INFLAMMATION of the LIVER in humans caused by a member of the ORTHOHEPADNAVIRUS genus, HEPATITIS B VIRUS. It is primarily transmitted by parenteral exposure, such as transfusion of contaminated blood or blood products, but can also be transmitted via sexual or intimate personal contact.
The type species of the genus ORTHOHEPADNAVIRUS which causes human HEPATITIS B and is also apparently a causal agent in human HEPATOCELLULAR CARCINOMA. The Dane particle is an intact hepatitis virion, named after its discoverer. Non-infectious spherical and tubular particles are also seen in the serum.
Those hepatitis B antigens found on the surface of the Dane particle and on the 20 nm spherical and tubular particles. Several subspecificities of the surface antigen are known. These were formerly called the Australia antigen.
INFLAMMATION of the LIVER in humans caused by HEPATITIS B VIRUS lasting six months or more. It is primarily transmitted by parenteral exposure, such as transfusion of contaminated blood or blood products, but can also be transmitted via sexual or intimate personal contact.
Vaccines or candidate vaccines containing inactivated hepatitis B or some of its component antigens and designed to prevent hepatitis B. Some vaccines may be recombinantly produced.
Antibodies to the HEPATITIS B ANTIGENS, including antibodies to the surface (Australia) and core of the Dane particle and those to the "e" antigens.
The hepatitis B antigen within the core of the Dane particle, the infectious hepatitis virion.
A closely related group of antigens found in the plasma only during the infective phase of hepatitis B or in virulent chronic hepatitis B, probably indicating active virus replication; there are three subtypes which may exist in a complex with immunoglobulins G.
INFLAMMATION of the LIVER in humans caused by HEPATITIS C VIRUS, a single-stranded RNA virus. Its incubation period is 30-90 days. Hepatitis C is transmitted primarily by contaminated blood parenterally, and is often associated with transfusion and intravenous drug abuse. However, in a significant number of cases, the source of hepatitis C infection is unknown.
INFLAMMATION of the LIVER in humans caused by a member of the HEPATOVIRUS genus, HUMAN HEPATITIS A VIRUS. It can be transmitted through fecal contamination of food or water.
Antigens of the virion of the HEPATITIS B VIRUS or the Dane particle, its surface (HEPATITIS B SURFACE ANTIGENS), core (HEPATITIS B CORE ANTIGENS), and other associated antigens, including the HEPATITIS B E ANTIGENS.
INFLAMMATION of the LIVER in humans due to infection by VIRUSES. There are several significant types of human viral hepatitis with infection caused by enteric-transmission (HEPATITIS A; HEPATITIS E) or blood transfusion (HEPATITIS B; HEPATITIS C; and HEPATITIS D).
INFLAMMATION of the LIVER in humans that is caused by HEPATITIS C VIRUS lasting six months or more. Chronic hepatitis C can lead to LIVER CIRRHOSIS.
A species in the genus HEPATOVIRUS containing one serotype and two strains: HUMAN HEPATITIS A VIRUS and Simian hepatitis A virus causing hepatitis in humans (HEPATITIS A) and primates, respectively.
A DNA virus that closely resembles human hepatitis B virus. It has been recovered from naturally infected ducks.
INFLAMMATION of the LIVER with ongoing hepatocellular injury for 6 months or more, characterized by NECROSIS of HEPATOCYTES and inflammatory cell (LEUKOCYTES) infiltration. Chronic hepatitis can be caused by viruses, medications, autoimmune diseases, and other unknown factors.
Immunoglobulins raised by any form of viral hepatitis; some of these antibodies are used to diagnose the specific kind of hepatitis.
Agents used in the prophylaxis or therapy of VIRUS DISEASES. Some of the ways they may act include preventing viral replication by inhibiting viral DNA polymerase; binding to specific cell-surface receptors and inhibiting viral penetration or uncoating; inhibiting viral protein synthesis; or blocking late stages of virus assembly.
A genus of FLAVIVIRIDAE causing parenterally-transmitted HEPATITIS C which is associated with transfusions and drug abuse. Hepatitis C virus is the type species.
Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent infection with hepatitis A virus (HEPATOVIRUS).
Antibodies to the HEPATITIS C ANTIGENS including antibodies to envelope, core, and non-structural proteins.
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.
INFLAMMATION of the LIVER in animals due to viral infection.
INFLAMMATION of the LIVER in humans caused by HEPATITIS DELTA VIRUS, a defective RNA virus that can only infect HEPATITIS B patients. For its viral coating, hepatitis delta virus requires the HEPATITIS B SURFACE ANTIGENS produced by these patients. Hepatitis D can occur either concomitantly with (coinfection) or subsequent to (superinfection) hepatitis B infection. Similar to hepatitis B, it is primarily transmitted by parenteral exposure, such as transfusion of contaminated blood or blood products, but can also be transmitted via sexual or intimate personal contact.
Any of the viruses that cause inflammation of the liver. They include both DNA and RNA viruses as well viruses from humans and animals.
Any vaccine raised against any virus or viral derivative that causes hepatitis.
A reverse transcriptase inhibitor and ZALCITABINE analog in which a sulfur atom replaces the 3' carbon of the pentose ring. It is used to treat HIV disease.
Acute INFLAMMATION of the LIVER in humans; caused by HEPATITIS E VIRUS, a non-enveloped single-stranded RNA virus. Similar to HEPATITIS A, its incubation period is 15-60 days and is enterically transmitted, usually by fecal-oral transmission.
A defective virus, containing particles of RNA nucleoprotein in virion-like form, present in patients with acute hepatitis B and chronic hepatitis. It requires the presence of a hepadnavirus for full replication. This is the lone species in the genus Deltavirus.
Antibodies to the HEPATITIS A ANTIGENS including antibodies to envelope, core, and non-structural proteins.
A positive-stranded RNA virus species in the genus HEPEVIRUS, causing enterically-transmitted non-A, non-B hepatitis (HEPATITIS E).
A chronic self-perpetuating hepatocellular INFLAMMATION of unknown cause, usually with HYPERGAMMAGLOBULINEMIA and serum AUTOANTIBODIES.
A primary malignant neoplasm of epithelial liver cells. It ranges from a well-differentiated tumor with EPITHELIAL CELLS indistinguishable from normal HEPATOCYTES to a poorly differentiated neoplasm. The cells may be uniform or markedly pleomorphic, or form GIANT CELLS. Several classification schemes have been suggested.
A strain of HEPATITIS A VIRUS which causes hepatitis in humans. The virus replicates in hepatocytes and is presumed to reach the intestine via the bile duct. Transmission occurs by the fecal-oral route.
Liver disease in which the normal microcirculation, the gross vascular anatomy, and the hepatic architecture have been variably destroyed and altered with fibrous septa surrounding regenerated or regenerating parenchymal nodules.
Tumors or cancer of the LIVER.
INFLAMMATION of the LIVER in non-human animals.
An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of L-alanine and 2-oxoglutarate to pyruvate and L-glutamate. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC
The condition of harboring an infective organism without manifesting symptoms of infection. The organism must be readily transmissible to another susceptible host.
An ORTHOHEPADNAVIRUS causing chronic liver disease and hepatocellular carcinoma in woodchucks. It closely resembles the human hepatitis B virus.
Ribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.
A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.
One of the type I interferons produced by peripheral blood leukocytes or lymphoblastoid cells. In addition to antiviral activity, it activates NATURAL KILLER CELLS and B-LYMPHOCYTES, and down-regulates VASCULAR ENDOTHELIAL GROWTH FACTOR expression through PI-3 KINASE and MAPK KINASES signaling pathways.
A genus of PICORNAVIRIDAE causing infectious hepatitis naturally in humans and experimentally in other primates. It is transmitted through fecal contamination of food or water. HEPATITIS A VIRUS is the type species.
The process of intracellular viral multiplication, consisting of the synthesis of PROTEINS; NUCLEIC ACIDS; and sometimes LIPIDS, and their assembly into a new infectious particle.
Antigens of the virions of HEPACIVIRUS, their surface, core, or other associated antigens.
A species of the CORONAVIRUS genus causing hepatitis in mice. Four strains have been identified as MHV 1, MHV 2, MHV 3, and MHV 4 (also known as MHV-JHM, which is neurotropic and causes disseminated encephalomyelitis with demyelination as well as focal liver necrosis).
Antigens from any of the hepatitis viruses including surface, core, and other associated antigens.
Antigens produced by various strains of HEPATITIS D VIRUS.
Carbon-containing phosphonic acid compounds. Included under this heading are compounds that have carbon bound to either OXYGEN atom or the PHOSPHOROUS atom of the (P=O)O2 structure.
EPIDEMIOLOGIC STUDIES based on the detection through serological testing of characteristic change in the serum level of specific ANTIBODIES. Latent subclinical infections and carrier states can thus be detected in addition to clinically overt cases.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
Antigens produced by various strains of HEPATITIS A VIRUS such as the human hepatitis A virus (HEPATITIS A VIRUS, HUMAN).
The genetic constitution of the individual, comprising the ALLELES present at each GENETIC LOCUS.
A genus of Sciuridae consisting of 14 species. They are shortlegged, burrowing rodents which hibernate in winter.
Proteins found mainly in icosahedral DNA and RNA viruses. They consist of proteins directly associated with the nucleic acid inside the NUCLEOCAPSID.
Virus diseases caused by the HEPADNAVIRIDAE.
INFLAMMATION of the LIVER due to ALCOHOL ABUSE. It is characterized by NECROSIS of HEPATOCYTES, infiltration by NEUTROPHILS, and deposit of MALLORY BODIES. Depending on its severity, the inflammatory lesion may be reversible or progress to LIVER CIRRHOSIS.
A purine base and a fundamental unit of ADENINE NUCLEOTIDES.
A nucleoside antimetabolite antiviral agent that blocks nucleic acid synthesis and is used against both RNA and DNA viruses.
The transference of a part of or an entire liver from one human or animal to another.
The quantity of measurable virus in a body fluid. Change in viral load, measured in plasma, is sometimes used as a SURROGATE MARKER in disease progression.
The complete genetic complement contained in a DNA or RNA molecule in a virus.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
Administration of vaccines to stimulate the host's immune response. This includes any preparation intended for active immunological prophylaxis.
The total number of cases of a given disease in a specified population at a designated time. It is differentiated from INCIDENCE, which refers to the number of new cases in the population at a given time.
INFLAMMATION of the LIVER in humans caused by HEPATITIS DELTA VIRUS in conjunction with HEPATITIS B VIRUS and lasting six months or more.
The main structural component of the LIVER. They are specialized EPITHELIAL CELLS that are organized into interconnected plates called lobules.
The ability of viruses to resist or to become tolerant to chemotherapeutic agents or antiviral agents. This resistance is acquired through gene mutation.
Proteins encoded by a VIRAL GENOME that are produced in the organisms they infect, but not packaged into the VIRUS PARTICLES. Some of these proteins may play roles within the infected cell during VIRUS REPLICATION or act in regulation of virus replication or VIRUS ASSEMBLY.
Polymers of ETHYLENE OXIDE and water, and their ethers. They vary in consistency from liquid to solid depending on the molecular weight indicated by a number following the name. They are used as SURFACTANTS, dispersing agents, solvents, ointment and suppository bases, vehicles, and tablet excipients. Some specific groups are NONOXYNOLS, OCTOXYNOLS, and POLOXAMERS.
A family of hepatotropic DNA viruses which contains double-stranded DNA genomes and causes hepatitis in humans and animals. There are two genera: AVIHEPADNAVIRUS and ORTHOHEPADNAVIRUS. Hepadnaviruses include HEPATITIS B VIRUS, duck hepatitis B virus (HEPATITIS B VIRUS, DUCK), heron hepatitis B virus, ground squirrel hepatitis virus, and woodchuck hepatitis B virus (HEPATITIS B VIRUS, WOODCHUCK).
Blood tests that are used to evaluate how well a patient's liver is working and also to help diagnose liver conditions.
Inhibitors of reverse transcriptase (RNA-DIRECTED DNA POLYMERASE), an enzyme that synthesizes DNA on an RNA template.
The common chimpanzee, a species of the genus Pan, family HOMINIDAE. It lives in Africa, primarily in the tropical rainforests. There are a number of recognized subspecies.
Pathological processes of the LIVER.
Disease having a short and relatively severe course.
In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.
An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
Retroviral proteins coded by the pol gene. They are usually synthesized as a protein precursor (POLYPROTEINS) and later cleaved into final products that include reverse transcriptase, endonuclease/integrase, and viral protease. Sometimes they are synthesized as a gag-pol fusion protein (FUSION PROTEINS, GAG-POL). pol is short for polymerase, the enzyme class of reverse transcriptase.
Includes the spectrum of human immunodeficiency virus infections that range from asymptomatic seropositivity, thru AIDS-related complex (ARC), to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS).
Schedule giving optimum times usually for primary and/or secondary immunization.
Severe inability of the LIVER to perform its normal metabolic functions, as evidenced by severe JAUNDICE and abnormal serum levels of AMMONIA; BILIRUBIN; ALKALINE PHOSPHATASE; ASPARTATE AMINOTRANSFERASE; LACTATE DEHYDROGENASES; and albumin/globulin ratio. (Blakiston's Gould Medical Dictionary, 4th ed)
Simultaneous infection of a host organism by two or more pathogens. In virology, coinfection commonly refers to simultaneous infection of a single cell by two or more different viruses.
Layers of protein which surround the capsid in animal viruses with tubular nucleocapsids. The envelope consists of an inner layer of lipids and virus specified proteins also called membrane or matrix proteins. The outer layer consists of one or more types of morphological subunits called peplomers which project from the viral envelope; this layer always consists of glycoproteins.
The transmission of infectious disease or pathogens from one generation to another. It includes transmission in utero or intrapartum by exposure to blood and secretions, and postpartum exposure via breastfeeding.
A clinical manifestation of HYPERBILIRUBINEMIA, characterized by the yellowish staining of the SKIN; MUCOUS MEMBRANE; and SCLERA. Clinical jaundice usually is a sign of LIVER dysfunction.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
A country spanning from central Asia to the Pacific Ocean.
Immunoglobulins produced in response to VIRAL ANTIGENS.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
Therapy with two or more separate preparations given for a combined effect.
Diseases which have one or more of the following characteristics: they are permanent, leave residual disability, are caused by nonreversible pathological alteration, require special training of the patient for rehabilitation, or may be expected to require a long period of supervision, observation, or care. (Dictionary of Health Services Management, 2d ed)
Enzymes of the transferase class that catalyze the conversion of L-aspartate and 2-ketoglutarate to oxaloacetate and L-glutamate. EC
Abuse, overuse, or misuse of a substance by its injection into a vein.
Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.
The co-occurrence of pregnancy and an INFECTION. The infection may precede or follow FERTILIZATION.
Organized services to administer immunization procedures in the prevention of various diseases. The programs are made available over a wide range of sites: schools, hospitals, public health agencies, voluntary health agencies, etc. They are administered to an equally wide range of population groups or on various administrative levels: community, municipal, state, national, international.
Diffusible gene products that act on homologous or heterologous molecules of viral or cellular DNA to regulate the expression of proteins.
Any of the processes by which cytoplasmic factors influence the differential control of gene action in viruses.
Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.
Infectious organisms in the BLOOD, of which the predominant medical interest is their contamination of blood-soiled linens, towels, gowns, BANDAGES, other items from individuals in risk categories, NEEDLES and other sharp objects, MEDICAL WASTE and DENTAL WASTE, all of which health workers are exposed to. This concept is differentiated from the clinical conditions of BACTEREMIA; VIREMIA; and FUNGEMIA where the organism is present in the blood of a patient as the result of a natural infectious process.
The indelible marking of TISSUES, primarily SKIN, by pricking it with NEEDLES to imbed various COLORING AGENTS. Tattooing of the CORNEA is done to colorize LEUKOMA spots.
A family of RNA viruses, many of which cause disease in humans and domestic animals. There are three genera FLAVIVIRUS; PESTIVIRUS; and HEPACIVIRUS, as well as several unassigned species.
The functional hereditary units of VIRUSES.
The mechanism by which latent viruses, such as genetically transmitted tumor viruses (PROVIRUSES) or PROPHAGES of lysogenic bacteria, are induced to replicate and then released as infectious viruses. It may be effected by various endogenous and exogenous stimuli, including B-cell LIPOPOLYSACCHARIDES, glucocorticoid hormones, halogenated pyrimidines, IONIZING RADIATION, ultraviolet light, and superinfecting viruses.
Purine or pyrimidine bases attached to a ribose or deoxyribose. (From King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
Unassigned species, in the family PICORNAVIRIDAE, causing high mortality in ducklings 3 days to 3 weeks old.
An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
The return of a sign, symptom, or disease after a remission.
The introduction of whole blood or blood component directly into the blood stream. (Dorland, 27th ed)
Proteins secreted by vertebrate cells in response to a wide variety of inducers. They confer resistance against many different viruses, inhibit proliferation of normal and malignant cells, impede multiplication of intracellular parasites, enhance macrophage and granulocyte phagocytosis, augment natural killer cell activity, and show several other immunomodulatory functions.
The presence of viruses in the blood.
A form of rapid-onset LIVER FAILURE, also known as fulminant hepatic failure, caused by severe liver injury or massive loss of HEPATOCYTES. It is characterized by sudden development of liver dysfunction and JAUNDICE. Acute liver failure may progress to exhibit cerebral dysfunction even HEPATIC COMA depending on the etiology that includes hepatic ISCHEMIA, drug toxicity, malignant infiltration, and viral hepatitis such as post-transfusion HEPATITIS B and HEPATITIS C.
Small synthetic peptides that mimic surface antigens of pathogens and are immunogenic, or vaccines manufactured with the aid of recombinant DNA techniques. The latter vaccines may also be whole viruses whose nucleic acids have been modified.
Multi-subunit proteins which function in IMMUNITY. They are produced by B LYMPHOCYTES from the IMMUNOGLOBULIN GENES. They are comprised of two heavy (IMMUNOGLOBULIN HEAVY CHAINS) and two light chains (IMMUNOGLOBULIN LIGHT CHAINS) with additional ancillary polypeptide chains depending on their isoforms. The variety of isoforms include monomeric or polymeric forms, and transmembrane forms (B-CELL ANTIGEN RECEPTORS) or secreted forms (ANTIBODIES). They are divided by the amino acid sequence of their heavy chains into five classes (IMMUNOGLOBULIN A; IMMUNOGLOBULIN D; IMMUNOGLOBULIN E; IMMUNOGLOBULIN G; IMMUNOGLOBULIN M) and various subclasses.
Diagnostic procedures involving immunoglobulin reactions.
The infective system of a virus, composed of the viral genome, a protein core, and a protein coat called a capsid, which may be naked or enclosed in a lipoprotein envelope called the peplos.
The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.
Removal and pathologic examination of specimens in the form of small pieces of tissue from the living body.
The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.
A protein-nucleic acid complex which forms part or all of a virion. It consists of a CAPSID plus enclosed nucleic acid. Depending on the virus, the nucleocapsid may correspond to a naked core or be surrounded by a membranous envelope.
Proteins found in any species of virus.
Sites on an antigen that interact with specific antibodies.
A genus of HEPADNAVIRIDAE infecting birds but rarely causing clinical problems. Transmission is predominantly vertical. HEPATITIS B VIRUS, DUCK is the type species.
A genus of HEPADNAVIRIDAE causing hepatitis in humans, woodchucks (HEPATITIS B VIRUS, WOODCHUCK) and ground squirrels. hepatitis b virus is the type species.
An enzyme that synthesizes DNA on an RNA template. It is encoded by the pol gene of retroviruses and by certain retrovirus-like elements. EC
A spectrum of clinical liver diseases ranging from mild biochemical abnormalities to ACUTE LIVER FAILURE, caused by drugs, drug metabolites, and chemicals from the environment.
A human liver tumor cell line used to study a variety of liver-specific metabolic functions.
A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.
The transmission of infectious disease or pathogens from health professional or health care worker to patients. It includes transmission via direct or indirect exposure to bacterial, fungal, parasitic, or viral agents.
Measurable and quantifiable biological parameters (e.g., specific enzyme concentration, specific hormone concentration, specific gene phenotype distribution in a population, presence of biological substances) which serve as indices for health- and physiology-related assessments, such as disease risk, psychiatric disorders, environmental exposure and its effects, disease diagnosis, metabolic processes, substance abuse, pregnancy, cell line development, epidemiologic studies, etc.
A pyrimidine nucleoside formed in the body by the deamination of CYTARABINE.
Studies which start with the identification of persons with a disease of interest and a control (comparison, referent) group without the disease. The relationship of an attribute to the disease is examined by comparing diseased and non-diseased persons with regard to the frequency or levels of the attribute in each group.
An infant during the first month after birth.
Classic quantitative assay for detection of antigen-antibody reactions using a radioactively labeled substance (radioligand) either directly or indirectly to measure the binding of the unlabeled substance to a specific antibody or other receptor system. Non-immunogenic substances (e.g., haptens) can be measured if coupled to larger carrier proteins (e.g., bovine gamma-globulin or human serum albumin) capable of inducing antibody formation.
Penal institutions, or places of confinement for war prisoners.
Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.
Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.
Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)
A country in northern Africa, bordering the Mediterranean Sea, between Libya and the Gaza Strip, and the Red Sea north of Sudan, and includes the Asian Sinai Peninsula Its capital is Cairo.
A condition characterized by the presence of abnormal quantities of CRYOGLOBULINS in the blood. Upon cold exposure, these abnormal proteins precipitate into the microvasculature leading to restricted blood flow in the exposed areas.
The number of new cases of a given disease during a given period in a specified population. It also is used for the rate at which new events occur in a defined population. It is differentiated from PREVALENCE, which refers to all cases, new or old, in the population at a given time.
A genus of tree shrews of the family TUPAIIDAE which consists of about 12 species. One of the most frequently encountered species is T. glis. Members of this genus inhabit rain forests and secondary growth areas in southeast Asia.
Any immunization following a primary immunization and involving exposure to the same or a closely related antigen.
Studies in which subsets of a defined population are identified. These groups may or may not be exposed to factors hypothesized to influence the probability of the occurrence of a particular disease or other outcome. Cohorts are defined populations which, as a whole, are followed in an attempt to determine distinguishing subgroup characteristics.
A class of immunoglobulin bearing mu chains (IMMUNOGLOBULIN MU-CHAINS). IgM can fix COMPLEMENT. The name comes from its high molecular weight and originally being called a macroglobulin.
Substances elaborated by viruses that have antigenic activity.
Any DNA sequence capable of independent replication or a molecule that possesses a REPLICATION ORIGIN and which is therefore potentially capable of being replicated in a suitable cell. (Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)
A family of the order Rodentia which contains 49 genera. Some of the more common genera are MARMOTA, which includes the marmot and woodchuck; Sciurus, the gray squirrel, S. carolinensis, and the fox squirrel, S. niger; Tamias, the eastern and western chipmunk; and Tamiasciurus, the red squirrel. The flying squirrels, except the scaly-tailed Anomaluridae, also belong to this family.
Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.
The transmission of infectious disease or pathogens. When transmission is within the same species, the mode can be horizontal or vertical (INFECTIOUS DISEASE TRANSMISSION, VERTICAL).
A subclass of enzymes of the transferase class that catalyze the transfer of an amino group from a donor (generally an amino acid) to an acceptor (generally a 2-keto acid). Most of these enzymes are pyridoxyl phosphate proteins. (Dorland, 28th ed) EC 2.6.1.
Studies in which the presence or absence of disease or other health-related variables are determined in each member of the study population or in a representative sample at one particular time. This contrasts with LONGITUDINAL STUDIES which are followed over a period of time.
Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.
The assembly of VIRAL STRUCTURAL PROTEINS and nucleic acid (VIRAL DNA or VIRAL RNA) to form a VIRUS PARTICLE.
A potent hepatotoxic and hepatocarcinogenic mycotoxin produced by the Aspergillus flavus group of fungi. It is also mutagenic, teratogenic, and causes immunosuppression in animals. It is found as a contaminant in peanuts, cottonseed meal, corn, and other grains. The mycotoxin requires epoxidation to aflatoxin B1 2,3-oxide for activation. Microsomal monooxygenases biotransform the toxin to the less toxic metabolites aflatoxin M1 and Q1.
Immunologic techniques based on the use of: (1) enzyme-antibody conjugates; (2) enzyme-antigen conjugates; (3) antienzyme antibody followed by its homologous enzyme; or (4) enzyme-antienzyme complexes. These are used histologically for visualizing or labeling tissue specimens.
The major immunoglobulin isotype class in normal human serum. There are several isotype subclasses of IgG, for example, IgG1, IgG2A, and IgG2B.
The outer protein protective shell of a virus, which protects the viral nucleic acid.
DNA sequences which are recognized (directly or indirectly) and bound by a DNA-dependent RNA polymerase during the initiation of transcription. Highly conserved sequences within the promoter include the Pribnow box in bacteria and the TATA BOX in eukaryotes.
Genotypic differences observed among individuals in a population.
Penetrating stab wounds caused by needles. They are of special concern to health care workers since such injuries put them at risk for developing infectious disease.
The worsening of a disease over time. This concept is most often used for chronic and incurable diseases where the stage of the disease is an important determinant of therapy and prognosis.
A bile pigment that is a degradation product of HEME.
The first alpha-globulins to appear in mammalian sera during FETAL DEVELOPMENT and the dominant serum proteins in early embryonic life.
Organized periodic procedures performed on large groups of people for the purpose of detecting disease.
Viral diseases which are transmitted or propagated by sexual conduct.
The sexual attraction or relationship between members of the same SEX.
Any of the covalently closed DNA molecules found in bacteria, many viruses, mitochondria, plastids, and plasmids. Small, polydisperse circular DNA's have also been observed in a number of eukaryotic organisms and are suggested to have homology with chromosomal DNA and the capacity to be inserted into, and excised from, chromosomal DNA. It is a fragment of DNA formed by a process of looping out and deletion, containing a constant region of the mu heavy chain and the 3'-part of the mu switch region. Circular DNA is a normal product of rearrangement among gene segments encoding the variable regions of immunoglobulin light and heavy chains, as well as the T-cell receptor. (Riger et al., Glossary of Genetics, 5th ed & Segen, Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992)
Deliberate stimulation of the host's immune response. ACTIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of ANTIGENS or IMMUNOLOGIC ADJUVANTS. PASSIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of IMMUNE SERA or LYMPHOCYTES or their extracts (e.g., transfer factor, immune RNA) or transplantation of immunocompetent cell producing tissue (thymus or bone marrow).
DNA-dependent DNA polymerases found in bacteria, animal and plant cells. During the replication process, these enzymes catalyze the addition of deoxyribonucleotide residues to the end of a DNA strand in the presence of DNA as template-primer. They also possess exonuclease activity and therefore function in DNA repair.
The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.
Tetraspanin proteins that are involved in a variety of cellular functions including BASEMENT MEMBRANE assembly, and in the formation of a molecular complexes on the surface of LYMPHOCYTES.
A species of virus (unassigned to a genus) in the family FLAVIVIRIDAE. It is genetically heterogeneous, of human origin, and transmitted by blood or blood products. Despite its alternate name (Hepatitis G virus), its pathogenicity remains controversial.
Commercially prepared reagent sets, with accessory devices, containing all of the major components and literature necessary to perform one or more designated diagnostic tests or procedures. They may be for laboratory or personal use.
The degree to which the blood supply for BLOOD TRANSFUSIONS is free of harmful substances or infectious agents, and properly typed and crossmatched (BLOOD GROUPING AND CROSSMATCHING) to insure serological compatibility between BLOOD DONORS and recipients.
The study of the structure, growth, function, genetics, and reproduction of viruses, and VIRUS DISEASES.
A malignant neoplasm occurring in young children, primarily in the liver, composed of tissue resembling embryonal or fetal hepatic epithelium, or mixed epithelial and mesenchymal tissues. (Stedman, 25th ed)
Infections with viruses of the family FLAVIVIRIDAE.
Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.
Further or repeated use of equipment, instruments, devices, or materials. It includes additional use regardless of the original intent of the producer as to disposability or durability. It does not include the repeated use of fluids or solutions.
The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.
Forceful administration into a muscle of liquid medication, nutrient, or other fluid through a hollow needle piercing the muscle and any tissue covering it.
The transmission of infectious disease or pathogens from patients to health professionals or health care workers. It includes transmission via direct or indirect exposure to bacterial, fungal, parasitic, or viral agents.
Therapy for the insufficient cleansing of the BLOOD by the kidneys based on dialysis and including hemodialysis, PERITONEAL DIALYSIS, and HEMODIAFILTRATION.
A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.

