionary of Health Services Management, 2d ed)
Inorganic derivatives of phosphorus trihydroxide (P(OH)3) and its tautomeric form dihydroxyphosphine oxide (HP=O(OH)2). Note that organic derivatives of phosphonic acids are listed under are ORGANOPHOSPHONATES.
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
A country spanning from central Asia to the Pacific Ocean.
A purine base and a fundamental unit of ADENINE NUCLEOTIDES.
Lymphocytes responsible for cell-mediated immunity. Two types have been identified - cytotoxic (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and helper T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, HELPER-INDUCER). They are formed when lymphocytes circulate through the THYMUS GLAND and differentiate to thymocytes. When exposed to an antigen, they divide rapidly and produce large numbers of new T cells sensitized to that antigen.
The functional hereditary units of VIRUSES.
Manifestations of the immune response which are mediated by antigen-sensitized T-lymphocytes via lymphokines or direct cytotoxicity. This takes place in the absence of circulating antibody or where antibody plays a subordinate role.
In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
Any part or derivative of any protozoan that elicits immunity; malaria (Plasmodium) and trypanosome antigens are presently the most frequently encountered.
Severe inability of the LIVER to perform its normal metabolic functions, as evidenced by severe JAUNDICE and abnormal serum levels of AMMONIA; BILIRUBIN; ALKALINE PHOSPHATASE; ASPARTATE AMINOTRANSFERASE; LACTATE DEHYDROGENASES; and albumin/globulin ratio. (Blakiston's Gould Medical Dictionary, 4th ed)
Acute INFLAMMATION of the LIVER in humans; caused by HEPATITIS E VIRUS, a non-enveloped single-stranded RNA virus. Similar to HEPATITIS A, its incubation period is 15-60 days and is enterically transmitted, usually by fecal-oral transmission.
Transmembrane proteins that form the beta subunits of the HLA-DP antigens.
Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.
Substances that augment, stimulate, activate, potentiate, or modulate the immune response at either the cellular or humoral level. The classical agents (Freund's adjuvant, BCG, Corynebacterium parvum, et al.) contain bacterial antigens. Some are endogenous (e.g., histamine, interferon, transfer factor, tuftsin, interleukin-1). Their mode of action is either non-specific, resulting in increased immune responsiveness to a wide variety of antigens, or antigen-specific, i.e., affecting a restricted type of immune response to a narrow group of antigens. The therapeutic efficacy of many biological response modifiers is related to their antigen-specific immunoadjuvanticity.
Commercially prepared reagent sets, with accessory devices, containing all of the major components and literature necessary to perform one or more designated diagnostic tests or procedures. They may be for laboratory or personal use.
Inhibitors of reverse transcriptase (RNA-DIRECTED DNA POLYMERASE), an enzyme that synthesizes DNA on an RNA template.
Simultaneous infection of a host organism by two or more pathogens. In virology, coinfection commonly refers to simultaneous infection of a single cell by two or more different viruses.
The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.
An infant during the first month after birth.
Diagnostic procedures involving immunoglobulin reactions.
A technique that combines protein electrophoresis and double immunodiffusion. In this procedure proteins are first separated by gel electrophoresis (usually agarose), then made visible by immunodiffusion of specific antibodies. A distinct elliptical precipitin arc results for each protein detectable by the antisera.
A positive-stranded RNA virus species in the genus HEPEVIRUS, causing enterically-transmitted non-A, non-B hepatitis (HEPATITIS E).
Schedule giving optimum times usually for primary and/or secondary immunization.
Includes the spectrum of human immunodeficiency virus infections that range from asymptomatic seropositivity, thru AIDS-related complex (ARC), to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS).
A chronic self-perpetuating hepatocellular INFLAMMATION of unknown cause, usually with HYPERGAMMAGLOBULINEMIA and serum AUTOANTIBODIES.
Morphologic alteration of small B LYMPHOCYTES or T LYMPHOCYTES in culture into large blast-like cells able to synthesize DNA and RNA and to divide mitotically. It is induced by INTERLEUKINS; MITOGENS such as PHYTOHEMAGGLUTININS, and by specific ANTIGENS. It may also occur in vivo as in GRAFT REJECTION.
Transfer of immunity from immunized to non-immune host by administration of serum antibodies, or transplantation of lymphocytes (ADOPTIVE TRANSFER).
Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.
Forceful administration into a muscle of liquid medication, nutrient, or other fluid through a hollow needle piercing the muscle and any tissue covering it.
A strain of HEPATITIS A VIRUS which causes hepatitis in humans. The virus replicates in hepatocytes and is presumed to reach the intestine via the bile duct. Transmission occurs by the fecal-oral route.
Test for tissue antigen using either a direct method, by conjugation of antibody with fluorescent dye (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, DIRECT) or an indirect method, by formation of antigen-antibody complex which is then labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, INDIRECT). The tissue is then examined by fluorescence microscopy.
Layers of protein which surround the capsid in animal viruses with tubular nucleocapsids. The envelope consists of an inner layer of lipids and virus specified proteins also called membrane or matrix proteins. The outer layer consists of one or more types of morphological subunits called peplomers which project from the viral envelope; this layer always consists of glycoproteins.
Enzymes of the transferase class that catalyze the conversion of L-aspartate and 2-ketoglutarate to oxaloacetate and L-glutamate. EC
Antibodies which react with the individual structural determinants (idiotopes) on the variable region of other antibodies.
The processes triggered by interactions of ANTIBODIES with their ANTIGENS.
Suspensions of attenuated or killed viruses administered for the prevention or treatment of infectious viral disease.
Blood tests that are used to evaluate how well a patient's liver is working and also to help diagnose liver conditions.
Polymers of ETHYLENE OXIDE and water, and their ethers. They vary in consistency from liquid to solid depending on the molecular weight indicated by a number following the name. They are used as SURFACTANTS, dispersing agents, solvents, ointment and suppository bases, vehicles, and tablet excipients. Some specific groups are NONOXYNOLS, OCTOXYNOLS, and POLOXAMERS.
Biologically active DNA which has been formed by the in vitro joining of segments of DNA from different sources. It includes the recombination joint or edge of a heteroduplex region where two recombining DNA molecules are connected.
Phenomenon of cell-mediated immunity measured by in vitro inhibition of the migration or phagocytosis of antigen-stimulated LEUKOCYTES or MACROPHAGES. Specific CELL MIGRATION ASSAYS have been developed to estimate levels of migration inhibitory factors, immune reactivity against tumor-associated antigens, and immunosuppressive effects of infectious microorganisms.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
A potent hepatotoxic and hepatocarcinogenic mycotoxin produced by the Aspergillus flavus group of fungi. It is also mutagenic, teratogenic, and causes immunosuppression in animals. It is found as a contaminant in peanuts, cottonseed meal, corn, and other grains. The mycotoxin requires epoxidation to aflatoxin B1 2,3-oxide for activation. Microsomal monooxygenases biotransform the toxin to the less toxic metabolites aflatoxin M1 and Q1.
Serologic tests based on inactivation of complement by the antigen-antibody complex (stage 1). Binding of free complement can be visualized by addition of a second antigen-antibody system such as red cells and appropriate red cell antibody (hemolysin) requiring complement for its completion (stage 2). Failure of the red cells to lyse indicates that a specific antigen-antibody reaction has taken place in stage 1. If red cells lyse, free complement is present indicating no antigen-antibody reaction occurred in stage 1.
An ORTHOHEPADNAVIRUS causing chronic liver disease and hepatocellular carcinoma in woodchucks. It closely resembles the human hepatitis B virus.
The complete genetic complement contained in a DNA or RNA molecule in a virus.
INFLAMMATION of the LIVER in non-human animals.
A group of the D-related HLA antigens (human) found to differ from the DR antigens in genetic locus and therefore inheritance. These antigens are polymorphic glycoproteins comprising alpha and beta chains and are found on lymphoid and other cells, often associated with certain diseases.
Positive test results in subjects who do not possess the attribute for which the test is conducted. The labeling of healthy persons as diseased when screening in the detection of disease. (Last, A Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)
Serum that contains antibodies. It is obtained from an animal that has been immunized either by ANTIGEN injection or infection with microorganisms containing the antigen.
The first alpha-globulins to appear in mammalian sera during FETAL DEVELOPMENT and the dominant serum proteins in early embryonic life.
Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)
Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.
Any immunization following a primary immunization and involving exposure to the same or a closely related antigen.
The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.
Suspensions of killed or attenuated microorganisms (bacteria, viruses, fungi, protozoa), antigenic proteins, synthetic constructs, or other bio-molecular derivatives, administered for the prevention, amelioration, or treatment of infectious and other diseases.
Studies determining the effectiveness or value of processes, personnel, and equipment, or the material on conducting such studies. For drugs and devices, CLINICAL TRIALS AS TOPIC; DRUG EVALUATION; and DRUG EVALUATION, PRECLINICAL are available.
The ability of viruses to resist or to become tolerant to chemotherapeutic agents or antiviral agents. This resistance is acquired through gene mutation.
DNA molecules capable of autonomous replication within a host cell and into which other DNA sequences can be inserted and thus amplified. Many are derived from PLASMIDS; BACTERIOPHAGES; or VIRUSES. They are used for transporting foreign genes into recipient cells. Genetic vectors possess a functional replicator site and contain GENETIC MARKERS to facilitate their selective recognition.
The sexual attraction or relationship between members of the same SEX.
Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.
The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.
Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.
Measurable and quantifiable biological parameters (e.g., specific enzyme concentration, specific hormone concentration, specific gene phenotype distribution in a population, presence of biological substances) which serve as indices for health- and physiology-related assessments, such as disease risk, psychiatric disorders, environmental exposure and its effects, disease diagnosis, metabolic processes, substance abuse, pregnancy, cell line development, epidemiologic studies, etc.
A republic in western Africa, south of NIGER between BENIN and CAMEROON. Its capital is Abuja.
A genus of Sciuridae consisting of 14 species. They are shortlegged, burrowing rodents which hibernate in winter.
Techniques used to demonstrate or measure an immune response, and to identify or measure antigens using antibodies.
Individuals supplying living tissue, organs, cells, blood or blood components for transfer or transplantation to histocompatible recipients.
A country in northern Africa, bordering the Mediterranean Sea, between Libya and the Gaza Strip, and the Red Sea north of Sudan, and includes the Asian Sinai Peninsula Its capital is Cairo.
Organized periodic procedures performed on large groups of people for the purpose of detecting disease.
The infective system of a virus, composed of the viral genome, a protein core, and a protein coat called a capsid, which may be naked or enclosed in a lipoprotein envelope called the peplos.
A major protein in the BLOOD. It is important in maintaining the colloidal osmotic pressure and transporting large organic molecules.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
A contagious venereal disease caused by the spirochete TREPONEMA PALLIDUM.
The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.
Immunoglobulin molecules having a specific amino acid sequence by virtue of which they interact only with the ANTIGEN (or a very similar shape) that induced their synthesis in cells of the lymphoid series (especially PLASMA CELLS).
The return of a sign, symptom, or disease after a remission.
Differentiation antigens residing on mammalian leukocytes. CD stands for cluster of differentiation, which refers to groups of monoclonal antibodies that show similar reactivity with certain subpopulations of antigens of a particular lineage or differentiation stage. The subpopulations of antigens are also known by the same CD designation.
Antigens of the virions of HEPACIVIRUS, their surface, core, or other associated antigens.
Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.
The major group of transplantation antigens in the mouse.
Immunized T-lymphocytes which can directly destroy appropriate target cells. These cytotoxic lymphocytes may be generated in vitro in mixed lymphocyte cultures (MLC), in vivo during a graft-versus-host (GVH) reaction, or after immunization with an allograft, tumor cell or virally transformed or chemically modified target cell. The lytic phenomenon is sometimes referred to as cell-mediated lympholysis (CML). These CD8-positive cells are distinct from NATURAL KILLER CELLS and NATURAL KILLER T-CELLS. There are two effector phenotypes: TC1 and TC2.
Antigens determined by leukocyte loci found on chromosome 6, the major histocompatibility loci in humans. They are polypeptides or glycoproteins found on most nucleated cells and platelets, determine tissue types for transplantation, and are associated with certain diseases.
Proteins found in any species of virus.
Age as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or the effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from AGING, a physiological process, and TIME FACTORS which refers only to the passage of time.
Lymphoid cells concerned with humoral immunity. They are short-lived cells resembling bursa-derived lymphocytes of birds in their production of immunoglobulin upon appropriate stimulation.
Organized services to administer immunization procedures in the prevention of various diseases. The programs are made available over a wide range of sites: schools, hospitals, public health agencies, voluntary health agencies, etc. They are administered to an equally wide range of population groups or on various administrative levels: community, municipal, state, national, international.
Unique genetically-controlled determinants present on ANTIBODIES whose specificity is limited to a single group of proteins (e.g., another antibody molecule or an individual myeloma protein). The idiotype appears to represent the antigenicity of the antigen-binding site of the antibody and to be genetically codetermined with it. The idiotypic determinants have been precisely located to the IMMUNOGLOBULIN VARIABLE REGION of both immunoglobin polypeptide chains.
Studies which start with the identification of persons with a disease of interest and a control (comparison, referent) group without the disease. The relationship of an attribute to the disease is examined by comparing diseased and non-diseased persons with regard to the frequency or levels of the attribute in each group.
Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.
The major interferon produced by mitogenically or antigenically stimulated LYMPHOCYTES. It is structurally different from TYPE I INTERFERON and its major activity is immunoregulation. It has been implicated in the expression of CLASS II HISTOCOMPATIBILITY ANTIGENS in cells that do not normally produce them, leading to AUTOIMMUNE DISEASES.
A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.
Therapy for the insufficient cleansing of the BLOOD by the kidneys based on dialysis and including hemodialysis, PERITONEAL DIALYSIS, and HEMODIAFILTRATION.
The interaction of two or more substrates or ligands with the same binding site. The displacement of one by the other is used in quantitative and selective affinity measurements.
Microscopy using an electron beam, instead of light, to visualize the sample, thereby allowing much greater magnification. The interactions of ELECTRONS with specimens are used to provide information about the fine structure of that specimen. In TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen are imaged. In SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY an electron beam falls at a non-normal angle on the specimen and the image is derived from the reactions occurring above the plane of the specimen.
Studies in which the presence or absence of disease or other health-related variables are determined in each member of the study population or in a representative sample at one particular time. This contrasts with LONGITUDINAL STUDIES which are followed over a period of time.
A cultured line of C3H mouse FIBROBLASTS that do not adhere to one another and do not express CADHERINS.
A species of the CORONAVIRUS genus causing hepatitis in mice. Four strains have been identified as MHV 1, MHV 2, MHV 3, and MHV 4 (also known as MHV-JHM, which is neurotropic and causes disseminated encephalomyelitis with demyelination as well as focal liver necrosis).

Complement fixing hepatitis B core antigen immune complexes in the liver of patients with HBs antigen positive chronic disease. (1/2532)

One hundred and fifty-two biopsies from serologically HBsAg positive and negative patients with liver disease were studied in immunofluorescence: for the presence of the surface (HBs) and the core (HBc) antigenic determinants foeterminants of the hepatitis B virus, of immunoglobulins and complement (C) deposits, and for the capacity to fix human C. Circumstantial evidence is presented suggesting that HBc immune-complexes are a relevant feature in the establishment and progression of chronic HBSAg liver disease. C fixation by liver cells was shown in all HBC positive patients with chronic hepatitis; an active form was present in every case, except two with a persistent hepatitis, an inverse ratio of HBc to C binding fluorescence being noted between active chronic hepatitis and cirrhotic patients. HBc without C fixation was observed in only three patients in the incubation phase of infectious hepatitis. IgG deposits were often found in HBc containing, C fixing nuclei. No C binding or IgG deposits were observed in acute self-limited type B hepatitis, in serologically positive patients with normal liver or minimal histological lesions, with and without HBs cytoplasmic fluorescence in their biopsy, or in serologically negative individuals.  (+info)

Prevalence of hepatitis B surface antigen and antibody in white and black patients with diabetes mellitus. (2/2532)

The prevalence of hepatitis B surface antigen (HBSAg) and antibody (anti-HBS) was determined in 531 white and 519 black diabetic outpatients and in appropriate white and black control populations. There was no difference between the prevalence of either HBSAg or anti-HBS in either the white or black diabetics and that in the white and black controls. These findings make it unlikely that the vast majority of patients with diabetes mellitus have either an increased susceptibility to infection by the hepatitis B virus or an impaired ability to clear the virus once they are infected.  (+info)

A cellular protein which binds hepatitis B virus but not hepatitis B surface antigen. (3/2532)

The envelope of hepatitis B virus (HBV) consists of three related proteins known as the large (L), middle (M) and small (S) hepatitis B surface antigens (HBsAg). L-HBsAg has a 108-119 amino acid extension at the N terminus compared with M-HBsAg and contains the preS1 sequence of the HBV envelope. Previous research has identified this region as the likely virus attachment protein which is thought to interact with the cellular receptor for the virus. However, as the receptor has still not been identified unequivocally, we used the preS1 region of L-HBsAg to screen a human liver cDNA library by the yeast two-hybrid system. Several positive clones were isolated which encoded cellular proteins that interacted with the HBV preS1 protein. The specificity was examined in an independent manner in experiments in which baculovirus-derived glutathione S-transferase (GST)-preS1 was incubated with 35S-labelled protein expressed by in vitro translation from the positive clones. The intensity of the interactions using this alternative approach mirrored those observed in the yeast two-hybrid system and two proteins (an unidentified protein and a mitochondrial protein) were selected for further study. The specificity of the binding reaction between the preS1 protein and these two proteins was further confirmed in a competition assay; HBV purified from serum, but not purified HBsAg, was able to compete with preS1 and thus block GST-preS1 binding to the unidentified protein but not to the mitochondrial protein. The unidentified protein was then expressed as a fusion protein with GST and this was able to bind HBV virions in a direct manner.  (+info)

Leucocyte migration inhibition with inner and outer membranes of mitochondria and insoluble hepatocyte surface membranes prepared from rat liver in patients with chronic hepatitis and cirrhosis. (4/2532)

