The hepatitis B antigen within the core of the Dane particle, the infectious hepatitis virion.
Antibodies to the HEPATITIS B ANTIGENS, including antibodies to the surface (Australia) and core of the Dane particle and those to the "e" antigens.
INFLAMMATION of the LIVER in humans caused by a member of the ORTHOHEPADNAVIRUS genus, HEPATITIS B VIRUS. It is primarily transmitted by parenteral exposure, such as transfusion of contaminated blood or blood products, but can also be transmitted via sexual or intimate personal contact.
Those hepatitis B antigens found on the surface of the Dane particle and on the 20 nm spherical and tubular particles. Several subspecificities of the surface antigen are known. These were formerly called the Australia antigen.
The type species of the genus ORTHOHEPADNAVIRUS which causes human HEPATITIS B and is also apparently a causal agent in human HEPATOCELLULAR CARCINOMA. The Dane particle is an intact hepatitis virion, named after its discoverer. Non-infectious spherical and tubular particles are also seen in the serum.
Antigens of the virion of the HEPATITIS B VIRUS or the Dane particle, its surface (HEPATITIS B SURFACE ANTIGENS), core (HEPATITIS B CORE ANTIGENS), and other associated antigens, including the HEPATITIS B E ANTIGENS.
A closely related group of antigens found in the plasma only during the infective phase of hepatitis B or in virulent chronic hepatitis B, probably indicating active virus replication; there are three subtypes which may exist in a complex with immunoglobulins G.
Vaccines or candidate vaccines containing inactivated hepatitis B or some of its component antigens and designed to prevent hepatitis B. Some vaccines may be recombinantly produced.
INFLAMMATION of the LIVER in humans caused by HEPATITIS B VIRUS lasting six months or more. It is primarily transmitted by parenteral exposure, such as transfusion of contaminated blood or blood products, but can also be transmitted via sexual or intimate personal contact.
INFLAMMATION of the LIVER in humans caused by HEPATITIS C VIRUS, a single-stranded RNA virus. Its incubation period is 30-90 days. Hepatitis C is transmitted primarily by contaminated blood parenterally, and is often associated with transfusion and intravenous drug abuse. However, in a significant number of cases, the source of hepatitis C infection is unknown.
The condition of harboring an infective organism without manifesting symptoms of infection. The organism must be readily transmissible to another susceptible host.
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.
Immunoglobulins raised by any form of viral hepatitis; some of these antibodies are used to diagnose the specific kind of hepatitis.
INFLAMMATION of the LIVER with ongoing hepatocellular injury for 6 months or more, characterized by NECROSIS of HEPATOCYTES and inflammatory cell (LEUKOCYTES) infiltration. Chronic hepatitis can be caused by viruses, medications, autoimmune diseases, and other unknown factors.
A class of immunoglobulin bearing mu chains (IMMUNOGLOBULIN MU-CHAINS). IgM can fix COMPLEMENT. The name comes from its high molecular weight and originally being called a macroglobulin.
Classic quantitative assay for detection of antigen-antibody reactions using a radioactively labeled substance (radioligand) either directly or indirectly to measure the binding of the unlabeled substance to a specific antibody or other receptor system. Non-immunogenic substances (e.g., haptens) can be measured if coupled to larger carrier proteins (e.g., bovine gamma-globulin or human serum albumin) capable of inducing antibody formation.
EPIDEMIOLOGIC STUDIES based on the detection through serological testing of characteristic change in the serum level of specific ANTIBODIES. Latent subclinical infections and carrier states can thus be detected in addition to clinically overt cases.
Immunoglobulins produced in response to VIRAL ANTIGENS.
Immunologic techniques based on the use of: (1) enzyme-antibody conjugates; (2) enzyme-antigen conjugates; (3) antienzyme antibody followed by its homologous enzyme; or (4) enzyme-antienzyme complexes. These are used histologically for visualizing or labeling tissue specimens.
Antibodies to the HEPATITIS C ANTIGENS including antibodies to envelope, core, and non-structural proteins.
A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.
INFLAMMATION of the LIVER in humans caused by a member of the HEPATOVIRUS genus, HUMAN HEPATITIS A VIRUS. It can be transmitted through fecal contamination of food or water.
An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed.
Sites on an antigen that interact with specific antibodies.
Liver disease in which the normal microcirculation, the gross vascular anatomy, and the hepatic architecture have been variably destroyed and altered with fibrous septa surrounding regenerated or regenerating parenchymal nodules.
INFLAMMATION of the LIVER in humans due to infection by VIRUSES. There are several significant types of human viral hepatitis with infection caused by enteric-transmission (HEPATITIS A; HEPATITIS E) or blood transfusion (HEPATITIS B; HEPATITIS C; and HEPATITIS D).
Antigens of the virions of HEPACIVIRUS, their surface, core, or other associated antigens.
The total number of cases of a given disease in a specified population at a designated time. It is differentiated from INCIDENCE, which refers to the number of new cases in the population at a given time.
Substances that are recognized by the immune system and induce an immune reaction.
A reverse transcriptase inhibitor and ZALCITABINE analog in which a sulfur atom replaces the 3' carbon of the pentose ring. It is used to treat HIV disease.
Proteins found mainly in icosahedral DNA and RNA viruses. They consist of proteins directly associated with the nucleic acid inside the NUCLEOCAPSID.
Diseases which have one or more of the following characteristics: they are permanent, leave residual disability, are caused by nonreversible pathological alteration, require special training of the patient for rehabilitation, or may be expected to require a long period of supervision, observation, or care. (Dictionary of Health Services Management, 2d ed)
INFLAMMATION of the LIVER in humans that is caused by HEPATITIS C VIRUS lasting six months or more. Chronic hepatitis C can lead to LIVER CIRRHOSIS.
Disease having a short and relatively severe course.
A genus of FLAVIVIRIDAE causing parenterally-transmitted HEPATITIS C which is associated with transfusions and drug abuse. Hepatitis C virus is the type species.
Agents used in the prophylaxis or therapy of VIRUS DISEASES. Some of the ways they may act include preventing viral replication by inhibiting viral DNA polymerase; binding to specific cell-surface receptors and inhibiting viral penetration or uncoating; inhibiting viral protein synthesis; or blocking late stages of virus assembly.
Any of the viruses that cause inflammation of the liver. They include both DNA and RNA viruses as well viruses from humans and animals.
A DNA virus that closely resembles human hepatitis B virus. It has been recovered from naturally infected ducks.
A species in the genus HEPATOVIRUS containing one serotype and two strains: HUMAN HEPATITIS A VIRUS and Simian hepatitis A virus causing hepatitis in humans (HEPATITIS A) and primates, respectively.
The transference of a part of or an entire liver from one human or animal to another.
A primary malignant neoplasm of epithelial liver cells. It ranges from a well-differentiated tumor with EPITHELIAL CELLS indistinguishable from normal HEPATOCYTES to a poorly differentiated neoplasm. The cells may be uniform or markedly pleomorphic, or form GIANT CELLS. Several classification schemes have been suggested.
INFLAMMATION of the LIVER in animals due to viral infection.
An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.
Substances elaborated by viruses that have antigenic activity.
Any vaccine raised against any virus or viral derivative that causes hepatitis.
Substances elaborated by bacteria that have antigenic activity.
Tumors or cancer of the LIVER.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent infection with hepatitis A virus (HEPATOVIRUS).
Individuals supplying living tissue, organs, cells, blood or blood components for transfer or transplantation to histocompatible recipients.

Complement fixing hepatitis B core antigen immune complexes in the liver of patients with HBs antigen positive chronic disease. (1/729)

One hundred and fifty-two biopsies from serologically HBsAg positive and negative patients with liver disease were studied in immunofluorescence: for the presence of the surface (HBs) and the core (HBc) antigenic determinants foeterminants of the hepatitis B virus, of immunoglobulins and complement (C) deposits, and for the capacity to fix human C. Circumstantial evidence is presented suggesting that HBc immune-complexes are a relevant feature in the establishment and progression of chronic HBSAg liver disease. C fixation by liver cells was shown in all HBC positive patients with chronic hepatitis; an active form was present in every case, except two with a persistent hepatitis, an inverse ratio of HBc to C binding fluorescence being noted between active chronic hepatitis and cirrhotic patients. HBc without C fixation was observed in only three patients in the incubation phase of infectious hepatitis. IgG deposits were often found in HBc containing, C fixing nuclei. No C binding or IgG deposits were observed in acute self-limited type B hepatitis, in serologically positive patients with normal liver or minimal histological lesions, with and without HBs cytoplasmic fluorescence in their biopsy, or in serologically negative individuals.  (+info)

Native display of complete foreign protein domains on the surface of hepatitis B virus capsids. (2/729)

The nucleocapsid of hepatitis B virus (HBV), or HBcAg, is a highly symmetric structure formed by multiple dimers of a single core protein that contains potent T helper epitopes in its 183-aa sequence. Both factors make HBcAg an unusually strong immunogen and an attractive candidate as a carrier for foreign epitopes. The immunodominant c/e1 epitope on the capsid has been suggested as a superior location to convey high immunogenicity to a heterologous sequence. Because of its central position, however, any c/e1 insert disrupts the core protein's primary sequence; hence, only peptides, or rather small protein fragments seemed to be compatible with particle formation. According to recent structural data, the epitope is located at the tips of prominent surface spikes formed by the very stable dimer interfaces. We therefore reasoned that much larger inserts might be tolerated, provided the individual parts of a corresponding fusion protein could fold independently. Using the green fluorescent protein (GFP) as a model insert, we show that the chimeric protein efficiently forms fluorescent particles; hence, all of its structurally important parts must be properly folded. We also demonstrate that the GFP domains are surface-exposed and that the chimeric particles elicit a potent humoral response against native GFP. Hence, proteins of at least up to 238 aa can be natively displayed on the surface of HBV core particles. Such chimeras may not only be useful as vaccines but may also open the way for high resolution structural analyses of nonassembling proteins by electron microscopy.  (+info)

Phosphorylation-dependent binding of hepatitis B virus core particles to the nuclear pore complex. (3/729)

Although many viruses replicate in the nucleus, little is known about the processes involved in the nuclear import of viral genomes. We show here that in vitro generated core particles of human hepatitis B virus bind to nuclear pore complexes (NPCs) in digitonin-permeabilized mammalian cells. This only occurred if the cores contained phosphorylated core proteins. Binding was inhibited by wheat germ agglutinin, by antinuclear pore complex antibodies, and by peptides corresponding either to classical nuclear localization signals (NLS) or to COOH-terminal sequences of the core protein. Binding was dependent on the nuclear transport factors importins (karyopherins) alpha and beta. The results suggested that phosphorylation induces exposure of NLS in the COOH-terminal portion of the core protein that allows core binding to the NPCs by the importin- (karyopherin-) mediated pathway. Thus, phosphorylation of the core protein emerged as an important step in the viral replication cycle necessary for transport of the viral genome to the nucleus.  (+info)

Viral clearance without destruction of infected cells during acute HBV infection. (4/729)

Viral clearance during hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection has been thought to reflect the destruction of infected hepatocytes by CD8(+) T lymphocytes. However, in this study, HBV DNA was shown to largely disappear from the liver and the blood of acutely infected chimpanzees long before the peak of T cell infiltration and most of the liver disease. These results demonstrate that noncytopathic antiviral mechanisms contribute to viral clearance during acute viral hepatitis by purging HBV replicative intermediates from the cytoplasm and covalently closed circular viral DNA from the nucleus of infected cells.  (+info)

A recombinant measles virus expressing hepatitis B virus surface antigen induces humoral immune responses in genetically modified mice. (5/729)

