INFLAMMATION of the LIVER in humans caused by HEPATITIS C VIRUS, a single-stranded RNA virus. Its incubation period is 30-90 days. Hepatitis C is transmitted primarily by contaminated blood parenterally, and is often associated with transfusion and intravenous drug abuse. However, in a significant number of cases, the source of hepatitis C infection is unknown.
Hepatitis B virus
The type species of the genus ORTHOHEPADNAVIRUS which causes human HEPATITIS B and is also apparently a causal agent in human HEPATOCELLULAR CARCINOMA. The Dane particle is an intact hepatitis virion, named after its discoverer. Non-infectious spherical and tubular particles are also seen in the serum.
Hepatitis B Surface Antigens
Those hepatitis B antigens found on the surface of the Dane particle and on the 20 nm spherical and tubular particles. Several subspecificities of the surface antigen are known. These were formerly called the Australia antigen.
INFLAMMATION of the LIVER.
Hepatitis C, Chronic
Hepatitis B, Chronic
Hepatitis, Viral, Human
Hepatitis A virus
Hepatitis B Antibodies
Hepatitis B Vaccines
Hepatitis B Core Antigens
Hepatitis B Antigens
Hepatitis B e Antigens
Hepatitis A Vaccines
Hepatitis C Antibodies
Antibodies to the HEPATITIS C ANTIGENS including antibodies to envelope, core, and non-structural proteins.
Hepatitis E virus
Hepatitis A Antibodies
Antibodies to the HEPATITIS A ANTIGENS including antibodies to envelope, core, and non-structural proteins.
Hepatitis, Viral, Animal
INFLAMMATION of the LIVER in animals due to viral infection.
Any of the viruses that cause inflammation of the liver. They include both DNA and RNA viruses as well viruses from humans and animals.
Hepatitis A Virus, Human
Hepatitis Delta Virus
INFLAMMATION of the LIVER in humans caused by HEPATITIS DELTA VIRUS, a defective RNA virus that can only infect HEPATITIS B patients. For its viral coating, hepatitis delta virus requires the HEPATITIS B SURFACE ANTIGENS produced by these patients. Hepatitis D can occur either concomitantly with (coinfection) or subsequent to (superinfection) hepatitis B infection. Similar to hepatitis B, it is primarily transmitted by parenteral exposure, such as transfusion of contaminated blood or blood products, but can also be transmitted via sexual or intimate personal contact.
INFLAMMATION of the LIVER in non-human animals.
Viral Hepatitis Vaccines
Any vaccine raised against any virus or viral derivative that causes hepatitis.
Agents used in the prophylaxis or therapy of VIRUS DISEASES. Some of the ways they may act include preventing viral replication by inhibiting viral DNA polymerase; binding to specific cell-surface receptors and inhibiting viral penetration or uncoating; inhibiting viral protein synthesis; or blocking late stages of virus assembly.
Hepatitis C Antigens
Any part or derivative of any protozoan that elicits immunity; malaria (Plasmodium) and trypanosome antigens are presently the most frequently encountered.
Murine hepatitis virus
Antigens, Polyomavirus Transforming
Polyomavirus antigens which cause infection and cellular transformation. The large T antigen is necessary for the initiation of viral DNA synthesis, repression of transcription of the early region and is responsible in conjunction with the middle T antigen for the transformation of primary cells. Small T antigen is necessary for the completion of the productive infection cycle.
Hepatitis delta Antigens
Antigens produced by various strains of HEPATITIS D VIRUS.
Differentiation antigens residing on mammalian leukocytes. CD stands for cluster of differentiation, which refers to groups of monoclonal antibodies that show similar reactivity with certain subpopulations of antigens of a particular lineage or differentiation stage. The subpopulations of antigens are also known by the same CD designation.
Hepatitis A Antigens
Molecular Sequence Data
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
One of the type I interferons produced by peripheral blood leukocytes or lymphoblastoid cells. In addition to antiviral activity, it activates NATURAL KILLER CELLS and B-LYMPHOCYTES, and down-regulates VASCULAR ENDOTHELIAL GROWTH FACTOR expression through PI-3 KINASE and MAPK KINASES signaling pathways.
Any part or derivative of a helminth that elicits an immune reaction. The most commonly seen helminth antigens are those of the schistosomes.
The major group of transplantation antigens in the mouse.
Hepatitis B Virus, Duck
A DNA virus that closely resembles human hepatitis B virus. It has been recovered from naturally infected ducks.
Antigens, Viral, Tumor
A primary malignant neoplasm of epithelial liver cells. It ranges from a well-differentiated tumor with EPITHELIAL CELLS indistinguishable from normal HEPATOCYTES to a poorly differentiated neoplasm. The cells may be uniform or markedly pleomorphic, or form GIANT CELLS. Several classification schemes have been suggested.
Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay
An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed.
Viral Nonstructural Proteins
Hepatitis B Virus, Woodchuck
Receptors, Antigen, T-Cell
Molecules on the surface of T-lymphocytes that recognize and combine with antigens. The receptors are non-covalently associated with a complex of several polypeptides collectively called CD3 antigens (ANTIGENS, CD3). Recognition of foreign antigen and the major histocompatibility complex is accomplished by a single heterodimeric antigen-receptor structure, composed of either alpha-beta (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL, ALPHA-BETA) or gamma-delta (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL, GAMMA-DELTA) chains.
Tumors or cancer of the LIVER.
Proliferating Cell Nuclear Antigen
Nuclear antigen with a role in DNA synthesis, DNA repair, and cell cycle progression. PCNA is required for the coordinated synthesis of both leading and lagging strands at the replication fork during DNA replication. PCNA expression correlates with the proliferation activity of several malignant and non-malignant cell types.
A group of antigens that includes both the major and minor histocompatibility antigens. The former are genetically determined by the major histocompatibility complex. They determine tissue type for transplantation and cause allograft rejections. The latter are systems of allelic alloantigens that can cause weak transplant rejection.
Amino Acid Sequence
Lymphocytes responsible for cell-mediated immunity. Two types have been identified - cytotoxic (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and helper T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, HELPER-INDUCER). They are formed when lymphocytes circulate through the THYMUS GLAND and differentiate to thymocytes. When exposed to an antigen, they divide rapidly and produce large numbers of new T cells sensitized to that antigen.
Histocompatibility Antigens Class II
Large, transmembrane, non-covalently linked glycoproteins (alpha and beta). Both chains can be polymorphic although there is more structural variation in the beta chains. The class II antigens in humans are called HLA-D ANTIGENS and are coded by a gene on chromosome 6. In mice, two genes named IA and IE on chromosome 17 code for the H-2 antigens. The antigens are found on B-lymphocytes, macrophages, epidermal cells, and sperm and are thought to mediate the competence of and cellular cooperation in the immune response. The term IA antigens used to refer only to the proteins encoded by the IA genes in the mouse, but is now used as a generic term for any class II histocompatibility antigen.
Viral Core Proteins
Receptors, Antigen, B-Cell
The lipopolysaccharide-protein somatic antigens, usually from gram-negative bacteria, important in the serological classification of enteric bacilli. The O-specific chains determine the specificity of the O antigens of a given serotype. O antigens are the immunodominant part of the lipopolysaccharide molecule in the intact bacterial cell. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)
Polymers of ETHYLENE OXIDE and water, and their ethers. They vary in consistency from liquid to solid depending on the molecular weight indicated by a number following the name. They are used as SURFACTANTS, dispersing agents, solvents, ointment and suppository bases, vehicles, and tablet excipients. Some specific groups are NONOXYNOLS, OCTOXYNOLS, and POLOXAMERS.
Hepatitis D, Chronic
Antigens, Tumor-Associated, Carbohydrate
Carbohydrate antigens expressed by malignant tissue. They are useful as tumor markers and are measured in the serum by means of a radioimmunoassay employing monoclonal antibodies.
Immunoglobulins produced in response to VIRAL ANTIGENS.
Morphologic alteration of small B LYMPHOCYTES or T LYMPHOCYTES in culture into large blast-like cells able to synthesize DNA and RNA and to divide mitotically. It is induced by INTERLEUKINS; MITOGENS such as PHYTOHEMAGGLUTININS, and by specific ANTIGENS. It may also occur in vivo as in GRAFT REJECTION.
Complex of at least five membrane-bound polypeptides in mature T-lymphocytes that are non-covalently associated with one another and with the T-cell receptor (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL). The CD3 complex includes the gamma, delta, epsilon, zeta, and eta chains (subunits). When antigen binds to the T-cell receptor, the CD3 complex transduces the activating signals to the cytoplasm of the T-cell. The CD3 gamma and delta chains (subunits) are separate from and not related to the gamma/delta chains of the T-cell receptor (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL, GAMMA-DELTA).
Blood Group Antigens
Sets of cell surface antigens located on BLOOD CELLS. They are usually membrane GLYCOPROTEINS or GLYCOLIPIDS that are antigenically distinguished by their carbohydrate moieties.
Histocompatibility Antigens Class I
Membrane glycoproteins consisting of an alpha subunit and a BETA 2-MICROGLOBULIN beta subunit. In humans, highly polymorphic genes on CHROMOSOME 6 encode the alpha subunits of class I antigens and play an important role in determining the serological specificity of the surface antigen. Class I antigens are found on most nucleated cells and are generally detected by their reactivity with alloantisera. These antigens are recognized during GRAFT REJECTION and restrict cell-mediated lysis of virus-infected cells.
The transference of a part of or an entire liver from one human or animal to another.
Fluorescent Antibody Technique
Test for tissue antigen using either a direct method, by conjugation of antibody with fluorescent dye (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, DIRECT) or an indirect method, by formation of antigen-antibody complex which is then labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, INDIRECT). The tissue is then examined by fluorescence microscopy.
The quantity of measurable virus in a body fluid. Change in viral load, measured in plasma, is sometimes used as a SURROGATE MARKER in disease progression.
Polymerase Chain Reaction
In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.
Deliberate stimulation of the host's immune response. ACTIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of ANTIGENS or IMMUNOLOGIC ADJUVANTS. PASSIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of IMMUNE SERA or LYMPHOCYTES or their extracts (e.g., transfer factor, immune RNA) or transplantation of immunocompetent cell producing tissue (thymus or bone marrow).
The production of ANTIBODIES by proliferating and differentiated B-LYMPHOCYTES under stimulation by ANTIGENS.
Polymorphic class I human histocompatibility (HLA) surface antigens present on almost all nucleated cells. At least 20 antigens have been identified which are encoded by the A locus of multiple alleles on chromosome 6. They serve as targets for T-cell cytolytic responses and are involved with acceptance or rejection of tissue/organ grafts.
The main structural component of the LIVER. They are specialized EPITHELIAL CELLS that are organized into interconnected plates called lobules.
The processes triggered by interactions of ANTIBODIES with their ANTIGENS.