Patients with chronic liver disease were tested for delayed hypersensitivity to the outer and the inner membranes of mitochondria (OMM and IMM) and the insoluble hepatocyte-surface membranes (IHSM), prepared from rat livers, by means of leucocyte migration inhibition technique. Positive reaction to OMM was found in 37% of patients with chronic persistent hepatitis and 35% of those with chronic active hepatitis and 43% of those with liver cirrhosis (P less than 0-05). That to IMM was 55%, 43% and 36% (P less than 0-05) and to IHSM was 37%, 47% and 45% respectively (P less than 0-05). IHSM was found to contain liver-specific components and patients with positive response to IHSM did not reveal at all a positive reaction to rat renal cell-surface membranes. The incidence of positive response to IHSM was significantly higher (54-2%) in patients with the present or previous infection with HBAg than in HBAg-non-infected patients (21-4%) (P less than 0-05). And there seemed to be a good correlation between a degree of cellular response to purified HBsAg and that to IHSM in these HBAg-infected patients. No correlation, however, was found between that to purified HBsAg and that to OMM or IMM in the same patients. This suggested that the cellular response to either HBsAg or IHSM, both related closely, may play a role in the perpetuation of chronic liver disease.  (+info)

Hepatitis B virus (HBV)-transgenic mice as an investigative tool to study immunopathology during HBV infection. (5/2532)

An overview is given regarding the use of hepatitis B virus (HBV) transgenic mice as an animal model of the HBV-carrier state. Initially, we show how HBV-transgenic mice have contributed insights into the immunopathobiological processes during HBV infection and later, we show how this new information from the experiments with HBV-transgenic mice could be used to develop new methods to combat HBV infection. By microinjecting the full or selected parts of the HBV-genome into the fertilized eggs of inbred mice, different laboratories have developed different lines of HBV-transgenic mice, which express products of the HBV genome and also show signs of HBV replication. Studies in HBV-transgenic mice have provided insights into the process of destruction of hepatocytes, the critical role of cytokines in controlling HBV replication and gene expression, mechanisms underlying the immune response defect in chronic HBV-carriers and the critical role of antigen presenting cells (APC), especially that of antigen presenting dendritic cells in persistent HBV infection. All this new information has given us a better understanding about HBV immunopathobiology, and has led to the development of new therapeutic approaches to combat HBV infection.  (+info)

Low prevalence of hepatitis B markers among Mexican female sex workers. (6/2532)

OBJECTIVES: To estimate the prevalence and associated risk factors of hepatitis B virus (HBV) serological markers in female sex workers (FSW) in Mexico City. METHODS: The study population consisted of 1498 FSW who attended a detection centre for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) in Mexico City, between January and October 1992. Study participants responded to a standardised questionnaire and provided a blood sample for serology of syphilis, HIV, and HBV. RESULTS: A total of 0.2% (95% CI 0.1-0.3) of the population were hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) carriers. The general prevalence of antibodies to hepatitis B core antigen (anti-HBc) was 6.3% (95% CI 5.5-7.1). This marker of previous exposition to HBV, was independently associated by logistic regression multivariate analysis with age, working in the street, and history of blood transfusion (BT) before 1987 (OR 4.8, 95% CI 2.1-11.3). Syphilis prevalence was 7.6% (95% CI 6.2-8.9) and HIV prevalence was 0.1% (95% CI 0-0.3). CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence of HBV infection in this group of Mexican FSW is lower than previously reported in other countries. In addition, the frequency of HBsAg carriers is similar to that in the general Mexican population. The absence of two major risk factors for HBV transmission in this group of FSW--that is, injecting drug use and anal intercourse, could help to explain this finding. However, the positive association between anti-HBc and history of blood transfusion demonstrated here, highlights the need to reinforce strict control of blood supplies in Mexico.  (+info)

Intracellular retention of hepatitis B virus surface proteins reduces interleukin-2 augmentation after genetic immunizations. (7/2532)

We have previously shown that hepatitis B virus (HBV) surface antigens (HBsAgs) are highly immunogenic after genetic immunization. Compared to the secreted middle HBV surface proteins (MHBs) or small HBV surface proteins (SHBs), the nonsecreted large HBV surface protein (LHBs), however, induced significantly weaker humoral and cellular immune responses that could not be augmented by genetic coimmunizations with cytokine expression plasmids. In order to understand the mechanisms underlying this phenomenon, we examined the effect of coimmunizations with an interleukin-2 (IL-2) DNA expression plasmid on the immunogenicity at the B- and T-cell level of nonsecreted wild-type LHBs, a secreted mutant LHBs, wild-type SHBs, and a nonsecreted mutant SHBs. Coimmunizations of mice with plasmids encoding wild-type SHBs or the secreted mutant LHBs and IL-2 increased anti-HBs responses, helper T-cell proliferative activity and cytotoxic T-lymphocyte killing. By contrast, coimmunizations of plasmids encoding wild-type LHBs or nonsecreted mutant SHBs and IL-2 had no significant effects on immune responses. Interestingly, mice immunized with cytokine expression plasmids 14 days after the injection of the wild-type LHBs plasmid showed augmented immune responses compared to animals simultaneously injected with both expression constructs. Anti-HBs responses in mice injected with plasmids encoding secreted forms of HBsAgs were detectable about 10 days earlier than those in mice immunized with plasmids encoding nonsecreted forms of HBsAgs. Based on these observations, we conclude that cytokines produced by DNA plasmids at the initial site of antigen presentation cannot augment LHBs specific immune responses because LHBs is not produced at high enough levels or is not accessible for uptake by antigen-presenting cells.  (+info)

Analysis of the pre-S2 N- and O-linked glycans of the M surface protein from human hepatitis B virus. (8/2532)

The surface antigen of hepatitis B virus comprises a nested set of small (S), middle (M), and large (L) proteins, all of which are partially glycosylated in their S domains. The pre-S2 domain, present only in M and L proteins, is further N-glycosylated at Asn-4 exclusively in the M protein. Since the pre-S2 N-glycan appears to play a crucial role in the secretion of viral particles, the M protein may be considered as a potential target for antiviral therapy. For characterization of the pre-S2 glycosylation, pre-S2 (glyco)peptides were released from native, patient-derived hepatitis B virus subviral particles by tryptic digestion, separated from remaining particles, purified by reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatography, and identified by amino acid and N-terminal sequence analysis as well as matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS). Pre-S2 N-glycans were characterized by anion exchange chromatography, methylation analysis, and on target sequential exoglycosidase digestions in combination with MALDI-TOF-MS, demonstrating the presence of partially sialylated diantennary complex-type oligosaccharides. In addition, the pre-S2 domain of M protein, but not that of L protein, was found to be partially O-glycosylated by a Gal(beta1-3)GalNAcalpha-, Neu5Ac(alpha2-3)Gal(beta1-3)GalNAcalpha-, or GalNAcalpha-residue. The respective O-glycosylation site was assigned to Thr-37 by digestion with carboxypeptidases in combination with MALDI-TOF-MS and by quadrupole time-of-flight electrospray mass spectrometry. Analytical data further revealed that about 90% of M protein is N-terminally acetylated.  (+info)