It has been shown previously that measles virus (MV) can be successfully used to express foreign proteins (M. Singh and M. A. Billeter, J. Gen. Virol. 80:101-106, 1998). To develop an inexpensive MV-based vaccine, we generated recombinant MVs that produce structural proteins of hepatitis B virus (HBV). A recombinant virus that expressed the HBV small surface antigen (HBsAg) was analyzed in terms of its replication characteristics, its genetic stability in cell culture, and its immunogenic potential in genetically modified mice. Although this virus showed a progression of replication slightly slower than that of the parental MV, it appeared to stably maintain the added genetic information; it uniformly expressed the appropriately glycosylated HBsAg after 10 serial passages. Genetically modified mice inoculated with this recombinant MV produced humoral immune responses against both HBsAg and MV proteins.  (+info)

Detection of core antibody in hepatitis B infection. (6/729)

Hepatitis B core antigen (HBcAg) is found on the decoated Dane particle and on a morphologically similar particle detected mainly in the nucleus of hepatocytes of patients with hepatitis B. HBcAg prepared from the liver of a chimpanzee infected with hepatitis B virus was used to test human serum for core antibody (anti-HBc) by complement fixation. Anti-HBc was found in serum collected from patients with hepatitis B in both the acute and convalescent stages, from carriers of hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) and from patients with chronic liver or renal disease who were carriers of HBsAg. It was not found in patients with hepatitis A or infectious mononucleosis, or in healthy persons who were not carriers of HBsAg.  (+info)

The mechanism of an immature secretion phenotype of a highly frequent naturally occurring missense mutation at codon 97 of human hepatitis B virus core antigen. (7/729)

A very frequent missense mutation at codon 97 of human hepatitis B virus (HBV) core antigen (HBcAg) has been found in chronic carriers worldwide. Functional characterization of this mutant revealed one intracellular and two extracellular phenotypes in contrast to wild-type HBV: (i) a 6- to 12-fold decrease in the level of the full-length relaxed circular DNA, a 4- to 5-fold decrease in the plus-strand DNA, and an approximately 1.8-fold decrease in the minus-strand and overall DNA levels in the intracellular viral core particles; (ii) a 5.7-fold increase in the immature secretion of Dane particles, containing minus-strand, single-stranded virion DNA; and (iii) a significant reduction of nonenveloped core particles in the medium. The steady-state levels of mutant and wild-type core proteins expressed from the same vector appeared to be similar. Using a complementation assay and gradient centrifugation analysis, we demonstrated that this mutant core protein alone is necessary and sufficient for immature secretion. The decreased level of intracellular HBV DNA is caused by both the cis defect of the mutant genome and the trans defect of the mutant core protein. We have dissected further the relationship between the intracellular and extracellular phenotypes of mutant F97L. The pleiotropic effects of the HBcAg codon 97 mutation were observed consistently in several different experimental settings. The mechanism and biological significance of these findings are discussed.  (+info)

Occult hepatitis B virus infection in patients with chronic hepatitis C liver disease. (8/729)

BACKGROUND: Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infections in patients who lack detectable hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) are called occult infections. Although such infections have been identified in patients with chronic hepatitis C liver disease, their prevalence and clinical significance are not known. METHODS: With the polymerase chain reaction, we searched for HBV DNA in liver and serum samples from 200 HBsAg-negative patients with hepatitis C virus (HCV)-related liver disease (147 with chronic hepatitis, 48 with cirrhosis, and 5 with minimal histologic changes). One hundred of the patients had detectable antibodies to the HBV core antigen (anti-HBc); 100 were negative for all HBV markers. Eighty-three were treated with interferon alfa. We also studied 50 patients with liver disease who were negative both for HBsAg and for HCV markers. In six patients found to have occult HBV infection, we evaluated possible genomic rearrangements through cloning or direct sequencing procedures. RESULTS: Sixty-six of the 200 patients with chronic hepatitis C liver disease (33 percent) had HBV sequences, as did 7 of the 50 patients with liver disease unrelated to hepatitis C (14 percent, P=0.01). Among the 66 patients, 46 were anti-HBc-positive and 20 were negative for all HBV markers (P<0.001). Twenty-two of these 66 patients (33 percent) had cirrhosis, as compared with 26 of the 134 patients with hepatitis C infection but no HBV sequences (19 percent, P=0.04). HBV sequences were detected in 26 of the 55 patients in whom interferon therapy was ineffective and 7 of the 28 patients in whom interferon therapy was effective (P=0.06). None of the sequenced HBV genomes had changes known to interfere with viral activity and gene expression. CONCLUSIONS: Occult hepatitis B infection occurs frequently in patients with chronic hepatitis C liver disease and may have clinical significance.  (+info)

The symptoms of hepatitis B can range from mild to severe and may include fatigue, loss of appetite, nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain, dark urine, pale stools, joint pain, and jaundice (yellowing of the skin and eyes). In some cases, hepatitis B can be asymptomatic, meaning that individuals may not experience any symptoms at all.

Hepatitis B is diagnosed through blood tests that detect the presence of HBV antigens or antibodies in the body. Treatment for acute hepatitis B typically involves rest, hydration, and medication to manage symptoms, while chronic hepatitis B may require ongoing therapy with antiviral drugs to suppress the virus and prevent liver damage.

Preventive measures for hepatitis B include vaccination, which is recommended for individuals at high risk of infection, such as healthcare workers, sexually active individuals, and those traveling to areas where HBV is common. In addition, safe sex practices, avoiding sharing of needles or other bodily fluids, and proper sterilization of medical equipment can help reduce the risk of transmission.

Overall, hepatitis B is a serious infection that can have long-term consequences for liver health, and it is important to take preventive measures and seek medical attention if symptoms persist or worsen over time.

A persistent infection with the hepatitis B virus (HBV) that can lead to liver cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. HBV is a bloodborne pathogen and can be spread through contact with infected blood, sexual contact, or vertical transmission from mother to child during childbirth.

Chronic hepatitis B is characterized by the presence of HBsAg in the blood for more than 6 months, indicating that the virus is still present in the liver. The disease can be asymptomatic or symptomatic, with symptoms such as fatigue, malaise, loss of appetite, nausea, vomiting, joint pain, and jaundice.

Chronic hepatitis B is diagnosed through serological tests such as HBsAg, anti-HBc, and HBV DNA. Treatment options include interferon alpha and nucleos(t)ide analogues, which can slow the progression of the disease but do not cure it.

Prevention strategies for chronic hepatitis B include vaccination with hepatitis B vaccine, which is effective in preventing acute and chronic HBV infection, as well as avoidance of risky behaviors such as unprotected sex and sharing of needles.

There are several types of hepatitis C, including genotype 1, which is the most common and accounts for approximately 70% of cases in the United States. Other genotypes include 2, 3, 4, 5, and 6. The symptoms of hepatitis C can range from mild to severe and may include fatigue, fever, loss of appetite, nausea, vomiting, joint pain, jaundice (yellowing of the skin and eyes), dark urine, pale stools, and itching all over the body. Some people with hepatitis C may not experience any symptoms at all.

Hepatitis C is diagnosed through a combination of blood tests that detect the presence of antibodies against HCV or the virus itself. Treatment typically involves a combination of medications, including interferon and ribavirin, which can cure the infection but may have side effects such as fatigue, nausea, and depression. In recent years, new drugs known as direct-acting antivirals (DAAs) have become available, which can cure the infection with fewer side effects and in a shorter period of time.

Prevention measures for hepatitis C include avoiding sharing needles or other drug paraphernalia, using condoms to prevent sexual transmission, and ensuring that any tattoos or piercings are performed with sterilized equipment. Vaccines are also available for people who are at high risk of contracting the virus, such as healthcare workers and individuals who engage in high-risk behaviors.

Overall, hepatitis C is a serious and common liver disease that can lead to significant health complications if left untreated. Fortunately, with advances in medical technology and treatment options, it is possible to manage and cure the virus with proper care and attention.

Hepatitis, chronic is a type of liver disease that is characterized by inflammation and damage to the liver, which can lead to scarring, cirrhosis, and potentially liver failure. It is caused by a variety of factors, including viral infections (such as hepatitis B and C), alcohol consumption, and autoimmune disorders.

Chronic hepatitis can be challenging to diagnose, as its symptoms are often nonspecific and may resemble those of other conditions. However, some common signs and symptoms include:

* Fatigue
* Loss of appetite
* Nausea and vomiting
* Abdominal pain
* Yellowing of the skin and eyes (jaundice)
* Dark urine
* Pale stools

If left untreated, chronic hepatitis can lead to serious complications, such as liver failure, liver cancer, and esophageal varices. Treatment options for chronic hepatitis depend on the underlying cause and may include medications, lifestyle changes, and in severe cases, liver transplantation.

Preventing Chronic Hepatitis:

While some forms of chronic hepatitis are incurable, there are steps you can take to prevent the development of this condition or slow its progression. These include:

* Avoiding alcohol or drinking in moderation
* Maintaining a healthy diet and lifestyle
* Getting vaccinated against hepatitis A and B
* Practicing safe sex to avoid sexually transmitted infections (STIs)
* Avoiding sharing needles or other drug-injecting equipment
* Seeking medical attention if you suspect you have been exposed to hepatitis

Managing Chronic Hepatitis:

If you have chronic hepatitis, managing the condition is crucial to prevent complications and improve quality of life. This may involve:

* Medications to treat the underlying cause of the hepatitis (e.g., antiviral drugs for hepatitis B or C)
* Lifestyle changes, such as avoiding alcohol and maintaining a healthy diet
* Regular monitoring of liver function and viral load
* In some cases, liver transplantation

Living with Chronic Hepatitis:

Living with chronic hepatitis can be challenging, but there are resources available to help you cope. These may include:

* Support groups for people with hepatitis and their families
* Counseling to address emotional and mental health concerns
* Educational resources to help you understand the condition and its management
* Legal assistance to navigate insurance and disability benefits


Chronic hepatitis is a complex and multifactorial condition that can have serious consequences if left untreated. However, with early diagnosis, appropriate treatment, and lifestyle changes, it is possible to manage the condition and improve quality of life. By understanding the causes, symptoms, diagnosis, and management of chronic hepatitis, you can take an active role in your healthcare and make informed decisions about your care.

Hepatitis A is typically spread through contaminated food and water or through close contact with someone who has the infection. The virus can also be spread through sexual contact or sharing of needles.

Symptoms of hepatitis A usually appear two to six weeks after exposure and can last for several weeks or months. In some cases, the infection can lead to complications such as liver failure, which can be life-threatening.

There is a vaccine available for hepatitis A, which is recommended for individuals traveling to areas where the virus is common, people who engage in high-risk behaviors, and those with chronic liver disease. Treatment for hepatitis A typically focuses on relieving symptoms and supporting the liver as it recovers. In severe cases, hospitalization may be necessary.

Preventive measures to reduce the risk of hepatitis A infection include maintaining good hygiene practices, such as washing hands frequently, especially before eating or preparing food; avoiding consumption of raw or undercooked shellfish, particularly oysters; and avoiding close contact with people who have the infection.

The condition can be caused by a variety of factors, including excessive alcohol consumption, viral hepatitis, non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, and certain medications. It can also be a complication of other diseases such as hemochromatosis and Wilson's disease.

The symptoms of liver cirrhosis can vary depending on the severity of the disease, but may include fatigue, loss of appetite, nausea, abdominal swelling, and pain in the upper right side of the abdomen. As the disease progresses, it can lead to complications such as esophageal varices, ascites, and liver failure, which can be life-threatening.

