Antigens of the virion of the HEPATITIS B VIRUS or the Dane particle, its surface (HEPATITIS B SURFACE ANTIGENS), core (HEPATITIS B CORE ANTIGENS), and other associated antigens, including the HEPATITIS B E ANTIGENS.
INFLAMMATION of the LIVER in humans caused by a member of the ORTHOHEPADNAVIRUS genus, HEPATITIS B VIRUS. It is primarily transmitted by parenteral exposure, such as transfusion of contaminated blood or blood products, but can also be transmitted via sexual or intimate personal contact.
The type species of the genus ORTHOHEPADNAVIRUS which causes human HEPATITIS B and is also apparently a causal agent in human HEPATOCELLULAR CARCINOMA. The Dane particle is an intact hepatitis virion, named after its discoverer. Non-infectious spherical and tubular particles are also seen in the serum.
Antibodies to the HEPATITIS B ANTIGENS, including antibodies to the surface (Australia) and core of the Dane particle and those to the "e" antigens.
Those hepatitis B antigens found on the surface of the Dane particle and on the 20 nm spherical and tubular particles. Several subspecificities of the surface antigen are known. These were formerly called the Australia antigen.
INFLAMMATION of the LIVER in humans caused by HEPATITIS B VIRUS lasting six months or more. It is primarily transmitted by parenteral exposure, such as transfusion of contaminated blood or blood products, but can also be transmitted via sexual or intimate personal contact.
Vaccines or candidate vaccines containing inactivated hepatitis B or some of its component antigens and designed to prevent hepatitis B. Some vaccines may be recombinantly produced.
The hepatitis B antigen within the core of the Dane particle, the infectious hepatitis virion.
A variant of the GUILLAIN-BARRE SYNDROME characterized by the acute onset of oculomotor dysfunction, ataxia, and loss of deep tendon reflexes with relative sparing of strength in the extremities and trunk. The ataxia is produced by peripheral sensory nerve dysfunction and not by cerebellar injury. Facial weakness and sensory loss may also occur. The process is mediated by autoantibodies directed against a component of myelin found in peripheral nerves. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1313; Neurology 1987 Sep;37(9):1493-8)
A closely related group of antigens found in the plasma only during the infective phase of hepatitis B or in virulent chronic hepatitis B, probably indicating active virus replication; there are three subtypes which may exist in a complex with immunoglobulins G.
INFLAMMATION of the LIVER in humans caused by HEPATITIS C VIRUS, a single-stranded RNA virus. Its incubation period is 30-90 days. Hepatitis C is transmitted primarily by contaminated blood parenterally, and is often associated with transfusion and intravenous drug abuse. However, in a significant number of cases, the source of hepatitis C infection is unknown.
Immunoglobulin molecules having a specific amino acid sequence by virtue of which they interact only with the ANTIGEN (or a very similar shape) that induced their synthesis in cells of the lymphoid series (especially PLASMA CELLS).
INFLAMMATION of the LIVER in humans caused by a member of the HEPATOVIRUS genus, HUMAN HEPATITIS A VIRUS. It can be transmitted through fecal contamination of food or water.
The property of antibodies which enables them to react with some ANTIGENIC DETERMINANTS and not with others. Specificity is dependent on chemical composition, physical forces, and molecular structure at the binding site.
Immunoglobulins produced in response to VIRAL ANTIGENS.
Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.
INFLAMMATION of the LIVER.
An insoluble support for an ANTIGEN or ANTIBODIES that is used in AFFINITY CHROMATOGRAPHY to adsorb the homologous antibody or antigen from a mixture. Many different substances are used, among them SEPHAROSE; GLUTARALDEHYDE; copolymers of ANHYDRIDES; polyacrylamides, etc.
Immunoglobulins produced in a response to BACTERIAL ANTIGENS.
INFLAMMATION of the LIVER in humans due to infection by VIRUSES. There are several significant types of human viral hepatitis with infection caused by enteric-transmission (HEPATITIS A; HEPATITIS E) or blood transfusion (HEPATITIS B; HEPATITIS C; and HEPATITIS D).
INFLAMMATION of the LIVER in humans that is caused by HEPATITIS C VIRUS lasting six months or more. Chronic hepatitis C can lead to LIVER CIRRHOSIS.
A species in the genus HEPATOVIRUS containing one serotype and two strains: HUMAN HEPATITIS A VIRUS and Simian hepatitis A virus causing hepatitis in humans (HEPATITIS A) and primates, respectively.
A DNA virus that closely resembles human hepatitis B virus. It has been recovered from naturally infected ducks.
INFLAMMATION of the LIVER with ongoing hepatocellular injury for 6 months or more, characterized by NECROSIS of HEPATOCYTES and inflammatory cell (LEUKOCYTES) infiltration. Chronic hepatitis can be caused by viruses, medications, autoimmune diseases, and other unknown factors.
A subclass of ACIDIC GLYCOSPHINGOLIPIDS. They contain one or more sialic acid (N-ACETYLNEURAMINIC ACID) residues. Using the Svennerholm system of abbrevations, gangliosides are designated G for ganglioside, plus subscript M, D, or T for mono-, di-, or trisialo, respectively, the subscript letter being followed by a subscript arabic numeral to indicated sequence of migration in thin-layer chromatograms. (From Oxford Dictionary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1997)
The production of ANTIBODIES by proliferating and differentiated B-LYMPHOCYTES under stimulation by ANTIGENS.
Antibodies to the HEPATITIS C ANTIGENS including antibodies to envelope, core, and non-structural proteins.
Immunoglobulins raised by any form of viral hepatitis; some of these antibodies are used to diagnose the specific kind of hepatitis.
Agents used in the prophylaxis or therapy of VIRUS DISEASES. Some of the ways they may act include preventing viral replication by inhibiting viral DNA polymerase; binding to specific cell-surface receptors and inhibiting viral penetration or uncoating; inhibiting viral protein synthesis; or blocking late stages of virus assembly.
A genus of FLAVIVIRIDAE causing parenterally-transmitted HEPATITIS C which is associated with transfusions and drug abuse. Hepatitis C virus is the type species.
The major immunoglobulin isotype class in normal human serum. There are several isotype subclasses of IgG, for example, IgG1, IgG2A, and IgG2B.
Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent infection with hepatitis A virus (HEPATOVIRUS).
An antigenic mismatch between donor and recipient blood. Antibodies present in the recipient's serum may be directed against antigens in the donor product. Such a mismatch may result in a transfusion reaction in which, for example, donor blood is hemolyzed. (From Saunders Dictionary & Encyclopedia of Laboratory Medicine and Technology, 1984).
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.
INFLAMMATION of the LIVER in animals due to viral infection.
Any vaccine raised against any virus or viral derivative that causes hepatitis.
INFLAMMATION of the LIVER in humans caused by HEPATITIS DELTA VIRUS, a defective RNA virus that can only infect HEPATITIS B patients. For its viral coating, hepatitis delta virus requires the HEPATITIS B SURFACE ANTIGENS produced by these patients. Hepatitis D can occur either concomitantly with (coinfection) or subsequent to (superinfection) hepatitis B infection. Similar to hepatitis B, it is primarily transmitted by parenteral exposure, such as transfusion of contaminated blood or blood products, but can also be transmitted via sexual or intimate personal contact.
Any of the viruses that cause inflammation of the liver. They include both DNA and RNA viruses as well viruses from humans and animals.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
A reverse transcriptase inhibitor and ZALCITABINE analog in which a sulfur atom replaces the 3' carbon of the pentose ring. It is used to treat HIV disease.
Sites on an antigen that interact with specific antibodies.
Acute INFLAMMATION of the LIVER in humans; caused by HEPATITIS E VIRUS, a non-enveloped single-stranded RNA virus. Similar to HEPATITIS A, its incubation period is 15-60 days and is enterically transmitted, usually by fecal-oral transmission.
A defective virus, containing particles of RNA nucleoprotein in virion-like form, present in patients with acute hepatitis B and chronic hepatitis. It requires the presence of a hepadnavirus for full replication. This is the lone species in the genus Deltavirus.
Antibodies that reduce or abolish some biological activity of a soluble antigen or infectious agent, usually a virus.
Antibodies to the HEPATITIS A ANTIGENS including antibodies to envelope, core, and non-structural proteins.
A class of immunoglobulin bearing mu chains (IMMUNOGLOBULIN MU-CHAINS). IgM can fix COMPLEMENT. The name comes from its high molecular weight and originally being called a macroglobulin.
A positive-stranded RNA virus species in the genus HEPEVIRUS, causing enterically-transmitted non-A, non-B hepatitis (HEPATITIS E).
An acute inflammatory autoimmune neuritis caused by T cell- mediated cellular immune response directed towards peripheral myelin. Demyelination occurs in peripheral nerves and nerve roots. The process is often preceded by a viral or bacterial infection, surgery, immunization, lymphoma, or exposure to toxins. Common clinical manifestations include progressive weakness, loss of sensation, and loss of deep tendon reflexes. Weakness of respiratory muscles and autonomic dysfunction may occur. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp1312-1314)
A chronic self-perpetuating hepatocellular INFLAMMATION of unknown cause, usually with HYPERGAMMAGLOBULINEMIA and serum AUTOANTIBODIES.
A primary malignant neoplasm of epithelial liver cells. It ranges from a well-differentiated tumor with EPITHELIAL CELLS indistinguishable from normal HEPATOCYTES to a poorly differentiated neoplasm. The cells may be uniform or markedly pleomorphic, or form GIANT CELLS. Several classification schemes have been suggested.
A strain of HEPATITIS A VIRUS which causes hepatitis in humans. The virus replicates in hepatocytes and is presumed to reach the intestine via the bile duct. Transmission occurs by the fecal-oral route.
Paralysis of one or more of the ocular muscles due to disorders of the eye muscles, neuromuscular junction, supporting soft tissue, tendons, or innervation to the muscles.
Antibodies that react with self-antigens (AUTOANTIGENS) of the organism that produced them.
The major human blood type system which depends on the presence or absence of two antigens A and B. Type O occurs when neither A nor B is present and AB when both are present. A and B are genetic factors that determine the presence of enzymes for the synthesis of certain glycoproteins mainly in the red cell membrane.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
Tumors or cancer of the LIVER.
Serological reactions in which an antiserum against one antigen reacts with a non-identical but closely related antigen.
Liver disease in which the normal microcirculation, the gross vascular anatomy, and the hepatic architecture have been variably destroyed and altered with fibrous septa surrounding regenerated or regenerating parenchymal nodules.
INFLAMMATION of the LIVER in non-human animals.
A measure of the binding strength between antibody and a simple hapten or antigen determinant. It depends on the closeness of stereochemical fit between antibody combining sites and antigen determinants, on the size of the area of contact between them, and on the distribution of charged and hydrophobic groups. It includes the concept of "avidity," which refers to the strength of the antigen-antibody bond after formation of reversible complexes.
An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of L-alanine and 2-oxoglutarate to pyruvate and L-glutamate. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 2.6.1.2.
Test for tissue antigen using either a direct method, by conjugation of antibody with fluorescent dye (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, DIRECT) or an indirect method, by formation of antigen-antibody complex which is then labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, INDIRECT). The tissue is then examined by fluorescence microscopy.
An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed.
A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.
The condition of harboring an infective organism without manifesting symptoms of infection. The organism must be readily transmissible to another susceptible host.
Diseases characterized by injury or dysfunction involving multiple peripheral nerves and nerve roots. The process may primarily affect myelin or nerve axons. Two of the more common demyelinating forms are acute inflammatory polyradiculopathy (GUILLAIN-BARRE SYNDROME) and POLYRADICULONEUROPATHY, CHRONIC INFLAMMATORY DEMYELINATING. Polyradiculoneuritis refers to inflammation of multiple peripheral nerves and spinal nerve roots.
Ribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.
EPIDEMIOLOGIC STUDIES based on the detection through serological testing of characteristic change in the serum level of specific ANTIBODIES. Latent subclinical infections and carrier states can thus be detected in addition to clinically overt cases.
An ORTHOHEPADNAVIRUS causing chronic liver disease and hepatocellular carcinoma in woodchucks. It closely resembles the human hepatitis B virus.
Deliberate stimulation of the host's immune response. ACTIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of ANTIGENS or IMMUNOLOGIC ADJUVANTS. PASSIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of IMMUNE SERA or LYMPHOCYTES or their extracts (e.g., transfer factor, immune RNA) or transplantation of immunocompetent cell producing tissue (thymus or bone marrow).
One of the type I interferons produced by peripheral blood leukocytes or lymphoblastoid cells. In addition to antiviral activity, it activates NATURAL KILLER CELLS and B-LYMPHOCYTES, and down-regulates VASCULAR ENDOTHELIAL GROWTH FACTOR expression through PI-3 KINASE and MAPK KINASES signaling pathways.
Antibodies which react with the individual structural determinants (idiotopes) on the variable region of other antibodies.
Techniques for removal by adsorption and subsequent elution of a specific antibody or antigen using an immunosorbent containing the homologous antigen or antibody.
The process of intracellular viral multiplication, consisting of the synthesis of PROTEINS; NUCLEIC ACIDS; and sometimes LIPIDS, and their assembly into a new infectious particle.
A genus of PICORNAVIRIDAE causing infectious hepatitis naturally in humans and experimentally in other primates. It is transmitted through fecal contamination of food or water. HEPATITIS A VIRUS is the type species.
Local surface sites on antibodies which react with antigen determinant sites on antigens (EPITOPES.) They are formed from parts of the variable regions of FAB FRAGMENTS.
Antigens of the virions of HEPACIVIRUS, their surface, core, or other associated antigens.
Antibodies reactive with HIV ANTIGENS.
A species of the CORONAVIRUS genus causing hepatitis in mice. Four strains have been identified as MHV 1, MHV 2, MHV 3, and MHV 4 (also known as MHV-JHM, which is neurotropic and causes disseminated encephalomyelitis with demyelination as well as focal liver necrosis).
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
Antigens from any of the hepatitis viruses including surface, core, and other associated antigens.
Administration of vaccines to stimulate the host's immune response. This includes any preparation intended for active immunological prophylaxis.
Carbon-containing phosphonic acid compounds. Included under this heading are compounds that have carbon bound to either OXYGEN atom or the PHOSPHOROUS atom of the (P=O)O2 structure.
Antigens produced by various strains of HEPATITIS D VIRUS.
The genetic constitution of the individual, comprising the ALLELES present at each GENETIC LOCUS.
Autoantibodies directed against various nuclear antigens including DNA, RNA, histones, acidic nuclear proteins, or complexes of these molecular elements. Antinuclear antibodies are found in systemic autoimmune diseases including systemic lupus erythematosus, Sjogren's syndrome, scleroderma, polymyositis, and mixed connective tissue disease.
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.
Proteins found mainly in icosahedral DNA and RNA viruses. They consist of proteins directly associated with the nucleic acid inside the NUCLEOCAPSID.
Antigens produced by various strains of HEPATITIS A VIRUS such as the human hepatitis A virus (HEPATITIS A VIRUS, HUMAN).
Immunoglobulins produced in a response to PROTOZOAN ANTIGENS.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
Immunoglobulins induced by antigens specific for tumors other than the normally occurring HISTOCOMPATIBILITY ANTIGENS.
A genus of Sciuridae consisting of 14 species. They are shortlegged, burrowing rodents which hibernate in winter.
INFLAMMATION of the LIVER due to ALCOHOL ABUSE. It is characterized by NECROSIS of HEPATOCYTES, infiltration by NEUTROPHILS, and deposit of MALLORY BODIES. Depending on its severity, the inflammatory lesion may be reversible or progress to LIVER CIRRHOSIS.
Virus diseases caused by the HEPADNAVIRIDAE.
The quantity of measurable virus in a body fluid. Change in viral load, measured in plasma, is sometimes used as a SURROGATE MARKER in disease progression.
A purine base and a fundamental unit of ADENINE NUCLEOTIDES.
The transference of a part of or an entire liver from one human or animal to another.
A nucleoside antimetabolite antiviral agent that blocks nucleic acid synthesis and is used against both RNA and DNA viruses.
An adhesion-promoting leukocyte surface membrane heterodimer. The alpha subunit consists of the CD11b ANTIGEN and the beta subunit the CD18 ANTIGEN. The antigen, which is an integrin, functions both as a receptor for complement 3 and in cell-cell and cell-substrate adhesive interactions.
The total number of cases of a given disease in a specified population at a designated time. It is differentiated from INCIDENCE, which refers to the number of new cases in the population at a given time.
The complete genetic complement contained in a DNA or RNA molecule in a virus.
The measurement of infection-blocking titer of ANTISERA by testing a series of dilutions for a given virus-antiserum interaction end-point, which is generally the dilution at which tissue cultures inoculated with the serum-virus mixtures demonstrate cytopathology (CPE) or the dilution at which 50% of test animals injected with serum-virus mixtures show infectivity (ID50) or die (LD50).
In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.
A CD antigen that contains a conserved I domain which is involved in ligand binding. When combined with CD18 the two subunits form MACROPHAGE-1 ANTIGEN.
Proteins encoded by a VIRAL GENOME that are produced in the organisms they infect, but not packaged into the VIRUS PARTICLES. Some of these proteins may play roles within the infected cell during VIRUS REPLICATION or act in regulation of virus replication or VIRUS ASSEMBLY.
The main structural component of the LIVER. They are specialized EPITHELIAL CELLS that are organized into interconnected plates called lobules.
Layers of protein which surround the capsid in animal viruses with tubular nucleocapsids. The envelope consists of an inner layer of lipids and virus specified proteins also called membrane or matrix proteins. The outer layer consists of one or more types of morphological subunits called peplomers which project from the viral envelope; this layer always consists of glycoproteins.
INFLAMMATION of the LIVER in humans caused by HEPATITIS DELTA VIRUS in conjunction with HEPATITIS B VIRUS and lasting six months or more.
Polymers of ETHYLENE OXIDE and water, and their ethers. They vary in consistency from liquid to solid depending on the molecular weight indicated by a number following the name. They are used as SURFACTANTS, dispersing agents, solvents, ointment and suppository bases, vehicles, and tablet excipients. Some specific groups are NONOXYNOLS, OCTOXYNOLS, and POLOXAMERS.
The ability of viruses to resist or to become tolerant to chemotherapeutic agents or antiviral agents. This resistance is acquired through gene mutation.
The complex formed by the binding of antigen and antibody molecules. The deposition of large antigen-antibody complexes leading to tissue damage causes IMMUNE COMPLEX DISEASES.
Disease having a short and relatively severe course.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
The common chimpanzee, a species of the genus Pan, family HOMINIDAE. It lives in Africa, primarily in the tropical rainforests. There are a number of recognized subspecies.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
The processes triggered by interactions of ANTIBODIES with their ANTIGENS.
Immunologic techniques based on the use of: (1) enzyme-antibody conjugates; (2) enzyme-antigen conjugates; (3) antienzyme antibody followed by its homologous enzyme; or (4) enzyme-antienzyme complexes. These are used histologically for visualizing or labeling tissue specimens.
A family of hepatotropic DNA viruses which contains double-stranded DNA genomes and causes hepatitis in humans and animals. There are two genera: AVIHEPADNAVIRUS and ORTHOHEPADNAVIRUS. Hepadnaviruses include HEPATITIS B VIRUS, duck hepatitis B virus (HEPATITIS B VIRUS, DUCK), heron hepatitis B virus, ground squirrel hepatitis virus, and woodchuck hepatitis B virus (HEPATITIS B VIRUS, WOODCHUCK).
Immunoglobulins produced in a response to FUNGAL ANTIGENS.
Multi-subunit proteins which function in IMMUNITY. They are produced by B LYMPHOCYTES from the IMMUNOGLOBULIN GENES. They are comprised of two heavy (IMMUNOGLOBULIN HEAVY CHAINS) and two light chains (IMMUNOGLOBULIN LIGHT CHAINS) with additional ancillary polypeptide chains depending on their isoforms. The variety of isoforms include monomeric or polymeric forms, and transmembrane forms (B-CELL ANTIGEN RECEPTORS) or secreted forms (ANTIBODIES). They are divided by the amino acid sequence of their heavy chains into five classes (IMMUNOGLOBULIN A; IMMUNOGLOBULIN D; IMMUNOGLOBULIN E; IMMUNOGLOBULIN G; IMMUNOGLOBULIN M) and various subclasses.
Blood tests that are used to evaluate how well a patient's liver is working and also to help diagnose liver conditions.
Pathological processes of the LIVER.
Classic quantitative assay for detection of antigen-antibody reactions using a radioactively labeled substance (radioligand) either directly or indirectly to measure the binding of the unlabeled substance to a specific antibody or other receptor system. Non-immunogenic substances (e.g., haptens) can be measured if coupled to larger carrier proteins (e.g., bovine gamma-globulin or human serum albumin) capable of inducing antibody formation.
Includes the spectrum of human immunodeficiency virus infections that range from asymptomatic seropositivity, thru AIDS-related complex (ARC), to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS).
An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.
Substances elaborated by viruses that have antigenic activity.
Inhibitors of reverse transcriptase (RNA-DIRECTED DNA POLYMERASE), an enzyme that synthesizes DNA on an RNA template.
Schedule giving optimum times usually for primary and/or secondary immunization.
Diagnostic procedures involving immunoglobulin reactions.
Diseases which have one or more of the following characteristics: they are permanent, leave residual disability, are caused by nonreversible pathological alteration, require special training of the patient for rehabilitation, or may be expected to require a long period of supervision, observation, or care. (Dictionary of Health Services Management, 2d ed)
Antibodies, often monoclonal, in which the two antigen-binding sites are specific for separate ANTIGENIC DETERMINANTS. They are artificial antibodies produced by chemical crosslinking, fusion of HYBRIDOMA cells, or by molecular genetic techniques. They function as the main mediators of targeted cellular cytotoxicity and have been shown to be efficient in the targeting of drugs, toxins, radiolabeled haptens, and effector cells to diseased tissue, primarily tumors.
Small synthetic peptides that mimic surface antigens of pathogens and are immunogenic, or vaccines manufactured with the aid of recombinant DNA techniques. The latter vaccines may also be whole viruses whose nucleic acids have been modified.
Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.
Transfer of immunity from immunized to non-immune host by administration of serum antibodies, or transplantation of lymphocytes (ADOPTIVE TRANSFER).
A form of antibodies consisting only of the variable regions of the heavy and light chains (FV FRAGMENTS), connected by a small linker peptide. They are less immunogenic than complete immunoglobulin and thus have potential therapeutic use.
Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)
A technique using antibodies for identifying or quantifying a substance. Usually the substance being studied serves as antigen both in antibody production and in measurement of antibody by the test substance.
Antibodies that inhibit the reaction between ANTIGEN and other antibodies or sensitized T-LYMPHOCYTES (e.g., antibodies of the IMMUNOGLOBULIN G class that compete with IGE antibodies for antigen, thereby blocking an allergic response). Blocking antibodies that bind tumors and prevent destruction of tumor cells by CYTOTOXIC T-LYMPHOCYTES have also been called enhancing antibodies. (Rosen et al., Dictionary of Immunology, 1989)
The transmission of infectious disease or pathogens from one generation to another. It includes transmission in utero or intrapartum by exposure to blood and secretions, and postpartum exposure via breastfeeding.
A country spanning from central Asia to the Pacific Ocean.
Methods used for studying the interactions of antibodies with specific regions of protein antigens. Important applications of epitope mapping are found within the area of immunochemistry.
The co-occurrence of pregnancy and an INFECTION. The infection may precede or follow FERTILIZATION.
Retroviral proteins coded by the pol gene. They are usually synthesized as a protein precursor (POLYPROTEINS) and later cleaved into final products that include reverse transcriptase, endonuclease/integrase, and viral protease. Sometimes they are synthesized as a gag-pol fusion protein (FUSION PROTEINS, GAG-POL). pol is short for polymerase, the enzyme class of reverse transcriptase.
Univalent antigen-binding fragments composed of one entire IMMUNOGLOBULIN LIGHT CHAIN and the amino terminal end of one of the IMMUNOGLOBULIN HEAVY CHAINS from the hinge region, linked to each other by disulfide bonds. Fab contains the IMMUNOGLOBULIN VARIABLE REGIONS, which are part of the antigen-binding site, and the first IMMUNOGLOBULIN CONSTANT REGIONS. This fragment can be obtained by digestion of immunoglobulins with the proteolytic enzyme PAPAIN.
Therapy with two or more separate preparations given for a combined effect.
Serum that contains antibodies. It is obtained from an animal that has been immunized either by ANTIGEN injection or infection with microorganisms containing the antigen.
Simultaneous infection of a host organism by two or more pathogens. In virology, coinfection commonly refers to simultaneous infection of a single cell by two or more different viruses.
Severe inability of the LIVER to perform its normal metabolic functions, as evidenced by severe JAUNDICE and abnormal serum levels of AMMONIA; BILIRUBIN; ALKALINE PHOSPHATASE; ASPARTATE AMINOTRANSFERASE; LACTATE DEHYDROGENASES; and albumin/globulin ratio. (Blakiston's Gould Medical Dictionary, 4th ed)
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
A clinical manifestation of HYPERBILIRUBINEMIA, characterized by the yellowish staining of the SKIN; MUCOUS MEMBRANE; and SCLERA. Clinical jaundice usually is a sign of LIVER dysfunction.
Enzymes of the transferase class that catalyze the conversion of L-aspartate and 2-ketoglutarate to oxaloacetate and L-glutamate. EC 2.6.1.1.
Proteins found in any species of virus.
A form of fluorescent antibody technique commonly used to detect serum antibodies and immune complexes in tissues and microorganisms in specimens from patients with infectious diseases. The technique involves formation of an antigen-antibody complex which is labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody. (From Bennington, Saunders Dictionary & Encyclopedia of Laboratory Medicine and Technology, 1984)
Abuse, overuse, or misuse of a substance by its injection into a vein.
Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.
Diffusible gene products that act on homologous or heterologous molecules of viral or cellular DNA to regulate the expression of proteins.
The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.
Represents 15-20% of the human serum immunoglobulins, mostly as the 4-chain polymer in humans or dimer in other mammals. Secretory IgA (IMMUNOGLOBULIN A, SECRETORY) is the main immunoglobulin in secretions.
Antibodies elicited in a different species from which the antigen originated. These antibodies are directed against a wide variety of interspecies-specific antigens, the best known of which are Forssman, Hanganutziu-Deicher (H-D), and Paul-Bunnell (P-B). Incidence of antibodies to these antigens--i.e., the phenomenon of heterophile antibody response--is useful in the serodiagnosis, pathogenesis, and prognosis of infection and latent infectious states as well as in cancer classification.
Antibodies that can catalyze a wide variety of chemical reactions. They are characterized by high substrate specificity and share many mechanistic features with enzymes.
Any of the processes by which cytoplasmic factors influence the differential control of gene action in viruses.
Organized services to administer immunization procedures in the prevention of various diseases. The programs are made available over a wide range of sites: schools, hospitals, public health agencies, voluntary health agencies, etc. They are administered to an equally wide range of population groups or on various administrative levels: community, municipal, state, national, international.
Lymphocytes responsible for cell-mediated immunity. Two types have been identified - cytotoxic (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and helper T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, HELPER-INDUCER). They are formed when lymphocytes circulate through the THYMUS GLAND and differentiate to thymocytes. When exposed to an antigen, they divide rapidly and produce large numbers of new T cells sensitized to that antigen.
The functional hereditary units of VIRUSES.
The infective system of a virus, composed of the viral genome, a protein core, and a protein coat called a capsid, which may be naked or enclosed in a lipoprotein envelope called the peplos.
The presence of viruses in the blood.
Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.
Cells artificially created by fusion of activated lymphocytes with neoplastic cells. The resulting hybrid cells are cloned and produce pure MONOCLONAL ANTIBODIES or T-cell products, identical to those produced by the immunologically competent parent cell.
Measurable and quantifiable biological parameters (e.g., specific enzyme concentration, specific hormone concentration, specific gene phenotype distribution in a population, presence of biological substances) which serve as indices for health- and physiology-related assessments, such as disease risk, psychiatric disorders, environmental exposure and its effects, disease diagnosis, metabolic processes, substance abuse, pregnancy, cell line development, epidemiologic studies, etc.
The return of a sign, symptom, or disease after a remission.
Sensitive tests to measure certain antigens, antibodies, or viruses, using their ability to agglutinate certain erythrocytes. (From Stedman, 26th ed)
A family of RNA viruses, many of which cause disease in humans and domestic animals. There are three genera FLAVIVIRUS; PESTIVIRUS; and HEPACIVIRUS, as well as several unassigned species.
The introduction of whole blood or blood component directly into the blood stream. (Dorland, 27th ed)
Infectious organisms in the BLOOD, of which the predominant medical interest is their contamination of blood-soiled linens, towels, gowns, BANDAGES, other items from individuals in risk categories, NEEDLES and other sharp objects, MEDICAL WASTE and DENTAL WASTE, all of which health workers are exposed to. This concept is differentiated from the clinical conditions of BACTEREMIA; VIREMIA; and FUNGEMIA where the organism is present in the blood of a patient as the result of a natural infectious process.
The indelible marking of TISSUES, primarily SKIN, by pricking it with NEEDLES to imbed various COLORING AGENTS. Tattooing of the CORNEA is done to colorize LEUKOMA spots.
Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.
Any immunization following a primary immunization and involving exposure to the same or a closely related antigen.
The mechanism by which latent viruses, such as genetically transmitted tumor viruses (PROVIRUSES) or PROPHAGES of lysogenic bacteria, are induced to replicate and then released as infectious viruses. It may be effected by various endogenous and exogenous stimuli, including B-cell LIPOPOLYSACCHARIDES, glucocorticoid hormones, halogenated pyrimidines, IONIZING RADIATION, ultraviolet light, and superinfecting viruses.
Removal and pathologic examination of specimens in the form of small pieces of tissue from the living body.
Antibodies from non-human species whose protein sequences have been modified to make them nearly identical with human antibodies. If the constant region and part of the variable region are replaced, they are called humanized. If only the constant region is modified they are called chimeric. INN names for humanized antibodies end in -zumab.
Immunologic method used for detecting or quantifying immunoreactive substances. The substance is identified by first immobilizing it by blotting onto a membrane and then tagging it with labeled antibodies.
Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.
Proteins secreted by vertebrate cells in response to a wide variety of inducers. They confer resistance against many different viruses, inhibit proliferation of normal and malignant cells, impede multiplication of intracellular parasites, enhance macrophage and granulocyte phagocytosis, augment natural killer cell activity, and show several other immunomodulatory functions.
Serologic tests based on inactivation of complement by the antigen-antibody complex (stage 1). Binding of free complement can be visualized by addition of a second antigen-antibody system such as red cells and appropriate red cell antibody (hemolysin) requiring complement for its completion (stage 2). Failure of the red cells to lyse indicates that a specific antigen-antibody reaction has taken place in stage 1. If red cells lyse, free complement is present indicating no antigen-antibody reaction occurred in stage 1.
Substances that are recognized by the immune system and induce an immune reaction.
Purine or pyrimidine bases attached to a ribose or deoxyribose. (From King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.
Studies which start with the identification of persons with a disease of interest and a control (comparison, referent) group without the disease. The relationship of an attribute to the disease is examined by comparing diseased and non-diseased persons with regard to the frequency or levels of the attribute in each group.
An infant during the first month after birth.
The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.
Antigens on surfaces of cells, including infectious or foreign cells or viruses. They are usually protein-containing groups on cell membranes or walls and may be isolated.
A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.
Unassigned species, in the family PICORNAVIRIDAE, causing high mortality in ducklings 3 days to 3 weeks old.
Lymphoid cells concerned with humoral immunity. They are short-lived cells resembling bursa-derived lymphocytes of birds in their production of immunoglobulin upon appropriate stimulation.
Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.