Cell cycle arrest mediated by hepatitis delta antigen. (1/80)Hepatitis delta antigen (HDAg) is the only viral-encoded protein of the hepatitis delta virus (HDV). This protein has been extensively characterized with respect to its biochemical and functional properties. However, the molecular mechanism responsible for persistent HDV infection is not yet clear. Previously, we reported that overexpression of HDAg protects insect cells from baculovirus-induced cytolysis [Hwang, S.B. Park, K.-J. and Kim, Y.S. (1998) Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 244, 652-658]. Here we report that HDAg mediates cell cycle arrest when overexpressed in recombinant baculovirus-infected insect cells. Flow cytometry analysis has shown that HDAg expression in Spodoptera frugiperda cells causes an accumulation of substantial amounts of polyploid DNA in the absence of cell division. This phenomenon may be partly responsible for the persistent infection of chronic HDV patients. (+info)
Unique properties of the large antigen of hepatitis delta virus. (2/80)The large form of the hepatitis delta virus (HDV) protein (L) can be isoprenylated near its C terminus, and this modification is considered essential for particle assembly. Using gel electrophoresis, we separated L into two species of similar mobilities. The slower species could be labeled by the incorporation of [(14)C]mevalonolactone and is interpreted to be isoprenylated L (L(i)). In serum particles, infected liver, transfected cells, and assembled particles, 25 to 85% of L was isoprenylated. Isoprenylation was also demonstrated by (14)C incorporation in vitro with a rabbit reticulocyte coupled transcription-translation system. However, the species obtained migrated even slower than that detected by labeling in vivo. Next, in studies of HDV particle assembly in the presence of the surface proteins of human hepatitis B virus, we observed the following. (i) Relative to L, L(i) was preferentially assembled into virus-like particles. (ii) L(i) could coassemble the unmodified L and the small delta protein, S. (iii) In contrast, a form of L with a deletion in the dimerization domain was both isoprenylated and assembled, but it could not support the coassembly of S. Finally, to test the expectation that the isoprenylation of L would increase its hydrophobicity, we applied a phase separation strategy based on micelle formation with the nonionic detergent Triton X-114. We showed the following. (i) The unique C-terminal 19 amino acids present on L relative to S caused a significant increase in the hydrophobicity. (ii) This increase was independent of isoprenylation. (iii) In contrast, other, artificial modifications at either the N or C terminus of S did not increase the hydrophobicity. (iv) The increased hydrophobicity was not sufficient for particle assembly; nevertheless, we speculate that it might facilitate virion assembly. (+info)
Antigenic domains of the open reading frame 2-encoded protein of hepatitis E virus. (3/80)The antigenic composition of the hepatitis E virus (HEV) protein encoded by open reading frame 2 (ORF2) was determined by using synthetic peptides. Three sets of overlapping 18-, 25-, and 30-mer peptides, with each set spanning the entire ORF2 protein of the HEV Burma strain, were synthesized. All synthetic peptides were tested by enzyme immunoassay against a panel of 32 anti-HEV-positive serum specimens obtained from acutely HEV-infected persons. Six antigenic domains within the ORF2 protein were identified. Domains 1 and 6 located at the N and C termini of the ORF2 protein, respectively, contain strong immunoglobulin G (IgG) and IgM antigenic epitopes that can be efficiently modeled with peptides of different sizes. In contrast, antigenic epitopes identified within the two central domains (3 and 4) were modeled more efficiently with 30-mer peptides than with either 18- or 25-mers. Domain 2 located at amino acids (aa) 143 to 222 was modeled best with 25-mer peptides. A few 30-mer synthetic peptides derived from domain 5 identified at aa 490 to 579 demonstrated strong IgM antigenic reactivity. Several 30-mer synthetic peptides derived from domains 1, 4, and 6 immunoreacted with IgG or IgM with more than 70% of anti-HEV-positive serum specimens. Thus, the results of this study demonstrate the existence of six diagnostically relevant antigenic domains within the HEV ORF2 protein. (+info)
Characterization of the phosphorylated forms and the phosphorylated residues of hepatitis delta virus delta antigens. (4/80)Hepatitis delta virus (HDV) replication requires both the cellular RNA polymerase and one virus-encoded protein, small delta antigen (S-HDAg). S-HDAg has been shown to be a phosphoprotein, but its phosphorylation status is not yet clear. In this study, we employed three methods to address this question. A special two-dimensional gel electrophoresis, namely, nonequilibrium pH gradient electrophoresis, was used to separate the very basic S-HDAg. By carefully adjusting the pH of solubilization solution, the ampholyte composition, and the appropriate electrophoresis time periods, we were able to clearly resolve S-HDAg into two phosphorylated isoforms and one unphosphorylated form. In contrast, the viral large delta antigen (L-HDAg) can only be separated into one phosphorylated and one unphosphorylated form. By metabolic (32)P labeling, both immunoprecipitated S-HDAg and L-HDAg were found to incorporate radioactive phosphate. The extent of S-HDAg phosphorylation was increased upon 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate treatment, while that of L-HDAg was not affected. Finally, phosphoamino acid analysis identified serine and threonine as the phospho residues in the labeled S-HDAg and only serine in the L-HDAg. Therefore, HDV S- and L-HDAgs differ in their phosphorylation patterns, which may account for their distinct biological functions. (+info)
Bone marrow transplantation for paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria. (5/80)BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria (PNH) is an acquired clonal disease of the hemopoietic stem cell (HSC) characterized by intravascular hemolysis and increased risk of venous thrombosis. There are different therapeutic approaches for PNH which do not cure the disease, but can decrease its complications. Allogeneic bone marrow transplantation (BMT) may cure PNH. We reports here our experience of seven PNH patients who underwent allogeneic BMT. DESIGN AND METHODS: Between January 1991 and January 1999 seven patients with PNH, aged 23 to 37, were transplanted with unmanipulated bone marrow from HLA identical siblings. Median time from diagnosis to BMT was 2.5 years (range: 1-16). All patients were transfusion-dependent and had received various treatments before BMT: steroids, vitamins, cyclosporin A (CyA), growth factors. One patient had also been treated with anti-thymocyte globulin. One patient was HbsAg positive and one anti-HCV positive. At the time of BMT the median value of hemoglobin (Hb) was 9 g/dL (range 6.5-11), white blood cells 5&10(9)/L (range: 2.9-7.7), platelets 97&10(9)/L (range: 31-355), LDH: 2726 U/L. The conditioning regimen was cyclophosphamide (160 mg/kg) and busulfan (10-14 mg/kg), followed by unmanipulated bone marrow (median of 5&10(8) cells/kg) and CyA (+MTX in two patients) for prophylaxis of graft-versus-host disease (GvHD). RESULTS: All seven patients are alive, full chimeras, with complete hematologic recovery and no evidence of PNH, at a median follow up of 51 months post-BMT (6-103). Time to achieve a granulocyte count of 0.5&10(9)/L, platelets 30&10(9)/L and Hb 10 g/dL was respectively 16, 19 and 22 days. Acute GvHD was limited or mild in six patients, and severe in one. Chronic GvHD was extensive in two patients. INTERPRETATION AND CONCLUSIONS: This study confirms that HLA identical sibling BMT is an effective therapeutic option for PNH, also in the hemolytic phase of the disease: it also suggests that HBV and HCV infections are not an absolute contraindication. (+info)
Prevalence of antibody to hepatitis E virus among rodents in the United States. (6/80)The recent identification of antibody to hepatitis E virus (HEV) in pigs, sheep, and cattle and characterization of an HEV isolated from domestic pigs suggest animal reservoirs for this virus. To investigate whether rodents might be a natural reservoir of HEV, the prevalence of anti-HEV was determined among a variety of species throughout the United States. Serum samples were obtained from 806 rodents of 26 species in 15 genera. Anti-HEV prevalence was assessed by 2 EIAs (mosaic protein- and 55-kDa protein-based), which gave concordant results. The highest prevalence of antibody was found in the genus Rattus (59.7%; 166/278). Overall, rodents from urban habitats had a significantly higher prevalence of anti-HEV than did animals captured from rural areas. A high prevalence of anti-HEV was found in animals captured on mainland versus barrier islands. The results from this study provide convincing evidence of widespread HEV or HEV-like infection in rodents of the United States. (+info)
Detection of hepatitis C virus RNA sequences in B-cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma. (7/80)Serologic testing shows that hepatitis C virus (HCV) may have a role in the pathogenesis of B-cell non-Hodgkin lymphomas (B-cell NHLs). We tried to demonstrate HCV RNA sequences in paraffin-embedded tissue from B-cell NHLs by reverse-transcription double polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and Southern blotting. We studied 31 consecutive cases of B-cell NHLs; lymph nodes from 32 patients with diseases other than B-cell NHL were negative controls. Positive-strand HCV RNA was tested with primers for the 5' untranslated region. Replicative negative strand HCV RNA was tested with strand-specific RT-PCR for the 5' untranslated region. Immunohistochemical staining for HCV was done using an antibody to HCV core protein. Positive-strand HCV RNA was detected in 8 patients with B-cell NHL; negative-strand HCV RNA was detected in 6 of these cases, indicating viral replication. All control cases were negative for HCV RNA. Immunohistochemistry showed no staining of lymphoma cells for HCV core proteins in any case. HCV and B-cell NHLs may be associated. RT-PCR on paraffin-embedded lymphoma tissue is an alternative method of testing for HCV. The value of immunohistochemistry could not be ascertained. The exact role of HCV in the pathogenesis of B-cell NHL needs to be studied further. (+info)
Fine mapping of virus-neutralizing epitopes on hepatitis B virus PreS1. (8/80)We identified the epitopes on the preS1 which induce antibodies that neutralize both ad and ay subtypes of hepatitis B virus (HBV). Previously we generated murine monoclonal antibodies KR359 and KR127 that bind specifically to the preS1 of HBV. In this study we have performed fine mappings of the epitopes of the antibodies by examining their reactivity with GST fusion proteins, which contain a series of deletion mutants of the preS1. KR359 and KR127 specifically recognize aa 19-26 and 37-45 of the preS1, respectively. The antibodies neutralized both adr and ayw subtypes of the virus in an in vitro neutralization assay using in vitro infection of adult human hepatocyte primary culture by HBV. The epitopes showed little sequence divergence and the antibodies bound to the preS1 of all the HBV subtypes and variants tested. (+info)
Hepatitis antigen | Article about hepatitis antigen by The Free Dictionary
Looking for hepatitis antigen? Find out information about hepatitis antigen. see immunity immunity, ability of an organism to resist disease by identifying and destroying foreign substances or organisms. Although all animals have... Explanation of hepatitis antigen
Genotype analysis of hepatitis delta virus from hepatitis B surface antigen-positive patients using PCR-RFLP in Tehran, Iran. -...
BACKGROUND Hepatitis delta virus is a unique human pathogen responsible for some 20 million infections globally. This virus is dependent on hepatitis B virus for transmission and propagation. Currently, at least three genotypes of hepatitis delta virus with different geographic distribution and clinical manifestations are described. METHODS In this study, hepatitis delta virus RNA of 35 patients sera were analyzed by RT- semi-nested polymerase chain reaction. Based on genomic differences of hepatitis delta antigen coding region of hepatitis delta virus RNA among hepatitis delta virus RNA-positive sera, the polymerase chain reaction products were digested with restriction enzymes and studied by restriction fragment length polymorphism. RESULTS Out of 35 samples, 13 (38.46%) were positive for hepatitis delta virus RNA by RT- semi-nested polymerase chain reaction. All polymorphisms were shown to be genotype I. Out of 13 hepatitis delta virus RNA-positive (13/35), eight were HBeAg negative.
Hepatitis Delta Antigen Test | Medichecks.com
Hepatitis Delta virus (HDV) is a subviral agent that is dependent on the hepatitis B (HBV) virus for its life cycle. Hepatitis Delta infection cannot occur...
CCDC85B - Wikipedia
Coiled-coil domain-containing protein 85B is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CCDC85B gene. Hepatitis delta virus (HDV) is a pathogenic human virus whose RNA genome and replication cycle resemble those of plant viroids. Delta-interacting protein A (DIPA), a cellular gene product, has been found to have homology to hepatitis delta virus antigen (HDAg). DIPA interacts with the viral antigen, HDAg, and can affect HDV replication in vitro. CCDC85B has been shown to interact with: C19orf25, KIAA1267, Keratin 17, and Protein kinase N1. GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ENSG00000175602 - Ensembl, May 2017 GRCm38: Ensembl release 89: ENSMUSG00000095098 - Ensembl, May 2017 Human PubMed Reference:. Mouse PubMed Reference:. Brazas R, Ganem D (Oct 1996). A cellular homolog of hepatitis delta antigen: implications for viral replication and evolution. Science. 274 (5284): 90-4. doi:10.1126/science.274.5284.90. PMID 8810253. Bezy O, Elabd C, Cochet O, Petersen RK, Kristiansen K, Dani C, Ailhaud G, ...
LMBRD1 Full-Length MS Protein Standard - Creative Proteomics
LMBRD1 Full-Length MS Protein Standard (NP_060838), Labeled with [U- 13C6, 15N4]-L-Arginine and [U- 13C6, 15N2]-L-Lysine, was produced in human 293 cells (HEK293) with fully chemically defined cell culture medium to obtain incorporation efficiency at Creative-Proteomics. This gene encodes a lysosomal membrane protein that may be involved in the transport and metabolism of cobalamin. This protein also interacts with the large form of the hepatitis delta antigen and may be required for the nucleocytoplasmic shuttling of the hepatitis delta virus. Mutations in this gene are associated with the vitamin B12 metabolism disorder termed, homocystinuria-megaloblastic anemia complementation type F.
Dell OptiPlex 3070 Small Form Factor, Intel Pentium Gold G5600, 8GB RAM, 128GB SSD, Dell 3 YR WTY 137769
Dell OptiPlex 3070 Small Form Factor, Intel Pentium Gold G5600, 8GB RAM, 128GB SSD, Dell 3 YR WTY 137769 Productivity without compromise - the Dell OptiPlex 3070 Small Form Factor PC. Ideal for education environments and call centers, the Dell OptiPlex 30
Kramer HighSecLabs Secure 2-Port/Small Form Factor KM Switch (K302) from Solid Signal
Kramer HighSecLabs Secure 2-Port/Small Form Factor KM Switch (K302) The K302 is a secure 2-port, small-form-factor KM switch. It allows an easy yet secure sharing of keyboard and mouse between two different security-level sources/computers. HSL Virtual Display Technology (VDT) allows the K302 to switch seamlessly between computers once the mouse cursor crosses display borders. The K302 works smoothly with all operating systems, from Microsoft to Linux and Apple and has no need for software installation. It arrives with a set of preset desktop configurations.
HP Z240 Series Small Form Factor B&H Custom Workstation B&H
Buy HP Z240 Series Small Form Factor B&H Custom Workstation featuring Designed for the Creative Professional, 3.6 GHz Intel Core i7-7700 Quad-Core Upgraded to 32GB RAM. Review HP Z240
SMART Modular Technologies Announces New Line of Small Form Factor Flash Miniature Cards | EE Times
Fremont, CA--November 26, 1996--SMART Modular Technologies Inc. (Fremont, CA) announced its new line of 2-Mbyte and 4-Mbyte Flash Miniature Cards, the small form factor removable ...
Precision 3430 Small Form Factor Workstation | Dell Ireland
Discover workstation-class performance and affordability in a new, small form factor design. Featuring next generation graphics and Intel processors.
Compare HP Z840 Series Rackable Minitower Workstation vs HP Z640 Rackable Minitower Workstation vs HP Z240 Series Small Form...
Compare HP Z840 Series Rackable Minitower Workstation vs HP Z640 Rackable Minitower Workstation vs HP Z240 Series Small Form Factor Workstation ENERGY STAR vs HP Z240 Series Tower Workstation
Lenovo V530s | Small form factor business desktop | Lenovo UK
Powered by 9th Gen Intel® processing and full of features, the V530s is the small form factor business PC that can handle multitasking and large files with ease, maximizing your productivity in no time.
Precision 3430 Small Form Factor Workstation | Dell Australia
Discover workstation-class performance and affordability in a new, small form factor design. Featuring next generation graphics and Intel processors.
Infective Hepatitis - photos
Photo 2. Hepatitis B antigen-containing serum. Serum containing hepatitis В antigen showing the presence of three distinct moфhological entities: (1) Small pleo-morphic spherical particles measuring 20-22 nm in diameter. (2) Tubular forms of varying length with a constant diameter of 20 nm and frequently with a terminal bulbous swelling. (3) Double-shelled spheroidal Dane particles, approximately 42 nm in diameter, with a core measuring 27 nm in diameter. There is substantial evidence that this particle is the hepatitis В virus. (x 227000). ...
6P61043 - 4-Output Small Form Factor PCIe Gen1-2-3 Buffer for Freescale Systems | IDT
Leveraging 20+ years of industry experience, IDTs sensor technologies offer best-in-class performance in a wide array of applications ranging from industrial to automotive. Stay informed about the latest news and differentiated sensor offerings from a proven, trusted partner in the sensor space ...
Howq my small form factor build look? - Hardware Canucks
Hey guys thinking about making a small gaming rig for the TV and these are the parts iv selected, any issues with them? Also what do you think of it?
SPCR - Search
If thats the case, why are more people in here not using the iMac for their silent HTPC? From what I have read, it is close to silent as you can get with such a small form case. Plus, it is the most power efficient PC you can get for the CPU/GPU horse power (Core Duo and 9400). It seems to me if yo ...
The broad range of configurable load cell interface modules with direct field bus connectivity or analogue output feature a small form factor, plug-and-play installation, integrated diagnostics and ATEX certified versions. ...
The NH-L12 is a low-profile quiet cooler designed for use in small form factor cases and HTPC environments. With its flexible NF-F12 (120mm) / NF-B9 (92mm) dual PWM fan setup, the NH-L12 can be configured either for full performance in dual fan mode or extra-low profile (66mm) with the top fan removed. Bundled with the award-winning NT-H1 thermal compound and Noctuas SecuFirm2™ multi-socket mounting system, the NH-L12 packs everything a premium quality quiet cooler needs into a highly compact package.
The NH-L12 is a low-profile quiet cooler designed for use in small form factor cases and HTPC environments. With its flexible NF-F12 (120mm) / NF-B9 (92mm) dual PWM fan setup, the NH-L12 can be configured either for full performance in dual fan mode or extra-low profile (66mm) with the top fan removed. Bundled with the award-winning NT-H1 thermal compound and Noctuas SecuFirm2™ multi-socket mounting system, the NH-L12 packs everything a premium quality quiet cooler needs into a highly compact package.
Serum hepatitis delta virus RNA in patients with delta hepatitis and in liver graft recipients | IRIS Università degli Studi di...