There is no cure for liver cirrhosis, but treatment options are available to manage the symptoms and slow the progression of the disease. These may include medications to control swelling and pain, dietary changes, and in severe cases, liver transplantation. In some cases, a liver transplant may be necessary if the disease has caused significant damage and there is no other option to save the patient's life.

In conclusion, liver cirrhosis is a serious and potentially life-threatening condition that can cause significant damage to the liver and lead to complications such as liver failure. It is important for individuals to be aware of the risk factors and symptoms of the disease in order to seek medical attention if they suspect they may have liver cirrhosis. With proper treatment and management, it is possible to slow the progression of the disease and improve the patient's quality of life.

Note: This definition may have some variations in different contexts and medical fields.

The burden of chronic diseases is significant, with over 70% of deaths worldwide attributed to them, according to the World Health Organization (WHO). In addition to the physical and emotional toll they take on individuals and their families, chronic diseases also pose a significant economic burden, accounting for a large proportion of healthcare expenditure.

In this article, we will explore the definition and impact of chronic diseases, as well as strategies for managing and living with them. We will also discuss the importance of early detection and prevention, as well as the role of healthcare providers in addressing the needs of individuals with chronic diseases.

What is a Chronic Disease?

A chronic disease is a condition that lasts for an extended period of time, often affecting daily life and activities. Unlike acute diseases, which have a specific beginning and end, chronic diseases are long-term and persistent. Examples of chronic diseases include:

1. Diabetes
2. Heart disease
3. Arthritis
4. Asthma
5. Cancer
6. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD)
7. Chronic kidney disease (CKD)
8. Hypertension
9. Osteoporosis
10. Stroke

Impact of Chronic Diseases

The burden of chronic diseases is significant, with over 70% of deaths worldwide attributed to them, according to the WHO. In addition to the physical and emotional toll they take on individuals and their families, chronic diseases also pose a significant economic burden, accounting for a large proportion of healthcare expenditure.

Chronic diseases can also have a significant impact on an individual's quality of life, limiting their ability to participate in activities they enjoy and affecting their relationships with family and friends. Moreover, the financial burden of chronic diseases can lead to poverty and reduce economic productivity, thus having a broader societal impact.

Addressing Chronic Diseases

Given the significant burden of chronic diseases, it is essential that we address them effectively. This requires a multi-faceted approach that includes:

1. Lifestyle modifications: Encouraging healthy behaviors such as regular physical activity, a balanced diet, and smoking cessation can help prevent and manage chronic diseases.
2. Early detection and diagnosis: Identifying risk factors and detecting diseases early can help prevent or delay their progression.
3. Medication management: Effective medication management is crucial for controlling symptoms and slowing disease progression.
4. Multi-disciplinary care: Collaboration between healthcare providers, patients, and families is essential for managing chronic diseases.
5. Health promotion and disease prevention: Educating individuals about the risks of chronic diseases and promoting healthy behaviors can help prevent their onset.
6. Addressing social determinants of health: Social determinants such as poverty, education, and employment can have a significant impact on health outcomes. Addressing these factors is essential for reducing health disparities and improving overall health.
7. Investing in healthcare infrastructure: Investing in healthcare infrastructure, technology, and research is necessary to improve disease detection, diagnosis, and treatment.
8. Encouraging policy change: Policy changes can help create supportive environments for healthy behaviors and reduce the burden of chronic diseases.
9. Increasing public awareness: Raising public awareness about the risks and consequences of chronic diseases can help individuals make informed decisions about their health.
10. Providing support for caregivers: Chronic diseases can have a significant impact on family members and caregivers, so providing them with support is essential for improving overall health outcomes.


Chronic diseases are a major public health burden that affect millions of people worldwide. Addressing these diseases requires a multi-faceted approach that includes lifestyle changes, addressing social determinants of health, investing in healthcare infrastructure, encouraging policy change, increasing public awareness, and providing support for caregivers. By taking a comprehensive approach to chronic disease prevention and management, we can improve the health and well-being of individuals and communities worldwide.

The symptoms of chronic hepatitis C may be mild or absent, but some people experience fatigue, joint pain, muscle aches, nausea, loss of appetite, and jaundice (yellowing of the skin and eyes).

Chronic hepatitis C is usually diagnosed through blood tests that detect the presence of antibodies against HCV or the virus itself. Imaging tests such as ultrasound and liver biopsy may also be performed to assess the extent of liver damage.

Treatment for chronic hepatitis C typically involves a combination of medications, including interferon and ribavirin, which can help clear the virus from the body. In severe cases, a liver transplant may be necessary. Prevention of the spread of HCV includes avoiding sharing of needles or other sharp objects, practicing safe sex, and getting tested for the virus before donating blood or organs.

See also: Hepatitis C; Liver; Virus

There are several types of hepatitis, including:

1. Hepatitis A: This type is caused by the hepatitis A virus (HAV) and is usually transmitted through contaminated food or water or through close contact with someone who has the infection.
2. Hepatitis B: This type is caused by the hepatitis B virus (HBV) and can be spread through sexual contact, sharing of needles, or mother-to-child transmission during childbirth.
3. Hepatitis C: This type is caused by the hepatitis C virus (HCV) and is primarily spread through blood-to-blood contact, such as sharing of needles or receiving a tainted blood transfusion.
4. Alcoholic hepatitis: This type is caused by excessive alcohol consumption and can lead to inflammation and scarring in the liver.
5. Drug-induced hepatitis: This type is caused by certain medications, such as antidepressants, anti-seizure drugs, or chemotherapy agents.
6. Autoimmune hepatitis: This type is caused by an abnormal immune response and can lead to inflammation in the liver.

Symptoms of hepatitis may include fatigue, loss of appetite, nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain, dark urine, pale stools, and yellowing of the skin (jaundice). In severe cases, it can lead to liver failure or even death.

Diagnosis of hepatitis is typically made through a combination of physical examination, laboratory tests such as blood tests and imaging studies like ultrasound or CT scans. Treatment options vary depending on the cause and severity of the condition, but may include medications to manage symptoms, antiviral therapy, or in severe cases, liver transplantation. Prevention measures for hepatitis include vaccination against certain types of the disease, practicing safe sex, avoiding sharing needles or other drug paraphernalia, and following proper hygiene practices.

In conclusion, hepatitis is a serious condition that affects millions of people worldwide. It is important to be aware of the different types of hepatitis and their causes in order to prevent and manage this condition effectively. By taking appropriate measures such as getting vaccinated and practicing safe sex, individuals can reduce their risk of contracting hepatitis. In severe cases, early diagnosis and treatment can help to minimize damage to the liver and improve outcomes for patients.

Examples of acute diseases include:

1. Common cold and flu
2. Pneumonia and bronchitis
3. Appendicitis and other abdominal emergencies
4. Heart attacks and strokes
5. Asthma attacks and allergic reactions
6. Skin infections and cellulitis
7. Urinary tract infections
8. Sinusitis and meningitis
9. Gastroenteritis and food poisoning
10. Sprains, strains, and fractures.

Acute diseases can be treated effectively with antibiotics, medications, or other therapies. However, if left untreated, they can lead to chronic conditions or complications that may require long-term care. Therefore, it is important to seek medical attention promptly if symptoms persist or worsen over time.

There are several risk factors for developing HCC, including:

* Cirrhosis, which can be caused by heavy alcohol consumption, viral hepatitis (such as hepatitis B and C), or fatty liver disease
* Family history of liver disease
* Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD)
* Diabetes
* Obesity

HCC can be challenging to diagnose, as the symptoms are non-specific and can be similar to those of other conditions. However, some common symptoms of HCC include:

* Yellowing of the skin and eyes (jaundice)
* Fatigue
* Loss of appetite
* Abdominal pain or discomfort
* Weight loss

If HCC is suspected, a doctor may perform several tests to confirm the diagnosis, including:

* Imaging tests, such as ultrasound, CT scan, or MRI, to look for tumors in the liver
* Blood tests to check for liver function and detect certain substances that are produced by the liver
* Biopsy, which involves removing a small sample of tissue from the liver to examine under a microscope

Once HCC is diagnosed, treatment options will depend on several factors, including the stage and location of the cancer, the patient's overall health, and their personal preferences. Treatment options may include:

* Surgery to remove the tumor or parts of the liver
* Ablation, which involves destroying the cancer cells using heat or cold
* Chemoembolization, which involves injecting chemotherapy drugs into the hepatic artery to reach the cancer cells
* Targeted therapy, which uses drugs or other substances to target specific molecules that are involved in the growth and spread of the cancer

Overall, the prognosis for HCC is poor, with a 5-year survival rate of approximately 20%. However, early detection and treatment can improve outcomes. It is important for individuals at high risk for HCC to be monitored regularly by a healthcare provider, and to seek medical attention if they experience any symptoms.

A viral infection that affects the liver and is transmitted to animals through contact with infected feces, urine, or saliva. The condition can be caused by several different viruses, including hepatitis A, B, C, D, and E. Symptoms of animal hepatitis may include loss of appetite, vomiting, diarrhea, lethargy, fever, and jaundice (yellowing of the skin and eyes). In severe cases, the infection can cause liver failure and death.


* Avoid contact with infected animals
* Practice good hygiene, such as washing hands frequently
* Keep pets up to date on vaccinations and preventatives
* Avoid drinking water or eating food that may be contaminated with feces or urine from infected animals
* Use protective clothing and equipment when handling animals that may be infected


* Supportive care, such as fluids and electrolytes to prevent dehydration and maintain blood pressure
* Antiviral medications in severe cases
* Hospitalization for severe cases or those that do not respond to treatment


* Depends on the severity of the infection and the underlying health status of the animal. In general, the prognosis is good for animals that receive prompt and appropriate treatment.


* Liver failure
* Sepsis (blood infection)
* Kidney failure
* Death


* Widespread in animals, especially in those that are kept in close quarters or have poor living conditions.

Affected Organ:

* Liver

Liver neoplasms, also known as liver tumors or hepatic tumors, are abnormal growths of tissue in the liver. These growths can be benign (non-cancerous) or malignant (cancerous). Malignant liver tumors can be primary, meaning they originate in the liver, or metastatic, meaning they spread to the liver from another part of the body.

There are several types of liver neoplasms, including:

1. Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC): This is the most common type of primary liver cancer and arises from the main cells of the liver (hepatocytes). HCC is often associated with cirrhosis and can be caused by viral hepatitis or alcohol abuse.
2. Cholangiocarcinoma: This type of cancer arises from the cells lining the bile ducts within the liver (cholangiocytes). Cholangiocarcinoma is rare and often diagnosed at an advanced stage.
3. Hemangiosarcoma: This is a rare type of cancer that originates in the blood vessels of the liver. It is most commonly seen in dogs but can also occur in humans.
4. Fibromas: These are benign tumors that arise from the connective tissue of the liver (fibrocytes). Fibromas are usually small and do not spread to other parts of the body.
5. Adenomas: These are benign tumors that arise from the glandular cells of the liver (hepatocytes). Adenomas are usually small and do not spread to other parts of the body.

The symptoms of liver neoplasms vary depending on their size, location, and whether they are benign or malignant. Common symptoms include abdominal pain, fatigue, weight loss, and jaundice (yellowing of the skin and eyes). Diagnosis is typically made through a combination of imaging tests such as CT scans, MRI scans, and ultrasound, and a biopsy to confirm the presence of cancer cells.

Treatment options for liver neoplasms depend on the type, size, location, and stage of the tumor, as well as the patient's overall health. Surgery may be an option for some patients with small, localized tumors, while others may require chemotherapy or radiation therapy to shrink the tumor before surgery can be performed. In some cases, liver transplantation may be necessary.