Altered helper T lymphocyte function associated with chronic hepatitis B virus infection and its role in response to therapeutic vaccination in humans. (1/1741)

Theradigm-hepatitis B virus (HBV) is an experimental lipopeptide vaccine designed to stimulate induction of HBV-specific CTL responses in HLA-A2 individuals. Previous studies had demonstrated high immunogenicity in healthy volunteers, but comparatively weak CTL responses in chronically infected HBV patients. Herein, we examined helper T lymphocyte (HTL) responses in chronically infected patients. Despite normal proliferation and IL-2 secretion, IL-12 and IFN-gamma secretion in vitro in response to the vaccine was reduced compared with healthy volunteers. A similar pattern of cytokine secretion was observed following mitogen stimulation, suggesting a general altered balance of Th1/Th2 responses. Further analysis indicated that HTL recall responses to whole tetanus toxoid protein were reduced in chronically infected subjects, and reduced responsiveness correlated with the outcome of Theradigm-HBV immunization. Finally, experiments in HBV transgenic mice indicated that the nonnatural Pan DR HTL epitope, PADRE, is capable of inducing high levels of IFN-gamma secretion and that its inclusion in a lipopeptide incorporating an immunodominant Ld-restricted CTL epitope resulted in breaking tolerance at the CTL level. Overall, our results demonstrate an alteration in the quality of HTL responses induced in chronically infected HBV patients and suggest that use of a potent HTL epitope may be important to overcome CTL tolerance against specific HBV Ags.  (+info)

HBV-specific immune defect in chronic hepatitis B (CHB) is correlated with a dysregulation of pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines. (2/1741)

The aim of this study was to examine the immunomodulating effects of rhIL-12 on the immune response induced by hepatitis B virus (HBV) antigens in clinical subgroups of patients with HBV infection. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) of 80 patients were stimulated with HBsAg, HBcAg, pre-S1Ag and tetanus toxoid in the absence or presence of IL-12 (0.01, 0.1 and 1 ng/ml). Stimulation by anti-CD3+ anti-CD28 and lipopolysaccharide (LPS) were used as controls. Proliferation and cytokine production were determined by 3H-thymidine uptake and ELISA after 72 h. After stimulation with HBV antigens only, production of tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) or IL-10 was observed in all patients, while interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) was detectable in only 27 patients. After costimulation with IL-12 and HBV antigens, however, large amounts of IFN-gamma were found in all patients, while HBV-induced IL-10 production remained mostly unchanged. When clinical subgroups including patients with compensated liver cirrhosis were compared, PBMC from patients with HBeAg+ hepatitis showed the lowest capacity to produce IFN-gamma after HBV antigen-positive IL-12. These data suggest that the ability of IL-12 to enhance IFN-gamma production against HBV antigens is correlated with the presence of HBeAg and is not impaired in patients with advanced liver disease. In addition, IL-12 and IL-10 production by antigen-presenting cells may be a critical factor that determines the efficacy of the immune response against the hepatitis B virus.  (+info)

High mobility group (HMG) non-histone chromosomal proteins HMG1 and HMG2 are significant target antigens of perinuclear anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies in autoimmune hepatitis. (3/1741)

BACKGROUND: High mobility group (HMG) non-histone chromosomal proteins HMG1 and HMG2 have been identified as novel antigens of perinuclear anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies (p-ANCAs), and the existence of anti-HMG1 and anti-HMG2 antibodies in a population of patients with ulcerative colitis has been reported. AIMS: To investigate whether HMG1 and HMG2 are target antigens for p-ANCAs in autoimmune hepatitis (AIH). PATIENTS: Serum samples from 28 patients with AIH, 44 patients with primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC), 27 patients with chronic hepatitis C, and 23 patients with chronic hepatitis B were tested. METHODS: ANCAs were detected by routine indirect immunofluorescence (IIF). Anti-HMG1 and anti-HMG2 antibodies were assayed by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay. RESULTS: p-ANCAs were detected in 89% (25/28) of patients with AIH, 36% (16/44) of patients with PBC, 11% (3/27) of patients with chronic hepatitis C, and 13% (3/23) of patients with chronic hepatitis B. Anti-HMG1 and/or anti-HMG2 antibodies were detected in 89% (25/28) of patients with AIH, 70% (31/44) with PBC, 26% (7/27) with chronic hepatitis C, and 9% (2/23) with chronic hepatitis B. In AIH, anti-HMG1 and/or anti-HMG2 antibodies were detected in 96% (24/25) of p-ANCA positive patients. The p-ANCA staining pattern detected by IIF using sera from patients with AIH disappeared or decreased in titre after preincubation with a mixture of HMG1/HMG2. The presence and titres of those antibodies in AIH correlated significantly with those of p-ANCA, but not with those of anti-nuclear antibody or anti-smooth muscle antibody. CONCLUSIONS: HMG1 and HMG2 are significant target antigens of p-ANCA in AIH.  (+info)

High prevalence of TT virus infection in healthy children and adults and in patients with liver disease in Taiwan. (4/1741)

A newly identified DNA virus, named TT virus (TTV), was found to be related to transfusion-associated hepatitis. We conducted the following experiments to evaluate its pathogenic role in liver disease and potential modes of transmission. We used PCR to detect TTV DNA in serum. The rates of TTV viremia in 13 patients with idiopathic acute hepatitis, 14 patients with idiopathic fulminant hepatitis, 22 patients with chronic hepatitis, and 19 patients with cirrhosis of the liver were 46, 64, 55, and 63%, respectively, and were not significantly different from those in 50 healthy control subjects (53%). PCR products derived from seven patients with liver disease and three healthy controls were cloned and then subjected to phylogenetic analyses, which failed to link a virulent strain of TTV to severe liver disease. TTV infection was further assessed in an additional 148 subjects with normal liver biochemical tests, including 30 newborns (sera collected from the umbilical cord), 23 infants, 16 preschool children, 21 individuals of an age prior to that of sexual experience (aged 6 to 15 years), 15 young adults (aged under 30 years), and 43 individuals older than 30 years. The rates of TTV viremia were 0, 17, 25, 33, 47, and 54%, respectively. These findings suggest that TTV is transmitted mainly via nonparenteral daily contact and frequently occurs very early in life and that TTV infection does not have a significant effect on liver disease.  (+info)

Quantitative analysis of hepatitis B virus precore mutant in hepatitis type B. (5/1741)

Active liver disease has been detected in chronic hepatitis B after seroconversion from positive HBe antigen to positive anti-HBe antibody. Active replication of HB virus (HBV) containing a precore stop-codon mutation has been implicated in this condition. The usual methods, such as direct sequencing, to characterize the responsible mutant of HBV are not suitable for routine clinical use. Here we employed the competitive mutation site specific assay (CMSSA) to detect precore mutant HBV-DNA in patients with positive HB surface antigen. In patients with HBe antigen, precore mutant HBV-DNA was significantly higher than in patients with HBe antibody. The level of precore mutant HBV-DNA in patients with elevated serum ALT was significantly higher than in patients with normal serum ALT. Sex, age and the level of serum HBV-associated DNA polymerase levels were not correlated with levels of precore mutant HBV-DNA. Ten of 11 negative patients for the precore mutant by polymerase chain reaction followed by restriction fragment length polymorphism assay (PCRRFLP) were positive for the precore mutant by CMSSA. These results suggest that the precore mutant has already emerged in the HBeAg-positive phase as determined by CMSSA, which is more sensitive than PCR-RFLP and is useful for evaluating the clinical course of patients with chronic hepatitis B.  (+info)

Expression of Th1 and Th2 type cytokines responding to HBsAg and HBxAg in chronic hepatitis B patients. (6/1741)

The cytokine pattern on viral antigen recognition is believed to exert a profound influence on the resolution of viral infections and viral clearance. This study was initiated to investigate whether a cytokine imbalance oriented toward Th2 type response plays a role in chronic hepatitis B. Cytokine profiles of peripheral blood mononuclear cells associated with chronic hepatitis B were analysed by RT-PCR. Upon HBsAg stimulation, expression of IFN-gamma, IL-2, IL-4, and IL-10 was detected in 41%, 8%, 41%, and 50% of the patients, respectively. Among these cytokines, the expression of IFN-gamma was associated with high levels of serum AST/ALT. However, we could not prove that Th2 type cytokines had a protective effect on hepatocytes. Upon HBxAg stimulation, there was no recognizable association of cytokine patterns with AST/ALT levels. In conclusion, production of a Th1 cytokine, IFN-gamma, by HBsAg-reactive cells was associated with hepatocyte damage in chronic hepatitis B, while no counteracting effect of Th2 cytokines produced by those cells was observed.  (+info)

Hepatitis B surface antigen disappearance and hepatitis B surface antigen subtype: a prospective, long-term, follow-up study of Japanese residents of Okinawa, Japan with chronic hepatitis B virus infection. (7/1741)

To determine the natural course of hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) disappearance in chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection and the factors related to its disappearance, 946 HBsAg carriers in Okinawa, Japan were prospectively followed for up to 19 years (mean = 9.2 years). The disappearance of HBsAg, as determined by radioimmunoassay (RIA), was observed in 62 (6.6%) and the overall annual disappearance rate was 0.79%/year. Its disappearance was more frequent in 60 (7.4%) of 815 serum samples negative for hepatitis B e antigen (HBeAg) by RIA at entry compared with only two (1.5%) of 131 serum samples that were HBeAg positive by RIA at entry (P < 0.05). Stepwise logistic regression analysis showed that age and HBsAg subtype were significantly associated with HBsAg disappearance (both P < 0.05), and that carriers with subtype adr (odds ratio = 2.87) had an increased probability of clearing HBsAg compared with carriers with subtype adw. Conversely, HBeAg disappearance was earlier in those with the adw subtype than in those with adr. Hepatitis B virus DNA was not detected by the polymerase chain reaction after HBsAg disappearance in any of the 62 from whom it had disappeared. The HBsAg titer, as measured by reverse passive hemagglutination, was related to the time to its disappearance; the higher the titer, the longer the time to disappearance. These findings suggest that HBeAg negativity, a more advanced age, and low titers of HBsAg are favorable factors for HBsAg disappearance in the natural course of chronic HBV infection. Moreover, HBsAg subtype adr was a predictive factor for HBsAg disappearance, whereas subtype adw was predictive of early HBeAg disappearance.  (+info)

Specific vaccine therapy in chronic hepatitis B: induction of T cell proliferative responses specific for envelope antigens. (8/1741)

In a pilot study, it was established that specific therapy by standard anti-hepatitis B virus (HBV) vaccination may be effective in reducing HBV replication and canceling the immune tolerance to hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) particles in about 50% of persons with chronic active HBV replication. In the present study, the vaccine-induced immune responses were analyzed during an ongoing controlled multicenter vaccine trial. Vaccination elicited peripheral blood mononuclear cell proliferative responses specific for envelope antigen in 7 of 27 subjects given HBsAg. The responses induced by the vaccines were mediated by CD4+ T lymphocytes, and at least three different epitopes were recognized. HBV-specific CD4+ T lymphocytes produced high levels of interferon-gamma [corrected] and belonged to a T helper 1 subset. Reduction of serum HBV DNA in some of these persons suggests that induction of CD4+ T cell responses could be important in controlling viremia during vaccine therapy of chronic HBV carriers.  (+info)