We have investigated the usefulness of serum hepatitis delta virus (HDV) RNA detection using a slot hybridization analysis of serum samples from ten patients with acute hepatitis and delta markers (group I), from 28 patients with chronic delta hepatitis (group II) and from seven liver graft recipients with hepatitis B virus (HBV) and HDV related cirrhosis or fulminant hepatitis (group III). The slot-blots were hybridized with both HDV-complementary DNA and single-stranded RNA probes. With the single-stranded RNA probe, HDV RNA was detected in the first serum sample available in 9/10 of the patients with acute hepatitis (group I). In addition, HDV RNA was detected in 8/9 and 7/8 of the samples obtained within and after 1 month of the onset of hepatitis. Five of the ten patients scored positive for HDV RNA and negative for hepatitis delta antigen (HDAg) while one was negative for HDV RNA and positive for HDAg. The same RNA probe enabled the detection of serum HDV RNA in 21/28 chronic hepatitis ...
Hepatitis delta virus epigenetically enhances clusterin expression via histone acetylation in human hepatocellular carcinoma...
Both isoforms of the hepatitis delta antigen (HDAg) of hepatitis delta virus (HDV) are highly associated with virus proliferation and may act as co-activators of cellular gene expression. Human hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cell line Huh7, which stably expresses HDAgs, was differentially screened and the results showed that clusterin gene expression was enhanced. The mechanisms for HDAg-mediated clusterin gene upregulation were investigated. Expression of HDAgs was associated with enhanced histone H3 acetylation within the clusterin promoter in a chromatin immunoprecipitation assay. Transient transfection of HDAg-expressing plasmids into Huh7 cells also enhanced clusterin expression and histone acetylation. Furthermore, HDV replication was associated with histone hyperacetylation and clusterin induction. The effect of increased clusterin expression was determined by a chemosensitivity assay with adriamycin treatment. These data indicated that HDV-induced clusterin protein increases cell survival
Epidemiology and clinical pattern of hepatitis delta virus infection in Pakistan - MUMTAZ - 2005 - Journal of Gastroenterology...
Background and Aims: The global epidemiology of hepatitis delta virus (HDV) infection is changing. This study was performed to determine the epidemiology and clinical impact of hepatitis delta in Pakistan.. Methods: Countrywide data was collected from 1994 to 2001. A total of 8721 patients were tested for hepatitis delta antibody. A subset of 97 hepatitis delta antibody reactive inpatients with chronic liver disease were compared to 97 patients admitted with liver disease due to hepatitis B alone.. Results: Of the 8721 patients tested, 1444 (16.6%) were reactive for hepatitis delta antibody. Most were males (87.4%, P , 0.001) and younger (mean age 31 years, P , 0.001) compared to HDV non-reactive patients. Prevalence of delta infection was highest in the rural (range 25-60%) compared to the urban population (range 6.5-11%). Analysis of the inpatient data showed that delta infected patients had significantly less severe clinical liver disease and a trend towards lesser development of ...
Detection of Antibody to Hepatitis Delta Virus in Human Serum
A simple rapid detection of antibody to hepatitis delta virus (anti-HDV) in human serum was developed by using double antigen sandwich ELISA. HDV gene fragment encoding HDAg was isolated from a Chinese patient infected with HDV by RT-PCR, and a high-efficient expression HD-PQE31 strain was constructed with the fragment. We obtained high titer and good quality hepatitis delta virus protein purified by Ni-NTA metal-affinity chromatography, which was identified by Western blot and ELISA, then we set up the double antigen sandwich ELISA for detection of anti-HDV in human serum, and the performance of the sandwich ELISA was evaluated in terms of specificity and sensitivity. Results were: 1) The purified HDAg proteins purity was 90%, and its ELISA titer was 1/100 000. 2) 42 anti-HDV positive sera were detected and showed that the sensitivity of sandwich ELISA was higher than that of competitive ELISA (t=2.44, p
SHARCNET: Publication: Density Functional Theory Investigation on the Mechanism of the Hepatitis Delta Virus
Density functional theory methods have been used to investigate the hepatitis delta virus (HDV) ribozyme and its catalyzed phosphodiester cleavage. In particular, the effects of the environmentâ s polarity and/or specific hydrogen-bond interactions on the proton affinity of the active site cytosineâ s N3 ring center have been considered. In addition, the basicities of possible hydrated Mg2+ ion species were also examined. The mechanism previously proposed for the HDV ribozyme in which the active site cytosine (C75) is protonated and thus acts as an acid while the Mg2+ species acts as the complementary base was then investigated. The possible role of tautomerization of C75 is also discussed ...
Disease Outcomes of Hepatitis Delta Genotype 5 vs Genotype 1 - Infectious Disease Advisor
Patients with hepatitis delta virus genotype 5 have demonstrated improved prognoses, better responses to pegylated interferon treatment.
Molecular cloning and sequencing of ribozyme region of HDV from a serious hepatitis patient -- Vol. 12, No 03, 1997 --...
The cDNA (651nt - 941nt) fragment of an isolate of hepatitis delta virus with 289 bp was determined by cloning and Sequencing, from a HBsAg carrier positive both for anti - HDAg and HDV RNA from China, Sichuan Province, using reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction.It contains the region of HDV ribozyme and its self - cleavage site. Comparing this Sichuan isolate with other known HDV isolates from Henan, US - 1, Japan, Peru and Taiwan, the result showed that the homology of nucbotides is 97. 2 %, 93 %, 94 %, 79 %, 96 %, respectively.
Dell: Win 7 Pro Sale! Extra $60 off the OptiPlex 3050 Small Form Factor desktop with Intel Core i5 Processor, 8GB Memory &...
Click Here Win 7 Pro Sale! Extra $60 off the OptiPlex 3050 Small Form Factor desktop with Intel Core i5 Processor, 8GB Memory & 500GB HD - only $649 a
MacMall | Dell GX520 3.4GHz Pentium D Small Form Factor - Refurbished GX520/2/160/DVD/W7P
Dell GX520 3.4GHz Pentium D Small Form Factor - Refurbished GX520/2/160/DVD/W7P for $133.99 at macmall.com. Systems - Desktop Computers - Intel Pentium D Desktop Computers - 3.25GHz to 3.5GHz from macmall.com.
SilverStone DS380B Black Premium 8-bay Small Form Factor NAS Chassis: DS380B at BEST PRICE
Best & lowest price $189.99 CAD of SilverStone DS380B Black Premium 8-bay Small Form Factor NAS Chassis (Silverstone: DS380B) at Pricebat.ca. Search & compare Canada online store prices before you buy it.
HP ProDesk 600 G5 Small Form Factor PC Software and Driver Downloads | HP® Customer Support
Download the latest drivers, firmware, and software for your HP ProDesk 600 G5 Small Form Factor PC.This is HPs official website that will help automatically detect and download the correct drivers free of cost for your HP Computing and Printing products for Windows and Mac operating system.
virology | mBio
So far, the only known example of deltaviruses is the hepatitis delta virus (HDV). HDV is speculated to have evolved in humans, since deltaviruses were until very recently found only in humans. Using a metatranscriptomic sequencing approach, we found a circular RNA, which resembles that of HDV in size and coding strategy, in a snake. The identification of similar deltaviruses in distantly related species other than humans indicates that... ...
Urban - CIID
In con-trast to HBV, HDV infec-tion induces pro-found innate immune response which is medi-at-ed by pat-tern recog-ni-tion recep-tor MDA5 (Zhang, et al. 2018. J Hepa-tol. 69:25-35). MDA5 is a cytosol sen-sor usu-al-ly rec-og-niz-ing long dou-ble strand RNA (dsR-NA). How-ev-er, unlike oth-er RNA virus-es, HDV repli-cates its RNA in the nucle-us via a unique dou-ble-rolling-cycle mech-a-nism with-out pro-duc-ing long dsR-NA. Inves-ti-gat-ing the innate immune acti-va-tion dur-ing HDV repli-ca-tion will pro-vide impor-tant insights for under-stand-ing MDA5 medi-at-ed innate immune sens-ing of viral RNA. To this aim, we plan to: (i) iden-ti-fy the HDV RNA lig-and rec-og-nized by MDA5; (ii) deter-mine the sub-cel-lu-lar loca-tion of MDA5-HDV RNA inter-ac-tion; and (iii) elu-ci-date the roles of host fac-tors (LGP2, ADAR1, etc.) and viral fac-tors (HDAg and HBV enve-lope pro-teins) in the process of innate immu-ni-ty acti-va-tion.. Long term per-sis-tence of HBV and HDV makes it chal-leng-ing to ...
External Drive Bays, Small Form Factor HAF, And Notebook Cooling - Toms Hardwares AMA With Cooler Master, In Its Entirety |...
Q. More and more modern PCs are ditching optical drives and floppy drives. Also, for memory cards, more people are using the card readers integrated into their monitors. In this way, the need for the external 5.75 inch drive seems to be dwindling. How does Cooler Master see this trend? Is there still a need for these bays? Will we be seeing less external drive bays in future Cooler Master cases in favor of other components or better airflow?
Small form factor, low cost development boards available for i.MXL, i.MX21 | EE Times
Freescale Semiconductor, Inc. has introduced two new low-cost i.MX Lite Kits, designed to provide a quick and cost effective method for software and hardware developers to evaluate the i.MXL or i.MX21 Applications Processors.
IPs Erewhon Cereal ~ $1.00/1 (PDF)
Fill out the small form and submit. Next page is a print that will give you the PDF for the coupon.** Can only Access the coupon once to print. Coupon Sign up :note: Printable Coupons are generally available for 5 days or less. :2cents: This Coupon has been added to the Budget101
Best And Safest Senior Singles Dating Online Site - Bibimbab Branbanter Strasse
The small form factor market has gained a lot of traction over the past decade, and hardware vendors have engaged in an arms race to cram as many features as possible into sff motherboards. Metin2 …
HDV and TV stations at DVinfo.net
I was at a video conference the other day and the Sony rep said TV stations around the country were embracing the HDV format by purchasing HDV cameras.
Middle East Journal of Rehabilitation and Health Studies | The Prevalence of Hepatitis Delta Virus in Patients with Chronic...
Hepatitis B virus (HBV) B is a DNA virus belonging to the Hepadnaviridae family. Hepatitis B infection is a serious health problem and two billion people worldwide are infected with this virus and 350 million people are infected with the chronic infection (1). Hepatitis delta virus (HDV) is a satellite virus and a single-stranded RNA virus that belongs to the delta viride family. Delta antigen was identified by Rizzetto et al. in patients with hepatitis B during year 1977 (2). Hepatitis delta virus requires the surface antigen of hepatitis B virus to replicate and transmit. Hepatitis D virus infection in HBsAg carriers can be found as a simultaneous and acute infection. This infection simultaneously leads to chronic hepatitis, liver cirrhosis, and hepatocellular carcinoma (3). Currently, eight genotypes have been described for HDV, HDV-1 to HDV-8, with the exception of HDV-1; all genotypes are found in distinct and different geographic regions. Most studies in Iran have reported on the HDV-1 ...
Pathogens | Free Full-Text | Animal Models of Chronic Hepatitis Delta Virus Infection Host-Virus Immunologic Interactions
Hepatitis delta virus (HDV) is a defective RNA virus that has an absolute requirement for a virus belonging to the hepadnaviridae family like hepatitis B virus (HBV) for its replication and formation of new virions. HDV infection is usually associated with a worsening of HBV-induced liver pathogenesis, which leads to more frequent cirrhosis, increased risk of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), and fulminant hepatitis. Importantly, no selective therapies are available for HDV infection. The mainstay of treatment for HDV infection is pegylated interferon alpha; however, response rates to this therapy are poor. A better knowledge of HDV-host cell interaction will help with the identification of novel therapeutic targets, which are urgently needed. Animal models like hepadnavirus-infected chimpanzees or the eastern woodchuck have been of great value for the characterization of HDV chronic infection. Recently, more practical animal models in which to perform a deeper study of host virus interactions and to
That big neurosciences R&D group Eli Lilly built is being dismantled, with layoffs and parts shipped home - Endpoints News
Hepatitis delta, also known as hepatitis D, is a liver infection caused by the hepatitis delta virus (HDV) that results in the most severe form of human viral hepatitis for which there is no approved therapy.. HDV is a single-stranded, circular RNA virus that requires the envelope protein (HBsAg) of the hepatitis B virus (HBV) for its own assembly. As a result, hepatitis delta virus (HDV) infection occurs only as a co-infection in individuals infected with HBV. However, HDV/HBV co-infections lead to more serious liver disease than HBV infection alone. HDV is associated with faster progression to liver fibrosis (progressing to cirrhosis in about 80% of individuals in 5-10 years), increased risk of liver cancer, and early decompensated cirrhosis and liver failure ...
Eiger Announces Positive Phase 2 Interim 24-Week Data with Pegylated Interferon Lambda in Hepatitis Delta Virus (HDV) Infection...
PALO ALTO, Calif., Oct. 23, 2017 /PRNewswire/ -- Eiger BioPharmaceuticals, Inc., (NASDAQ: EIGR) today announced positive interim 24-week data with pegylated ...
Incidence and risk factors of acute Delta hepatitis in Italy : results from a national surveillance system. | Base documentaire...
The incidence of hepatitis Delta virus in the general Italian population was estimated by a specific surveillance system for acute viral hepatitis over the period 1987-1992. The hepatitis Delta virus incidence rate declined from 3.1/1 000 000 inhabitants in 1987 to 1.2/1 000 000 in 1992. Males predominated 83.8% of cases ; the sex ratio was 5.2....
HP ProDesk 400 G6 Small Form Factor PC | HP® Vietnam
39] Absolute agent is shipped turned off, and will be activated when customers activate a purchased subscription. Subscriptions can be purchased for terms ranging multiple years. Service is limited, check with Absolute for availability outside the U.S. The Absolute Recovery Guarantee is a limited warranty. Certain conditions apply. For full details visit: http://www.absolute.com/company/legal/agreements/computrace-agreement. Data Delete is an optional service provided by Absolute Software. If utilized, the Recovery Guarantee is null and void. In order to use the Data Delete service, customers must first sign a Pre-Authorization Agreement and either obtain a PIN or purchase one or more RSA SecurID tokens from Absolute Software. ...
Hepatitis Delta / the XIII HDIN meeting in Amsterdam during the international liver congress
19:20 Andrew Vaillant Functional control and clinical benefit 1 year following completion of REP 2139 / peg-IFN therapy in patients with chronic HBV / HDV co-infection ...
Chia seed is believed to have several health benefits, one of which is to assist in weight loss. This small form will expand after a while immersed in water. And will be expanding again after the chia seed is in … Continue reading →. ...
