Hepatitis B e Antigens: A closely related group of antigens found in the plasma only during the infective phase of hepatitis B or in virulent chronic hepatitis B, probably indicating active virus replication; there are three subtypes which may exist in a complex with immunoglobulins G.Hepatitis B virus: The type species of the genus ORTHOHEPADNAVIRUS which causes human HEPATITIS B and is also apparently a causal agent in human HEPATOCELLULAR CARCINOMA. The Dane particle is an intact hepatitis virion, named after its discoverer. Non-infectious spherical and tubular particles are also seen in the serum.Hepatitis B: INFLAMMATION of the LIVER in humans caused by a member of the ORTHOHEPADNAVIRUS genus, HEPATITIS B VIRUS. It is primarily transmitted by parenteral exposure, such as transfusion of contaminated blood or blood products, but can also be transmitted via sexual or intimate personal contact.Hepatitis B, Chronic: INFLAMMATION of the LIVER in humans caused by HEPATITIS B VIRUS lasting six months or more. It is primarily transmitted by parenteral exposure, such as transfusion of contaminated blood or blood products, but can also be transmitted via sexual or intimate personal contact.Hepatitis B Surface Antigens: Those hepatitis B antigens found on the surface of the Dane particle and on the 20 nm spherical and tubular particles. Several subspecificities of the surface antigen are known. These were formerly called the Australia antigen.Hepatitis B Antigens: Antigens of the virion of the HEPATITIS B VIRUS or the Dane particle, its surface (HEPATITIS B SURFACE ANTIGENS), core (HEPATITIS B CORE ANTIGENS), and other associated antigens, including the HEPATITIS B E ANTIGENS.Hepatitis B Core Antigens: The hepatitis B antigen within the core of the Dane particle, the infectious hepatitis virion.Hepatitis B Antibodies: Antibodies to the HEPATITIS B ANTIGENS, including antibodies to the surface (Australia) and core of the Dane particle and those to the "e" antigens.Lamivudine: A reverse transcriptase inhibitor and ZALCITABINE analog in which a sulfur atom replaces the 3' carbon of the pentose ring. It is used to treat HIV disease.Hepatitis B Vaccines: Vaccines or candidate vaccines containing inactivated hepatitis B or some of its component antigens and designed to prevent hepatitis B. Some vaccines may be recombinantly produced.DNA, Viral: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.Antiviral Agents: Agents used in the prophylaxis or therapy of VIRUS DISEASES. Some of the ways they may act include preventing viral replication by inhibiting viral DNA polymerase; binding to specific cell-surface receptors and inhibiting viral penetration or uncoating; inhibiting viral protein synthesis; or blocking late stages of virus assembly.Alanine Transaminase: An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of L-alanine and 2-oxoglutarate to pyruvate and L-glutamate. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 2.6.1.2.Carrier State: The condition of harboring an infective organism without manifesting symptoms of infection. The organism must be readily transmissible to another susceptible host.Hepatitis, Chronic: INFLAMMATION of the LIVER with ongoing hepatocellular injury for 6 months or more, characterized by NECROSIS of HEPATOCYTES and inflammatory cell (LEUKOCYTES) infiltration. Chronic hepatitis can be caused by viruses, medications, autoimmune diseases, and other unknown factors.Organophosphonates: Carbon-containing phosphonic acid compounds. Included under this heading are compounds that have carbon bound to either OXYGEN atom or the PHOSPHOROUS atom of the (P=O)O2 structure.Hepatitis C: INFLAMMATION of the LIVER in humans caused by HEPATITIS C VIRUS, a single-stranded RNA virus. Its incubation period is 30-90 days. Hepatitis C is transmitted primarily by contaminated blood parenterally, and is often associated with transfusion and intravenous drug abuse. However, in a significant number of cases, the source of hepatitis C infection is unknown.Adenine: A purine base and a fundamental unit of ADENINE NUCLEOTIDES.Hepatitis A: INFLAMMATION of the LIVER in humans caused by a member of the HEPATOVIRUS genus, HUMAN HEPATITIS A VIRUS. It can be transmitted through fecal contamination of food or water.Interferon-alpha: One of the type I interferons produced by peripheral blood leukocytes or lymphoblastoid cells. In addition to antiviral activity, it activates NATURAL KILLER CELLS and B-LYMPHOCYTES, and down-regulates VASCULAR ENDOTHELIAL GROWTH FACTOR expression through PI-3 KINASE and MAPK KINASES signaling pathways.Viral Load: The quantity of measurable virus in a body fluid. Change in viral load, measured in plasma, is