Serum hepatitis B surface antigen titer and transient elastography in screening for insignificant fibrosis in HBeAg-positive chronic hepatitis B patients Ling-Bo Liang, Xia Zhu, Li-Bo Yan, Ling-Yao Du, Cong Liu, Li-Yu Chen, Juan Liao, Hong Tang Center of Infectious Disease, West China Hospital, West China School of Medicine, and State Key Laboratory of Biotherapy, Sichuan University, Chengdu, Peoples Republic of China Objective: To explore the predictive value of serum hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) titer and transient elastography in screening for insignificant fibrosis in hepatitis B e antigen (HBeAg)-positive chronic hepatitis B patients. Methods: We conducted a cross-sectional study of eligible patients treated from March 2012 to May 2013 at the West China Hospital of Sichuan University. Eligible patients underwent liver transient elastography and liver biopsy. We assessed the serum HBsAg level, serum hepatitis B virus (HBV) deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) level, HBV genotypes, liver stiffness
Hepatitis B Surface Antigen Negative, Hepatitis B Surface Antibody Negative. Recommendation: Get immunized with the hepatitis B vaccine.. Hepatitis B Surface Antigen Negative, Hepatitis B Surface Antibody Positive. Person has antibodies to hepatitis B and is immune. Encourage him/her to have family tested.. CLIENT FOLLOW UP PROTOCOL:. You will need some sort of follow up system. Simply sending persons a letter notifying them that they are hepatitis B positive is not effective. This is one of the best areas for students to get involved because you can help develop tracking programs and follow-up with both your hepatitis B surface antigen positive and negative persons. Hepatitis B surface antigen positive persons need to see a physician even if they have no symptoms. It is ideal to follow up with everyone who participates in your screening to educate them about hepatitis B and also direct them to appropriate avenues for treatment.. Hepatitis B negative persons who also are hepatitis B surface ...
Mouse monoclonal antibody raised against full length recombinant hepatitis B virus surface antigen. Recombinant protein corresponding to full length hepatitis B virus surface antigen. (MAB1691) - Products - Abnova
We offer to book Hepatitis B Surface Antigen (HbSAg) Quantitative Test online. View Hepatitis B Surface Antigen (HbSAg) Quantitative Test cost, pre test information and report availability on Home collection of blood sample is also available at our centers.
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Hepatitis b surface antigen definition at, a free online dictionary with pronunciation, synonyms and translation. Look it up now!
BACKGROUND: The kinetics of serum hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) levels during long-term nucleoside analogue therapy has not been described. METHODS: We recruited 71 patients achieving persistent viro-logic suppression (Serum HBV DNA < 2,000 IU/mL) during lamivudine therapy for at least 10 years (10 patients for 15 years). Serum HBsAg (Elecsys HBsAg II) and HBV DNA levels (Cobas Taqman) were determined at baseline, year 5 and year 10. HBV genotype was determined by a line probe assay. RESULTS: The median age at lamivudine commencement was 38.6 (range 13.1 to 66.7) years. 57 patients (78.1%) were male and 43 (58.9%) were hepatitis B e antigen (HBeAg)-positive, with all 43 patients achieving HBeAg seroconversion after a median period of 2.82 (range 0.13 to 10.85) months. There was no significant difference in the median annual HBsAg decline rate from baseline to year 5 and from year 5 to 10 (0.350 and 0.359 log IU/mL/year respectively, p = 0.749). There was no difference in median annual ...
Yum, J. S., B. C. Ahn, H. J. Jo, D. Y. Kim, K. H. Kim, H. S. Kim, Y. C. Sung, J. Yoon, J. Morrey, and H. M. Moon. 2012. Use of pre-s protein-containing hepatitis B virus surface antigens and a powerful adjuvant to develop an immune therapy for chronic hepatitis B virus infection. Clin Vaccine Immunol 19:120-127. PMID22155769. ...
Hepatitis B virus (HBV) is one of the major causes of chronic hepatitis, cirrhosis and liver cancer. In combating HBV infections, HBV diagnosis and vaccination are therefore critical. The hepatitis B virus surface antigen (HBsAg) is a key target molecule in developing vaccines and diagnostic systems. To date, although HBsAg has been expressed in bacteria, yeasts and mammalian cells, there are still limitations in the existing ones, which leave the necessity for searching new HBsAg production methods. In this study, a simple phage display-based method was developed to produce the purified full-length HBsAg molecules for further immunization studies. For this purpose, the HBsAg coding gene was cloned into a pCANTAB5E phagemid vector and expressed on the surface of M13 filamentous phages. The HBsAg-expressing phage nanosystem was then used as immunization agent in BALB/cJ mice. The ELISA results for sera obtained from mice immunized with HBsAg-displaying phage particles revealed an immune response ...
Since its discovery by Blumberg in 1965, the hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) is used as the fingerprint of hepatitis B infection. Occult hepatitis B infection (OBI) is defined by a viral replication (DNA detectable) in the absence of HBsAg. Burkina Faso is a high endemic area where the prevalence is higher than 14%. At the National Center for Blood Transfusion (NCBT) of Ouagadougou, HBsAg is the only sought marker used to distinguish donors towards Hepatitis B Virus (HBV). Acceptation of blood donation is based specifically on the absence of HBsAg, which exposes to the risk of HBV transmission during transfusion. The goal of this study is to evaluate this risk by determining the prevalence of OBI in blood donors. Patients and Methods: It was a five-month prospective study on blood donations collected from January to May 2016. The HBc antibody has been sought in the serums of negative HBsAg donors. The measure of B DNA by Real Time PCR (polymerase chain reaction) and that of antibodies
Results: Of the 1000 samples 55 (5.5%) were found to be reactive, of which 87.3% (48/55) were positive for hepatitis B surface antibody, indicating immunity as a result of previous infection however, that does not exclude active infection with escaped mutant HBV. Nested PCR results showed the presence of hepatitis B viral DNA in all the 55 samples that were positive for core protein, which is in agreement with the hepatitis B surface antibody result ...
The aim of the study was to investigate correlations between intrahepatic hepatitis B virus total DNA, covalently closed circular DNA (cccDNA), and serum HBsAg in treatment-naive chronic hepatitis B and HBV related hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Liver tissues were taken from 42 HBV related HCC and 36 patients with chronic hepatitis B. A fraction of DNA extracted from liver tissue was digested with a plasmid-safe ATP-dependent DNase and used for HBV cccDNA detection. The remaining DNA was used for the detection of HBV total DNA and beta-globin, the latter of which is a housekeeping gene and quantified for normalization by real-time PCR. Quantitation of serum HBsAg was performed by a chemiluminescence assay. Serum HBsAg had positive correlations with serum HBV DNA (r?=?0.636, P ...
Hepatitis B Surface Antibody Anti Hbs testing locations in Tennessee. You can use this list to find local Hepatitis B Surface Antibody Anti Hbs testing.
TY - JOUR. T1 - The mannose receptor acts as hepatitis B virus surface antigen receptor mediating interaction with intrahepatic dendritic cells. AU - den Brouw, M.L.O.. AU - Binda, R.S.. AU - Geijtenbeek, T.B.H.. AU - Janssen, H.-G.. AU - Woltman, A.M.. PY - 2009. Y1 - 2009. U2 - 10.1016/j.virol.2009.07.015. DO - 10.1016/j.virol.2009.07.015. M3 - Article. VL - 393. SP - 84. EP - 90. JO - Virology. JF - Virology. SN - 0042-6822. IS - 1. ER - ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Serological subtype (serotype) of hepatitis B virus surface antigen. AU - Iwasaki, Yoshiaki. AU - Tsuji, T.. PY - 1995/10. Y1 - 1995/10. UR - UR - M3 - Article. VL - 53 Suppl. SP - 293. EP - 298. JO - Nippon rinsho. Japanese journal of clinical medicine. JF - Nippon rinsho. Japanese journal of clinical medicine. SN - 0047-1852. IS - Pt 2. ER - ...
The 55 codons upstream of the gene sequence encoding the hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) are called the pre-S(2) region. It has been proposed that polypeptides of high molecular weight that contain the pre-S(2) region should be included in future hepatitis B virus (HBV) vaccines. The pre-S(2) region and the S gene product [25 kilodalton (kD)] together compose a polypeptide of high molecular weight (33 kD). As an initial attempt to determine the relevance of the 33-kD polypeptide to development of an HBV vaccine, the murine immune response to pre-S(2)-encoded determinants as compared to S-encoded determinants on the same polypeptide was examined. The results indicate (i) the pre-S(2) region is significantly more immunogenic than the S region of HBsAg, (ii) the 26 amino acid residues at the NH2-terminus of the 33-kD polypeptide represent a dominant antibody binding site on the pre-S(2) region, (iii) the immune response to the pre-S(2) region is regulated by H-2-linked genes distinct from those ...
AIM: To evaluate pretreatment hepatitis B virus (HBV) testing, vaccination, and antiviral treatment rates in Veterans Affairs patients receiving anti-CD20 Ab for quality improvement. METHODS: We performed a retrospective cohort study using a national repository of Veterans Health Administration (VHA) electronic health record data. We identified all patients receiving anti-CD20 Ab treatment (2002-2014). We ascertained patient demographics, laboratory results, HBV vaccination status (from vaccination records), pharmacy data, and vital status. The high risk period for HBV reactivation is during anti-CD20 Ab treatment and 12 mo follow up. Therefore, we analyzed those who were followed to death or for at least 12 mo after completing anti-CD20 Ab. Pretreatment serologic tests were used to categorize chronic HBV (hepatitis B surface antigen positive or HBsAg+), past HBV (HBsAg-, hepatitis B core antibody positive or HBcAb+), resolved HBV (HBsAg-, HBcAb+, hepatitis B surface antibody positive or ...
Hepatitis B Surface Antigen Should Not Be the Only Sought Marker to Distinguish Blood Donors towards Hepatitis B Virus Infection in High Prevalence Area. . Biblioteca virtual para leer y descargar libros, documentos, trabajos y tesis universitarias en PDF. Material universiario, documentación y tareas realizadas por universitarios en nuestra biblioteca. Para descargar gratis y para leer online.
Background and AimChildren with chronic hepatitis B (CHB) are at high risk of progressive liver disease. It is suggested that a newly-identified panel of 16 microRNAs is important in the pathogenesis of CHB in children. Subviral hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) particles are produced in large excess over infectious virions. Interestingly, circulating HBsAg particles have been shown to carry microRNAs. A thorough characterisation of the identified microRNAs and HBsAg over time in plasma from children with CHB may provide useful information about the natural course of childhood CHB. Patients and MethodsA cohort of 42 children with CHB was followed over time. Three to five blood samples were obtained from each child at minimum intervals of half a year; in total 180 blood samples. Plasma levels of the 16 microRNAs previously identified were analysed by quantitative real-time polymerase-chain-reaction. Plasma HBsAg was quantified using ARCHITECT® HBsAg assay. ResultsThe presence of 14/16 plasma
Surface antigen usually appears in the serum after an incubation period of 1 to 6 months following exposure to Hepatitis B virus and peaks shortly after onset of symptoms. It typically disappears within 1 to 3 months. Persistence of Hepatitis B surface antigen for greater than 6 months is a prognostic indicator of chronic Hepatitis B infection. ...
To assess the role of hepatitis B e antigen HBeAg and its interaction with hepatitis B surface antigen HBsAg on the development of hepatocellular carcinoma HCC, this case-control study included 361 age-and sex-matched pairs of patients with histologically proven HCC and healthy control subjects. HBsAg, HBeAg and antibody to HBeAg anti-HBe were...
Hepatitis B viral mutants can emerge in patients as a result of selection pressure from either immune response or treatment options. Mutations that occur within the immunodominant epitopes of hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) allow mutant virus to propagate in the presence of a neutralizing immune response, while wild-type virus is reduced to undetectable levels. HBsAg mutants present as false-negative results in some immunoassays. An understanding of immunoassay reactivity with HBsAg mutants is key to establishing an appropriate testing algorithm for hepatitis B virus detection programs ...
Hepatitis B viral mutants can emerge in patients as a result of selection pressure from either immune response or treatment options. Mutations that occur within the immunodominant epitopes of hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) allow mutant virus to propagate in the presence of a neutralizing immune response, while wild-type virus is reduced to undetectable levels. HBsAg mutants present as false-negative results in some immunoassays. An understanding of immunoassay reactivity with HBsAg mutants is key to establishing an appropriate testing algorithm for hepatitis B virus detection programs.
臺大位居世界頂尖大學之列,為永久珍藏及向國際展現本校豐碩的研究成果及學術能量,圖書館整合機構典藏(NTUR)與學術庫(AH)不同功能平台,成為臺大學術典藏NTU scholars。期能整合研究能量、促進交流合作、保存學術產出、推廣研究成果。. To permanently archive and promote researcher profiles and scholarly works, Library integrates the services of NTU Repository with Academic Hub to form NTU Scholars.. ...
Background & aim: Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is a major global health concern. According to the statistics, the prevalence of this infection is moderate in Iran. Pregnant mothers, who are infected with the virus (virus carriers), can transmit the infection to their fetus. This study aimed to determine the prevalence of hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) and its influencing factors in pregnant women, referring to healthcare centers of Dehloran, Iran. Methods:In this descriptive, cross-sectional study, the sample consisted of all pregnant women with medical records, referring to healthcare centers of Dehloran city for prenatal care during 2011-2012. Census sampling was applied and subjects medical records were reviewed. Demographic and pregnancy-related data, and HBV test results were recorded. For data analysis, descriptive statistics, t-test and Fishers exact test were applied, using SPSS version 16.0. P-value | 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results: In this study, the medical
Major hydrophilic region in genomic HBV extending from aa99 to aa169, clustered with a highly conformational epitope, is critical to the antigenicity of hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) and may affect the diagnosis of HBV in HBV screening test. So, this study aimed to characterize variants of S gene product of hepatitis B virus (HBV) isolated from patients with overt or occult HBV infection in north-eastern Egypt. The study included sera of two different groups of volunteer blood donors (VBDs), 82 with overt HBV that were positive for HBsAg and anti-HBc and 343 donors negative for HBsAg eligible for donation. Of the latter group, only 44 were positive for anti-HBc. All anti-HBc positive sera were subjected to HBV DNA detection and partial sequence analysis targeting the HBV S gene. HBV DNA was detected in 22.7 % of HBsAg-/anti-HBc + (10/44 patients) and in 90 % of HBsAg + donors (74/82 patients) with significant statistical difference (P = 0.0001). Phylogenetic analysis showed that HBV strains
BACKGROUND Post-exposure prophylaxis administered to infants shortly after birth prevents approximately 90% of cases of perinatal hepatitis B virus (HBV) transmission. The Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices recommends that all pregnant women be tested for hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) at an early prenatal visit during each pregnancy to detect active infection with HBV. This study sought to determine the proportion and characteristics of pregnant women tested\not tested according to Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices recommendations. METHODS We analyzed MarketScan databases to assess prenatal HBsAg testing among women with commercial and Medicaid health care coverage according to demographic and clinical characteristics. Pregnant women 15-44 years of age continuously enrolled in a health plan in the MarketScan database during 2013 and 2014 and with a live birth in 2014 were included. RESULTS Among commercially insured women, 239,955 (87.7%) received HBsAg testing and 59.6%
Introduction Occult hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection, so-called occult B infection (OBI), is defined by the recognition of HBV-DNA in the absence of serum hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg). The HBV-DNA genome in OBI is fully replication competent and produced in the liver, characteristically with low-level HBV-DNA fluctuations in the bloodstream. The OBI status remains between chronic (HBsAg +) and resolved (anti-HBs +) phases in the natural history of HBV infection. Methods The clinical interest in OBI has increased because of its potential for overt HBV reactivation under immunosuppression as well as for HBV transmission, well established in recipients of blood transfusions and/or organ transplants. Results Given the shared transmission routes for HIV and HBV, earlier reports claimed that OBI was more frequent in AIDS patients. By contrast, the current scenario shows that OBI is negligible in the HIV population. One explanation is that HBV immunization and recall vaccination campaigns have ...
BACKGROUND Delta virus (HDV)-related chronic hepatitis is difficult to treat. AIMS To evaluate the efficacy of lamivudine 100 mg daily on serum HDV-RNA, hepatitis D virus antibodies and alanine aminotransferase levels, liver histology, and on hepatitis B surface antigen seroconversion. METHODS Thirty-one hepatitis B surface antigen-positive, HDV-RNA-positive patients with ALT | or = 1.5 upper normal level and compensated liver disease were randomized (1:2 ratio) to placebo (group A, n = 11) or lamivudine (group B, n = 20) for 52 weeks; thereafter, all patients were given lamivudine for 52 weeks and followed up for 16 weeks. RESULTS Twenty-five patients (81%) completed the study. No patient was HDV-RNA-negative at week 52; three patients (11%) were negative at week 104. Two of them remained HDV-RNA-negative at week 120, and one lost the hepatitis B surface antigen without seroconversion. Paired pre-treatment and week 104 liver biopsies were available from 19 patients: of which three of seven (43%)
Murine monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) were raised following immunization with native mutant hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) purified from human sera. A set of antibodies binding to a linear epitope carried between residues 121 and 129 of the s region was demonstrated. These antibodies were shown by cross-competition assays to bind to a single epitope whose antigenicity was influenced by the TTP motif lying between residues 125 and 127. This first loop epitope remained accessible on the surface of HBsAg in spite of major second loop mutations abrogating the normal a conformational epitopes. The mAb and its binding region in the first loop are important diagnostically and may represent an importance immunological target, one that is stable in the face of immunologically driven escape.
Proliferative responses to hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg). Proliferative responses to HBsAg, measured as counts per minute (cpm) of 3H-thymidine incorporat
Farzadegan, H.; Harbour, C.; Ala, F., 1979: The prevalence of hepatitis B surface antigen and its antibody in blood donors and high risk groups in Iran
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The details of bibliography - Hepatitis B surface antigen is not associated with chronic renal disease in Aboriginal Australians [letter]
Persons with chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection are at high risk for chronic liver disease and are a major reservoir of HBV infection. Foreign-born populations from Africa, Asia, and the Pacific Islands have high rates of chronic HBV infection (i.e., HBsAg prevalence of ,8%). During delivery of recommended hepatitis B vaccination services (e.g., HBsAg screening of pregnant women and serologic testing to assess susceptibility), vaccination providers will identify persons who are HBsAg positive. These persons require counseling and medical management for chronic HBV infection to reduce their risk for chronic liver disease. Their susceptible household, sex, and needle-sharing contacts also should be vaccinated against hepatitis B. Extending screening, referral, and contact vaccination services to persons identified as HBsAg positive can help prevent serious sequelae in persons with chronic infection and enhance vaccination strategies to eliminate HBV transmission. This appendix provides ...
Bio-Rad Antibodies (formerly AbD Serotec) is the research antibody division of Bio-Rad, the worlds leading life science company.
The detection of anti-HBs is indicative of a prior immunologic exposure to the antigen or vaccine. To determine immune status as ≥10 mIU/mL as per CDC guidelines, please order Hepatitis B Surface Antibody, Quantitative.. ...