Third component, HBeAg/3, of hepatitis B e antigen system, identified by three different double-diffusion techniques. (1/1024)

A third component, HB(e)AG/3, of the hepatitis B e antigen system has been detected, and it was consistently detected in three variations of the double-diffusion technique.  (+info)

Native display of complete foreign protein domains on the surface of hepatitis B virus capsids. (2/1024)

The nucleocapsid of hepatitis B virus (HBV), or HBcAg, is a highly symmetric structure formed by multiple dimers of a single core protein that contains potent T helper epitopes in its 183-aa sequence. Both factors make HBcAg an unusually strong immunogen and an attractive candidate as a carrier for foreign epitopes. The immunodominant c/e1 epitope on the capsid has been suggested as a superior location to convey high immunogenicity to a heterologous sequence. Because of its central position, however, any c/e1 insert disrupts the core protein's primary sequence; hence, only peptides, or rather small protein fragments seemed to be compatible with particle formation. According to recent structural data, the epitope is located at the tips of prominent surface spikes formed by the very stable dimer interfaces. We therefore reasoned that much larger inserts might be tolerated, provided the individual parts of a corresponding fusion protein could fold independently. Using the green fluorescent protein (GFP) as a model insert, we show that the chimeric protein efficiently forms fluorescent particles; hence, all of its structurally important parts must be properly folded. We also demonstrate that the GFP domains are surface-exposed and that the chimeric particles elicit a potent humoral response against native GFP. Hence, proteins of at least up to 238 aa can be natively displayed on the surface of HBV core particles. Such chimeras may not only be useful as vaccines but may also open the way for high resolution structural analyses of nonassembling proteins by electron microscopy.  (+info)

Hepatitis B virus (HBV)-transgenic mice as an investigative tool to study immunopathology during HBV infection. (3/1024)

An overview is given regarding the use of hepatitis B virus (HBV) transgenic mice as an animal model of the HBV-carrier state. Initially, we show how HBV-transgenic mice have contributed insights into the immunopathobiological processes during HBV infection and later, we show how this new information from the experiments with HBV-transgenic mice could be used to develop new methods to combat HBV infection. By microinjecting the full or selected parts of the HBV-genome into the fertilized eggs of inbred mice, different laboratories have developed different lines of HBV-transgenic mice, which express products of the HBV genome and also show signs of HBV replication. Studies in HBV-transgenic mice have provided insights into the process of destruction of hepatocytes, the critical role of cytokines in controlling HBV replication and gene expression, mechanisms underlying the immune response defect in chronic HBV-carriers and the critical role of antigen presenting cells (APC), especially that of antigen presenting dendritic cells in persistent HBV infection. All this new information has given us a better understanding about HBV immunopathobiology, and has led to the development of new therapeutic approaches to combat HBV infection.  (+info)

HBV-specific immune defect in chronic hepatitis B (CHB) is correlated with a dysregulation of pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines. (4/1024)

The aim of this study was to examine the immunomodulating effects of rhIL-12 on the immune response induced by hepatitis B virus (HBV) antigens in clinical subgroups of patients with HBV infection. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) of 80 patients were stimulated with HBsAg, HBcAg, pre-S1Ag and tetanus toxoid in the absence or presence of IL-12 (0.01, 0.1 and 1 ng/ml). Stimulation by anti-CD3+ anti-CD28 and lipopolysaccharide (LPS) were used as controls. Proliferation and cytokine production were determined by 3H-thymidine uptake and ELISA after 72 h. After stimulation with HBV antigens only, production of tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) or IL-10 was observed in all patients, while interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) was detectable in only 27 patients. After costimulation with IL-12 and HBV antigens, however, large amounts of IFN-gamma were found in all patients, while HBV-induced IL-10 production remained mostly unchanged. When clinical subgroups including patients with compensated liver cirrhosis were compared, PBMC from patients with HBeAg+ hepatitis showed the lowest capacity to produce IFN-gamma after HBV antigen-positive IL-12. These data suggest that the ability of IL-12 to enhance IFN-gamma production against HBV antigens is correlated with the presence of HBeAg and is not impaired in patients with advanced liver disease. In addition, IL-12 and IL-10 production by antigen-presenting cells may be a critical factor that determines the efficacy of the immune response against the hepatitis B virus.  (+info)

Properties of monoclonal antibodies directed against hepatitis B virus polymerase protein. (5/1024)

Hepadnavirus polymerases are multifunctional enzymes that play critical roles during the viral life cycle but have been difficult to study due to a lack of a well-defined panel of monoclonal antibodies (MAbs). We have used recombinant human hepatitis B virus (HBV) polymerase (Pol) expressed in and purified from baculovirus-infected insect cells to generate a panel of six MAbs directed against HBV Pol protein. Such MAbs were subsequently characterized with respect to their isotypes and functions in analytical and preparative assays. Using these MAbs as probes together with various deletion mutants of Pol expressed in insect cells, we mapped the B-cell epitopes of Pol recognized by these MAbs to amino acids (aa) 8 to 20 and 20 to 30 in the terminal protein (TP) region of Pol, to aa 225 to 250 in the spacer region, and to aa 800 to 832 in the RNase H domain. Confocal microscopy and immunocytochemical studies using various Pol-specific MAbs revealed that the protein itself appears to be exclusively localized to the cytoplasm. Finally, MAbs specific for the TP domain, but not MAbs specific for the spacer or RNase H regions of Pol, appeared to inhibit Pol function in the in vitro priming assay, suggesting that antibody-mediated interference with TP may now be assessed in the context of HBV replication.  (+info)

Intracellular retention of hepatitis B virus surface proteins reduces interleukin-2 augmentation after genetic immunizations. (6/1024)

We have previously shown that hepatitis B virus (HBV) surface antigens (HBsAgs) are highly immunogenic after genetic immunization. Compared to the secreted middle HBV surface proteins (MHBs) or small HBV surface proteins (SHBs), the nonsecreted large HBV surface protein (LHBs), however, induced significantly weaker humoral and cellular immune responses that could not be augmented by genetic coimmunizations with cytokine expression plasmids. In order to understand the mechanisms underlying this phenomenon, we examined the effect of coimmunizations with an interleukin-2 (IL-2) DNA expression plasmid on the immunogenicity at the B- and T-cell level of nonsecreted wild-type LHBs, a secreted mutant LHBs, wild-type SHBs, and a nonsecreted mutant SHBs. Coimmunizations of mice with plasmids encoding wild-type SHBs or the secreted mutant LHBs and IL-2 increased anti-HBs responses, helper T-cell proliferative activity and cytotoxic T-lymphocyte killing. By contrast, coimmunizations of plasmids encoding wild-type LHBs or nonsecreted mutant SHBs and IL-2 had no significant effects on immune responses. Interestingly, mice immunized with cytokine expression plasmids 14 days after the injection of the wild-type LHBs plasmid showed augmented immune responses compared to animals simultaneously injected with both expression constructs. Anti-HBs responses in mice injected with plasmids encoding secreted forms of HBsAgs were detectable about 10 days earlier than those in mice immunized with plasmids encoding nonsecreted forms of HBsAgs. Based on these observations, we conclude that cytokines produced by DNA plasmids at the initial site of antigen presentation cannot augment LHBs specific immune responses because LHBs is not produced at high enough levels or is not accessible for uptake by antigen-presenting cells.  (+info)

A mathematical model predicting anti-hepatitis B virus surface antigen (HBs) decay after vaccination against hepatitis B. (7/1024)

The determination of serum levels of antibodies against hepatitis B virus surface antigen (anti-HBs) after hepatitis B vaccination is currently the only simple test available to predict the decay of protection and to plan the administration of booster doses. A total of 3085 vaccine recipients of plasma-derived and recombinant vaccine have been followed for 10 years to determine the kinetics of anti-HBs production and to construct a mathematical model which could efficiently predict the anti-HBs level decline. The anti-HBs peak level was reached 68 days after the last dose of recombinant vaccine and 138 days after the last dose of plasma-derived vaccines. The age of vaccinees negatively influenced the anti-HBs levels and also the time necessary to reach the anti-HBs peak. A bilogarithmic mathematical model (log10 level, log10 time) of anti-HBs decay has been constructed on a sample of recombinant vaccine recipients and subsequently validated on different samples of recombinant or plasma-derived vaccine recipients. Age, gender, type of vaccine (recombinant or plasma-derived), number of vaccine doses (three or four) did not influence the mathematical model of antibody decay. The program can be downloaded at the site: http:@www2.stat.unibo.it/palareti/vaccine.htm . Introducing an anti-HBs determination obtained after the peak, the program calculates a prediction of individual anti-HBs decline and allows planning of an efficient booster policy.  (+info)