Prognosis for liver neoplasms varies depending on the type and stage of the cancer. In general, early detection and treatment improve the prognosis, while advanced-stage disease is associated with a poorer prognosis.

... (core antigen) is a hepatitis B viral protein. It is an indicator of active viral replication; this means the person ... May 2003). "New enzyme immunoassay for detection of hepatitis B virus core antigen (HBcAg) and relation between levels of HBcAg ... HBcAg is an antigen that can be found on the surface of the nucleocapsid core (the inner most layer of the hepatitis B virus). ... "In vivo inhibition of anti-hepatitis B virus core antigen (HBcAg) immunoglobulin G production by HBcAg-specific CD4(+) Th1-type ...
The product of the X gene is hepatitis B x antigen (HBxAg). It may be involved in carcinogenesis. Basal core promoter mutants ... A precore mutant is a variety of hepatitis B virus that does not produce hepatitis B virus e antigen (HBeAg). These mutants are ... core promoter mutants limits the probability of response to peginterferon in hepatitis B e antigen-positive chronic hepatitis B ... They are readily detectable by HBV DNA in serum, but hepatitis B e antigen (HBeAg) is absent. The X gene codes for HBxAg. ...
... encoding the core antigen and pre-core protein which are processed and secreted as DHBcAg S-ORF - codes for the surface antigen ... is composed of the virus core antigen (DHBcAg) and surrounds the DNA genome and viral polymerase. The viral genome is a ... Duck hepatitis B virus, abbreviated DHBV, is part of the genus Avihepadnavirus of the Hepadnaviridae, and is the causal agent ... Cooper A, Paran N, Shaul Y (2003-07-11). "The earliest steps in hepatitis B virus infection". Biochimica et Biophysica Acta ( ...
HBcAg (Hepatitis B core antigen) is the main structural protein of HBV icosahedral nucleocapsid and it has function in ... Co-infection of Hepatitis B and various other viruses can also occur. Hepatitis C, Hepatitis D (a satellite virus of Hepatitis ... HBeAg (Hepatitis B envelope antigen) can be found between the icosahedral nucleocapsid core and the lipid envelope, but is ... May 2010). "Hepatitis B virus core antigen determines viral persistence in a C57BL/6 mouse model". Proceedings of the National ...
Absence of free core antigen in anti-HBc negative viremic hepatitis B carriers. In Chronically Evolving Viral Hepatitis (pp. 39 ... KOREC, E., KORCOVÁ, J., KÖNIG, J., & HLOŽÁNEK, I. Detection of antibodies against hepatitis B core antigen using the avidin- ... Monoclonal antibodies against genetically manipulated hepatitis B core antigen. Folia biologica, 33(5), 295-300. 1987. KOREC, E ... KOREC, E., HLOŽÁNEK, I., MACH, O., STARÁ, J., NĔMECEK, V., & KÖNIG, J. Detection of antibodies to hepatitis B surface antigen ( ...
The icosahedral core particle is made of 180 or 240 copies of the core protein, alternatively known as hepatitis B core antigen ... "Predictive factors for reactivation of hepatitis B following hepatitis B e antigen seroconversion in chronic hepatitis B". ... Hepatitis D (HDV) can occur only with a concomitant hepatitis B infection, because HDV uses the HBV surface antigen to form a ... the HBsAg will become undetectable and will be followed by IgG antibodies to the hepatitis B surface antigen and core antigen ( ...
... after genetic immunization with retroviral vectors expressing different forms of the hepatitis B virus core and e antigens". ... The antigen-presenting cell then travels to the lymph nodes and presents the antigen peptide and costimulatory molecule ... This is true for intracellular and plasma membrane-bound antigens, but not for secreted antigens, which seem to generate TH2 ... Secreted or plasma membrane-bound antigens are more effective at inducing antibody responses than cytosolic antigens, while ...
... is a spherical, enveloped virus. The core particle, or nucleocapsid, contains e antigen, viral ... Feitelson, M A; Marion, P L; Robinson, W S (August 1982). "Core particles of hepatitis B virus and ground squirrel hepatitis ... Two are for the genes encoding the structural proteins (surface antigens and core antigens), and the other two are unassigned. ... The virus particles contain two major structural proteins, surface antigens (sAg) and core antigens (cAg). Both proteins were ...
... is an antigen that can be found between the icosahedral nucleocapsid core and the lipid envelope (the outer most layer of ... HBeAg is a hepatitis B viral protein, produced by the HBcAg reading frame. It is an indicator of active viral replication; this ... The presence of HBeAg in the serum of patients can serve as a marker of active replication in chronic hepatitis. Although the ... page 2062 (Articles with short description, Short description matches Wikidata, Viral structural proteins, Hepatitis B virus). ...
Mamiya N, Worman HJ (May 1999). "Hepatitis C virus core protein binds to a DEAD box RNA helicase". The Journal of Biological ... "An N-acetylated natural ligand of human histocompatibility leukocyte antigen (HLA)-B39. Classical major histocompatibility ... This gene encodes a DEAD box protein, which interacts specifically with hepatitis C virus core protein resulting a change in ... Owsianka AM, Patel AH (May 1999). "Hepatitis C virus core protein interacts with a human DEAD box protein DDX3". Virology. 257 ...
... hepatitis B surface antigen, anti-hepatitis B core, and anti-hepatitis B surface). A person who has never been exposed to ... When a person gets a hepatitis B vaccine then the most common test for hepatitis B will show them to be positive. The usual ... "WHO , Hepatitis B". World Health Organization. 2011. Retrieved 7 July 2011. See the table "HBV serological markers in ... hepatitis B but has gotten the vaccine will be positive for anti-HBs but negative for the other two tests in the panel. Other ...
"Intramembrane processing by signal peptide peptidase regulates the membrane localization of hepatitis C virus core protein and ... In mice, a nonamer peptide originating from the SPP protein serves as minor histocompatibility antigen HM13 that plays a role ... SPP also plays a pathophysiological role; it cleaves the structural nucleocapsid protein (also known as core protein) of the ... Hepatitis C virus and thus influences viral reproduction rate. ...
... such as the hepatitis B surface or core antigen), anti-viral antibodies (such as the anti-hepatitis B surface antibody or anti- ... Viral hepatitis is caused by five different viruses (hepatitis A, B, C, D, and E). Hepatitis A and hepatitis E behave similarly ... In the Mediterranean, hepatitis D is predominant among hepatitis B virus co-infected people. Similar to Hepatitis A, hepatitis ... and are self-limiting illnesses that do not lead to chronic hepatitis. Hepatitis B, hepatitis C, and hepatitis D are ...
... core antigen of hepatitis B Bunyaviridae nonstructural S proteins Viral structural protein Viral+Nonstructural+Proteins at the ...
Lok, AS (2007). "Chronic Hepatitis B" (PDF). Hepatology. 45 (2): 507-39. doi:10.1002/hep.21513. hdl:2027.42/55941. PMID ... During the window of HBsAg to HBsAb seroconversion, IgM anti-core (HBc-IgM) is the only detectable antibody. HBV DNA may be ... between the disappearance of surface antigen (HBsAg) from serum and the appearance of HBsAb (anti-HBs), and (2) the period ... This window period does not occur in persons who develop chronic hepatitis B, i.e. who continue to have detectable HBV DNA for ...
... hepatitis B surface antibody for IgM and IgG, hepatitis B core antibody for IgM and IgG, and hepatitis B e-antigen. In the ... "Predictive factors for reactivation of hepatitis B following hepatitis B e antigen seroconversion in chronic hepatitis B". ... assays for HBV also test for antigens. The standard serology panel for seroconversion include hepatitis B surface antigen, ... the presence of hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) indicates an individual with a currently active hepatitis B infection, ...
McLauchlan J, Lemberg MK, Hope G, Martoglio B (2002). "Intramembrane proteolysis promotes trafficking of hepatitis C virus core ... The minor histocompatibility antigen 13 is a nonamer peptide that originates from a protein encoded by the H13 gene. The ... and to process hepatitis C virus core protein. The encoded protein is an integral membrane protein with sequence motifs ... Minor histocompatibility antigen H13 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the HM13 gene. ...
"Phase IIII Study of a Therapeutic Vaccine Candidate Containing Hepatitis B Virus (HBV) Core Antigen (HBcAg) and HBV Surface ... He is member of Asian Pacific Association for the Study of the Liver (APASL) Working Parties on hepatitis B, hepatitis C, acute ... "Treatment of chronic hepatitis B naïve patients with a therapeutic vaccine containing HBs and HBc antigens (a randomized, open ... "Treatment of chronic hepatitis B naïve patients with a therapeutic vaccine containing HBs and HBc antigens (a randomized, open ...
Hepatitis B surface antigen Antibody to hepatitis C Antibody to HIV, usually subtypes 1 and 2 Serologic test for syphilis The ... Donated blood is tested by many methods, but the core tests recommended by the World Health Organization are these four: ... For example, the HIV antibody test will not detect a recently infected donor, so some blood banks use a p24 antigen or HIV ... The screening includes testing for diseases that can be transmitted by a blood transfusion, including HIV and viral hepatitis. ...
... the external core antigen, protein P (polymerase), and protein x (multifunctional protein). The polymerase open reading frame ( ... Woolly monkey hepatitis B virus, like other hepatitis B viruses, is transmitted through bodily fluids, and from a mother to her ... WMHBV, like other hepatitis viruses, infects the hepatocytes, or liver cells, of its host organism. It can cause hepatitis, ... The core gene of WMHBV was the most similar to human HBV with 85.8-86.9% similarity at the amino acid level, while the WHMBV X ...
The autoimmune target of anti-sp100 is the sp100 nuclear antigen which was identified by its association with primary biliary ... The sera of these patients exhibit a characteristic "nuclear dots" pattern in indirect immunofluorescence (IIF) on Hep-2 cells ... Bolded areas represent the core epitope.) Szostecki C, Guldner HH, Netter HJ, Will H (1990). "Isolation and characterization of ... cDNA encoding a human nuclear antigen predominantly recognized by autoantibodies from patients with primary biliary cirrhosis ...
Persistence of hepatitis B and hepatitis C viral genomes in primary liver cancers from hepatitis B surface antigen-negative ... Hepatitis C Virus core protein-induced apoptosis is triggered by ER stress and deregulation of calcium signaling, Oncogene, 31 ... Bréchot C, Minami M, De Mitri S, Paterlini P. Hepatitis B and C viruses in Hepatitis B Surface antigen negative hepatocellular ... Paterlini P. and Bréchot C., Hepatitis B Virus and Primary Livcer Cancer in Hepatitis B Surface Antigen-Positive and -Negative ...
... there is cross-reactivity between influenza virus-specific CD8+ T cells and hepatitis C virus antigens. Cross reactivity may ... containing core α1,3-linked fucose. As CCDs apparently do not elicit allergic symptoms, a positive in vitro test based on IgE ... In immunology, cross-reactivity has a more narrow meaning of the reaction between an antibody and an antigen that differs from ... There can be cross-reactivity between the immune system and the antigens of two different pathogens, or between one pathogen ...
The risk of hepatitis B (e antigen positive) seroconversion is estimated at 37-62%, significantly more than other blood borne ... HB core IgM, HCV) and for immunized individuals, HB surface antibody. Unless already known, the infectious status of the source ... hepatitis C, and HIV is the highest. The World Health Organization estimated that in 2000, 66,000 hepatitis B, 16,000 hepatitis ... HIV and the hepatitis C virus (HCV) are only viable for hours after blood has dried, but the hepatitis B virus (HBV) is stable ...