Screening is the process of identifying people who appear healthy but may be at increased risk of a disease or condition. Most often, the timing of the infection is a critical point for infectious disease screening, as a failure of early detection and timely intervention is a missed opportunity for prompt treatment and prevention.. Our Screening panel includes Hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg), Hepatitis C Virus (HCV), Retroviral screening (RVS), H.Pylori, Typhoid (Widal), Stool microscopy, and Urine microscopy.. Hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg): With the increasing number of hepatitis B infection, unknown to many who are being infected with the virus, the need for Hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) remains strong. The test is targeted to check the presence of Hepatitis B Virus (HBV) in the blood.. Hepatitis C Virus (HCV) antibody test: HCV is transmitted in a manner similar to HBV. Most cases of hepatitis C are caused by blood transfusion. HCV is found in as many as 8% of blood donors ...
Hepatitis B Surface Antibody Anti Hbs testing in Bel Air, Maryland. Find a lab near you and save when you get blood work directly through Personalabs!
Mouse monoclonal Hepatitis B Virus Surface Antigen antibody [HB12] validated for ELISA. Immunogen corresponding to recombinant full length protein
Hepatitis B Virus Surface Antigen小鼠单克隆抗体经ELISA, ICC实验严格验证。所有产品均提供质保服务,中国75%以上现货。
The HBsAb Rapid Test Is,direct Binding Test For The Visual Detection Of Antibodies To Hepatitis B Surface Antigen (Anti-HBs) In Serum/plasma. It Is Used As An Aid In The Diagnosis Of Hepatitis B Inf...
Chronic hepatitis was diagnosed on liver biopsy of 76 patients; 52 (68%)had HBsAg. Of the 52 patients with HBsAg, 23% had HBsAg shown by immunofluorescence on the liver, while it could not be detected with radioimmunoassay on the serum; 77% had HBsAg detectable in liver and in serum, and none had HBsAg in serum only. HBsAg was detected more frequently in chronic aggressive hepatitis and active cirrhosis than in chronic persistent hepatitis and cirrhosis with little activity. No correlation was found in the different forms of chronic hepatitis between the HBsAg status on the one hand, and levels of transaminases, gammaglobulins, and auto-antibodies on the other. Acute hepatitis was diagnosed on liver biopsy of 24 patients; 50% had HBsAg. Liver tissue positivity was very low in the fully developed stage compared to serum positivity. In 146 patients with other liver ailments, both liver and serum were negative for HBsAg.. ...
The standard hepatitis B surface Ag (HBsAg) vaccine fails to induce anti-hepatitis B surface Abs in 5-10% of healthy subjects, a phenomenon known as HBsAg nonresponsiveness, which is closely related to HLA class II alleles and impaired Th cell responses to HBsAg in these subjects. We hypothesized that GM-CSF, a potent adjuvant in enhancing the Ag-presentation activity of APCs, might help to generate Th cell responses in nonresponders, subsequently providing help for B cells to produce anti-hepatitis B surface Abs. We used a thermosensitive biodegradable copolymer (hydrogel) system to codeliver HBsAg and GM-CSF to achieve maximal local cytokine activity at the injection site. In responder mouse strains, hydrogel-formulated HBsAg plus GM-CSF (Gel/HBs+GM) vaccine elicited much greater anti-hepatitis B surface Ab titers and Th cell proliferative responses than a commercial aluminum-formulated HBsAg vaccine or free HBsAg. The adjuvant effect of the Gel/HBs+GM vaccine was dependent upon the local ...
References for Abcams Anti-Hepatitis B Virus Surface Antigen antibody [HB6] (HRP) (ab2042). Please let us know if you have used this product in your…
Aim: To evaluate the occurrence of Hepatitis B surface antigen positivity in family members of HBsAg-positive patients, to assess the profile of HBV infection in them, to identify possible risk factors in a close family environment, and to evaluate the burden of liver disease in these family members. Materials and Methods: All Hepatitis B surface antigen-positive patients who attended the Liver Clinic of the Gastroenterology Department of the Calicut Medical College, from January 2009 to December 2010, were studied. The index case was evaluated with HBeAg, anti HBeAb, HBV DNA, liver function tests (LFTs), ultrasonogram of the abdomen, and alpha fetoprotein, as also liver biopsy in indicated cases. The index patient was interviewed and a detailed history with special emphasis on probable risk factors was taken. All first-degree relatives and relatives staying in the same house of the index case were screened for HBsAg. The relatives who tested negative for the infection were advised HBV ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Expression of hepatocyte hepatitis B core antigen and hepatitis B surface antigen as a marker in the management of chronic hepatitis B patients. AU - Yim, Sun Young. AU - Kim, Tae Hyung. AU - Jun, Suh Sang. AU - Kim, Eun Sun. AU - Keum, Bora. AU - Seo, Yeon Seok. AU - Yim, Hyung Joon. AU - Jeen, Yoon Tae. AU - Chun, Hoon Jai. AU - Lee, Hong Sik. AU - Um, Soon Ho. AU - Kim, Chang Duck. AU - Won, Nam Hee. AU - Ryu, Ho Sang. N1 - Funding Information: This study was supported by a grant from the Korea Healthcare Technology R&D Project, Ministry of Health and Welfare, Republic of Korea (HI10C2020).. PY - 2017/5. Y1 - 2017/5. N2 - Background/Aims: We aimed to clarify the association of hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg)/hepatitis B core antigen (HBcAg) with the disease status and treatment response in patients with chronic hepatitis B (CHB). Methods: We investigated 171 biopsy-proven entecavir-treated CHB patients (109 hepatitis B e antigen [HBeAg]-positive, 62 HBeAg-negative). HBcAg ...
Hepatitis B surface antigen, hepatitis B e antigen, hepatitis B virus DNA, alanine aminotransferase, liver histology, quantification
On-treatment levels of hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) may predict response to peginterferon (PEG-IFN) therapy in chronic hepatitis B (CHB), but previously proposed prediction rules have shown limited external validity. We analyzed 803 HBeAg-positive patients treated with PEG-IFN in three global studies with available HBsAg measurements. A stopping-rule based on absence of a decline from baseline was compared to a prediction-rule that uses HBsAg levels of ,1,500 IU/mL and ,20,000 IU/mL to identify patients with high and low probabilities of response. Patients with an HBsAg level ,1,500 IU/mL at week 12 achieved response (HBeAg loss with HBV DNA ,2,000 IU/mL at 6 months posttreatment) in 45%. At week 12, patients without a decline in HBsAg achieved a response in 14%, compared to only 6% of patients with HBsAg ,20,000 IU/mL, but performance varied across HBV genotype. In patients treated with PEG-IFN monotherapy (n = 465), response rates were low in patients with genotypes A or D if there was ...
The goal of chronic hepatitis B (CHB) treatment is complete and permanent eradication of hepatitis B virus (HBV) from patients body, which is best represented by serum HBsAg loss accompanied by undetectable serum HBV DNA level.. While the most recently approved nucleos(t)ide analogues (NA) have marked antiviral potency and can induce HBV DNA undetectability in the majority of patients through prolonged treatment, NA need to be given long term, almost indefinitely, in most cases because they suppress HBV DNA only during therapy. For example, even after HBeAg-loss by a potent NA, suppression of serum HBV DNA to undetectable level is sustained only in about 23%-37% at 24 weeks off treatment. Thus, continuous therapy with NA until HBsAg clearance remains necessary in a majority of cases.. The recent availability of commercial quantitative assays of serum hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) has enabled quantitative HBsAg to be used as a biomarker for prognosis and treatment response in CHB. It has ...
Rationale:. Worldwide, approximately 400 million people are chronically infected with hepatitis B virus (HBV). Chronic HBV infection increases the risk of developing cirrhosis, hepatic decompensation and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). The risk of developing hepatocellular carcinoma is highest in HBeAg positive patients with high HBV DNA levels, but still the relative risk remains 10 for HBeAg negative patients. Furthermore it has been shown that when HBsAg is cleared before cirrhosis has developed, the prognosis is excellent. Recently the investigators have shown that HBeAg negative patients with high HBV-DNA load and low baseline HBsAg levels had a significantly higher HBsAg clearance (positive predictive value of 85%) after combination therapy with peginterferon alfa2a (Peg-IFN) and adefovir.. Based on these results, a trial was designed to investigate whether combination of a nucleos(t)ide analogue combined with PegIFN, could also provoke a high rate of HBsAg clearance in chronic hepatitis B ...
Co-infection with HIV and hepatitis B virus (HBV) has become an important factor of co-morbidity and mortality. The aim of this study was to determine the seroprevalence of HIV/HBV co-infection and its effect on the disease progression in people living with HIV/AIDS identified in Yaoundé Central Hospital. Blood samples from 75 HIV positive patients were collected in Yaoundé Central Hospital from November 2015 to February 2016, for the determination of hepatitis B virus surface antigen (HBsAg) using immunoassays. Cluster of differentiation 4 (CD4) T-cells count and biochemical markers of liver function were also collected and analyzed. The socio-demographic data were also collected. The effect sizes were confirmed using G*Power version software. The data were entered and analyzed using the SPSS Version 22.1 software.  The statistical tests performed were x2, and Pearson correlation, with significant difference at the threshold p ≤ 0.05. Hepatitis B virus surface antigen
The nucleic acid polymers REP 2139 and REP 2165 led to hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) reduction or clearance when combined with tenofovir and pegylated interferon, according to early results from a small study presented as a late-breaker at the 2016 AASLD Liver Meeting this month in Boston. This combination may potentially enable functional control of hepatitis B if confirmed in larger studies.. Over years or decades chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection can lead to advanced liver disease including cirrhosis and liver cancer. Antiviral therapy using nucleoside/nucleotide analogues such as entecavir (Baraclude) or tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (Viread) is the mainstay of treatment for chronic hepatitis B. While these drugs can suppress HBV replication during therapy, and can thereby reduce the risk of liver disease progression, they usually do not lead to a cure - as indicated by HBsAg loss and anti-HBs antibody seroconversion - and long-term treatment is generally needed. Researchers ...
New double staining technology allows for easier staining protocols and faster turnaround time. The cocktail approach can be used when two primary antibodies are from different host species, as is the example of these two antibodies (mouse monoclonal antibody against HBsAg and rabbit polyclonal antibody against HBcAg). A secondary antibody or detection system can also be a cocktail of horseradish peroxidase (HRP) labeled anti-rabbit and alkaline phosphatase (AP) labeled anti-mouse. This allows simultaneous incubation of both primary antibodies, followed by simultaneous incubation of the cocktailed secondary detection reagents. This is a huge time saver compared to sequential staining techniques. The only sequential step in the cocktail approach is the application of DAB chromogen followed by application of fast red (FR) chromogen ...
The page below is a sample from the LabCE course Liver Biopsies: Anatomy and Histological Considerations. Access the complete course and earn ASCLS P.A.C.E.-approved continuing education credits by subscribing online ...
Hepatitis A. HAV Ab. Competitive Enzyme ImmunoAssay (ELISA) for the determination of antibodies to Hepatitis A Virus in human plasma and sera.. HAV IgM. Enzyme ImmunoAssay (ELISA) for the determination of IgM class antibodies to Hepatitis A Virus in human plasma and sera.... Hepatitis B. HBc Ab. Competitive Enzyme ImmunoAssay (ELISA) for the determination of antibodies to Hepatitis B core Antigen in human plasma and sera.. HBc IgM. Enzyme ImmunoAssay (ELISA) for both the quantitative and qualitative determination of antibodies.... HBe Ag/Ab. Enzyme ImmunoAssay (ELISA) for the determination of Hepatitis B Virus \e\ Antigen and Antibody in human plasma and sera.. HBs Ab. Enzyme ImmunoAssay (ELISA) for both the quantitative and qualitative determination of antibodies.... HBs Ag. Third generation Enzyme Immunoassay for the determination of Hepatitis B surface Antigen or HBsAg in human serum and plasma.. HBs Ag Conf.. Third generation Enzyme Immunoassay for the determination of Hepatitis B surface ...
The filamentous fungus Aspergillus niger was transformed with the hepatitis B virus S gene encoding the major viral envelope protein under control of the constitutive A. nidulans glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (gpdA) promoter. Approximately seven copies of the expression cassette were integrated on the genome, resulting in high-level transcription of the S gene. Production of the 24-kDa S protein and a 48-kDa S protein dimer in the membrane-associated protein fraction of the recombinant A. niger strain was shown through Western analysis. Electron microscopy of partially purified recombinant S protein revealed the formation of spherical pseudoviral particles with a diameter of 22 nm. The production level of hepatitis B pseudoviral particles was estimated to be 0.4 mg/1 culture, which compares favourably with the reported levels initially obtained in yeast, indicating the potential of the Aspergillus expression system as an alternative, cost-effective vaccine production system.. ...
I am diagnosed as Hep B carrier.My test reports:HbS antigen. positive. hep e antigen.Negative.HBV DNA.Negative.I am on treatment with lumividine tab 100 mg/day for about 3 yrs.My ALT level & liver ult...
The discovery at the end of the 1960s that the Australia antigen (now called hepatitis B surface antigen [HBsAg]) is a component of hepatitis B virus (HBV) opened the door to preparation of hepatitis B immune globulin (HBIG) having titers of specific antibody (anti-HBs) many hundredfold times higher than those in standard immune serum globulin (ISG). As rapidly as anti-HBs-rich units of plasma could be identified and batches of HBIG prepared, studies of prophylaxis of type B hepatitis were carried out (1-6). Unfortunately, these investigations did not provide an easily interpretable answer to relative usefulness of HBIG and ISG. Hence, ...
Hepatitis B has been a serious public health problem in Hainan for a long time. In 1992, the Chinese national HBV seroprevalence survey found that the HBsAg seroprevalence of the population in Hainan was 16.54%, ranking first in China [7]. The seroprevalence level of HBsAg of 9.51% in this study of the childbearing age women in Hainan is higher than the 7.18% found among the overall population of China [19]; it is also higher than those women of childbearing age in Jiangsu province, China (6.71%) [17], pregnant women in Catalonia, Spain (1.2%) [16] and in Greece (1.16%) [20]; but lower than women of childbearing age in Madagascar (13.6%) [21]. Overall, the high positive rate of HBsAg among rural women of childbearing age in Hainan highlights the need for public health workers and government to come up with preventive measures of reducing the prevalence of HBsAg among women of childbearing age.. This study showed that HBsAg carrier rate was significantly related with age of the rural women. The ...
The global prevalence of HCV/HBV co-infection is estimated to be 1.7-3.9 million. Reactivation of HBV infection during treatment of HCV infection with direct-acting antiviral agents has been reported in the postmarketing setting. However, clinical trials to more systematically assess the safety and efficacy of direct-acting antiviral therapy in HCV/HBV co-infected patients with active HBV infection have not been conducted. This Phase 2, open-label study led by Chun-Jen Liu, Professor of Medicine at National Taiwan University in Taipei, Taiwan, evaluated 12 weeks of Harvoni in 111 genotype 1 or 2 HCV-infected patients in Taiwan with active HBV co-infection (hepatitis B surface antigen positive), who were not receiving HBV treatment. All patients achieved SVR12 (100 percent, 111/111) including 68 genotype 1 HCV-infected patients, 43 genotype 2 HCV-infected patients, 17 patients with compensated cirrhosis and 37 with prior HCV treatment failure. Three patients had serious adverse events that were ...
Detect and quantitate Hepatitis B Virus Surface antigen (HBsAg) in buffer and cell culture media using a homogeneous AlphaLISA no-wash assay.
The role of active hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection in chronic HBsAg positive hepatitis with and without hepatitis delta virus (HDV) superinfection was analysed in percutaneous liver biopsy specimens from 50 patients. Each specimen was divided into two--one part for histological evaluation and for the detection of HBcAg and delta antigen; the other part was tested for HBV-DNA using Southern blotting. Ten cases were of chronic lobular hepatitis, 10 of chronic persistent hepatitis, and 30 of chronic active hepatitis. Ten cases were delta antigen positive and showed high grade lobular activity but no evidence of HBV-DNA episomal forms or HBcAg reactivity. Twenty one cases showed HBV-DNA replicative intermediate forms; 19 had high grade lobular activity, which occurred in five cases without evidence of free viral DNA. Of the 21 biopsy specimens with HBV-DNA episomal forms, 14 were positive for HBcAg; only one of the 19 cases without detectable viral DNA was positive for such antigen. These data ...
anti-HAV, antibody to HAV (IgM and IgG subclasses); anti-HAV-IgG, IgG class antibody to HAV; anti-HAV-IgM, IgM class antibody to HAV; anti-HBc, antibody to HBcAg; anti-HBc-IgG, IgG class antibody to HBcAg; anti-HBc-IgM, IGM class antibody to HBcAg; anti-HBe, antibody to HBeAg; anti-HBs, antibody to HBsAg; anti-HCV, antibody to hepatitis C; HBeAg, hepatitis B e antigen; HBcAg, hepatitis B core antigen; HBsAg, hepatitis B surface antigen; HBV, hepatitis B virus; HCV, hepatitis C virus; IgM and IgG, immunoglobulins M and G. ...
Recurrent reports about protease-sensitive sites in the junction of the preS and S region of the hepatitis B virus large surface protein have raised the question about a possible biological role of S protein-depleted, independent preS protein fragments in the virus life cycle. In the present study, this question was addressed by exogenous introduction of fluorescence-labeled recombinant preS proteins into permeabilized HepG2 cells. While maltose-binding proteins (MBP) were evenly distributed throughout the cytoplasm, MBP-preS fusion proteins selectively accumulated in the nucleus. Using truncated preS proteins, the effective domain for this nuclear accumulation was localized around the preS2 region. The mode of this action differs from conventional nuclear translocation mechanism in its energy- and mediator-independency and in that it is not saturated regardless of the increase of preS protein concentration. The biological meaning of this phenomenon has to be further studied. However, in regard ...
Background: The risk of infection by transfusion-transmitted viruses has been reduced remarkably. However, a zero-risk blood supply is still desirable. The screening for antibody to HBc (anti-HBc) has been shown as an alternative test for the detection of HBV infection. Objective: The main aim of this study was to evaluate HBV infection markers and the potential value of anti-HBc testing of blood donors to detect HBV infection. Methods: In this descriptive cross-sectional study, 545 blood samples were collected and tested for HbsAg using ELISA method. Then all HBsAg negative samples were tested for anti-HBc by the same method. To detect HBV infection, all HBsAg negative and anti-HBc positive samples were tested by PCR for HBV DNA. Results: All blood samples were HBsAg negative of which, 43 (8%) were anti-HBc positive. From those which were positive for anti-HBc, five samples were also positive for HBV DNA. Conclusion: Occult HBV infection is a clinical form of HBV infection in which HBsAg is not
TY - JOUR. T1 - Two core promotor mutations identified in a hepatitis B virus strain associated with fulminant hepatitis result in enhanced viral replication. AU - Baumert, Thomas F.. AU - Rogers, Steven A.. AU - Hasegawa, Kiyoshi. AU - Liang, T. Jake. PY - 1996/11/15. Y1 - 1996/11/15. N2 - Viral mutations have been implicated in alteration of the biological phenotype of hepatitis B virus (HBV). We recently cloned and sequenced the viral genome of an HBV strain associated with an outbreak of fulminant hepatitis (FH strain). The FH strain contained numerous mutations in all genomic regions and was functionally characterized by a more efficient encapsidation of pregenomic RNA leading to highly enhanced replication. To define the responsible mutation(s) for the enhanced replication, we introduced individual mutations of the FH strain into a wild-type construct by oligonucleotide-directed mutagenesis. Analysis of viral replication showed that two adjacent mutations in the HBV core promotor (C to T ...
T cell proliferative responses to hepatitis B virus-encoded envelope antigen (S + preS2 + preS1), recombinant core antigen (HBcAg), and natural hepatitis B e antigen (HBeAg) were examined in 22 HBeAg-positive patients with chronic type B hepatitis and 17 healthy hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) carriers. The results showed that HBeAg-positive patients had (a) higher levels of T cell responses to HBcAg/HBeAg than those of healthy HBsAg carriers (P less than 0.001 and P less than 0.01, respectively); (b) a further increase in these T cell responses during acute exacerbations (P less than 0.05 and P less than 0.05, respectively); (c) subsidence in the T cell responses to HBcAg/HBeAg after recovery from acute exacerbations and HBeAg seroconversion, whereas the responses would persist at high levels if the patients did not enter a clinical remission; and (d) low levels of T cell responses to S + preS2 + preS1 either before or after HBeAg seroconversion. The appearance of increasing T cell ...