sometimes used as a SURROGATE MARKER in disease progression.Liver Cirrhosis: Liver disease in which the normal microcirculation, the gross vascular anatomy, and the hepatic architecture have been variably destroyed and altered with fibrous septa surrounding regenerated or regenerating parenchymal nodules.Carcinoma, Hepatocellular: A primary malignant neoplasm of epithelial liver cells. It ranges from a well-differentiated tumor with EPITHELIAL CELLS indistinguishable from normal HEPATOCYTES to a poorly differentiated neoplasm. The cells may be uniform or markedly pleomorphic, or form GIANT CELLS. Several classification schemes have been suggested.Infectious Disease Transmission, Vertical: The transmission of infectious disease or pathogens from one generation to another. It includes transmission in utero or intrapartum by exposure to blood and secretions, and postpartum exposure via breastfeeding.Antigens: Substances that are recognized by the immune system and induce an immune reaction.Genotype: The genetic constitution of the individual, comprising the ALLELES present at each GENETIC LOCUS.Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitors: Inhibitors of reverse transcriptase (RNA-DIRECTED DNA POLYMERASE), an enzyme that synthesizes DNA on an RNA template.Drug Resistance, Viral: The ability of viruses to resist or to become tolerant to chemotherapeutic agents or antiviral agents. This resistance is acquired through gene mutation.Liver Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the LIVER.Hepatitis: INFLAMMATION of the LIVER.Pregnancy Complications, Infectious: The co-occurrence of pregnancy and an INFECTION. The infection may precede or follow FERTILIZATION.Nucleosides: Purine or pyrimidine bases attached to a ribose or deoxyribose. (From King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Liver: A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.Hepatitis, Viral, Human: INFLAMMATION of the LIVER in humans due to infection by VIRUSES. There are several significant types of human viral hepatitis with infection caused by enteric-transmission (HEPATITIS A; HEPATITIS E) or blood transfusion (HEPATITIS B; HEPATITIS C; and HEPATITIS D).Hepatitis C, Chronic: INFLAMMATION of the LIVER in humans that is caused by HEPATITIS C VIRUS lasting six months or more. Chronic hepatitis C can lead to LIVER CIRRHOSIS.Virus Replication: The process of intracellular viral multiplication, consisting of the synthesis of PROTEINS; NUCLEIC ACIDS; and sometimes LIPIDS, and their assembly into a new infectious particle.GuanineMolecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Polyethylene Glycols: Polymers of ETHYLENE OXIDE and water, and their ethers. They vary in consistency from liquid to solid depending on the molecular weight indicated by a number following the name. They are used as SURFACTANTS, dispersing agents, solvents, ointment and suppository bases, vehicles, and tablet excipients. Some specific groups are NONOXYNOLS, OCTOXYNOLS, and POLOXAMERS.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Hepatitis A virus: A species in the genus HEPATOVIRUS containing one serotype and two strains: HUMAN HEPATITIS A VIRUS and Simian hepatitis A virus causing hepatitis in humans (HEPATITIS A) and primates, respectively.Hepatitis B Virus, Duck: A DNA virus that closely resembles human hepatitis B virus. It has been recovered from naturally infected ducks.Hepatitis Viruses: Any of the viruses that cause inflammation of the liver. They include both DNA and RNA viruses as well viruses from humans and animals.Treatment Outcome: Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.Recombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.Hepatitis Antibodies: Immunoglobulins raised by any form of viral hepatitis; some of these antibodies are used to diagnose the specific kind of hepatitis.Antigens, Bacterial: Substances elaborated by bacteria that have antigenic activity.Hepacivirus: A genus of FLAVIVIRIDAE causing parenterally-transmitted HEPATITIS C which is associated with transfusions and drug abuse. Hepatitis C virus is the type species.