Ceilydh Set Sail: 05/2014
Intel D54250WYKH - what a horrible name. Its a very small form factor computer; about 4 x 4 x 2 high. It has room inside for a mSATA SSD disk and an additional 2.5 laptop size drive.It uses a very low power Core i5 CPU but is plenty fast. It runs on 12V even though the input jack says 19V (you have to delve into Intels specs to find out its happy to run on 12V). It has a cousin without the H suffix that doesnt fit a 2.5 drive; your only option is a mSATA SSD. Ours has an internal SSD for the operating system and applications, and a external 2 TB 2.5 drive for data. The data disk is backed up to another 2 TB disk regularly. ...
USB Products | Keysight (formerly Agilents Electronic Measurement)
Overview: USB-based small form factor and flexible test instruments consists of oscilloscopes, function generator, source measure unit, switch matrix and a series of data acquisition.
FUJITSU Workstation CELSIUS J550/2 - Fujitsu Denmark
No need to choose between size and performance in a Small Form Factor. As an industry first, the FUJITSU CELSIUS J550/2 offers full workstation performance in a 10 liter design. It is ideally suited for 2D and entry-level 3D performance and multi-monitor scenarios in control rooms, for surveillance and trading floors.
aspirin paracetamol ibuprofen together The screen shrinks from 4.7”xxxxx to 4.3”, but the single biggest change is the shift to a plastic bezel around the edge. That takes away a big chunk of the very premium feel of the HTC One, moving it away from glass and metal and toward much of the material compromises for which Samsung has seen the S4 criticised. But the small form factor feels neat in the hand, comes at a cheaper price and is still almost as good ...
Samsung Genio Touch Reviews
Samsung Genio Touch reviews, pros and cons. Liked: Small form factor, multiple desktops Large screen in proportion to phone size Slim Disliked: No front facing camera Camera limited to 2MP Screen resolution not as high as it could be No QWERTY keyboard layout
Coleman, Paul F. (2017-02-17). "Detecting Hepatitis B Surface Antigen Mutants". Emerging Infectious Diseases. 12 (2): 198-203. ... Breakthrough cases of Hepatitis B are primarily attributed to mutations in the Hepatitis B virus (HBV) that make HBV surface ... Breakthrough infections of Hepatitis B and mumps are partially attributed to antigenic drift. Vaccines may fail to provide ... If B cell receptors bind to the antigen and FC receptors simultaneously bind to the maternal antibody, the FC receptors send a ...
Hepatitis B: certain antigens present during hepatitis can accumulate in the kidneys and damage them. ... Liver failure caused by cirrhosis, hepatitis and other conditions such as alcoholism, IV drug use or some hereditary diseases ... HIV: the virus's antigens provoke an obstruction in the glomerular capillary's lumen that alters normal kidney function. ...
"Stimulation of RNA polymerase II elongation by hepatitis delta antigen". Science. 293 (5527): 124-7. doi:10.1126/science. ...
Baruch Samuel Blumberg
In 1964, while studying "yellow jaundice" (hepatitis), he discovered a surface antigen for hepatitis B in the blood of an ... 3. The age of antigens and electronic microscopy" [History of hepatitis. 3. The age of antigens and electronic microscopy]. La ... a nonprofit organization dedicated to finding a cure for hepatitis B and improving the lives of those affected by hepatitis B ... Blumberg and his team were able to develop a screening test for the hepatitis B virus, to prevent its spread in blood donations ...
... has been found to have homology to hepatitis delta virus antigen (HDAg). DIPA interacts with the viral antigen, HDAg, and can ... Long M, de Souza SJ, Gilbert W (May 1997). "Delta-interacting protein A and the origin of hepatitis delta antigen". Science. ... "A cellular homolog of hepatitis delta antigen: implications for viral replication and evolution". Science. 274 (5284): 90-4. ... Hepatitis delta virus (HDV) is a pathogenic human virus whose RNA genome and replication cycle resemble those of plant viroids ...
December 1993). "Human leukocyte antigen A1-B8-DR3-DQ2-DPB1*0401 extended haplotype in autoimmune hepatitis". Hepatology. 18 (6 ... In autoimmune hepatitis. In 1972, a link between "HLA A1,8" (current:HLA A1-B8) active chronic hepatitis, subsequently B8 ... human leukocyte antigens DR4 and A1-B8-DR3 are independent risk factors". Hepatology. 13 (4): 701-6. doi:10.1002/hep.1840130415 ... "Genetic association of autoimmune hepatitis and human leucocyte antigen in German patients". World J. Gastroenterol. 12 (34): ...
Gold nanoparticles in chemotherapy
Alipour, Elias (23 June 2013). "Gold nanoparticle based capacitive immunosensor for detection of hepatitis B surface antigen". ... Hepatitis B Prepared AuNPs-Hepatitis B virus (HBV) DNA gene probes could be used to detect HBV DNA directly. The detection- ...
... (core antigen) is a hepatitis B viral protein. It is an indicator of active viral replication; this means the person ... May 2003). "New enzyme immunoassay for detection of hepatitis B virus core antigen (HBcAg) and relation between levels of HBcAg ... HBcAg is an antigen that can be found on the surface of the nucleocapsid core (the inner most layer of the hepatitis B virus). ... "In vivo inhibition of anti-hepatitis B virus core antigen (HBcAg) immunoglobulin G production by HBcAg-specific CD4(+) Th1-type ...
... (also known as the Australia antigen) is the surface antigen of the hepatitis B virus (HBV). It indicates current ... Today, these antigen-proteins can be genetically manufactured (e.g. transgene E. coli) to produce material for a simple antigen ... "Positive hepatitis B surface antigen tests due to recent vaccination: a persistent problem". BMC Clinical Pathology. 12 (1): 15 ... The viral envelope of an enveloped virus has different surface proteins from the rest of the virus which act as antigens. These ...
... they will bind to antigens within the HEp-2 cell nucleus. These antibodies can be visualised by subsequent incubation with anti ... Extractable nuclear antigens. Extractable nuclear antigens (ENA) are a group of autoantigens that were originally ... Typically, HEp-2 cells are used as a substrate to detect the antibodies in human serum. Microscope slides are coated with HEp-2 ... Comparison with autoimmune hepatitis and impact on the disease profile". Hepatology. 26 (3): 561-566. doi:10.1002/hep.510260305 ...
The coating, hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg), is not infectious; however, HBsAG can provoke an immune response. In order to ... Donald G. McNeil, Jr., April 26, 2012, Irving Millman Dies at 88; Worked to Stop Hepatitis B, The New York Times. His Hepatitis ... Millman's work with Baruch Blumberg helped lead to the creation of a test to detect hepatitis B. The test allowed blood banks ... Millman and Blumberg found that the blood of individuals who carried the hepatitis B virus contained particles of the outside ...
Ground glass hepatocyte
The appearance is classically associated with abundant hepatitis B antigen in the endoplasmic reticulum, but may also be drug- ... Hadziyannis, S; Gerber, MA; Vissoulis, C; Popper, H (Nov 1973). "Cytoplasmic hepatitis B antigen in "ground-glass" hepatocytes ... In the context of hepatitis B, GGHs are only seen in chronic infections, i.e. they are not seen in acute hepatitis B. GGHs were ... Drug reaction Mallory body Viral hepatitis Micrograph showing ground glass hepatocytes. H&E stain. Micrograph showing ground ...
"Expression of hepatitis B surface antigen in transgenic banana plants". Planta. 222 (3): 484-493. doi:10.1007/s00425-005-1556-y ... Dendritic cell vaccines combine dendritic cells with antigens in order to present the antigens to the body's white blood cells ... hepatitis A, hepatitis B, polio, mumps, measles, rubella, diphtheria, pertussis, tetanus, HiB, chickenpox, rotavirus, influenza ... This presents the antigen in such a way as to produce a greater action than the simple aqueous tetanus toxoid. People who have ...
Hepatitis Weekley, Autoimmune Diseases, "Cytotoxic Antigen Induces Hypophysitis in Cancer Patients," 2006-1-9; see also, Weston ... "Cancer regression and autoimmunity induced by cytotoxic T lymphocyte-associated antigen 4 blockade in patients with metastatic ...
"Identification of target antigen for SLA/LP autoantibodies in autoimmune hepatitis". Lancet. 355 (9214): 1510-5. doi:10.1016/ ... "Entrez Gene: SLA/LP soluble liver antigen/liver pancreas antigen". Herkel J, Heidrich B, Nieraad N, Wies I, Rother M, Lohse AW ... Volkmann M, Martin L, Bäurle A, Heid H, Strassburg CP, Trautwein C, Fiehn W, Manns MP (2001). "Soluble liver antigen: isolation ... SECp43 and soluble liver antigen, in the selenoprotein synthesis machinery". J. Biol. Chem. 280 (50): 41568-75. doi:10.1074/jbc ...
History of virology
Yap SF (June 2004). "Hepatitis B: review of development from the discovery of the "Australia Antigen" to end of the twentieth ... Bihl F, Negro F (May 2010). "Hepatitis E virus: a zoonosis adapting to humans". The Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy. 65 ( ... In 1963, the hepatitis B virus was discovered by Baruch Blumberg (b. 1925). Reverse transcriptase, the key enzyme that ... Zetterström R (March 2008). "Nobel Prize to Baruch Blumberg for the discovery of the aetiology of hepatitis B". Acta ...
West, D. J.; Calandra, G. B. (1996). "Vaccine induced immunologic memory for hepatitis B surface antigen: implications for ...
"Chronic liver disease and primary liver-cell cancer with hepatitis-associated (Australia) antigen in serum". Lancet. 1 (7659): ... In this post she worked on hepatitis, which she was able to continue from 1943 to 1947 with funding from the Medical Research ... Davidson, C. S. (1969). "Discussions of the paper by Sheila Sherlock: "The treatment of hepatitis"". Bulletin of the New York ... Eisenmenger, W. (1969). "Discussions of the paper by Sheila Sherlock: "The treatment of hepatitis"". Bulletin of the New York ...
Hraber P, Kuiken C, Yusim K (December 2007). "Evidence for human leukocyte antigen heterozygote advantage against hepatitis C ... doi:10.1002/hep.21889. PMID 17935228. Rikowski A, Grammer K (May 1999). "Human body odour, symmetry and attractiveness". Proc. ...
4 December 2007). "Treatment of hepatitis B e antigen positive chronic hepatitis with telbivudine or adefovir: a randomized ... and the combination in patients with hepatitis B e antigen-positive chronic hepatitis B". Gastroenterology. 129 (2): 528-36. ... Telbivudine impairs hepatitis B virus (HBV) DNA replication by leading to chain termination. It differs from the natural ... Telbivudine is an antiviral drug used in the treatment of hepatitis B infection. It is marketed by Swiss pharmaceutical company ...
February 2003). "Adefovir dipivoxil for the treatment of hepatitis B e antigen-positive chronic hepatitis B". N. Engl. J. Med. ... February 2008). "Long-term therapy with adefovir dipivoxil in hepatitis B e antigen-negative patients developing resistance to ... It is used for treatment of hepatitis B and herpes simplex virus infection. Trials of adefovir in patients with HIV have not ... FDA approval for use in the treatment of hepatitis B was granted on September 20, 2002, and adefovir is sold for this ...
2011). "Evaluation of saliva specimens as an alternative sampling method to detect hepatitis B surface antigen". J. Clin. Lab. ... Hepatitis C has also been identified using salivary detection methods. Yaari, et al., reported in 2006 that saliva testing for ... A 2011 study demonstrated that HBV surface antigen saliva testing using ELISA had a sensitivity and specificity of 93.6% and ... May 2011). "Importance of the cutoff ratio for detecting antibodies against hepatitis A virus in oral fluids by enzyme ...
"HLA antigens in Japanese patients with primary biliary cirrhosis and autoimmune hepatitis". Digestion. 26 (4): 213-7. doi: ... HLA-DR2 (DR2) of the HLA-DR serotype system, is a broad antigen serotype that is now preferentially covered by HLA-DR15 and HLA ... Tissue Antigens. 69 Suppl 1: 228-30. doi:10.1111/j.1399-0039.2006.77311.x. PMID 17445206. Asakura H, Tsuchiya M, Aiso S, ... primary biliary cirrhosis and autoimmune hepatitis. DR2 is also found in all patients that test positive for anti-anti-Asn-RNA- ...
... hu-Sui1 may be a target of hepatitis B X antigen in hepatocarcinogenesis". Oncogene. 18 (9): 1677-87. doi:10.1038/sj.onc. ...
Viral hepatitis can be excluded by negative blood samples for antigens specific to the different hepatitis viruses. Cholestasis ...
Hraber P, Kuiken C, Yusim K (December 2007). "Evidence for human leukocyte antigen heterozygote advantage against hepatitis C ... doi:10.1002/hep.21889. PMID 17935228.. *^ Rikowski A, Grammer K (May 1999). "Human body odour, symmetry and attractiveness". ... Resistance to hepatitis C virus infectionEdit. There is evidence that genetic heterozygosity in humans provides increased ...
Kumar GB, Ganapathi TR, Revathi CJ, Srinivas L, Bapat VA (October 2005). "Expression of hepatitis B surface antigen in ... Dendritic cell vaccines combine dendritic cells with antigens in order to present the antigens to the body's white blood cells ... hepatitis A, hepatitis B, polio, mumps, measles, rubella, diphtheria, pertussis, tetanus, HiB, chickenpox, rotavirus, influenza ... This presents the antigen in such a way as to produce a greater action than the simple aqueous tetanus toxoid. People who have ...
"Endocytosis of hepatitis B immune globulin into hepatocytes inhibits the secretion of hepatitis B virus surface antigen and ...
T细胞 - 维基百科，自由的百科全书
Hepatitis B Virus-Specific CD8+ T Cells Maintain Functional Exhaustion after Antigen Reexposure in an Acute Activation Immune ... MR1 antigen presentation to mucosal-associated invariant T cells was highly conserved in evolution. Proceedings of the National ... An induced rebinding model of antigen discrimination. Trends Immunol. 2014, 35 (4): 153-8. PMC 3989030. PMID 24636916. doi: ...
Hepatitis D - Wikipedija, prosta enciklopedija
"Characterization of RNA-binding domains of hepatitis delta antigen". J. Gen. Virol. 74 (Pt 11): 2473-2478. PMID 8245865.. ... hepatitis G. Viri[uredi , uredi kodo]. *^ http://lsm1.amebis.si/lsmeds/novPogoj.aspx?pPogoj=hepatitis, Slovenski medicinski e- ... Taylor JM (2006). "Hepatitis delta virus". Virology 344 (1): 71-76. PMID 16364738. doi:10.1016/j.virol.2005.09.033.. ... Hepatitis D je oblika hepatitisa, ki ga povzroča virus hepatitisa D (VHD); le-ta za svoj razvoj potrebuje virus hepatitisa B. ...