Hepatic grafts from hepatitis B surface antigen-negative and anti-core antibody (HBcAb)-positive donors have been shown to transmit hepatitis B virus (HBV) infe
Objective: To report the prevalence of markers for HIV infection, hepatitis B and hepatitis C among Australian prison entrants. Design: Cross-sectional survey conducted over 2-week periods in 2004, 2007 and 2010. Setting: Reception prisons in New South Wales, Queensland, Tasmania and Western Australia. Participants: Individuals entering prison from the community during the survey periods. Main outcome measure: Prevalence of anti-HIV antibody (anti-HIV), hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg), anti-hepatitis B core antibody (anti-HBc) and anti-hepatitis C virus antibody (anti-HCV). Results: The study included 1742 prison entrants: 588 (33.8%) in 2004, 536 (30.8%) in 2007 and 618 (35.5%) in 2010. The age-standardised prevalence estimates for anti-HIV, HBsAg and anti-HBc were 0.4%, 2.3% and 21.7% respectively, and remained stable over the three survey periods. The age-standardised prevalence estimate for anti-HCV was 29.0%; it decreased over time (33.3% in 2004 v 23.2% in 2010; P = 0.001), and this ...
1. Hepatitis B (HepB) vaccine. (Minimum age: birth). Routine vaccination: At birth. • Administer monovalent HepB vaccine to all newborns before hospital discharge.. • For infants born to hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg)-positive mothers, administer HepB vaccine and 0.5 mL of hepatitis B immune globulin (HBIG) within 12 hours of birth. These infants should be tested for HBsAg and antibody to HBsAg (anti-HBs) 1 to 2 months after completion of the HepB series, at age 9 through 18 months (preferably at the next well-child visit).. • If mothers HBsAg status is unknown, within 12 hours of birth administer HepB vaccine to all infants regardless of birth weight. For infants weighing ,2,000 grams, administer HBIG in addition to HepB within 12 hours of birth. Determine mothers HBsAg status as soon as possible and, if she is HBsAg-positive, also administer HBIG for infants weighing ≥2,000 grams (no later than age 1 week).. Doses following the birth dose. • The second dose should be ...
Hepatitis B Virus Surface Ad/Ay Polyclonal Antibody from Invitrogen for ELISA applications. This antibody reacts with Virus samples. Supplied as 1 mL purified antibody (4-5 mg/ml) in PBS with 0.1% sodium azide.
Hepatitis B Virus Surface Antigenwith Reflex to Confirmation,ARUP Laboratories is a national reference laboratory and a worldwide leader in innovative laboratory research and development. ARUP offers an extensive test menu of highly complex and unique medical tests in clinical and anatomic pathology. Owned by the University of Utah, ARUP Laboratories client,medicine,medical supply,medical supplies,medical product
OBJECTIVES: To investigate the presence of hepatitis B virus (HBV) DNA and hepatitis C virus (HCV) RNA in HIV-infected patients initiating antiretroviral therapy in Cameroon. METHODS: Baseline blood samples from 169 patients were tested retrospectively for hepatitis B surface antigens (HBsAg), anti-hepatitis B core (anti-HBc), anti-HCV and - if HBsAg or anti-HCV result was positive or indeterminate - for HBV DNA or HCV RNA, respectively, using the Cobas Ampliprep/Cobas TaqMan quantitative assay (Roche Diagnostics GmbH, Mannheim, Germany). RESULTS: HBV DNA was detected in 14 of the 18 patients with positive or indeterminate HBsAg results [8.3% of the total study population, 95% confidence interval (CI) 4.6-13.5]. The median HBV viral load was 2.47 x 10(7) IU/mL [interquartile range (IQR) 3680-1.59 x 10(8); range 270 to ,2.2 x 10(8)]. Twenty-one patients (12.4%, 95% CI 7.9-18.4) were found with HCV RNA (all with positive HCV serology). The median HCV viral load was 928 000 IU/mL (IQR 178 400-2.06 ...
Hepatitis B virus (HBV) is a significant public health problem and a leading cause of morbidity and mortality, and approximately 30 of the worlds population is infected with HBV. The objective of our study was to determine the seroprevalence of HBV and major risk factors associated with its occurrence. Four thousand eighty-seven healthy Iranian subjects aged 8-80 years were screened for HBV serological markers by an enzyme immunoassay method. A structured questionnaire was administered to all participants. Multiple logistic regression, an unpaired t-test for continuous data and the χ2 test for categorical data were performed. A total of 4087 participants were tested for hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg), of which 62 (1.5) were seropositive. Fifteen percent of the subjects were positive for anti-HBs, 6.3 were positive for isolated anti-HBc and 12.5 were positive for both anti-HBs and anti-HBc. Laborers showed a higher HBsAg+ seroprevalence and risk compared with jobless participants ...
Thanks for sending Chuan Qians records for review. Hes a lovely little boy who appears to be doing reasonably well.. His growth is marginal for his given age. however, since they estimated his birthday and we dont know his birthweight or gestational age, his growth could be completely appropriate for his actual age. His update in November puts him slightly below or at the lower limits of normal. Im reasonably certain that hell catch up nicely when he reaches your home and grow within the normal range. His lab tests showed a weakly positive hepatitis B surface antibody which may be due to his immunizations. He also had a weakly positive hepatitis B e antibody which could either be a false positive or be antibody transferred from his birth mother prior to birth. The most important test was the hepatitis B surface antigen which was negative so he doesnt have hepatitis B. He also tested negative for HIV and syphilis. His development is close to being normal for his given age. Again, it may be ...
Young women aged 15-24 years are members of key populations at higher risk for Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) acquisition through sexual intercourse. In areas where unprotected sex is a common practice, Hepatitis B virus (HBV) commonly transmitted via sexual and parenteral routes. The study aimed at determining HIV and HBV infections prevalence in young women attending health institutions for abortion care in Bahir Dar city, Ethiopia. A cross - sectional study was conducted from January 2015 to June 2015. Convenient sampling technique was used. Demographic and explanatory variables were collected using a structured questionnaire via face to face interview. The presence of antibody to HIV infection was detected using national HIV diagnostic test algorithm. Hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) was detected using ELISA. Data were analyzed using descriptive, fishers exact and independent sample T test as appropriate. A total of 360 young women aged 15-24 years participated in the study. The median age
Hepatitis B or C virus infection has an important influence on treatment and outcomes in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected individuals. HIV worsens the prognosis in hepatitis B- or C virus-infected patients, and patients on antiretroviral therapy are more likely to experience hepatotoxicity if they are co-infected with a hepatotropic virus. There is a paucity of data on the epidemiology of hepatotropic viruses in relation to each other and to HIV in KwaZulu-Natal. The aim of this study was to describe the seroprevalence of hepatitis B and C virus in HIV-positive and -negative individuals in KwaZulu-Natal from 2002-2010, using a large laboratory database of routine serological results. Patients who had an HIV or hepatitis B or C test performed at the National Health Laboratory Service Department of Virology in Durban from 2002-2010 were included in the study. The study revealed that the overall seropositivity of hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) was 12.05%, and that of hepatitis C
Hepatitis B virus strains of subgenotype A2 with an identical sequence spreading rapidly from the capital region to all over Japan in patients with acute hepatitis B ...
For people who have been diagnosed with chronic hepatitis B and delta coinfection, a low or undetectable hepatitis B viral load does not usually indicate that theyve cleared both infections. This is because, in cases of coinfection, hepatitis delta usually becomes the dominant virus, and suppresses hepatitis B, slowing or even stopping its replication entirely. If someone is still positive for the hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg), the hepatitis delta virus can still replicate (often with copies in the millions) and cause potential liver damage 1. For this reason, the test to measure hepatitis delta activity, the HDV RNA test, is important in disease monitoring and management 2,3. Available since 2013, the HDV RNA test can be acquired internationally through the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), and from several labs in the US. For those suspected of having acute hepatitis B and delta coinfection, HBsAg testing should follow 6 months after initial diagnosis. If HBsAg is ...
Hepatitis B (HBV) and C (HCV) are important causes of morbidity and mortality in people living with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). The burden of these co-infections in sub-Saharan Africa is still unclear. We estimated the prevalence of the hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) and hepatitis C antibody (HCVAb) among HIV-infected individuals in Rwanda and identified factors associated with infection.; Between January 2016 and June 2016, we performed systematic screening for HBsAg and HCVAb among HIV-positive individuals enrolled at public and private HIV facilities across Rwanda. Results were analyzed to determine marker prevalence and variability by demographic factors.; Overall, among 117,258 individuals tested, the prevalence of HBsAg and HCVAb was 4.3% (95% confidence interval [CI] (4.2-4.4) and 4.6% (95% CI 4.5-4.7) respectively; 182 (0.2%) HIV+ individuals were co-infected with HBsAg and HCVAb. Prevalence was higher in males (HBsAg, 5.4% [5.1-5.6] vs. 3.7% [3.5-3.8]; HCVAb, 5.0% [4.8-5.2] ...
In sub-Saharan Africa, the viral marker burden in blood donor populations ranges between 10 and 30 percent. Sapitinib mw Deferred donors constitute a rare population of asymptomatic human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)- and hepatitis B virus (HBV)-infected individuals with high likelihood of long survival if cared for. Deferred donor care provides an opportunity for a public health impact on highly. pathogenic infections.\n\nBetween 2004 and this website 2007, all candidate donors deferred before donation for reactivity of anti-HIV, hepatitis C virus antibody (anti-HCV), and hepatitis B virus surface antigen (HBsAg) rapid tests were informed and referred to a donor care program consisting of test confirmation, information, counseling, and potential referral. for follow-up and therapy. Dedicated trained nurses supervised the program including alanine aminotransferase (ALT) level testing to identify liver disease.\n\nIn a 4-year period 51,100 donors were screened and 5778, 1578, and 227 candidate ...
The profit to be gained by testing Danish blood donors for hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) with a third generation technique instead of the currently used immunoelectrophoresis was investigated by additional screening of 48 750 blood units by radioimmunoassay three weeks after donation. Twenty nine units were positive for HBsAg on radioimmunoassay (0.059%). Only six of these were found by immunoelectrophoresis (0.012%). Most of the 23 donors positive on radioimmunoassay and negative on immunoelectrophoresis were healthy carriers of HBsAg (20) or had asymptomatic chronic liver disease (two). One donor had acute hepatitis B. Fifteen of the 23 blood units were transfused. The 15 recipients were monitored biochemically and serologically for up to nine months. One recipient developed fulminant hepatitis B, three developed acute hepatitis B, and one became a healthy carrier of HBsAg. All these patients had received blood from healthy carriers of HBsAg. Two recipients were immunised against HBsAg, ...
Our previous OSST study shows that switching to pegylated interferon (Peg-IFN)-α2a results in higher rates of response hepatitis B e antigen (HBeAg) seroconversion and hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) loss at the end of treatment, compared with nucleot(s)ide analogues (NAs) monotherapy in long term NA-treated chronic hepatitis B (CHB) patients. In order to characterize the correlation between Peg-IFN-α antiviral effect and IFN-inducing signaling in CHB patients who switched to Peg-IFN from long time entecavir (ETV) treatment, we investigated the dynamic expression of interferon-stimulated genes (ISGs), including STAT1, MX, and a negative regulatory factor, suppressor of cytokine signaling 3(SOCS3), which negatively regulate IFN JAK-STAT signaling pathway by interacting with STAT1 and STAT2, in peripheral blood and paired liver samples, obtained from 54 CHB patients enrolled in a clinical trial, OSST study ...
0027] In one embodiment, the antigen which elicits an immune response against a human pathogen is virally derived, e.g. HIV-1, (such as gag or fragments thereof, such as p24, tat, nef, envelope glycoproteins such as gp120, gp140 or gp160, or any fragments thereof), human herpes viruses, such as gD or derivatives thereof or Immediate Early protein such as ICP27 from HSV1 or HSV2, cytomegalovirus ((esp Human) (such as gB or derivatives thereof)), Rotaviral antigen, Epstein Barr virus (such as gp350 or derivatives thereof), Varicella Zoster Virus (such as gp1, I1 and IE63), or from a hepatitis virus such as hepatitis B virus (for example Hepatitis B virus surface antigen or a derivative thereof), or antigens from hepatitis A virus, hepatitis C virus and hepatitis E virus, or from other viral pathogens, such as paramyxoviruses, Respiratory Syncytial virus (such as F G and N proteins or derivatives thereof), parainfluenza, measles virus, mumps virus, human papilloma viruses (for example HPV 6, 11, ...
Abstract Eighty-nine Sahelian African patients with chronic active hepatitis (CAH) (14), cirrhosis (49), hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) (26), and 47 controls were tested for hepatitis B virus (HBV, hepatitis B surface antigen [HBsAg]) and hepatitis D virus (HDV, anti-HDV antibody). Seventy-three percent of the patients were positive for HBsAg versus 29.8% of the controls (P < 0.0001). With anti-HDV test, 55.0% of the patients were positive versus 17.0% of the controls (P < 0.0001). To assess the prevalence of antibody to hepatitis C virus (HCV), we used an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for screening (anti-HCV2): 19.1% of the patients were positive versus 6.4% of the controls (P < 0.05). An association between HBsAg and anti-HDV-positive test results was found in 46.1% of the patients versus 6.4% of the controls (P < 0.0001). A combination of HBsAg and anti-HCV2-positive test results was found in 13.5% of the patients versus 2.2% of the controls (P < 0.05). Anti-HDV and anti-HCV2 test
Summary of Facts and Submissions. I. The appeal was lodged by the applicant (hereinafter appellant) against the decision of the examining division to refuse European patent application 01303073.9 with the title A hepatitis B virus (subtype ayw) surface antigen variant which was published as EP 1 142 906.. II. Claim 1 of the application as filed read:. 1. An isolated variant hepatitis B surface antigen comprising an amino acid sequence wherein mutations from hepatitis B wild type ayw2 strain appear as follows: at position 103 isoleucine is present instead of methionine, at position 118 lysine is present instead of threonine, at position 120 glutamine is present instead of proline, at position 170 serine is present instead of leucine, and at position 213 serine is present instead of leucine.. III. The examining division decided that claim 1 of the set of claims filed by the applicant with its letter dated 26 July 2005 (which apparently is referred to incorrectly in the decision under appeal ...
Key Points - HepadnavirusKey VirusesHepatitis B virus (HBV)CharacteristicsDNA virusReplicates in nucleusReplicates using reverse transcriptasePartially double-standed DNA → polymerase completes dsDNA → transcription into RNA template (used to make viral proteins) → reverse transcription into dsDNA progenyNucleocapsid core contains hepatitis B core antigen, HBcAgEnvelopedLipoprotein envelope surrounds nucleocapsid coreContains hepatitis B surface antigen, HBsAg and envelope antigen, HBeAgCircular chromosomeTransmissionMany routesBlood (transfusion, IVDU, shared needles)Sexual contactPerinatalTransplantPathogenesisMigrates to liver and replicates in hepatocytesCauses immune-mediated damage by CD8+ T-cells and NK cellsNo direct cytotoxic effect of virusCD8+ T-cells recognize HBsAg and HBcAg presented on MHCI of hepatocytesPresentationAcute hepatitisFever, jaundice, elevated ALT and AST (ALT | AST)Most cases are acute and will undergo complete resolution (|95%)Chronic hepatitis occurs in 4-5% of
Coleman, Paul F. (2017-02-17). "Detecting Hepatitis B Surface Antigen Mutants". Emerging Infectious Diseases. 12 (2): 198-203. ... Breakthrough cases of Hepatitis B are primarily attributed to mutations in the Hepatitis B virus (HBV) that make HBV surface ... Breakthrough infections of Hepatitis B and mumps are partially attributed to antigenic drift. Vaccines may fail to provide ... If B cell receptors bind to the antigen and Fc receptor simultaneously bind to the maternal antibody, the Fc receptors send a ...
Hepatitis B virus surface antigens have not been detected. Hep G2 will respond to stimulation with human growth hormone.[ ... Sigma Aldrich Sales Page for Hep G2 ATCC Sales Page for Hep G2 Cellosaurus entry for Hep G2 Hep G2 is a hepatoblastoma-derived ... Hep G2 (or HepG2) is a human liver cancer cell line. Hep G2 is an immortal cell line which was derived in 1975 from the liver ... Hep G2, American Type Culture Collection Ihrke G, Neufeld EB, Meads T, Shanks MR, Cassio D, Laurent M, et al. (December 1993 ...
Alipour, Elias (23 June 2013). "Gold nanoparticle based capacitive immunosensor for detection of hepatitis B surface antigen". ... Surface area plays a very important role in drug delivery and per mg of gold, as diameters decrease, the surface areas needed ... Hepatitis B Prepared AuNPs-Hepatitis B virus (HBV) DNA gene probes could be used to detect HBV DNA directly. The detection- ... The surface causes a red shift in the surface plasmon peak as compared to spherical gold nanoaprticles. Nanopartz offers gold ...
"Hepatitis B immunisation for newborn infants of hepatitis B surface antigen-positive mothers". The Cochrane Database of ... The vaccine contains one of the viral envelope proteins, Hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg). It is produced by yeast cells, ... Hepatitis B vaccination, hepatitis B immunoglobulin, and the combination of hepatitis B vaccine plus hepatitis B immunoglobulin ... The recombinant vaccine is based on Hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) gene inserted into yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) ...
It can only cause infection when encapsulated by hepatitis B virus surface antigens. The vaccine for hepatitis B protects ... Hepatitis D is caused by the hepatitis D virus (HDV), or hepatitis delta virus; it belongs to the genus Deltavirus. HDV is ... Patients with hepatitis C are susceptible to severe hepatitis if they contract either hepatitis A or B, so all persons with ... Hepatitis E is caused by the Hepatitis E virus (HEV), from the family Hepeviridae. It produces symptoms similar to hepatitis A ...
The coating, hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg), is not infectious; however, HBsAG can provoke an immune response. In order to ... Donald G. McNeil, Jr., April 26, 2012, Irving Millman Dies at 88; Worked to Stop Hepatitis B, The New York Times. His Hepatitis ... Millman's work with Baruch Blumberg helped lead to the creation of a test to detect hepatitis B. The test allowed blood banks ... helped develop hepatitis B vaccine". The Washington Post. Washington, D.C. ISSN 0190-8286. OCLC 1330888409. v t e (Articles ...
Kumar GB, Ganapathi TR, Revathi CJ, Srinivas L, Bapat VA (October 2005). "Expression of hepatitis B surface antigen in ... such as the hepatitis B surface antigen). They can generate TH and antibody responses, but not killer T cell responses.[ ... Viral vector vaccines use a safe virus to insert pathogen genes in the body to produce specific antigens, such as surface ... One example is the subunit vaccine against hepatitis B, which is composed of only the surface proteins of the virus (previously ...
"Fibronectin and asialoglyprotein receptor mediate hepatitis B surface antigen binding to the cell surface". Arch. Virol. 155 (6 ... The asialoglycoprotein receptor may facilitate hepatic infection by multiple viruses including hepatitis B, and is also a ... "Asialoglycoprotein receptor interacts with the preS1 domain of hepatitis B virus in vivo and in vitro". Arch. Virol. 156 (4): ...
"Hepatitis B small surface antigen particles are octahedral". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United ... Cited in PMC Wieland, S. F.; Chisari, F. V. (2005). "Stealth and cunning: Hepatitis B and hepatitis C viruses". Journal of ... known for his research on virus-host interactions of hepatitis B and hepatitis C. Chisari graduated in 1963 with a bachelor's ... "Contributions of transgenic mouse studies on the research of hepatitis B virus and hepatitis C virus-induced ...
West, D. J.; Calandra, G. B. (1996). "Vaccine induced immunologic memory for hepatitis B surface antigen: implications for ...