Background and Aims: Chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is a major global health issue, and the prognosis of patients with HBV-associated acute-on-chronic hepatic failure (ACLF) is extremely poor. In this study, the efficacy of lamivudine was investigated in patients with ACLF. The effects of HBV DNA load and its related factors on the prognosis were also further explored.. Methods: A matched retrospective cohort study using data on ACLF patients derived from our hospital database was conducted. One hundred and thirty patients receiving lamivudine were selected into the lamivudine treatment group with another 130 without lamivudine treatment studied as control. They were matched for sex, age and imaging finding with the lamivudine treatment group. All the patients were followed up for 3 months and the survival rates were compared. The influential factors on the mortality were studied by the Cox proportional hazards model.. Results: The cumulative survival rates of patients in the ...
Chronic hepatitis B (CHB) is one of the most serious health problems affecting more than 350 million people worldwide, accounting for one million deaths every year. Hepatitis B e antigen (HBeAg)-negative chronic hepatitis B represents a late phase in the course of the infection, which is recognized worldwide with increasing prevalence. Therapeutic intervention is often indicated for HBeAg-negative patients because spontaneous remission rarely occurs and patients usually have more advanced liver disease in comparison with HBeAg-positive patients. With the introduction of nucleos(t)ide analogues (NA), an important progress has been made regarding antiviral therapy of CHB, but the management of the HBeAg-negative type remains difficult. NA target the reverse transcriptase of hepatitis B virus (HBV) and are potent inhibitors of viral replication. Initiation of treatment in HBeAg-negative CHB usually results in a rapid decline of serum HBV DNA levels, which is often accompanied by normalization of ...
1. European Association For The Study Of The L. EASL clinical practice guidelines: Management of chronic hepatitis B virus infection. Journal of hepatology. 2012;57:167-85 2. Wang J, Shen T, Huang X, Kumar GR, Chen X, Zeng Z. et al. Serum hepatitis B virus RNA is encapsidated pregenome RNA that may be associated with persistence of viral infection and rebound. Journal of hepatology. 2016;65:700-10 3. Bertoletti A, Ferrari C. Innate and adaptive immune responses in chronic hepatitis B virus infections: towards restoration of immune control of viral infection. Gut. 2012;61:1754-64 4. Seetharam A, Perrillo R, Gish R. Immunosuppression in Patients with Chronic Hepatitis B. Current hepatology reports. 2014;13:235-44 5. Pang J, Zhang G, Lin Y, Xie Z, Liu H, Tang L. et al. Transforming growth factor beta-activated kinase 1 transcriptionally suppresses hepatitis B virus replication. Scientific reports. 2017;7:39901 6. Matsumoto T, Takahashi K, Inuzuka T, Kim SK, Kurosaki T, Kawakami S. et al. Activation ...
To determine the efficacy of treatment with 8 weeks of entecavir followed by 40 weeks of both entecavir and peginterferon in the treatment of chronic hepatitis B in hepatitis B e antigen (HBeAg) positive adults who are in the immune tolerant phase.. To evaluate off treatment safety and sustained responses after treatment with entecavir and peginterferon alfa-2a in the treatment of chronic hepatitis B in HBeAg positive adults who are in the immune tolerant phase.. A single arm treatment study of 8 weeks of entecavir followed by 40 weeks of both entecavir and peginterferon alfa-2a in adults with HBeAg-positive chronic hepatitis B with normal or near normal ALT levels and high serum levels of HBV DNA (immune tolerant HBeAg-positive chronic hepatitis B). All participants will be followed until week 96 (48 weeks after discontinuation of therapy in the treatment group) at which time the primary outcome will be measured. ...
Sun, J., Hou, J.-L., Xie, Q., Li, X.-H., Zhang, J.-M., Wang, Y.-M., Wang, H., Lai, J.-Y., Chen, S.-J., Jia, J.-D., Sheng, J.-F., Chan, H. L. Y., Wang, J.-F., Li, M. K. K., Jiang, M., Popescu, M. and Sung, J. J. Y. (2011), Randomised clinical trial: efficacy of peginterferon alfa-2a in HBeAg positive chronic hepatitis B patients with lamivudine resistance. Alimentary Pharmacology & Therapeutics, 34: 424-431. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2036.2011.04750.x ...
Since 1998 I have been examining and developing a new way of medicamentous therapy for acute and chronic viral hepatitis B and С using Natrii Hypochloriti (NaClO). This medicament received the sanction of Pharmacological committee of the Russian Federation for clinical application. I invented and clinically proved long-term antiviral effectiveness of NaClO therapy for viral hepatitis B and C, which has been provided documentary evidence. I took out the patent of the Russian Federation for this invention. On this theme I defended a thesis and have already published near the 100 scientific articles.. After the completion of the first course of taking NaClO medication 40% of patients with viral hepatitis B and 38% of patients with viral hepatitis C are determined absence of hepatitis (absence of DNA HBV, absence RNA HCV, decrease or neglected levels of viral load, normalization of a specific antibodies, normalization of ALT, AST, bilirubin, lipid peroxidase) in blood test determined by method ...
Risk factors associated with fatigue in chronic hepatitis B patients Chunxiu Zhong,1,* Junhua Yin,1,* Zhidan Zheng,2 Shaohang Cai,1,3 Yulin Gao41Department Of Infectious Diseases and Hepatology Unit, Nanfang Hospital, Southern Medical University, Guangdong Province, Peoples Republic of China; 2Department Of Infectious Diseases, Dongguan Peoples Hospital, Guangdong Province, Peoples Republic of China; 3Intensive Care Unit, Sun Yat-Sen University Cancer Center, Guangzhou, Peoples Republic of China; 4School of Nursing, Southern Medical University, Guangzhou, Peoples Republic of China*These authors contributed equally to this workAim: To evaluate fatigue in chronic hepatitis B patients and its related independent factors, as well as the relationship between fatigue and health-related quality of life (HRQoL).Materials and methods: The study enrolled 400 patients who met the selection criteria, and their sociodemographic information was collected. The 36-item Short-Form Health Survey (SF-36) and
SPEARMAN, C W N et al. South African guideline for the management of chronic hepatitis B: 2013. SAMJ, S. Afr. med. j. [online]. 2013, vol.103, n.5, pp.335-349. ISSN 2078-5135.. Hepatitis B remains a significant yet preventable health issue in South Africa. The introduction of the hepatitis B vaccine into the country some 18 years ago has demonstrated benefit, but the exposure to, and prevalence of chronic HBsAg positivity remain unacceptably high. Those with chronic hepatitis B virus infection have an elevated risk of developing cirrhosis with end-stage liver disease and a markedly elevated risk of hepatocellular carcinoma, independent of the presence of cirrhosis. The challenge in South Africa remains prevention through the universal vaccination coverage of all children and the identification of those with chronic hepatitis B virus infection. Over the last decade our understanding of hepatitis B and its behaviour and natural history in those with chronic infection has significantly improved. ...
Background & aims Virological breakthrough (VBT) could be a manifestation of chronic hepatitis B (CHB) in patients treated with long-term nucleot(s)ide analogues. We aimed to determine the association of on-treatment serum hepatitis B virus (HBV) DNA with VBT in HBeAg-positive CHB patients receiving entecavir (ETV) treatment. Methods A retrospective cohort study, including 162 consecutive patients (95 men and 67 women; mean age, 43.1±13.4 years) with HBeAg-positive CHB treated with ETV for at least 48 weeks between August 2008 and May 2015, was conducted. Univariate and multivariate cox regression analysis were used to identify associations with VBT and clinical factors, including HBV DNA and HBeAg serum status. Results Among the 162 ETV-treated HBeAg-positive CHB patients, eighteen patients (11.1%) experienced VBT (VBT group), whereas the other 144 patients were without VBT (non-VBT group). The cumulative rate of HBV DNA | 100 IU/mL in the VBT group and the non-VBT group at week 48 were 44.44% and
Abstract. Backgrounds: As one of the major public health problems, the hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection would activate the immune system. The outcome of HBV infection was affect significantly by the interactions between HBV and host immune response. Interleukins play important role in anti-viral immunity. Here we investigated the role of interleukin-35 (IL-35) in chronic HBV infection patients.. Methods/Results: Serum IL-35 in 72 chronic hepatitis B virus infection patients and 41 healthy control subjects were analyzed by ELISA assay. The mRNA level of IL-35 in PBMCs was determined by RT-qPCR. In this study, we found that both protein and mRNA levels of IL-35 were significantly decreased in chronic HBV patients compared to the healthy controls. Furthermore, the statistical analysis found that serum IL-35 was significantly associated with HBV DNA (P =0.0158), ALT (P =0.0003), AST (P =0.0216), TB (P =0.0270) and AFP (P =0.0369). Importantly, correlation analysis also found that serum IL-35 level ...
The objective of the practice guideline is to update the natural history of hepatitis B virus infection and to give recommendations for optimal management of chronic hepatitis B.. The guideline is based on the best available evidence. The goal of treatment of chronic hepatitis B is to improve quality of life and survival by preventing progression of hepatitis to cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma.. The progression of liver disease is associated with HBV DNA level in the blood. In HBeAgpositive and HBeAg-negative patients, the ideal end-point of treatment is sustained HBsAg loss. Maintained undetectable HBV DNA under long-term antiviral treatment in HBeAg-positive patients who do not achieve antiHBe seroconversion and in HBeAg-negative patients is the next most desirable end point.. Indication for treatment is identical for HBeAg-positive and HBeAg-negative patients and is based on a combination of serum HBV DNA level, ALAT elevation, and liver histology.. Treatment should be considered in ...
It is estimated that there are 350 million world wide carriers of the hepatitis B virus, mostly coming from Asia (Lai et al., 2005). With immigration of Chinese into Western countries, hepatitis B is now becoming established in countries where it was previously uncommon. Chronic hepatitis B infection is a prevalent disease especially in the Toronto and Vancouver areas where most Asians live. Fortunately, over the past decade effective anti-viral treatments have become available. Chronic hepatitis B is mostly an asymptomatic disease, therefore, serological and imaging tests should be used to identify, follow and treat those considered high risk ...
Chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection in endemic areas usually starts since infancy and early childhood and persists lifelong. The clinical course varies among different chronic infected subjects. Majority of chronic HBV infected children present with immune-tolerant status initially, experience the immune clearance phase with various degree of liver injury during or beyond puberty, and then enter the inactive phase after hepatitis B e antigen (HBeAg) seroconversion. Part of them may have HBV DNA titers elevation with hepatitis flare after HBeAg seroconversion, the so call HBeAg-negative hepatitis flare. Liver cirrhosis, and even hepatocellular carcinoma may develop afterward. The complex course of chronic HBV infection is associated with the age/route of viral acquisition, host factors such as immune and endocrine factors, viral factors, and host-viral interactions. The adrenarche and puberty onset modulate the start of immune clearance and the severity of liver inflammation in chronic HBV infected
Virologic breakthrough in a patient with chronic hepatitis B by combination treatment with tenofovir disoproxil fumarate and entecavir Fumitaka Suzuki,1,2 Hitomi Sezaki,1 Norio Akuta,1 Yoshiyuki Suzuki,1 Yusuke Kawamura,1 Tetsuya Hosaka,1 Masahiro Kobayashi,1 Satoshi Saitoh,1 Yasuji Arase,1 Kenji Ikeda,1 Mariko Kobayashi,3 Sachiyo Watahiki,3 Rie Mineta,3 Yukiko Suzuki,3 Hiromitsu Kumada1 1Department of Hepatology, Toranomon Hospital, Tokyo, Japan; 2Okinaka Memorial Institute for Medical Research, Tokyo, Japan; 3Research Institute for Hepatology, Toranomon Branch Hospital, Kawasaki, Japan Abstract: Tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF) is widely used to treat hepatitis B virus (HBV) patients in the USA and Europe. No confirmed report of resistance selection during treatment with TDF in treatment-naïve and nucleoside/nucleotide analog-treated chronic hepatitis B patients has yet been reported. Here, we report for the first time a patient with chronic hepatitis B and cirrhosis who emerged with
TY - JOUR. T1 - Resistance of ground glass hepatocytes to oral antivirals in chronic hepatitis B patients and implication for the development of hepatocellular carcinoma. AU - Tsai, Hung Wen. AU - Lin, Yih Jyh. AU - Wu, Han Chieh. AU - Chang, Ting Tsung. AU - Wu, I. Chin. AU - Cheng, Pin Nan. AU - Yen, Chia Jui. AU - Chan, Shih Huang. AU - Huang, Wenya. AU - Su, Ih Jen. PY - 2016/5/10. Y1 - 2016/5/10. N2 - Ground glass hepatocytes (GGHs) have been shown to predict the development of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Type I GGH and type II GGH harbor hepatitis B virus (HBV) pre-S1 and pre-S2 deletion mutants, respectively. Whether anti-HBV therapy can inhibit the expression of GGHs and potentially reduce HCC development is explored in this study. Two sets of liver specimens were included: the first contained 31 paired biopsy specimens obtained from chronic HBV patients receiving oral nucleos(t)ide analogue (NA) treatment; the second contained 186 resected liver tissues obtained from HBV-related HCC ...
To investigate dynamic fluctuations of serum viral load and peripheral T-lymphocyte subpopulations of chronic hepatitis B patients and their correlation during entecavir therapy. Fifty-five patients received entecavir 0.5 mg/d therapy. Serum HBV DNA load was measured by Real-Time-PCR, and the levels of peripheral T-lymphocyte subpopulations by flow cytometry biweekly, every four weeks and every eight weeks during weeks 1-12, 13-24 and 24-48, respectively. Multilevel modelling was used to analyse the relationship between these variables. Of the 55 patients, all HBeAg positive and with detectable HBV DNA, the majority (81.8%) had serum levels of HBV DNA over 107 copies per milliliter. HBV viral load dropped sharply during the first two weeks. In 28 and 43 patients, the level became undetectable from week 24 and 48, respectively. Using pre-therapy level as the reference, a significant decrease in CD8+ T cells and increase in CD4+ T cells were found from week 12. Both parameters and CD4+/CD8+ ratio steadily
PubMedID: 26100697 | Prolonged Entecavir Therapy Is Not Effective for HBeAg Seroconversion in Treatment-Naive Chronic Hepatitis B Patients with a Partial Virological Response. | Antimicrobial agents and chemotherapy | 9/1/2015
B18.0 is a billable code used to specify a medical diagnosis of chronic viral hepatitis b with delta-agent. Code valid for the year 2020
Liu B, Gao W, Zhang L et al.. Department of Infectious Diseases, Institute for Viral Hepatitis, Key Laboratory of Molecular Biology for Infectious Diseases, Ministry of Education, Second Affiliated Hospital of Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing, China.. International immunopharmacology. Mar 2017.. Th17/Treg imbalance and the levels of related cytokines are essential in the pathogenesis of autoimmune and infectious diseases. The aim of the current study was to assess the Treg/Th17 balance and the levels of related cytokines associated with various degrees of liver injury in patients with chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection.The proportions of peripheral Th17, Treg and Th1 cells in 7 patients classified as asymptomatic hepatitis B virus carriers (AsCs), 38 patients with low or moderate grade chronic hepatitis B (CHB-LM), 20 patients with chronic severe hepatitis B (CSHB), and 10 healthy controls (HCs) were determined by flow cytometry. The levels of related cytokines and the mRNA ...
This exploratory study investigated nivolumab with or without GS-4774 in patients with HBeAg negative chronic hepatitis B infection
BackgroundA recent genome-wide association study has identified a new susceptibility locus, kinesin family member 1B gene (KIF1B), strongly associated with progression from chronic hepatitis B (CHB) to hepatitis B virus-related hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in Chinese population, this study was carried out to explore the role of the genetic variants in KIF1B in the development of chronic hepatitis B.Methodology/Principal FindingsThree KIF1B polymorphisms (rs8019, rs17401924, and rs17401966) were selected and genotyped in 473 CHB patients and 580 controls with no history of CHB. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated by logistic regression model. None of these three SNPs showed association with CHBs after adjusting for age and gender. Equivalence-based method analysis confirmed the absence of association. In the further haplotype analysis, three common haplotypes were observed in this study population, but no significant effect was also found for haplotypes in the
TY - JOUR. T1 - Adefovir dipivoxil and pegylated interferon alpha for the treatment of chronic hepatitis B. T2 - an updated systematic review and economic evaluation. AU - Shepherd, J. AU - Jones, Jeremy. AU - Baxter, L. AU - Gospodarevskaya, E. AU - Hartwell, D. AU - Harris, P. AU - Price, A. PY - 2009/7. Y1 - 2009/7. N2 - OBJECTIVE: To update and extend a 2006 report on the clinical effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of adefovir dipivoxil (ADV) and pegylated interferon alpha (PEG-alpha) for the treatment of chronic hepatitis B (CHB).DATA SOURCES: Thirteen bibliographic databases were searched including MEDLINE, EMBASE and the Cochrane Library. Searches were run from the beginning of 2005 to September 2007.REVIEW METHODS: For the clinical effectiveness review, randomised controlled trials (RCTs) comparing ADV, PEG-alpha-2a and PEG-alpha-2b with currently licensed treatments for CHB, including non-pegylated interferon alpha (IFN-alpha) and lamivudine (LAM), were included. Outcomes included ...
The hepatitis B virus (HBV) cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) response in patients with chronic HBV infection is generally weak or totally undetectable. This inability to mount protective CTL responses is believed to be a crucial determinant of viral persistence, and its correction represents an important objective of immune therapies for chronic hepatitis B. However, amplification of CTL responses in vivo may be ineffective if HBV-specific CD8 cells are either absent or nonresponsive to exogenous stimulation. In this study, we asked whether antiviral treatments able to inhibit viral replication and to reduce viral and antigen load can successfully reconstitute CTL responses creating the appropriate conditions for their therapeutic stimulation. For this purpose, the HBV-specific CTL response before and during lamivudine therapy was studied longitudinally in 6 HLA-A2-positive patients with HBeAg+ chronic hepatitis B. Both HBV-specific cytotoxic T cell activity measured by chromium release assay on peptide
TY - JOUR. T1 - Twenty-four-week clevudine therapy showed potent and sustained antiviral activity in HBeAg-positive chronic hepatitis B. AU - Byung, Chul Yoo. AU - Ju, Hyun Kim. AU - Chung, Young Hwa. AU - Kwan, Sik Lee. AU - Seung, Woon Paik. AU - Soo, Hyung Ryu. AU - Byung, Hoon Han. AU - Han, Joon Yeol. AU - Kwan, Soo Byun. AU - Cho, Mong. AU - Lee, Heon Ju. AU - Kim, Tae Hun. AU - Cho, Se Hyun. AU - Park, Joong Won. AU - Um, Soon Ho. AU - Seong, Gyu Hwang. AU - Young, Soo Kim. AU - Lee, Youn Jae. AU - Chae, Yoon Chon. AU - Kim, Byung Ik. AU - Lee, Young Suk. AU - Yang, Jin Mo. AU - Haak, Cheoul Kim. AU - Jae, Seok Hwang. AU - Choi, Sung Kyu. AU - Kweon, Young Oh. AU - Jeong, Sook Hyang. AU - Lee, Myung Seok. AU - Choi, Jong Young. AU - Kim, Dae Ghon. AU - Yun, Soo Kim. AU - Heon, Young Lee. AU - Yoo, Kwon. AU - Yoo, Hee Won. AU - Lee, Hyo Suk. PY - 2007/5. Y1 - 2007/5. N2 - Clevudine is a pyrimidine analogue with potent and sustained antiviral activity against HBV. The present study ...
OBJECTIVES: Chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is associated with a higher risk of liver diseases. Substantial uncertainty remains, however, about the associations of HBV infection with mortality from extrahepatic causes, especially from subtypes of cardiovascular diseases. We prospectively examined the association of chronic HBV infection with total and cause-specific mortality. DESIGN: Population-based prospective cohort study. SETTING: China Kadoorie Biobank in which participants from 10 geographically diverse areas across China were enrolled between 2004 and 2008. PARTICIPANTS: 475 801 participants 30-79 years of age without reporting major chronic diseases at baseline were enrolled. Hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) was tested using an on-site rapid test strip at baseline. PRIMARY AND SECONDARY OUTCOME MEASURES: Total and cause-specific mortality. RESULTS: A total of 35 822 deaths were recorded during ~10 years of follow-up. In multivariable-adjusted analyses, compared with HBsAg-negative
Virological response to entecavir is associated with a better clinical outcome in chronic hepatitis B patients with cirrhosis ...
In this cohort study, patients with chronic hepatitis B who prior participated in TB1211IFN study and received at least 39 doses of peginterferon alfa will be
The mechanisms of hepatitis B virus (HBV) persistent infection are not completely understood. Interleukin (IL)-35, which is a newly identified cytokine belongs to IL-12 family, has been demonstrated to induce immunotolerance. Thus, the aim of current study was to investigate the role of IL-35 during chronic HBV infection. A total of 61 patients with chronic HBV infection (37 chronic hepatitis B [CHB] and 24 asymptomatic HBV carriers [ASC]) and 20 healthy individuals were enrolled. IL-35 concentration as well as the modulatory function of IL-35 on CD4+CD25+CD127dim/- regulatory T cells (Tregs) and on HBV antigen-specific CD8+ T cells was investigated. IL-35 expression was significantly increased in both CHB and ASC, and was positively correlated with the levels of HBV DNA. Inhibition of viral replication induced the reduction in serum levels of IL-35. IL-35 stimulation led to inhibition of proinflammatory cytokine productions and elevation of apoptosis in peripheral blood mononuclear cells, but not in
TY - JOUR. T1 - Peg-interferon improves liver histology in patients with HBeAg-positive chronic hepatitis B. T2 - No additional benefit of combination with lamivudine. AU - van Zonneveld, Monika. AU - Zondervan, Pieter E.. AU - Cakaloglu, Yilmaz. AU - Simon, Christopher. AU - Akarca, Ulus S.. AU - So, Thomas M K. AU - Flink, Hajo J.. AU - de Man, Robert A.. AU - Schalm, Solko W.. AU - Janssen, Harry L A. AU - Niesters, H. G M. AU - Hansen, B.. AU - Vroom, B. C M. AU - van Nieuwkerk, C. M J. AU - de Vries, R. A.. AU - Jansen, J.. AU - Drenth, J.. AU - van den Hazel, S. J.. AU - den Ouden-Muller, J. W.. AU - Tan, A. C.. AU - Adler, D. M.. AU - Michielsen, P.. AU - van Vlierberghe, H.. AU - Nevens, F.. AU - Delwaide, J.. AU - Henrion, J.. AU - Zeuzem, S.. AU - Gerken, G.. AU - Bein, S.. AU - Treichel, U.. AU - Trojan, J.. AU - Manns, M. P.. AU - Hadem, J.. AU - Niederau, J.. AU - Buhl, M. R.. AU - Hansen, I. M.. AU - Krogsgaard, K.. AU - Cianciara, J.. AU - Jablonska, J.. AU - Kozlowska, J.. AU - ...
Manuscript Accepted: 16 SEP 2013. Keywords: HBV; inactive carriers; metabolic syndrome; fibrosis; FibroScan. Abstract\. Background and Aim. There are few data of fibrosis development in chronic hepatitis B (CHB) patients classified as inactive carriers. The aim of this study is to determinate the prevalence of significant fibrosis and probable cirrhosis measured by FibroScan in real inactive CHB carriers and investigate the relationship with virological, epidemiological and metabolic factors.. Methods. Cross-sectional cohort study including CHB inactive carriers. Liver stiffness measurement was performed with transient elastography (FibroScan). Significant fibrosis (≥F2) was defined as stiffness ,7.5 kPa, and probable cirrhosis as ,11.8 kPa. Factors associated with significant fibrosis were explored with univariate and multivariate adjusted logistic regression analyses.. Results. 96 CHB inactive carriers were analyzed. Of them, 24 (25%) had significant fibrosis and 7 (7%) probable cirrhosis; ...
Treatment of chronic hepatitis B (CHB) has greatly improved with the availability of nucleos(t)ide analogs (NA), which target the viral polymerase [1], [2], [3]. The sustained suppression of serum hepatitis B virus (HBV) DNA to very low or undetectable levels by these drugs has been shown to be associated with the prevention of progression of liver disease and inhibition of the development of hepatocellular carcinoma [4], [5], [6], [7]. A major shortcoming is the low rate of HBsAg loss and high rate of virological relapse when treatment is discontinued or interrupted due to low adherence [8], [9], necessitating long, and in many cases, indefinite treatment. Unfortunately, as the duration of NA treatment is prolonged, the risk of development of drug resistance increases with lesser potent and lower genetic barrier drugs such as lamivudine and adefovir [1], [2], [3]. Emergence of drug-resistant HBV usually results in attenuated viral suppression and disease progression, and may lead to significant ...
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Chronic hepatitis has been divided into chronic persistent hepatitis, chronic lobular hepatitis and chronic active hepatitis. These terms should be discontinued in favor of etiologic terminology. The activity of necro-inflammation and the degree of fibrosis should be evaluated for grading the severity and the stage of the disease. In this study, we sought to evaluate the long-term outcome and prognostic factors of chronic hepatitis B according to the new histological classification of chronic hepatitis proposed by the Korean Study Group for the Pathology of Digestive Diseases. METHOD: One hundred and eighty-eight patients (mean age, 35.0 years; male/female 3.9:1) with biopsy-proven chronic hepatitis B were retrospectively assessed with a mean follow-up of 80.6 months. The patients were divided into a biochemically-active group and a biochemically-inactive group according to serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) changes during follow-up periods. The development of compensated ...