"First Antigen Rapid Test for Ebola through Emergency Assessment and Eligible for Procurement". World Health Organization (WHO ... and viral hepatitis among others. ... a rapid antigen test which gives results in 15 minutes was ...
"Chronic Hepatitis After Hepatitis E Virus Infection in a Patient With Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma Taking Rituximab" (PDF). Retrieved ... It increases MHC II and adhesion molecules LFA-1 and LFA-3 (lymphocyte function-associated antigen). ... Rituximab has been reported as a possible cofactor in a chronic Hepatitis E infection in a person with lymphoma. Hepatitis E ... Other severe side effects include reactivation of hepatitis B in those previously infected, progressive multifocal ...
"Large-scale candidate gene analysis of spontaneous clearance of hepatitis C virus". J. Infect. Dis. 201 (9): 1371-80. doi ... "Expression of apolipoprotein C-IV is regulated by Ku antigen/peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma complex and ...
... has been reported as a possible cofactor in a chronic Hepatitis E infection in a person with lymphoma. Hepatitis E ... It increases MHC II and adhesion molecules LFA-1 and LFA-3 (lymphocyte function-associated antigen). ... Other severe side effects include reactivation of hepatitis B in those previously infected, progressive multifocal ...
However, immunofluorescence essays provide less definitive proof of Lassa infection. An ELISA test for antigen and ... ELISA antigen assays, plaque neutralization assays, and immunofluorescence essays. ...
Liver biopsy can verify inflammation and necrosis of hepatocytes and detect viral antigens. Because of the bleeding tendency of ... Mitchell misdiagnosed the disease that he observed and treated, and the disease was probably Weil's disease or hepatitis. See: ... ribavirin in reducing liver pathology in yellow fever virus infection may be similar to its activity in treatment of hepatitis ...
The immune complexes are formed by binding of antibodies to antigens in the glomerular basement membrane. The antigens may be ... Within membranous glomerulonephritis, especially in cases caused by viral hepatitis, serum C3 levels are low. ... Other studies have implicated neutral endopeptidase and cationic bovine serum albumin as antigens. ... "M-type phospholipase A2 receptor as target antigen in idiopathic membranous nephropathy". The New England Journal of Medicine ...
Hepatitis. DNA virus. HBV (B). RNA virus. CBV. HAV (A). HCV (C). HDV (D). HEV (E). HGV (G). ... A map of the genome of JC virus, indicating the position of the tumor antigen genes (red), the three capsid protein genes ( ... Further research is needed to determine the exact etiological role of T-antigen, but there seems to be a connection to the ... T-antigen, also plays a key role in viral proliferation, directing the initiation of DNA replication for the virus as well ...
Artificial induction of immunity
... is to conjugate the antigens. Conjugation is the attachment to the antigen of another substance which also generates an immune ... A more contemporary approach for "boosting" the immune response to simpler immunogenic molecules (known as antigens) ... In the future it might be possible to artificially design antibodies to fit specific antigens, then produce them in large ... response, thus amplifying the overall response and causing a more robust immune memory to the antigen. For example, a toxoid ...
Index of HIV/AIDS-related articles
... antigen - antigen presentation - antigen-presenting cell (APC) - antineoplastic - antiprotozoal - antiretroviral drugs - ... hepatitis - hepatitis C and HIV coinfection - hepatomegaly - herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) - herpes simplex virus 2 (HSV-2) - ... human leukocyte antigens (HLA) - human papilloma virus (HPV) - human T cell lymphotropic virus type I (HTLV-I) - human T cell ...
White blood cell
These cells bind antigens presented on MHC I complex of virus-infected or tumour cells and kill them. Nearly all nucleated ... Infectious diseases - viral (AIDS, SARS, West Nile encephalitis, hepatitis, herpes, measles, others), bacterial (TB, typhoid, ... Basophils are chiefly responsible for allergic and antigen response by releasing the chemical histamine causing the dilation of ... Dendritic cells (Although these will often migrate to local lymph nodes upon ingesting antigens) ...
Family Nackednaviridae - e.g. African cichlid nackednavirus (ACNDV), formerly named African cichlid hepatitis B virus (ACHBV).[ ... Group-specific antigen (gag) proteins are major components of the viral capsid, which are about 2000-4000 copies per virion. ... "Deciphering the Origin and Evolution of Hepatitis B Viruses by Means of a Family of Non-enveloped Fish Viruses". Cell Host & ...
In 1985, the first human vaccine obtained by genetic engineering from animal cells, the vaccine against hepatitis B, was ... as an antigen, Richard F. J. Pfeiffer introduced it in the abdomen of a guinea pig already vaccinated against this disease, and ... and hepatitis B. The discovery and use of sulfonamides in treating infections was another breakthrough. Some researchers won ... and they deduced that it can play the role of antigen, that is if they could overcome the delicate moment of its injection, ...
... whether in the form of viral hepatitis (e.g. hepatitis B or hepatitis C), alcoholic liver disease, or cirrhosis of ... Serum levels of carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) and CA19-9 are often elevated, but are not sensitive or specific enough to be ... hepatitis C, hepatitis B, infection with certain liver fluke, and some congenital liver malformations. However, most ... doi:10.1002/hep.20537. PMID 15690474.. *^ Holzinger F, Z'graggen K, Büchler MW (1999). "Mechanisms of biliary carcinogenesis: a ...
ஸ்டீபன் பெயின்ஸ்டோன் - தமிழ் விக்கிப்பீடியா
"Isolation of a cDNA clone derived from a blood-borne non-A, non-B viral hepatitis genome". Science 244 (4902): 359-62. April ... Detection by Immune Electron Microscopy of a Viruslike Antigen Associated with Acute Illness". Science 182 (4116): 1026-1028. ... Feinstone, Stephen M.; Kapikian, Albert Z.; Purcell, Robert H. (1973). "Hepatitis A: ...
Type IV collagen
The alpha-3 subunit (COL4A3) of collagen IV is thought to be the antigen implicated in Goodpasture syndrome, wherein the immune ... "Serum Collagen Type IV for the Assessment of Fibrosis and Resistance to Interferon Therapy in Chronic Hepatitis C". ... IV concentrations correlate with hepatic tissue levels of collagen IV in subjects with alcoholic liver disease and hepatitis C ...
The tests are based upon the ability of an antibody to bind specifically to an antigen. The antigen (usually a protein or ... "Hepatitis C". World Health Organization. Archived from the original on 2011-07-12. Retrieved 2013-04-25.. ... Using a similar basis as described above, immunoassays can detect or measure antigens from either infectious agents or the ... This technique is the current standard for detecting viral infections such as AIDS and hepatitis. ...
Antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity
Usually, a target cell line expressing a certain surface-exposed antigen is incubated with antibody specific for that antigen. ... whose membrane-surface antigens have been bound by specific antibodies. It is one of the mechanisms through which antibodies ...
Harvey J. Alter
Alter co-discovered the Australia antigen, a key to detecting hepatitis B virus. For many investigators that would be the ... Alter and his research team demonstrated that most post-transfusion hepatitis cases were not due to hepatitis A and hepatitis B ... Alter and his research team demonstrated that most post-transfusion hepatitis cases were not due to hepatitis A and hepatitis B ... This work eventually led to the discovery of the hepatitis C virus. In 1988 the new hepatitis virus was confirmed by Alter's ...
1 - antigen. 2 - IgE antibody. 3 - FcεRI receptor. 4 - preformed mediators (histamine, proteases, chemokines, heparin). 5 - ... Other widely promoted tests such as the antigen leukocyte cellular antibody test and the food allergy profile are considered ...
Type IV hypersensitivity
Schwann cell antigen. Neuritis, paralysis. Hashimoto's thyroiditis. Thyroglobulin antigen. Hypothyroidism, hard goiter, ... Target antigen. Effects. Allergic contact dermatitis. Environmental chemicals, like urushiol (from poison ivy and poison oak ... Myelin antigens (e.g., myelin basic protein). Myelin destruction, inflammation. Rheumatoid arthritis. Possibly collagen and/ ... CD4+ Th1 helper T cells recognize antigen in a complex with the MHC class II major histocompatibility complex on the surface of ...
... has a 10-40-fold preference for hemimethylated DNA and interacts with the proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA). ... The Human Epigenome Project (HEP). *The Epigenome Network of Excellence (NoE). *Canadian Epigenetics, Environment and Health ...
For development of a system to study the replication of the virus that causes hepatitis C and for use of this system to ... cells-the preeminent component of the immune system that initiates and regulates the body's response to foreign antigens. ... Discovery of the virus that causes hepatitis C and the development of screening methods that reduced the risk of blood ... transfusion-associated hepatitis in the U.S. from 30% in 1970 to virtually zero in 2000. ...
... the first known hepatitis with a viral etiological agent was Hepatitis A, in the picornaviridae family. Hepatis B Virus (HBV) ... surface antigens-preS1, preS2, and S, the X protein and HBeAg. The X protein is thought to be non-structural. Its function and ... Endogenous hepatitis B virus genomes have been described in crocodilian, snake and turtle genomes. This suggests that these ... Hepatitis viruses have been described in fish and amphibians also. This suggests that this family has co evolved with the ...
Occupational hazards of human nail dust
It has been suggested that absorption of trichophyton fungal antigens can give rise to immunoglobulin E (IgE) antibody ... Hepatitis C, or HIV. Davies et al. surveyed podiatrists and found that 41% of them complained of eye problems, particularly ... of the population has allergic antibodies to fungal antigens, and half of them, that is 5% of the population, would be ... of podiatry drill burrs potentially expose the healthcare worker to aerosols containing bloodborne pathogens such as Hepatitis ...
Red blood cell
Blood is usually collected and tested for common or serious Blood-borne diseases including Hepatitis B, Hepatitis C and HIV. ... Approximately 25 of these membrane proteins carry the various blood group antigens, such as the A, B and Rh antigens, among ... Blood Groups and Red Cell Antigens *^ a b Pierigè F, Serafini S, Rossi L, Magnani M (January 2008). "Cell-based drug delivery ... Kidd antigen protein - urea transporter;. *RhAG - gas transporter, probably of carbon dioxide, defines Rh Blood Group and the ...
Hepatitis antigen | Article about hepatitis antigen by The Free Dictionary
Although all animals have... Explanation of hepatitis antigen ... Find out information about hepatitis antigen. see immunity ... Related to hepatitis antigen: hepatitis B core antigen antigen:. see immunityimmunity,. ability of an organism to resist ... antigen. (redirected from hepatitis antigen). Also found in: Dictionary, Thesaurus, Medical. ... Hepatitis antigen , Article about hepatitis antigen by The Free Dictionary https://encyclopedia2.thefreedictionary.com/ ...
Hepatitis B Antigens are Attacked by Immureboost and they Go Negative
Immureboost presented a product at the Therapies for Viral Hepatitis Symposium to Boston Scientists. The ... In this sense V1 is similar to the first generation of commercial Hepatitis B vaccine, which contained pooled viral antigens ... Separately, three patients who were Hepatitis B antigen positive became negative after V1 therapy. In contrast, patients who ... Hepatitis is a serious and potentially life-threatening disease which may culminate in liver cancer. Hepatitis B causes 60% to ...
Hepatitis core antigen (IPR002006) | InterPro | EMBL-EBI
Hepatitis core antigen (IPR002006). Short name: Hepatitis_core Overlapping homologous superfamilies *Viral capsid core domain ... This entry represent the core antigen of the viral capsid (HBcAg) from various Hepatitis B virus (HBV), which is a major human ... The capsid is composed of a single polypeptide, HBcAg, also known as the core antigen. The capsid has a 5-helical fold, where ... This viral capsid acts as a core antigen, the major immunodominant region lying at the tips of the alpha-helical hairpins that ...
Hepatitis-associated antigen in chronic hepatitis. | The BMJ
HEPATITIS B SURFACE ANTIGEN
Hepatitis B e antigen definition | Drugs.com
Definition of hepatitis B e antigen. Provided by Stedmans medical dictionary and Drugs.com. Includes medical terms and ... hepatitis B e antigen. Definition: an antigen, or group of antigens, associated with hepatitis B infection and distinct from ... the surface antigen (HBsAg) and the core antigen (HBcAg); it is associated with the viral nucleocapsid. Its presence indicates ...
Hep B surface antigen positive - Hepatitis B - MedHelp
HbS antigen. positive. hep e antigen.Negative.HBV DNA.Negative.I am on treatment with lumividine tab 100 mg/day for about 3 yrs ... I am diagnosed as Hep B carrier.My test reports: ... Hep B surface antigen positive. I am diagnosed as Hep B carrier ... I am diagnosed as Hep B carrier.My test reports:HbS antigen. positive. hep e antigen.Negative.HBV DNA.Negative.I am on ... hep e antigen.Negative.HBV DNA.Negative.I am on treatment with lumividine tab 100 mg/day for about 3 yrs.My ALT level & liver ...
Expression of hepatitis B surface antigen in transgenic banana plants | SpringerLink
... gene of hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) using Agrobacteriummediated transformation. Four different expression... ... Agrobacterium Edible vaccine Embryogenic cells Hepatitis B surface antigen Transgenic banana Abbreviations. ADS. Adenine ... Mason HS, Lam DMK, Arntzen CJ (1992) Expression of hepatitis B surface antigen in transgenic plants. Proc Nat Acad Sci USA 89: ... Rasthali (AAB) have been transformed with the s gene of hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) using Agrobacterium mediated ...
Appendix C: Identification and Management of Hepatitis B Surface Antigen (HBsAg)--Positive Persons
Identification and Management of Hepatitis B Surface Antigen (HBsAg)--Positive Persons. Persons with chronic hepatitis B virus ... obtain vaccination against hepatitis A if chronic liver disease is present (2). *When seeking medical or dental care, HBsAg- ... Prevention of hepatitis A through active or passive immunization: recommendations of the Advisory Committee on Immunization ... Hepatitis B virus transmission between children in day care. Pediatr Infect Dis J 1989;8:870--5. ...
Synergism of tapasin and human leukocyte antigens in resolving hepatitis C virus infection. - PubMed - NCBI
2013 Sep;58(3):881-9. doi: 10.1002/hep.26415. Epub 2013 Jul 29. Multicenter Study; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; ... Synergism of tapasin and human leukocyte antigens in resolving hepatitis C virus infection.. Ashraf S1, Nitschke K, Warshow UM ... Human leukocyte antigen (HLA) class I presents viral peptides to CD8+ T cells to permit detection of infected cells, and ... CD8+ T-cell responses to hepatitis C virus (HCV) are important in generating a successful immune response and spontaneously ...
Hepatitis b surface antigen | Define Hepatitis b surface antigen at Dictionary.com
Hepatitis b surface antigen definition at Dictionary.com, a free online dictionary with pronunciation, synonyms and translation ... hepatitis b surface antigen in Medicine Expand. hepatitis B surface antigen n. Abbr. HBsAg An antigen of the small spherical ... and filamentous forms of hepatitis B antibodies that is also present on the Dane particle. ... Nearby words for hepatitis b surface antigen. * hepatitis a * hepatitis a virus ...