... with viral surface antigens (DHBsAg). The icosahedral nucleocapsid within, is composed of the virus core antigen (DHBcAg) and ... codes for the surface antigen DHBsAg P-ORF - encoding the viral polymerase. On binding and entry of the virus to the host cell ... Duck hepatitis B virus, abbreviated DHBV, is part of the genus Avihepadnavirus of the Hepadnaviridae, and is the causal agent ... The genome has three overlapping open reading frames or ORFs:[citation needed] C-ORF - encoding the core antigen and pre-core ...
This relates to the presence of antigens on the cell's surface. After this process, the blood is stored, and within a short ... Blood is usually collected and tested for common or serious blood-borne diseases including Hepatitis B, Hepatitis C and HIV. ... Approximately 25 of these membrane proteins carry the various blood group antigens, such as the A, B and Rh antigens, among ... lack of Kx antigen and greatly reduced expression of Kell antigens); RhD/RhCE - defines Rh Blood Group and the associated ...
Hepatitis D (HDV) can occur only with a concomitant hepatitis B infection, because HDV uses the HBV surface antigen to form a ... discovered the Australia antigen (later known to be hepatitis B surface antigen, or HBsAg) in the blood of Aboriginal ... "Hepatitis B immunisation for newborn infants of hepatitis B surface antigen-positive mothers". The Cochrane Database of ... The hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) is most frequently used to screen for the presence of this infection. It is the first ...
... (also known as the Australia antigen) is the surface antigen of the hepatitis B virus (HBV). Its presence in blood ... "Positive hepatitis B surface antigen tests due to recent vaccination: a persistent problem". BMC Clinical Pathology. 12 (1): 15 ... These antigens are recognized by antibody proteins that bind specifically to one of these surface proteins. Today, these ... The viral envelope of an enveloped virus has different surface proteins from the rest of the virus which act as antigens. ...
Immunologic properties of Human Hepatitis B Virus Surface Antigen mimotopes displayed on filamentous phage". The Journal of ... 2002). "The human scavenger receptor class B type I is a novel candidate receptor for the hepatitis C virus". The EMBO Journal ... 2004). "Discovery of alpha,gamma-diketo acids as potent selective and reversible inhibitors of hepatitis C virus NS5b RNA- ... 1996). "Identification and properties of the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase of hepatitis C virus". The EMBO Journal. 15 (1): 12- ...
... is an antigen that can be found on the surface of the nucleocapsid core (the inner most layer of the hepatitis B virus). ... HBcAg (core antigen) is a hepatitis B viral protein. It is an indicator of active viral replication; this means the person ... May 2003). "New enzyme immunoassay for detection of hepatitis B virus core antigen (HBcAg) and relation between levels of HBcAg ... "In vivo inhibition of anti-hepatitis B virus core antigen (HBcAg) immunoglobulin G production by HBcAg-specific CD4(+) Th1-type ...
Petersen NJ, Barrett DH, Bond WW, Berquist KR, Favero MS, Bender TR, Maynard JE (1976). "Hepatitis B surface antigen in saliva ... 44 (3): 521-6. doi:10.1002/hep.21347. PMID 16941687. WHO , Hepatitis B FAQ about Hepatitis B Archived 2009-02-09 at the Wayback ... The 2009 Gujarat hepatitis B outbreak was a cluster of hepatitis B cases that appeared in Modasa, northern Gujarat, India in ... "Doctors held over hepatitis deaths". Press Association. 2009-02-22. Retrieved 2009-02-22. "Hepatitis outbreak: 2 doctors booked ...
2011). "Evaluation of saliva specimens as an alternative sampling method to detect hepatitis B surface antigen". J. Clin. Lab. ... A 2011 study demonstrated that HBV surface antigen saliva testing using ELISA had a sensitivity and specificity of 93.6% and ... Hepatitis C has also been identified using salivary detection methods. Yaari, et al., reported in 2006 that saliva testing for ... Amado LA, Villar LM, de Paula VS, Gaspar AM (March 2008). "Comparison between serum and saliva for the detection of hepatitis A ...
KOREC, E., HLOŽÁNEK, I., MACH, O., STARÁ, J., NĔMECEK, V., & KÖNIG, J. Detection of antibodies to hepatitis B surface antigen ( ... KOREC, E., HLOŽÁNEK, I., DOSTÁLOVÁ, V., STARÁ, J., ZELENÝ, V., & KÖNIG, J. Detection of hepatitis B surface antigens using ... Monoclonal antibodies to hepatitis B surface antigen: production and characterization. Folia biologica, 32(3), 167-177. 1986. ... Absence of free core antigen in anti-HBc negative viremic hepatitis B carriers. In Chronically Evolving Viral Hepatitis (pp. 39 ...
"A recombinant human immunoglobulin with coherent avidity to hepatitis B virus surface antigens of various viral genotypes and ... Lenvervimab (INN; development code GC1102) is a monoclonal antibody that is being investigated for hepatitis B. This drug is ...
... as well as three proteins taken from the hepatitis B virus-the large, medium, and small hepatitis B surface antigens. This ... This nuclear antigen was then thought to be a hepatitis B antigen and was called the delta antigen. Subsequent experiments in ... Hepatitis D is a type of viral hepatitis caused by the hepatitis delta virus (HDV). HDV is one of five known hepatitis viruses ... HDV recognizes its receptor via the N-terminal domain of the large hepatitis B surface antigen, HBsAg. Mapping by mutagenesis ...
"The mannose receptor acts as hepatitis B virus surface antigen receptor mediating interaction with intrahepatic dendritic cells ... The cell surface receptor for insulin-like growth factor 2 also functions as a cation-independent mannose 6-phosphate receptor ... "Genetic changes and expression of the mannose 6-phosphate/insulin-like growth factor II receptor gene in human hepatitis B ... "Global profiling of the cell surface proteome of cancer cells uncovers an abundance of proteins with chaperone function". J. ...
"DNA-mediated immunization in a transgenic mouse model of the hepatitis B surface antigen chronic carrier state". Proceedings of ... "DNA vector constructs that prime hepatitis B surface antigen-specific cytotoxic T lymphocyte and antibody responses in mice ... biological activity of vaccinia virus recombinants expressing the hepatitis B virus surface antigen and the herpes simplex ... and sporozoite surface protein 2 (PkSSP2) - and two blood stage antigens - the apical merozoite surface protein 1 (PkAMA1) and ...
Main scientific contributions: Cloning and sequencing of the hepatitis B virus genome and production of surface antigen (HBs) ... Biosynthesis of hepatitis B virus surface antigen in Escherichia coli », Nature, (1980), 286, p. 893-895 Charnay, P. and ... as well as to the synthesis of the surface antigen in the bacterium. His research findings paved the way for the development of ... He devoted himself particularly to the research of the cloning and sequencing of the hepatitis B virus genome, ...
April 2010). "Hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) levels in the natural history of hepatitis B virus (HBV)-infection: a ... It consists of: HBsAg (Hepatitis B surface antigen) was the first hepatitis B virus protein to be discovered. It consists of ... In 1965, the "Australian Antigen" was then discovered and identified as the Hepatitis B virus surface antigen HBsAg. This was ... Co-infection of Hepatitis B and various other viruses can also occur. Hepatitis C, Hepatitis D (a satellite virus of Hepatitis ...
Another first was the introduction of hepatitis B surface antigen testing, first described by Baruch Blumberg in 1965. ... Hepatitis B was a common cause of chronic liver disease in Iran, most particularly among haemophiliacs. In 1971, Ala organised ...
"Synthesis in animal cells of hepatitis B surface antigen particles carrying a receptor for polymerized human serum albumin". ... A multicentre study of 495 patients with chronic hepatitis C". Journal of Viral Hepatitis. 2 (1): 33-8. doi:10.1111/j.1365- ... molecular studies on hepatitis B virus and hepatitis C virus along with genomic analysis and functional studies of viral ... In early 1990s, Pontisso shifted her research focus on hepatitis C virus and provided the first evidences of clinical ...
G. L. Smith, M. Mackett, B. Moss: Infectious vaccinia virus recombinants that express hepatitis B virus surface antigen. In: ... This protein is usually the immunodominant antigen of the pathogen or a surface protein that enables the formation of ... The presentation of the peptides on MHC-I complexes on the cell surface is necessary for a cellular immune response. As a ... is a vaccine that contains nucleic acids such as DNA or RNA that lead to protein biosynthesis of antigens within a cell. ...
"Hepatitis B Surface Antigen as Carrier Matrix for the Repetitive Epitope of the Circumsporozoite Protein of Plasmodium ... of the Plasmodium falciparum malaria parasite together with a viral surface antigen ('S') of the hepatitis B virus (HBsAg). ... April 2016). "Interrogating the Plasmodium Sporozoite Surface: Identification of Surface-Exposed Proteins and Demonstration of ... March 2005). "Towards an RTS,S-based, multi-stage, multi-antigen vaccine against falciparum malaria: progress at the Walter ...
... is also used as a stain in microscopy to visualize chromosomes, elastic fibers, Hepatitis B surface antigens, and copper ... "A modification of the aldehyde fuchsin and orcein stains for hepatitis B surface antigen in tissue and a proposed chemical ...
Both hepatitis B and hepatitis C are treated with IFN-α, often in combination with other antiviral drugs. Some of those treated ... and EBV nuclear antigen 2 (EBNA-2) from Epstein-Barr virus, the large T antigen of Polyomavirus, the E7 protein of Human ... Interferon type I: All type I IFNs bind to a specific cell surface receptor complex known as the IFN-α/β receptor (IFNAR) that ... Overall, IFN-α can be used to treat hepatitis B and C infections, while IFN-β can be used to treat multiple sclerosis. ...
... is a chimeric monoclonal antibody targeted against CD20 which is a surface antigen present on B cells. Therefore, it ... Severe side effects include reactivation of hepatitis B in those previously infected, progressive multifocal ... as pathogenic B cells while sparing plasma cells and hematopoietic stem cells as they do not express the CD20 surface antigen. ... Rituximab is a chimeric monoclonal antibody against the protein CD20, which is primarily found on the surface of immune system ...
April 2010). "New genetic associations detected in a host response study to hepatitis B vaccine". Genes and Immunity. 11 (3): ... Eriksson EM, Keh CE, Deeks SG, Martin JN, Hecht FM, Nixon DF (2012). "Differential expression of CD96 surface molecule ... It may also function in antigen presentation[citation needed]. Alternative splicing occurs at this locus and two transcript ... It may also function in antigen presentation. Alternative splicing generates multiple transcript variants encoding distinct ...
Initially, the characteristic surface markings or striae was described by Weyl in 1885. In 1895, Wickham further explained the ... A potential pathway for CD8+ T cell-mediated cytotoxicity in oral LP is described as follows: Antigens presented on MHC 1 ... Hepatitis C virus-associated diseases, Lichenoid eruptions, Oral mucosal pathology). ... Lichen planus may be categorized as affecting mucosal or cutaneous surfaces. Cutaneous forms are those affecting the skin, ...
doi:10.1002/hep.20195. PMID 15122770. Mundt, A; Puhl, G; Müller, A; Sauer, I; Müller, C; Richard, R; Fotopoulou, C; Doll, R; ... Colloids and Surfaces B: Biointerfaces. 136: 761-771. doi:10.1016/j.colsurfb.2015.10.012. PMID 26519938. Lozinsky, V. I. (May ... of antibodies to supermacroporous cryogel adsorbents with immobilized protein A for removal of anthrax toxin protective antigen ... doi:10.1002/hep.20562. PMID 15690476. Sauer IM, Goetz M, Steffen I, et al. (May 2004). "In vitro comparison of the molecular ...
Hepatitis B (not C) virus tests positive (for surface antigen or antibody) Arteriogram (angiogram) showing the arteries that ... PAN is sometimes associated with infection by the hepatitis B or hepatitis C virus. The condition may be present in infants. ... Infection with the hepatitis C virus and HIV are occasionally discovered in people affected by PAN. PAN has also been ... When present, underlying hepatitis B virus infection should be immediately treated. In some cases, methotrexate or leflunomide ...
"Alkaline phosphatase: Liver Function Test - Viral Hepatitis". Retrieved 2016-05-02. Delmas PD (December ... Vaishnava S, Hooper LV (2007). "Alkaline phosphatase: keeping the peace at the gut epithelial surface". Cell Host & Microbe. 2 ... along with prostate specific antigen) during, and after six months of hormone treated metastatic prostate cancer was shown to ... Some diseases do not affect the levels of alkaline phosphatase, for example, hepatitis C. A high level of this enzyme does not ...
... with PEL that is associated with cirrosis due to hepatitis evidence positive serum tests for the hepatitis virus B antigen ( ... cell surface associated protein, binds with P53 to inhibit cell death and interacts with beta-catenin to promote the tissue- ... HBsAg) or one of the various tests for hepatitis C antigen. Extracavitary PEL is diagnosed based on findings that their mass ... hepatitis complicated by cirrhosis caused by hepatitis B or C viral infection, or of old age. PEL occurring in the elderly ...
... helper dependent ssRNA virus because it requires Hepatitis B virus (HBV) to provide HBV surface antigen (HBsAg) for the ... The envelope proteins on the outer surface of HDV are entirely provided by HBV. Alba, R; Bosch, A; Chillon, M (2005). "Gutless ... Hepatitis D virus (HDV) is an example of a replication defective, ...
Indeed, a vaccine that provides accessible antigens in the absence of these other proteins may allow us to control the response ... Dubious claims about vaccines against hepatitis B, HPV and other diseases have been propagated based on misuse of data from ... Richardson PD, Mohammed SF, Mason RG, Steiner M, Kane R (2004). "Dynamics of platelet interaction with surfaces in steady flow ... A study published in 2013 found no correlation between autism and the antigen number in the vaccines the children were ...
D-L antibodies, typically IgG, are characterized by targeting against red blood cells' on-surface antigens called "P". The ... At least 90% of cases having cryoglobulins in body, hepatitis C is to blame, reflecting the importance of preclusion of ... typically antigens "I" or "i" on the RBC surface, in the environment in which the temperatures are lower than normal core body ... Cold agglutinins are antibodies, typically immunoglobulin M (IgM), that are acquainted with and then binding the antigens on ...
doi:10.1002/hep.24748. PMID 22006563. S2CID 39002609. Hirschfield GM, Liu X, Xu C, Lu Y, Xie G, Lu Y, et al. (June 2009). " ... The monoclonal antibody Rituximab targets the CD20 antigen on the B cells, and is already used in a wide array of other ... Bile formation begins in bile canaliculi that form between two adjacent surfaces of liver cells (hepatocytes) similar to the ... doi:10.1002/hep.28932. PMID 27906472. S2CID 20776738. Assis DN, Abdelghany O, Cai SY, Gossard AA, Eaton JE, Keach JC, et al. ( ...
The renal surface is directed medialward and downward. It is somewhat flattened, considerably narrower than the gastric surface ... Assessment of IgM antibodies to viral capsid antigen (a rising titer) is indicated to confirm Epstein-Barr virus or ... "Hepatic splenosis mimicking HCC in a patient with hepatitis C liver cirrhosis and mildly raised alpha feto protein; the ... showing surface markings for kidneys, ureters, and spleen Side of thorax, showing surface markings for bones, lungs (purple), ...
doi:10.1002/hep.26029. PMID 22911555. S2CID 9787730. McManus S, Ebert A, Salvagiotto G, Medvedovic J, Sun Q, Tamir I, Jaritz M ... Cilia are small organelles that protrude from the surface of adherent cells that are the obligate site of action for proteins ... in a cytoskeleton-dependent signaling pathway initiated by ligation of integrin or antigen receptor on human B cells". J. Biol ... "Association of the Cas-like molecule HEF1 with CrkL following integrin and antigen receptor signaling in human B-cells: ...
As a target antigen for ELISA BVDV detection, NS3 is a multifunctional protein with serine protease activity, helicase activity ... Erns's C-terminus serves as a membrane anchor, a retention/secretion signal, a binding site for cell surface glycosaminoglycans ... "Palmitoylation of Hepatitis C Virus NS2 Regulates Its Subcellular Localization and NS2-NS3 Autocleavage". Journal of Virology. ... The most important structural protein is E2, which regulates cell tropism by interacting with cell surface receptors and ...
1899 The atypical molecular pattern on the surface of the cell includes the coexpression of cell surface markers clusters of ... Cao JX, Gao WJ, You J, Wu LH, Liu JL, Wang ZX (July 2019). "The efficacy of anti-CD19 chimeric antigen receptor T cells for B- ... Exposure to Agent Orange increases the risk of CLL, and exposure to hepatitis C virus may increase the risk. There is no clear ... Kalos M, Levine BL, Porter DL, Katz S, Grupp SA, Bagg A, June CH (August 2011). "T cells with chimeric antigen receptors have ...
Hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome Hepatitis B Hepatitis C Herpangina Herpes gladiatorum (scrum pox) Herpes simplex Herpes ... The dermis contains two vascular networks that run parallel to the skin surface-one superficial and one deep plexus-which are ... system List of spiders associated with cutaneous reactions List of target antigens in pemphigoid List of target antigens in ... Many skin conditions affect the human integumentary system-the organ system covering the entire surface of the body and ...
In blood banking, PEG is used as a potentiator to enhance detection of antigens and antibodies. When working with phenol in a ... The polymer is used as a lubricating coating for various surfaces in aqueous and non-aqueous environments. Since PEG is a ... PEGylated interferon alfa-2a or alfa-2b are commonly used injectable treatments for hepatitis C infection. PEG is soluble in ...
The tests are based upon the ability of an antibody to bind specifically to an antigen. The antigen (usually a protein or ... "Hepatitis C". World Health Organization. Archived from the original on 2011-07-12. Retrieved 2013-04-25. Dunne EF; Unger ER; ... The 3 main types of media used for testing are: Solid culture: A solid surface is created using a mixture of nutrients, salts ... This technique is the current standard for detecting viral infections such as AIDS and hepatitis. Once an infection has been ...
Food or water-borne diseases include bacterial and protozoal diarrhea, typhoid fever and hepatitis A and E; common vector-borne ... After the earthquake of 2010, there was no evidence of surface rupture and geologists' findings were based on seismological, ... According to a 2008 study examining the frequency of the Duffy antigen receptor for Chemokines (DARC) single-nucleotide ...
In humans the P antigen (also known as globoside) is the cellular receptor for parvovirus B19 virus that causes erythema ... Yang SH, Lin LW, Fang YJ, Cheng AL, Kuo SH (February 2012). "Parvovirus B19 infection-related acute hepatitis after rituximab- ... based on antibody-binding analysis and X-ray structural analysis the VP1-unique region is assumed to be exposed at the surface ... The monoclonal antibody against the CD20 protein has been shown to cause acute hepatitis, neutropenia via parvovirus B19 ...
If later exposure to the same allergen occurs, the allergen can bind to the IgE molecules held on the surface of the mast cells ... Evidence has shown that exposure to food and fecal-oral pathogens, such as hepatitis A, Toxoplasma gondii, and Helicobacter ... Allergic diseases are caused by inappropriate immunological responses to harmless antigens driven by a TH2-mediated immune ... Certain microbe-sensing proteins, known as Toll-like receptors, found on the surface of cells in the body are also thought to ...
This occurs because each T cell is endowed with a highly specific receptor that can bind to an antigen present at the surface ... Hepatitis B (HBV) and C (HCV) viruses cause chronic inflammation which favors the appearance of hepatocarcinoma. The carcinoma ... In some patients, the majority of the tumor-specific T cells recognize mutated antigens. The contribution of these antigens to ... Cancer therapy targeted at tumor antigens can involve the direct use of these antigens in vaccines, but also the adoptive ...
The S-layer prevents complement-mediated bacterial killing by impairing the binding of C3b to the surface of the bacteria. The ... Additionally, Cfv has long LPS side chains (O-antigens) that may resist complement-mediated bacterial killing. Aside from ... Campylobacter fetus subspecies fetus localizes in the placenta of the pregnant ewe and may lead to fetal hepatitis. ... Agglutination can detect the binding of antibodies and antigens, resulting in clumped bacterial cells. Since antibodies to the ...
... surface antigens-preS1, preS2, and S, the X protein and HBeAg. The X protein is thought to be non-structural. Its function and ... the first known hepatitis with a viral etiological agent was Hepatitis A, in the picornaviridae family. Hepatitis B Virus (HBV ... Its best-known member is hepatitis B virus. Diseases associated with this family include: liver infections, such as hepatitis, ... This is true not only of the human pathogen Hepatitis B Virus but also the hepadnaviruses that infect other organisms. The " ...
Hepatitis B surface antigen) Monoclonal antibodies (Various) Additional products (tumour necrosis factor, therapeutic enzymes) ...
2001). "Ch3 Antigen Recognition by B-Cell and T-cell Receptors". Immunobiology: The Immune System in Health and Disease (5th ed ... hepatitis B virus, and varicella (chickenpox), among others. Testing of IgG is not indicated for diagnosis of allergy, and ... IgG coating of pathogen surfaces (known as opsonization) allows their recognition and ingestion by phagocytic immune cells ... Finally, if antigen persists, high affinity IgG4 is produced, which dampens down inflammation by helping to curtail FcR- ...