... the first known hepatitis with a viral etiological agent was Hepatitis A, in the picornaviridae family. Hepatitis B Virus (HBV ... Four main open reading frames are encoded (ORFs) and the virus has four known genes which encode seven proteins: the core ... capsid protein, the viral polymerase, surface antigens-preS1, preS2, and S, the X protein and HBeAg. The X protein is thought ... Its best-known member is hepatitis B virus. Diseases associated with this family include: liver infections, such as hepatitis, ...
VLPs derived from the Hepatitis B virus (HBV) and composed of the small HBV derived surface antigen (HBsAg) were described in ... In addition, wasps produce polydnavirus vectors with pathogenic genes (but not core viral genes) or gene-less VLPs to help ... RTS,S is a portion of the Plasmodium falciparum circumsporozoite protein fused to the Hepatitis B surface antigen (RTS), ... combined with Hepatitis B surface antigen (S), and adjuvanted with AS01 (consisting of (MPL)A and saponin). Vaccine production ...
... hepatitis a antigens MeSH D23.050.327.495.500 - hepatitis b antigens MeSH D23.050.327.495.500.450 - Hepatitis B core antigens ... Hepatitis B surface antigen MeSH D23.050.327.495.505 - hepatitis c antigens MeSH D23.050.327.495.752 - hepatitis delta antigens ... antigens, cd15 MeSH D23.101.100.900.131 - antigens, cd31 MeSH D23.101.100.920 - antigens, ly MeSH D23.101.100.930 - antigens, ... forssman antigen MeSH D23.050.285.018 - antigens, cd24 MeSH D23.050.285.025 - antigens, cd30 MeSH D23.050.285.040 - antigens, ...
Matched antibody pairs Anti-idiotypic Antibodies HBV Core Antigen Antibody Isotyping Kits Protein Antigen Expression Service ... "Molecular detection of hepatitis B virus (HBV) among voluntary ELISA positive blood donors in Almadinah Almunawwarah". Journal ... "Human Bone Marrow Stromal Cell Antigen 1, BST1 ELISA Kit" (PDF). funakoshi. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2015-07-10. ... Later, various kinds of antibodies, viral antigens, reagents, medical kits, and biological services were launched to broaden ...
Hepatitis B virus DNA in patients with chronic liver disease and negative tests for hepatitis B surface antigen. N. Engl. J. ... Aug, 54(8):1162-8. Pavio N, Boucreux D, Battaglia S, Arnulf B, Sobesky R, Hermine O, Brechot C. Hepatitis C virus core variants ... Distinct Hepatitis C Virus Core and F protein quasispecies in tumoral and nontumoral hepatocytes. Hepatology 2007 Dec;46(6): ... Hepatitis C virus core protein shows an exclusively cytoplasmic localization and associates to cellular lipid storage droplets ...
The hepatitis delta virus of humans has an RNA genome similar to viroids but has a protein coat derived from hepatitis B virus ... Shuda M, Feng H, Kwun HJ, Rosen ST, Gjoerup O, Moore PS, Chang Y (October 2008). "T antigen mutations are a human tumor- ... Their genomic dsRNA remains protected inside the core of the virion. When the adaptive immune system of a vertebrate encounters ... Although hepatitis delta virus genome may replicate independently once inside a host cell, it requires the help of hepatitis B ...
December 1993). "Human leukocyte antigen A1-B8-DR3-DQ2-DPB1*0401 extended haplotype in autoimmune hepatitis". Hepatology. 18 (6 ... In the US Caucasians, 57% of haplotypes with a core component, Cw7-B8, extend from HLA-A1 locus to DQ2 locus. This compares ... September 2006). "Genetic association of autoimmune hepatitis and human leucocyte antigen in German patients". World J. ... human leukocyte antigens DR4 and A1-B8-DR3 are independent risk factors". Hepatology. 13 (4): 701-6. doi:10.1002/hep.1840130415 ...
... typically antigens "I" or "i" on the RBC surface, in the environment in which the temperatures are lower than normal core body ... At least 90% of cases having cryoglobulins in body, hepatitis C is to blame, reflecting the importance of preclusion of ... D-L antibodies, typically IgG, are characterized by targeting against red blood cells' on-surface antigens called "P". The ... Cold agglutinins are antibodies, typically immunoglobulin M (IgM), that are acquainted with and then binding the antigens on ...
In blood banking, PEG is used as a potentiator to enhance detection of antigens and antibodies. When working with phenol in a ... Branched PEGs have three to ten PEG chains emanating from a central core group. Star PEGs have 10 to 100 PEG chains emanating ... PEGylated interferon alfa-2a or alfa-2b are commonly used injectable treatments for hepatitis C infection. PEG is soluble in ... from a central core group. Comb PEGs have multiple PEG chains normally grafted onto a polymer backbone. The numbers that are ...
... : at the core of cancer immunotherapy ". Nature Reviews Cancer. 14(2): 135-146. Van ... Hepatitis B (HBV) and C (HCV) viruses cause chronic inflammation which favors the appearance of hepatocarcinoma. The carcinoma ... In some patients, the majority of the tumor-specific T cells recognize mutated antigens. The contribution of these antigens to ... Cancer therapy targeted at tumor antigens can involve the direct use of these antigens in vaccines, but also the adoptive ...
2001). "Ch3 Antigen Recognition by B-Cell and T-cell Receptors". Immunobiology: The Immune System in Health and Disease (5th ed ... The N-glycans attached to this site are predominantly core-fucosylated biantennary structures of the complex type. In addition ... hepatitis B virus, and varicella (chickenpox), among others. Testing of IgG is not indicated for diagnosis of allergy, and ... Finally, if antigen persists, high affinity IgG4 is produced, which dampens down inflammation by helping to curtail FcR- ...
There is evidence that not only gliadin (the main cytotoxic antigen of gluten), but also other proteins named ATIs which are ... "Fad or fact -- gluten-free?". Core health. Retrieved 9 April 2016. Volta U, De Giorgio R (2012). "New understanding of gluten ... autoimmune hepatitis, dermatitis herpetiformis, primary sclerosing cholangitis, and others. To evaluate the possible presence ...
... or type specific antigen, TSA56) and surface cell antigens (ScaA and ScaC, which are membrane transporter proteins). These ... Genome comparison shows only 657 core genes among the different strains. With about 42-47% of repetitive sequences, O. ... hepatitis, meningitis, myocarditis, pancreatitis, pneumonia, septic shock, subacute thyroiditis, and multiple organ dysfunction ... A 56-kDa type specific antigen (TSA56) is the most important because it is not produced by any other bacteria, and is ...
... which is a glycoprotein that serves as a ligand for macrophage-1 antigen (Mac-1) and lymphocyte function-associated antigen 1 ( ... The SeV virion also contains the nucleocapsid core, which is composed of the genomic RNA, the nucleocapsid protein (NP), the ... March 2005). "Regulating intracellular antiviral defense and permissiveness to hepatitis C virus RNA replication through a ... which is a glycoprotein that serves as a ligand for macrophage-1 antigen (Mac-1) and lymphocyte function-associated antigen 1 ( ...
And the virus has four known genes, which encode the core protein, the virus polymerase, surface antigens (preS1, preS2, and S ... woodchuck hepatitis virus), GSHV (ground squirrel hepatitis virus ), and WMHBV (woolly monkey hepatitis B virus) as the ... Viruses in this genus exclusively infect birds; duck hepatitis B virus (DHBV) and heron hepatitis B virus (HHBV) are the ... Meier, Faculty of Life Sciences (2010),volume 92, pages 3-6. Schaefer, S (2007). "Hepatitis B virus taxonomy and hepatitis B ...
cite journal}}: Cite journal requires ,journal= (help) "ASTMH 2021 Annual Meeting". Retrieved 2022-07-21. " ... such as chronic hepatitis. In addition to vaccines,Sanaria produces PfSPZ products for clinical research. Sanaria® PfSPZ ... replication-competent genetically altered parasite with improved antigen expression compared to PfSPZ-GA1. PfSPZ-LARC2 vaccine ...
... hepatitis c antibodies MeSH D12.776.377.715.548.114.257 - antigen-antibody complex MeSH D12.776.377.715.548.114.301 - ... hiv core protein p24 MeSH D12.776.964.775.375.325 - fusion proteins, gag-pol MeSH D12.776.964.775.375.335 - hiv integrase MeSH ... antigen, b-cell MeSH D12.776.377.715.548.950.500 - antigens, cd79 MeSH D12.776.377.715.647.100 - alpha-macroglobulins See List ... hepatitis a antibodies MeSH D12.776.377.715.548.114.254.450.504 - hepatitis b antibodies MeSH D12.776.377.715.548.114.254.450. ...
Hyperpyrexia is an extreme elevation of body temperature which, depending upon the source, is classified as a core body ... Immunological diseases, e.g., relapsing polychondritis, autoimmune hepatitis, granulomatosis with polyangiitis, Horton disease ... often in the presence of an antigen, leading to a fever. Whilst they can be a product of external factors like exogenous ... Despite the myriad of complications associated with heat illness, an elevation of core temperature above 41.0 °C (often ...
When testing for the hepatitis B virus's surface antigen, one serum sample gave anomalous results and with electron microscopy ... Each VP monomer contains a core beta-barrel structure called the jelly roll motif of eight strands arranged in two adjacent ...
... an inner-core domain in the carboxy-terminal portion. The inner-core domain is linked to the other two domains of the E2 ... doi:10.1002/hep.21828. PMC 3731127. PMID 17657817. Novarino G, El-Fishawy P, Kayserili H, Meguid NA, Scott EM, Schroth J, ... which are antigens recognized by anti-mitochondrial antibodies. Mutations of the BCKDK gene, whose protein product controls the ... The inner-core domain is necessary to form the oligomeric core of the enzyme complex and catalyzes the acyltransferase reaction ...
Hepatitis in ducks caused by this duck astrovirus (DAstV) is often fatal. In birds, Avastroviruses are detected by antigen- ... The spike domain in particular has a 3-layered beta-sandwiches fold and a core, 6-stranded beta-barrel structure. The beta- ... This unique structure was found to be similar to the protein projections found on the capsid of the hepatitis E virus. The ... Kelly AG, Netzler NE, White PA (October 2016). "Ancient recombination events and the origins of hepatitis E virus". BMC ...
This results in an impediment to the development of a T cell response against the inserted antigen (HIV antigens) The results ... and Core-g28v2 60mer mRNA Vaccine (mRNA-1644v2-Core) in HIV-1 Uninfected Adults in Good General Health". ModernaTX, Inc., The ... also called hepatitis G virus, can survive longer than those without GBV-C, but the patients may be different in other ways. ... gp41 core: conserved helical interactions underlie the broad inhibitory activity of gp41 peptides". Proceedings of the National ...
The core of the complex has a ring structure consisting of six proteins that all belong to the same class of RNases, the RNase ... In the past, the most commonly used methods were double immunodiffusion using calf thymus extracts, immunofluorescence on HEp-2 ... Targoff, IN; Reichlin, M (1985). "Nucleolar localization of the PM-Scl antigen". Arthritis & Rheumatism. 28 (2): 226-30. doi: ... The core of the exosome contains a six-membered ring structure to which other proteins are attached. In eukaryotic cells, the ...
Skin TRM: TRM cells in the skin express cutaneous lymphocyte antigen (CLA) and CCR8 which are skin homing antigens. They have ... September 2017). "Human Tissue-Resident Memory T Cells Are Defined by Core Transcriptional and Functional Signatures in ... rheumatoid arthritis and autoimmune hepatitis. Vitiligo is an autoimmune skin disease with white spots phenotype. CD8+ T ... Shortly after antigen-specific response in the non-lymphoid tissue, infected tissue is occupied by CD8+ effector-stage T cells ...
The hydrophobic core is mostly made up of leucine residues, while the surface is made up of 15 acidic residues and 13 basic ... and Vav after B cell antigen receptor activation". The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 272 (43): 27362-8. doi:10.1074/jbc. ... binding protein enhances internal ribosomal entry site-dependent translation through an interaction downstream of the hepatitis ...
Because it is exposed on the surface of the virus, the spike protein is a major antigen to which neutralizing antibodies are ... In general, the NTD binds sugar molecules while the CTD binds proteins, with the exception of mouse hepatitis virus which uses ... S2 also contains two heptad repeat subdomains known as HR1 and HR2, sometimes called the "fusion core" region. These subdomains ... Koenig, Paul-Albert; Schmidt, Florian I. (17 June 2021). "Spike D614G - A Candidate Vaccine Antigen Against Covid-19". New ...