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Hepatitis A Vaccines: Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent infection with hepatitis A virus (HEPATOVIRUS).Chronic Disease: Diseases which have one or more of the following characteristics: they are permanent, leave residual disability, are caused by nonreversible pathological alteration, require special training of the patient for rehabilitation, or may be expected to require a long period of supervision, observation, or care. (Dictionary of Health Services Management, 2d ed)China: A country spanning from central Asia to the Pacific Ocean.Hepatitis C Antibodies: Antibodies to the HEPATITIS C ANTIGENS including antibodies to envelope, core, and non-structural proteins.Antigens, Neoplasm: Proteins, glycoprotein, or lipoprotein moieties on surfaces of tumor cells that are usually identified by monoclonal antibodies. Many of these are of either embryonic or viral origin.Drug Therapy, Combination: Therapy with two or more separate preparations given for a combined effect.Polymerase Chain Reaction: In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.Hepatitis, Viral, Animal: INFLAMMATION of the LIVER in animals due to viral infection.Hepatitis D: INFLAMMATION of the LIVER in humans caused by HEPATITIS DELTA VIRUS, a defective RNA virus that can only infect HEPATITIS B patients. For its viral coating, hepatitis delta virus requires the HEPATITIS B SURFACE ANTIGENS produced by these patients. Hepatitis D can occur either concomitantly with (coinfection) or subsequent to (superinfection) hepatitis B infection. Similar to hepatitis B, it is primarily transmitted by parenteral exposure, such as transfusion of contaminated blood or blood products, but can also be transmitted via sexual or intimate personal contact.Antigens, Surface: Antigens on surfaces of cells, including infectious or foreign cells or viruses. They are usually protein-containing groups on cell membranes or walls and may be isolated.Viral Hepatitis Vaccines: Any vaccine raised against any virus or viral derivative that causes hepatitis.Antigens, Viral: Substances elaborated by viruses that have antigenic activity.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Follow-Up Studies: Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.Hepatitis Delta Virus: A defective virus, containing particles of RNA nucleoprotein in virion-like form, present in patients with acute hepatitis B and chronic hepatitis. It requires the presence of a hepadnavirus for full replication. This is the lone species in the genus Deltavirus.Hepatitis E: Acute INFLAMMATION of the LIVER in humans; caused by HEPATITIS E VIRUS, a non-enveloped single-stranded RNA virus. Similar to HEPATITIS A, its incubation period is 15-60 days and is enterically transmitted, usually by fecal-oral transmission.Hepatitis A Antibodies: Antibodies to the HEPATITIS A ANTIGENS including antibodies to envelope, core, and non-structural proteins.Hepatitis E virus: A positive-stranded RNA virus species in the genus HEPEVIRUS, causing enterically-transmitted non-A, non-B hepatitis (HEPATITIS E).Hepatitis, Autoimmune: A chronic self-perpetuating hepatocellular INFLAMMATION of unknown cause, usually with HYPERGAMMAGLOBULINEMIA and serum AUTOANTIBODIES.Seroepidemiologic Studies: EPIDEMIOLOGIC STUDIES based on the detection through serological testing of characteristic change in the serum level of specific ANTIBODIES. Latent subclinical infections and carrier states can thus be detected in addition to clinically overt cases.Prospective Studies: Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.Retrospective Studies: Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.Hepatitis A Virus, Human: A strain of HEPATITIS A VIRUS which causes hepatitis in humans. The virus replicates in hepatocytes and is presumed to reach the intestine via the bile duct. Transmission occurs by the fecal-oral route.Biological Markers: Measurable and quantifiable biological parameters (e.g., specific enzyme concentration, specific hormone concentration, specific gene phenotype distribution in a population, presence of biological substances) which serve as indices for health- and physiology-related assessments, such as disease risk, psychiatric disorders, environmental exposure and its effects, disease diagnosis, metabolic processes, substance abuse, pregnancy, cell line development, epidemiologic studies, etc.Pregnancy: The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.RNA, Viral: Ribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.Hepatitis, Animal: INFLAMMATION of the LIVER in non-human animals.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Viral Core Proteins: Proteins found mainly in icosahedral DNA and RNA viruses. They consist of proteins directly associated with the nucleic acid inside the NUCLEOCAPSID.Hepatitis B Virus, Woodchuck: An ORTHOHEPADNAVIRUS causing chronic liver disease and hepatocellular carcinoma in woodchucks. It closely resembles the human hepatitis B virus.Hepatitis delta Antigens: Antigens produced by various strains of HEPATITIS D VIRUS.Antibodies, Viral: Immunoglobulins produced in response to VIRAL ANTIGENS.Hepatitis C Antigens: Antigens of the virions of HEPACIVIRUS, their surface, core, or other associated antigens.