Newer tests look for the virus itself, such as the p24 antigen test, which looks for a part of the virus on the surface of ... hepatitis B, and hepatitis C. They state the deferrals are based on stereotypes. Proponents of the lifetime restriction defend ... which HIV and hepatitis may not be detected in the blood and that this window is seven days for HIV and 16 days for hepatitis. ... And Hepatitis C Virus (Hcv)". Food and Drug Administration. Archived from the original on 21 February 2008. "HIV Antibody ...
... hepatitis B surface antigen, anti-hepatitis B core, and anti-hepatitis B surface). A person who has never been exposed to ... When a person gets a hepatitis B vaccine then the most common test for hepatitis B will show them to be positive. The usual ... "WHO , Hepatitis B". World Health Organization. 2011. Retrieved 7 July 2011. See the table "HBV serological markers in ... hepatitis B but has gotten the vaccine will be positive for anti-HBs but negative for the other two tests in the panel. Other ...
2022)‎. Rapid diagnostic tests to detect hepatitis B surface antigen. World Health Organization. ...
Identification and Management of Hepatitis B Surface Antigen (HBsAg)--Positive Persons. Persons with chronic hepatitis B virus ... obtain vaccination against hepatitis A if chronic liver disease is present (2). *When seeking medical or dental care, HBsAg- ... Prevention of hepatitis A through active or passive immunization: recommendations of the Advisory Committee on Immunization ... Hepatitis B virus transmission between children in day care. Pediatr Infect Dis J 1989;8:870--5. ...
Hepatitis B surface antigen and anti-hepatitis C antibodies among blood donors in the Islamic Republic of Iran  ... Prevalence of hepatitis B surface antigen and hepatitis C virus antibodies among blood donors in Alexandria, Egypt  ... We determined the prevalence rate of hepatitis B surface antigen [‎HBsAg]‎ and anti-hepatitis C virus antibodies [‎anti-HCV]‎ ... Hepatitis B surface antigen assays : operational characteristics (‎phase 1)‎ : report 2  World Health Organization (‎World ...
Hepatitis B surface antigen. Variable Name: LBDHBG SAS Label: Hepatitis B surface antigen. English Text: Hepatitis B surface ... they are coded negative for surface antigen if the test for surface antigen is negative or if the test for hepatitis B core ... Hepatitis B: Core Antibody, Surface Antigen; Hepatitis D Antibody (HEPBD_G) Data File: HEPBD_G.xpt First Published: September ... The Hepatitis B surface antigen is tested only when the Hepatitis B core antibody test is positive. Participant results are ...
Detecting Hepatitis B Surface Antigen Mutants On This Page Mechanism of HBV Mutant Generation Surface Antigen Structure Surface ... of hepatitis B surface antigen epitopes present on variants and specifically recognized by anti-hepatitis B surface antigen ... Surface Antigen Structure. The translational products of the surface antigen gene consist of 3 proteins that have different ... Carman W, van Deursen F, Mimms L, Hardie D, Coppola R, Decker R, The prevalence of surface antigen variants of hepatitis B ...
Serum level of anti-hepatitis B surface antigen 10-12 years after hepatitis B vaccine at birth. Eastern Mediterranean Health ... Serum levels of hepatitis B surface antigen were determined in 277 randomly selected children aged 1-12 years. The response to ... First evaluation of the serum level of anti-hepatitis B surface antigen after vaccination in Libya ... Combined hepatitis B vaccines. Proceedings of the Viral Hepatitis Prevention Board meeting. St Julians, Malta, Viral Hepatitis ...
Detection of hepatitis B surface antigen and transforming growth factor alpha in oval cells of nontumorous liver in patients ... Expression of hepatitis B surface and core antigens and transforming growth factor-alpha in oval cells of the liver in ... Co expression of transforming growth factor alpha and hepatitis b surface antigen in the same hepatocytes of human liver tissue ... Relationship of hepatitis B surface antigen to serum alpha-fetoprotein in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma and chronic ...
Recombinant Hepatitis B Surface Antigen (HBsAg) pre-S2 (,95%, 55-aa, ~4. 7kda). ... Hepatitis B Vaccine, Sci-B Reagents and ELISA kits *Recombinant Hepatitis B Surface Antigen (HBsAg) pre-S2 (>95%, 55-aa, ~4. ... Recombinant Hepatitis B Surface Antigen (HBsAg) pre-S2 (>95%, 55-aa, ~4. 7kda). Antigen. Purified Protein. ... Recombinant (E.Coli) Hepatitis B Surface Antigen pre-S1 (HBsAg) (119-aa, >95%, ~13 kda) ...
Understanding early serum hepatitis D virus and hepatitis B surface antigen kinetics during pegylated interferon-alpha therapy ... Understanding early serum hepatitis D virus and hepatitis B surface antigen kinetics during pegylated interferon-alpha therapy ... Understanding early serum hepatitis D virus and hepatitis B surface antigen kinetics during pegylated interferon-alpha therapy ... Understanding early serum hepatitis D virus and hepatitis B surface antigen kinetics during pegylated interferon-alpha therapy ...
Dive into the research topics of A recombinant measles virus expressing hepatitis B virus surface antigen induces humoral ... A recombinant measles virus expressing hepatitis B virus surface antigen induces humoral immune responses in genetically ...
Hepatitis B Antibodies Hepatitis B Surface Antigens Humans Institutionalization Intellectual Disability Liver Function Tests ... Hepatitis-B surface antigen and antibody: prevalence and persistence in institutionalized and noninstitutionalized persons.. ... A total of 426 persons were studied in an attempt to more clearly define the high prevalence of hepatitis-B surface antigen ( ... Hepatitis-B surface antigen and antibody: prevalence and persistence in institutionalized and noninstitutionalized persons. ...
... infection is characterised by the persistence of hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg). Expanding HBV diagnosis and treatment ... accuracy of available diagnostic tests to detect HBsAg to inform recommendations on testing strategies in 2017 WHO hepatitis ... Hepatitis B virus surface antigen and anti-hepatitis C virus rapid tests underestimate hepatitis prevalence among HIV-infected ... Evaluation of a new rapid test for the combined detection of hepatitis B virus surface antigen and hepatitis B virus e antigen ...
Results of search for su:{Hepatitis B surface antigens.} Refine your search. *. Availability. * Limit to currently available ... Hepatitis B surface antigen assays : operational characteristics (phase 1) : report 2. by World Health Organization. Dept. of ... Laboratory techniques for the detection of hepatitis B surface antigen. by WHO Collaborating Centre for Reference and Research ... Proposed international reference preparation for hepatitis B surface antigen / by Morag Ferguson, Valerie Seagroatt and G. C. ...
Hepatitis B surface antigen in cirrhosis of liver. Journal of the Indian Medical Association. 1985 Sep; 83(9): 305-7. ...
T1 - A delayed type hypersensitivity (DTH) skin reaction to hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) and intradermal hepatitis B ... title = "A delayed type hypersensitivity (DTH) skin reaction to hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) and intradermal hepatitis B ... A delayed type hypersensitivity (DTH) skin reaction to hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) and intradermal hepatitis B ... A delayed type hypersensitivity (DTH) skin reaction to hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) and intradermal hepatitis B ...
The basic blood test for hepatitis B consists of three screening tests: a hepatitis B surface antigen test, which determines ... The screening test for hepatitis B surface antigens detects the presence of HBV in the blood. The antigens are detectable 4-10 ... Most adults who acquire HBV clear the virus within a few months, and their hepatitis B surface antigen test result will be ... Some people remain infected and continue to test positive for hepatitis B surface antigen. If, after 6 months, the person still ...
Assay is a qualitative enzyme immunoassay for the detection of Hepatitis B Surface Antigen (HBsAg) in human serum and plasma.. ... Assay is a chemiluminescent immunoassay for the qualitative detection of hepatitis B surface antigen in human serum and plasma. ...
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Hepatitis B Surface Antigen Test. A hepatitis B surface antigen test shows if youre contagious. A positive result means you ... Does Hepatitis B Show Up In Routine Blood Tests. Hepatitis B Serology: Surface Antigen (HBsAg), Surface Antibody (anti-HBs), ... The hepatitis B surface antibody is the antibody that is produced in response to hepatitis B surface antigen , a protein ... What Does Hepatitis B Envelope Antigen Mean. HbsAg Test , What is Hepatitis B Surface Antigen ...
... recognizes Hepatitis B surface antigen, recognizing subtypes ad and ay. Hepatitis B virus is a major causative agent of acute ... strong,Rabbit anti hepatitis B surface antigen antibody,/strong, ... surface antigen antibody recognizes Hepatitis B surface antigen ... Rabbit anti hepatitis B surface antigen antibody (OBT0990) used for the evaluation of hepatitis B surface antigen in infected ... Rabbit anti hepatitis B surface antigen antibody (OBT0990) used for the detection of hepatitis b surface antigen in infected ...
TextPublication details: Geneva : World Health Organization, 1985. Description: 6 pSubject(s): Hepatitis B surface antigens , ... Proposed international reference preparation for hepatitis B surface antigen / by Morag Ferguson, Valerie Seagroatt and G. C. ...
TextPublication details: Geneva : World Health Organization, 1985. Description: 6 pSubject(s): Hepatitis B surface antigens , ... Proposed international reference preparation for hepatitis B surface antigen / by Morag Ferguson, Valerie Seagroatt and G. C. ...
ROVIRA, C et al. Hepatitis B: surface antigen and post-vaccination antibodies in women from the Psychiatric Hospital of ... The objective of this study was to know the frequency of the surface antigen of hepatitis B and determine the post-vaccination ... Palavras-chave : Hepatitis B; mentally ill women; antibodies against hepatitis B. · resumo em Espanhol · texto em Espanhol · ... Serological evidence of Hepatitis B virus infection was not found in the 72 patients. Twenty nine out of thirty patients who ...
2793 5-Hydroxyindoleacetic Acid (HIAA), Quantitative, 24-Hr Urine 5HIAA_24Hr_ ...
Detecting Hepatitis B Surface Antigen Mutants On This Page Mechanism of HBV Mutant Generation Surface Antigen Structure Surface ... of hepatitis B surface antigen epitopes present on variants and specifically recognized by anti-hepatitis B surface antigen ... Surface Antigen Structure. The translational products of the surface antigen gene consist of 3 proteins that have different ... Carman W, van Deursen F, Mimms L, Hardie D, Coppola R, Decker R, The prevalence of surface antigen variants of hepatitis B ...
N(α)-cocoyl-L-arginine ethyl ester, DL-pyroglutamic acid salt, as an inactivator of hepatitis B surface antigen. ... as an inactivator of hepatitis B surface antigen. Together they form a unique fingerprint. ...
T1 - Quantitative hepatitis B surface antigen analysis in hepatitis B e antigen-positive nucleoside-naive patients treated with ... Quantitative hepatitis B surface antigen analysis in hepatitis B e antigen-positive nucleoside-naive patients treated with ... Quantitative hepatitis B surface antigen analysis in hepatitis B e antigen-positive nucleoside-naive patients treated with ... title = "Quantitative hepatitis B surface antigen analysis in hepatitis B e antigen-positive nucleoside-naive patients treated ...
HBsAg = hepatitis B surface antigen. Other persons with high risk for hepatitis B virus infection but with an HBsAg prevalence ... HBeAg = hepatitis B e antigen; HBV = hepatitis B virus; ALT = alanine aminotransferase ... HBeAg = hepatitis B e antigen; HBV = hepatitis B virus; ALT = alanine aminotransferase ... HBeAg = hepatitis B e antigen; ALT = alanine aminotransferase; HBV = hepatitis B virus ...
Hepatitis B virus (HBV) is considered as a serious public health concern. The health care workers and medical students are at a ... "Serum Level of Anti-Hepatitis B Surface Antigen Among Students in Guilan, Iran". International Journal of School Health, 2, 4, ... Serum Level of Anti-Hepatitis B Surface Antigen Among Students in Guilan, Iran. ... Serum Level of Anti-Hepatitis B Surface Antigen Among Students in Guilan, Iran ...
... for the determination of infectious hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg). We fabricated GCE with specific composite via immune- ... Zr-based metal-organic framework composite as an immunosensing platform for determination of hepatitis B virus surface antigen. ... thereby indicating its significant potential in the super-fast diagnosis of hepatitis B. ...
  • Unvaccinated sex partners and household and needle-sharing contacts should be tested for susceptibility to HBV infection (see Appendix A, Prevaccination Serologic Testing for Susceptibility) and should receive the first dose of hepatitis B vaccine immediately after collection of blood for serologic testing. (
  • This is because these antigens are not in the vaccine. (
  • There is a safe and effective hepatitis B vaccine that helps a person build immunity against HBV infection. (
  • Learn more about hepatitis B, including what it means to have immunity and how the hepatitis B vaccine can provide immunity to some people. (
  • The hepatitis B vaccine is a safe and effective way of helping to prevent hepatitis B infection. (
  • People exposed to the virus may also receive the hepatitis B vaccine within 24 hours, which can prevent infection in some cases. (
  • If adults did not receive hepatitis B vaccination at birth, the schedule consists of two, three, or four doses depending on their health and the vaccine type. (
  • Learn more about the hepatitis B vaccine schedule here. (
  • The hepatitis B vaccine is safe and well-studied. (
  • In some rare cases, an individual may experience a severe allergic reaction to the hepatitis B vaccine. (
  • Learn more about the safety considerations and side effects of the hepatitis B vaccine. (
  • According to the Hepatitis B Foundation , if someone has HBV, their newborn must immediately receive the first dose of the hepatitis B vaccine and hepatitis B immune globulin (HBIG) within 12 hours of birth. (
  • Pregnant people unsure of their vaccination status can safely receive the hepatitis B vaccine during pregnancy and breastfeeding or chestfeeding. (
  • Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection remains a global challenge, although there is currently a safe and effective vaccine available. (
  • This vaccine is used for active immunization against Hepatitis B. (
  • This prevention strategy includes making hepatitis B vaccine a part of routine vaccination schedules for all infants. (
  • Immunization with hepatitis B vaccine is the most effective means of preventing HBV infection and its consequences. (
  • Integrating hepatitis B vaccine into childhood vaccination schedules in populations with high rates of childhood infection (e.g. (
  • The recommendations for implementing this strategy include making hepatitis B vaccine a part of routine vaccination schedules for infants. (
  • More than 90% of these infections can be prevented if HBsAg-positive mothers are identified so that their infants can receive hepatitis B vaccine and hepatitis B immune globulin (HBIG) soon after birth (4,5). (
  • Hexacima is a vaccine containing active substances derived from diphtheria, tetanus, pertussis and Haemophilus influenzae type b bacteria , the hepatitis B virus, and inactivated polioviruses. (
  • VBI's vaccine is the only 3-antigen hepatitis B vaccine, comprised of the three hepatitis B surface antigens of the hepatitis B virus - S, pre-S1, and pre-S2. (
  • We are using two proven strategies for increasing vaccine potency: the first is to present HIV antigens as part of a virus-like particle (VLP). (
  • The experience with HIV vaccine antigens will provide CBER with the expertise it needs to evaluate proposed HIV vaccines and anticipate their likely side effects. (
  • A prophylactic hepatitis C virus (HCV) vaccine that elicits neutralizing antibodies could be key to HCV eradication. (
  • Description: CD anti-HBs ELISA (Quantitative) kit is an enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for in vitro quantitative determination of antibodies to hepatitis B virus surface antigen (anti-HBs) in human serum or plasma for clinical purposes and assessing antibody response levels to HBsAg-vaccine. (
  • In spite of a vaccine available in 1982, the hepatitis B virus (HBV) remains a serious global public health problem. (
  • Infants born to HBsAg-positive mothers should receive hepatitis B immune globulin (HBIG) and the first dose of hepatitis B vaccine within 12 hours of birth, followed by the second and third doses of vaccine at 1 and 6 months of age, respectively. (
  • In the current study, we investigated how adjuvant frozen in the absence of antigen affects vaccine immunogenicity and whether preventing damage to the freeze-sensitive recombinant hepatitis B surface antigen (rHBsAg) was sufficient for maintaining vaccine potency. (
  • This data provides evidence that protecting a freeze-labile antigen from subzero exposure is insufficient to maintain vaccine potency. (
  • According to the China Children Immunization Programme, a child must be vaccinated with three doses of the hepatitis B vaccine before reaching 12 months of age. (
  • By 2010, Lianyungang had completed the catch-up immunization of hepatitis B vaccine for children less than 15 years old. (
  • hepatitis B immune globulin (HBIG) decreases effects of BCG vaccine live by pharmacodynamic antagonism. (
  • hepatitis B immune globulin (HBIG) decreases effects of measles (rubeola) vaccine by pharmacodynamic antagonism. (
  • I was a fellow and then an assistant professor of medicine, and I gave grand rounds on the, you know, recently introduced hepatitis B vaccine, which was an enormous advance and very important for healthcare workers. (
  • An example of an existing subunit vaccine is the hepatitis B vaccine. (
  • Evaluation of on-line high-performance size-exclusion chromatography, differential refractometry, and multi-angle laser light scattering analysis for the monitoring of the oligomeric state of human immunodeficiency virus vaccine protein antigen. (
  • Methods: This retrospective post hoc analysis included nucleoside/nucleotide-naive, hepatitis B e antigen (HBeAg)-positive patients receiving entecavir (0.5 mg daily) in ETV-022 who had samples available for qHBsAg analysis through week 48. (
  • The study objective was to determine the sero-prevalence of HBs antigen (Ag) and HBeAg among pregnant women in the Ho municipality. (
  • The risk of perinatal HBV infection among infants born to HBV-infected mothers ranges from 10% to 85%, depending on each mother's hepatitis B e antigen (HBeAg) status (3,7,8). (
  • Serum HBV RNA level has the potential to monitor antiviral therapy in patients with chronic hepatitis B. This study aimed to explore serum HBV RNA dynamic change pattern and its predict value on the efficacy of 96 weeks nucleos(t)ide analogue (NA) treatment in HBeAg-positive and HBeAg-negative patients with chronic hepatitis B (CHB). (
  • In this work, we aimed to determine the early kinetics of serum HBV RNA in HBeAg-positive and HBeAg-negative patients and evaluate the performance of early-stage serum HBV RNA for monitoring NA therapy patients with chronic hepatitis B (CHB). (
  • Worldwide, between 350 and 400 million persons are estimated to be chronically infected with hepatitis B virus (HBV) and 15% to 40% of those persons are at risk of developing cirrhosis and/or hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) without intervention. (
  • Independent and interactive effects related to the development of hepatocellular carcinoma were assessed using a community-based case-control study for hepatitis B virus, habitual alcohol drinking, cigarette smoking, peanut consumption and history of hepatocellular carcinoma among the immediate family. (
  • People with chronic (life-long) HBV infection might have no symptoms, have no evidence of liver disease, or have a range of disease from chronic hepatitis to cirrhosis or hepatocellular carcinoma, a type of liver cancer. (
  • Vaccination against hepatitis B and measures such as robust food safety systems to avoid hepatotoxicity and hepatocellular carcinogenesis induced by AFB1 is the most effective methods in the prevention of HCC induced by HBV and AFB1. (
  • Chronic infection with hepatitis B virus (HBV) is a leading cause of cirrhosis, hepatic decompensation, and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). (
  • Initial liver biopsy revealed active fulminant hepatitis with extensive centrilobular necrosis, approximately 25% hepatocellular viability, and mixed inflammatory infiltrates consisting of lymphocytes, histiocytes, scattered eosinophils, and occasional neutrophils. (
  • Long-term nucleos(t)ide analogue (NA) treatment can improve liver inflammation, ameliorate the development of liver fibrosis, and reduce the risk of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) through efficient suppression of hepatitis B virus (HBV) replication. (
  • 8%). During delivery of recommended hepatitis B vaccination services (e.g. (
  • ABSTRACT The hepatitis B virus (HBV) vaccination schedule in Libya follows international recommendations (1st dose at birth, 2nd after 1 month and 3rd after 6 months). (
  • RÉSUMÉ Le calendrier de vaccination contre le virus de l'hépatite B en Libye suit les recommandations internationales (première dose à la naissance, deuxième dose un mois après et troisième dose six mois après). (