TARGET-HBV is timely given the renewed interest in finding a cure for hepatitis B. Chronic hepatitis B is characterized by fluctuations in virus replication and disease activity; thus, while guidelines exist, management of individual patients can be nuanced. Data on a large cohort of hepatitis B patients managed in the real-world will provide insights into the course of this disease and guide the use of future therapies. Anna Lok, MD Ranked as the second leading cause of cancer deaths, chronic hepatitis B is the primary cause of liver cancer as an estimated 30 million people world-wide will become newly infected with the disease each year. With the increasing number of available treatments, important questions still remain regarding the HBV population at risk and current practice patterns.. Management of chronic HBV is perceived as a complex paradigm that balances the benefits of long-term suppression of HBV replication with the inconvenience and potential adverse events associated with ...
Chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is the most common cause of cirrhosis and liver cancer worldwide. In Asian and western Pacific countries where HBV is endemic, estimated prevalence of chronic HBV infection ranges from 2.4%--16.0%, and liver cancer is a leading cause of mortality (1). Although population-based prevalence data for Asians/ Pacific Islanders (A/PIs) living in the United States are lacking, they are believed to constitute a sizeable percentage of persons with chronic HBV infection in the United States, a country of low endemicity (2). To assess the prevalence of chronic HBV infection among A/PI populations living in New York City, the Asian American Hepatitis B Program (AAHBP)* conducted a seroprevalence study among persons who participated in an ongoing hepatitis B screening, evaluation, and treatment program. The results indicated that approximately 15% of participants who had not been previously tested had chronic HBV infection; all were born outside the United States. ...
Objectives: A number of studies have shown that chronic hepatitis B virus infection is implicated insusceptibility to pancreatic cancer. However, the results are still controversial. This meta-analysis aimed toquantitatively assess the relationship between chronic hepatitis B virus infection and incidence of pancreaticcancer of cohort and case-control studies. Methods: A literature search was performed for entries from 1990 to2012 using PUBMED and EMBASE. Studies were included if they reported odds ratios (ORs) and corresponding95% CIs of pancreatic cancer with respect to the infection of hepatitis B virus. Results: Eight studies met theinclusion criteria, which included five case-control studies and three cohort studies. Compared with individualswho have not infection of hepatitis B virus, the pooled OR of pancreatic cancer was 1.403 (95%CI: 1.139-1.729,P=0.001) for patients with hepatitis B virus infection. Sub-group analysis by study design showed that thesummary OR was 1.43 (95%CI: 1.06-1.94, P=0
臺大位居世界頂尖大學之列,為永久珍藏及向國際展現本校豐碩的研究成果及學術能量,圖書館整合機構典藏(NTUR)與學術庫(AH)不同功能平台,成為臺大學術典藏NTU scholars。期能整合研究能量、促進交流合作、保存學術產出、推廣研究成果。. To permanently archive and promote researcher profiles and scholarly works, Library integrates the services of NTU Repository with Academic Hub to form NTU Scholars.. ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Outcome of anti-HBe positive chronic hepatitis B in alpha-interferon treated and untreated patients. T2 - A long term cohort study. AU - Brunetto, Maurizia Rossana. AU - Oliveri, Filippo. AU - Coco, Barbara. AU - Leandro, Gioacchino. AU - Colombatto, Piero. AU - Gorin, Juliana Monti. AU - Bonino, Ferruccio. PY - 2002. Y1 - 2002. N2 - Background/Aims: We studied the influence of biochemical and virologic patterns and interferon on the outcome of anti-HBe positive chronic hepatitis B in 164 (103 treated) consecutive patients, followed-up prospectively for a mean of 6 years (21 months-12 years). Methods: Histology, biochemical and virologic profiles were characterized by monthly monitoring during the first 12 months of follow-up. Thereafter patients underwent blood and clinical controls every 4 and 6 months, respectively. Cirrhosis at follow-up histology or end stage complications of cirrhosis served as end points for the analysis of factors influencing disease progression in ...
Hepatocyte expression of pre-S1 and pre-S2 in relation to hepatitis B virus replication (hepatitis B virus-DNA in serum and HBcAg in the liver), histological activity and hepatitis delta virus superinfection was studied by indirect immunofluorescence on frozen sections of liver specimens from 68 patients with chronic hepatitis B virus infection. All 44 patients with chronic type B hepatitis had pre-S1 and pre-S2 display in the liver. The distribution of pre-S1 in the liver was membranous in one, mixed membranous and cytoplasmic in 12, and cytoplasmic in 31. The distribution of pre-S2 was membranous in one, mixed membranous and cytoplasmic in 26, and cytoplasmic in 17. Membranous expression of pre-S1 was significantly more prevalent in patients with active hepatitis B virus replication than in those without (13/28 v 0/16, p , 0.001), regardless of the histological activity, as was membranous expression of pre-S2 (27/28 v 0/16, p , 0.001). In contrast, a significantly higher extent of cytoplasmic ...
The proliferative response of PBMC to hepatitis B virus (HBV) envelope, core, and e Ag was analyzed prospectively in 21 patients with acute self-limited HBV infection and compared with the response of patients with chronic HBV infection and different levels of HBV replication (i.e., hepatitis e Ag (HBeAg)- or anti-HBe-positive) and liver damage (i.e., chronic active hepatitis or chronic asymptomatic carriers). Our results indicate that: 1) HBV-infected subjects who develop a self-limited acute hepatitis show a vigorous PBMC response to hepatitis B core Ag and HBeAg, as expression of T cell activation; 2) appearance of a detectable lymphocyte response to HBV nucleocapsid Ag is temporally associated with the clearance of HBV envelope Ag; 3) in patients with chronic HBV infection the level of T cell responsiveness to hepatitis B core Ag and to HBeAg is significantly lower than that observed during acute infection; 4) T cell sensitization to HBV envelope Ag in acute and chronic HBV infection is ...
Chronic Hepatitis B infection is a major health problem in Republic of Congo therefore molecular analysis of HBV strains is important to detect the patients at high risk of disease progression. Serum samples were obtained from 111 chronic HBV patients in Pointe Noire. HBsAg, HBeAg and HBeAb were detected. A fragment of the preS1 region of HBV was amplified and sequenced to determine genotypes, subgenotypes and to identify mutations. Of the 111 samples analyzed, 35 patients were asymptomatic carriers (ASC), 24 with a chronic active hepatitis (CAH), 33 with liver cirrhosis (LC) and 19 have a hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). The mean age were 45 ± 13 year, 88 (79.3 %) were male and 23 (20.7 %) female. The prevalence of HBeAg was 15.3 % and 73 % of subjects were anti-HBe positive. The mean serum level of alanine aminotransferase transaminase (ALT) and aspartate transaminase (AST) was 25.1 ± 9 IU/L and 28.6 ± 10 IU/L respectively. Eighty two samples out of 111 (73.9 %) were genotyped by the analyzing of
Background & Aims: A previous 4-week trial of telbivudine in patients with chronic hepatitis B indicated marked antiviral effects with good tolerability, leading to the present 1-year phase 2b trial. Methods: This randomized, double-blind, multicenter trial evaluated the efficacy and safety of telbivudine 400 or 600 mg/day and telbivudine 400 or 600 mg/day plus lamivudine 100 mg/day (Comb400 and Comb600) compared with lamivudine 100 mg/day in hepatitis B e antigen (HBeAg)-positive adults with compensated chronic hepatitis B. Results: A total of 104 patients were randomized 1:1:1:1:1 among the 5 groups. Median reductions in serum hepatitis B virus (HBV) DNA levels at week 52 (log 10 copies/mL) were as follows: lamivudine, 4.66; telbivudine 400 mg, 6.43; telbivudine 600 mg, 6.09; Comb400, 6.40; and Comb600, 6.05. At week 52, telbivudine monotherapy showed a significantly greater mean reduction in HBV DNA levels (6.01 vs 4.57 log 10 copies/mL; P < .05), clearance of polymerase chain ...
Chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection and chronic kidney disease (CKD) have high prevalences in Taiwan and worldwide. However, the association of untreated chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection with chronic kidney disease (CKD) remains unclear. This cohort study used claims data in the Taiwan National Health Insurance Research Database in 1996-2010, in which all diseases were classified by ICD-9-CM codes. We identified 17796 adults who had chronic HBV infection and did not take nucleos(t)ide analogues from 1998 to 2010 and also randomly selected 71184 matched controls without HBV in the same dataset. Cumulative incidences and adjusted hazard ratio (aHR) of incident CKD were evaluated through the end of 2010 after adjusting for competing mortality. The risk of CKD was significantly higher in the HBV cohort (13-year cumulative incidence, 6.2 %; 95 % confidence interval [CI], 5.4-7.1 %) than in the non-HBV cohort (2.7 %; 95 % CI, 2.5-3.0 %) (p | 0.001), and the aHR was 2.58 (95 % CI, 1.95-3.42; p |
Chronic hepatitis B is an infectious disease of the liver caused by hepatitis B virus. Around 350 million people worldwide are chronic infected carriers of the virus. Traditional Chinese medicinal herbs have for long been used for treating chronic liver diseases both in China and in Southeast Asia. This systematic review evaluates the effect of Chinese medicinal herbs (single or compound) for treating chronic hepatitis B infection.. The review of trials found that some of the Chinese medicinal herbs may have a positive effect on the clearance of hepatitis B virus and on the diseased liver. However, the methodological quality of the trials evaluating these herbs was generally poor. Analysis of the identified trials also indicated that trials with positive findings are more likely to be published than trials without significant findings. Further, medicinal herbs may be associated with side effects. Therefore, Chinese medicinal herbs should not be used outside new trials. Testing the herbs in ...
Hepatitis B virus (HBV) genotype influences chronic hepatitis B disease profile but its relevance in liver transplantation (LTx) is not known. HBV genotype was identified by direct sequencing from pre-transplant sera of 119 patients who underwent LTx using lamivudine prophylaxis (genotype A,1; B,43; C,74; D,1). The baseline characteristics and outcome of 43 genotype B and 74 genotype C patients were compared. Genotype B patients had significantly more pre-transplant acute flare, worse liver functions and higher model for end-stage liver disease score. Fewer genotype B patients had HBeAg (13% vs. 32%; p = 0.017), but HBV DNA seropositivity (by bDNA assay) was comparable (26% vs. 23%; p = 0.727). The 3-year graft survival was 83% for genotype B and 89% for genotype C (p = 0.2). The rate of HBsAg clearance or seroreversion was the same. The cumulative rate of viral breakthrough due to lamivudine-resistant mutants at 3 years was 4% for genotype B and 21% for genotype C (p = 0.017). Liver biopsy ...
Until recently, conventional interferon-a and lamivudine were the only drugs specifically licensed for the treatment of CHB. However, in patients with HBeAg-negative CHB, both drugs are associated with high rates of relapse upon treatment discontinuation and poor sustained response rates.7,8,9,10,11 Furthermore, conventional interferon has a suboptimal pharmacokinetic profile that necessitates an inconvenient dosing regimen (three times weekly). Lamivudine is hindered by the development of drug resistance, which increases with prolonged use.12,13 In the past few years, the nucleotide analogue, adefovir, has been approved as a treatment option for CHB, although continuous administration is required in patients with HBeAg-negative disease due to rapid biochemical, virological, and histological rebound upon adefovir withdrawal.14 Continuous adefovir therapy is also associated with increased drug resistance, albeit at a lower cumulative rate than lamivudine.15 Peginterferon a-2a, which was also ...
Hepatitis B can be acute or chronic. New cases of hepatitis B are classified as acute. Most people with acute hepatitis B naturally fight the virus without any medical treatment.. Between 5% to 10% of acute hepatitis B cases turn into chronic hepatitis B. Chronic hepatitis B is hepatitis B that lasts longer than six months. Chronic hepatitis B may take years or even decades to clear up. Some people have chronic hepatitis B all their lives. ...
Hepatitis B virus (HBV) DNA in serum of chronically infected patients declines by 3-4 log10 units at loss of HBe antigen (HBeAg) from serum. The mechanisms behind this decline, and the much smaller decline of surface antigen (HBsAg) levels, are still not well known. The aim of this study was to get a better understanding of this process by analysing both serum and intrahepatic markers of HBV replication. Levels of HBV DNA and HBsAg in serum, and covalently closed circular DNA (cccDNA), pregenomic RNA (pgRNA) and S-RNA and total intrahepatic HBV DNA (ihDNA) in liver biopsies from 84 chronically infected patients (16 positive and 68 negative for HBeAg) were analysed. Lower HBV DNA levels within HBeAg-positive stage reflected lower levels of cccDNA and pgRNA with strong correlation. In HBeAg-negative patients, ihDNA levels were greater and HBV DNA levels in serum lower than expected from pgRNA levels. A lower HBV DNA/HBsAg ratio corresponded with lower pgRNA/cccDNA (p | 0.01) and higher S-RNA/cccDNA (p | 0
TY - JOUR. T1 - Different effect of HBV vaccine after liver transplantation between chronic HBV carriers and non-HBV patients who received HBcAb-positive grafts. AU - Ishigami, Masatoshi. AU - Kamei, Hideya. AU - Nakamura, Taro. AU - Katano, Yoshiaki. AU - Ando, Hisami. AU - Kiuchi, Tetsuya. AU - Goto, Hidemi. PY - 2011/3/1. Y1 - 2011/3/1. N2 - Background: Combination of nucleos(t)ide analogue and anti-HBs immunoglobulin (HBIg) is the standard protocol for prevention of HBV reactivation after liver transplantation, but because of the extremely high cost of HBIg, HBV vaccine is tried as a much cheaper and potentially safer substitute. Here we show the different effect of HBV vaccine between chronic HBV carrier and non-HBV patients who received grafts from HBc antibody-positive donors. Methods: Fifteen chronic HBV carriers and 6 non-HBV patients who received grafts from HBc antibody-positive donors were included in this study. These patients received double dose of pre-S-containing HBV vaccine ...
Clinical trials of drugs for treatment of chronic hepatitis B viral infections may use multiple efficacy endpoints, the FDA said in new draft guidance released Nov. 1. The endpoints can include the suppression of hepatitis B virus (HBV) DNA on-treatment, the agency said. Other endpoints could include suppression of HBV DNA for more than six months off-treatment after an initial therapy period and sustained suppression off-treatment with loss of HBV surface antigens. Liver disease progression is an important endpoint, but assessing it can be challenging . . .
Alpha-interferon (IFN) or lamivudine monotherapy are ineffective in treating chronic HBeAg positive patients with high viral load and low alanine aminotransferase (ALT) levels. We investigated whether priming lamivudine treatment might enhance the antiviral and immunostimulant action of lamivudine/IFN combination in young tolerant patients. Eleven chronic HBeAg positive patients received: 100 mg/day lamivudine for 3 months followed by IFN 5 MU/m(2)/tiw with lamivudine 100 mg/day for 6 months and then lamivudine alone 100 mg/day for 9 months. Quantitative hepatitis B virus (HBV)-DNA was evaluated during treatment and core-promoter, precore and polymerase HBV mutants were detected by direct sequencing at the end of therapy. Serum HBV-DNA levels dropped during lamivudine monotherapy and in combination with IFN. After IFN withdrawal, viraemia transiently increased to high levels in five of 11 (45%) patients who showed rt M204V/I lamivudine mutant resistant. Two patients cleared HBeAg without ...
Table 1. Rate of perinatal hepatitis B transmission based on maternal viral load at delivery, in infants receiving post-natal prophylaxis (3).. In view of this it is recommended that anti-viral therapy be considered in pregnant females with high viral loads (HBV DNA levels , Log 5.3)(4-6). The optimal antiviral treatment in this situation is less clear. In 2016 the American Association for the Study of Liver Disease (AASLD) published a meta-analysis of antiviral therapy to prevent transmission in highly viraemic women(7). Twenty six studies enrolled 3,622 pregnant females. Ten were randomized controlled trials, including a total of 780 participants. The drugs used were lamivudine, telbuvidine and tenofovir. All drugs lowered maternal HBV DNA levels and appeared to reduce rates of maternal to child transmission. However it was noted that most trials were small and there was limited safety data.. In the meantime two relatively large randomized trials using tenofovir to prevent maternal to child ...
Background: Serial monitoring of hepatitis B virus (HBV) DNA and serum alanine transaminase (ALT) for at least one year is recommended to define an inactive carrier state. Recent studies proposed HBsAg levels as a marker for monitoring HBV infected patients. The aim of our study is to evaluate spontaneous HBV DNA fluctuations among Tunisian HBV infected patients and to assess the role of HBsAg quantification in the determination of viral disease activity. Methods: Seventy three untreated HBeAg negative asymptomatic HBV infected patients were followed up prospectively during a one year period (2014). Patients with persistently serum HBV DNA levels , 2000 IU/ml and persistently normal ALT for at least one year,were considered as inactive carrier of HBsAg. Patients with HBV DNA level fluctuation ≥2000 IU/ml and/or ALT elevation were classified as chronic hepatitis B (CHB) patients.Serum samples for HBV DNA and ALT quantification were obtained at three times with an interval of 6 months (M0, M6 ...
Background The prevalence of newly-diagnosed cases of chronic hepatitis is decisive for the overall incidence rate of hepatitis B observed in Poland.Objectives We aimed to determine the chronic hepatitis B incidence trends in Poland, taking into consideration the ages, genders, and environments of the patients.Methods The study is based on aggregated data from Polish descriptive epidemiological studies for the period of 2005 to 2013 (i.e., hepatitis B incidence numbers and ratios, including mixed HBV and HCV infections) as published in the annual bulletins Choroby zakazne i zatrucia w Polsce (Infectious diseases and poisonings in Poland] drawn up by the laboratory for the monitoring and analysis of epidemiological status of the department of epidemiology at the national institute of public health - national institute of hygiene (NIPH-NIH). Poland, a central European country situated in the humid continental climate zone, is classified as a highly developed country. In the analyzed period, the Polish
Unlike hepatitis C, the therapeutic strategy for chronic hepatitis B remains complex and controversial for the following reasons: the possibility of spontaneous seroconversion; the moderate efficacy of subcutaneous (interferon) or oral (lamivudine or adefovir) drugs; the absence of increased response rate with multitherapies; the emergence of drug-induced viral resistance mutations; and the lack of a single, clinically relevant endpoint for the evaluation of efficacy. To help with the choice of drug and treatment duration, Hadziyannis and colleagues clearly showed that, in patients with HBeAg-negative chronic hepatitis B, oral adefovir should not be stopped after 1 year of treatment. As previously shown with lamivudine, the high therapeutic benefit achieved with adefovir, in terms of the number of patients with undetectable HBV DNA and normal ALT, disappeared after discontinuation of treatment. Even with a low emergence of resistance mutations, the decision to treat with adefovir means nonstop ...
FOSTER CITY, Calif., Jun 24, 2003 (BUSINESS WIRE) -- Gilead Sciences, Inc. (Nasdaq: GILD) today announced that the company is ending its licensing agreement with Bukwang Pharm. Ind. Co., Ltd for the development and commercialization of clevudine. Formerly known as L-FMAU, clevudine is an investigational pyrimidine nucleoside analogue currently in Phase I/II development for the treatment of chronic hepatitis B. The termination will be effective August 6, 2003. In February 1998, Triangle Pharmaceuticals entered into a licensing agreement with Bukwang for worldwide rights to clevudine in all markets except Korea. In January 2003, Gilead acquired Triangle Pharmaceuticals. Under the terms of the licensing agreement, Gilead does not owe any further payments to Bukwang. Gilead will meet its ongoing obligations under the agreement until such time that they can be transferred to Bukwang or a new partner. We have valued our partnership with Bukwang, and while clevudine is an interesting compound, we have ...
Free, official information about 2007 (and also 2008-2015) ICD-9-CM diagnosis code 070.32, including coding notes, detailed descriptions, index cross-references and ICD-10-CM conversion.
Hospital and four different private clinics in Bahawalpur during 2002 to 2003 Material and Methods: 1. The case record files of 100 patients with chronic hepatitis C vs.100 with chronic hepatitis B were reviewed and the laboratory and demographic data were extracted.2. Anti-HCV and HBsAg were determined for 100 type 2 diabetes patients and 100 healthy adults by ELISA. The diagnosis of diabetes was based on the new WHO criteria. Pearson`s correlation coefficient was calculated and tested for significance Results: 1. The occurrence of diabetes in patients with chronic hepatitis C was 19%, higher than 8% in patients with chronic hepatitis B [ ...
The long-term goal of chronic hepatitis B (CHB) treatment is improvement of liver disease and prevention of cirrhosis. The aim of this study was to assess whether prolonged telbivudine treatment improves liver inflammation and fibrosis. The primary objective was to evaluate the proportion of patients with absence/minimal inflammation (Knodell necroinflammatory score a parts per thousand currency sign3) on liver biopsy at Year 5.. Fifty-seven patients aged 16-70 years with a clinical history of CHB and active viral replication (38 hepatitis B e antigen [HBeAg] positive and 19 HBeAg negative) were followed for 6 years: 33 received telbivudine 600 mg/day continuously for 5 years; 24 received lamivudine 100 mg/day for 2 years and then telbivudine for 3 years. Liver biopsies were taken pre-treatment and after 5 years of treatment.. At baseline, mean (standard deviation) serum hepatitis B virus (HBV) DNA load was 8.5 (1.7) log(10) copies/mL, Knodell necroinflammatory score was 7.6 (2.9), and Ishak ...
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Chronic viral hepatitis B and C are the leading causes of liver cancer and cirrhosis. In Europe, it is estimated that about 14 million people are chronically infected with the hepatitis B virus and nine million people with the hepatitis C virus. Migrants from endemic areas are particularly at risk and the conditions represent a substantial health burden among nearly all migrant groups in Europe. For migrants, transmission of hepatitis B is primarily from mother to child at birth and in early childhood, and primarily through blood transfusions in the past and unsafe injections for hepatitis C. Both conditions are mostly asymptomatic and remain undetected for many years. Awareness among those at risk and the general public is low, making case detection a challenge. Antiviral treatment exists for both hepatitis B and C, slowing progression, delaying the onset of cirrhosis and reducing the risk of liver cancer. However, awareness among professionals about treatment options is generally low. ...
For 95 percent of adults, their body will clear the virus within four to eight weeks without vaccination. During these two months, its still possible to pass on the infection to someone else. If your body successfully clears the hepatitis B infection, youll be immune to the virus for the rest of your life.. In the remaining five percent of people infected with hepatitis B, their body is unable to clear the virus. Some of these people go on to develop liver cancer and may die from liver failure.. If youre one of the five percent with a chronic hepatitis B infection there is no cure. But its possible to remain free of symptoms for up to 20 years after being infected. Your doctor will recommend you follow a lifestyle that will help keep symptoms at bay.. Chronic hepatitis B treatment ...
The mixed cryoglobulinemia (MC) syndrome is a systemic inflammatory syndrome that causes small-to-medium vessel vasculitis due to cryoglobulin-containing immune complexes most commonly caused by chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV), and rarely by chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV). Its clinical presentation is significantly varied, with manifestations ranging from purpura, arthralgia, and myalgia to more severe neurologic and renal involvement. Pulmonary involvement as organizing pneumonia, alveolar hemorrhage, and pulmonary vasculitis have been reported, but appear to be quite rare. We report an uncommon case of a patient who presented with primary pulmonary syndrome without renal involvement in the setting of MC, due to untreated chronic hepatitis B infection. Early diagnosis and consequent institution of glucocorticoids, B-cell-depleting monoclonal antibody and antiviral therapy led to a favorable outcome and prevented any fatal sequelae. Pulmonary compromise in MC syndrome is very uncommon and carries a
Latest Thymosin α1 Acetate Polypeptide Hormones CAS 62304-98-7 For Chronic Hepatitis B from Quality Polypeptide Hormones, ShangHai ShuCan industrial co.. LTD - a Wholesale Supplier from China.