Hepatitis b e antigen | Define Hepatitis b e antigen at Dictionary.com
JCI - Entering the spotlight: hepatitis B surface antigen-specific B cells
Western and dot immunoblotting analysis of viral antigens and antibodies: application to murine hepatitis virus. - PubMed -...
Viral hepatitis antigens | definition of viral hepatitis antigens by Medical dictionary
What is viral hepatitis antigens? Meaning of viral hepatitis antigens medical term. What does viral hepatitis antigens mean? ... Looking for online definition of viral hepatitis antigens in the Medical Dictionary? viral hepatitis antigens explanation free ... viral hepatitis antigens. vi·ral hep·a·ti·tis an·ti·gens (vīrăl hepă-tītis anti-jĕnz) Immunogenic components of hepatitis ... Viral hepatitis antigens , definition of viral hepatitis antigens by Medical dictionary https://medical-dictionary. ...
Recombinant Hepatitis A Virus Surface Antigen protein (ab68870)
Buy our Recombinant Hepatitis A Virus Surface Antigen protein. Ab68870 is an active protein fragment produced in Escherichia ... Recombinant Hepatitis A Virus Surface Antigen protein. See all Hepatitis A Virus Surface Antigen proteins and peptides. ... Hepatitis A virus (HAV), the causative agent of type A viral hepatitis, is spread by faecal-oral contact or ingestion of ... Microbiology Organism Virus RNA Virus ssRNA positive strand virus Hepatitis A/C/E/G ...
Recombinant Hepatitis B Virus E Antigen protein (ab91273)
Buy our Recombinant Hepatitis B Virus E Antigen protein. Ab91273 is an active full length protein produced in Escherichia coli ... Hepatitis B e-antigen (HBeAg) is a viral protein associated with HBV infections. Unlike the surface antigen, the e-antigen is ... When the virus goes into "hiding," the e-antigen will no longer be present in the blood. HBeAg is often used as a marker of ... of HBV that do not make e-antigen; these are especially common in the Middle East and Asia. In areas where these strains of HBV ...
hepatitis B surface antigen Archives - Hepatitis B Foundation
B news Hepatitis B Outreach hepatitis B vaccine hepatitis C hepatitis D hepatocellular carcinoma HepB hep B Hep B Awareness Hep ... Hepatitis B Diagnosis & Monitoring, Hepatitis B Prevention, Living with Hepatitis B Youve Lost the Hepatitis B Surface Antigen ... Tag Archives: hepatitis B surface antigen. Hepatitis B Diagnosis & Monitoring, Hepatitis B Treatment ... discrimination HBV vaccine HCC HCV HDV hepatitis B Hepatitis B Hepatitis B Foundation Hepatitis B Foundation Events Hepatitis ...
Proposal for routine antenatal screening at 14 weeks for hepatitis B surface antigen | The BMJ
PREVALENCE OF HEPATITIS B SURFACE ANTIGEN. The rate of positive results for hepatitis B surface antigen was 0.7% in our ... All blood samples positive for hepatitis B surface antigen were also tested for hepatitis B e antigen and its antibody (Abbott ... Failure of neonatal hepatitis B vaccination: the role of HBV-DNA levels in hepatitis B carrier mothers and HLA antigens in ... Of the 705 women positive for hepatitis B surface antigen, 118 (16.7%) were positive for the e antigen. The rate of positive ...
Antigen positive to Non-reactive - Forum on Hepatitis and HIV Coinfection - TheBody.com
Most patients do not turn their surface antigen to negative on treatment. The next best results we hope... ... The length of treatment will depend on your type of hepatitis B infection - e antigen negative or e antigen positive. Discuss ... Ask the Experts > Forum on Hepatitis and HIV Coinfection > Q & A Antigen positive to Non-reactive. Sep 25, 2005 How long is the ... Most patients do not turn their surface antigen to negative on treatment. The next best results we hope for is to turn the ...
hep B Surface Antigen Positive - Forum on Hepatitis and HIV Coinfection - TheBody.com
... then the surface antigen can mean a chronic carrier state that is inactive due to no virus in her blood. Yes I would agree that ... If your wife is at risk for hepatitis B, ... hep B Surface Antigen Positive. Feb 4, 2006 My wife recently ... If your wife is at risk for hepatitis B, then the surface antigen can mean a chronic carrier state that is inactive due to no ... Yes I would agree that she should see a specialist to be certain that: 1. The hepatitis B surface antigen was confirmed. 2. To ...
Hepatitis B Virus e Antigen Variants
"Australia antigen", later renamed HBsAg (for hepatitis B surface antigen), in patient blood . HBeAg (hepatitis B e antigen) ... Milich D, Liang J. Exploring the biological basis of hepatitis B e antigen in hepatitis B virus infection. Hepatology. 2003 ;38 ... Antigenic determinants and functional domains in core antigen and e antigen from hepatitis B virus. J. Virol. 1989 ;63:798-808 ... Mutation preventing formation of the hepatitis B e antigen in patients with chronic hepatitis B infection. Lancet. 1989 ;2:588- ...
Non-A non-B hepatitis specific antigen and its use in hepatitis - Tonen Corporation
This invention relates to a DNA fragment comprising a base sequence encoding a non-A non-B hepatitis-specific antigen ... Non-A non-B hepatitis specific antigen and its use in hepatitis ... hepatitis B, hepatitis D and other hepatitis symptoms caused by ... with serum from a normal person or non-A non-B hepatitis patient, wherein the antigens used are a purified antigen in A, an ... 1. An isolated DNA fragment coding for a non-A non-B hepatitis-specific antigen polyopeptide, said DNA fragment having a ...
Hepatitis C Virus Core Antigen: Novus Biologicals
Hepatitis A Surface Antigen Antibodies: Novus Biologicals
Browse our Hepatitis A Surface Antigen Antibody catalog backed by our Guarantee+. ... Hepatitis A Surface Antigen Antibodies available through Novus Biologicals. ... Hepatitis A Surface Antigen Antibodies. We offer Hepatitis A Surface Antigen Antibodies for use in common research applications ... Choose from our Hepatitis A Surface Antigen monoclonal antibodies.. Alternate Names for Hepatitis A Surface Antigen Antibodies ...
NHANES 2011-2012: Hepatitis B: Core Antibody, Surface Antigen; Hepatitis D Antibody Data Documentation, Codebook, and...
LBDHBG - Hepatitis B surface antigen. Variable Name: LBDHBG SAS Label: Hepatitis B surface antigen. English Text: Hepatitis B ... LBDHD - Hepatitis D (anti-HDV). Variable Name: LBDHD SAS Label: Hepatitis D (anti-HDV). English Text: Hepatitis D (anti-HDV). ... Hepatitis B: Core Antibody, Surface Antigen; Hepatitis D Antibody (HEPBD_G) Data File: HEPBD_G.xpt First Published: September ... The Hepatitis B surface antigen is tested only when the Hepatitis B core antibody test is positive. Participant results are ...
NHANES 2005-2006: Hepatitis B: Core Antibody, Surface Antigen; Hepatitis D Antibody Data Documentation, Codebook, and...
LBDHBG - Hepatitis B surface antigen. Variable Name: LBDHBG. SAS Label: Hepatitis B surface antigen. English Text: Hepatitis B ... Hepatitis B: Core Antibody, Surface Antigen; Hepatitis D Antibody (HEPBD_D) Data File: HEPBD_D.xpt First Published: February ... LBDHD - Hepatitis D (anti-HDV). Variable Name: LBDHD. SAS Label: Hepatitis D (anti-HDV). English Text: Hepatitis D (anti-HDV). ... LBXHBC - Hepatitis B core antibody. Variable Name: LBXHBC. SAS Label: Hepatitis B core antibody. English Text: Hepatitis B core ...
Collaborative study to evaluate the candidate 3rd WHO international standard for hepatitis B surface antigen
Hepatitis B surface antigen, hepatitis C and HIV antibodies in a low-risk blood donor group, Nigeria Egah, D.Z.; Banwat, E.B. ... Prevalence of hepatitis B surface antigen and hepatitis C virus antibodies among blood donors in Alexandria, Egypt Wasfi, O.A ... Serum level of anti-hepatitis B surface antigen 6-8 years after hepatitis B vaccination at birth Kazemi, A.; Koosha, A.; ... were tested for hepatitis B surface antigen [HBsAg] and anti-hepatitis C virus [HCV] antibodies. A total of 119 donors [ ...
Hepatitis-associated antigen in liver disease in Kenya
History of Hepatitis B; Detection of antigen in serum of acute hepatitis; Comments on delta agent of the antigen. ... Association of the discovery of the Australia antigen or hepatitis-associated antigen with... ... Hepatitis-Associated Antigen and Viruses. London, W. Thomas // Annals of Internal Medicine;Apr73, Vol. 78 Issue 4, p624 Reviews ... Familial hepatoma with hepatitis-associated antigen. Denison, Edward K.; Peters, Robert L.; Reynolds, Telfer B.; Denison, E K; ...
Hepatitis B e antigen-positive Healthcare Workers - OSAP
Different guidelines exist for the management of hepatitis B virus (HBV)-infected healthcare workers (HCWs). Various HBV DNA ... Different guidelines exist for the management of hepatitis B virus (HBV)-infected healthcare workers (HCWs). Various HBV DNA ... Hepatitis B e antigen-positive Healthcare Workers More in this Section.... Infection Prevention and Safety Issue TOOLKITS. ...
Hepatitis B "e" antigen: an apparent association with lactate dehydrogenase isozyme-5 | Science
Neutralization with antibodies to the e antigen as well as by antibodies to the homologous d or y component of the hepatitis B ... Serums containing the "e" antigen of hepatitis B virus were subjected to electrophoresis in polyacrylamide gel. An extra band ... Hepatitis B e antigen: an apparent association with lactate dehydrogenase isozyme-5 ... Hepatitis B "e" antigen: an apparent association with lactate dehydrogenase isozyme-5 ...
HBsAgHBEAGHBcAgViral antigensAbstractVaccineProteinAntibody to hepatitis B surface antigenDiscovery of the Australia antigenSerum hepatitisLiverRecombinantAnti-hepatitis B surfaceInfection with hepatitis B virSurface antigen levelsMonoclonal antibodyELISAFulminantDetectionResolving hepatitis C virGeneCarriersVaccinationHepatocellularProteinsVirusesAnnals of InterSpecificityImmunization10.1002Immune responseSerologicalAcute hepatitisPositive for hepatitisDiagnosisAutoimmune HepatitisTests for hepatitisPeptidesSymptomatic hepatitisHBcrAg
- Rasthali (AAB) have been transformed with the ' s ' gene of hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) using Agrobacterium mediated transformation. (springer.com)
- In contrast, B cells producing neutralizing antibodies against the HBV surface antigen (HBsAg) have been studied in little detail, mainly due to methodical limitations. (jci.org)
- HBsAg, the protein that makes up the surface of the virus, is what labs look for in a blood sample to determine if a person is currently infected with hepatitis B. (hepb.org)
- The strange thing about HBsAg, is that each hepatitis B virus requires only about 100 HBsAg molecules to provide its envelope protein, but the virus produces about 100- to 1 million-times more HBsAg than is needed, leaving millions of HBsAg circulating in the bloodstream," explained Timothy Block, president of the Hepatitis B Foundation and the Baruch S. Blumberg Institute, the foundation's research arm. (hepb.org)
- Bottom line: A low or undetectable HBsAg level means patients are winning the war against hepatitis B and their risk of liver damage is greatly reduced. (hepb.org)
- According to Quest Diagnostics, which created the test, measuring HBsAg levels better identifies which patients are at risk of hepatitis B reactivation. (hepb.org)
- The virus was first discovered as "Australia antigen", later renamed HBsAg (for hepatitis B surface antigen), in patient blood [ 6 ]. (medsci.org)
- Hepatitis B patients also contain circulating antibodies against HBcAg (hepatitis B core antigen), and will develop antibodies against HBeAg and HBsAg (anti-HBe and anti-HBs) at later stages of infection. (medsci.org)
- We determined the serum level of antibody to hepatitis B surface antigen [anti-HBsAg] in 273 randomly selected 7-9-year-old schoolchildren from Zanjan City, Islamic Republic of Iran, who had been fully vaccinated against hepatitis B starting at birth. (who.int)
- The 55 codons upstream of the gene sequence encoding the hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) are called the pre-S(2) region. (sciencemag.org)
- Hepatitis D virus (HDV) is an incomplete RNA virus that needs hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) to help its replication. (clinicaltrials.gov)
- To estimate the prevalence of hepatitis D virus infection among HBsAg positive individuals. (clinicaltrials.gov)
- Changes of HBsAg and HBV DNA levels in Chinese chronic hepatitis B patients after 5 years of entecavir treatment. (curehunter.com)
- Serum hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) kinetics in hepatitis B e antigen (HBeAg)-negative chronic hepatitis B. (curehunter.com)
- HBsAg is the surface antigenof the Hepatitis-B-Virus (HBV). (prospecbio.com)
- HBsAg is a serological marker produced on the surface of the hepatitis B virus and is one of the first disease state markers to be detected in the serum of patients infected with the hepatitis B virus. (prospecbio.com)
- Pregnant women are screened for a different antigen, the hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) that also show an active infection with hepatitis B. If that test is positive, the HBeAg test may be done, along with tests such as the HBV DNA concentration and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) test for liver health. (verywell.com)
- In hepatitis B, it's common to test for the hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) and hepatitis B core antigen (HBcAg). (verywell.com)
- To explore the predictive value of serum hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) titer and transient elastography in screening for insignificant fibrosis in hepatitis B e antigen (HBeAg)-positive chronic hepatitis B patients. (dovepress.com)
- We assessed the serum HBsAg level, serum hepatitis B virus (HBV) deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) level, HBV genotypes, liver stiffness measurement (LSM) values by transient elastography, and histological fibrosis staging by METAVIR classification. (dovepress.com)
- Hepatitis B virus surface antigen (HBsAg) is an important risk factor for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and is downregulated during hepatocarcinogenesis. (sigmaaldrich.com)
- An open-label randomized study was undertaken to compare a 2-dose regimen (Months 0 and 6) of hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) vaccine formulated with a novel adjuvant (HBsAg/AS04) with a standard 3-dose regimen (Months 0, 1 and 6) of licensed recombinant HBsAg vaccine in terms of immunogenicity and reactogenicity when administered to healthy subjects aged between 15 and 40 y. (arctichealth.org)
- Hepatitis B Virus Surface antigen (HBsAg) standard, for use in running standard curves in AlphaLISA assays. (perkinelmer.com)
- The primary objective is to demonstrate the efficacy of combination therapy (Peg-IFN and adefovir or Peg-IFN and tenofovir) for inducing loss of HBsAg compared to no-treatment in HBeAg negative chronic hepatitis B patients with low viral load. (clinicaltrials.gov)
- A total of 69 persons were investigated for assessment of cell-mediated and humoral immunity to hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg). (asm.org)
- Three groups, each consisting of 20 normal persons, 20HBsAg carriers, and 20 convalescent hepatitis B patients, were studied for HBsAg, anti-HBs, and leukocyte migration inhibition with purified HBsAg. (asm.org)
- Sequential sampling if an additional group of nine acute hepatitis B patients defined the cellular and humoral immune response to HBsAg. (asm.org)
- The antigen was eliminated rapidly by mounting of cell-mediated immune response detectable for a limited period, followed by antibody response in relatively few patients moore than 3 months after clearance of circulating HBsAg. (asm.org)