Viral clearance without destruction of infected cells during acute HBV infection. (8/1024)

Viral clearance during hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection has been thought to reflect the destruction of infected hepatocytes by CD8(+) T lymphocytes. However, in this study, HBV DNA was shown to largely disappear from the liver and the blood of acutely infected chimpanzees long before the peak of T cell infiltration and most of the liver disease. These results demonstrate that noncytopathic antiviral mechanisms contribute to viral clearance during acute viral hepatitis by purging HBV replicative intermediates from the cytoplasm and covalently closed circular viral DNA from the nucleus of infected cells.  (+info)

TY - JOUR. T1 - The use of hepatitis B core antibody-positive donor livers does not appear to have a deleterious effect on graft survival in liver transplantation for hepatitis C. AU - Rayhill, S.. AU - Schwartz, Jonathan M.. AU - Ham, J.. AU - Carithers, R.. AU - Lei, Y.. AU - Bhattacharya, R.. AU - Liou, I.. AU - Landis, C.. AU - Lamaye, A.. AU - Rakita, R.. AU - Dick, A.. AU - Healey, P.. AU - Halldorson, J.. AU - Bhakthavatsalam, R.. AU - Perkins, J.. AU - Reyes, J.. PY - 2010/12. Y1 - 2010/12. N2 - Introduction The use of hepatitis B core antibody-positive donor livers (HBcAb +) has steadily increased. According to a recent multivariate analysis of United Network for Organ Sharing (UNOS) data, there was no significant increase in the risk of using these donors. The increased risk among the hepatitis C virus (HCV)-positive subgroup noted in a univariate model disappeared upon multivariate analysis. However, deeper scrutiny may show that HCV-positive recipients may be at increased risk with ...
Prieto M, Gomez MD, Berenguer M, Cordoba J, Rayon JM, Pastor M, Garcia-Herola A, et al. De novo hepatitis B after liver transplantation from hepatitis B core antibody-positive donors in an area with high prevalence of anti-HBc positivity in the donor population. Liver Transpl 2001; 7:51-58 ...
The use of livers from hepatitis B surface antigen-negative (HBsAg -)/hepatitis B core antibody-positive (HBcAb+) donors in liver transplantation (LT) for HBsAg-/HBcAb- recipients is still controversial because of a lack of standard antiviral prophylaxis and long-term follow-up. We present our 13-year experience with the use of HBcAb+ donor livers in HBcAb- recipients. Patients received prophylaxis with hepatitis B immunoglobulin at the time of LT and then lamivudine daily. De novo hepatitis B virus (HBV) was defined as positive HBV DNA detection. Between January 1999 and December 2010, 1013 adult LT procedures were performed at our center. Sixty-four HBsAg-/HBcAb- patients (6.3%) received an HBsAg-/HBcAb+ liver. All donor sera were negative for HBcAb immunoglobulin M and HBV DNA. The mean follow-up was 48.8 ± 40.1 months (range = 1.2-148.8). Both the patient survival rates and the graft survival rates were 92.2% and 69.2% at 1 and 5 years, respectively. No graft losses or deaths were related ...
Vaccinate if seronegative. Repeat doses until anti-HBs antibodies ≥ 10 IU/L / ≥ 100 IU/L according to national guidelines. In order to reach ≥ 100 IU/L in non-responders repeat 3 doses if anti-HBs , 10 IU/L, 1 dose if anti-HBs , 100 IU(ii); consider double dose (40 μg) in particular with low CD4 count and high HIV-VL. See Clinical Management and Treatment of Viral Hepatitis Co-infections in PLWH. ...
following tests; HBsAg negative, HBsAb positive, HBeAb positive. • September, 2006: Epigastric mass biopsy ... Childs Pugh score, CLIP score ,HCV ab, HBsAg , HBsAb, HBeAb, cytology Treatments: .... ...
Hepatitis B Surface Antibody Anti Hbs testing locations in Tennessee. You can use this list to find local Hepatitis B Surface Antibody Anti Hbs testing.
Recombinant Hepatitis B virus core antigen (HBcAg), amino acids 1-183.|br||br|Hepatitis B core antigen is an indicator of active viral replication. A patient infected with Hepatitis B testing positive…
Why Get Tested? Screen and diagnose acute or chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) or Hepatitis C virus (HSV) infection, or to detect a previous, resolved hepatitis B infection. When To Get Tested? As part of routine screening STD lab for people who are sexually active and/or at risk, exposed to sex partner with positive he
Hepatitis B core antibodies appear shortly after the onset of symptoms of hepatitis B infection and soon after the appearance of HBsAg and persists for life. Initially, anti-HBcAb consists... ...
Hepatitis B Core Antibody, Total (Quest). Get know how much does lab test cost. Direct access testing with or without insurance.
Introduction: Vaccination with the major surface antigen of hepatitis B virus (HBsAg) induces anti-HBs antibody production and level of 10 IU/L is considered protective. It has been shown that the level of anti-HBs antibody does wane after vaccination. The aim of this study was to evaluate the persistence of anti-HBs antibodies ...
The detection of anti-HBs is indicative of a prior immunologic exposure to the antigen or vaccine. To determine immune status as ≥10 mIU/mL as per CDC guidelines, please order Hepatitis B Surface Antibody, Quantitative.. ...
Hepatitis B Surface Antibody Anti Hbs testing in Bel Air, Maryland. Find a lab near you and save when you get blood work directly through Personalabs!
Monoclonal Antibody to Hepatitis B Core Antigen (HBcAg), (ayw) (a.a. 1-10) N-terminal End [10E11], validated in WB, IHC, IP, EIA (AR11126), Abgent
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Virus-like particles (VLPs) are potential oral vaccine candidates, as their highly compact structure may allow them to withstand the harsh conditions of the gastro-intestinal (GI) environment. Hepatitis B core antigen (HBcAg) is an immunogenic protein that assembles into 30 or 34 nm diameter VLPs. Here, the stabilities of both the HBcAg polypeptide itself and the three-dimensional structure of the VLPs upon exposure to in vitro and ex vivo simulated gastric and intestinal fluids were investigated. Plant-expressed HBcAg VLPs were efficiently purified by sucrose density gradient and characterized. The purified VLPs did not show major chemical or physical instability upon exposure to the low pH conditions typically found in the stomach; however, they completely agglomerated upon acidification and subsequent pH neutralization. The HBcAg polypeptide was highly digested upon exposure to pepsin in simulated gastric fluids. HBcAg appeared more stable in both simulated and ex vivo intestinal fluids, ...
Abstract Thirty Egyptian males, 8-31 years of age, with active Schistosoma mansoni infection and negative serologic tests for hepatitis B markers, were vaccinated with a recombinant hepatitis B vaccine (Merck's Recombivax®). The vaccine was given intramuscularly in the deltoid region in three 10 µg doses at 0, 1, and 6 months. All patients were treated with praziquantel 2 months after the first vaccination. Sera were collected every 2 months for 12 months and tested for anti-HBs using a quantitative ELISA technique. There were no side reactions except for mild local soreness at the injection site in 3 patients. At 12 months, all subjects seroconverted (antibody levels > 10 mIU/mL); 24 patients (80%) developed antibody levels > 1,000 mIU/mL. As with a plasma-derived vaccine, antibody levels were negatively correlated with increasing spleen size. A recombinant hepatitis B vaccine was safe and immunogenic when given to patients with schistosomiasis mansoni.
The team is using an assay that was applied to samples from … This is a very strong sign that the person … That includes both M and G. If that is positive (called Reactive), we then perform a test for G. What does it mean to be Total Antibody Positive, versus IgG (G) positive? This can help health officials understand and fight the virus. If you had symptoms consistent with COVID-19 within the past 3 weeks and tested negative, repeat testing in 1-2 weeks may yield a positive result. What does it mean, in any real terms? In other words, testing positive for coronavirus antibodies could simply mean youve built up antibodies to other types of coronaviruses and not necessarily COVID-19, according to the CDC. what does it mean if hepatitis b surface antibody ql is borderline but hepatitis b surface antigen is non-reactive? anti-HBs or HBsAb (Hepatitis B surface antibody) - A positive or reactive anti-HBs (or HBsAb) test result indicates that a person is protected against the ...
CORAB : Patient Preparation: For 24 hours before this test do not take multivitamins or dietary supplements containing biotin (vitamin B7), which is commonly found in hair, skin, and nail supplements and multivitamins. Collection Container/Tube: Serum gel Submission Container/Tube: Plastic vial Specimen Volume: 1 mL Collection Instructions: Spin down and remove serum from clot within 24 hours.
Are you a hepatitis B vaccine non-responder? Approximately 5-15% of people who receive the vaccine are considered non-responders. This is especially important for health care workers, families living in households with people that have HBV, and others who may be at increased risk of exposure to HBV. A vaccine non-responder is someone that does not build up an adequate immune response after receiving two, 3-shot series of the HBV vaccine. In other words, they complete one series of the HBV vaccine, and follow it with a surface antibody test (HBsAb or Anti-HBs) 4-6 weeks following the last injection of the series. If the anti-HBs titre is not greater than 10IU/l, than the series is repeated, preferably with an HBV vaccine from a different manufacturer, and the person is once again tested for immunity by testing for adequate anti-HBs. (See previous blog, Got Hepatitis B? Keeping loved ones safe though HBV vaccination for details). Fortunately there are other options for those concerned with being ...
Anamnestic response was defined as: - At least (i.e. greater than or equal to) a 4-fold rise in post-challenge vaccine dose anti-HBs antibody concentrations in subjects seropositive (i.e. with anti-HBs antibody concentration equal to or greater than 3.3 mIU/mL) at the pre-challenge dose time point. - Post-challenge dose anti-HBs antibody concentrations equal to or greater than 10 mIU/mL in subjects seronegative (i.e. with anti-HBs antibody concentrations less than 3.3 mIU/mL) at the pre-challenge dose time point ...
This study assessed antibody persistence and immune memory to hepatitis B vaccine 20 y after priming using a recombinant hepatitis B virus (HBV) vaccine during infancy. the boosted group (84.2% [16/19]; 95%CI: 60.4C96.6) when compared with those in the unboosted group [44.0% (11/25)]; 95% CI: 24.4C65.1). After the HBV vaccine challenge dose at 12 months 20, anti-HBs anamnestic response for subjects in the unboosted and boosted groups was observed in 93.1% (95% CI: 77.2C99.2) and 100% (95% CI: 76.8C100) of subjects, respectively. The mean anti-HBs antibody concentration (GMC) was 562.0 mIU/ml (292.5C1079.7 mIU/ml) post administration of the challenge dose; this is a 28.5 fold increase from your pre- to post-challenge dose administration at year 20. This study demonstrates persistence of anti-HBs antibodies and presence of immune memory following hepatitis B vaccination for up to at least 20 y in Thailand. Olaparib Immune memory was exhibited for virtually all subjects, regardless whether they ...
Key to Acronyms: anti-HBc = hepatitis B core antibody; anti-HBs = hepatitis B surface antibody; ART = antiretroviral therapy; BID = twice daily; BIW = twice a week; CD4 = CD4 T lymphocyte cell; DOT = directly observed therapy; DS = double strength; HAV = hepatitis A virus; HBV = hepatitis B virus; HPV = human papillomavirus; IgG = immunoglobulin G; IgM = immunoglobulin M; IM = intramuscular; INH = isoniazid; IV= intravenously; IVIG = intravenous immunoglobulin; LTBI = latent tuberculosis infection; MAC = Mycobacterium avium complex; PCP = Pneumocystis pneumonia; PCV13 = 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine; PO = orally; PPV23 = 23-valent pneumococcal polysaccharides vaccine; SQ = subcutaneous; SS = single strength; TB = tuberculosis; TMP-SMX = Trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole; VZV = varicella zoster ...
Key to Acronyms: anti-HBc = hepatitis B core antibody; anti-HBs = hepatitis B surface antibody; ART = antiretroviral therapy; BID = twice daily; BIW = twice a week; CD4 = CD4 T lymphocyte cell; DOT = directly observed therapy; DS = double strength; HAV = hepatitis A virus; HBV = hepatitis B virus; HPV = human papillomavirus; IgG = immunoglobulin G; IgM = immunoglobulin M; IM = intramuscular; INH = isoniazid; IV= intravenously; IVIG = intravenous immunoglobulin; LTBI = latent tuberculosis infection; MAC = Mycobacterium avium complex; PCP = Pneumocystis pneumonia; PCV13 = 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine; PO = orally; PPV23 = 23-valent pneumococcal polysaccharides vaccine; SQ = subcutaneous; SS = single strength; TB = tuberculosis; TMP-SMX = Trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole; VZV = varicella zoster ...
Willie T.C., Chakrapani, V., White Hughto, J.M., Kershaw, T.S. (2017) Victimization and Human Immunodeficiency Virus-Related Risk Among Transgender Women in India: A Latent Profile Analysis., Violence and Gender, Dec 1;4(4):121-129. doi: 10.1089/vio.2017.0030.. Dubov, A., Fraenkel, L., Yorick, R., Ogunbajo, A., Altice, F.L. (2017) Strategies to Implement Pre-exposure Prophylaxis with Men Who Have Sex with Men in Ukraine., AIDS and Behavior, Dec 6. doi: 10.1007/s10461-017-1996-y. [Epub ahead of print]. Noroozi, M., Marshall, B.D.L., Noroozi, A., Armoon, B., Sharifi, H., Farhoudian, A., Ghiasvand, H., Vameghi, M., Rezaei, O., Sayadnasiri, M., Pouya, R.H. (2017) Do needle and syringe programs reduce risky behaviours among people who inject drugs in Kermanshah City, Iran? A coarsened exact matching approach., Drug and Alcohol Review, Dec 21. doi: 10.1111/dar.12646. [Epub ahead of print]. Wu, J., Crawford, F.W., Raag, M., Heimer, R., Uusküla, A., (2017) Using data from respondent-driven ...
Serum: Allow to clot. Centrifuge at 3380 rpms (±100) for a minimum of 10 minutes. Centrifuge within 2 hours of collection.. ...
The procedure speeds up surgery and improves results for patients. Many people are aware of prostate cancer, however, non-cancerous prostate growth is much more common and can cause problems with Read More ...
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This is a long-term follow-up study at Years 11, 12, 13, 14 and 15 after primary vaccination with GSK Biologicals hepatitis A/hepatitis B vaccine (three-dose schedule with 3 different lots). To evaluate the long-term antibody persistence, volunteers will be bled at Years 11, 12, 13, 14 and 15 after the first vaccine dose of the primary vaccination course to determine their anti-HAV and anti-HBs antibody concentrations.. No additional subjects will be recruited in the course of this extension study. If a subject has become seronegative for anti-HAV antibodies or lost anti-HBs seroprotection concentrations at the long-term blood sampling time point (i.e. Years 11, 12, 13, 14 or 15), he/ she will be offered an additional vaccine dose. ...
hello please help hep b surface antigen -- negative hep b surface antibody -- positive |1000 hep b surface antibody (total) -- positive my question :::: what profile is this regarded as ...
The Hepatitis B surface antibody exam (or anti-HBs) detects any antibody generated in reaction for the Hep B surface antigen. Primarily, This can be done when youre checking to discover if a vaccinated person has immunity (so if you were vaccinated as a child and are actually implementing to nursing faculty, this lab might be drawn check my reference to check out if you still have immunity and whether or not You will need a booster ...
You ask good questions. 1. Usually, HBVDNA is not detected if HBV sAg is negative. The only situation I have seen this is in someone with isolated Hepatitis B core antibody positivity. This is very...
clearly defined process for enrolment of altruistic donors was made available to interested participating units and a pathway for hepatitis B core antibody positive donors as well as the corresponding matching option in NOMS have been developed and will be available from the ...
Genetically modified organism - Genetically modified organism - GMOs in medicine and research: GMOs have emerged as one of the mainstays of biomedical research since the 1980s. For example, GM animal models of human genetic diseases enabled researchers to test novel therapies and to explore the roles of candidate risk factors and modifiers of disease outcome. GM microbes, plants, and animals also revolutionized the production of complex pharmaceuticals by enabling the generation of safer and cheaper vaccines and therapeutics. Pharmaceutical products range from recombinant hepatitis B vaccine produced by GM bakers yeast to injectable insulin (for diabetics) produced in GM Escherichia coli bacteria and to factor VIII (for hemophiliacs) and tissue plasminogen activator
PDR Drug Summaries are concise point-of-care prescribing, dosing and administering information to help phsyicans more efficiently and accurately prescribe in their practice PDR's drug summaries are available free of charge and serve as a great resource for US based MDs, DOs, NPs and PAs in patient practice
Get Engerix-B Coupon Card by print, email or text and save up to 68% off Engerix-B at the pharmacy. Coupons, discounts, and promos updated 2018.
Anti-HBs Elisa KAPG4SBE3 DIAsource ImmunoAssays S.A. - Rue de lindustrie, 8 - B-1400 Nivelles - Belgium : /1 Anti-HBs Elisa For in vitro qualitative detection of Antibody to Hepatitis B surface
Since your surface antigen (HBsAg) is negative, you are not infected. After vaccination, you want to see your surface antibodies (HBsAb) high - this means you are protected against infection. This...
HbsAg 5761 REACTIVE Anti-Hbs 2.0 NONREACTIVE HbeAg 0.085 NONREACTIVE Anti-Hbe (reverse) 0.005 REACTIVE Anti-Hbc IgM 0.019 NON REACTIVE Anti-Hbc IgG (reverse) 0.406 REACTIVE ito po result ko s...
The FDA did say that its evaluation is continuing and that it would schedule another advisory committee in the future, so this could simply be a delay and not an indication that the FDA has found something new and worrisome in the Heplisav-B data its reviewing. The FDA previously rejected Heplisav-B, in 2013, because of worry that it could cause autoimmune disorders.. If Heplisav-B does eventually make it across the finish line to market, the opportunity could be big, because it offers an arguably better dosing schedule than GlaxoSmithKlines Engerix-B, the leading hepatitis B vaccine. Heplisav-B is given via two doses in one month, while Engerix-B is given via three doses over six months.. Nevertheless, Heplisav-Bs past FDA setbacks make this company too risky for me to buy. Instead, Im content to focus on other ideas that may be less risky.. ...
Neonatal HBV vaccination reduces the risk of liver cancer and other liver diseases in young adults in China, according to a study published by Chunfeng Qu, Taoyang Chen, Yawei Zhang and colleagues from the Cancer Institute & Hospital at the … Continue reading →. ...
The E.coli derived recombinant multimer protein contains the HCV core nucleocapsid immunodominant regions, amino acids 2-119. The protein is fused to a GST tag at N-terminus.
CDC Split Type: EBU900310. Write-up: Pt vaccinated with Series (3 doses) of Engerix-B reported to have fever and inflammed liver. Reporting nusre does Does not think that this hepatitis is due to Engerix-B.. ...
Berbeza dengan undian sebelum ini, kuasa undian 100% terletak di tangan pengundi berbanding sebelum ini yang menggunakan 50% daripada juri dan selebihnya daripada penonton. Anda menjadi juri untuk UNDI MASUK pasangan pilihan anda. Walaubagaimanpun hanya undian melalui khidmat pesanan ringkas (SMS) sahaja dibenarkan. Ini bermakna sebarang undian melalui butang R dan talian tetap tidak akan dikira sama sekali ...
Mouse monoclonal antibody raised against recombinant hepatitis B virus core antigen Recombinant protein corresponding to hepatitis B virus core antigen core. (MAB5402) - Products - Abnova
Mouse monoclonal antibody raised against recombinant hepatitis B virus core antigen Recombinant protein corresponding to hepatitis B virus core antigen core. (MAB5403) - Products - Abnova
According to the latest market report published by Credence Research, Inc. Hepatitis B Vaccines Market - Growth, Future Prospects and Competitive Analysis, 2017 - 2025 the global hepatitis B vaccines market was valued at US$ 1.39 Bn in 2016, and is expected to reach US$ 1.89 Bn by 2025, expanding at a CAGR of 3.5% from 2017 to 2025.. Browse the full report Hepatitis B Vaccines Market - Growth, Future Prospects and Competitive Analysis, 2017 - 2025 report at http://www.credenceresearch.com/report/hepatitis-b-vaccine-market. Market Insights. Hepatitis B is life threatening liver infection. Hepatitis B vaccines market is rapidly growing as it is effective in prevention of infection than any other treatment options. Some factors such as increased awareness of hepatitis B infection prevention, government initiatives in conduction of routine immunization program are contributing the market growth of hepatitis B vaccines globally. For the purpose of study, global hepatitis B vaccines market is ...