Chronic hepatitis B. Visudyne (verteporfin). Age-related macular degeneration (wet form). Voltaren (diclofenac). Acute pain, ... Chronic myelogenous leukemia (first-line treatment[89]). 998. 2012[83]. 39%. NICE formulary approval, January 2012[89] ... Chronic iron overload. 870. 2012[83]. 2%. Manufactured as tablets for oral suspension; tablets for oral use are marketed under ... Chronic iron overload. Deferasirox tablets for oral use-a new formulation of Exjade (which comes in tablets for oral suspension ...
Sharara, A. I. (1997). "Chronic hepatitis C". Southern Medical Journal. 90 (9): 872-7. doi:10.1097/00007611-199709000-00002. ...
Azzam HS, Goertz C, Fritts M, Jonas WB (2007). "Natural products and chronic hepatitis C virus". Liver Int. 27 (1): 17-25. doi: ... Beside interacting with the cell membrane, lactoferrin also directly binds to viral particles, such as the hepatitis viruses. ... hepatitis C virus, hantaviruses, rotaviruses, poliovirus type 1, human respiratory syncytial virus, murine leukemia viruses and ... "Identification of a lactoferrin-derived peptide possessing binding activity to hepatitis C virus E2 envelope protein". J. Biol ...
It is a cardinal feature of chronic viral hepatitis (especially chronic hepatitis) as well as chronic autoimmune hepatitis. > ... Chronic hepatitis > Chapter 3 > PATHOLOGIC FEATURES Last Modified: Mar 12, 2010 v t e. ... Piecemeal necrosis in liver aka interface hepatitis is necrosis of the limiting plates, by inflammatory cells. It may be ...
In autoimmune hepatitis[edit]. In 1972, a link between "HLA A1,8" (current:HLA A1-B8) active chronic hepatitis, subsequently B8 ... Mackay IR, Morris PJ (October 1972). "Association of autoimmune chronic active hepatitis with HL-A1,8". Lancet. 2 (7781): 793-5 ... Freudenberg J, Baumann H, Arnold W, Berger J, Büschenfelde KH (1977). "HLA in different forms of chronic active hepatitis. A ... Autoimmunization induced by interferon alpha therapy in chronic hepatitis C]". Gastroenterol. Clin. Biol. (in French). 28 (11 ...
Lok, AS (2007). "Chronic Hepatitis B" (PDF). Hepatology. 45 (2): 507-39. doi:10.1002/hep.21513. hdl:2027.42/55941. PMID ... This window period does not occur in persons who develop chronic hepatitis B, i.e. who continue to have detectable HBV DNA for ... Two periods may be referred to as window period in hepatitis B infection:[citation needed] (1) the period that elapses during ...
HCV is the leading cause of chronic hepatitis, cirrhosis, and liver cancer, and more than 180 million people are affected ... Rosen, Hugo R. (June 2011). "Chronic Hepatitis C Infection". The New England Journal of Medicine. 364 (25): 2429-2438. doi: ... "Hepatitis C Kills More Americans Than HIV/AIDS". Voice of America, Health. 27 February 2012. Retrieved 3 March 2012. Diamond DL ... The need for a HCV-specific treatment is essential, and according to John Ward, the director of the CDC Hepatitis Division, it ...
In the context of hepatitis B, GGHs are only seen in chronic infections, i.e. they are not seen in acute hepatitis B. GGHs were ... "Different Types of Ground Glass Hepatocytes in Chronic Hepatitis B Virus Infection Contain Specific Pre-S Mutants that May ... "Ground glass hepatocytes contain pre-S mutants and represent preneoplastic lesions in chronic hepatitis B virus infection". J ... The appearance is classically associated with abundant hepatitis B antigen in the endoplasmic reticulum, but may also be drug- ...
Pessayre D, Larrey D (April 1988). "Acute and chronic drug-induced hepatitis". Baillière's Clinical Gastroenterology. 2 (2): ... Amineptine-induced hepatitis, which is sometimes preceded by a rash, is believed to be due to an immunoallergic reaction. It ... Mixed hepatitis, which is very rare, generally occurs between the 15th and 30th day of treatment. Often preceded by sometimes ... Hepatitis is either of mixed type or with cholestatic prevalence. The evolution was, in all the cases, favorable to the ...
Diseases associated with this family include: liver infections, such as hepatitis, hepatocellular carcinomas (chronic ... the first known hepatitis with a viral etiological agent was Hepatitis A, in the picornaviridae family. Hepatis B Virus (HBV) ... Endogenous hepatitis B virus genomes have been described in crocodilian, snake and turtle genomes.[7] This suggests that these ... Hepatitis viruses have been described in fish and amphibians also.[4] This suggests that this family has co evolved with the ...
Guidelines for the management of absolute cardiovascular disease risk Hepatitis C infection in dialysis Chronic kidney disease ... Johnson, David (2007). Chronic kidney disease (CKD) management in general practice. Melbourne, VIC, Australia: Kidney Health ... Johnson, David W. (2010). Hepatitis C infection in dialysis. New York, USA: Nova Science Publishers, Inc. ... in the early recognition and care of people with chronic kidney disease and specifically for his work in detection of chronic ...
... chronic active hepatitis, and hepatic necrosis, occur rarely. The onset of chronic active hepatitis may be insidious, and ... Amit, G; Cohen, P; Ackerman, Z (March 2002). "Nitrofurantoin-induced chronic active hepatitis". The Israel Medical Association ... Chronic pulmonary reactions caused by nitrofurantoin include diffuse interstitial pneumonitis, pulmonary fibrosis, or both. ... The pulmonary toxicity caused by nitrofurantoin can be categorized into acute, subacute, and chronic pulmonary reactions. The ...
Hepatitis (Hepatitis C). *Chronic diarrhea. *Hypothyroidism. *Neutropenia. *Arthritis. *Encephalopathy (degenerative). Cause ...
Diseases associated with this genus include: hepatitis, hepatocellular carcinomas (chronic infections), cirrhosis. Group: ssRNA ... Duck hepatitis B virus Heron hepatitis B virus Viruses in Avihepadnavirus are enveloped, with spherical geometries, and T=4 ... There are currently only two species in this genus including the type species Duck hepatitis B virus. ...
An example is polydipsia found in patients with autoimmune chronic hepatitis with severely elevated globulin levels. Evidence ... "Non-psychogenic primary polydipsia in autoimmune chronic active hepatitis with severe hyperglobulinaemia". Gut. 29 (4): 548-9. ... Diagnosis may be complicated by the fact that chronic and extreme compulsive drinking may impair the response of the kidneys to ... However, these changes will likely only develop after chronic PPD associated with severe mental illness, as opposed to less ...
Diseases associated with this genus include: hepatitis, hepatocellular carcinoma (chronic infections), cirrhosis. Viruses in ... Bat hepatitis virus Ground squirrel hepatitis virus Hepatitis B virus Woodchuck hepatitis virus Woolly monkey hepatitis B virus ... There are currently five species in this genus including the type species Hepatitis B virus. ...
... is mainly used to treat chronic hepatitis B infection in adults and children two years and older with active viral ... Sims KA, Woodland AM (December 2006). "Entecavir: a new nucleoside analog for the treatment of chronic hepatitis B infection". ... March 2006). "A comparison of entecavir and lamivudine for HBeAg-positive chronic hepatitis B." N. Engl. J. Med. 354 (10): 1001 ... 9 March 2006). "Entecavir versus Lamivudine for Patients with HBeAg-Negative Chronic Hepatitis B". The New England Journal of ...
Its indication is for treatment of chronic hepatitis C of the genotypes 1 and 4 for adults. Hepatitis C is a global disease ... an inhibitor of hepatitis C virus's NS5A protein) and grazoprevir (an NS3/4A inhibitor). It is used to treat chronic hepatitis ... "FDA approves Zepatier for treatment of chronic hepatitis C genotypes 1 and 4". U.S. Food and Drug Administration. Retrieved 31 ... "Merck Announces Presentation Of New Findings For ZEPATIER™ (Elbasvir And Grazoprevir) In Patients With Chronic Hepatitis C At ...
Byrnes, Valerie; Chopra, Sanjiv; Koziel, Margaret J (2007). "Resolution of chronic hepatitis C following parasitosis". World ... "AST/ALT Ratio Predicts Cirrhosis in Patients with Chronic Hepatitis C Virus Infection". The American Journal of ... 1994 Sep; 89(9):1578-9. Proctor DD, Chopra S, Rubenstein SC, Jokela JA, Uhl L. Mycobacteremia and granulomatous hepatitis ... Cheney, Catherine Petruff; Chopra, Sanjiv; Graham, Camilla (2000). "Hepatitis C". Infectious Disease Clinics of North America. ...
doi:10.1002/hep.21784. PMID 17654490. "Liver Cancer Risk Factors". Retrieved 2018-04-26. "Chronic Liver Disease - ... Hepatitis B is especially prevalent amongst Asian Americans. A study conducted between 2001 and 2006 that provided hepatitis B ... Hepatitis B is one of the leading causes of the development of cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Cirrhosis and ... Men were more likely to be infected than women, and hepatitis B infections were 19.4 times more likely in foreign born Asian ...
41 (6): 1290-6. doi:10.1002/hep.20725. PMID 15915459. Kumar R, Birrer BV, Macey PM, Woo MA, Gupta RK, Yan-Go FL, Harper RM ( ... Tanné F, Gagnadoux F, Chazouillères O, Fleury B, Wendum D, Lasnier E, Lebeau B, Poupon R, Serfaty L (June 2005). "Chronic liver ... However, central sleep apnea is more often a chronic condition that causes much milder effects than sudden death. The exact ... but chronic severe obstructive sleep apnea requires treatment to prevent low blood oxygen (hypoxemia), sleep deprivation, and ...
Hepatitis C is caused by an RNA virus. In 80% of people infected, the disease is chronic, and without treatment, they are ... However, some viruses including those that cause AIDS and viral hepatitis evade these immune responses and result in chronic ... Bertoletti A, Gehring A. Immune response and tolerance during chronic hepatitis B virus infection. Hepatology Research. 2007;37 ... Safety, tolerability and efficacy of peginterferon alpha-2a and ribavirin in chronic hepatitis C in clinical practice: The ...
... and is less of a problem than chronic toxicity. Chronic toxicity - ingestion of high amounts of preformed vitamin A for months ... 8 (2): 272-5. doi:10.1002/hep.1840080214. PMID 3356407. Levine PH, Delgado Y, Theise ND, West AB (February 2003). "Stellate- ... Tholen W, Paquet KJ, Rohner HG, Albrecht M (August 1980). "[Cirrhosis of the liver and esophageal bleeding after chronic ... Penniston KL, Tanumihardjo SA (February 2006). "The acute and chronic toxic effects of vitamin A". The American Journal of ...
4 December 2007). "Treatment of hepatitis B e antigen positive chronic hepatitis with telbivudine or adefovir: a randomized ... and the combination in patients with hepatitis B e antigen-positive chronic hepatitis B". Gastroenterology. 129 (2): 528-36. ... "Safety and efficacy of telbivudine for the treatment of chronic hepatitis B". Ther Clin Risk Manag. 5: 789-98. PMC 2762437 . ... "Safety and efficacy of telbivudine for the treatment of chronic hepatitis B". Ther Clin Risk Manag. 5: 789-98. PMC 2762437 . ...
Wadhawan, M; Rastogi, M; Gupta, S; Kumar, A (2010). "Peritransplant management of chronic hepatitis C.". Trop Gastroenterol. 31 ... This work helped lay down the criteria for correct management of chronic liver disease and acute liver failure and will help in ... extensively on different aspects of living donor liver transplantation such as liver transplantation without hepatitis B ...
... the association of A1 with autoimmune hepatitis with no anti-viral antibody was stronger than with chronic active hepatitis ... Vogten AJ, Shorter RG, Opelz G (June 1979). "HLA and cell-mediated immunity in HBsAg negative chronic active hepatitis". Gut. ... Freudenberg J, Baumann H, Arnold W, Berger J, Büschenfelde KH (1977). "HLA in different forms of chronic active hepatitis. A ... Mackay IR, Morris PJ (October 1972). "Association of autoimmune active chronic hepatitis with HL-A1,8". Lancet. 2 (7781): 793-5 ...
... benefits patients with chronic HBV (hepatitis B virus) infection." Niruri fruit Niruri proliferation "The Plant List: A Working ... "Phyllanthus species for chronic hepatitis B virus infection". The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews (4): CD008960. doi: ... Phyllanthus niruri has been used in traditional medicine for various illnesses, like jaundice, chronic dysentery, dyspepsia, ...
Hepatitis B Virus-Specific CD8+ T Cells Maintain Functional Exhaustion after Antigen Reexposure in an Acute Activation Immune ... Progressive loss of memory T cell potential and commitment to exhaustion during chronic viral infection. Journal of Virology. ... CD4+ T cells are required to sustain CD8+ cytotoxic T-cell responses during chronic viral infection. Journal of Virology. 1994- ... Interplay between regulatory T cells and PD-1 in modulating T cell exhaustion and viral control during chronic LCMV infection. ...
Genus Deltavirus, mit einziger Species Hepatitis-D-Virus (HDV). Einzelstrang-RNA-Viren mit positiver Polarität (ss(+)RNA: ... Eric Dubois et al.: Effect of pollen traps on the relapse of chronic bee paralysis virus in honeybee (Apis mellifera) colonies ...
"Chronic Hepatitis After Hepatitis E Virus Infection in a Patient With Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma Taking Rituximab" (PDF). Retrieved ... Rituximab has been reported as a possible cofactor in a chronic Hepatitis E infection in a person with lymphoma. Hepatitis E ... Chronic fatigue syndrome[edit]. A potential use for rituximab was identified by two Norwegian doctors who were treating people ... chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy and autoimmune anemias.[16] The most dangerous, although among the most rare ...
... has been reported as a possible cofactor in a chronic Hepatitis E infection in a person with lymphoma. Hepatitis E ... Chronic fatigue syndromeEdit. Rituximab did not improve symptoms in patients with chronic fatigue syndrome in a trial published ... chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy and autoimmune anemias.[16] The most dangerous, although among the most rare ... chronic lymphocytic leukemia, rheumatoid arthritis, granulomatosis with polyangiitis, idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura, ...
... hepatitis B, hepatitis C), autoimmune conditions (systemic lupus erythematosus, ANCA vasculitis), paraproteinemias (amyloidosis ... Chronic kidney disease is typically managed with treatment of causative conditions (such as diabetes), avoidance of substances ... Patients are referred to nephrology specialists after a urinalysis, for various reasons, such as acute kidney failure, chronic ... Nephrologists may further sub-specialise in dialysis, kidney transplantation, chronic kidney disease, cancer-related kidney ...
doi:10.1002/hep.20815. PMID 16044402. Mahr AD, Neogi T, Merkel PA (2006). "Epidemiology of Wegener's granulomatosis: Lessons ... such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, in adults. Normally, A1AT leaves its site of origin, the liver, and joins the ... an autosomal codominant hereditary disorder in which a deficiency of alpha-1 antitrypsin leads to a chronic uninhibited tissue ...
8 (2): 272-5. doi:10.1002/hep.1840080214. PMID 3356407.. *^ Levine PH, Delgado Y, Theise ND, West AB (February 2003). "Stellate ... Chronic toxicity - ingestion of high amounts of preformed vitamin A for months or years - results from daily intakes greater ... Acute toxicity occurs over a period of hours or a few days, and is less of a problem than chronic toxicity. ... Tholen W, Paquet KJ, Rohner HG, Albrecht M (August 1980). "[Cirrhosis of the liver and esophageal bleeding after chronic ...
... s are also at risk for contracting blood-borne diseases like hepatitis B, hepatitis C, and HIV/AIDS through ... like with hepatitis B.[20] In epidemic situations, such as the 2014-2016 West African Ebola virus epidemic or the 2003 SARS ... Chronic care management. *Electronic superbill. *Geriatric care management. *Health human resources. References[edit]. *^ World ... "Does your workplace culture help protect you from hepatitis?". National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health. Archived ...
Lang D, Schott BH, van Ham M, Morton L, et al «Chronic Toxoplasma infection is associated with distinct alterations in the ... Acute Seronegative Toxoplasma gondii Hepatitis Allergic to First-Line Treatment» (en anglès). Case Reports in Infectious ... Sinai AP, Watts EA, Dhara A, Murphy RD, et al «Reexamining Chronic Toxoplasma gondii Infection: Surprising Activity for a " ... Afonso C, Paixão VB, Costa RM «Chronic Toxoplasma infection modifies the structure and the risk of host behavior» (en anglès). ...
tumors, frequently solid tumors of the lung and colon; hematological malignancies such as chronic lymphocytic leukemia are less ... Within membranous glomerulonephritis, especially in cases caused by viral hepatitis, serum C3 levels are low.[7] ... Ziakas PD, Giannouli S, Psimenou E, Nakopoulou L, Voulgarelis M (July 2004). "Membranous glomerulonephritis in chronic ...
Individuals with chronic illness are seen at least every three months.[37] These teams' role combine the importance of focusing ... hepatitis and chicken pox. Other campaigns included a program to reduce the infant mortality rate in 1970 directed at maternal ... The Cuban government blames the shortages on the embargo and states that those with more severe chronic diseases receive ...
... is a consequence of lactase deficiency, which may be genetic (primary hypolactasia and primary congenital alactasia) or environmentally induced (secondary or acquired hypoalactasia). In either case, symptoms are caused by insufficient levels of lactase in the lining of the duodenum. Lactose, a disaccharide molecule found in milk and dairy products, cannot be directly absorbed through the wall of the small intestine into the bloodstream, so, in the absence of lactase, passes intact into the colon[citation needed]. Bacteria in the colon can metabolise lactose, and the resulting fermentation produces copious amounts of gas (a mixture of hydrogen, carbon dioxide, and methane) that causes the various abdominal symptoms. The unabsorbed sugars and fermentation products also raise the osmotic pressure of the colon, causing an increased flow of water into the bowels (diarrhea).[18][9] The LCT gene provides the instructions for making lactase. The specific DNA sequence in the MCM6 gene ...
... hepatitis - hepatitis C and HIV coinfection - hepatomegaly - herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) - herpes simplex virus 2 (HSV-2) - ... chronic idiopathic demyelinating polyneuropathy (CIPD) - Circumoral paresthesia - clade - clinical endpoint - clinical latency ...
கல்லீரல் அழற்சி (Viral hepatitis, Autoimmune hepatitis, Alcoholic hepatitis) · கல்லீரல் இழைநார் வளர்ச்சி (PBC) · கொழுப்புமிகு ... கணைய அழற்சி (Acute, Chronic, Hereditary) · Pancreatic pseudocyst · Exocrine pancreatic insufficiency · Pancreatic fistula ...
... and chronic hepatitis ... Cigarette smoking - occurs in 25-50% of chronic smokers and can ... Infectious diseases - viral (AIDS, SARS, West Nile encephalitis, hepatitis, herpes, measles, others), bacterial (TB, typhoid, ... Chronic inflammation - especially juvenile rheumatoid arthritis, rheumatoid arthritis, Still's disease, Crohn's disease, ... Conditions with normally functioning neutrophils - hereditary neutrophilia, chronic idiopathic neutrophilia. *Pelger-Huet ...
F95.1) Chronic motor or vocal tic disorder. *(F95.2) Combined vocal and multiple motor tic disorder (Gilles de la Tourette) ...
Miguet JP, Coaquette A, Bresson-Hadni S, Lab M (June 1990). "[The other types of viral hepatitis]". Rev Prat (French). 40 (18 ... Okano M, Gross TG (November 2011). "Acute or Chronic Life-Threatening Diseases Associated With Epstein-Barr Virus Infection". ... September 2003). "[Outbreak of hepatitis by Orientia tsutsugamushi in the early years of the new millenium]". Taehan Kan Hakhoe ... Elishkewitz K, Shapiro R, Amir J, Nussinovitch M. Hepatitis in scarlet fever. Isr Med Assoc J 6(9):569-570 ...
Sick children with chronic malnutrition, especially when accompanied by anaemia, often suffer from a lower learning capacity ... Several million more suffer from multiple episodes of diarrhea and still others fall ill on account of Hepatitis A, enteric ... Diseases such as dengue fever, hepatitis, tuberculosis, malaria and pneumonia continue to plague India due to increased ... ". "Chronic hunger and the status of women in India". Archived from the original on 10 September 2014. [1]. Retrieved on 2015- ...
arXiv:hep-ph/0206072. Bibcode:2003IJMPA..18.2229A. doi:10.1142/S0217751X03013879.. *^ Nave, Carl R. "Cosmic rays". HyperPhysics ... arXiv:hep-ex/0004014. Bibcode:2000PhRvD..62c2007B. doi:10.1103/physrevd.62.032007.. *R. Clay and B. Dawson, Cosmic Bullets, ...
Prevention includes the use of breast milk and probiotics.[2] A 2012 policy by the American Academy of Pediatrics recommended feeding preterm infants human milk, finding "significant short- and long-term beneficial effects," including reducing the rate of NEC by a factor of two or more.[10] Small amounts of oral feeds of human milk starting as soon as possible, while the infant is being primarily fed intravenously, primes the immature gut to mature and become ready to receive greater intake by mouth.[11] Human milk from a milk bank or donor can be used if mother's milk is unavailable. The gut mucosal cells do not get enough nourishment from arterial blood supply to stay healthy, especially in very premature infants, where the blood supply is limited due to immature development of the capillaries, so nutrients from the lumen of the gut are needed. A Cochrane review in 2014 found that supplementation of probiotics enterally "prevents severe NEC as well as all-cause mortality in preterm ...
People at higher risk for mold allergies are people with chronic lung illnesses, which will result in more severe reactions ... and synergistically with Hepatitis B virus) induce liver cancer.[49] Mycotoxin-contaminated grain and other food products have ... However, studies are suggesting that the so-called toxic effects are actually the result of chronic activation of the immune ... or individuals with chronic exposure may become infected.[23][24] Sinuses and digestive tract infections are most common; lung ...
Laurence J (2006). "Hepatitis A and B virus immunization in HIV-infected persons". AIDS Reader 16 (1): 15-17. பப்மெட் 16433468. ... "Microbial translocation is a cause of systemic immune activation in chronic HIV infection". Nat. Med. 12 (12): 1365-71. doi: ...
People with chronic liver disease, whether in the form of viral hepatitis (e.g. hepatitis B or hepatitis C),[22][23][24] ... hepatitis C, hepatitis B, infection with certain liver fluke, and some congenital liver malformations.[1][3][8] However, most ... doi:10.1002/hep.20537. PMID 15690474.. *^ Holzinger F, Z'graggen K, Büchler MW (1999). "Mechanisms of biliary carcinogenesis: a ... 28 (4): 921-5. doi:10.1002/hep.510280404. PMID 9755226.. *^ Chang AH, Parsonnet J (October 2010). "Role of bacteria in ...
Laurence J (2006). "Hepatitis A and B virus immunization in HIV-infected persons". AIDS Reader 16 (1): 15-17. PMID 16433468.. ... Sestak K (2005). "Chronic diarrhea and AIDS: insights into studies with non-human primates". Curr. HIV Res. 3 (3): 199-205. ... "Microbial translocation is a cause of systemic immune activation in chronic HIV infection". Nat. Med. 12 (12): 1365-71. PMID ...
"Serum Collagen Type IV for the Assessment of Fibrosis and Resistance to Interferon Therapy in Chronic Hepatitis C". ... IV concentrations correlate with hepatic tissue levels of collagen IV in subjects with alcoholic liver disease and hepatitis C ...
Crohn's disease is a common chronic inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), which can affect any part of the GI tract,[45] but it ... Stomach diseases are often chronic conditions and include gastroparesis, gastritis, and peptic ulcers. ...
Alter and his research team demonstrated that most post-transfusion hepatitis cases were not due to hepatitis A and hepatitis B ... Alter it was only an auspicious beginning." McHenry Harris; Randall E. Harris (2013). Epidemiology of Chronic Disease. Jones & ... Alter and his research team demonstrated that most post-transfusion hepatitis cases were not due to hepatitis A and hepatitis B ... This work eventually led to the discovery of the hepatitis C virus. In 1988 the new hepatitis virus was confirmed by Alter's ...
... but a chronic, multiple-organ autoimmune disorder primarily affecting the small intestine.[55][56][57] ...
... past or present to Hepatitis C, chronic. The 2011 case definition changes the name of Hepatitis C, chronic back to Hepatitis C ... * Hepatitis C, Chronic , 2016 Case Definition (https ... * Hepatitis C, Chronic , 2010 Case Definition (https ... Hepatitis B, chronic ( ...
... * Hepatitis B, Chronic , 2011 Case Definition (https ... * Hepatitis B, Chronic , 2007 Case Definition (https ... * Hepatitis B, Chronic , 2003 Case Definition (https ... Hepatitis C, chronic ( ...
Necrosis (death) of liver cells, inflammation, and fibrosis that occur in chronic hepatitis ... Chronic hepatitis is a liver disease caused by infection, drug ingestion, metabolic or autoimmune disorders. ... Chronic hepatitis is a liver disease caused by infection, drug ingestion, metabolic or autoimmune disorders. Necrosis (death) ... of liver cells, inflammation, and fibrosis that occur in chronic hepatitis may lead over time to liver failure. ...
Guidelines and tools regarding prevention and control of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection and HCV-related chronic disease. ... Hepatitis C Testing Recommendations. CDC now recommends one-time hepatitis C testing of all adults (18 years and older) and all ... Hepatitis C-related Guidelines. *Hepatitis C Treatment Recommendations from the Infectious Diseases Society of America (IDSA) ... Recommendations for Prevention and Control of Hepatitis C Virus (HCV) Infection and HCV-Related Chronic Disease. ...
Hepatitis B Surface Antibody: 86706, Hepatitis B Surface Antigen: 87340, Hepatitis B Core Antibody, Total: 86704, Hepatitis C ... Hepatitis B Surface Antigen; Hepatitis B Core Total Antibody; Hepatitis B Surface Antibody; Hepatitis C Antibody ... For health professionals : Refer a Patient : Laboratory Services : Test Table : Hepatitis Chronic Panel ... Reactive Hepatitis B Surface Antigen will reflex to the Hepatitis B Surface Antigen Confirmatory neutralization test for an ...
Hepatitis-associated antigen in chronic hepatitis. Br Med J 1973; 3 :49 ... Hepatitis-associated antigen in chronic hepatitis.. Br Med J 1973; 3 doi: (Published 07 ...
At least one percent of Americans are chronically infected with the hepatitis C virus, which over time ca ... who face a prevalence of chronic hepatitis C infection six times greater than other adults, should get tested at least once for ... found about 2.7 million people have chronic hepatitis C infection," he added. ... Chronic HCV is typically treated with combinations of anti-viral drugs. "One finding of (this new) study was that only half of ...