- Three hundred and sixty (360) blood samples were collected from the pupils and sera separated and analyzed for HBsAg using one step Hepatitis B surface antigen test strip. (who.int)
- A symposium on HIV variants and hepatitis B virus (HBV) surface antigen (HBsAg) mutants, sponsored by Abbott Laboratories, was held May 22-24, 2005, in Washington, DC. (cdc.gov)
- Thirty-five cases with hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) positivity known prior to initiation of TNF-α inhibitors were identified. (springer.com)
- While such reactivation may be due to a variety of reasons, clinicians prescribing TNF-α inhibitors to HBsAg-positive patients should consider prophylactic antiviral therapy and close monitoring for any clinical or serological evidence of hepatitis. (springer.com)
- The age-specific prevalence of hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) and antibody was studied in a random sample of Gilbert and Ellice islanders over the age of 10 years living in Nauru. (ajtmh.org)
- The original term for the Australian antigen, now called hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg). (thefreedictionary.com)
- Percentage of HBsAg-positive subjects detected using the hepatitis sAg/eAg test versus the HBsAg standard provided by NIBSC. (asm.org)
- For comparing factors between AHB patients with viral persistence and those with self-limited infection, 212 AHB patients without human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) coinfection were observed in 38 liver centers until serum hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) disappeared or a minimum of 6 months in cases where HBsAg persisted. (sigmaaldrich.com)
- We have analyzed the molecular bases of the persistence of hepatitis B virus (HBV) DNA in serum and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) in the absence of detectable hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) in hemodialysis patients and dialysis-unit staff members who had suffered acute hepatitis B that resolved previously. (nih.gov)
- No serum HBsAg/hepatitis B surface antigen antibody (anti-HBs) immune complexes or mutations in the "a determinant of the S gene were found. (nih.gov)
- HBsAg serum level (quantification) may be useful for managing hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection patients. (scirp.org)
- The objective of this study was to estimate the correlation between HBsAg serum level and liver fibrosis severity with treatment naive chronic hepatitis B patients in Cote d'Ivoire. (scirp.org)
- Conclusion: This study shows that there's a negative correlation between HBsAg serum level and liver fibrosis severity treatment naive with African chronic hepatitis B viral HBeAg-negative patients. (scirp.org)
- Despite enormous efforts to develop antiviral agents, no successful treatment has been reported to eradicate HBV or produce protective anti-hepatitis B surface Ag (anti-HBsAg) Abs, the clinically desired goal of anti-HBV therapy ( 3 , 4 ). (jimmunol.org)
- The hepatitis virus consists of a core containing DNA ( HBV-DNA ) with an enzyme known as DNA polymerase that assists with viral replication and is surrounded by surface proteins ( HBsAg ). (healthhype.com)
- The surface proteins surrounding the viral core is known as the hepatitis B surface antigen ( HBsAg ). (healthhype.com)
- Home » Products » Health Beauty » Diagnosis Equipment » HBsAg Test Strip/Hepatitis B Surface Antigen Test In total 213268 number ofProductsinfo，Released today. (dahmw.org)
- The hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) S1 protein forms nanoparticles that can be utilized both as an immunogenic array of the MPER and to provide the lipid environment needed for enhanced 2F5 and 4E10 binding. (iavi.org)
- Hepatitis B e-antigen (HBeAg) is a viral protein associated with HBV infections. (abcam.com)
- successful treatment will usually eliminate HBeAg from the blood and lead to development of antibodies against e-antigen (anti-HBe). (abcam.com)
- The core promoter mutants express less HBe antigen (HBeAg) through transcriptional down regulation, while precore mutants express truncated products. (medsci.org)
- HBeAg (hepatitis B e antigen) was identified several years later as a marker for patients at high risk for transmission of the disease [ 20 ]. (medsci.org)
- Molecular cloning and sequencing of the HBV genome led to the redefinition of the three HBV antigens as viral gene products endowed with specific functions in viral life cycle [for an in-depth review on the molecular biology of HBV, see ref. 13].The HBcAg and HBeAg are alternative translation products of the core gene, with HBeAg translation requiring an upstream precore region ATG codon (Fig. 2 ). (medsci.org)
- Hepatitis B e antigen positive (HBeAg-positive) children are at high risk of severe complications such as hepatocellular carcinoma and cirrhosis. (hindawi.com)
- By revisiting our previous screen of microRNA plasma levels in HBeAg-positive and HBeAg-negative children with chronic hepatitis B (CHB) and in healthy controls, candidate microRNAs with aberrant plasma expressions in HBeAg-positive children were identified. (hindawi.com)
- Risk of progressive liver disease primarily applies to hepatitis B e antigen positive (HBeAg-positive) children and seroclearance of HBeAg is a key event in the natural course of disease [ 5 ]. (hindawi.com)
- Several assays have been developed for the measurement of serum hepatitis B e antigen (HBeAg) or hepatitis B core antigen (HBcAg) concentrations ( 1 , 3 , 16 ). (asm.org)
- Since HBeAg and HBcAg share a 149-amino-acid sequence identity, they are collectively called hepatitis B core-related antigens (HBcrAg) ( 5 , 13 ). (asm.org)
- In this assay, the specimens were pretreated so that HBeAg and HBcAg were released from the patients' own anti-HBe and anti-HBc antibody-antigen complexes, respectively. (asm.org)
- HBeAg stands for hepatitis B e-antigen . (verywell.com)
- People with chronic hepatitis B can show seroconversion-the levels of HBeAg dropping until they're undetectable while levels of anti-HBe antibodies develop. (verywell.com)
- Interestingly, there are strains of hepatitis B virus that don't produce HBeAg. (verywell.com)
- They can have an active Hepatitis B infection without a positive HBeAg test . (verywell.com)
- Liaw Y-F. HBeAg Seroconversion as an Important End Point in the Treatment of Chronic Hepatitis B. Hepatology International . (verywell.com)
- A Randomized Prospective Open-label Trial for Comparing Combination Therapy Peg-Interferon Alfa-2a/Adefovir Dipivoxil and Peg-Interferon Alfa-2a/Tenofovir Disoproxil Fumarate Versus no Treatment in HBeAg Negative Chronic Hepatitis B Patients With Low Viral Load. (clinicaltrials.gov)
- Study population: The study population will consist of 150 patients chronically infected with hepatitis B virus with low viral load and HBeAg negativity. (clinicaltrials.gov)
- The proliferative response of PBMC to hepatitis B virus (HBV) envelope, core, and e Ag was analyzed prospectively in 21 patients with acute self-limited HBV infection and compared with the response of patients with chronic HBV infection and different levels of HBV replication (i.e., hepatitis e Ag (HBeAg)- or anti-HBe-positive) and liver damage (i.e., chronic active hepatitis or chronic asymptomatic carriers). (jimmunol.org)
- Percentage of HBeAg-positive subjects detected using the hepatitis sAg/eAg test versus the PEI HBeAg standard. (asm.org)
- The objectives of this review were to assess the effects of the sequential combination of glucocorticosteroids and interferon compared to interferon alone in the treatment of chronic hepatitis B. Glucocorticosteroid pretreatment was associated with a significantly higher frequency of loss of hepatitis B markers (HBeAg and HBV DNA), but had no significant effect on clinical outcomes. (cochrane.org)
- Mellerup MT, Krogsgaard K, Mathurin P, Gluud C, Poynard T. Sequential combination of glucocorticosteroids and alfa interferon versus alfa interferon alone for HBeAg-positive chronic hepatitis B. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2005, Issue 3. (cochrane.org)
- This entry represent the core antigen of the viral capsid (HBcAg) from various Hepatitis B virus (HBV), which is a major human pathogen. (ebi.ac.uk)
- The capsid is composed of a single polypeptide, HBcAg, also known as the core antigen. (ebi.ac.uk)
- This involves the reaction of anti-HBc in the sample with hepatitis B core antigen (HBcAg) coated wells. (cdc.gov)
- The core protein of the hepatitis B virus, HBcAg, assembles into highly immunogenic virus-like particles (HBc VLPs) when expressed in a variety of heterologous systems. (jic.ac.uk)
- In this sense V1 is similar to the first generation of commercial Hepatitis B vaccine, which contained pooled viral antigens derived from the blood of hepatitis B carriers. (prweb.com)
- Western and dot immunoblotting analysis of viral antigens and antibodies: application to murine hepatitis virus. (nih.gov)
- This assay detected picogram quantities of viral antigens and antibodies. (nih.gov)
- And B-cells, so they don't generate the antibodies needed to destroy the viral antigens that make up the virus. (hepb.org)
- Two-step immunohistochemical staining showed the expression of viral antigens in situ. (unboundmedicine.com)
- Trans Am Clin Climatol Assoc. 2019;130:104-118 Authors: Alter HJ Abstract The modern age of viral hepatitis began in the early 1960s with the serendipitous discovery of the Australia antigen, a protein that was later shown to represent the envelope of the hepatitis B virus leading to its designation as the hepatitis B surface antigen. (medworm.com)
- Authors: Mak LY, Ko KL, To WP, Wong DK, Seto WK, Fung J, Yuen MF Abstract Serum hepatitis B core-related antigen (HBcrAg) was shown to predict the risk of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in chronic hepatitis B (CHB) patients undergoing treatment. (medworm.com)
- Unvaccinated sex partners and household and needle-sharing contacts should be tested for susceptibility to HBV infection (see Appendix A, Prevaccination Serologic Testing for Susceptibility) and should receive the first dose of hepatitis B vaccine immediately after collection of blood for serologic testing. (cdc.gov)
- Since the availability of hepatitis B vaccine the prevention of perinatal transmission of hepatitis B virus has become feasible. (bmj.com)
- Duration of Immunity After Hepatitis B Vaccination: Efficacy of Low-Dose Booster Vaccine. (ebscohost.com)
- Studies health care workers three years after initial vaccination with hepatitis B vaccine to determine the prevalence of immunity indicated by levels of antibody to hepatitis B surface antigen. (ebscohost.com)
- Decline of vaccine coverage for hepatitis B. (ebscohost.com)
- A 2-dose regimen of a recombinant hepatitis B vaccine with the immune stimulant AS04 compared with the standard 3-dose regimen of Engerix-B in healthy young adults. (arctichealth.org)
- In 1991, the World at least 6-8 years before with 3 doses of Health Organization (WHO) recommended hepatitis B vaccine starting at birth to that hepatitis B vaccination be included provide information on the effect of the in national immunization programmes in immunization strategy for hepatitis B and countries with a hepatitis B surface antigen the need for booster doses. (who.int)
- This was the first marker for any hepatitis virus and became not only a diagnostic assay, but also a mandatory blood donor screening test and the basis for the first generation hepatitis B vaccine. (medworm.com)
- Hepatitis B vaccine is effective in preventing infection with hepatitis B virus (HBV), but its duration of protection is unknown. (ovid.com)
- Breakthrough cases of Hepatitis B are primarily attributed to mutations in the Hepatitis B virus (HBV) that make HBV surface proteins unrecognizable to antibodies produced from the HBV vaccine. (wikipedia.org)
- A core protein antigen of the hepatitis B virus distinct from both the surface and core antigens. (dictionary.com)
- Hepatitis delta virus (HDV) is known to express a protein termed the small delta antigen, a structural protein which is also essential for genome replication. (asm.org)
- The antigen is a protein that binds specifically on one of these surface proteins. (prospecbio.com)
- This antigen is a protein from the hepatitis B virus that circulates in infected blood when the virus is actively replicating. (verywell.com)
- An antigen is a protein that stimulates an immune system response, causing your body to produce antibodies to fight invaders. (verywell.com)
- Three of the children had antibodies to hepatitis B core protein. (who.int)
- Hepatitis delta antigen (HDAg) is a nuclear protein that is intimately involved in hepatitis delta virus (HDV) RNA replication. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
- The viral genomic RNA (G-RNA) is first replicated into the full-length antigenomic RNA (AG-RNA) and is also transcribed into a 0.8-kb mRNA, which encodes the only HDV protein, hepatitis delta antigen (HDAg). (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
Antibody to hepatitis B surface antigen1
- A boost in antibody to hepatitis B surface antigen (anti-HBs) was defined as a fourfold rise in levels to ≥20 mIU/mL that was not accompanied by the presence of antibody to hepatitis B core antigen or attributable to interim vaccination. (ovid.com)
Discovery of the Australia antigen1
- Association of the discovery of the Australia antigen or hepatitis-associated antigen with. (ebscohost.com)
- The Immureboost Company presented poster 'Normalization of Elevated Liver Enzymes due to V-1 Immureboost Therapy' at the international symposium Therapies for Viral Hepatitis held in Boston on October 29-31, 2002. (prweb.com)
- Hepatitis is a serious and potentially life-threatening disease which may culminate in liver cancer. (prweb.com)
- Hepatitis B causes 60% to 80% of the world's primary liver cancer with over one million people dying annually. (prweb.com)
- Diagnosis of virally induced chronic hepatitis is often made when a patient presents elevated liver enzyme levels known as alanine (ALT or SGPT) and aspartate (AST or SGOT) aminotransferases. (prweb.com)
- hep e antigen.Negative.HBV DNA.Negative.I am on treatment with lumividine tab 100 mg/day for about 3 yrs.My ALT level & liver ultrasound test normal.I wish to go abroad for a job and there Hep.B Surface antigen is tested.If one is positive, it is a sure rejection.Can inj. (medhelp.org)
- Persons with chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection are at high risk for chronic liver disease and are a major reservoir of HBV infection. (cdc.gov)
- The core promoter mutants have been associated with the development of fulminant hepatitis during acute infection and liver cancer during chronic infection. (medsci.org)
- Investigation of SEN Virus Infection in Patients with Cryptogenic Acute Liver Failure, Hepatitis-Associated Aplastic Anemia, or Acute and Chronic Non--A--E Hepatitis. (ebscohost.com)
- The hepatitis-associated liver injury in HIV-infected cases has been one of the important reasons for mortality and morbidity in. (ebscohost.com)
- The article discusses the increasing threats of Hepatitis B Virus (HBV), which attacks the liver cells and leads to cirrhosis, liver failure and liver cancer. (ebscohost.com)
- Exacerbation of chronic liver disease due to hepatitis B surface antigen after delta infection. (ebscohost.com)