Hepatitis B Surface Antigen Negative, Hepatitis B Surface Antibody Negative. Recommendation: Get immunized with the hepatitis B vaccine.. Hepatitis B Surface Antigen Negative, Hepatitis B Surface Antibody Positive. Person has antibodies to hepatitis B and is immune. Encourage him/her to have family tested.. CLIENT FOLLOW UP PROTOCOL:. You will need some sort of follow up system. Simply sending persons a letter notifying them that they are hepatitis B positive is not effective. This is one of the best areas for students to get involved because you can help develop tracking programs and follow-up with both your hepatitis B surface antigen positive and negative persons. Hepatitis B surface antigen positive persons need to see a physician even if they have no symptoms. It is ideal to follow up with everyone who participates in your screening to educate them about hepatitis B and also direct them to appropriate avenues for treatment.. Hepatitis B negative persons who also are hepatitis B surface ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Long-term effectiveness of accelerated hepatitis B vaccination schedule in drug users. AU - Shah, Dimpy P. AU - Grimes, Carolyn Z.. AU - Nguyen, Anh T.. AU - Lai, Dejian. AU - Hwang, Lu Yu. PY - 2015/1/1. Y1 - 2015/1/1. N2 - Objectives. We demonstrated the effectiveness of an accelerated hepatitis B vaccination schedule in drug users. Methods. We compared the long-term effectiveness of accelerated (0-1-2 months) and standard (0-1-6 months) hepatitis B vaccination schedules in preventing hepatitis B virus (HBV) infections and anti-hepatitis B (anti-HBs) antibody loss during 2-year follow-up in 707 drug users (HIV and HBV negative at enrollment and completed 3 vaccine doses) from February 2004 to October 2009. Results. Drug users in the accelerated schedule group had significantly lower HBV infection rates, but had a similar rate of anti-HBs antibody loss compared with the standard schedule group over 2 years of follow-up. No chronic HBV infections were observed. Hepatitis C ...
Read Non‐A, non‐b hepatitis virus: identification of a core antigen‐antibody system that cross reacts with hepatitis b core antigen and antibody, Journal of Medical Virology on DeepDyve, the largest online rental service for scholarly research with thousands of academic publications available at your fingertips.
Hepatitis B Virus Core Antigen antibody [H6F5] for ELISA, WB. Anti-Hepatitis B Virus Core Antigen mAb (GTX22045) is tested in Hepatitis B virus samples. 100% Ab-Assurance.
Hepatitis B Virus Core Antigen antibody [H3A4] for ELISA, WB. Anti-Hepatitis B Virus Core Antigen mAb (GTX28255) is tested in Hepatitis B virus samples. 100% Ab-Assurance.
Hepatitis B Vaccine May Be Linked to MS. Findings of Threefold Increased Risk Contradict Most Previous Research. Sept. 13, 2004 --The hepatitis B vaccine series has been administered to more than 20 million people in the US and more than 500 million people in the world …. Now a new study in the Sept. 14 issue of the journal Neurology offers some of the strongest evidence supporting the link. In the study, researchers report that vaccination with the recombinant hepatitis B vaccine is associated with a threefold increased risk of multiple sclerosis .... full story available at: http://aolsvc.health.webmd.aol.com/content/article/94/102604. ...
The HBsAb Rapid Test Is,direct Binding Test For The Visual Detection Of Antibodies To Hepatitis B Surface Antigen (Anti-HBs) In Serum/plasma. It Is Used As An Aid In The Diagnosis Of Hepatitis B Inf...
A second area of concern is the VAERS reports involving Hepatitis B vaccine administered with other vaccines (vaccine cocktails). Health officials are fond of dismissing those reports as being attributable to Hepatitis B vaccine, because of the multiple other antigens present (almost as if they wanted to cloak Hepatitis B vaccine reactions from scrutiny). Lets avoid that controversy and focus on the extremely disturbing VAERS data of Hepatitis B vaccine with other vaccines. These reports amount to only one third of total reports (7,275), but account for two thirds of total deaths (291). The median onset of those deaths was 2 days after vaccination -- displaying a clear temporal association. The median age of death was 0.5 years in this group. 50% of all Hepatitis-B-vaccine-cocktail reports were serious (died, emergency room, hospitalized, disabled). I grouped convulsive reactions together from the Hep-B-vaccine-cocktail data and found a deeply disturbing pattern. These were anything labeled ...
GeneVac-B Hepatitis B Vaccine (Paediatric) Wholesaler in Mumbai Maharashtra India - Doshi Medicare Pvt.Ltd. (Unit Doshi Brothers) is well established Wholesale Supplier of GeneVac-B Hepatitis B Vaccine (Paediatric) in Mumbai, GeneVac-B Hepatitis B Vaccine (Paediatric) Distributor from Mumbai, GeneVac-B Hepatitis B Vaccine (Paediatric) Trader.
Thimerosal, which is approximately 50% mercury by weight is a preservative widely used in vaccines since the 1930s. It meets the requirements for a preservative as set forth by Pharmacopeia challenge test and has been shown to be effective against a broad spectrum of pathogens. In July 1999, the Public Health Service agencies and vaccine manufacturers agreed that thimerosal should be reduced or eliminated in vaccines as a precautionary measure but, due to the lack of appropriate alternative, it is still extensively used in multiple dose formulations of vaccines such as hepatitis-B in developing countries. In this study the effect of the removal of thimerosal in two formulations of hepatitis B vaccines containing either aluminum hydroxide or aluminum phosphate were evaluated in Balb/c mice. These formulations were administered interperitoneally and the titer of antibody was determined by ELISA technique after 28 days. The geometric mean of antibody titer (GMT), seroconversion and seroprotection
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HBc IgM ELISA Screening, 96 wells (EIA4085) - An Enzyme ImmunoAssay (ELISA) for determination of IgM class antibodies to Hepatitis B Virus core Antigen in plasma and sera with the capture system.
BACKGROUND: Vaccination against hepatitis B virus infection (HBV) is safe and effective; however, vaccine-induced antibody level wanes over time. Peak vaccine-induced anti-HBs level is directly related to antibody decay, as well as risk of infection and persistent carriage despite vaccination. We investigated the role of host genetic factors in long-term immunity against HBV infection based on peak anti-HBs level and seroconversion to anti-HBc. METHODS: We analyzed 715 SNP across 133 candidate genes in 662 infant vaccinees from The Gambia, assessing peak vaccine-induced anti-HBs level and core antibody (anti-HBc) status, whilst adjusting for covariates. A replication study comprised 43 SNPs in a further 393 individuals. RESULTS: In our initial screen we found variation in IFNG, MAPK8, and IL10RA to affect peak anti-HBs level (GMTratio of | 0.6 or | 1.5 and P | or = 0.001) and lesser associations in other genes. Odds of core-conversion was associated with variation in CD163. A coding change in ITGAL
Dr. J. Barthelow Classen, MD presents compelling evidence linking hepatitis B vaccine and other vaccines commonly used in childhood to the rise in type 1 insulin dependent diabetes. Following is a brief discussion. To access the full article and others, please visit Dr. Classens website.. Discussion. Published data links the hepatitis B vaccine to an epidemic of IDDM (Classen, DC & Classen, 1997). The incidence of type I diabetes in the 0-19 year old age group has been studied since 1982 in Christchurch, New Zealand and a rise in type I diabetes was noted to occur in 1989 (Classen,JB, 1996b) after the initiation of an hepatitis B immunization program. The government of New Zealand introduced a massive Hepatitis B vaccination program in 1988 which was extended to include all children under 16 and over 70% of children were vaccinated within a few years with almost all of the immunization starting after 6 week of life. The initial vaccine was a human blood derived product but was switched to a ...
We offer to book Hepatitis B Surface Antigen (HbSAg) Quantitative Test online. View Hepatitis B Surface Antigen (HbSAg) Quantitative Test cost, pre test information and report availability on trutestlab.com. Home collection of blood sample is also available at our centers.
Bio-Rad Antibodies (formerly AbD Serotec) is the research antibody division of Bio-Rad, the worlds leading life science company.
A non-responder is a person who has a documented history of an age-appropriate primary course of hepatitis B vaccine, but has never achieved an anti-HBs level of over 10 mIU/mL. In such cases, HBsAg carriage should first be excluded as a cause of failure in vaccine non-responders. For those subjects who have not achieved adequate anti-HBs levels (≥10 mIU/mL) after the third dose of vaccine, a single booster dose (fourth dose) can be given, and anti-HBs checked 4 weeks later. If the anti-HBs level is over 10 mIU/mL the person can be regarded as immune. People who are non-responders after the fourth booster dose should be given two further doses at monthly intervals, followed by testing for response 4 weeks later. A few small studies have reported success with administration of high-dose formulations of double-dose administration for the fourth or subsequent doses. Persistent non-responders should be informed about the need for HBIG within 72 hours of parenteral exposure to HBV. The efficacy of ...
The standard hepatitis B surface Ag (HBsAg) vaccine fails to induce anti-hepatitis B surface Abs in 5-10% of healthy subjects, a phenomenon known as HBsAg nonresponsiveness, which is closely related to HLA class II alleles and impaired Th cell responses to HBsAg in these subjects. We hypothesized that GM-CSF, a potent adjuvant in enhancing the Ag-presentation activity of APCs, might help to generate Th cell responses in nonresponders, subsequently providing help for B cells to produce anti-hepatitis B surface Abs. We used a thermosensitive biodegradable copolymer (hydrogel) system to codeliver HBsAg and GM-CSF to achieve maximal local cytokine activity at the injection site. In responder mouse strains, hydrogel-formulated HBsAg plus GM-CSF (Gel/HBs+GM) vaccine elicited much greater anti-hepatitis B surface Ab titers and Th cell proliferative responses than a commercial aluminum-formulated HBsAg vaccine or free HBsAg. The adjuvant effect of the Gel/HBs+GM vaccine was dependent upon the local ...
The hepatitis B vaccine contains a protein (antigen) that stimulates the body to make protective antibodies. Examples of hepatitis B vaccines available in the United States include hepatitis b vaccine-injection (Engerix-B, Recombivax-HB). Three doses (given at 0, 1, and 6 months) are necessary to assure protection. There are also combination vaccines on the market that provide protection against hepatitis B and other diseases. Continue reading →. ...
It has recently been announced there is currently a global shortage of the hepatitis B vaccine due to problems with the manufacturing process. The manufacturers anticipate there will be a period of delay or unavailability of the hepatitis B vaccine until early 2018.. The risk of catching Hepatitis B in the UK is very low. However, it is advised that anyone travelling overseas to areas of the world where there is a high risk of contracting hepatitis B such as East Asia and Sub Saharan Africa to plan well ahead and seek medical advice at their earliest convenience.. If you travel overseas and require any travel health advice regarding this matter our health professionals are on hand to provide you with all the information and help you may need. Call us on 01224 794800 or email [email protected] ...
Inquiry (13741) for Abcams Anti-Hepatitis B Virus Core Antigen antibody [10E11]. Our in-house scientific support team are here to help you with any technical questions or queries
Getting a hepatitis B vaccine is an effective way to prevent hepatitis B infection. Find more information here about: the process, side effects, and costs.
There are no specific protocols for Anti-Hepatitis B Virus Surface Antigen antibody [HB12] (ab2039). Please download our general protocols booklet
In 1978-1981, the CDC conducted a hepatitis B vaccine experiment on homosexual men living in New York City, San Francisco and Los Angeles. HIV/AIDS was first detected among the participants in the CDC hepatitis B vaccine trial and quickly spread throughout the gay community in those cities. A body of evidence, including a detailed statistical analysis of the documented time line of when HIV infection was detected in the mens blood and reported to the CDC. Dissidents who have studied the available published data are convinced that this ill-conceived experiment precipitated the devastating AIDS epidemic in Americas homosexual community. The gay men in the experiment were injected with a vaccine that had been made using human hepatitis B infected blood which was injected into chimpanzees known to be infected with the cancer causing simian virus 40 (SV40); the virus that had contaminated the polio vaccine.. Before these CDC experiments there were no reported cases of HIV or AIDS in America. The ...
Learn more about Hepatitis B Vaccine at Oak Hill Hospital What Is Hepatitis B?What Is the Hepatitis B Vaccine?Who Should Get Vaccinated and When?What Are the Risks...
Learn more about Hepatitis B Vaccine at Coliseum Health System What Is Hepatitis B?What Is the Hepatitis B Vaccine?Who Should Get Vaccinated and When?What Are the...
The hepatitis B virus core (HBc) virus-like particle (VLP) is known as one of the most immunogenic antigens and carrier vehicles in different immunization strategies. Recent findings are suggesting the potential of the HBc VLPs as an oral immunogen. Here, we focus on the induction of serum humoral responses by oral administration of HBc VLPs in preparations substantially free of lipopolysaccharide and immunomodulating encapsidated RNA. The full-length HBc antigen was used, because the C-terminal arginine-rich tail may contribute to the immunogenicity of the antigen as the region is involved in cell surface heparan sulfate binding and internalization of the protein. Serum antibody levels and isotypes were determined following oral administration of the HBc VLPs with the perspective of using the HBc VLP as an immunostimulatory and carrier molecule for epitopes of blood-borne diseases in oral immunization vaccination strategies. Following oral administration of the HBc VLP preparations to mice, a strong
Download Free Full-Text of an article DETERMINATION OF ANTIBODY LEVELS TO HEPATITIS B SURFACE ANTIGEN (HBSAB) IN SHAHREKORD HAJAR HOSPITAL STAFFS, 2007-8
Two doses of the investigational hepatitis B vaccine, HEPLISAV, induced significantly earlier and higher rates of seroprotection than Engerix-B, according to study results at IDWeek 2012.
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TY - JOUR. T1 - Do Perinatal Nurses Still Check for Blood Return When Administering the Hepatitis B Vaccine?. AU - Hensel, Desiree. AU - Springmyer, Jill. PY - 2011/1/1. Y1 - 2011/1/1. N2 - Objective: To describe how changes in recommendations regarding aspirating for blood return prior to intramuscular immunization have diffused into perinatal nurses practice using the diffusions of innovations theory as a framework and to explore what factors influenced decisions to adopt new administration techniques. Design & Setting: This descriptive study used a survey design with a convenience sample of hospital-based perinatal nurses. A link to an online survey regarding injection knowledge and practices surrounding administering the hepatitis B vaccine to newborns was distributed to nurse managers in Indiana, and they were asked to forward the link to their staffs. Participants: A total of 72 nurses participated in the survey. Results: The majority of respondents (90%) continued to aspirate with the ...
Ameco Research has announced the addition of the ldquo;Global Recombinant Hamster Ovary Cell (CHO) Hepatitis B Vaccine Market: Global Industry Size, Share, Trends and Forecast, 2019-2025 report to their offering.ldquo;Global Recombinant Hamster Ovary Cell (CHO) Hepatitis B Vaccine Market 2019-2025rdquo; provides, w...
"Anti-Saccharomyces cerevisiae as unusual antibodies in autoimmune hepatitis". Minerva Gastroenterologica e Dietologica. 55 (1 ... If all these antibodies are negative, then anti-DGP antibodies (antibodies against deamidated gliadin peptides) should be ... Other antibodies such as anti-Saccharomyces cerevisiae antibodies occur in some people with coeliac disease but also occur in ... anti-DGP antibodies perform better than anti-endomysial and anti-transglutaminase antibodies tests. Because of the major ...
Hepatitis C may also induce rheumatoid factor auto-antibodies. Rarer causes which usually behave differently but may cause ... RF is a non-specific antibody and seen in about 10% of healthy people, in many other chronic infections like hepatitis C, and ... Binding of an autoreactive antibody to the Fc receptors is mediated through the antibody's N-glycans, which are altered to ... ACPAs measured as anti-CCP antibodies).[page needed] It is positive in 75-85%, but a negative RF or CCP antibody does not rule ...
The technique is named immunoprophylaxis by gene transfer (IGT). Animal tests for antibodies to ebola, malaria, influenza, and ... hepatitis were underway. In March, scientists, including an inventor of CRISPR, Jennifer Doudna, urged a worldwide moratorium ... In March researchers delivered a recombinant gene encoding a broadly neutralizing antibody into monkeys infected with simian ... HIV; the monkeys' cells produced the antibody, which cleared them of HIV. ...
"Long-term follow-up of antimitochondrial antibody-positive autoimmune hepatitis". Hepatology. 48 (2): 550-6. doi:10.1002/hep. ... These are called anti-mitochondrial antibodies (AMA) and anti-nuclear antibodies (ANA), respectively. These antibodies are ... There is also evidence of anti-PDC-E2 antibodies in autoimmune hepatitis (AIH) patients. Pyruvate dehydrogenase deficiency (PDH ... 49 (3): 871-9. doi:10.1002/hep.22736. hdl:2434/55031. PMC 2665925. PMID 19185000. Bellucci R, Oertelt S, Gallagher M, Li S, ...
Kennedy, R.; Eichberg, J.; Lanford, R.; Dreesman, G. (1986). "Anti-idiotypic antibody vaccine for type B viral hepatitis in ... Kennedy has also helped to develop hepatitis B vaccines for chimpanzees and proposed their use in humans in a 1986 study. His ... Some of Kennedy's other research focused on the immune response to viral hepatitis. ...
"Acceptable recipient outcomes with the use of hearts from donors with hepatitis-B core antibodies". J. Heart Lung Transplant. ... "Anti-HLA antibodies are associated with restenosis after percutaneous coronary intervention for cardiac allograft vasculopathy ...
... is a human monoclonal antibody directed against the hepatitis B virus. WHO Drug Information Shouval D, Terrault N, ... in Hepatitis B Virus (Hbv) in Liver Transplant (Lt) Recipients". Hepatology. 44 (4): 188A-700A [196A]. doi:10.1002/hep.21395. v ...
"Anti-hepatitis C antibodies and non-A, non-B post-transfusion hepatitis in the Netherlands". Lancet. 334 (8658): 297-298. doi: ... Alter, HJ; Purcell, RH; Shih, JW; Melpolder, JC; Houghton, M; Choo, Q-L; Kuo, G (1989). "Detection of antibody to hepatitis C ... De Bisceglie, AM; Alter, H; Kuo, G; Houghton, M; Hoofnagle, JH (1989). "Detection of antibody to hepatitis C virus in patients ... Houghton was co-author of a series of seminal studies published in 1989 and 1990 that identified hepatitis C antibodies in ...
... (INN; development code VAY736) is a monoclonal antibody that is being investigated for autoimmune hepatitis. This ...
... is a human monoclonal antibody developed for the treatment of hepatitis B infections. "WHO Drug Information" (PDF ... in Hepatitis B Virus (Hbv) in Liver Transplant (Lt) Recipients". Hepatology. 44 (4): 188A-700A [196A]. doi:10.1002/hep.21395. v ...
"Selection pressure from neutralizing antibodies drives sequence evolution during acute infection with hepatitis C virus". ... "Hepatitis C: The Insidious Spread Of A Killer Virus" Newsweek, Geoffrey Cowley, April 22, 2002. "The Insidious Spread of a ... "Johns Hopkins Team Finds 'Ancestral' Hepatitis-C Virus at Root of Evolution in Acute and Chronic Infections. AScribe, June 9, ... Netski, D.; Mao, Q.; Ray, S.; Klein, R. (2008). "Genetic divergence of hepatitis C virus: the role of HIV-related ...
May 2011). "Importance of the cutoff ratio for detecting antibodies against hepatitis A virus in oral fluids by enzyme ... The second study, conducted by Pascoe, et al., compared saliva antibody testing to serum antibody testing using ELISA followed ... and compared saliva antibody testing and serum antibody testing using ELISA technique in 820 individuals. ... Hepatitis C has also been identified using salivary detection methods. Yaari, et al., reported in 2006 that saliva testing for ...
1993). "Rescue, expression, and analysis of a neutralizing human anti-hepatitis A virus monoclonal antibody". J. Immunol. 151 ( ...
A Revalidation Study of Viral Clearance in the Purification of Monoclonal Antibody CB.Hep-1". Retrieved 12 July 2009. El Eman, ...
Detection of antibodies to hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) using monoclonal antibody and the avidin-biotin system. Folia ... KOREC, E., HLOŽÁNEK, I., STARÁ, J., & NĔMECEK, V. Anti-idiotype antibody as a prospective vaccine against hepatitis B. Folia ... KOREC, E., KORCOVÁ, J., KÖNIG, J., & HLOŽÁNEK, I. Detection of antibodies against hepatitis B core antigen using the avidin- ... HLOŽÁNEK, I., DOSTÁLOVÁ, V., KOREC, E., ZELENÝ, V., KÖNIG, J., & NĔMECEK, V. Monoclonal antibodies to hepatitis B surface ...
With the introduction of second-generation ELISA antibody tests for hepatitis C, the Red Cross changed the ALT policy. As of ... Prior to July 1992, widespread blood donation testing in the USA for hepatitis C was not carried out by major blood banks. ... The intent was to identify donors potentially infected with hepatitis C because no specific test for that disease was available ... doi:10.1002/hep.23789. PMID 20658466. S2CID 5141849. Marshall W (2012). "Alanine aminotransferase: analyte monograph" (PDF). ...