Core promoter mutations and genotypes in relation to viral replication and liver damage in East Asian hepatitis B virus carriers. (1/743)

Virus load and liver damage, as measured by quantitative polymerase chain reaction and histology activity index, were related to genotype and core promoter mutations in 43 chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) carriers of East Asian origin. T-1762 mutants were more frequent in genotype C strains and were associated with more inflammation (P=.0036) and fibrosis (P=.0088) of the liver but not with hepatitis B e antigen (HBeAg) status or virus load. Conversely, precore mutations were associated with less liver inflammation (P=. 08), which was linked to HBeAg negativity and lower viral replication. Carriers with genotype C were more often HBeAg positive (P=.03) with precore wild type strains and more-severe liver inflammation (P=.009) than were those with genotype B. These findings suggest that pathogenic differences between genotypes may exist and that the T-1762 mutation may be useful as a marker for progressive liver damage but seem to contradict that down-regulation of HBeAg production is the major effect of this mutation.  (+info)

Hepatitis B vaccination in high-risk infants: 10-year follow-up. (2/743)

The long-term efficacy of hepatitis B vaccination among high-risk infants was determined in 805 vaccine responders, immunized at birth in Taiwan during 1981-1984 and followed to age 10 years, via life table survival and Cox multivariate analyses. At 10 years, cumulative persistence of antibody to hepatitis B surface antigen (anti-HBs) was 85%, and cumulative incidence of hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection was 15%. Three children became carriers. Twelve-month anti-HBs titer was the strongest predictor of efficacy. The higher the initial titer, the lower the risk of anti-HBs loss (relative risk [RR], 0.26 for titer of 100-999 mIU/mL; RR, 0.08 for titer >1000 mIU/mL; P<.001) and HBV infection (RR, 0.55 and 0.27; P<.05). Maternal hepatitis B e antigen positivity but not hepatitis B immunoglobulin dose or gender predicted greater antibody persistence to age 10 years. Because the level of antibody persistence remained high and few became carriers, booster revaccination within 10 years seems unnecessary.  (+info)

Quantitative analysis of hepatitis B virus precore mutant in hepatitis type B. (3/743)

Active liver disease has been detected in chronic hepatitis B after seroconversion from positive HBe antigen to positive anti-HBe antibody. Active replication of HB virus (HBV) containing a precore stop-codon mutation has been implicated in this condition. The usual methods, such as direct sequencing, to characterize the responsible mutant of HBV are not suitable for routine clinical use. Here we employed the competitive mutation site specific assay (CMSSA) to detect precore mutant HBV-DNA in patients with positive HB surface antigen. In patients with HBe antigen, precore mutant HBV-DNA was significantly higher than in patients with HBe antibody. The level of precore mutant HBV-DNA in patients with elevated serum ALT was significantly higher than in patients with normal serum ALT. Sex, age and the level of serum HBV-associated DNA polymerase levels were not correlated with levels of precore mutant HBV-DNA. Ten of 11 negative patients for the precore mutant by polymerase chain reaction followed by restriction fragment length polymorphism assay (PCRRFLP) were positive for the precore mutant by CMSSA. These results suggest that the precore mutant has already emerged in the HBeAg-positive phase as determined by CMSSA, which is more sensitive than PCR-RFLP and is useful for evaluating the clinical course of patients with chronic hepatitis B.  (+info)

Hepatitis B surface antigen disappearance and hepatitis B surface antigen subtype: a prospective, long-term, follow-up study of Japanese residents of Okinawa, Japan with chronic hepatitis B virus infection. (4/743)