Cohort Study of the Population Impact of Current and Evolving Treatments for Chronic Hepatitis B and C. ... Cohort Study of the Population Impact of Current and Evolving Treatments for Chronic Hepatitis B and C (CDC-RFA-PS16-002). ... This cooperative agreement supports the development or expansion of the Chronic Hepatitis B and C Cohort Study (CHeCS) - a ... Content source: Division of Viral Hepatitis, National Center for HIV/AIDS, Viral Hepatitis, STD, and TB Prevention ...
... Cirrhosis/Liver Failure Drug Metabolism/Pharmacology Genetic Diseases Hepatitis C Immunology Liver Injury/ ...
... whether its acute or chronic. when you do notice symptoms, they could include fever, nausea and vomiting, flu-like symptoms, ... there arent any obvious signs of hepatitis c, ... Chronic," "Hepatitis C, Acute," "Overview of Chronic Hepatitis ... Merck Manual: "Hepatitis C, Chronic," "Hepatitis C, Acute," "Overview of Chronic Hepatitis." ... What are symptoms of acute and chronic hepatitis C?. ANSWER Often, there arent any obvious signs of hepatitis C, whether its ...
All about Management of Chronic Viral Hepatitis by Graham Foster. LibraryThing is a cataloging and social networking site for ...
... and prevention of chronic hepatitis caused by the B and C viruses. The discussion of patient management includes contributions ... "Chronic Viral Hepatitis is another valuable guide to the proper care of patients with chronic viral hepatitis. The real ... the use of drugs in chronic viral hepatitis, liver transplantation, and pregnancy in chronic viral hepatitis. Attention is also ... Around the world hepatitis has infected more than 2 billion people (10 million in the US) and is, in its chronic form, the ...
Alajos Pár, "Diagnosis and Management of Chronic Hepatitis C," Canadian Journal of Gastroenterology, vol. 14, no. Suppl B, pp. ... Diagnosis and Management of Chronic Hepatitis C. Alajos Pár First Department of Medicine, University Medical School Pécs, Pécs ...
"hepatitis, chronic"[MeSH Terms] OR ("hepatitis"[All Fields] AND "chronic"[All Fields]) OR "chronic hepatitis"[All Fields] OR (" ... "chronic"[All Fields] AND "persistent"[All Fields] AND "hepatitis"[All Fields]) OR "chronic persistent hepatitis"[All Fields]) ... Involvement of TLR2-MyD88 in abnormal expression of miR-146a in peripheral blood monocytes of patients with chronic hepatitis C ... Saturated Fatty Acid inhibits viral replication in chronic hepatitis B virus infection with nonalcoholic Fatty liver disease by ...
I have had Hep c untreated for about 12 years. Yes i know i shouldve had it treated by now, but ... ... Hi found this info chronic diarrhea is not associated with hep c or liver disease "CHRONIC DIARRHEA CAUSES. A wide range of ... Hi found this info chronic diarrhea is not associated with hep c or liver disease "CHRONIC DIARRHEA CAUSES. A wide range of ... Hep c chronic diahrrea Cjhm1986 Hello all, merry christmas i guess. I say i guess as its been a pretty unpleasant onr for me ...
There are two types of this condition: acute and chronic. Read about the differences between these types of hepatitis C. Also ... More than 3.5 million people in the Unites States have hepatitis C, a condition that affects the liver. ... What is chronic hepatitis C?. Chronic hepatitis C infection is caused by the hepatitis C virus (HCV). As the virus enters the ... chronic hepatitis C. Acute and chronic hepatitis C are caused by the same virus. Acute hepatitis C develops after initial ...
All MeSH CategoriesDiseases CategoryDigestive System DiseasesLiver DiseasesHepatitisHepatitis, ChronicHepatitis B, Chronic ... All MeSH CategoriesDiseases CategoryVirus DiseasesHepatitis, Viral, HumanHepatitis BHepatitis B, Chronic ... All MeSH CategoriesDiseases CategoryDigestive System DiseasesLiver DiseasesHepatitisHepatitis, Viral, HumanHepatitis BHepatitis ... All MeSH CategoriesDiseases CategoryVirus DiseasesDNA Virus InfectionsHepadnaviridae InfectionsHepatitis BHepatitis B, Chronic ...
Symptoms of Active Chronic Hepatitis in Dogs. The parts of body affected by active chronic hepatitis are not only the liver and ... Causes of Active Chronic Hepatitis in Dogs. The primary causes of active chronic hepatitis are not known. The condition ... Active chronic hepatitis is a syndrome in dogs that can have several different causes. The active chronic hepatitis consists of ... Treatment of Active Chronic Hepatitis in Dogs. The treatment of active chronic hepatitis in dogs aims to control the disease ...
Do direct acting antivirals cure chronic hepatitis C? BMJ 2018; 361 :k1382 doi:10.1136/bmj.k1382 ... Do direct acting antivirals cure chronic hepatitis C?. BMJ 2018; 361 doi: (Published 10 May ...
... Peter Jarcuska,1 Ahmed Abdel-Razik,2 Robert Flisiak,3 and ... Chronic viral hepatitis B and C can lead to liver cirrhosis. Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is another complication, however, ... Patients with chronic viral hepatitis could also benefit from statin therapy for its antifibrotic and antineoplastic effect [10 ... Patients with chronic hepatitis C rarely have elevated total cholesterol (TC), LDL cholesterol (LDL-C), and triglycerides (TG) ...
Helping you find trustworthy answers on Chronic Hepatitis B Carrier , Latest evidence made easy ... Find all the evidence you need on Chronic Hepatitis B Carrier via the Trip Database. ... chronic persistent hepatitis (9%), chronic active hepatitis (62%), and cirrhosis (19%). Delta infection in chronic HBV carriers ... 134 with chronic hepatitis B) were studied. ALT activity was normal at baseline in 25/134 HBeAg-negative chronic hepatitis B ...
Helping you find trustworthy answers on Chronic Hepatitis B Carrier , Latest evidence made easy ... Find all the evidence you need on Chronic Hepatitis B Carrier via the Trip Database. ... Learning the Hep B Basics - Hepatitis B Foundation , Newly Diagnosed with Hepatitis B? Acute or Chronic? Learning the Hep B ... Diagnosed With Chronic Hepatitis B? What Does Your HBV DNA Test Tell You? Diagnosed With Chronic Hepatitis B? What Does Your ...
Chronic Hepatitis B, Chronic Active Type B Viral Hepatitis, Chronic Persistent Type B Viral Hepatitis, Chronic Hepatitis B ... chronic hepatitis b, chronic hep b, hepatitis b chronic, hepatitis b chronic viral, Chronic hepatitis B, Chronic type B viral ... Chronic Hepatitis B Infection. Aka: Chronic Hepatitis B Infection, Chronic Hepatitis B, Chronic Active Type B Viral Hepatitis, ... Chronic Hepatitis B, Hepatitis B, Chronic, chronic viral hepatitis B infection, chronic hepatitis B infection (diagnosis), ...
Chronic Hepatitis - Hepatitis, Chronic - diseasesandisorders - Chronic Hepatitis - Hepatitis, Chronic (Site not responding. ... Hepatitis, Chronic - Chronic Hepatitis - information page with HONselect. Chronic hepatitis can be caused by viruses, ... AllRefer Health - Chronic Persistent Hepatitis (Chronic Lobular Hepatitis, Hepatitis - Persistent, Mild Chronic .... ... Chronic persistent hepatitis can be caused by hepatitis B (HBV), hepatitis C (HCV), hepatitis D (HDV), autoimmune diseases such ...
People with hepatitis C and chronic liver disease who relapsed or failed to respond to initial treatment are unlikely to ... Hepatitis C affects around 170 million people worldwide. In some cases, infection leads to chronic liver disease, liver failure ... The authors of the review analyzed data from seven trials involving a total of 1,976 patients with chronic hepatitis C liver ... Chronic Hepatitis C: Interferon May Be Harmful In Re-Treatment. by editor ...
National Institutes of Health has made research into the biology of hepatitis B, as well as a potential cure, a new priority ... 11 (UPI) -- Chronic hepatitis B, continues to sicken hundreds of thousands of Americans -- and millions globally -- despite the ... NIH announces new plan to tackle chronic hepatitis B. New efforts will focus on better diagnosis and cure for virus that ... The World Health Organization estimates that between 850,000 and 2 million people in the United States have chronic hepatitis B ...
... and efficacy when used to treat or reduce the symptoms of chronic+hepatitis+c ... hepatitis+c? Find a list of current medications, their possible side effects, dosage, ... hepatitis+c? Below is a list of common medications used to treat or reduce the symptoms of chronic+hepatitis+c. Follow the ...
Serologic assays that detect antibodies to hepatitis CMolecular assays that detect or quantify HCV RNAOther investigations such ... Diagnostic tests for hepatitis C virus (HCV) can be divided into two broad categories: ... Diagnostic tests for hepatitis C. Hepatology 1997; 26:43S.. *Kao JH, Lai MY, Hwang YT, et al. Chronic hepatitis C without anti- ... Patient education: Hepatitis C (The Basics). *Patient evaluation and selection for antiviral therapy for chronic hepatitis C ...
I contracted Hep C in 1994 while using drugs (been clean and sober since 1997), in 2006 I developed an acute pain in my right ... chronic pain 24/7 since 2006 luigi_uk I contracted Hep C in 1994 while using drugs (been clean and sober since 1997), in 2006 I ... chronic pain 24/7 since 2006. I contracted Hep C in 1994 while using drugs (been clean and sober since 1997), in 2006 I ... Share Your Hepatitis C Treatment Experience - Earn Up to $100!. Answer a few simple questions about your Hep C treatment ...
An Observational Study of Pegasys in Dual- or Triple-Therapy in Patients With Chronic Hepatitis C. *Hepatitis C, Chronic ... A Retrospective Study of Real World Treatment Outcomes of Patients With Chronic Hepatitis C. *Hepatitis C, Chronic ... Pharmacokinetics of Boceprevir in Pediatric Subjects With Chronic Hepatitis C Genotype 1 (P07614). *Hepatitis C, Chronic ... Efficacy and Safety of Daclatasvir Plus Asunaprevir in Chronic Hepatitis C. *Hepatitis C, Chronic ...
  • Chronic hepatitis is a liver disease caused by infection, drug ingestion, metabolic or autoimmune disorders. (
  • The new data from a nationally representative survey of the general United States population (the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, or NHANES) found about 2.7 million people have chronic hepatitis C infection," he added. (
  • Among young and middle-aged adults, those with chronic HCV infection were more likely to have received a blood transfusion before mandatory viral testing began in 1992. (
  • This study underscores the importance of CDC and U.S. Preventive Services Task Force recommendations that all persons born between 1945 and 1965, who face a prevalence of chronic hepatitis C infection six times greater than other adults, should get tested at least once for hepatitis C virus," Holmberg said. (
  • The FDA notes that patients with a past or current hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection can experience sometimes fatal HBV reactivation when taking direct-acting antivirals HCV infection. (
  • Regulatory NK cells mediated between immunosuppressive monocytes and dysfunctional T cells in chronic HBV infection. (
  • The link between TLR7 signaling and hepatitis B virus infection. (
  • Chronic hepatitis C infection is caused by the hepatitis C virus (HCV). (
  • Acute hepatitis C develops after initial infection. (
  • The only way to confirm a hepatitis C infection is through a blood test. (
  • According to a study published in Gastroenterology , approximately 45 percent of all liver transplants in the United States are done on people with chronic hepatitis C infection that has progressed to cirrhosis. (
  • Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is another complication, however, and, particularly interestingly, it can occur not only in patients with advanced liver fibrosis or cirrhosis, but also in patients with chronic hepatitis B infection and high viremia. (
  • infants will not begin the vaccine series until 6 weeks of age, creating a window for exposure to hepatitis B . Greater than 95% of babies infected with hepatitis B will go on to develop chronic hepatitis B infections, leaving them susceptible to a future hepatitis D infection. (
  • Chronic HBV infection was defined by the presence of HBsAg and anti-HBc. (
  • Hepatitis C virus infection alone or in combination with alcohol was the commonest cause of chronic liver disease, accounting for 58% of cases (22a). (
  • Chronic HBV infection is suggested by the presence of HBsAg in serum for at least 6 months and is confirmed by the absence of IgM anti-HBc. (
  • Chronic hepatitis C virus infection has a long course, and most patients are diagnosed in a presymptomatic stage. (
  • HGV co-infection is observed in 6% of chronic HBV infections and in 10% of chronic HCV infections. (
  • The hepatitis B, C, and D viruses can also cause chronic hepatitis , in which the infection is prolonged, sometimes lifelong. (
  • Hepatitis D virus infection occurs on a background of hepatitis B virus infection and can also cause liver damage. (
  • In some cases, infection leads to chronic liver disease, liver failure or liver cancer, eventually resulting in death. (
  • Hepatitis B virus, or HBV, infection is transmitted through sex, contact with infected blood or bodily fluids, or from an infected mother to her baby, according to NIH. (
  • HBV can cause an acute infection that resolves fairly quickly or a chronic infection that, if left untreated, may persist for years and lead to serious health issues, including cirrhosis, liver failure or liver cancer. (
  • Nearly 90 percent of infants infected during the first year of life will develop chronic infection, according to WHO, while 5 percent of those infected as adults will do so. (
  • This topic will review the approach to diagnostic testing and evaluation of chronic HCV infection. (
  • Victrelis is for adult patients suffering from chronic hepatitis C (CHC) genotype 1 infection. (
  • An average GP (general practitioner, primary care physician) with a list of 1,800 patients will typically have between 8 and 20 patients with hepatitis C infection. (
  • Chronic hepatitis D is a severe disease of the liver caused by infection with the hepatitis D virus. (
  • therefore, people with delta hepatitis have both hepatitis B and hepatitis D virus infection. (
  • Chronic delta hepatitis is a serious form of chronic liver disease caused by infection with the hepatitis D virus (HDV), a small RNA virus that requires farnesylation of its major structural protein (HDV antigen) for replication. (
  • Hepatitis C is an infectious hepatitis caused by hepatitis C virus (HCV).This systemic viral infection predominantly involves the liver hepatocytes and can result in both acute and chronic liver diseases. (
  • HCV infection can result in both acute and chronic hepatitis. (
  • Approximately 80% of patients with acute hepatitis C develop chronic infection that manifests as persistent HCV RNA detected in the blood with or without abnormal liver function test results for more than 6 months. (
  • This is important whether you have an acute or chronic infection . (
  • They may fit into an at-risk category for hepatitis B due to lifestyle choices, country of origin, frequent travel and exposure in endemic areas of the world, or an unsafe blood transfusion, or medical or dental procedures performed without proper infection control. (
  • Although not casually transmitted, there are inadvertent opportunities for exposure to hepatitis B. If you are from an area where HBV is very common, then the odds of exposure, transmission, and infection will be higher. (
  • Dealing with the diagnosis and waiting out the next six months to determine if your infection will resolve itself or learning that it is a chronic infection can be nerve-wracking. (
  • Fortunately, greater than 90 percent of healthy adults who are newly infected will clear or resolve an acute hepatitis B infection. (
  • There are about 150 million people in the world with chronic hepatitis C infection and more than 350,000 of them die from this liver infection each year. (
  • What are the treatments for chronic hepatitis C infection? (
  • It is the first medicine in this class to be investigated for its effect on chronic hepatitis C infection. (
  • This Cochrane review tried to identify the benefits and harms of treating chronic hepatitis C infection with nitazoxanide. (
  • All the trials only included participants with chronic hepatitis C genotype (type) 1 or 4 infection. (
  • Outcomes important to people who suffer from this infection include: death from all causes, death from chronic hepatitis C infection, how unwell you feel (morbidity), quality of life, and adverse events caused by the medicines. (
  • Indeed, the review authors could not draw any conclusions about the benefits or harms of nitazoxanide for people with chronic hepatitis C infection. (
  • We found very low quality, or no, evidence on nitazoxanide for clinically- or patient-relevant outcomes, such as all-cause mortality, chronic hepatitis C-related mortality, morbidity, and adverse events in participants with chronic hepatitis C genotype 1 or 4 infection. (
  • We totally lack information on the effects of nitazoxanide in participants with chronic hepatitis C genotypes 2 or 3 infection. (
  • Hepatitis C infection is a disease of the liver caused by the hepatitis C virus. (
  • Maticic M. Lichen planus in hepatitis C virus infection: an early marker that may save lives. (
  • Halawani MR. Dermatological manifestations of hepatitis C virus infection in Saudi Arabia. (
  • HIV and Hepatitis C Virus Infection Testing Among Commercially Insured Persons Who Inject Drugs, United States, 2010-2017. (
  • Cryoglobulinemia in chronic hepatitis C virus infection: prevalence, clinical manifestations, response to interferon treatment and analysis of cryoprecipitates. (
  • Some people with chronic HCV infection develop cirrhosis over many years, which can lead to complications such as bleeding, jaundice (yellowish eyes or skin), fluid accumulation in the abdomen, infections or liver cancer. (
  • The studies were designed to measure whether a participant's hepatitis C virus was no longer detected in the blood 12 weeks after finishing treatment (sustained virologic response or SVR), suggesting a participant's infection had been cured. (
  • Zepatier was granted breakthrough therapy designation for the treatment of chronic HCV genotype 1 infection in patients with end stage renal disease on hemodialysis and for the treatment of chronic HCV genotype 4 infection. (
  • The CDC recommendations are key to increasing the early diagnosis of chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection, since many of the estimated 800,000 1.4 million Americans with chronic HBV infection have no symptoms and are unaware of their disease. (
  • Men who have sex with men and injection drug users: Routine testing is needed for these persons since both have a higher prevalence of chronic HBV infection than the overall U.S. population. (
  • For more information chronic hepatitis B infection, visit or . (
  • The findings potentially explain how the hepatitis B virus (HBV) establishes and maintains chronic infection, and could lead to the development of novel therapeutic strategies. (
  • Chronic HBV infection is associated with impaired virus-specific T-cell responses. (
  • In addition, the hepatitis B e-antigen (HBeAg) - a hepatitis B viral protein -- may represent a viral strategy to establish persistent infection, but the mechanism remains largely unknown. (
  • The researchers analyzed the circulation frequency of MDSCs in 164 patients with chronic HBV infection and 70 healthy donors. (
  • Okabe et al 1 studied the association of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection with chronic active myocarditis, a variant form of chronic myocarditis characterized by numerous lymphocytic clusters and myocardial cell damage, in 3 patients. (
  • Although their findings are interesting and the association of HCV infection with chronic active myocarditis may be true, controversial issues still exist that should be carefully addressed before drawing a final conclusion. (
  • 2 4 Second, HCV infection of lymphocytic cells in patients with chronic hepatitis C has been documented. (
  • Okabe M, Fukuda K, Arakawa K, Kikuchi M. Chronic variant of myocarditis associated with hepatitis C virus infection. (
  • Zignego AL, De Carli M, Monti M, Careccia G, La Villa G, Giannini C, D'Elios MM, Del Prete G, Gentilini P. Hepatitis C virus infection of mononuclear cells from peripheral blood and liver infiltrates in chronically infected patients. (
  • The hub includes a great deal of valuable information, such as an overview of hepatitis B, a list of questions to ask your healthcare provider, a patient guide, information about hepatitis B co-infection, doctors' advice on what to expect from treatment, and many other resources. (
  • He hopes that his athletic achievements help others living with hepatitis B to realize that they are more than their infection. (
  • The prognosis of chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is still ill-defined. (
  • Glomerulonephritis is an important extrahepatic manifestation of chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection. (
  • Although NA therapy is recommended for all patients with chronic HBV infection, regardless of the level of renal dysfunction, there is limited information on NA use in patients with chronic kidney disease. (
  • MIAMI (Reuters) - Grammy-award winning Cuban-American singer Jon Secada added his voice on Thursday to a growing public health campaign to raise awareness of chronic hepatitis C infection. (
  • The European Medicines Agency has recommended the authorisation of Harvoni (ledipasvir / sofosbuvir) for the treatment of chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection in adults. (
  • Harvoni belongs to a new generation of antiviral products for chronic HCV infection that have high cure rates and have recently reshaped the treatment landscape for this disease. (
  • These new regimens allow cure of patients with chronic HCV infection without the need for treatments involving interferons, medicines which are associated with poor tolerability and potentially serious side effects that rule out such treatment in a considerable proportion of HCV patients. (
  • Chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is a common liver disease that is associated with high morbidity and death. (
  • Furthermore, the persistent and functional antiviral activity of PD-1+ HBV-specific T cells highlights the potential beneficial role of the expression of T cell exhaustion markers during human chronic viral infection. (
  • While 25 compounds have been formally licensed for the treatment of HIV infection (AIDS), only seven licensed products are currently available for the treatment of chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection: interferon-α, pegylated interferon-α, lamivudine, adefovir (dipivoxil), entecavir, telbivudine and tenofovir (disoproxil fumarate). (
  • In contrast to the treatment of HIV infections where the individual drugs are routinely used in combination, for the treatment of chronic HBV infection the individual drugs are generally used in monotherapy. (
  • HCC is an important complication of chronic hepatitis B infection that may be seen in patients with and without cirrhosis. (
  • Their analysis suggests a lower risk of HCC patients with chronic hepatitis B infection who were treated with aspirin therapy for 90 consecutive days or more. (
  • FORNS, X. and RAMOS-CASALS, M. . Extrahepatic manifestations associated with Chronic Hepatitis C Virus Infection. (
  • Chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection has been associated with both organ-specific and systemic autoimmune diseases, with cryoglobulinemia being the most frequent associated disease. (
  • In addition, patients with chronic HCV infection have a higher frequency of other extrahepatic manifestations including endocrine, metabolic and cardiovascular disorders that may worse the prognosis of patients, along with neuropsychiatric manifestations and general symptoms that have a significant influence on the quality of life of the patient. (
  • Direct-acting antiviral therapies (DAAs) that have recently begun to be used are providing the opportunity to effectively cure chronic HCV infection and reduce the burden of both hepatic and extrahepatic complications. (
  • Hepatitis E virus infection in patients with underlying chronic liver disease is associated with liver decompensation and increased lethality. (
  • Mortality among Patients with Chronic Hepatitis B (CHB) Infection: the Chronic Hepatitis Cohort Study (CHeCS). (
  • Chronic hepatitis C infection is a major public health concern, with a high burden in Sub-Saharan Africa. (
  • There is growing evidence that chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection causes neurological c. (
  • Persistent hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is established by the formation of an intranuclear pool of covalently closed circular DNA (cccDNA) in the liver. (
  • In conclusion, our method for detecting viral nucleic acids, including cccDNA, with single-cell resolution provides a means for monitoring intrahepatic virological events in chronic HBV infection. (
  • Fatigue - a common symptom among people living with hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection - is associated with liver inflammation and fibrosis, but antiviral therapy that leads to a cure significantly reduces the likelihood of fatigue, according to a Danish study presented yesterday at the 5th International Symposium on Hepatitis Care in Substance Users (INHSU 2016) in Oslo, Norway. (
  • Rasmus Thornhøj of Odense University Hospital in Southern Denmark presented findings from the FAT-HEP study, which looked at fatigue in relation to chronic HCV infection, current or past substance use, opioid substitution therapy (OST), liver inflammation and fibrosis, and sustained response to hepatitis C treatment. (
  • In the United States, VICTRELIS is approved for the treatment of chronic hepatitis C genotype 1 infection, in combination with peginterferon alfa and ribavirin, in adult patients (18 years of age and older) with compensated liver disease, including cirrhosis, who are previously untreated or who have failed previous interferon and ribavirin therapy. (
  • Since the publication in 2009 of clinical practice guidelines for the management of hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection by the European Association for the Study of the Liver (EASL), a wealth of new data has emerged regarding the antivirals most commonly used to treat chronic hepatitis B. This review will summarise the most recent knowledge on these drugs, and how this may affect current and future management of HBV infection. (
  • Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is a major cause of acute and chronic hepatitis, and of its long-term complications, i.e. decompensated cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) [1, 2]. (