"Antibody responses to the hepatitis C virus E2 protein: relationship to viraemia and prevalence in anti-HCV seronegative ... antibody and protection against DENV-4 challenge in mice and rhesus monkeys by passively transferred humanized antibody". J ...
C4A-null and TNF may associated with autoimmune hepatitis The appearance of anti-nuclear antibodies in autoimmune hepatitis was ... October 1998). "Frequency and significance of anti-gliadin and anti-endomysial antibodies in autoimmune hepatitis" (PDF). Dig. ... of these half had anti-transglutaminase antibodies, but few had endomysial antibody. This could indicate an association with ... "HLA-C genes and susceptibility to type 1 autoimmune hepatitis". Hepatology. 26 (4): 1023-6. doi:10.1002/hep.510260434. PMID ...
... and there was the potential risk from hepatitis virus and cytotoxic antibodies. The absence of lipo-proteins from the perfusate ... The solution was incubated at 60 °C for 10 hours to inactivate the agent of serum hepatitis. The result was a 45 g/l human ... Murray R, Diefenbach WCL (1953). "Effect of heat on the agent of homologous serum hepatitis". Proc Soc Exp Biol Med. 84 (1): ... "Hyperacute Rejection of Renal Allografts Following Pulsatile Perfusion with a Perfusate Containing Specific Antibody". ...
October 1998). "Hepatitis C virus serotype-specific core and NS4 antibodies in injecting drug users participating in the ... Nonstructural protein 4A (NS4A) is a viral protein found in the hepatitis C virus. It acts as a cofactor for the enzyme NS3. ...
October 1998). "Hepatitis C virus serotype-specific core and NS4 antibodies in injecting drug users participating in the ... Nonstructural protein 4B (NS4B) is a viral protein found in the hepatitis C virus. It has mass of 27 kDa and probably involved ... Chapter 8. HCV NS4B: From Obscurity to Central Stage in "Hepatitis C Viruses: Genomes and Molecular Biology." / Tan SL. - ...
... between envelope proteins of hepatitis B viruses from Brazilian carriers and antibodies raised against recombinant hepatitis B ... A secondary antibody is added which recognizes and binds to the primary antibody. The secondary antibody is visualized through ... the membrane is exposed to another antibody known as the secondary antibody. Antibodies come from animal sources (or animal ... Then, the serum to be tested is applied in the primary antibody incubation step; free antibody is washed away, and a secondary ...
His firm provided the $300,000 start-up funding, and Hybritech's first product, antibodies for the hepatitis B virus, reached ... He was one of the first to use monoclonal antibodies to treat patients with melanoma, leukemia and T cell lymphoma. He ... The idea behind Hybritech was to harness monoclonal antibodies to quickly diagnose and treat diseases. Financier Brook Byers, ... IDEC - Founded in 1985 to develop monoclonal antibodies. Founders include Ivor Royston, Howard Birndorf, Richard Miller and ...
... (INN; development code GC1102) is a monoclonal antibody that is being investigated for hepatitis B. This drug is ... "A recombinant human immunoglobulin with coherent avidity to hepatitis B virus surface antigens of various viral genotypes and ...
... is a human monoclonal antibody for the treatment of patients with chronic hepatitis B. It has undergone Phase I ... "Administration of a human monoclonal antibody (TUVIRUMAB) to chronic hepatitis B patients pre-treated with lamivudine: ... "Efficacy and safety of an intravenous monoclonal anti-HBs in chronic hepatitis B patients". Liver. 21 (3): 207-12. doi:10.1034/ ...
... the association of A1 with autoimmune hepatitis with no anti-viral antibody was stronger than with chronic active hepatitis ... The association with viral hepatitis was subsequently demonstrated and patients with antinuclear antibodies were more likely to ... Vogten AJ, Shorter RG, Opelz G (June 1979). "HLA and cell-mediated immunity in HBsAg negative chronic active hepatitis". Gut. ... Freudenberg J, Baumann H, Arnold W, Berger J, Büschenfelde KH (1977). "HLA in different forms of chronic active hepatitis. A ...
To address this concern, in 2012 IHS implemented a nationwide hepatitis C virus (HCV) antibody testing program for persons born ... "U.S. 2014 Surveillance Data for Viral Hepatitis , Statistics & Surveillance , Division of Viral Hepatitis , CDC". www.cdc.gov. ... Currently, the incidence rate of acute hepatitis C in Native Americans is higher in comparison to any other racial/ethnic group ... Despite this prevalent need, IHS currently does not include any new direct acting anti-retroviral (DAA) hepatitis C medications ...
She determined that the hepatitis C antibody was present in as high as 84.3% of the population in the region at the height of ... She exposed the poor practices that led to the spread of hepatitis C and HIV in central China in the 1990s, potentially saving ... She found that several donors were infected with hepatitis C but were not turned away. At this point, plasma donations were not ... Wang recognized the same concerns she had on discovering hepatitis, and began evaluating for the HIV virus that is a precursor ...
... region of hepatitis A virus cellular receptor 1 is required for binding of hepatitis A virus and protective monoclonal antibody ... Hepatitis A virus cellular receptor 1 (HAVcr-1) also known as T-cell immunoglobulin and mucin domain 1 (TIM-1) is a protein ... "Entrez Gene: HAVCR1 hepatitis A virus cellular receptor 1". Umetsu SE, Lee WL, McIntire JJ, Downey L, Sanjanwala B, Akbari O, ... The hepatitis A virus cellular receptor 1 (HAVCR1/TIM-1), is a member of the TIM (T cell transmembrane, immunoglobulin, and ...
"Detection of anti-nuclear antibodies from patients with systemic rheumatic diseases by ELISA using HEp-2 cell nuclei". J. Clin ... Harmon CE, Deng JS, Peebles CL, Tan EM (1984). "The importance of tissue substrate in the SS-A/Ro antigen-antibody system". ... to SS-A/Ro by indirect immunofluorescence using a transfected and overexpressed human 60 kD Ro autoantigen in HEp-2 cells". J. ...
Hepatitis B Virus-Specific CD8+ T Cells Maintain Functional Exhaustion after Antigen Reexposure in an Acute Activation Immune ... Disappearance of T Cell-Mediated Rejection Despite Continued Antibody-Mediated Rejection in Late Kidney Transplant Recipients. ... in immune function in patients with sepsis are associated with PD-1 or PD-L1 expression and can be restored by antibodies ...
IgM antibodies are detectable two days after symptom onset and IgG antibodies can be detected six to 18 days after symptom ... and viral hepatitis among others.[104] ... Finding the virus, viral RNA, or antibodies in blood[1]. ... Survivors develop antibodies against Ebola that last at least 10 years, but it is unclear whether they are immune to additional ... "Investigational Monoclonal Antibody to Treat Ebola Is Safe in Adults" (Press release). National Institute of Allergy and ...
"Chronic Hepatitis After Hepatitis E Virus Infection in a Patient With Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma Taking Rituximab" (PDF). Retrieved ... antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity).[55] This strategy for enhancing a monoclonal antibody's ability to induce ADCC takes ... Rituximab has been reported as a possible cofactor in a chronic Hepatitis E infection in a person with lymphoma. Hepatitis E ... The antibody binds to the cell surface protein CD20. CD20 is widely expressed on B cells, from early pre-B cells to later in ...
... has been reported as a possible cofactor in a chronic Hepatitis E infection in a person with lymphoma. Hepatitis E ... antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity).[57] This strategy for enhancing a monoclonal antibody's ability to induce ADCC takes ... The antibody binds to the cell surface protein CD20. CD20 is widely expressed on B cells, from early pre-B cells to later in ... Rituximab is a chimeric monoclonal antibody against the protein CD20, which is primarily found on the surface of immune system ...
Clinical trials have been conducted on mice using tomatoes expressing antibodies or proteins that stimulate antibody production ... targeted to norovirus, hepatitis B, rabies, HIV, anthrax and respiratory syncytial virus.[41] Korean scientists are looking at ...
... antibodies for the virus, or the virus itself in cell culture.[1] Other conditions that may present similarly include Ebola, ... An ELISA test for antigen and Immunoglobulin M antibodies give 88% sensitivity and 90% specificity for the presence of the ...
... hepatitis B, hepatitis C), autoimmune conditions (systemic lupus erythematosus, ANCA vasculitis), paraproteinemias (amyloidosis ... Newer, so-called "biologic drugs" or monoclonal antibodies, are also used in these conditions and include rituximab, ...
The level of A1AT in serum is most often determined by adding an antibody that binds to A1AT, then using turbidimetry to ... doi:10.1002/hep.20815. PMID 16044402. Mahr AD, Neogi T, Merkel PA (2006). "Epidemiology of Wegener's granulomatosis: Lessons ...
Toxoplasma antibodies» (en anglès). PLoS Negl Trop Dis, 2018 Ag 16; 12 (8), pp: e0006536. DOI: 10.1371/journal.pntd.0006536. ... Acute Seronegative Toxoplasma gondii Hepatitis Allergic to First-Line Treatment» (en anglès). Case Reports in Infectious ... aquest protozou provoca hepatitis agudes.[23] En persones immunodeprimides desencadena infeccions oportunistes molt serioses[24 ...
One study has identified antibodies to an M-type phospholipase A2 receptor in 70% (26 of 37) cases evaluated.[2] In 2014, a ... Within membranous glomerulonephritis, especially in cases caused by viral hepatitis, serum C3 levels are low.[7] ... The immune complexes are formed by binding of antibodies to antigens in the glomerular basement membrane. The antigens may be ...
The Center of molecular immunology (CIM) developed nimotuzumab, a monoclonal antibody used to treat cancer. Nimotuzumab is an ... hepatitis and chicken pox. Other campaigns included a program to reduce the infant mortality rate in 1970 directed at maternal ...
Hepatitis. DNA virus. HBV (B). RNA virus. CBV. HAV (A). HCV (C). HDV (D). HEV (E). HGV (G). ... Padgett, B.L.; Walker, D.L. (1973). "Prevalence of antibodies in human sera against JC virus, an isolate from a case of ...
Engineers of small-scale humanised antibody production. Prices on application.. *^ Immunisation article in Ganfyd, the online ... because the antibodies which are transferred have a lifespan of only about 3-6 months.[18] Every placental mammal (which ... known as antibodies or immunoglobulins. This was first performed (and is still sometimes performed) by taking blood from a ... In the future it might be possible to artificially design antibodies to fit specific antigens, then produce them in large ...
... antibodies - antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity (ADCC) - antibody-mediated immunity - antifungal medication - ... hepatitis - hepatitis C and HIV coinfection - hepatomegaly - herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) - herpes simplex virus 2 (HSV-2) - ... neutralizing antibody - neutralizing domain - neutropenia - neutrophil - New Drug Application (NDA) - New York Cares - NIAID - ... functional antibody - fungus - fusin - fusion inhibitor - fusion mechanism - fusion peptide ...
B cells: releases antibodies and assists activation of T cells. *T cells: *CD4+ Th (T helper) cells: activate and regulate T ... Infectious diseases - viral (AIDS, SARS, West Nile encephalitis, hepatitis, herpes, measles, others), bacterial (TB, typhoid, ... This causes an antibody response to be mounted. Monocytes eventually leave the bloodstream and become tissue macrophages, which ... B cells make antibodies that can bind to pathogens, block pathogen invasion, activate the complement system, and enhance ...
Jules Bordet received the Nobel prize in 1919 for his discoveries on immunity, especially the implication of antibodies and the ... In 1985, the first human vaccine obtained by genetic engineering from animal cells, the vaccine against hepatitis B, was ... and hepatitis B. The discovery and use of sulfonamides in treating infections was another breakthrough. Some researchers won ... produced a genetically engineered vaccine against hepatitis B and a rapid diagnostic test for the detection of the Helicobacter ...
In the case of dengue virus, monoclonal anti-CLEC5A antibodies are able to suppress the secretion of proinflammatory cytokines ... "New genetic associations detected in a host response study to hepatitis B vaccine". Genes and Immunity. 11 (3): 232-8. doi ... With the discovery of CLEC5A interactions with different viruses, scientists are testing blocking anti-CLEC5A antibodies, Syk ...
Laurence J (2006). "Hepatitis A and B virus immunization in HIV-infected persons". AIDS Reader 16 (1): 15-17. பப்மெட் 16433468. ... Planque S, Nishiyama Y, Taguchi H, Salas M, Hanson C, Paul S (June 2008). "Catalytic antibodies to HIV: Physiological role and ... 1990). "Infection with human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) among recipients of antibody-positive blood donations". Ann ... "The challenges of eliciting neutralizing antibodies to HIV-1 and to influenza virus". Nat. Rev. Microbiol. 6 (2): 143-55. doi: ...
Using antibodies and gold particles this approach can quantify proteins in serum with high sensitivity and specificity.[43] ... report that gene sequences for HIV, Ebola, Hepatitis, and Bacillus Anthracis can be uniquely identified using this technique. ...
"Hepatitis C". World Health Organization. Archived from the original on 2011-07-12. Retrieved 2013-04-25.. ... The tests are based upon the ability of an antibody to bind specifically to an antigen. The antigen (usually a protein or ... This technique is the current standard for detecting viral infections such as AIDS and hepatitis. ... carbohydrate made by an infectious agent) is bound by the antibody, allowing this type of test to be used for organisms other ...
It also has an immunological role in supplying antibodies to the system, such as immunoglobulin A.[16] This is seen to be key ...
Afucosylated monoclonal antibodies. References[edit]. *^ Hashimoto, G.; Wright, P. F.; Karzon, D. T. (1983-11-01). "Antibody- ... Antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC), also referred to as antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity, is a ... Antibodies can then bind to these viral proteins. Next, the NK cells which have Fc Receptors will bind to that antibody, ... whose membrane-surface antigens have been bound by specific antibodies.[1] It is one of the mechanisms through which antibodies ...
This test only works for IgE antibodies. Allergic reactions caused by other antibodies cannot be detected through skin-prick ... IgE antibodies bind to a receptor on the surface of the protein, creating a tag, just as a virus or parasite becomes tagged. ... 2 - IgE antibody. 3 - FcεRI receptor. 4 - preformed mediators (histamine, proteases, chemokines, heparin). 5 - granules. 6 - ... Anaphylaxis occurs when IgE antibodies are involved, and areas of the body that are not in direct contact with the food become ...
Unlike the other types, it is not antibody-mediated but rather is a type of cell-mediated response. ...
For development of a system to study the replication of the virus that causes hepatitis C and for use of this system to ... For the discovery and development of a monoclonal antibody therapy that unleashes the immune system to combat cancer.[15] ... Discovery of the virus that causes hepatitis C and the development of screening methods that reduced the risk of blood ... For their invention of Herceptin, the first monoclonal antibody that blocks a cancer-causing protein, and for its development ...
Hepatitis B virus reactivation may also occur.[5] Interactions[edit]. Nilotinib has been reported as a substrate for OATP1B1 ... Antibodies: Against TrkA: GBR-900; Against NGF: ABT-110 (PG110). *ASP-6294 ...
Typically, HEp-2 cells are used as a substrate to detect the antibodies in human serum. Microscope slides are coated with HEp-2 ... anti-Sm antibodies, anti-nRNP antibodies, anti-Scl-70 antibodies, anti-dsDNA antibodies, anti-histone antibodies, antibodies to ... This pattern is associated with anti-dsDNA antibodies, antibodies to nucleosomal components, and anti-histone antibodies. There ... If the serum contains antibodies, they will bind to antigens within the HEp-2 cell nucleus. These antibodies can be visualised ...
1960s - Developed the first licensed rubella vaccine and the first test for rubella antibodies for large scale testing. ... and the creation of vaccines against hepatitis, Haemophilus influenzae (HIB), and human papillomavirus (HPV).[7] ...
This means that their immune systems just do not create antibodies to fight off a disease, even after they are vaccinated ... Examples of inactivated vaccines include vaccines for pertussis (whooping cough), rabies, and hepatitis B. ... infectious canine hepatitis, adenovirus-2, leptospirosis, bordatella, canine parainfluenza virus, and Lyme disease. ... It may also happen because the person's immune system cannot make the particular B cells which make the antibodies that stick ...
This test detectes both IgG and IgM antibodies to Hepatitis B Core ... Hepatitis B Core Ab. Chemiluminescent Microparticle Immunoassay (CMIA) CMI, Immunology Negative or Positive. ...
Hepatitis C virus antibodies in systemic lupus erythematosus.. Kowdley KV1, Subler DE, Scheffel J, Moore B, Smith H. ... To determine the prevalence and significance of serum antibody to hepatitis C virus (HCV) in patients with systemic lupus ... erythematosus (SLE), we measured serum antibodies to HCV by enzyme-linked immunosorbent (ELISA) and by Abbott MATRIX Immunoblot ...
... then you probably dont have hepatitis c. however, if youve been exposed within the past 6 months, youll need to be checked ... How reliable is the antibody test for hepatitis C?. ANSWER If the antibody test doesnt find anything, then you probably dont ... The antibody test isnt perfect. It may show a hepatitis C infection when you dont have one. It could be positive even if you ... More Answers On Hepatitis. *What tests might I need after being diagnosed with hepatitis C? ...
For follow up to a low positive Hepatitis C Virus Antibody by immunoassay result, and in lieu of the unavailable HCV RIBA, see ... For follow up to a low positive Hepatitis C Virus Antibody by Immunoassay result, and in lieu of the unavailable HCV RIBA, ARUP ... Hepatitis C Virus RNA Quantitative, PCR This assay has a lower limit of detection of 18 IU/mL, and a lower limit of ... Hepatitis C Virus RNA Qualitative PCR This assay has a lower limit of detection of 100 IU/mL. ...
LBDHEG - Hepatitis E IgG (anti-HEV). Variable Name: LBDHEG SAS Label: Hepatitis E IgG (anti-HEV). English Text: Hepatitis E IgG ... LBDHEM - Hepatitis E IgM (anti-HEV). Variable Name: LBDHEM SAS Label: Hepatitis E IgM (anti-HEV). English Text: Hepatitis E IgM ... Hepatitis E: IgG & IgM Antibodies (HEPE_I) Data File: HEPE_I.xpt First Published: September 2017. Last Revised: NA ... Hepatitis E IgG Antibody (IgG Anti-HEV) DS-EIA-ANTI-HEV-G is an enzyme immunoassay kit intended for the detection of IgG ...
LBDHEG - Hepatitis E IgG antibody (IgG anti-HEV). Variable Name: LBDHEG SAS Label: Hepatitis E IgG antibody (IgG anti-HEV). ... LBDHEM - Hepatitis E IgM antibody (IgM anti-HEV). Variable Name: LBDHEM SAS Label: Hepatitis E IgM antibody (IgM anti-HEV). ... The age ranges and constraints for hepatitis E testing are as follows: The IgM and IgG hepatitis E antibody tests are performed ... Hepatitis E IgG Antibody (IgG Anti-HEV) DS-EIA-ANTI-HEV-G is an enzyme immunoassay kit intended for the detection of IgG ...
Learn how a hepatitis C antibody test works and what the test results mean. ... There are several tests that doctors order to check for the hepatitis C virus. The earlier its caught and treated, the less ... Its important to get tested if youve been exposed to hepatitis C. ... The hepatitis C antibody test is a blood test that looks for hepatitis C antibodies in the bloodstream. A positive result ...
... whether they have ever been infected with hepatitis C at any point. ... Hep C antibody tests are used to see if a person has ever developed hep c antibodies - ... How do hep C antibody tests work?. Hep C antibody tests are used to see if a person has ever developed hep C antibodies. If the ... Hepatitis NSW. Hepatitis factsheets. Hep C antibody testing. Last reviewed 18 August 2017. https://www.hep.org.au/wp-content/ ...
LabCorp test details for Hepatitis A Antibody, IgM ... If hepatitis A antibody is IgM, the hepatitis A infection is ... Differential diagnosis of hepatitis; the presence of IgM antibody to hepatitis A virus is good evidence for acute hepatitis A. ... Presence of IgG antibody to HAV does not exclude acute hepatitis B or other forms of hepatitis. ... IgM antibody develops within a week of symptom onset, peaks in three months, and is usually gone after six months. Hepatitis A ...
If hepatitis A antibody is IgM, the hepatitis A infection is probably acute. IgM antibody develops within a week of symptom ... Differential diagnosis of hepatitis; the presence of IgM antibody to hepatitis A virus is good evidence for acute hepatitis A. ... Presence of IgG antibody to HAV does not exclude acute hepatitis B or other forms of hepatitis. ... Hepatitis A antibody of IgG type is indicative of old infection, is found in almost 50% of adults, and is not usually ...
... Muhammad Imtiaz Shafiq,1,2 Amna ... "Thyroid Peroxidase Antibodies in Non-Interferon Treated Hepatitis C Patients in Pakistan," BioMed Research International, vol. ...