To determine the natural course of hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) disappearance in chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection and the factors related to its disappearance, 946 HBsAg carriers in Okinawa, Japan were prospectively followed for up to 19 years (mean = 9.2 years). The disappearance of HBsAg, as determined by radioimmunoassay (RIA), was observed in 62 (6.6%) and the overall annual disappearance rate was 0.79%/year. Its disappearance was more frequent in 60 (7.4%) of 815 serum samples negative for hepatitis B e antigen (HBeAg) by RIA at entry compared with only two (1.5%) of 131 serum samples that were HBeAg positive by RIA at entry (P < 0.05). Stepwise logistic regression analysis showed that age and HBsAg subtype were significantly associated with HBsAg disappearance (both P < 0.05), and that carriers with subtype adr (odds ratio = 2.87) had an increased probability of clearing HBsAg compared with carriers with subtype adw. Conversely, HBeAg disappearance was earlier in those with the adw subtype than in those with adr. Hepatitis B virus DNA was not detected by the polymerase chain reaction after HBsAg disappearance in any of the 62 from whom it had disappeared. The HBsAg titer, as measured by reverse passive hemagglutination, was related to the time to its disappearance; the higher the titer, the longer the time to disappearance. These findings suggest that HBeAg negativity, a more advanced age, and low titers of HBsAg are favorable factors for HBsAg disappearance in the natural course of chronic HBV infection. Moreover, HBsAg subtype adr was a predictive factor for HBsAg disappearance, whereas subtype adw was predictive of early HBeAg disappearance.  (+info)

Specific vaccine therapy in chronic hepatitis B: induction of T cell proliferative responses specific for envelope antigens. (5/743)

In a pilot study, it was established that specific therapy by standard anti-hepatitis B virus (HBV) vaccination may be effective in reducing HBV replication and canceling the immune tolerance to hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) particles in about 50% of persons with chronic active HBV replication. In the present study, the vaccine-induced immune responses were analyzed during an ongoing controlled multicenter vaccine trial. Vaccination elicited peripheral blood mononuclear cell proliferative responses specific for envelope antigen in 7 of 27 subjects given HBsAg. The responses induced by the vaccines were mediated by CD4+ T lymphocytes, and at least three different epitopes were recognized. HBV-specific CD4+ T lymphocytes produced high levels of interferon-gamma [corrected] and belonged to a T helper 1 subset. Reduction of serum HBV DNA in some of these persons suggests that induction of CD4+ T cell responses could be important in controlling viremia during vaccine therapy of chronic HBV carriers.  (+info)

Combinatorial screening and intracellular antiviral activity of hairpin ribozymes directed against hepatitis B virus. (6/743)

A combinatorial screening method has been used to identify hairpin ribozymes that inhibit hepatitis B virus (HBV) replication in transfected human hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cells. A hairpin ribozyme library (5 x 10(5) variants) containing a randomized substrate-binding domain was used to identify accessible target sites within 3.3 kb of full-length in vitro-transcribed HBV pregenomic RNA. Forty potential target sites were found within the HBV pregenomic RNA, and 17 sites conserved in all four subtypes of HBV were chosen for intracellular inhibition experiments. Polymerase II and III promoter expression constructs for corresponding hairpin ribozymes were generated and cotransfected into HCC cells together with a replication-competent dimer of HBV DNA. Four ribozymes inhibited HBV replication by 80, 69, 66, and 49%, respectively, while catalytically inactive mutant forms of these ribozymes affected HBV replication by 36, 28, 0, and 0%. These findings indicate that the inhibitory effects on HBV replication were largely mediated by the catalytic activity of the ribozymes. In conclusion, we have identified catalytically active RNAs by combinatorial screening that mediate intracellular antiviral effects on HBV.  (+info)

Markedly high seroprevalence of hepatitis B virus infection in comparison to hepatitis C virus and human T lymphotropic virus type-1 infections in selected Solomon Islands populations. (7/743)