... hepatitis delta virus small delta antigen). p300/CBP have also been observed to acetylate β-catenin, RIP140, PCNA, the DNA ... The core region, which corresponds to motifs A, B, and D of the GNAT proteins, is flanked on opposite sides by N- and C- ... While the central core domain (motif A in GNATs) is involved in acetyl-CoA binding and catalysis, the N- and C-terminal ... The central core and the flanking segments together form a cleft over the former, which is where histone substrates can bind ...
Hsieh TY, Matsumoto M, Chou HC, Schneider R, Hwang SB, Lee AS, Lai MM (July 1998). "Hepatitis C virus core protein interacts ... Buckanovich RJ, Posner JB, Darnell RB (October 1993). "Nova, the paraneoplastic Ri antigen, is homologous to an RNA-binding ...
Prokaryotic polymerases exist in two forms: core polymerase and holoenzyme. Core polymerase synthesizes DNA from the DNA ... Boehm EM, Powers KT, Kondratick CM, Spies M, Houtman JC, Washington MT (April 2016). "The Proliferating Cell Nuclear Antigen ( ... Some viruses also encode special DNA polymerases, such as Hepatitis B virus DNA polymerase. These may selectively replicate ... The core consists of three subunits: α, the polymerase activity hub, ɛ, exonucleolytic proofreader, and θ, which may act as a ...
In December 2020, its rapid antigen BinaxNOW COVID-19 test received EUA from the FDA for use at home with a prescription ... Abbott's core businesses focus on diagnostics, medical devices, branded generic medicines and nutritional products, which have ... Baker Batte, Study finds quick way of testing for hepatitis B, retrieved 3 April 2020 "Abbott Expands Peripheral Vascular ... In August 2020, Abbott received EUA from the FDA for its $5, 15-minute, portable COVID-19 antigen test, BinaxNOW, which is ...
145, 63-64 (1976) J.P. Lecocq, M. Zubowski and R. Lathe Cloning and expression of viral antigens in Escherichia coli and other ... and hepatitis B virus. In 1980 he was appointed Scientific Director of Transgène, one of the first biotechnology companies in ... Lecocq HIV-1 core proteins expressed from recombinant vaccinia viruses AIDS Res. Hum. Retroviruses (1989) 5, 147-57. M.P. Kieny ... Molecular characterization of a 23-kilodalton major antigen secreted by Toxoplasma gondii Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA, 86, 7537- ...
LBDHBG - Hepatitis B surface antigen. Variable Name: LBDHBG SAS Label: Hepatitis B surface antigen. English Text: Hepatitis B ... Hepatitis B: Core Antibody, Surface Antigen; Hepatitis D Antibody (HEPBD_G) Data File: HEPBD_G.xpt First Published: September ... The Hepatitis B surface antigen is tested only when the Hepatitis B core antibody test is positive. Participant results are ... LBXHBC - Hepatitis B core antibody (Anti-HBc). Variable Name: LBXHBC SAS Label: Hepatitis B core antibody (Anti-HBc). English ...
Highly purified recombinant Hepatitis B virus core antigen protein (HBcAg), produced in E. coli and greater than 90% purity - ... HEPATITIS B VIRUS CORE ANTIGEN. Recombinantly produced Hepatitis B Virus core antigen (HBcAg). This core protein fragment ... SKU: REC31689 Categories: Antigens & Antibodies, Hepatitis B virus antigens Tag: Hepatitis B Virus core-antigen ... Hepatitis B Virus Core Antigen (HBcAg). $624.26. - $1,872.79. excl. VAT. Recombinant Hepatitis B virus Core protein (HBcAg), ...
Hepatitis B and human immunodeficiency virus are transmitted by venereal contact or by the sharing of used needles during drug ... Hepatitis B Core Antigens / immunology * Hepatitis B Surface Antigens / analysis * Hepatitis B Surface Antigens / immunology ... Two seropositive prostitutes had IgM hepatitis B core antibody suggesting recent infection. Two factors, number of partners (P ... Hepatitis B and human immunodeficiency virus infection in street youths in Toronto, Canada Pediatr Infect Dis J. 1991 Feb;10(2 ...
... core antigen and e antigen (C gene); large, medium, and small surface-antigen proteins (S gene); and the X protein (X gene). ... Detecting Hepatitis B Surface Antigen Mutants On This Page Mechanism of HBV Mutant Generation Surface Antigen Structure Surface ... Carman W, van Deursen F, Mimms L, Hardie D, Coppola R, Decker R, The prevalence of surface antigen variants of hepatitis B ... Koyanagi T, Nakamuta M, Sakai H, Sugimoto R, Enjoji M, Koto K, Analysis of HBs antigen negative variant of hepatitis B virus: ...
Fatal reactivation of hepatitis B post-chemotherapy for lymphoma in a hepatitis B surface antigen-negative, hepatitis B core ... Hepatitis B virus DNA in persons with isolated antibody to hepatitis B core antigen who subsequently received hepatitis B ... hepatitis B core antigen (HBcAg) and antibody to HBcAg (anti-HBc), and hepatitis B e antigen (HBeAg) and antibody to HBeAg ( ... Hepatitis B Vaccine HBsAg is the antigen used for hepatitis B vaccination (79,80). Vaccine antigen can be purified from the ...
Atypical Hepatitis B Virus Serology Profile-Hepatitis B Surface Antigen-Positive/Hepatitis B Core Antibody-Negative-In ... Africa; Botswana; HBV; HIV; hepatitis B core antibodies (anti-HBc); hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) ... Atypical Hepatitis B Virus Serology Profile-Hepatitis B Surface Antigen-Positive/Hepatitis ... Hepatitis B core antibodies (anti-HBc) are a marker of hepatitis B virus (HBV) exposure; hence, a normal HBV serology profile ...
An estimated one third of the global population has been infected with the hepatitis B virus (HBV). ... Hepatitis B is a worldwide healthcare problem, especially in developing areas. ... Even the presence of hepatitis B core antibody (anti-HBc) in the absence of hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) and hepatitis B ... For patient education information, see Hepatitis A (HAV, Hep A); Hepatitis B (HBV, Hep B); Hepatitis C (HCV, Hep C); Cirrhosis ...
Categories: Hepatitis B Core Antigens Image Types: Photo, Illustrations, Video, Color, Black&White, PublicDomain, ...
Anti-HBc = antibody to hepatitis B core antigen; b.i.w. = twice weekly; CMV = cytomegalovirus; DS = double-strength tablet; q.m ... a} Infants born to mothers positive for hepatitis B surface antigen should receive hepatitis B immune globulin within 12 hours ... Hepatitis B vaccine has been recommended for all children and adolescents and for all adults with risk factors for hepatitis B ... Hep B (1){a} , 1 Hep B (2) , 7 Influenza (1){e} 2 DTP (1), Hib (1){b} , 8 Influenza (2){e} 3 EIPV (1){b} , 12 Hib (3 or 4){c ...
Short communicationSerum level of anti-hepatitis B surface antigen 6-8 years after hepatitis B vaccination at birth ... We also assessed antibodies to HBV core protein (anti-HBc) in all serums to check for hepatitis B infection. ... Short communication: Serum level of anti-hepatitis B surface antigen 6-8 years after hepatitis B vaccination at birth ... Serum level of anti-hepatitis B surface antigen 6-8 years after hepatitis B vaccination at birth ...
CDC updates hepatitis B virus infection screening and testing guidelines. ... CDC updates hepatitis B virus infection screening and testing guidelines. ... antibody to hepatitis B surface antigen; HBcAg = hepatitis B core antigen; HBsAg = hepatitis B surface antigen; HBV = hepatitis ... antibody to hepatitis B surface antigen; HBeAg = hepatitis B e antigen; HBsAg = hepatitis B surface antigen; HBV = hepatitis B ...
However, technological advances in the generation of recombinant antigens with preserved structural and immunological ... Arora, U.; Tyagi, P.; Swaminathan, S.; Khanna, N. Chimeric Hepatitis B core antigen virus-like particles displaying the ... but also to modulate the antigen-specific immune responses. Other strategy to improve antigen immunogenicity include biotic and ... E antigen in a DNA prime and protein boost. Mice: ↑IgG and neutralizing Abs titers. ↑ CD8 + IFNg+ T cells. Mice: 100% survival ...
HIV 4th Generation antigen/antibody. *Hepatitis B Panel (includes Surface Antibody, Surface Antigen, Core Antibody) ... Hepatitis B Panel Comprehensive Hep B testing, Acute, Chronic, Remote and Immunity ... HIV 1 & 2 4th Gen Antigen Antibody, Blood 4th Generation Blood Test, Antibody and P24 Antigen, Routine Screening ... Hepatitis B Panel Comprehensive Hep B testing, Acute, Chronic, Remote and Immunity ...
Note: Participants who have positive hepatitis B core antibody or hepatitis B surface antigen antibody can be enrolled but must ... Known hepatitis B virus (HBV) surface antigen seropositive or detectable hepatitis C infection viral load. ... after prior chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T-cells therapy. ... have an undetectable hepatitis B viral load.. *Receiving or ...
... hepatitis B, or hepatitis C. It can screen blood samples for more than one kind of hepatitis ... The hepatitis virus panel is a series of blood tests used to detect current or past infection by hepatitis A, ... Antibody to hepatitis B core antigen (Anti-HBc), you have a recent or past hepatitis B infection ... Hepatitis B test results:. *Hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg): you have an active hepatitis B infection, either recent or ...
Known history of hepatitis B or C infection or known positive test for hepatitis B surface antigen or core antigen, or ... hepatitis C polymerase chain reaction (PCR). *Known positive testing for human immunodeficiency virus or history of acquired ...
New WHO data reveal that an estimated 325 million people worldwide are living with chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) or hepatitis ... Acute HBV infection is characterized by the presence of HBsAg and immunoglobulin M (IgM) antibody to the core antigen, HBcAg. ... Hepatitis B. Laboratory diagnosis of hepatitis B infection focuses on the detection of the various hepatitis B antigens ( ... hepatitis B surface antigen, HBsAg and hepatitis B e antigen, HBeAg) and antibodies (mainly antibodies to HBcAg). The presence ...
What the triple screen consists of is the hepatitis B surface antigen, hepatitis B surface antibody, and hepatitis B core ... but the last thing to mention in the field of hepatitis B is that there is a brand-new three-antigen, or triple-antigen, ... I carefully looked at this, and the dose in the Heplisav-B is only single-strength hepatitis B antigen. It creates a little bit ... If you get a surface antigen, I think you really want to follow that with the hepatitis B DNA test as well. ...
... defined as having a negative hepatitis B surface antigen [HBsAg]) test, a positive anti-HBc (antibody to hepatitis B core ... Active hepatitis B (chronic or acute) or hepatitis C infection. Note that if hepatitis status is unknown, hepatitis B/C testing ... Patients positive for hepatitis C virus (HCV) antibody are eligible only if polymerase chain reaction (PCR) is negative for HCV ... Known clinically significant liver disease, including active viral, alcoholic, or other hepatitis, cirrhosis, fatty liver, and ...
BIBTEX Dublin Core MARCXML MARC (non-Unicode/MARC-8) MARC (Unicode/UTF-8) MARC (Unicode/UTF-8, Standard) MODS (XML) RIS ... Australia antigen and hepatitis / Baruch S. Blumberg ... [et al.] Contributor(s): Blumberg, Baruch SamuelMaterial type: Text ... Hepatitis B surface antigensNLM classification: WC 536 Tags from this library: No tags from this library for this title. Log in ... Publication details: London : Butterworths, 1972. Description: 74 pISBN: 0408703733Subject(s): Hepatitis B , ...
The author presents a case of Hepatitis B turning negative with homeopathy. ... hep b e antigen -negative, hep b e antibody -reactive,. hep b core IGM antibody-negative, hep b core total anti body -positive ... the case you have shown is of acute hepatitis B , it is not of chronic hepatitis B.. it is known to all that hepatitis with ... mrs sanjaya i am from sri lanka hep b positive it can really cure i like to mention my blood test result hep b surface antigen ...
Cases have been reported in patients who are hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) positive and also in patients who are HBsAg ... negative but are hepatitis B core antibody (anti-HBc) positive. Reactivation also has occurred in patients who appear to have ... Hepatitis B Virus Reactivation. *Hepatitis B virus (HBV) reactivation, in some cases resulting in fulminant hepatitis, hepatic ... Hepatitis B Virus (HBV) Reactivation: HBV reactivation can occur in patients treated with rituximab products, in some cases ...