... Turan Calhan,1 Abdurrahman Sahin,1 Resul ... Turan Calhan, Abdurrahman Sahin, Resul Kahraman, et al., "Antineutrophil Cytoplasmic Antibody Frequency in Chronic Hepatitis B ...
Hepatitis C virus RNA concentration and chronic hepatitis in a cohort of patients followed after developing acute hepatitis C. ... Testing for the presence of antibody to hepatitis C virus (anti-HCV) is recommended for initially identifying persons with ... Antibody to hepatitis C virus. CIA. Chemiluminescence immunoassay, a screening test format for anti-HCV (e.g., VITROS® Anti-HCV ... Tests to detect antibody to hepatitis C virus (anti-HCV) were first licensed by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) in 1990 ...
Flaviviridae ; broadly neutralizing antibodies; epitope; hepatitis C virus; hepatitis C virus clearance; humoral immunity; ... Broadly Neutralizing Antibodies Targeting New Sites of Vulnerability in Hepatitis C Virus E1E2.. Colbert MD1, Flyak AI2,3, ... Antibodies targeting four sites (AR3, AR4-5, AS108, and AS146) were broadly neutralizing. These MAbs also displayed distinct ... Here, we isolated thirteen E1E2-specific monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) from B cells of a single HCV-infected individual who ...
A vaccine for hepatitis C virus (HCV) is urgently needed. Development of broadly neutralizing plasma antibodies during acute ... Plasma deconvolution identifies broadly neutralizing antibodies associated with hepatitis C virus clearance. ... Plasma deconvolution identifies broadly neutralizing antibodies associated with hepatitis C virus clearance. ... Identifying these epitopes could define the specificity and function of neutralizing antibodies (NAbs) that should be induced ...
Antibody response to hypervariable region 1 interferes with broadly neutralizing antibodies to hepatitis C virus. J Virol. 2016 ... Human broadly neutralizing antibodies to the envelope glycoprotein complex of hepatitis C virus. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2012 ... Neutralizing antibody response during acute and chronic hepatitis C virus infection. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2004;101(27): ... Broadly neutralizing antibody mediated clearance of human hepatitis C virus infection. Cell Host Microbe. 2018;24(5):717-730.e5 ...
... have been detected in patients with hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection and have been associated in autoimmune diseases (i.e. ... Lupus anticoagulant, anticardiolipin antibodies and hepatitis C virus infection in thalassaemia Br J Haematol. 1998 Sep;102(4): ... Anticardiolipin antibodies (ACA) and lupus anticoagulant (LA) have been detected in patients with hepatitis C virus (HCV) ... None of patients developed any complications related to antiphospholipid antibodies (APL); therefore the clinical significance ...
Furthermore, viral evasion from host neutralizing antibodies has been revealed to be an important contributor in leading both ... This review summarizes recent concepts of the role of neutralizing antibodies in viral clearance and protection, and highlights ... Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is a major cause of chronic liver disease worldwide. The interplay between the virus and host ... and neutralization has allowed a detailed understanding of the molecular mechanisms of virus-host interactions during antibody- ...
AIDS virus antibody in polytransfused dialysis patients vaccinated against hepatitis B. Br Med J (Clin Res Ed) 1986; 293 :537 ... AIDS virus antibody in polytransfused dialysis patients vaccinated against hepatitis B.. Br Med J (Clin Res Ed) 1986; 293 doi: ...
If you test postive for Hep B CORE Antibody & {NEGATIVE FOR HEP B. SURFACE ANTIGEN & POSITIVE FOR HEP B. SURFACE ANTIBODIES, ... If you test postive for Hep B CORE Antibody & {NEGATIVE FOR HEP B. SURFACE ANTIGEN & POSITIVE FOR HEP B. SURFACE ANTIBODIES, ... Hep B Core antibody is an antibody to a specific part of the HepB virus. You can NOT transmit it to others. ... Hep B Core antibody is an antibody to a specific part of the HepB virus. You can NOT transmit it to others. ...
A core antibody would help to tell the... ... It means protection from hepatitis B. Either you had a vaccine ... Ask the Experts > Forum on Hepatitis and HIV Coinfection > Q & A hepititis bs antibody. Jan 3, 2008 I had a physical done aout ... It means protection from hepatitis B. Either you had a vaccine in the past or you had natural infection and recovered. A core ... Read More About Hepatitis B Prevention Browse Forums: <-- Select . Aging. Choosing Your Meds. En Español. In Italiano. ...
All antibodies of IgM class, when present in the test sample, can be captured by anti-human IgM antibodies immobilized on the ... All antibodies of IgM class, when present in the test sample, can be captured by anti-human IgM antibodies immobilized on the ... In addition, immobilized rabbit IgG antibodies which can be recognized by colloidal gold-labeled anti-rabbit IgG antibodies ... In addition, immobilized rabbit IgG antibodies which can be recognized by colloidal gold-labeled anti-rabbit IgG antibodies ...
Browse our Hepatitis C Virus E2 Antibody catalog backed by our Guarantee+. ... Hepatitis C Virus E2 Antibodies available through Novus Biologicals. ... Hepatitis C Virus E2 Antibodies. We offer Hepatitis C Virus E2 Antibodies for use in common research applications: ELISA, ... Choose from our Hepatitis C Virus E2 polyclonal antibodies and browse our Hepatitis C Virus E2 monoclonal antibody catalog. ...
Browse our Hepatitis A Surface Antigen Antibody catalog backed by our Guarantee+. ... Hepatitis A Surface Antigen Antibodies available through Novus Biologicals. ... Hepatitis A Surface Antigen Antibodies. We offer Hepatitis A Surface Antigen Antibodies for use in common research applications ... Choose from our Hepatitis A Surface Antigen monoclonal antibodies.. Alternate Names for Hepatitis A Surface Antigen Antibodies ...
The hepatitis B surface antibody test is used to help identify if a person has developed immunity to the hepatitis B virus, ... The hepatitis B surface antibody test is used to help identify if a person has developed immunity to the hepatitis B virus, ... Core antibodies are the first antibodies produced by the body in response to infection with hepatitis B. A positive core ... This hepatitis B surface antibody test detects antibodies produced by the body in response to the presence of surface antigens ...
Validated in WB and tested in Hepatitis C virus. Cited in 2 publication(s). Immunogen corresponding to synthetic peptide. ... Anti-Hepatitis C Virus antibody. See all Hepatitis C Virus primary antibodies. ... Primary antibodies. Secondary antibodies. ELISA and Matched Antibody Pair Kits. Cell and tissue imaging tools. Cellular and ... it is likely that these antibodies will react with Hepatitis C strain 2a. Ab18662 - Mouse monoclonal [24-8 ] to Hepatitis C ...
Validated in WB and tested in Hepatitis C virus. Cited in 6 publication(s). Immunogen corresponding to synthetic peptide. ... Anti-Hepatitis C Virus antibody. See all Hepatitis C Virus primary antibodies. ... Primary - Rabbit Anti-Hepatitis C Virus antibody (ab1033) WB Protein - Recombinant Human Hepatitis C Virus (mutated D168 V) ... Primary antibodies. Secondary antibodies. ELISA and Matched Antibody Pair Kits. Cell and tissue imaging tools. Cellular and ...
Hep c antibodies do not protect against future hep c infection. Hep a and hep b are different. There is no vaccination for hep ... Hep c antibodies do not protect against future hep c infection. Hep a and hep b are different. There is no vaccination for hep ... You are not a "carrier" you do not have hep c. As to reinfection unfortunately hep c antibodies are not like those for the ... You are not a "carrier" you do not have hep c. As to reinfection unfortunately hep c antibodies are not like those for the ...
Over 40 million Indians are chronically infected with Hepatitis B. People can live without symptoms for years and realize later ... A new study by a group of Indian Pediatricians shows that many newborns are protected from Hepatitis B infection by antibodies ... Most newborns are protected from Hepatitis B infection by antibodies received from the mother: Study. ... were collected to measure antigen and antibodies of Hepatitis B virus. Among these, 880 children were completely immunized and ...
... also known as delta hepatitis virus, is a defective RNA virus comprising of a delta antigen and a hepatitis B surface antigen ( ... This virus cannot replicate effectively by itself, and it requires the presence of hepatitis B virus (HBV) to initiate and ... HDV superinfection in chronic HBV or in HBV carrier state typically manifests as an acute exacerbation of chronic hepatitis B, ... Diagnosis of HDV can be established by detecting HDV antigen, HDV-specific IgM, or HDV-specific total antibodies (combined IgM ...
  • Induction of multiple broadly neutralizing antibodies (bNAbs) that target distinct epitopes on the HCV envelope proteins is one approach to vaccine development. (nih.gov)
  • A vaccine for hepatitis C virus (HCV) is urgently needed. (jci.org)
  • Identifying these epitopes could define the specificity and function of neutralizing antibodies (NAbs) that should be induced by a vaccine. (jci.org)
  • These studies have the potential to inform new strategies for vaccine development by identifying broadly neutralizing antibody combinations in plasma associated with the natural clearance of HCV, while also providing a high-throughput assay that could identify these responses after vaccination trials. (jci.org)
  • It means protection from hepatitis B . Either you had a vaccine in the past or you had natural infection and recovered. (thebody.com)
  • Among these, 880 children were completely immunized and were given a birth dose of hepatitis B vaccine, 686 were completely immunized but were not given a birth dose of hepatitis B vaccine and 844 were unvaccinated. (yahoo.com)
  • It was found that children who were given complete vaccination (with or without birth-dose of hepatitis B vaccine) had a similar level of protection against infection. (yahoo.com)
  • 1 Departments of Molecular Biology, International AIDS Vaccine Initiative Neutralizing Antibody Center, and The Skaggs Institute for Chemical Biology, The Scripps Research Institute, La Jolla, CA 92037, USA. (nih.gov)
  • Duration of Immunity After Hepatitis B Vaccination: Efficacy of Low-Dose Booster Vaccine. (ebscohost.com)
  • Studies health care workers three years after initial vaccination with hepatitis B vaccine to determine the prevalence of immunity indicated by levels of antibody to hepatitis B surface antigen. (ebscohost.com)
  • Decline of vaccine coverage for hepatitis B. (ebscohost.com)
  • An effective vaccine to the antigenically diverse hepatitis C virus (HCV) must target conserved immune epitopes. (sciencemag.org)
  • This was the first marker for any hepatitis virus and became not only a diagnostic assay, but also a mandatory blood donor screening test and the basis for the first generation hepatitis B vaccine. (medworm.com)
  • The Hepatitis B vaccine is recommended for those who have not been previously vaccinated. (personalabs.com)
  • To evaluate viral vaccine antibody levels in children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia after chemotherapy and after vaccine booster doses. (scielo.br)
  • Antibody levels against hepatitis B, rubella, measles and mumps vaccine antigens were evaluated in 33 children after completing chemotherapy (before and after vaccine booster doses) and the results were compared to the data of 33 healthy children matched for gender, age and social class. (scielo.br)
  • After receiving a vaccine booster dose for these antigens the patients had high antibody levels consistent with potential protection against measles, mumps and hepatitis B, but not against rubella. (scielo.br)
  • After this, viral vaccine antibody levels should be verified to define the individual's protective status. (scielo.br)
  • Hepatitis B vaccine is effective in preventing infection with hepatitis B virus (HBV), but its duration of protection is unknown. (ovid.com)
  • These data suggest the potential use of anti-idiotype antibodies as a vaccine or vaccine potentiator for HBV. (springer.com)
  • Hepatitis D virus (HDV), also known as delta hepatitis virus, is a defective RNA virus comprising of a delta antigen and a hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) as the core and protein coat of the virus, respectively. (mayomedicallaboratories.com)
  • Serum samples from study subjects were examined for anti-HCV by enzyme immunoassays as well as hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) and e antigen (HBeAg) by radioimmunoassays using commercial kits. (aacrjournals.org)
  • In the clinical follow-up study of 11 patients with anti-preS1 positive serological profile, HBsAg and HBV-DNA clearance occurred in 6 of 10 acute hepatitis B patients in 5-6 mo, and seroconversion of HBeAg and disappearance of HBV-DNA occurred in 1 chronic patients treated with lavumidine, a antiviral agent. (wjgnet.com)
  • This study was done to evaluate efficacy of HBV vaccination on hepatitis B virus surface antigen [‎HBsAg]‎ carrier rate in children with thalassaemia major receiving multiple blood transfusions. (who.int)
  • Presence of hepatitis B surface antigen (HbsAg) and alanine-aminotransferase (ALAT) level are routinely assessed, as well as HIV and human T-lymphotropic virus type l infection. (cdc.gov)
  • HBsAg is the surface antigenof the Hepatitis-B-Virus (HBV). (prospecbio.com)
  • HBsAg is a serological marker produced on the surface of the hepatitis B virus and is one of the first disease state markers to be detected in the serum of patients infected with the hepatitis B virus. (prospecbio.com)
  • Background and Objective: Presence of hepatitis B core antibody (anti-HBc) in the absence of hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) and hepatitis B surface antibody (anti-HBs) is defined, as isolated anti-HBc. (psu.edu)
  • HBsAg, anti-HBs, anti-HBc, Hepatitis C antibody (anti-HCV) and Alanine aminotransferase (ALT) levels were tested in all subjects. (psu.edu)
  • For decades, people living with chronic hepatitis B were told they would be "cured" only when they lost the hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) and developed surface antibodies. (hepb.org)
  • Researchers, including expert Dr. Robert Gish, suggest if people have an undetectable viral load (HBV DNA), undetectable HBsAg, and no signs of liver damage, they may be "functionally cured," even if they haven't developed surface antibodies. (hepb.org)
  • Today, we're only measuring one type of surface antibody, and for some reason we don't know yet, it may never become positive in people who have been chronically infected and cleared HBsAg. (hepb.org)
  • Dr. Gish speculates that the surface antibodies that labs measure may all bind to any HBsAg that remain following infection, so there may not be any excess of this one type of surface antibodies to measure. (hepb.org)
  • As a result of these findings, people who have gone two or more years with undetectable viral load and HBsAg, and no signs of liver damage just might be "functionally cured", Dr. Gish suggests, even if their surface antibodies remain undetectable. (hepb.org)
  • The hepatitis virus consists of a core containing DNA ( HBV-DNA ) with an enzyme known as DNA polymerase that assists with viral replication and is surrounded by surface proteins ( HBsAg ). (healthhype.com)
  • The surface proteins surrounding the viral core is known as the hepatitis B surface antigen ( HBsAg ). (healthhype.com)
  • Anti-idiotype antibodies that recognize a common human idiotype present on antibodies to hepatitis B surface antigen (anti-HBs) from individuals naturally infected by hepatitis B virus (HBV) and an interspecies idiotype on anti-HBs produced by active immunization with hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) were used in vivo to modulate idiotype networks in mice. (springer.com)
  • Injection of anti-idiotype antibodies without subsequent HBsAg stimulation induced an anti-HBs response. (springer.com)
  • The detection of antibodies to hepatitis C virus (HCV) using a recombinant-based immunoassay in patients who did not have risk factors for infection or evidence of liver disease has raised doubts about the test's specificity (1). (annals.org)
  • We then investigated the allele specificity of the antibodies and identified the HLA alleles in each patient using DNA-based HLA typing. (medsci.org)
  • We confirmed that the anti-HLA class II antibodies in the AIH patients showed specificity for several HLA class II alleles, including self HLA class II alleles. (medsci.org)
  • The tightness and specificity with which antibodies bind to protein complexes has led to many fruitful applications in structural biology. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Trans Am Clin Climatol Assoc. 2019;130:104-118 Authors: Alter HJ Abstract The modern age of viral hepatitis began in the early 1960s with the serendipitous discovery of the Australia antigen, a protein that was later shown to represent the envelope of the hepatitis B virus leading to its designation as the hepatitis B surface antigen. (medworm.com)
  • Hepatitis C Virus RNA Quantitative, PCR This assay has a lower limit of detection of 18 IU/mL, and a lower limit of quantitation of 43 IU/mL. (legacyhealth.org)
  • Hepatitis C Virus RNA Qualitative PCR This assay has a lower limit of detection of 100 IU/mL. (legacyhealth.org)
  • Testing for anti-HCV should include use of an antibody screening assay, and for screening test-positive results, a more specific supplemental assay. (cdc.gov)
  • The presence of HEV specific IgM antibodies can be differentially detected by a colloidal gold-labeled HEV antigen immobilized within the device, and can be visualized as pink/purple lines after assay. (mpbio.com)
  • Antibody to HCV was tested for using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) (Ortho Diagnostic Systems, Raritan, New Jersey). (annals.org)
  • Analysis of discordant test results among five second-generation assays for anti-hepatitis C virus antibodies also tested by polymerase chain reaction-RNA assay and other laboratory and clinical tests for hepatitis. (asm.org)
  • The diagnostic performances of five commercially available second-generation assays for anti-hepatitis C virus antibody, two enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays, one enzyme immunoassay, and two particle agglutination assays (passive hemagglutination assay and particle agglutination assay), were evaluated. (asm.org)
  • Assay sensitivities were further evaluated by testing serially diluted World Health Organization (WHO) reference reagent for hepatitis E virus antibody and one patient sample infected with HEV genotype 3. (mdpi.com)
  • Hepatitis viruses constitute a major public health problem because of the morbidity and mortality associated with the acute and chronic consequences of these infections. (cdc.gov)
  • Infection with hepatitis E virus (HEV) has been responsible for large water-borne epidemics of acute disease in developing countries and for acute sporadic disease in industrialized developed countries. (cdc.gov)
  • the presence of IgM antibody to hepatitis A virus is good evidence for acute hepatitis A. (labcorp.com)
  • If hepatitis A antibody is IgM, the hepatitis A infection is probably acute. (labcorp.com)
  • Presence of IgG antibody to HAV does not exclude acute hepatitis B or other forms of hepatitis. (labcorp.com)
  • Development of broadly neutralizing plasma antibodies during acute infection is associated with HCV clearance, but the viral epitopes of these plasma antibodies are unknown. (jci.org)
  • Furthermore, viral evasion from host neutralizing antibodies has been revealed to be an important contributor in leading both to viral persistence in acute liver graft infection following liver transplantation, and to chronic viral infection. (mdpi.com)
  • HDV superinfection in chronic HBV or in HBV carrier state typically manifests as an acute exacerbation of chronic hepatitis B, with tendency to result in chronic HBV-HDV coinfection and early cirrhosis or liver failure. (mayomedicallaboratories.com)
  • HDV IgG and HDV total antibodies persist in serum after resolution of acute HDV infection and in chronic coinfection. (mayomedicallaboratories.com)
  • Positive results usually indicate 1 of the following conditions: 1) simultaneous acute or chronic coinfection with hepatitis B virus (HBV) and HDV, 2) acute HDV infection in patients with known chronic HBV infection (ie, HDV superinfection), or 3) resolved HDV infection. (mayomedicallaboratories.com)
  • The source of HCV was plasma obtained from a patient during the acute phase of posttransfusion non-A, non-B hepatitis, which had previously been titered for infectivity in chimpanzees. (pnas.org)
  • IgM antibody against hepatitis C virus (IgM anti-HCV) was measured in serial samples from 15 transfusion recipients in whom posttransfusion chronic non-A, non-B hepatitis (NANBH) developed and three plasmapheresis donors during acute HCV infection using recombinant proteins derived from three immunodominant regions: core, NS-3, and NS-4 (c100). (unboundmedicine.com)
  • TY - JOUR T1 - IgM antibody response in acute hepatitis C viral infection. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • Recombinant preS1(21-119 aa) protein was successfully applied in the immunoassay which could sensitively detect the anti-preS1 antibodies in serum specimens of acute or chronic hepatitis B patients. (wjgnet.com)