To determine the prevalences of hepatitis B virus (HBV), hepatitis C virus (HCV), and human T lymphotropic virus type-1 (HTLV-1) infections in residents of the Solomon Islands, we surveyed 1,610 serum samples from 1,113 outpatients and 497 healthy volunteer blood donors at the Central Hospital in Honiara, the Solomon Islands. The prevalence of hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) by radioimmunoassay (RIA) (n = 315, 19.6%) was significantly different from that of antibody to HCV (anti-HCV) by a second-generation enzyme immunoassay (EIA) (n = 4, 0.2%) and antibody to HTLV-1 (anti-HTLV-1) by an ELISA with Western blot analysis to verify the positivity (n = 49, 3.0%) (P < 0.0001, respectively). There were no significant differences in the prevalences of these markers between outpatients and blood donors. Hepatitis B e antigen (HBeAg) was detected by RIA in 130 (41.3%) of 315 HBsAg-positive samples. The distribution of HBsAg subtypes by EIA was 190 adr (60.3%), 111 ayw (35.2%), and 14 (0.4%) other subtypes. The HBeAg prevalence decreased with age in all groups for each subtype. There were no significant differences in the prevalence of HBeAg among HBsAg subtypes. We conclude that HBV infection is highly endemic in selected Solomon Islands populations, and that the high prevalence of HBeAg may be associated with the spread of HBV infection there.  (+info)

Dual efficacy of lamivudine treatment in human immunodeficiency virus/hepatitis B virus-coinfected persons in a randomized, controlled study (CAESAR). The CAESAR Coordinating Committee. (8/743)

The efficacy and safety of lamivudine in persons coinfected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) type 1 and hepatitis B virus (HBV) were examined in the CAESAR study, a randomized placebo-controlled trial assessing the addition of lamivudine (150 mg 2x/day) or lamivudine (150 mg 2x/day) plus loviride (100 mg 3x/day) to zidovudine-containing background antiretroviral treatment. Baseline hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) results were available for 1790 study subjects, of whom 122 (6.8%) tested positive. Retrospective analyses for serial HBV DNA, HBsAg, and hepatitis B e antigen (HBeAg) were performed on stored sera from 118 HBsAg-positive subjects. HBV DNA and HBeAg were present in 83% and 63%, respectively. At weeks 12 and 52, median log10 HBV DNA change was -2.0 and -2.7, respectively, in the lamivudine arms, compared with no reduction among placebo recipients (P<.001). A trend to lower alanine transferase level, and delayed progression of HIV-1 disease (relative hazard, 0.26; 95% confidence interval, 0.08-0.80) were also seen in the lamivudine arms, compared with the placebo group.  (+info)

  • The recombinant retrovirus was examined for its capacity to transmit resistance to the antibiotic, G418, and to express hepatitis B virus antigens in mouse NIH 3T3 fibroblasts, human primary skin fibroblasts, and Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-transformed B lymphocytes. (elsevier.com)
  • The International Immunodiagnostics HDV Ab assay is a competitive enzyme immunoassay (ELISA) for the determination of antibodies to Hepatitis D Virus or HDV in human plasma and sera with a 'two step" methodology. (cdc.gov)
  • This feature of the e antigen provides an assay system for laboratory diagnosis of potential clinical usefulness and suggests its possible role in pathogenesis of hepatocellular injury. (sciencemag.org)
  • The review, published in Annals of Internal Medicine on 20 June , compared the sensitivity and specificity of 5 commercially available tests for hepatitis C core antigen compared to nucleic acid testing for HCV RNA. (hivandhepatitis.com)
  • In this study HCV core-antigen testing on the Architect platform displayed high sensitivity (100%) and specificity (97.96%) in diagnosing acute HCV in HIV-infected individuals who experience elevated transaminases. (natap.org)
  • Yamagiwa S, Kamimura H, Takamura M, Genda T, Ichida T, Nomoto M, Aoyagi Y. Presence of Antibodies against Self Human Leukocyte Antigen Class II Molecules in Autoimmune Hepatitis. (medsci.org)
  • 1 2 3 Therefore, a multicentre study was designed in 1982 to determine whether efficient organisation of screening for hepatitis B could be set up in and outside hospital by adding tests for hepatitis B surface antigen to the already accepted and widely used protocol for routine antenatal screening at 14 weeks of gestation. (bmj.com)
  • Tapasin along with the transporter associated with antigen processing (TAP), ERp57 and calreticulin form the peptide loading complex (PLC), which loads viral peptides onto HLA class I. Tapasin binds to HLA class I and is thought to assist in the dissociation of peptides which bind with low affinity. (nih.gov)
  • All six cases of clinically symptomatic hepatitis were associated with infliximab therapy. (springer.com)