Sequencing and epitope phenotyping were used to investigate alterations in hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) sequence and ... Results Vaccine/hepatitis B immune globulin uptake was complete in the majority of HBV-infected infants. A minority (8 [12%]) ... of infants born to hepatitis B virus (HBV)-infected mothers at a high risk of perinatal transmission will become persistently ... from infants aged 12 months are received at PHE Colindale for testing for HBsAg and antibody to hepatitis B core antigen (anti- ...
... polymerase chain reaction in blood donors who are hepatitis B surface antigen negative and antibody to hepatitis B core antigen ... polymerase chain reaction in blood donors who are hepatitis B surface antigen negative and antibody to hepatitis B core antigen ... Dive into the research topics of Absence of hepatitis B virus DNA detected by ... Absence of hepatitis B virus DNA detected by ... a United States population with a low prevalence of hepatitis B ...
Patients who are negative for HBsAg and positive for hepatitis B core antibody (HBcAb+) or are carriers of HBV (HBsAg+): ... Contraindicated in patients with active HBV confirmed by positive results for hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) and anti-HBV ... hepatitis a/b vaccine. ofatumumab SC decreases effects of hepatitis a/b vaccine by immunosuppressive effects; risk of infection ... hepatitis a/b vaccine. Serious - Use Alternative (1)ofatumumab SC decreases effects of hepatitis a/b vaccine by ...
Anti-Hepatitis B Virus Core Antigen, monoclonal, mouse. Size: 1 mg. Price EUR 250.00 ... Anti-Hepatitis B virus Core antigen, monoclonal, mouse. Size: 100 ug. Price EUR 395.00 ... Anti-Hepatitis B virus Core antigen, polyclonal, rabbit. Size: 1 mg. Price EUR 395.00 ... Anti-Hepatitis C virus core antigen, monoclonal, mouse. Size: 100 ug. Price EUR 375.00 ...
... antibody to hepatitis B core antigen; anti-HBs, antibody to HBsAg; HBeAg, hepatitis Be antigen; HBsAg, hepatitis B surface ... antigen. (Reproduced with permission from Koff RS. Acute viral hepatitis. In: Friedman LS, Keeffe EB. Handbook of Liver Disease ... Philadelphia: Saunders Elsevier, 2012.) A graph shows a typical course of acute type B hepatitis. Current Medical Diagnosis & ... Figure 16-2. The typical course of acute type B hepatitis. Anti-HBe, antibody to HBeAg; anti-HBc, ...
Any positive result at Screening Visit for serum hepatitis B surface antigen or anti-hepatitis B core antibody, hepatitis C ... Carrier of the Human leukocyte antigen B*58:01 allele. *• Has received another new chemical or biological entity (defined as a ...
  • Its association with HBV reactivation in hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg)-negative antibody to hepatitis B core antigen (anti-HBc)-positive patients undergoing high-risk immunosuppressive therapy is undefined. (
  • Labeling of hepatitis B virus surface antigen (HBsAg) synthesized in a HBsAg-producing hepatoma cell line. (
  • Hepatocytes positive for HBV core and HBsAg were quantified using a novel four-plex immunofluorescence assay and image analysis . (
  • Serum or plasma samples were evaluated for levels of HBV DNA , HBsAg , hepatitis B core-related antigen (HBcrAg), and HBV RNA . (
  • Hepatocytes positive for both HBV core and HBsAg were rare. (
  • Impact and Implications HBV infects liver hepatocyte cells , and its genome can exist in two forms that express different sets of viral proteins a circular genome called cccDNA that can express all viral proteins , including the HBV core and HBsAg proteins , or a linear fragment that inserts into the host genome typically to express HBsAg , but not HBV core. (
  • We used new techniques to determine the percentage of hepatocytes expressing the HBV core and HBsAg proteins in a large set of liver biopsies . (
  • Mutations that occur within the immunodominant epitopes of hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) allow mutant virus to propagate in the presence of a neutralizing immune response, while wild-type virus is reduced to undetectable levels. (
  • An understanding of immunoassay reactivity with HBsAg mutants is key to establishing an appropriate testing algorithm for hepatitis B virus detection programs. (
  • This article addresses recent information concerning the emergence of hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) mutants, their impact on viral antigen presentation, latest prevalence data, and discussion of the issues associated with detection of mutants in healthcare settings. (
  • Currently, the important question is how much its use supplements hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) donor screening in preventing transfusion-transmitted hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection. (
  • CONCLUSION: Some 33 to 50 percent of cases of hepatitis B that could be transmitted by transfusion of blood from HBsAg-negative donors are prevented by anti-HBc screening. (
  • Immunohistochemical staining is positive for hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg. (
  • We determined the serum level of antibody to hepatitis B surface antigen (anti-HBsAg) in 273 randomly selected 7-9-year-old schoolchildren from Zanjan City, Islamic Republic of Iran, who had been fully vaccinated against hepatitis B starting at birth. (
  • KESIMPTA is contraindicated in patients with active HBV confirmed by positive results for Hepatitis B surface antigen [HBsAg] and anti-HBV tests. (
  • The three main serologic markers used to determine HBV infection status are hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg), antibody to hepatitis B surface antigen (anti-HBs), and antibody to hepatitis B core antigen (anti-HBc) ( Table 1 ). (
  • World Health Organization (WHO) statistics reported 240 million people contaminated with hepatitis B virus (HBV) in 2016 with HBsAg-positive test for at least 6 months [ 2 ]. (
  • Modeling indicated that introduction of birth dose vaccination would not significantly reduce hepatitis-related morbidity or mortality for the measured HBsAg prevalence. (
  • Testing for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), syphilis, and hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) in pregnancy and labor is medically indicated to prevent vertical transmission. (
  • Recommendations for birth dose vaccination are determined by antenatal prevalence of hepatitis B e antigen (HBeAg) and to some degree by HBsAg in settings where HBeAg prevalence is unknown [ 6 ]. (
  • Detection of HBeAg and anti-HBe in acute hepatitis B by a sensitive radioimmunoassay. (
  • pre-core/core, polymerase (P), envelope (pre-S1/pre-S2/S) and X. The pre-core/core gene is responsible for expression of core protein as well as hepatitis B e antigen (HBeAg), a serological marker of HBV infection correlating with high viral load. (
  • After secretion, mature HBeAg is deleted at residue 149 C-terminally and retains 10 pre-core residues N-terminally. (
  • Donor screening for antibody to hepatitis B core antigen and hepatitis B virus infection in transfusion recipients. (
  • BACKGROUND: Testing for antibody to hepatitis B core antigen (anti-HBc) as a surrogate for hepatitis C viremia is no longer needed for blood donor screening. (
  • The HBV core gene encodes two different proteins: core, which forms the viral nucleocapsid, and pre-core, which serves as an immune modulator with multiple points of action. (
  • Cells cultured in vitro are known to produce the virus surface antigen but not the other structural virus proteins, the core and the e antigen. (
  • The proteins of hepatitis B Dane particle cores. (
  • Core particles with mature (double stranded DNA) genome can be enveloped and released as 42-nm virions, with the three envelope proteins inserted on the surface. (
  • The NIAMS Protein Expression Laboratory (PEL) studies the structure and function of viral proteins, primarily those of the Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV-1) and the Hepatitis B Virus (HBV). (
  • The proteins can be detected in high levels during both an acute or chronic hepatitis B infection. (
  • Core proteins p21 and p19 are included within this region. (
  • Structure and functions of these core proteins are relatively poorly understood. (
  • The prevalence of hepatitis B carriers varies in different parts of the world, ranging from less than 1% to 15% [2]. (
  • 1. [Prevalence of hepatitis C virus infection in Morocco and serological tests assessment of detection for the viremia prediction]. (
  • 11. An evidence of high prevalence of Hepatitis C virus in Faisalabad, Pakistan. (
  • 14. Prevalence of hepatitis C virus antibodies and genotypes in asymptomatic, first-time blood donors in Namibia. (
  • Three of the children had antibodies to hepatitis B core protein. (
  • The human hepatoma cell line PLC/PRF/5 is persistently infected with hepatitis B virus. (
  • Thus adolescents who live on the street are at increased risk for becoming infected with hepatitis B virus. (
  • Hepatitis B core-related antigen (HBcrAg) is a novel serum marker that correlates with intrahepatic hepatitis B virus (HBV) activity. (
  • Intrahepatic quantification of HBV antigens in chronic hepatitis B reveals heterogeneity and treatment-mediated reductions in HBV core-positive cells. (
  • 6. Negative hepatitis B envelope antigen predicts intrahepatic recurrence in hepatitis B virus-related hepatocellular carcinoma after ablation therapy. (
  • Serum specimens are processed, stored, and shipped to the Division of Viral Hepatitis, National Center for HIV/AIDS, Viral Hepatitis, STD, and TB Prevention, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (
  • Icteric hepatitis is associated with a prodromal period, during which a serum sickness-like syndrome can occur. (
  • Roche launched its Elecsys HCV Duo immunoassay (Elecsys) in July 2022, which is the first available immunoassay that allows for the simultaneous, independent determination of the hepatitis C virus (HCV) antigen and antibody status from a single human or serum sample, according to the company in a July 18, 2022 press release. (
  • 10. Positive serum hepatitis B e antigen is associated with higher risk of early recurrence and poorer survival in patients after curative resection of hepatitis B-related hepatocellular carcinoma. (
  • 18. Determination of the cut-off value of serum alanine aminotransferase in patients undergoing hemodialysis, to identify biochemical activity in patients with hepatitis C viremia. (
  • Hepatitis B virus (HBV) and quantitative serum immunoglobulins screening are required before the first dose. (
  • This involves the reaction of anti-HBc in the sample with hepatitis B core antigen (HBcAg) coated wells. (
  • Recombinant Hepatitis B virus Core protein (HBcAg), produced in E. coli . (
  • Recombinantly produced Hepatitis B Virus core antigen (HBcAg). (
  • HBcAg is one of the three major clinical antigens of hepatitis B virus but disappears early in the course of infection. (
  • Patients with chronic hepatitis B infection can be immune tolerant or have an inactive chronic infection without any evidence of active disease, and they are also asymptomatic. (
  • Understanding your hepatitis B blood test results can be confusing, so you want to be sure about your diagnosis - are you infected with hepatitis B, have you recovered from a hepatitis B infection, or do you have a chronic hepatitis B infection? (
  • The difficulty in ensuring vaccine coverage in this population would support calls for including hepatitis B vaccination as part of childhood immunization. (
  • The duration of protection after hepatitis B vaccination in children is unknown. (
  • Tests for hepatitis B can show whether you are immune either due to HBV vaccination or having recovered from a past infection. (
  • Hepatitis B testing may also be used to assess whether vaccination successfully generated immunity and to identify who is at an increased risk of HBV reactivation. (
  • The purpose of this study is to determine prevalence and correlates of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), syphilis, and hepatitis B and C infection among obstetric patients and model hepatitis B vaccination approaches in Kabul, Afghanistan. (