  • Chronic HBV infection undergoes several phases. (
  • This condition, the so-called HBeAg-negative hepatitis B , is caused by infection with a mutant strain of HBV incapable of secreting HBeAg, and characterised by significant risk of clinical and histological disease progression in spite of the serological profile. (
  • The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has approved Tyzeka (telbivudine) for the treatment of adults with chronic hepatitis B (HBV), a serious viral infection that attacks the liver and can cause lifelong infection, scarring of the liver (cirrhosis), and eventually liver cancer, liver failure, and death. (
  • The main outcomes of chronic hepatitis C virus infection are the development into cirrhosis and the appearance of its implications such as portal hypertension, hepatic insufficiency and hepatocellular carcinoma [2]. (
  • Currently, the cirrhosis resulting from chronic virus C infection is the main cause of hepatic transplantation worldwide. (
  • Several factors may influence on this process, mainly host's factors such as sex, infection duration, alcohol consumption, co-infection with hepatitis B virus (HBV) or human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), which modify the hepatic fibrosis development. (
  • An estimated 4.7 million Europeans are living with chronic hepatitis B and almost 4 million (3.9) with chronic hepatitis C infection. (
  • Treatment of chronic hepatitis C virus [‎HCV]‎ infection in transfusion-dependent betathalassaemia major patients is complicated by existing hepatic siderosis and the fear of ribavirinassociated haemolysis. (
  • The aim of the present study was to document the principal concerns of patients suffering from chronic hepatitis B and C infection. (
  • Chronic hepatitis C (CHC) infection affects approximately 1 in 100 Canadians. (
  • Through gaining a better understanding of links between obesity, insulin resistance and hepatitis C infection we hope to delay the onset of diabetes and reduce the likelihood of all their untoward effects on the liver. (
  • Pharmasset has received fast track designation from FDA for R7128 for the treatment of chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection. (
  • Currently, there are no HCV polymerase inhibitors approved for the treatment of chronic HCV infection. (
  • R7128 is being developed for the treatment of chronic HCV infection. (
  • R1626, one of Roche's new investigational drugs for chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection, has shown promising antiviral activity when given in combination with PEGASYS (peginterferon alfa-2a) and COPEGUS (ribavirin), according to results being presented at the American Association for the Study of the Liver Disease (AASLD) meeting, being held in Boston, Nov. 2-6. (
  • For adults with chronic hepatitis C virus infection, direct-acting antivirals are associated with a reduced risk for mortality and hepatocellular carcinoma, according to a study published online Feb. 11 in The Lancet . (
  • TUESDAY, Feb. 12, 2019 (HealthDay News) -- For adults with chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection, direct-acting antivirals are associated with a reduced risk for mortality and hepatocellular carcinoma, according to a study published online Feb. 11 in The Lancet . (
  • Infection by the hepatitis delta virus (HDV) either occurs at the same time as hepatitis B develops, or develops later when infection by hepatitis B virus (HBV) has entered the chronic (long-lasting) stage. (
  • In North America HDV infection appears to be less frequent: 4% of all patients with acute hepatitis B have HDV infection. (
  • Not infrequently, HDV infection occurs in patients with chronic HBV infection who also have hemophilia , a bleeding disease. (
  • In some areas, one-fourth to one-half of patients with chronic HBV infection who inject themselves with illicit drugs become infected by HDV as well. (
  • Between 10-25% of homosexual men with chronic HBV infection harbor the delta virus. (
  • Like hepatitis B, HDV infection may develop in healthcare workers who are victims of a needle stick, and it also can be spread within households when personal items such as a razor or toothbrush are shared. (
  • Only 2-5% of patients become chronic carriers (have the virus remain in their blood more than six months after infection). (
  • It may be that HDV actually keeps HBV from reproducing as rapidly as it would if it were alone, so chronic infection is less likely. (
  • Hepatitis C is a common viral liver infection and hepatitis C can lead to cirrhosis of the liver. (
  • Chronic form of Hepatitis C viral liver infection. (
  • Hepatitis C infection runs a similar course, with 75% of infected persons developing chronic disease, while 15-20% will progress to advanced disease within 10-30 years. (
  • Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the most common form of liver cancer in the U.S. and one of the more common complications of chronic hepatitis C infection. (
  • It is for this reason that alcohol cessation (along with an alcohol treatment program, if needed) be explored as part of a treatment plan for people with chronic HCV infection, particularly those with diagnosed with compensated or decompensated cirrhosis. (
  • ABUS ), a clinical-stage biopharmaceutical company primarily focused on developing a cure for people with chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection as well as therapies to treat coronaviruses (including COVID-19), today announced additional clinical data from an ongoing Phase 1a/1b clinical trial (AB-729-001) with AB-729, its proprietary GalNAc delivered RNAi compound. (
  • The new data described today expands on the presentation entitled Safety and pharmacodynamics of the GalNAc -siRNA AB-729 in subjects with chronic hepatitis B infection, recorded on October 14, 2020 and presented on November 15, 2020 by Professor Man-Fung Yuen, D.Sc. (
  • It can cause both acute and chronic infection. (
  • Infection around the time of birth or from contact with other people's blood during childhood is the most frequent method by which hepatitis B is acquired in areas where the disease is common. (
  • It is one of five main hepatitis viruses: A, B, C, D, and E. The infection has been preventable by vaccination since 1982. (
  • It is also recommended that all blood be tested for hepatitis B before transfusion, and that condoms be used to prevent infection. (
  • At least 391 million people, or 5% of the world's population, had chronic HBV infection as of 2017. (
  • Acute infection with hepatitis B virus is associated with acute viral hepatitis, an illness that begins with general ill-health, loss of appetite, nausea, vomiting, body aches, mild fever, and dark urine, and then progresses to development of jaundice. (
  • Chronic infection with hepatitis B virus either may be asymptomatic or may be associated with a chronic inflammation of the liver (chronic hepatitis), leading to cirrhosis over a period of several years. (
  • Transmission of HDV can occur either via simultaneous infection with HBV (coinfection) or superimposed on chronic hepatitis B or hepatitis B carrier state (superinfection). (
  • Chronic HCV is typically treated with combinations of anti-viral drugs. (
  • In Chronic Viral Hepatitis: Diagnosis and Therapeutics, leading scientists, clinicians, and clinical investigators comprehensively review the epidemiology, molecular virology, diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of chronic hepatitis caused by the B and C viruses. (
  • The discussion of patient management includes contributions on developing novel therapeutics, supporting patients during therapy, alternative treatments, the use of drugs in chronic viral hepatitis, liver transplantation, and pregnancy in chronic viral hepatitis. (
  • Each chapter provides an extensive review of available literature and is based on broad experience in clinical trials and the management of patients with chronic viral hepatitis. (
  • Authoritative and eminently practical, Chronic Viral Hepatitis: Diagnosis and Therapeutics offers today's gastroenterologists, primary care physicians, hepatologists, and infectious disease specialists a critical understanding of the state-of-the-art in chronic viral hepatitis and insightful projections of the many powerful new therapeutics now emerging. (
  • the real strength of the book is a number of chapters devoted to practical aspects of the management of chronic viral hepatitis. (
  • The book does a remarkable job of presenting knowledge about chronic hepatitis of viral etiology to a general internal medicine audience. (
  • The purpose is to provide the reader with a comprehensive overview of the field of chronic viral hepatitis, with a focus on epidemiology, natural history, the problem of co-infections, and treatment. (
  • Drs. Koff and Wu set out to construct a contemporary comprehensive overview of the field of chronic viral hepatitis. (
  • Chronic Viral Hepatitis is another valuable guide to the proper care of patients with chronic viral hepatitis. (
  • Chronic viral hepatitis B and C can lead to liver cirrhosis. (
  • Both decompensated liver cirrhosis and HCC lead to death in patients with chronic viral hepatitis B or C. There are several factors, including hepatic comorbidities such as nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) or alcoholic liver disease, which accelerate liver fibrosis in patients with chronic viral hepatitis [ 1 ]. (
  • Cardiovascular risk is not higher in patients with chronic viral hepatitis B, nor is the risk of hyperlipidemia, T2DM, or MetS. (
  • On the other hand, MetS or NAFLD comorbidities accelerate liver fibrosis and increase HCC incidence among patients with viral hepatitis B [ 3 ]. (
  • Patients with chronic viral hepatitis C are being diagnosed more frequently with higher insulin resistance, prediabetes, and T2DM. (
  • Liver steatosis is present more frequently in patients with chronic hepatitis C. Viral steatosis is specific condition characterized by higher hepatocellular fat accumulation without higher insulin resistance in patients infected mainly with genotype 3 [ 5 ]. (
  • Increased peripheral and hepatic insulin resistance, chronic inflammation, chronic endothelial injury, and direct viral effect on arterial wall most likely also lead to accelerated atherogenesis. (
  • Contribution of Chronic Viral Hepatitis to the Burden of Disease in the U.S. The burden of chronic liver disease in the U.S. is unknown, although estimates of prevalence and incidence indicate the chronic viral hepatitis is the commonest cause of chronic liver disease. (
  • Thus, expression of viral antigens on the surface of hepatocytes precipitates lymphohistiocytic lobular lobular inflammation and spotty acidophilic necrosis of hepatocytes , typical of acute hepatitis . (
  • Although illness is often subclinical, viral hepatitis has a substantial impact on society in terms of days lost from work and school, the need for hospitalization, and even loss of life. (
  • Lamivudine is a nucleoside analogue that is a potent inhibitor of hepatitis B viral DNA replication. (
  • Some cases of viral hepatitis cannot be attributed to the hepatitis A, B, C, D, or E viruses. (
  • The purpose of the current study was to assess the extent of micronutrients and oxidative stress in blood and to examine their linkages with viral loads in chronic hepatitis C patients. (
  • Sustained viral response did not suggest that a patient who was destined to develop symptoms or death from hepatitis C was cured, at least in this setting. (
  • It is intended to build on the agency's ongoing hepatitis B research and the U.S. National Viral Hepatitis Action Plan , based on input from academia, patient advocacy organizations, private and non-profit companies, government organizations and clinical trial networks. (
  • The clinical symptoms, if present, are similar to those of other acute viral hepatitis, including malaise, nausea, jaundice, and right upper quadrant pain, which typically last for 2-12 weeks. (
  • The histological features of acute hepatitis C differ very little from other acute viral hepatitis. (
  • Hep B is a vaccine preventable disease, but not all moms living with the virus have access to the birth dose for their baby or able to complete the vaccine series, or they have a high viral load resulting in failure of HBV birth prophylaxis. (
  • Akhter A, Said A. Cutaneous manifestations of viral hepatitis. (
  • Hepatitis C is a viral disease that causes inflammation of the liver that can lead to diminished liver function or liver failure. (
  • These new recommendations are critical to identifying people who are living with the disease without the benefits of medical attention, said John W. Ward, M.D., director of CDC′s Division of Viral Hepatitis. (
  • New research sheds light on how a hepatitis B viral protein stimulates the expansion of immune cells that impair antiviral responses, according to a study published April 18 in the open-access journal PLOS Pathogens by Haitao Guo of the Indiana University School of Medicine, Bin Wang and Jiming Zhang of Fudan University, and colleagues. (
  • Positive and negative strand of hepatitis C virus RNA sequences in peripheral blood mononuclear cells in patients with chronic hepatitis C: no correlation with viral genotypes 1b, 2a, and 2b. (
  • This was a retrospective study of 179 chronic viral hepatitis C patients. (
  • Top 10 Infectious Disease Killers CHRONIC VIRAL HEPATITIS 500 millon worldwide 1 Person In 12 Is Infected With Hepatitis B Or C #1 cause of liver disease Flu-like symptoms or no symptoms 75% of patients don't know they're infected Hepatitis symptoms can take up to 30 years to develop 3,5 million Americans unaware they are infected with hepatitis Were you born between i 1945-1965? (
  • Chronic viral hepatitis affect hundreds of millions of people worldwide, and each year millions more people become infected. (
  • In Chronic Viral Hepatitis, Second Edition, a panel of distinguished clinicians and clinical investigators build upon the first edition by comprehensively reviewing all the relevant new information regarding resistance, side effects, and therapies for chronic viral hepatitis. (
  • The text covers recent advances in the understanding of pathogenesis of viral hepatitis while discussing promising agents in development for its treatment. (
  • The authors devote special attention to reactivation of hepatitis B with chemotherapy and immunosuppression, herbal and non-traditional therapies, chronic viral hepatitis in the pediatric population, and immunology and immunotherapy of HCV and provide relative costs for all diagnostic and therapeutic options. (
  • Authoritative and up-to-date, Chronic Viral Hepatitis, Second Edition offers today's gastroenterologists, internists, hepatologists, and infectious disease specialists a practical guide to the recognition, diagnosis and treatment of chronic viral hepatitis from a multidisciplinary approach. (
  • In this illustrated guide, a panel of distinguished clinicians and clinical investigators comprehensively review all the relevant new information regarding resistance, side effects, and therapies for chronic viral hepatitis. (
  • The aim of the study was to evaluate the general risk of thyroid disorders' development in chronic HCV-infected patients and their possible relationship with HCV genotype, type of used IFN-alpha and viral response. (
  • When seroconversion to anti-HBe occurs, this may not necessarily lead to an inactive carriage: a minority of patients who become anti-HBe-positive maintains both viral replication and hepatitis. (
  • Counselling of patients with viral hepatitis is often limited to discussions about how the virus is transmitted. (
  • The best indicator of the severity of liver damage and prognosis in chronic viral hepatitis is extension of liver fibrosis. (
  • The delta virus causes an estimated 2% of all cases of acute viral hepatitis in the United States. (
  • Management of Chronic Viral Hepatitis is an A5 sized multiauthor textbook of over 300 pages which forms one of eight books in a gastroenterology and hepatology series. (
  • Curiously, the only other hepatological title in this series is a book entitled Viral Hepatitis: Diagnosis, Treatment, Prevention by a different editor. (
  • Through the use of clinical vignettes, it tries to cover some of the recent advances in the treatment of viral hepatitis and to demonstrate how these treatments are incorporated into everyday practice. (
  • In addition to looking at the general treatment of viral hepatitis, the book also has informative chapters on specific disease subsets such as those with chronic hepatitis C and normal alanine aminotransferase levels or those with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) coinfection. (
  • The pace of change in viral hepatitis is fast, and as ever with multiauthor texts, delays are inevitable between writing and publishing. (
  • The target audience is hard to define but anyone involved in looking after patients with viral hepatitis will find something of use. (
  • For those new to viral hepatitis this is a helpful textbook that shows how an understanding of both the natural history and treatment options should be used to guide management decisions. (
  • On its own, heavy alcohol intake can lead to a form of non-viral hepatitis called alcoholic hepatitis. (
  • When paired with viral hepatitis (in the form of either hepatitis B or hepatitis C), the impact on the liver can be exponentially increased. (
  • Clevudine is an antiviral drug with an inhibitory effect on DNA polymerase for the treatment of chronic hepatitis B. In the Philippines, about 8 million people are believed to be infected with hepatitis B. With its potent and sustained anti-viral effect, Clevudine is expected to be a new treatment option for patients with deterioration in liver function caused by hepatitis B. (
  • it is a type of viral hepatitis. (
  • Hepatitis D is a type of viral hepatitis caused by the hepatitis delta virus (HDV), a small spherical enveloped particle that shares similarities with both a viroid and virusoid. (
  • HDV and HBV infecting a person simultaneously is considered the most serious type of viral hepatitis due to its severity of complications. (
  • The safety and efficacy of Zepatier with or without ribavirin was evaluated in clinical trials of 1,373 participants with chronic HCV genotype 1 or 4 infections with and without cirrhosis. (
  • The committee also heard that elbasvir-grazoprevir provided another alternative to the existing oral treatment combinations for people with genotype 1 and 4 hepatitis C virus (HCV). (
  • Therefore the committee recognised the importance of having an additional effective and tolerable treatment for people with chronic hepatitis C and concluded that elbasvir-grazoprevir could be a valuable option for genotype 1 and 4 HCV. (
  • Treatment options for chronic hepatitis C depend on the genotype of the virus and the person's cirrhosis status and treatment history. (
  • The company's economic evidence is limited to people who have had DAA (genotypes 1-6) and people with genotype 3 hepatitis C who have not had DAA before. (
  • Pharmasset is currently enrolling a 28-day Phase 1 clinical trial to evaluate R7128 in combination with Pegasys (pegylated interferon) plus Copegus(R) (ribavirin) in treatment-naive patients chronically infected with hepatitis C virus (HCV) genotype 1. (
  • Part 3 is a multi-center, observer-blinded, within-cohort randomized, placebo-controlled study being conducted in up to 75 treatment-naive patients with genotype 1 hepatitis C virus. (
  • The multicenter Phase IIa study enrolled patients with genotype 1 chronic HCV who have not previously received treatment. (
  • We are very encouraged by the results of this Phase Ib study showing antiviral effects with Actilon given to patients with relapsed or treatment resistant genotype 1 Hepatitis C," said John Whisnant, M.D., Senior Vice President, Drug Development of Coley Pharmaceutical Group. (
  • MetS prevalence is not higher in population of patients infected with hepatitis C virus, which has both higher T2DM prevalence and insulin resistance, compared to population of never infected patients. (
  • Around the world hepatitis has infected more than 2 billion people (10 million in the US) and is, in its chronic form, the leading factor in end-stage liver disease and the rising incidence of hepatocellular carcinoma. (
  • The most important outcome of chronic hepatitis C is the progression to cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. (
  • A study investigated the impact of oxidative stress and iron deposition on hepatocellular carcinoma development after therapy with pegylated interferon (PegIFN)+ribavirin in chronic hepatitis C patients. (
  • For patients with chronic hepatitis B, aspirin therapy correlated with a reduced risk for hepatocellular carcinoma, according to a presenter at The Liver Meeting Digital Experience. (
  • For patients with chronic hepatitis B, aspirin therapy correlated with a reduced risk for hepatocellular carcinoma. (
  • Cyclooxygenase-2 and vascular endothelial growth factor in chronic hepatitis, cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. (
  • Fabrice Carrat, Ph.D., from the Sorbonne Université in Paris, and colleagues conducted a prospective study to compare the incidence of all-cause mortality, hepatocellular carcinoma, and decompensated cirrhosis for patients with chronic HCV treated with direct-acting antivirals and untreated patients. (
  • It is well acknowledged that a person with chronic hepatitis C and a history of heavy alcohol abuse has an increased chance of developing the advanced liver disease, including cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma (a form of liver cancer). (
  • Across Europe, hepatitis B and C cause approximately 50% of hepatocellular carcinomas. (
  • Necrosis (death) of liver cells, inflammation, and fibrosis that occur in chronic hepatitis may lead over time to liver failure. (
  • INFLAMMATION of the LIVER in humans caused by HEPATITIS B VIRUS lasting six months or more. (
  • The active chronic hepatitis consists of the inflammation of the liver tissues which in time become scar tissue (fibrosis), thus preventing the normal regeneration of the liver. (
  • Hepatitis C, caused by a blood-borne virus, can eventually lead to liver inflammation and scarring (fibrosis) of liver tissue. (
  • Hepatitis C is an inflammation of the liver caused by the spherical, enveloped single-strand RNA virus. (
  • When a pathologist evaluates a sample of liver tissue and finds evidence of inflammation that has gone on long enough to result in fibrosis (the formation of scar tissue) and a few other characteristic abnormalities, a diagnosis of chronic active hepatitis follows. (
  • Chronic hepatitis is characterised by inflammation, scarring and destruction of the cells and tissue of the liver, which can result in loss of liver function and, if left untreated, liver failure. (
  • But chronic (or persisting) inflammation, even at low grade, is problematic, as it is associated in the long term to many conditions such as heart disease or cancer. (
  • The trial produced evidence of antiviral effectiveness, including the suppression of hepatitis B virus, and improvement in liver inflammation comparable to Epivir-HBV (lamivudine), one of five other medications approved to treat patients with chronic HBV. (
  • Hepatitis D (or delta, the Greek letter 'D'), is a form of liver inflammation that occurs only in patients who also are infected by the hepatitis B virus. (
  • Heavy alcohol abuse can also lead to chronic inflammation of liver cells. (
  • Reactive Hepatitis B Surface Antigen will reflex to the Hepatitis B Surface Antigen Confirmatory neutralization test for an additional charge. (
  • 22 of 37 (59%) treated patients had lost hepatitis B surface antigen when tested 15-20 days after the end of the treatment compared with only 1 of 23 (4%) placebo-treated controls. (
  • HDV recognizes its receptor via the N-terminal domain of the large hepatitis B surface antigen, HBsAg. (
  • A cross-sectional study of 540 married Akha and Lisaw women of reproductive age was conducted in Chiang Rai Province, Thailand, between June 1st and August 31st, 1999, in order to determine the seroprevalence of HBsAg and identify the risk factors for chronic HBsAg carriage. (
  • IgG subclasses in circulating immune complexes with hepatitis B e antigen in chronic hepatitis B . IgG subclasses of antibodies to hepatitis B e antigen (anti-HBe) complexed to HBeAg were determined in 126 HBsAg-positive sera. (
  • Sixty-five HBsAg and HBeAg carriers with chronic hepatitis and intrahepatic HBcAg histologically proven by immunohistochemistry were included in the study. (
  • Patients with HBsAg and HDV RNA in serum, elevated aminotransferases, or moderate-to-severe chronic hepatitis and HDV antigen on liver biopsy will be enrolled. (
  • Hepatitis B is not genetic, but it is very easily passed from an HBsAg positive mom to her baby at birth. (
  • Gave a tube, and he called back and told me I had chronic Hepatitis B. HBsAG positive and Hep B core igm negative. (
  • This preliminary study confirms the benefit of adding Vitamin D to conventional antiviral therapy in patients with chronic hepatitis C". states lead investigator, Saif M. Abu-Mouch, MD, from the Department of Hepatology, Hillel Yaffe Medical Center in Hadera, Israel. (
  • The most common treatment for chronic hepatitis C is a combination of highly active antiviral agents known as direct-acting antivirals (DAAs). (
  • Do direct acting antivirals cure chronic hepatitis C? (
  • As of 1 March 2016, new medications were introduced to treat hepatitis C. These medications are called direct acting antivirals (DAAs). (
  • Original Versus Generic Direct Acting Antivirals in Treatment of Chronic Hepatitis C Patients: Real Life Data From Latvia. (
  • CDC recommendations for hepatitis C screening among adults - United States, 2020. (
  • While Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people make up 3% of the Australian population they account for 10% of hepatitis C cases in Australia (SA Health 2018). (
  • 2018. "Renal Impairment in Chronic Hepatitis B: A Review. (
  • This cooperative agreement supports the development or expansion of the Chronic Hepatitis B and C Cohort Study (CHeCS) - a study observing the same group of patients living with hepatitis B and hepatitis C over time who are receiving clinical care. (
  • This model approach is designed to enhance public health knowledge of the effectiveness, costs, benefits, and adverse effects of evolving antiviral therapies and clinical treatments for hepatitis B and hepatitis C on the U.S. population. (