  • Results showed that more than half of 19 acute hepatitis B patients produced anti-preS1 antibodies during recovery of the disease, however, the response was only found in a few of chronic patients. (wjgnet.com)
  • Acute Hepatitis B in a Patient with Antibodies to Hepatitis B Surface Antigen Who Was Receiving Rituximab. (ebscohost.com)
  • A letter to the editor on acute hepatitis B in a patient with antibodies to hepatitis B surface antigen who was having rituximab therapy is presented. (ebscohost.com)
  • Specimens analyzed were from 200 blood donors, 79 patients with acute viral hepatitis (AVH), 392 hemodialyzed patients, and 30 carriers of schistosomiasis. (ajtmh.org)
  • That level was used because most adults who had a short-term or acute case of hepatitis B were able to generate lots of surface antibodies once they've cleared the infection, and people who were vaccinated also tended to generate high surface antibody levels. (hepb.org)
  • To this end, we investigated the nature of ASCs in direct ex vivo assays from patients with acute hepatitis A caused by primary infection with hepatitis A virus (HAV). (jimmunol.org)
  • The hepatitis B virus (HBV) can infect the liver cells resulting in an acute infection or persist with chronic inflammation of the liver. (healthhype.com)
  • Acute hepatitis with subsequent recovery and total clearance of the virus in a person with a healthy immune system. (healthhype.com)
  • Non-progressive chronic hepatitis which may occur after an acute infection. (healthhype.com)
  • Acute hepatitis B lasts for less than 6 months. (healthhype.com)
  • The Hepatitis B Surface Antigen test is the earliest indicator of acute infection, while it also indicates chronic infection as well. (personalabs.com)
  • Extra doses of measles-mumps-rubella plus hepatitis B vaccines are recommended in acute lymphoblastic leukemia patients submitted to treatment after hematologic recovery. (scielo.br)
  • Choose from our Hepatitis C Virus E2 polyclonal antibodies and browse our Hepatitis C Virus E2 monoclonal antibody catalog. (novusbio.com)
  • The following product was used in this experiment: Hepatitis C Virus NS3 Monoclonal Antibody (24-8) from Thermo Fisher Scientific, catalog # MA1-21375, RRID AB_559424. (thermofisher.com)
  • Assess safety and tolerability of escalating doses of a human monoclonal antibody against Hepatitis C E2 glycoprotein (MBL-HCV1) in healthy adults. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Determine pharmacokinetics of a human monoclonal antibody against Hepatitis C E2 glycoprotein (MBL-HCV1) given as a single intravenous infusion. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • A single dose of human monoclonal antibody will be administered. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • A single dose of human monoclonal antibody MBL-HCV1 will be administered on Day 0 and subjects will be followed for 56 days. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Mouse monoclonal antibody raised against recombinant hepatitis B virus core antigen. (abnova.com)
  • To determine the prevalence and significance of serum antibody to hepatitis C virus (HCV) in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), we measured serum antibodies to HCV by enzyme-linked immunosorbent (ELISA) and by Abbott MATRIX Immunoblot assays in 42 patients with SLE, a condition associated with hypergammaglobulinemia. (nih.gov)
  • To determine the prevalence of antibodies to hepatitis B core antigen, hepatitis C virus, and HIV in the prison population of the Republic of Ireland and to examine risk factors for infection. (bmj.com)
  • Prevalence of antibodies to hepatitis B core antigen, antibodies to hepatitis C virus, and antibodies to HIV. (bmj.com)
  • 6 Given the association between injecting drug use and infection with hepatitis B virus, hepatitis C virus, and HIV, it is important to know both the prevalence of these infections and the pattern of risk behaviours in prison environments so that appropriate responses can be instituted. (bmj.com)
  • We report the results of a national study examining the relations between self reported risk behaviour and the prevalence of antibodies to hepatitis B core antigen, hepatitis C virus, and HIV in the Irish prisoner population. (bmj.com)
  • We estimated that a sample of 1200 prisoners was required to measure the prevalence of antibodies to hepatitis C virus in the high and medium risk prisons. (bmj.com)
  • The prevalence of HCV antibodies in blood donors in Dakar in 2001 appears to be one of the lowest in West Africa, close to published estimates for Mauritania and Benin (1.1% and 1.4%, respectively) and lower than in other West African countries such as Ghana or Guinea, where prevalence ranges from 2.8% to 6.7% ( 1 - 4 ). (cdc.gov)
  • Hepatitis B and C virus prevalence in a rural area of South Korea: the role of acupuncture. (ebscohost.com)
  • A cross-sectional study evaluated the prevalence of and the risk factors for hepatitis C and B viruses among 700 adults above the age of 40 years in a rural area of South Korea. (ebscohost.com)
  • It discusses the aim of the study, the recruitment of the participants, semiquantitative analysis of anti-HBs antibodies for hepatitis B, and the prevalence of Hepatitis B. (ebscohost.com)
  • Hepatitis B virus and hepatitis C virus share routes of transmission but the prevalence of hepatitis C virus infection in this population is unknown. (ebscohost.com)
  • Prevalence of antibodies to hepatitis E in two rural Egyptian communities. (ajtmh.org)
  • A population-based serosurvey in two rural Egyptian communities was used to assess age-specific prevalence of antibody to hepatitis E virus (anti-HEV). (ajtmh.org)
  • Prevalence of this magnitude is among the highest reported in the world, with an age-specific pattern more similar to hyperendemic hepatitis A virus transmission than generally described. (ajtmh.org)
  • The prognosis for autoimmune hepatitis becomes worse when it is associated with liver cirrhosis and the presence of soluble liver antigen and the liver pancreas antigen (SLA/LP) antibodies. (belmarrahealth.com)
  • Recent studies done on patients with autoimmune hepatitis show that the first diagnosis of cirrhosis of the liver and the presence of the above mentioned antibodies increase the risk of poor short-term and poor long-term outcomes. (belmarrahealth.com)
  • A chronic inflammatory disease, autoimmune hepatitis results in damage to the liver as a result of the body's immune system attacking healthy liver cells. (belmarrahealth.com)
  • According to lead author Dr. Arndt Vogel from Hannover Medical School in Germany, early diagnosis and timely medical therapy can help patients with autoimmune hepatitis have a good prognosis. (belmarrahealth.com)
  • Dr. Vogel explains that their study examines the genetic and clinical features of remission, relapse and liver transplant-free survival in patients with autoimmune hepatitis. (belmarrahealth.com)
  • For the study, the team analyzed 264 patients with autoimmune hepatitis who were treated at Hannover Medical School between 2000 and 2014, and 399 patients without autoimmune hepatitis. (belmarrahealth.com)
  • And the patients with a childhood diagnosis of autoimmune hepatitis had an increased risk of relapse, higher risk of needing a liver transplant and a reduced life expectancy. (belmarrahealth.com)
  • Besides cirrhosis of the liver, there are other factors that could influence and increase the risk of autoimmune hepatitis. (belmarrahealth.com)
  • Being female - Although autoimmune hepatitis can occur in both men and women the incidence of occurrence is higher in women. (belmarrahealth.com)
  • Age - While type-1 autoimmune hepatitis is not associated with age and can occur any time, type-2 autoimmune hepatitis usually affects young females. (belmarrahealth.com)
  • Infections - A bacterial or viral infection may pave the way for autoimmune hepatitis. (belmarrahealth.com)
  • Medications - Certain medicines like the antibiotic, minocycline, and the cholesterol medication, Lipitor, have been known to be risk factors for autoimmune hepatitis. (belmarrahealth.com)
  • Heredity - The predisposition for autoimmune hepatitis to run in families is backed by historical evidence. (belmarrahealth.com)
  • Autoimmune disease - People who already have an autoimmune disease may be more likely to develop autoimmune hepatitis. (belmarrahealth.com)
  • Type-1 autoimmune hepatitis has antinuclear and smooth muscle antibodies. (belmarrahealth.com)
  • Type-2 autoimmune hepatitis show liver-kidney-microsomal antibodies. (belmarrahealth.com)
  • Type-3 autoimmune hepatitis displays SLA/LP antibodies. (belmarrahealth.com)
  • Of the three, the most common type in North America is type-1 autoimmune hepatitis . (belmarrahealth.com)
  • Females account for about 70 percent of type-1 autoimmune hepatitis patients. (belmarrahealth.com)
  • Most people with type-1 autoimmune hepatitis commonly have other autoimmune disorders. (belmarrahealth.com)
  • Type-2 autoimmune hepatitis is not as common as its type-1 cousin and occurs more often in children than adults. (belmarrahealth.com)
  • For both type-1 and type-2 autoimmune hepatitis, the aim of the treatment is to deter the body's immune system from attacking the liver, and in the process slow down the progression of the disease. (belmarrahealth.com)
  • Autoimmune hepatitis (AIH) can arise de novo after liver transplantation (LT) for non-autoimmune liver diseases. (medsci.org)
  • Yamagiwa S, Kamimura H, Takamura M, Genda T, Ichida T, Nomoto M, Aoyagi Y. Presence of Antibodies against Self Human Leukocyte Antigen Class II Molecules in Autoimmune Hepatitis. (medsci.org)
  • These antibodies are typically associated with autoimmune hepatitis. (wikipedia.org)
  • In autoimmune hepatitis anti-actin antibodies correlate with patterns of immune recognition, the pattern of recognition was specific to a small percentage of auto-immune hepatitis type 1 or cryptogenic hepatitis patients. (wikipedia.org)
  • This recommendation is consistent with testing practices for hepatitis B surface antigen and antibody to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), for which laboratories routinely conduct more specific reflex testing before reporting a result as positive ( 1 , 3 ). (cdc.gov)
  • Hepatitis B antigen and antibody in a male homosexual population. (bmj.com)
  • DS-EIA-ANTI-HEV-G is an enzyme immunoassay kit intended for the detection of IgG antibodies to hepatitis E virus in human serum or plasma. (cdc.gov)
  • Serum specimens were processed, stored, and shipped to the Division of Viral Hepatitis, National Center for HIV/AIDS, Viral Hepatitis, STD, and TB Prevention, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (cdc.gov)
  • Technician tests human blood serum for antibodies to hepatitis C virus. (sciencephoto.com)
  • Moreover, positive reactivity with anti-self HLA class II antibodies was associated with higher serum transaminase levels. (medsci.org)
  • N-glycopeptide signatures of IgA2 in serum from patients with hepatitis B virus-related liver diseases. (medworm.com)
  • We evaluated 5 commercially available HEp-2 antinuclear antibody (ANA) indirect fluorescent antibody (IFA) assays using patient serum samples from 45 patients with rheumatoid arthritis, 50 with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), 35 with scleroderma, 20 with Sjögren syndrome, 10 with polymyositis, and 100 healthy control subjects. (biomedsearch.com)
  • In this study anticardiolipin antibodies (immunoglobulin G [IgG] isotype) were determined in serum from 100 patients with chronic hepatitis C and 52 healthy controls. (cun.es)
  • The hepatitis B surface antibody test is used to help identify if a person has developed immunity to the hepatitis B virus, either by previous infection or by vaccination. (healthtestingcenters.com)
  • There is no vaccination for hep c but there is for hep a and hep b. (medhelp.org)
  • hepatitis B vaccination at birth may not be necessary. (yahoo.com)
  • When the nurse practioner was going over my vaccination schedule she noted that I had finished up my Hep. (allnurses.com)
  • The results provide structural information for a neutralizing epitope on the HCV E2 glycoprotein and should help guide rational design of HCV immunogens to elicit similar broadly neutralizing antibodies through vaccination. (nih.gov)
  • To evaluate the effectiveness of hepatitis B virus [‎HBV]‎ vaccination of household contacts of HBV carriers in Tulkarm district, Palestine, quantitative hepatitis B surface [‎anti-HBs]‎ antibody response in 161 household contacts was measured after vaccination. (who.int)
  • Integration of hepatitis B vaccination into rural African primary health care programmes. (ebscohost.com)
  • Examines the integration of hepatitis B vaccination into rural health care programs in South Africa. (ebscohost.com)
  • Kosalaraksa P, Chokephaibulkit K, Benjaponpitak S, Pancharoen C, Chuenkitmongkol S, B'Chir S, Da Costa X, Vidor E. Persistence of hepatitis B immune memory until 9-10 years of age following hepatitis B vaccination at birth and DTaP-IPV-HB-PRP∼T vaccination at 2, 4 and 6 months. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • The primary aim of the study is to show that the antibody response to hepatitis B, acellular pertussis toxin and inactivated poliovirus antigens after the 4th vaccination with Hexavac® is not influenced by the concomitant administration of NeisVac-C. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • The levels of hepatitis A antibodies in the primary vaccination were the only factor independently associated with maintaining these antibodies for 7 years. (scielo.br)
  • The antibodies levels acquired in the primary vaccination in the HIV group were the main factor associated with antibodies loss after HAV immunization. (scielo.br)
  • Bottom line, "immune memory" and antibodies that labs may not be able to identify remain ready to fight infection following vaccination and even after a chronic infection. (hepb.org)
  • A boost in antibody to hepatitis B surface antigen (anti-HBs) was defined as a fourfold rise in levels to ≥20 mIU/mL that was not accompanied by the presence of antibody to hepatitis B core antigen or attributable to interim vaccination. (ovid.com)
  • Broadly neutralizing antibodies abrogate established hepatitis C virus infection. (natap.org)
  • Goat polyclonal antibody raised against recombinant human hepatitis C virus. (abnova.com)
  • The preS1 fragment purified by Ni 2+ -IDA affinity chromatography was used as coated antigen to establish the indirect ELISA based on streptavidin-biotin system for detection of the anti-preS1 antibodies in sera from HBV-infected patients. (wjgnet.com)
  • Blood samples for human anti-human antibody detection will be drawn on days 0, 14+/-1 and 56+/-7. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Diagnosis of hepatitis E virus (HEV) is usually determined serologically by detection of the presence of immunoglobulin (Ig)M antibodies or rising anti-HEV IgG titers. (mdpi.com)
  • Considerable variations were observed particularly for the detection period of IgM antibodies. (mdpi.com)
  • No absolute correlation between the detection of HBs Ag, or previous history of hepatitis, jaundice, or current hepatitis was found. (bmj.com)
  • Although we quickly eradicate lots of hepatitis C once it's identified, there are always some which have mutated, are not recognised and survive our immune response. (mydr.com.au)
  • Increasing evidence indicates that broadly neutralizing antibodies (bNAbs) play an important role in immune-mediated control of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection, but the relative contribution of neutralizing antibodies targeting antigenic sites across the HCV envelope (E1 and E2) proteins is unclear. (nih.gov)
  • Negative result may not rule out hepatitis D virus (HDV) infection during the early phase of infection or in immunocompromised patients who have delayed or inadequate immune response. (mayomedicallaboratories.com)
  • Furthermore, the mononuclear cell infiltration in the immunized mice appeared earlier than in the nonimmunized mice, suggesting that the exogenous antibody might have activated host immune responses, and thus facilitated clearance of the virus or virus-infected cells. (asm.org)
  • Our results suggest that an antibody-mediated immune response against HLA class II molecules on hepatocytes may be involved in the pathogenesis or acceleration of liver injury in AIH. (medsci.org)
  • This study provides insight into the nature of effective immune response against HCV and demonstrates an innovative approach for constructing antibodies correlating with successful infection clearance. (frontiersin.org)
  • The cure is called "functional" because the only cure for hepatitis B is when the immune system controls or suppresses the virus. (hepb.org)
  • People with chronic hepatitis usually experience several infection stages, starting with a high viral load (called immune-tolerant or immune-trained) during childhood and early adulthood, followed by years and even decades of "active" hepatitis B where the immune system tries to clear the infection, indicated by elevated liver enzyme tests. (hepb.org)
  • In the old literature, people thought having lots of surface antibodies meant better protection, but now we know people who've been vaccinated remain protected by their immune system's T-cell response and also 'memory B cells' even if their surface antibodies decline or become undetectable," he said. (hepb.org)
  • Like the chicken pox virus, the hepatitis B virus remains suppressed only as long as the immune system remains healthy enough to keep it in check. (hepb.org)
  • Old age, other illnesses, chemotherapy or drugs that suppress the immune system can allow a reactivation of hepatitis B in the same way that chicken pox returns as "shingles" in older adults. (hepb.org)
  • Viral proteins (antigens) trigger the immune system to produce corresponding antibodies. (healthhype.com)
  • When these antibodies bind with the antigens it helps to direct the activity of immune cells. (healthhype.com)
  • If hepatitis B core total antibodies is positive, then hepatitis B core antibody IgM is performed at an additional charge. (mayomedicallaboratories.com)
  • Do you live in Wyoming and need Hepatitis B Core Antibody IgM testing ? (personalabs.com)
  • In addition, NHANES provides the means to better define the epidemiology of other hepatitis viruses. (cdc.gov)
  • NHANES testing for markers of infection with hepatitis viruses will be used to determine secular trends in infection rates across most age and racial/ethnic groups, and will provide a national picture of the epidemiologic determinants of these infections. (cdc.gov)
  • As well as the passive function of sticking to viruses, some antibodies trigger a series of events which result in inflammation of the area around a cell area, making it generally inhospitable to bacteria and viruses. (mydr.com.au)
  • Not sure what you mean by strain if you are thinking about Hepatitis a or Hepatitis b those are 2 entirely different viruses. (medhelp.org)
  • INTRODUCTION Co-infections between hepatitis B and HIV viruses are frequent due to their similar epidemiological characteristics. (ebscohost.com)
  • Fourteen (17.7%) of the AVH patients were positive, as were six (25%) of 24 with hepatitis A virus, three (11%) of 26 with hepatitis B virus, 0 (0%) of 12 with hepatitis C virus, and five (29%) of 17 with non-A, non-B, non-C hepatitis viruses. (ajtmh.org)
  • Patients with AVH due to hepatitis A had a greater frequency of anti-HEV, probably because of similar routes of transmission for both hepatitis A and E viruses. (ajtmh.org)
  • The five types of hepatitis viruses are common infectious causes of liver inflammation, and some like hepatitis A (HAV), B (HBV) and C (HCV) are more frequently seen infectious agents. (healthhype.com)
  • Infection with hepatitis C secondary to use of injected drugs is endemic in Irish prisons. (bmj.com)
  • The presence or absence of IgG antibodies to hepatitis E virus is determined by the ratio of the OD of each sample to the calculated cut-off value. (cdc.gov)
  • These tests look for presence of the actual hep C virus. (mydr.com.au)
  • Testing for the presence of antibody to hepatitis C virus (anti-HCV) is recommended for initially identifying persons with hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection (CDC. (cdc.gov)
  • This hepatitis B surface antibody test detects antibodies produced by the body in response to the presence of surface antigens (viral proteins). (healthtestingcenters.com)
  • A large number of children who were unvaccinated also showed the presence of antibodies. (yahoo.com)
  • This virus cannot replicate effectively by itself, and it requires the presence of hepatitis B virus (HBV) to initiate and maintain its replication in the infected liver cells. (mayomedicallaboratories.com)
  • Considering the identical features of de novo AIH after LT and classical AIH, as well as the importance of anti-human leukocyte antigen (HLA) antibodies in graft rejection, we investigated the presence of circulating anti-HLA class II antibodies in the sera of 35 patients with AIH, 30 patients with primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC), and 30 healthy donors using fluorescent dye-impregnated beads bound to HLA molecules. (medsci.org)
  • The hepatitis C antibody test looks for antibodies that the body produces in response to the presence of HCV. (brighamandwomens.org)
  • However, Dr. Gish cautions, it's important to remember that once infected with hepatitis B (indicated by presence of the hepatitis B core antibody - anti-HBc), people will always retain low levels of the hepatitis B virus in their bodies - even if they develop surface antibodies. (hepb.org)