  • 19. The impact of polymerase chain reaction assays for the detection of hepatitis C virus infection in a hemodialysis unit. (
  • HCV pre- and post-treatment levels of core antigen (HCVcAg) testing is a HCVcAg of the studied group. (
  • The hepatitis C core antigen (HCVcAg) derives from the hepatitis C virus (HCV) core protein. (
  • The addition of the Elecsys HCV Duo assay to our HCV testing portfolio can help in the fight to eliminate the hepatitis C virus. (
  • 12. Evaluation of a total hepatitis C virus (HCV) core antigen assay for the detection of antigenaemia in anti-HCV positive individuals. (
  • The real-time PCR assay was employed to quantify the gene copies of hepatitis B and C viruses. (
  • 6. [Use of combined detection of hepatitis C virus core antigen and antibodies to reduce the serological window-phase]. (
  • 2. Virological characteristics of hepatitis C virus infection in chronic hemodialysis patients: a cross-sectional study. (
  • 4. A cost-effective algorithm for the diagnosis of Hepatitis C virus infection and prediction of HCV viremia in Cameroon. (
  • 10. Prevalence, risk factors, and genotype distribution of hepatitis C virus infection in the general population: a community-based survey in southern Italy. (
  • Recommendations for Identification and Public Health Management of Persons with Chronic Hepatitis B Virus Infection (MMWR Recomm Rep 2008;57[No. RR-8]) regarding screening for HBV infection in the United States . (
  • and persons with a history of hepatitis C virus infection. (
  • This core protein fragment represents part of the infectious virions inner core particle, which encloses the viral genome. (
  • It is a highly immunogenic subviral particle comprising 180 or 240 copies of the core protein and functions as both a T-cell-dependent and a T-cell-independent antigen. (
  • 7. Antibody responses to the hepatitis C virus E2 protein: relationship to viraemia and prevalence in anti-HCV seronegative subjects. (
  • Researchers determined the structure of a protein on the surface of the hepatitis C virus that allows it to gain entry into cells. (
  • The scientists created crystals of the E2 protein core structure in complex with an antigen-binding fragment, which helps stabilize the structure for study. (
  • The researchers compared the structure of the HCV core domain with other protein structures in the NIH-supported Protein Data Bank. (
  • There are different tests for hepatitis A and hepatitis B. A positive test is considered abnormal. (
  • The pathogenesis and clinical manifestations of hepatitis B are due to the interaction of the virus and the host immune system, which leads to liver injury and, potentially, cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. (
  • 8. Extrahepatic immunological manifestations of hepatitis C virus in dialysis patients. (
  • 5. Prediction of viremia for cases of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection using a third-generation anti-HCV enzyme immunoassay test. (
  • Co-infection with hepatitis D virus (HDV) in persons with acute or chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection can lead to fulminant hepatitis. (
  • NHANES testing for markers of infection with hepatitis viruses will be used to determine secular trends in infection rates across most age and racial/ethnic groups, and will provide a national picture of the epidemiologic determinants of these infections. (
  • According to the release, this allows it to enable significantly earlier diagnosis of active infection relative to antibody-only assays, as core antigen appears early in an infection and is a marker of ongoing viral replication. (
  • Antibodies that recognize the HCV core antigen are useful in assays to detect the presence and abundance of HCV. (
  • HCV is not related to hepatitis viruses A, B, D, and E. While vaccines are available for hepatitis A and B, currently no vaccine is available to prevent hepatitis C infection. (
  • One such intervention is birth dose hepatitis B vaccine. (
  • For the last three years in Afghanistan, monovalent hepatitis B vaccine has been administered simultaneously with diphtheria-pertussis-tetanus (DPT) vaccine at two, four, and six months of life. (
  • Enzyme immunoassay for the detection of hepatitis B virus core antigen. (
  • Elecsys uses dual detection of HCV core antigen and antibodies. (
  • Many people with hepatitis B have no symptoms, so screening for this disease enables early detection so you can receive treatment and avoid unknowingly spreading the virus to others. (
  • It is shown here that expression of the core antigen gene was inducible by growing the cells as a nude mouse tumour. (
  • Expression of the core antigen gene was shut off by culture in vitro of core or e antigen-producing nude mouse tumour cells and induced again by subsequent passage of cells in the nude mouse. (
  • The experimental system thus allows studies on the regulation of expression of the core antigen gene. (
  • Patients with chronic active hepatitis, especially during the replicative state, may have symptoms similar to those of acute hepatitis. (
  • Acute hepatitis B is a short-lived infection. (
  • You can usually recover completely from acute hepatitis B without treatment within a few weeks to six months. (
  • Around 5 to 10% of patients with acute hepatitis B progress to having chronic hepatitis B, a long-term infection lasting six months or longer. (
  • IgM Hepatitis B core antibody is detected only in acute hepatitis B infections within six months of infection. (
  • This may be a new infection (acute hepatitis), or it may be an infection that you have had for a long time ( chronic hepatitis). (
  • Effective vaccines to prevent hepatitis B are available. (
  • The primary treatment goals for patients with hepatitis B infection are to prevent progression of the disease, particularly to cirrhosis, liver failure, or hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). (
  • Additionally, 1.29 million people died of hepatitis C-related causes, such as cirrhosis or liver cancer. (
  • 12. Risk and predictors of hepatocellular carcinoma for chronic hepatitis B patients with newly developed cirrhosis. (
  • Pantomics Array Description: Liver common disease tissue array, 24 cases of normal, hepatitis, viral related cirrhosis and tumor tissues of. (
  • Persons with chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection are at increased risk for liver cancer and cirrhosis and are 70%-85% more likely to die prematurely than the general population ( 1 - 4 ). (
  • Serology was obtained for hepatitis B markers and human immunodeficiency virus antibody. (
  • Hepatitis viruses constitute a major public health problem because of the morbidity and mortality associated with the acute and chronic consequences of these infections. (
  • In addition, NHANES provides the means to better define the epidemiology of other hepatitis viruses. (
  • Antibody and antigen tests can detect each of the different hepatitis viruses. (
  • Blood (serology) tests are used to check for antibodies to each of the hepatitis viruses. (
  • 3. [Efficacy of absorbance ratio of ELISA antibodies [corrected] for hepatitis C virus of 3th generation in the prediction of viremia evaluated by PCR]. (
  • 16. False-positive reaction between syphilis and hepatitis C infection. (
  • Testing for hepatitis B provides information about a current or past infection with HBV. (
  • The hepatitis virus panel is a series of blood tests used to detect current or past infection by hepatitis A , hepatitis B , or hepatitis C . It can screen blood samples for more than one kind of hepatitis virus at the same time. (
  • Hepatitis B viral mutants can emerge in patients as a result of selection pressure from either immune response or treatment options. (
  • The physical examination findings in hepatitis B disease vary from minimal to impressive (in patients with hepatic decompensation), according to the stage of the disease. (
  • The launch of this innovative dual antigen and antibody diagnostic test underlines our commitment to support clinicians and their patients in reducing the impact of infectious diseases, where it's needed most. (
  • We review the pathophysiology and serology of hepatitis B infection and provide recommendations for screening for hepatitis B infection in patients with psoriasis before beginning anti-tumor necrosis factor-alfa therapy or other immunosuppressive agents. (
  • Drug-induced hepatitis occurred in 3 patients and 12 had hepatitis C coinfection. (
  • 9. Risk factors for hepatocellular carcinoma in patients with drug-resistant chronic hepatitis B. (
  • 13. Diagnostic utility of hepatitis C virus core antigen in hemodialysis patients. (
  • The author presents a case of Hepatitis B turning 'negative' with homeopathy. (
  • Detecting anti-HBs suggests that you have recovered from hepatitis B and are now immune to the disease. (
  • Testing may be used to diagnose hepatitis B, assess its severity, and determine whether you have immunity to this disease. (
  • Test results can identify present hepatitis B infection, past exposure to HBV, or immunity to the virus. (
  • With improved hepatitis screening, healthcare systems have the opportunity to eliminate the disease through improved prevention, testing, and treatment services,'' said Thomas Schinecker, CEO, Roche Diagnostics, in the press release. (
  • No consensus exists regarding the optimal laboratory screening for hepatitis B infection that should be performed before initiating therapy with tumor necrosis factor-alfa inhibitors or other immunosuppressive agents. (
  • We sought to give guidelines on which tests to order for hepatitis B screening. (
  • Hepatitis B screening may be recommended if you are at an increased risk of contracting this infection. (
  • Prior to initiating KESIMPTA, perform Hepatitis B virus (HBV) screening. (
  • Over the past decade, the importance of hepatitis B virus (HBV) mutants has made a transition from an academic phenomenon of unknown prevalence to a factor for consideration during disease diagnosis. (
  • 15. [Quantitative antibody analysis: use for the diagnosis of hepatitis C virus chronic infection]. (
  • K/C/O Hepatitis B ( Homeopathy for Hepatitis B ) with Jaundice. (
  • Chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection can lead to substantial morbidity and mortality. (
  • New immunization strategies have been developed to eliminate the spread of HBV and hepatitis A virus (HAV) in the United States. (
  • Hepatitis B is a viral infection that causes inflammation of the liver. (
  • Antigens of HBV are substances from the virus that cause your body to produce an immune response. (
  • Multiple regression analysis was performed to determine the factors which might predict hepatitis B serologic status. (
  • If you are diagnosed with hepatitis B based on these initial tests, additional testing may be used to monitor the disease, guide treatment, and determine if you can spread hepatitis B to others. (
  • 8. Long-term outcomes and predictive scores for hepatocellular carcinoma and hepatitis B surface antigen seroclearance after hepatitis B e-antigen seroclearance. (
  • Testing may be used after a person is diagnosed with hepatitis B to monitor the disease, detect complications, and assess response to treatment. (
  • Recommendations have also been developed for the prevention and control of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection. (
  • Two seropositive prostitutes had IgM hepatitis B core antibody suggesting recent infection. (
  • To provide a framework for reaching the World Health Organization's viral hepatitis elimination goals, the Viral Hepatitis National Strategic Plan for the United States calls for an increase in the proportion of persons with HBV infection who are aware of their infection from 32% (2013-2016) to 90% by 2030 ( 12 , 13 ). (
  • Hepatitis B core antibodies appear as you develop symptoms of hepatitis, and they remain detectable for life. (
  • Your provider may order this test if you have signs or symptoms of hepatitis. (
  • If you have chronic hepatitis B, you are at an increased risk of developing complications, including severe damage to the liver, liver failure, and liver cancer. (
  • Left untreated, chronic hepatitis C can cause severe liver disease or liver cancer. (