  • More randomised clinical trials of high methodological quality are needed to establish the effects of nitazoxanide in people with chronic hepatitis C. (
  • More randomised clinical trials with a low risk of bias are needed to assess the effects of nitazoxanide for chronic hepatitis C. (
  • Early diagnosis of chronic hepatitis is difficult because the clinical signs are non-specific and include weight loss, weakness, fatigue, vomiting, diarrhoea and abdominal pain. (
  • The clinical signs of chronic hepatitis are non-specific and may only be intermittently presented or not at all, so an early diagnosis is difficult. (
  • A new page has been created on the Hepatitis B Foundation's website that contains a compilation of various opportunities available for people living with hepatitis B. These opportunities can be for clinical trials, other types of research, or toolkits with information and resources for those living with hepatitis B and their loved ones and community members. (
  • The appraisal committee reviewed the data available on the clinical and cost effectiveness of elbasvir-grazoprevir, having considered evidence on the nature of chronic hepatitis C and the value placed on the benefits of elbasvir-grazoprevir by people with the condition, those who represent them, and clinical experts. (
  • 4.1 The committee heard from the clinical and patient experts that people who have chronic hepatitis C are a disadvantaged population and often have to cope with stigma and discrimination because people associate hepatitis C with drug use. (
  • 4.2 The committee discussed the relevant comparators for elbasvir-grazoprevir given the changes in managing chronic hepatitis C. It noted that the company did not include boceprevir and telaprevir as comparators because they are no longer used in clinical practice, although the NICE scope included them. (
  • Clinical trials show that sofosbuvir-velpatasvir-voxilaprevir is effective for treating all genotypes of chronic hepatitis C, irrespective of the person's cirrhosis status and treatment history. (
  • Clinical features, including liver histologic findings, hepatitis C virus (HCV) markers, and response of HCV to interferon-alpha were compared between HGV RNA-positive and HGV RNA-negative patients. (
  • Accordingly, more information from properly designed randomised clinical trials is needed before one can determine the benefits or harms of Radix Sophorae flavescentis for people with chronic hepatitis B. (
  • The clinical management of chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) patients is based exclusively on virological parameters that cannot independently determine in which patients nucleos(t)ide-analogue (NUC) therapy can be safely discontinued. (
  • Clinical and laboratory characteristics of hepatitis d in Republic of Sakha (Yakutia). (
  • Transient elastography for predicting clinical outcomes in patients with chronic liver disease. (
  • Tyzeka was studied in a year-long international clinical trial in 1,367 patients with chronic HBV. (
  • Clinical observations show that chronic hepatitis C seems to develop more quickly in men than in women. (
  • Results from previous small clinical trials (studies in humans) of milk thistle for various liver diseases have been mixed, however, and this recent trial focused on higher-than-usual doses of a single silymarin product in patients with chronic hepatitis C. (
  • Coley Pharmaceutical Group, Inc today announced at the Digestive Disease Week conference that Actilon(TM) (CPG 10101) was relatively well tolerated and showed antiviral activity in the company's Phase Ib clinical study in chronic Hepatitis C patients. (
  • Prior to March 2016, hepatitis C treatment involved weekly injections and oral medications that were known to bring on unwanted side effects and health complications. (
  • Secada, 50, revealed that his father died last November from complications associated with hepatitis C, after failing to seek proper medical treatment for many years and keeping the disease a secret, even from family members. (
  • In a typical year, an estimated 70,000 Americans become infected with chronic HBV, and some 5,000 of them will die of the complications caused by the disease,' said Dr. Steven Galson, director of the Center for Drug Evaluation and Research. (
  • These complications include a greater likelihood of experiencing liver failure in acute infections and a rapid progression to liver cirrhosis, with an increased risk of developing liver cancer in chronic infections. (
  • Chronic active hepatitis (CAH), which also goes by the name chronic canine inflammatory hepatic disease or CCIHD, is a type of liver disease. (
  • Treating chronic active hepatitis can get complicated. (
  • Chronic Active Hepatitis - What kind of pain meds shoud I be taking for chronic hep C? (
  • Chronic Active Hepatitis - Has anyone completed treatment for hep c..if so need details of? (
  • To the editor: The editorial by Henley and Appelman ( Ann Intern Med 82:840-841, 1975) focuses attention on the improved prognosis of patients with chronic active hepatitis occasioned by the evolvement of effective therapy (1). (
  • No one would deny patients with symptoms referable to chronic active hepatitis the proper therapy. (
  • Recently, a wealth of new data has emerged regarding the antivirals most commonly used to treat chronic hepatitis B (table 1). (
  • Interestingly, SVR achievement after interferon based treatment in patients with chronic hepatitis C reduced T2DM incidence in the future. (
  • Intramuscular natural beta interferon in the treatment of chronic hepatitis B: a multicentre trial. (
  • In conclusion natural beta interferon given intramuscularly is effective in HBeAg positive patients suffering from chronic hepatitis B with optimal compliance. (
  • Not all patients with chronic hepatitis C are appropriate candidates for therapy with interferon and ribavirin. (
  • People with hepatitis C and chronic liver disease who relapsed or failed to respond to initial treatment are unlikely to improve on interferon retreatment. (
  • The authors of the review analyzed data from seven trials involving a total of 1,976 patients with chronic hepatitis C liver disease who were being retreated with interferon monotherapy having previously been treated unsuccessfully. (
  • Based on these results, interferon monotherapy cannot be recommended for chronic hepatitis C patients who have already failed one course of treatment and are being retreated. (
  • Interferon treatment did seem to reduce levels of hepatitis C virus in the blood compared to controls, resulting in what would be considered successful treatment or SVR. (
  • The current standard treatment for chronic hepatitis C is a combination of two medicines, pegylated interferon-alpha (interferon) and ribavirin. (
  • 189 randomly selected patients with histologically proven chronic hepatitis C, including 101 patients receiving interferon-alpha. (
  • Ten of 101 patients with chronic hepatitis C who received interferon-alpha were positive for HGV RNA. (
  • Hepatitis G virus was uniformly sensitive to interferon-alpha therapy, but only a few patients had a sustained virologic response. (
  • Despite these measures to speed publication, there have been predictable advances in treatment that are not well covered, such as the rapidly accumulating data on the efficacy of pegylated interferon alpha in combination with ribavirin in the treatment of hepatitis C. (
  • The 2010 and 2016 case definitions change the name of Hepatitis C, past or present to Hepatitis C, chronic. (
  • In a recently published of nearly 2,000 hepatitis B infected blood samples from 2010-2016 in Cameroon, 46.7% tested positive for hepatitis D antibodies, a marker of past or current hepatitis D coinfection. (
  • of hepatitis B /D coinfection in this region, particularly in countries such as Cameroon, Central African Republic and Gabon. (
  • There are several chapters on hepatitis B virus (HBV) covering treatment, future treatments, management of post-transplant hepatitis B, and HIV-HBV coinfection. (
  • The US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) today approved Vosevi (Gilead Sciences) to treat adults with chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) genotypes 1 through 6 without cirrhosis or with mild cirrhosis. (
  • There are six different genotypes of hepatitis C. Treatment for each kind is slightly different. (
  • It works better on some types (genotypes) of the hepatitis C virus than others. (
  • The U.S. Food and Drug Administration today approved Zepatier (elbasvir and grazoprevir) with or without ribavirin for the treatment of chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) genotypes 1 and 4 infections in adult patients. (
  • The HBeAg-MDSC-IDO axis may therefore serve as an immunotherapeutic target of chronic hepatitis B. (
  • If active chronic hepatitis has been caused by toxicity, the prognosis is fairly good. (
  • NEW YORK (GenomeWeb News) - Ariana Pharma today said it has joined a new partnership to improve the diagnosis and prognosis of chronic hepatitis. (
  • What is fibrosis related to hepatitis C? (
  • Assessment of chronic hepatitis and fibrosis: comparison of MR elastography and diffusion-weighted imaging. (
  • On the other hand, a prolonged immune reactive phase, with multiple, sequential flares of hepatitis or unremitting necroinflammation, will result in progressive liver fibrosis, ultimately leading to cirrhosis. (
  • The main injury caused by hepatitis C virus is the hepatic fibrosis, as a result of a chronic inflammatory process in the liver characterized by the deposit of components from the extracellular matrix. (
  • There are evidences that the oxidative stress is involved in the chronic liver disease and serves as bond between the injury and the hepatic fibrosis. (
  • The development of the chronic hepatitis C is better estimated by the fibrosis stage rather than by the necro-inflammatory activity level [3]. (
  • However, fulminant hepatitis is very rare in acute hepatitis C. HCV RNA can be detected in serum via polymerase chain reaction (PCR) as early as a few days following exposure, which is the earliest diagnostic marker. (
  • CONCLUSION: This study demonstrated low effect of IFN-alpha therapy on thyroid disorders development and on TPO-Ab and TG-Ab serum level in chronic HCV-infected patients. (
  • The serum-sickness-like syndrome occurs in the setting of acute hepatitis B, often preceding the onset of jaundice. (
  • some of the most common causes include irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), inflammatory bowel disease (Crohn disease and ulcerative colitis), malabsorption syndromes in which food cannot be digested and absorbed, and chronic infections. (
  • In the UK, the majority (95%) of new chronic hepatitis B infections occur in migrant populations, having been acquired perinatally in the country of birth. (
  • In the U.S., HCV accounts for 20% of all cases of acute (severe and of short duration) hepatitis, an estimated 30,000 new acute infections, and 8000 to 10,000 deaths annually. (
  • Individuals born in Asia, Africa, and other geographic regions with 2 percent or higher prevalence of chronic HBV infections: Previous CDC recommendations called for testing of people born in areas with 8 percent prevalence or higher. (
  • Neyts, J., De Clercq, E. Antiviral treatment of chronic hepatitis B virus infections: the past, the present and the future. (
  • De Clercq E, Férir G, Kaptein S, Neyts J. Antiviral Treatment of Chronic Hepatitis B Virus (HBV) Infections. (
  • More than 95% of persons infected at the adult age recover spontaneously, suggesting that most chronic infections occur either perinatally or during the first few years thereafter. (
  • Prevention of HBV infections as well as effective treatment of chronic hepatitis B is still needed for the global control of HBV associated HCC. (
  • Furthermore, patients with both infections are likelier than those with HBV alone to develop chronic liver disease , and, when it occurs, it is more severe. (
  • The incidence of hepatitis C has declined from 175,000 cases per year to about 30,000 cases per year since 1990. (
  • Various sources and calculations are available in statistics about Chronic Hepatitis C , prevalence and incidence statistics for Chronic Hepatitis C , and you can also research other medical statistics in our statistics center . (
  • Detection of hepatitis C virus replication by In situ hybridization in epithelial cells of anti-hepatitis C virus-positive patients with and without oral lichen planus. (
  • Hepatitis-associated antigen in chronic hepatitis. (
  • Del Vecchio-Blanco C , Rinaldi M , Saffiotti O , Coltorti M . Hepatitis-associated antigen in chronic hepatitis. (
  • Most people with hepatitis D eventually develop cirrhosis, which causes scarring and damage to the liver. (
  • It is estimated that up to 25% of patients with chronic hepatitis C will develop cirrhosis within 20 years. (
  • American College of Gastroenterology / Posts / Abstract Highlights / Oral 69 Does Cesarean section and formula feeding reduce vertical transmission in chronic hepatitis B pregnant mothers? (
  • Chronic hepatitis C: drug treatment with peginterferon alone or combination treatment with peginterferon and the drug ribavirin. (
  • The committee heard from the patient experts that having treatment options that are free from peginterferon alpha with or without ribavirin is important to people with chronic hepatitis C because of the associated adverse reactions. (
  • Ideally, a hepatitis B cure would also reduce a persons risk of liver failure and liver cancer. (
  • The U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) today published new recommendations for health care providers that are designed to increase routine testing in the United States for chronic hepatitis B, a major cause of liver disease and liver cancer. (
  • In the United States, chronic hepatitis B is the underlying cause of an estimated 2,000 4,000 deaths each year from cirrhosis and liver cancer. (
  • Expanded testing is essential since the rate of liver cancer deaths and chronic HBV in the United States remains high among foreign-born U.S. populations from these areas. (
  • Chronic hepatitis C is a common liver disease, and may result in cirrhosis, liver failure, and liver cancer. (
  • Hepatitis C virus, which infects the liver and certain immune cells, leads to serious liver diseases such as cirrhosis and liver cancer more frequently than any other form of hepatitis. (
  • Cirrhosis or liver cancer occur in about 25% of those with chronic disease. (
  • Chronic carriers are encouraged to avoid consuming alcohol as it increases their risk for cirrhosis and liver cancer. (
  • Hepatitis C has a severe impact on the health and well-being of millions of Americans, especially baby boomers (those born from 1945 through 1965)," Dr. Scott D. Holmberg told Reuters Health in an email. (
  • The study also reported that low baseline levels of the intracellular iron regulators of FBXL5 in addition to a suppressed hepcidin level might be associated with severe hepatic iron deposition in chronic hepatitis C patients. (
  • As has happened with other forms of treatment for hepatitis B, some patients who discontinued Tyzeka experienced a sudden and severe worsening of their hepatitis B. Therefore, patients who discontinue Tyzeka should be closely monitored by their doctor for at least several months. (
  • Sometimes, chronic hepatitis B can lead to severe liver damage. (
  • Delta hepatitis can be quite severe, but it is seen only in patients already infected by HBV. (
  • Between half and two-thirds of patients with superinfection develop severe acute hepatitis. (
  • Hepatic stellate cells are involved in the pathogenesis of acute-on-chronic liver failure (ACLF). (
  • Since the last update, tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (Viread) was approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration for treatment of chronic hepatitis B based on the results of two double-blind randomized trials showing a superiority of tenofovir compared to adefovir. (
  • Selection of hepatitis B virus polymerase mutations in HIV-coinfected patients treated with tenofovir. (
  • Tenofovir disoproxil difumarate (tenofovir DF) is effective in chronic hepatitis B patients who are resistant to lamivudine, according to research presented at the The Liver Meeting, the 63rd Annual Meeting of the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases (AASLD). (
  • Tenofovir DF is a potent nucleotide reverse transcriptase inhibitor, and has demonstrated excellent efficacy and safety in treatment-naive, but not treatment-resistant, chronic HBV patients. (
  • it is believed that it decreases discomfort and prevents replication of the virus in people with chronic hepatitis B. However, its benefits and harms remain unclear. (
  • Sansonno D, Cornacchiulo V, Iacobelli AR, Di Stefano R, Lospalluti M, Dammacco F. Localization of hepatitis C virus antigens in liver and skin tissues of chronic hepatitis C virus-infected patients with mixed cryoglobulinemia. (
  • The data reinforce the idea that only testing people who would seem to be at especially high risk "is unlikely to identify most U.S. individuals with hepatitis C," he said. (
  • About 80 percent of people with acute hepatitis C develop chronic hepatitis C, according to the CDC . (
  • Chronic hepatitis C is often difficult to diagnose because most people have no early symptoms. (
  • Most people who contract hepatitis C get it from infected blood. (
  • People with chronic hepatitis C shouldn't drink alcohol. (
  • Hepatitis C affects around 170 million people worldwide. (
  • Additionally, high medication costs, the need for continuous disease monitoring and adhering to treatment regimens present significant burdens for people with chronic hepatitis B. Scientific discoveries within the past decade suggest that a hepatitis B cure is possible. (
  • The World Health Organization estimates that between 850,000 and 2 million people in the United States have chronic hepatitis B, while the disease affects more than 250 million people worldwide. (
  • Approximately one-quarter of a million individuals in the UK are chronically infected with hepatitis C. Diagnosis is commonly delayed because a considerable number of people are infected for a long time before they experience any symptoms. (
  • However, it has not been tested on people with hepatitis D. Researchers want to study different doses of lonafarnib to see how they affect virus levels and other symptoms of hepatitis D. (
  • An estimated 200,000-220,000 people live with chronic hepatitis C in Australia (Doherty Institute n.d. (
  • 20-25% of people with hepatitis C will experience acute hepatitis, however, their body will be able to cure the virus without treatment. (
  • People can contract hepatitis C by coming into contact with non-sterile tattooing, body piercing and acupuncture instruments. (
  • Unfortunately, people with chronic hepatitis C often do not experience symptoms until their liver is damaged, which in some cases takes years (Hepatitis Australia 2019). (
  • Hepatitis C is mainly transmitted between people through contact with infected blood (mostly through illegal drug use that involves needle-sharing, but possibly from mother to baby in the womb, or through having sex with an infected person). (
  • The estimated number of chronically infected people with hepatitis C virus worldwide is about 150 million people. (
  • I want to be a positive example against the stigma associated with Hep B and the shame that some people may feel for having it. (
  • Hepatitis is known as a silent disease - people can live with hepatitis, either B or C, for years without having a clue they're infected. (
  • Before he passed away, he told me that he wanted me to share his story to help other people like him who have chronic hepatitis C but aren't taking action," Secada said. (
  • An estimated 3 million to 4 million Americans and 180 million people worldwide are infected with hepatitis C, which causes progressive damage to the liver over many years. (
  • In Latin America it's common for people to get injected at home by a neighbor with old glass syringes that you boil and use again," said Arosemena, noting that the hepatitis C virus is resistant to high temperatures. (
  • News of the new medicines caught the attention of many people with hepatitis C who had been putting off treatment and Vertex has booked sales in excess of $950 million just since May. (
  • To assess the benefits and harms of Radix Sophorae flavescentis versus placebo or no intervention in people with chronic hepatitis B. (
  • It causes psychological stress and is a burden to people with chronic hepatitis B and their families. (
  • None of the trials assessed health-related quality of life, and no trials followed people who died from hepatitis B or were at risk of dying because of hepatitis B. Adverse events considered 'not to be serious' was an outcome in 19 trials. (
  • Our certainty in the evidence that Radix Sophorae flavescentis, when compared with no intervention or placebo , decreases or increases adverse events considered not to be serious in people with chronic hepatitis B is very low. (
  • This graph shows the total number of publications written about "Hepatitis, Chronic" by people in Harvard Catalyst Profiles by year, and whether "Hepatitis, Chronic" was a major or minor topic of these publication. (
  • Below are the most recent publications written about "Hepatitis, Chronic" by people in Profiles. (
  • Fatigue is frequently reported by people with chronic hepatitis C and has a detrimental effect on quality of life, though its pathophysiology is not yet fully understood. (
  • The analysis included 56 people with hepatitis C seen at an outpatient clinic in Denmark. (
  • Globally, an estimated 71 million people are living with chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV). (
  • Some people with chronic (long-term) hepatitis B don't develop serious problems and can live active, full lives without treatment. (
  • Most people who have chronic hepatitis B don't have symptoms. (
  • Most people with chronic hepatitis B don't develop serious problems. (
  • Hepatitis C has also been found to me more common in people with a history of alcohol abuse than among non-drinkers. (
  • There is little doubt that people with chronic hepatitis C who drink alcohol have a higher chance of developing cirrhosis. (
  • Over 750,000 people die of hepatitis B each year. (
  • The symptoms often subside shortly after the onset of jaundice but can persist throughout the duration of acute hepatitis B. About 30-50% of people with acute necrotizing vasculitis (polyarteritis nodosa) are HBV carriers. (
  • Hepatitis B carrier among married hilltribe women in northern Thailand. (
  • I am a hep B carrier. (
  • Chronic Carrier of Hep B Scheduled to go to Mayo by? (
  • The only way to estimate the duration of chronic hepatitis C is to do a liver biopsy. (
  • We propose to treat between 12 and 14 patients with chronic delta hepatitis using the farnesyltransferase inhibitor (FTI) lonafarnib for a duration of twenty-eight days. (
  • The effect appears to be duration-dependent, with apparent benefits observed more frequently with chronic use. (
  • Twenty-four weeks is a commonly accepted duration of treatment for which effective hepatitis C therapies have previously demonstrated improvement in disease activity. (
  • Hepatitis B Virus-Induced Imbalance of Inflammatory and Antiviral Signaling by Differential Phosphorylation of STAT1 in Human Monocytes. (
  • Copper associated chronic hepatitis is a progressive inflammatory disease of the liver which is caused or worsened by high levels of copper in the liver and bloodstream. (
  • DAA therapy leads to both significant decrease in fasting glucose (FG) levels and significant decrease in glycated hemoglobin levels (HbA1C) in diabetic patients with chronic hepatitis C and is thus requiring reduction of antidiabetic therapy in certain part of patients [ 9 ]. (
  • Farnesyltransferase inhibitors have not been used in the therapy of delta hepatitis. (
  • Outcome of cutaneous psoriasis in hepatitis C virus-infected patients treated with Direct-Acting Antiviral therapy. (
  • Two distinct cohorts of 19 and 27 chronic HBV patients, respectively, were analyzed longitudinally prior to and after discontinuation of 2 different NUC therapy strategies. (
  • This study identifies the presence of functional HBV-specific T cells as a candidate immunological biomarker for safe therapy discontinuation in chronic HBV patients. (
  • Thyroid dysfunction in antiviral therapy of chronic hepatitis C. (
  • This cross-sectional, questionnaire-based study, conducted from September to November 2015, used the Fatigue Severity Scale (FSS), the Functional Assessment of Chronic Illness Therapy-Fatigue (FACIT-F) measure and the Fatigue Visual Analogue Scale (VAS-F). (
  • The aim of this paper was to describe data from literature concerning the interaction between chronic hepatitis C and estrogens, pregnancy, use of oral contraceptives, menopause and hormone reposition therapy. (
  • This effect of R1626 in combination therapy, along with the lack of resistance observed to date, means that R1626 could be an exciting drug for patients with hepatitis C, if a safe and acceptable dosing regimen can be determined in future studies. (
  • Reactive Hepatitis B Core Antibody will reflex to the Hepatitis B Core IgM antibody for an additional charge. (
  • Most symptoms of chronic hepatitis C don't appear until cirrhosis develops and the liver begins to fail. (
  • Below is a list of common medications used to treat or reduce the symptoms of chronic+hepatitis+c. (
  • Further information about the symptoms of Chronic Hepatitis C is available including a list of symptoms of Chronic Hepatitis C , other diseases that might have similar symptoms in differential diagnosis of Chronic Hepatitis C , or alternatively return to research other symptoms in the symptom center . (
  • There is currently no effective treatment for chronic hepatitis D. (
  • To test the safety and effectiveness of lonafarnib as a treatment for chronic hepatitis D. (
  • This double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized trial was conducted in 154 participants with chronic hepatitis C at 4 different U.S. centers. (
  • Hepatitis Australia 2019). (
  • This is not the cause of hepatitis C transmission (Hepatitis Australia 2019). (
  • For this reason it is vital that patients get tested for hepatitis C if you think they may have been exposed to the virus (Hepatitis Australia 2019). (