  • To test blood for the presence of antibodies that would indicate a past or current hepatitis C infection. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • There are six types of hepatitis C. Each type, or genotype , represents a specific combination of genes within a cell. (healthline.com)
  • The hepatitis C genotyping test shows which genotype of hepatitis C must be treated. (healthline.com)
  • About 70 to 75 percent of people who have hepatitis C have genotype 1. (healthline.com)
  • Genotype 2 accounts for 13 to 15 percent of people with hepatitis C. About 10 percent have genotype 3. (healthline.com)
  • Each hepatitis C genotype represents a genetically distinct group of the virus. (healthline.com)
  • Further, they can also tell what hep C genotype a person has. (mydr.com.au)
  • Here, we isolated thirteen E1E2-specific monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) from B cells of a single HCV-infected individual who cleared one genotype 1a infection and then became persistently infected with a second genotype 1a strain. (nih.gov)
  • Hepatitis C virus is classified into six genotypes(1-6) with several subtypes within each genotype. (acris-antibodies.com)
  • They look for the actual hep C virus and are used to see whether someone has a current infection. (mydr.com.au)
  • I am assuming you initially tested for hep c antibodies and later retested per standard protocol for the actual hep c virus with a HCV RNA by PCR test. (medhelp.org)
  • Hepatitis C is a virus that attacks the human liver. (healthline.com)
  • IMPORTANCE Worldwide, more than 70 million people are infected with hepatitis C virus (HCV), which is a leading cause of hepatocellular carcinoma and liver transplantation. (nih.gov)
  • Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is a major cause of chronic liver disease worldwide. (mdpi.com)
  • Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is a leading contributor to global chronic liver disease. (mdpi.com)
  • Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is the most important etiologic agent of non-A, non-B hepatitis and is a major cause of chronic liver disease and hepatocellular carcinoma. (pnas.org)
  • Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infects more than 2% of the global population and is a leading cause of liver cirrhosis, hepatocellular carcinoma, and end-stage liver diseases. (nih.gov)
  • Testing for hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection may reduce the risk of liver-related morbidity, by facilitating earlier access to treatment and care. (springer.com)
  • Hepatitis C is a serious liver infection most commonly contracted after a blood trans- fusion. (sciencephoto.com)
  • The hepatitis C virus is the cause of hepatitis C and some cancers such as liver cancer (hepatocellular carcinoma, abbreviated HCC) and lymphomas in humans. (thermofisher.com)
  • Hepatitis is an inflammation and enlargement of the liver, usually due to hepatitis virus infection. (apollohospitals.com)
  • The researchers did not take into account subjects with viral hepatitis, haemochromatosis, Wilson's disease and alcoholic and non-alcoholic liver disease . (belmarrahealth.com)
  • At the end of the study, the researchers found that in the patients with SLA/LP antibodies the overall survival and liver transplant-free survival was significantly reduced. (belmarrahealth.com)
  • Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is a major public health concern, with over 70 million people infected worldwide, who are at risk for developing life-threatening liver disease. (frontiersin.org)
  • In patients with no evidence of liver disease and a history of thrombotic events, hepatitis C markers were absent in all cases who tested negatively for anticardiolipin antibodies (n = 37), but were present in 16.7% of those positive for anticardiolipin (n = 36) (P = .01). (cun.es)
  • Hepatitis is the term for inflammation of the liver and may be due to infectious or non-infectious causes. (healthhype.com)
  • Fulminant hepatitis with destruction of large parts of the liver is life-threatening. (healthhype.com)
  • In chronic hepatitis B infection, the patient may be asymptomatic for long periods of time until there is severe damage to the liver. (healthhype.com)
  • Chronic hepatitis B is seen where the virus does not clear and the infection persists past 6 months.The clinical features of chronic HBV infection depends on the degree of liver damage. (healthhype.com)
  • A carrier is a person with chronic hepatitis B showing no symptoms of the infection and there is no damage to the liver. (healthhype.com)
  • Infected individuals and carriers have a high frequency of chronic liver diseases such as cirrhosis and chronic active hepatitis, and they have a higher risk of developing hepatocellular cancer. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • This antibody reacts with the 44 kD core protein C3, the envelope protein, and E2 (NS1) of Hepatitis C Virus. (abcam.com)
  • Peptide corresponding to amino acids 33-43 of Hepatitis C Virus (HCV) core protein C3. (abcam.com)
  • This antibody recognizes the core protein C1 of Hepatitis C Virus. (abcam.com)
  • Some of mouse hepatitis virus strains contain an optional envelope glycoprotein, hemagglutinin-esterase (HE) protein. (asm.org)
  • To understand the functional significance of this protein, monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) specific for this protein were generated and used for passive immunization of mice. (asm.org)
  • The hypervariable region 1 (HVR1) of the E2 protein of hepatitis C virus (HCV) is a highly heterogeneous sequence that is promiscuously recognized by human sera via binding to amino acid residues with conserved physicochemical properties. (jimmunol.org)
  • Over 280,000 products but you can't find the right antibody for your protein or application? (acris-antibodies.com)
  • Hepatitis C virus (HCV) entry into host cells is a multistep process requiring various host factors, including the tight junction protein occludin (OCLN), which has been shown to be essential for HCV infection in in vitro cell culture systems. (asm.org)
  • Recombinant protein encompassing a sequence within the center region of Hepatitis C virus NS5B protein. (genetex.com)
  • RNA-directed RNA polymerase (HCV virus) antibody detects RNA-directed RNA polymerase (HCV virus) protein by western blot analysis. (genetex.com)
  • Recombinant protein corresponding to human hepatitis C virus. (abnova.com)
  • Recombinant protein corresponding to hepatitis B virus core antigen. (abnova.com)
  • Previously, the epitopes of seven murine monoclonal antibodies have been identified by cryo-EM analysis of Fab-labeled capsids. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • These results show that epitopes on the floor, far (~ 30 Å) from the immunodominant loop, are clinically relevant and that murine anti-cAg antibodies afford a good model for the human system. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • CDC: "Hepatitis C: Information on Testing & Diagnosis. (webmd.com)
  • UpToDate: "Diagnosis and Evaluation of Chronic Hepatitis C Virus Infection. (webmd.com)
  • NB: Hep C diagnosis can be confirmed much earlier than 12 weeks by using PCR tests (which take only two weeks for an accurate test result). (mydr.com.au)
  • The hepatitis antigen test is a series of blood tests used to detect and diagnose any infection caused by hepatitis virus strain A, B or C. To perform this test, a blood sample is drawn from a vein in the arm. (apollohospitals.com)
  • Initial HCV infection is most often followed by chronic hepatitis with persistence of viremia in up to 85% of individuals [ 2 ]. (mdpi.com)
  • Anticardiolipin antibodies (ACA) and lupus anticoagulant (LA) have been detected in patients with hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection and have been associated in autoimmune diseases (i.e. systemic lupus erythematosus) with an increased risk of thromboembolic events. (nih.gov)
  • of these patients 37 cases tested negatively for anticardiolipin antibodies and 36 positively. (cun.es)
  • In conclusion, anticardiolipin antibodies are frequently found in patients with chronic hepatitis C and in these patients they may be implicated in the occurrence of thrombosis and in the development of thrombocytopenia. (cun.es)
  • The capsid (core antigen, HBcAg) is one of three major antigens present in patients infected with Hepatitis B Virus. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • We report an assessment of the proportion of blood donors from the Hôpital Principal de Dakar who had HCV antibodies in 2001. (cdc.gov)
  • A systematic screening of HCV antibodies in blood donors could prevent, on average, 120 bloodborne HCV infections each year. (cdc.gov)
  • The transmission of hepatitis C by blood transfusion has decreased dramatically since it became part of the routine screening panel for blood donors. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • This review summarizes recent concepts of the role of neutralizing antibodies in viral clearance and protection, and highlights consequences of viral escape from neutralizing antibodies in the pathogenesis of HCV infection. (mdpi.com)
  • If concerened about contracting either hep a or b there are vaccines available to protect against those infections. (medhelp.org)
  • Elimination of New Chronic Hepatitis B Virus Infections: Results of the Alaska Immunization Program. (ebscohost.com)
  • little is known about the clinical significance of the isolated anti-HBc in hepatitis B virus (HBV) infections. (psu.edu)
  • CATIE ensures that these resources, developed to help prevent the transmission of HIV, hepatitis C and other infections, are written and reviewed by health experts for content accuracy. (catie.ca)
  • Over 40 million Indians are chronically infected with Hepatitis B. People can live without symptoms for years and realize later that they have an infection. (yahoo.com)
  • However, clinical reports using the B cell-depleting antibody rituximab in chronically infected patients showed that HCV viremia rose between 10- and 100-fold after rituximab treatment and returned to baseline after reappearance of B cells (13, 14). (natap.org)
  • Historically, medical guidelines dictated that chronically-infected patients must generate at least 10 mIU/mL of surface antibodies to be "functionally cured. (hepb.org)
  • False-positive results may be due to cross-reactive antibodies from other viral infection or underlying illnesses. (mayomedicallaboratories.com)
  • To establish a convenient immunoassay method based on recombinant antigen preS1(21-119 aa) to detect anti-preS1 antibodies and evaluate the clinical significance of antibodies in hepatitis B. (wjgnet.com)
  • For follow-up study, serial sera were collected during the clinical course of 21 HBV-infected patients and anti-preS1 antibodies, preS1 antigen, HBV-DNA and other serological HBV markers were analyzed. (wjgnet.com)
  • Repeat HCV antibody testing, adds cost but no clinical benefit, so it should not be performed. (choosingwisely.org)
  • Four of the 17 samples were regarded as true positive, since all supplementary assays and clinical data indicated active hepatitis C virus infection. (asm.org)
  • These observations suggest that the male homosexual population represents a pool of individuals within which the hepatitis B virus is readily transmitted, mainly as a subclinical infection although clinical hepatitis does occur in some patients. (bmj.com)
  • We offer Hepatitis C Virus E2 Antibodies for use in common research applications: ELISA, Immunocytochemistry/Immunofluorescence, Western Blot. (novusbio.com)
  • We offer Hepatitis A Surface Antigen Antibodies for use in common research applications: ELISA, Radioimmunoassay. (novusbio.com)
  • Hepatitis C "ELISA" test. (sciencephoto.com)
  • The antibody titre for an indirect ELISA is 1:700,000. (genetex.com)
  • 2007). "IgA anti-actin antibodies ELISA in coeliac disease: A multicentre study" (PDF). (wikipedia.org)
  • Vials are stored under appropriate frozen (-30°C) conditions until they are shipped to Division of Viral Hepatitis, National Center for HIV/AIDS, Viral Hepatitis, STD, and TB Prevention for testing. (cdc.gov)
  • The material in this report originated in the National Center for Infectious Diseases, James M. Hughes, M.D., Director, and the Division of Viral Hepatitis, Harold S. Margolis, M.D., Director. (cdc.gov)
  • Remarkably, we identified multiple broadly neutralizing antibody combinations that were associated with greater plasma neutralizing breadth and with HCV clearance. (jci.org)
  • In order to assess the association between antibodies to hepatitis C virus (anti-HCV) and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), as well as the interaction of anti-HCV with other HCC risk factors in Taiwan, a total of 127 pairs of newly diagnosed HCC patients and healthy community controls were studied. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Worldwide, hepatitis B infection is one of the main causes of hepatocellular carcinoma and cirrhosis. (ebscohost.com)
  • Screening for IgG Antinuclear Autoantibodies by HEp-2 Indirect Fluorescent Antibody Assays and the Need for Standardization. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Antiphospholipid antibodies are a type of autoantibodies that have been implicated in the occurrence of thrombocytopenia and thrombotic events and have been described in autoimmune disorders and diverse viral diseases. (cun.es)
  • For follow up to a low positive Hepatitis C Virus Antibody by Immunoassay result, and in lieu of the unavailable HCV RIBA, ARUP offers the two options below. (legacyhealth.org)
  • These special proteins are called antibodies. (healthline.com)
  • Hepatitis A virus is a picornavirus, and antibody is made to capsid proteins. (labcorp.com)
  • Neutralization was achieved with plasma obtained from the same patient 2 yr after the onset of primary infection but not with plasma obtained 11 yr later, although both plasmas contained antibodies against nonstructural and structural (including envelope) HCV proteins. (pnas.org)
  • In structural cell biology, antibodies coupled with electron-dense gold markers are used to map the distributions of proteins in cells by "immuno-gold" EM (e.g. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • This test is also available as part of the Hepatitis B Infection and Immunity Package . (healthtestingcenters.com)
  • Indian Council of Medical Research (ICMR), was conducted to examine if the birth dose is crucial for attaining full immunity against hepatitis B infection. (yahoo.com)
  • We now have two studies, one from South India and this one from North India showing that many babies have acquired passive immunity that may be protecting them soon after birth when they are most vulnerable to develop chronic hepatitis. (yahoo.com)
  • Standardization among the HEp-2 IFA assays occurred when they exhibited the same titer ± 1 doubling dilution. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Along with subjectivity of interpretation, HEp-2 IFA assays are also vulnerable to standardization issues similar to other methods for ANA screening. (biomedsearch.com)
  • It is suggested that further work is necessary to determine whether the high antibody rate in male homosexuals is related more to sexual practice than to promiscuity. (bmj.com)
  • National Center for Biotechnology Information: "FibroSURE and FibroScan in relation to treatment response in chronic hepatitis C virus. (webmd.com)
  • Please note that due to stringent specimen integrity requirements for testing by PCR, specimens may not be eligible for PCR testing subsequent to antibody testing. (legacyhealth.org)
  • Cross sectional, anonymous, unlinked survey, with self completed risk factor questionnaire and provision of oral fluid specimen for antibody testing. (bmj.com)
  • If you test postive for Hep B CORE Antibody & {NEGATIVE FOR HEP B. 'SURFACE ANTIGEN' & POSITIVE FOR HEP B. SURFACE ANTIBODIES, Which turned out to be greater than 1000.0 } and are immuned, can you still transmit the {HEP B CORE ANTIBODIES} to your sexual partner? (medhelp.org)
  • Each Hepatitis A Surface Antigen Antibody is fully covered by our Guarantee+, to give you complete peace of mind and the support when you need it. (novusbio.com)
  • Our Hepatitis A Surface Antigen Antibodies can be used in a variety of model species: Virus. (novusbio.com)
  • Choose from our Hepatitis A Surface Antigen monoclonal antibodies. (novusbio.com)
  • The reagent for performing Hepatitis B Surface Antibody has been recalled and we do not expect new reagent till next week. (uiowa.edu)
  • This antibody specifically recognizes Hepatitis B surface antigen. (genetex.com)
  • Recombinant hepatitis B surface antigen of ayw subtype. (genetex.com)
  • Today, experts are redefining what constitutes a "functional cure" from chronic hepatitis B and taking the surface antibody out of the equation. (hepb.org)
  • Despite their "inactive" infection, studies show two-thirds of these people will never develop surface antibodies, said Dr. Gish, medical consultant to the Hepatitis B Foundation and professor consultant of gastroenterology and hepatology at Stanford University. (hepb.org)
  • But isn't developing surface antibodies the gold standard for recovery from hepatitis B? (hepb.org)
  • Hepatitis B surface antibodies are very specific in their mission, and we're learning that the body may be making other types of surface antibodies that we cannot measure. (hepb.org)
  • It may be similar to what happens in vaccinated people who over time no longer test positive for surface antibodies. (hepb.org)
  • New immunization strategies have been developed to eliminate the spread of hepatitis B virus (HBV) and hepatitis A virus (HAV) in the United States. (cdc.gov)
  • A Cross-Sectional Study of Anti-Hepatitis B Antibody Status in STD Patients: Need for Improved Immunization. (ebscohost.com)
  • Evaluates the effectiveness of a hepatitis B immunization program in eliminating hepatitis B virus (HBV) transmission among Alaska Natives in a region in which HBV is endemic. (ebscohost.com)
  • In this study, we successfully generated four rat anti-OCLN monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) by the genetic immunization method and unique cell differential screening. (asm.org)
  • To assess possible factors associated with the loss of antibodies to hepatitis A 7 years after the primary immunization in children of HIV-infected mothers and the response to revaccination in patients seronegative for hepatitis A. (scielo.br)
  • Hep c does have different "strains" called genotypes with names like 1a, 1b, 2a, 2b etc I think there are like 16 different genotypes in all. (medhelp.org)
  • Hep c has many different genotypes but they are all called Hepatitis c. (medhelp.org)
  • Here, we investigate cross-neutralization of HCV genotypes by broadly neutralizing antibodies (bNAbs) encoded by the relatively abundant human gene family V H 1-69 . (sciencemag.org)
  • A positive result usually means that you've been exposed to the hepatitis C virus. (healthline.com)
  • If you test positive but your doctor thinks it's unlikely that you have hepatitis C, they may have you repeat the test as well. (healthline.com)
  • If the test comes back positive, it means that HCV antibodies were found - proof that the virus has entered the bloodstream at some point in time. (mydr.com.au)
  • Thus, a positive antibody test doesn't always mean someone has a current infection. (mydr.com.au)
  • Hepatitis C Virus is a positive, single stranded RNA virus in the Flaviviridae family. (abcam.com)
  • I tested positive for hep c antibodies and retested with no infection. (medhelp.org)
  • Most likely you will test positive for Hepatitis c antibodies. (medhelp.org)
  • You will always test positive for antibodies. (medhelp.org)
  • However, if the mother is a hepatitis B carrier especially if she is e-antigen positive, the baby must be vaccinated at birth", Dr. Jacob Puliyel, the study's primary author and a pediatrician at St. Stephens Hospital in Delhi, told India Science Wire . (yahoo.com)
  • The most important predictor of being positive for hepatitis B and hepatitis C was a history of injecting drug use. (bmj.com)
  • Do not repeat Hepatitis C virus antibody testing in patients with a previous positive Hepatitis C virus (HCV) test. (choosingwisely.org)
  • A positive HCV antibody test remains positive for life (3). (choosingwisely.org)
  • A common reason for unnecessary repeat testing is the inclusion of this test in order sets (eg, hepatitis and/or opioid screening order sets), or a result of problematic follow-up of HCV positive patients in an outpatient setting. (choosingwisely.org)
  • Patients who have had a remote and resolved HCV infection who are suspected to have been reinfected, should be tested using the HCV viral load test, rather than the HCV antibody test, since this latter test remains positive for life. (choosingwisely.org)
  • those that change colour to yellow/orange are positive and confirm that the patient has antibodies for hepatitis C virus. (sciencephoto.com)
  • The hepatitis C virus (HCV) is a small (55-65 nm in size), enveloped, positive-sense single-stranded RNA virus of the family Flaviviridae. (thermofisher.com)
  • If your results on the hepatitis C antibody test are positive or you have symptoms that suggest HCV, your healthcare provider may order a hepatitis C RNA test. (brighamandwomens.org)
  • Radioimmunnoassay was used to determine the serologic subspecificities of 85 blood donor serums positive for hepatitis B virus-associated antigen. (sciencemag.org)