  • A delayed type hypersensitivity (DTH) skin reaction to hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) and intradermal hepatitis B vaccination. (
  • The significance of a delayed type hypersensitivity skin reaction to hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) (HBs-DTH) in type B viral hepatitis (VHB) and in intradermal hepatitis B (HB) vaccination is reviewed. (
  • It can also be produced in response to hepatitis B vaccination. (
  • Other hepatitis B antibodies are not produced in response to vaccination. (
  • These tests allow the healthcare provider to know whether you could benefit from vaccination, or if you have active or chronic hepatitis B and need counseling, care, or treatment. (
  • The objective of this study was to know the frequency of the surface antigen of hepatitis B and determine the post-vaccination antibodies against hepatitis in women of reproductive age, hospitalized in a psychiatric hospital of the Ministry of Public Health and Social Welfare of Asunción, Paraguay. (
  • However, some individuals can build immunity to hepatitis B through vaccination. (
  • All infants, children, and adults should receive hepatitis B vaccination. (
  • It also can show that you got a hepatitis B vaccination. (
  • By then, China had fully integrated hepatitis B vaccination as part of its routine immunization for infants. (
  • To evaluate whether the impact of the hepatitis B vaccination program since 1992 in Anhui province is similar to the rest of the country, this paper examined an updated Hepatitis B serosurvey to (1) measure the prevalence of hepatitis B among the general population and (2) determine the ongoing risk factors for hepatitis B infection. (
  • En conséquence, un programme de vaccination pourrait s'imposer comme une nouvelle stratégie de lutte contre la maladie dans la wilaya de Sétif. (
  • free hepatitis B vaccination for newborn infants was carried out in 2001. (
  • The target groups were those who had not completed a three-dose vaccination series or who had never received hepatitis B immunization. (
  • Co-infection with hepatitis D virus (HDV) in persons with acute or chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection can lead to fulminant hepatitis. (
  • We report the case of a 14-year-old girl who developed fulminant hepatitis and hepatic failure requiring liver transplantation after taking a commercially available kava preparation for anxiety, presumably at the recommended dosage over a 3-month period. (
  • Pathological examination of the native liver revealed active fulminant hepatitis with total hepatocyte necrosis and extensive parenchymal infiltration by lymphocytes, histiocytes, and occasional eosinophils. (
  • Perinatal hepatitis B in the newborn may range from asymptomatic to fulminant hepatitis. (
  • 5.6% had positive findings for both antibodies, 5.6% had findings for antibody to hepatitis B surface antigens alone, and 1.3% had positive findings for antibody to hepatitis B core antigens alone. (
  • The group with positive findings for antibody to hepatitis B surface antigens alone did not have traditional risk factors for HBV infection, suggesting that this serologic finding may not be a reliable indicator of past HBV infection. (
  • The hepatitis B surface antibody is the antibody that is produced in response to hepatitis B surface antigen , a protein present on the surface of the hepatitis B virus. (
  • Hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) was employed as a model protein biomarker to demonstrate the analytical performance of the sensor in this study. (
  • Identification of a protein kinase C (PKC) activator, daphnoretin, that suppresses hepatitis B virus gene expression in human hepatoma cells. (
  • Glecaprevir is shown in ball and stick model and protein is represented in surface model. (
  • The protective human antibody response to the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) virus focuses on the spike (S) protein which decorates the virion surface and mediates cell binding and entry. (
  • In the case of COVID-19, the antigen is typically the characteristic spike protein found on the surface of the virus, which it normally uses to help it invade human cells. (
  • Once this genetic material gets into human cells, it uses our cells' protein factories to make the antigen that will trigger an immune response. (
  • antibodies against hepatitis B. (
  • The number of new hepatitis B infections per 100 000 population in a given year is estimated from the prevalence of total antibodies against hepatitis B core antigen (Total anti-HBc) and hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) positive among children 5 years of age, adjusted for sampling design. (
  • Recombinant Hepatitis B Surface Antigen (HBsAg) pre-S2 (>95%, 55-aa, ~4. (
  • Despite advances in recombinant DNA technology, only a handful of recombinant vaccines have been approved so far, and these are particle formers: hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) assembles 22 nm particles with a strong lipid component. (
  • A recombinant fowlpox virus that expresses the VP2 antigen of infectious bursal disease virus induces protection against mortality caused by the virus. (
  • Hepatitis B and C virus infections are common serious complications of blood transfusion. (
  • Hepatitis viruses constitute a major public health problem because of the morbidity and mortality associated with the acute and chronic consequences of these infections. (
  • NHANES testing for markers of infection with hepatitis viruses will be used to determine secular trends in infection rates across most age and racial/ethnic groups, and will provide a national picture of the epidemiologic determinants of these infections. (
  • The reported incidence of acute hepatitis B increased by 37% from 1979 to 1989, and an estimated 200,000-300,000 new infections occurred annually during the period 1980- 1991. (
  • [ 4 ] Anti-PLA2R antibodies have been found in patients with viral infections (eg, hepatitis B, hepatitis C, HIV), but those patients may have had coincidental primary membranous nephropathy. (
  • The risk of becoming a chronic hepatitis B infection carrier is 95% for infections acquired during the perinatal period compared with 5% for those acquired during adulthood [ 5 ]. (
  • In 2019, a total of 3,192 cases of acute hepatitis B were reported to CDC, corresponding to 20,700 estimated acute infections (based on the estimated ratio of acute cases reported to actual acute cases). (
  • Even though tattooing and body piercing are not thought to be a significant mode of transmission for HBV, tattooing and body piercing have the potential to transmit bloodborne infections, including HBV, hepatitis C virus (HCV), and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), if the person doing the tattoos or body piercing does not use good infection control practices. (
  • Yet, the burden of disease as a consequence of hepatitis B and C infections in the blood donor populations infection with hepatitis B and C viruses is preventable. (
  • The burden of hepatitis infection in Death and disability from hepatitis B or C infections the Region among blood donors is not limited to Egypt are preventable through prevention of new infections and Pakistan. (
  • The use of unsafe blood and blood products is one of from low-risk populations, and quality assured testing the ways hepatitis B and C infections are transmitted. (
  • No viral cytopathic changes were identified, and immunohistochemical stains for hepatitis B surface and core antigens were negative. (
  • Persons with chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection are at high risk for chronic liver disease and are a major reservoir of HBV infection. (
  • IMSEAR at SEARO: Hepatitis B surface antigen in cirrhosis of liver. (
  • Rabbit anti hepatitis B surface antigen antibody ( OBT0990 ) used for the detection of hepatitis b surface antigen in infected mouse liver by immunohistochemistry on formalin fixed, paraffin embedded tissue sections. (
  • A hepatitis virus is one that lives in liver cells and causes inflammation. (
  • Hepatitis B medications are recommended for patients with detected HBV virus (also known as hepatitis B viral load) on a blood test and evidence of liver damage. (
  • Hepatitis B is a liver infection caused by HBV. (
  • However, hepatitis B infection can become long term for others and lead to serious health problems, such as liver cirrhosis and cancer. (
  • Hepatitis B is a viral infection that attack liver and its is transmitted through blood and other body fluids. (
  • This document provides the rationale for a comprehensive strategy to eliminate transmission of HBV and ultimately reduce the incidence of hepatitis B and hepatitis B-associated chronic liver disease in the United States. (
  • According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), an estimated 68% of people with chronic hepatitis B are unaware of their infection, 3 and many remain asymptomatic until onset of cirrhosis or end-stage liver disease. (
  • The results of ddPCR correlated more closely with serum HB core-related antigen (R 2 =0.9843) than HB surface antigen (HBsAg) (R 2 =0.9742) in 24 HBV-infected human-liver-chimeric mice (PXB-mice). (
  • In Pakistan, every year, the overwhelming majority as a result of the 2.2% and 4.2% of blood donors are reported to be positive consequences of chronic infection: cirrhosis and primary for hepatitis B surface antigen and hepatitis C antibodies liver cancer (3 , 4) . (
  • and the third one went on to have chronic hepatitis B infection, which of course is very dangerous because it can progress to cirrhosis and liver cancer. (
  • Symptoms of hepatitis B may not appear for 3 months after exposure. (
  • Concerned about exposure to Hepatitis A, B, or C? (
  • Chronic hepatitis B infection, caused by the hepatitis B virus (HBV) and exposure to aflatoxins is fundamental in the formation of HCC in developing countries. (
  • efgartigimod alfa will decrease the level or effect of hepatitis B immune globulin (HBIG) by receptor binding competition. (
  • In addition, NHANES provides the means to better define the epidemiology of other hepatitis viruses. (
  • Different hepatitis viruses have been given different names, such as A, B, and C. (
  • Antigens , which are made by bacteria or viruses. (
  • Antibody and antigen tests can detect each of the different hepatitis viruses. (
  • Blood (serology) tests are used to check for antibodies to each of the hepatitis viruses. (
  • States of the World Health Organization to develop and donations are screened for hepatitis B and C viruses implement national strategies for preventing, diagnosing, using enzyme-linked immunoassays. (
  • ABSTRACT Hepatitis virus B is transmitted by various routes including blood, vertical and sexual routes. (
  • 2022)‎. Rapid diagnostic tests to detect hepatitis B surface antigen. (
  • This article addresses recent information concerning the emergence of hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) mutants, their impact on viral antigen presentation, latest prevalence data, and discussion of the issues associated with detection of mutants in healthcare settings. (
  • Some of them try to smuggle the antigen into the body, others use the body's own cells to make the viral antigen. (
  • Early mortality was high in patients with decompensated cirrhosis, underscoring the need for earlier detection of hepatitis B virus infection and timely initiation of treatment, prior to the development of irreversible complications, in sub-Saharan Africa. (
  • Hepatitis B viral mutants can emerge in patients as a result of selection pressure from either immune response or treatment options. (
  • Mutations that occur within the immunodominant epitopes of hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) allow mutant virus to propagate in the presence of a neutralizing immune response, while wild-type virus is reduced to undetectable levels. (
  • Antigen-antibody complexes can develop by the production of immune complexes in situ or by deposition of circulating complexes. (
  • To enhance the immune response to biologically important targets on HIV, we have incorporated HIV antigens into virus-like particles (VLP). (
  • Immune response differences could not be traced to differences in the tertiary structure of the antigen in the formulations. (
  • They do so by stimulating an immune response to an antigen, a molecule found on the virus. (
  • Since the antigen is produced inside our own cells and in large quantities, the immune reaction should be strong. (
  • As with nucleic acid vaccines, our own cellular machinery is hijacked to produce the antigen from those instructions, in order to trigger an immune response. (
  • Serum specimens are processed, stored, and shipped to the Division of Viral Hepatitis, National Center for HIV/AIDS, Viral Hepatitis, STD, and TB Prevention, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (
  • Chronic HBV infection is defined as persistence of hepatitis B surface antigen (HBSAg) for at least six months, and the testing strategy involves an initial serological test to detect HBsAg followed by nucleic-acid amplification test (NAT) for detection of HBV DNA viral load to help guide treatment decisions [ 5 ]. (
  • Serological evidence of Hepatitis B virus infection was not found in the 72 patients. (
  • Routine Hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) serological testing of all pregnant women in antenatal clinics and linkage to prevention, care and treatment services is the recommended standard way of controlling and reducing neonatal HBV transmission in settings where HBsAg seroprevalence in the general population exceeds 2% [ 1 ]. (
  • The vaccines were characterized for antigen adsorption, rHBsAg tertiary structure, particle size and charge, adjuvant elemental content and in-vivo potency. (
  • Nucleic acid vaccines use genetic material - either RNA or DNA - to provide cells with the instructions to make the antigen. (
  • Viral vector vaccines also work by giving cells genetic instructions to produce antigens. (
  • An ultrasensitive electrochemical immunosensor has been prepared using an immunofunctionalized zirconium (Zr)-based metal-organic framework (MOF) with gold (Au) decoration [email protected](NH2) composite-coated glassy carbon electrode (GCE) for the determination of infectious hepatitis B surface antigen ( HBsAg ). (
  • Hepatitis B is one of the world's most significant infectious disease threats with more than 290 million people infected globally. (
  • VBI is committed to targeting and overcoming significant infectious diseases, including hepatitis B, coronaviruses, and cytomegalovirus (CMV), as well as aggressive cancers including glioblastoma (GBM). (
  • Hepatitis B is one of the most common infectious diseases in China. (
  • Expression in Escherichia coli of cDNA fragments encoding the gene for the host-protective antigen of infectious bursal disease virus. (
  • We determined the prevalence rate of hepatitis B surface antigen [‎HBsAg]‎ and anti-hepatitis C virus antibodies [‎anti-HCV]‎ among 7897 healthy voluntary blood donors in Shiraz, Islamic Republic of Iran. (
  • Chronic Hepatitis B Virus (HBV) infection is characterised by the persistence of hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg). (
  • A positive test may also mean you have chronic hepatitis B infection. (
  • In fact, 90% of mothers with an acute hepatitis B infection and 10% to 20% of mothers with chronic hepatitis B will transmit the virus to their newborn, estimates the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists . (
  • Background: Entecavir is a potent nucleoside analogue for treating chronic hepatitis B (CHB). (
  • Cite this: Natural History of Chronic Hepatitis B -- Clinical Implications - Medscape - Apr 16, 2008. (
  • Chronic hepatitis B virus infection is a long-term illness that occurs when the virus remains in a person's body. (
  • Should all patients with chronic hepatitis B be on treatment? (
  • Chronic hepatitis B may change over time. (
  • A person with chronic hepatitis B should talk with a doctor about the risks and benefits of antiviral treatment while pregnant. (
  • This may be a new infection (acute hepatitis), or it may be an infection that you have had for a long time ( chronic hepatitis). (
  • Chronic hepatitis B Virus (HBV) infection affects 80-100 million people in sub-Saharan Africa and accounts for an estimated 650,000 deaths annually. (
  • Globally, about 248 million people are living with chronic Hepatitis B Virus (HBV) infection and the burden of HBV remains disproportionately high in low and middle-income countries (LMICs), particularly in Asia and Africa [ 1 ]. (
  • The persistence of covalently closed circular DNA (cccDNA) poses a major obstacle to curing chronic hepatitis B (CHB). (
  • However, in sub-Saharan Africa, antiviral treatment of chronic hepatitis B (CHB) is virtually unavailable. (
  • Approximately 257 million people worldwide are living with chronic hepatitis B (CHB), and an estimated 887,000 deaths per year are attributable to HBV infection [ 1 ]. (
  • The with hepatitis B virus, and between 130 and 150 million prevalence of hepatitis B surface antigen is reported to be people globally have chronic hepatitis C infection (1 , 2) . (
  • A study from Kuwait published 13 years and treatment of chronic hepatitis. (
  • Repeated reactive samples were confirmed by Enzyme linked immunoabsorbant assay (ELISA) kit (Span Diagnostic Ltd, India).Maternal HBV infectivity status was determined by testing all HBsAg positive samples for the presence of hepatitis Be Ag. (
  • Hepatitis B surface antigen is produced in tobacco, rabies virus glycoprotein is produced in tomato, cholera toxin P-subunit is being produced in potato and tobacco. (
  • The E glycoprotein is the major component of the virion surface and is responsible for the receptor-mediated endocytic fusion and subsequent cell entry, as well as direct viral assembly & budding, and immunogenicity. (
  • The hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) readily assembles with other viral proteins to form particles. (
  • This effectively displays HIV viral envelope proteins, such as gp120 and gp41, on the VLP surface, where they mimic HIV virions. (
  • These markers (also called antigens ) are proteins and sugars that our bodies use to identify the blood cells as belonging in us. (
  • Along with antibodies, there are also many cells, chemicals, and proteins involved in destroying these antigens. (
  • An estimated 257 million individuals worldwide are chronically infected with hepatitis B virus (HBV), of whom 2.7 million are co-infected with HIV [ 1 ]. (
  • About 30%-50% people who are 5 years of age or older with acute (recently acquired) hepatitis B have initial signs or symptoms when infected with hepatitis B virus (HBV). (
  • The results of a hepatitis B titer panel can help a doctor determine a persons hepatitis B status. (
  • Several HBV biomarkers, including HBV DNA, HBsAg titer, and hepatitis B core-related antigen (HBcrAg), have been used to monitor HBV chronic infection and antiviral therapy[6-10]. (
  • Evaluation of structurally related derivatives of 1 and 2 revealed that a 6-hydroxy group and a pyran or furan ring contribute to this suppressive effect of hepatitis B surface antigen. (
  • The prevalence of hepatitis B virus (HBV) carrier and infectivity status among 762 pregnant women in Krishnagiri district, TamilNadu, were determined through random testing of volunteers antenatal clinics through different hospitals with in the krishnagiri district. (
  • Testing to identify pregnant women who are hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg)-positive and providing their infants with immunoprophylaxis effec- tively prevents HBV transmission during the perinatal period (4,5). (
  • The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) among the general population and the risk factors associated with HBV infection in Anhui province, China. (
  • The 2010 targets of the China Hepatitis B Prevention Programme were a prevalence of hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) less than 1.0% for children less than five years old and less than 6.0% for the total population. (
  • This survey assessed the prevalence of Hepatitis B infection in Lianyungang, Jiangsu province, China in 2009-2010. (
  • The purpose of this review is to assess the clinical accuracy of available diagnostic tests to detect HBsAg to inform recommendations on testing strategies in 2017 WHO hepatitis testing guidelines. (
  • According to the Uganda population-based HIV impact assessment survey 2016/2017, hepatitis B prevalence among women aged 15-64 is 3% in Uganda and about 5% in the mid-North region where Lira district is located [ 3 ]. (
  • This involves the reaction of anti-HBc in the sample with hepatitis B core antigen (HBcAg) coated wells. (
  • Horseradish peroxidase (HRP)-labeled antibody conjugate (mouse monoclonal anti-HBc) is then allowed to react with the remaining exposed HBcAg on the well surface. (
  • 1992 was also the year that the Ministry of Health recommended a nationwide hepatitis B routine immunization [ 5 ]. (
  • With the response found in the study patients of this mental health institution, the complications of hepatitis B would be reduced and the horizontal transmission to other patients and health personnel of the institution would be prevented and specially the hepatitis B transmission to fetus in case of pregnancy. (
  • C antibodies and 3.5% for hepatitis B surface antigen in complications (5) . (
  • An understanding of immunoassay reactivity with HBsAg mutants is key to establishing an appropriate testing algorithm for hepatitis B virus detection programs. (
  • Assay is a chemiluminescent immunoassay for the qualitative detection of hepatitis B surface antigen in human serum and plasma. (
  • The HBsAg electrochemical immunosensing assay had good selectivity and excellent reproducibility, thereby indicating its significant potential in the super-fast diagnosis of hepatitis B . (