- In conclusion, serum HBcrAg levels correlated with HBV virological markers and reflected the chronic hepatitis B disease activity in the liver. (asm.org)
- The hepatitis B virus is an important cause of acute and chronic liver disease. (thermofisher.com)
- Antibodies to hepatitis C virus, hepatitis B serology and liver enzymes were examined in 137 Finnish haemophiliac patients to detect signs of chronic viral hepatitis and its possible aetiological associations. (arctichealth.org)
- Factors associated with viral breakthrough in lamivudine monoprophylaxis of hepatitis B virus recurrence after liver transplantation. (umassmed.edu)
- Chronic hepatitis C is a serious liver disease that often results in cirrhosis or hepatocellular carcinoma. (mdpi.com)
- N-glycopeptide signatures of IgA2 in serum from patients with hepatitis B virus-related liver diseases. (medworm.com)
- Autoimmune hepatitis (AIH) can arise de novo after liver transplantation (LT) for non-autoimmune liver diseases. (medsci.org)
- Approximately one quarter of adult HBV carrier and chronic hepatitis B (CHB) patients later die of HBV-related complications of liver cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma ( 1 , 2 ). (jimmunol.org)
- The objectives were to assess the effects of the sequential combination of glucocorticosteroids and alfa interferon versus alfa interferon alone in hepatitis B 'e' antigen positive chronic hepatitis B on mortality, virological response, biochemical response, liver histology, quality of life, and adverse events. (cochrane.org)
- Proceedings: Serial liver biopsies in hepatitis B antigen carriers. (bmj.com)
- Hepatitis is the term for inflammation of the liver and may be due to infectious or non-infectious causes. (healthhype.com)
- The five types of hepatitis viruses are common infectious causes of liver inflammation, and some like hepatitis A (HAV), B (HBV) and C (HCV) are more frequently seen infectious agents. (healthhype.com)
- The hepatitis B virus (HBV) can infect the liver cells resulting in an acute infection or persist with chronic inflammation of the liver. (healthhype.com)
- Fulminant hepatitis with destruction of large parts of the liver is life-threatening. (healthhype.com)
- In chronic hepatitis B infection, the patient may be asymptomatic for long periods of time until there is severe damage to the liver. (healthhype.com)
- Chronic hepatitis B is seen where the virus does not clear and the infection persists past 6 months.The clinical features of chronic HBV infection depends on the degree of liver damage. (healthhype.com)
- A carrier is a person with chronic hepatitis B showing no symptoms of the infection and there is no damage to the liver. (healthhype.com)
- Worldwide, over 300 million persons are chronically infected with hepatitis B virus (HBV), which can cause chronic liver disease and hepatocellular carcinoma ( 22 , 35 ). (asm.org)
- Hep G2 is a human liver cancer cell line. (wikipedia.org)
- Hep G2 is a perpetual cell line which was derived from the liver tissue of a 15-year-old Caucasian American male with a well-differentiated hepatocellular carcinoma. (wikipedia.org)
Anti-hepatitis B surface1
- Pili fractions isolated from Neisseria gonorrhoeae and Escherichia coli bound to hepatitis B surface antigen and produced false positive anti-hepatitis B surface antigen reactions. (asm.org)
Infection with hepatitis B vir1
- Interferon is an established treatment for chronic infection with hepatitis B virus. (cochrane.org)
Surface antigen levels4
- Reduction of hepatitis B surface antigen levels and hepatitis B surface antigen seroclearance in chronic hepatitis B patients receiving 10 years of nucleoside analogue therapy. (curehunter.com)
- A large case-control study on the predictability of hepatitis B surface antigen levels three years before hepatitis B surface antigen seroclearance. (curehunter.com)
- High hepatitis B surface antigen levels predict insignificant fibrosis in hepatitis B e antigen positive chronic hepatitis B. (curehunter.com)
- Quantitative hepatitis B surface antigen levels in patients with chronic hepatitis B after 2 years of entecavir treatment. (curehunter.com)
- Higher monoclonal antibody binding of 67.87% of the antigen was observed when it was expressed with a C-terminal ER retention signal. (springer.com)
- Hepatitis B Virus X antigen Monoclonal antibody specifically detects Hepatitis B Virus X antigen in Virus samples. (fishersci.com)
- The following antibody was used in this experiment: Hepatitis B Virus Core Antigen Monoclonal Antibody (H6F5) from Thermo Fisher Scientific, catalog # MA1-21697, RRID AB_559401. (thermofisher.com)
- The following antibody was used in this experiment: Hepatitis C Virus Core Antigen Monoclonal Antibody (11B3) from Thermo Fisher Scientific, catalog # MA1-7613, RRID AB_1075580. (thermofisher.com)
- The expression levels of the antigen in the plants grown under in vitro conditions as well as the green house hardened plants were estimated by ELISA for all the four constructs. (springer.com)
- We offer Hepatitis A Surface Antigen Antibodies for use in common research applications: ELISA, Radioimmunoassay. (novusbio.com)
- ELISA procedures provide a means for routinely detecting antibodies to specific antigens. (cdc.gov)
- The International Immunodiagnostics HDV Ab assay is a competitive enzyme immunoassay (ELISA) for the determination of antibodies to Hepatitis D Virus or HDV in human plasma and sera with a 'two step" methodology. (cdc.gov)
- HCV NS4 Antigen is suitable for ELISA and Western blots, excellent antigen for detection of HCV with minimal specificity problems. (prospecbio.com)
- The Hunan Jynda ELISA had the lowest sensitivity (59.5%), and the authors concluded that ELISA assays are probably a less reliable technology for HCV antigen detection than assays which use signal amplification that allows enhancement of antigen detection. (hivandhepatitis.com)
- Co-infection with hepatitis D virus (HDV) in persons with acute or chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection can lead to fulminant hepatitis. (cdc.gov)
- About 20% to 30% of coinfections of HDV and HBV in humans develop fatal fulminant hepatitis versus 2% of patients with acute hepatitis B mono-infection. (clinicaltrials.gov)
- Hepatitis delta virus (HDV) causes chronic and, occasionally, fulminant hepatitis in humans ( 16 ). (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
- Human leukocyte antigen (HLA) class I presents viral peptides to CD8+ T cells to permit detection of infected cells, and tapasin is an important component of the peptide loading complex for HLA class I. We sought to determine if tapasin polymorphisms affected the outcome of HCV infection. (nih.gov)
- Detection of antibodies to HIV-1 gp41- and HLA class II antigen-derived peptides in SLE patients. (biomedsearch.com)
- A sensitive chemiluminescence enzyme immunoassay has been developed for hepatitis B virus (HBV) core-related antigen (HBcrAg) detection. (asm.org)
- No absolute correlation between the detection of HBs Ag, or previous history of hepatitis, jaundice, or current hepatitis was found. (bmj.com)
- HCV core-antigen can be used as a marker of viraemia as there is good non-linear correlation with HCV-RNA (r=0.87 vs. Abbot Real-Time qRT-PCR) with the lower limit of detection corresponding to HCV viral load of 700-1100 IU/ml . (natap.org)
Resolving hepatitis C vir1
- Synergism of tapasin and human leukocyte antigens in resolving hepatitis C virus infection. (nih.gov)
- HLA-DP and γ-interferon receptor-2 gene variants and their association with viral hepatitis activity in chronic hepatitis B infection. (curehunter.com)
- In this retrospective study, we investigated the prevalence and significance of mutations in part of the hepatitis B virus (HBV) x gene, and tried to clarify their relationship with clinicopathological or histopathological characteristics and prognosis in patients with chronic hepatitis B (CHB). (unboundmedicine.com)
- We hypothesized that single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the gene encoding CTLA-4 may affect the vigor of the T-cell response to hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection, thus influencing viral persistence. (asm.org)
- To develop a low cost, high compliance screening programme for identification of carriers of hepatitis B surface antigen in the obstetric population of the Netherlands. (bmj.com)
- Globally, about 248 million people are chronic HBV surface antigen carriers, and about 5% of them also had hepatitis delta virus (HDV) infection as well. (clinicaltrials.gov)
- Twenty-five (13.3%) of the 188 individuals who were studied became chronic carriers of hepatitis B surface antigen. (arctichealth.org)
- Among patients who were four years of age or less when infected, 28.8% became chronic carriers of hepatitis B, as compared with 7.7% of those who were 30 years of age or older. (arctichealth.org)
- The prevalence of infection for at least 15 years, that antibody hepatitis B carriers varies in different parts levels decrease the most among persons of the world, ranging from less than 1% to immunized at 4 years of age or younger, and 15% [ 2 ]. (who.int)
- In the Islamic Republic of Iran the level have been exposed to HBV and about 3% of antibodies to hepatitis B in vaccinated are chronic carriers, ranging from 1.7% individuals is not known. (who.int)
- 8%). During delivery of recommended hepatitis B vaccination services (e.g. (cdc.gov)
- The duration of protection after hepatitis B vaccination in children is unknown. (who.int)
- Integration of hepatitis B vaccination into rural African primary health care programmes. (ebscohost.com)
- Examines the integration of hepatitis B vaccination into rural health care programs in South Africa. (ebscohost.com)
- It has been reported that when hepatitis services is good throughout the territory, B vaccination is initiated at birth, there and vaccinations are delivered through local is an increased likelihood that the child health districts which are able to reach the will complete the series [ 8,9 ] hence an whole population. (who.int)
- In this review, hepatitis B virus (HBV) and HCC prevalence, distribution and prevalence of different genotypes, and male/female infection frequencies in relation to the vaccination status in the Mediterranean countries were reported. (medworm.com)
- Hepatitis B virus (HBV) chronically infects 300 million people worldwide, and increases their risk to develop hepatocellular carcinoma by a hundred fold [ 3 ]. (medsci.org)
- Hepatitis-associated antigen and hepatocellular carcinoma in Taiwan. (ebscohost.com)
- Describes the prevalence of hepatitis-associated antigen (HAA) in patients with primary hepatocellular carcinoma in Taiwan. (ebscohost.com)
- Viral hepatitis-associated intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma shares common disease processes with hepatocellular carcinoma. (ebscohost.com)
- This feature of the e antigen provides an assay system for laboratory diagnosis of potential clinical usefulness and suggests its possible role in pathogenesis of hepatocellular injury. (sciencemag.org)
- Children with chronic hepatitis B (CHB) have a lifetime risk of developing hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) up to 25% and an incidence of cirrhosis of 2-3% per year [ 1 , 2 ]. (hindawi.com)
- Worldwide, hepatitis B infection is one of the main causes of hepatocellular carcinoma and cirrhosis. (ebscohost.com)
- A Systematic Review of the Current Hepatitis B Viral Infection and Hepatocellular Carcinoma Situation in Mediterranean Countries. (medworm.com)
- HDV is a satellite virus which requires hepatitis B virus (HBV) to supply envelope proteins for virus assembly and production ( 46 ). (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
- Viral proteins (antigens) trigger the immune system to produce corresponding antibodies. (healthhype.com)
- Tandem fusion of hepatitis B core antigen allows assembly of virus-like particles in bacteria and plants with enhanced capacity to accommodate foreign proteins. (jic.ac.uk)
- Both inserted proteins are correctly folded and the nanobody fused to the surface of the tandem core particle (which we name tandibody) retains the ability to bind to its cognate antigen. (jic.ac.uk)
- About 500 million individuals worldwide are infected with two major types of hepatitis B and C viruses. (prweb.com)
- Thus, it is possible that V-1 Immureboost might be useful for treating hepatitis, especially when one considers the fact that immunogenic constituents of V1 are derived from HIV-infected donors many of whom are co-infected with hepatitis B and C viruses. (prweb.com)
- Immunogenic components of hepatitis viruses. (thefreedictionary.com)
- Unlike the surface antigen, the e-antigen is found in the blood only when there are viruses also present. (abcam.com)
- Hepatitis viruses constitute a major public health problem because of the morbidity and mortality associated with the acute and chronic consequences of these infections. (cdc.gov)
- In addition, NHANES provides the means to better define the epidemiology of other hepatitis viruses. (cdc.gov)
- NHANES testing for markers of infection with hepatitis viruses will be used to determine secular trends in infection rates across most age and racial/ethnic groups, and will provide a national picture of the epidemiologic determinants of these infections. (cdc.gov)
- Hepatitis-Associated Antigen and Viruses. (ebscohost.com)
- Reviews the book 'Hepatitis-Associated Antigen and Viruses,' by A. J. Zuckerman. (ebscohost.com)
- A cross-sectional study evaluated the prevalence of and the risk factors for hepatitis C and B viruses among 700 adults above the age of 40 years in a rural area of South Korea. (ebscohost.com)
- INTRODUCTION Co-infections between hepatitis B and HIV viruses are frequent due to their similar epidemiological characteristics. (ebscohost.com)
- and hepatitis C viruses (HCV) are major causes of mortality and morbidity worldwide. (who.int)
Annals of Inter1
- The review, published in Annals of Internal Medicine on 20 June , compared the sensitivity and specificity of 5 commercially available tests for hepatitis C core antigen compared to nucleic acid testing for HCV RNA. (hivandhepatitis.com)
- In this study HCV core-antigen testing on the Architect platform displayed high sensitivity (100%) and specificity (97.96%) in diagnosing acute HCV in HIV-infected individuals who experience elevated transaminases. (natap.org)
- New immunization strategies have been developed to eliminate the spread of HBV and hepatitis A virus (HAV) in the United States. (cdc.gov)
- A Cross-Sectional Study of Anti-Hepatitis B Antibody Status in STD Patients: Need for Improved Immunization. (ebscohost.com)
- Elimination of New Chronic Hepatitis B Virus Infections: Results of the Alaska Immunization Program. (ebscohost.com)
- Evaluates the effectiveness of a hepatitis B immunization program in eliminating hepatitis B virus (HBV) transmission among Alaska Natives in a region in which HBV is endemic. (ebscohost.com)
- Immunization against hepatitis B is an important component of preventative medicine and is offered to all children in approximately 30 countries. (thermofisher.com)
- Practices (ACIP), is the introduction of study carried out from February 2003 to hepatitis B immunization at birth [ 5,6 ]. (who.int)
- doi: 10.1002/hep.26415. (nih.gov)
- Prospective serological surveys of 1,280 seronegative Yupik Eskimos, performed between 1971 and 1976, identified 189 (14.8%) who developed serological evidence of hepatitis B virus infection. (arctichealth.org)
- Acute Hepatitis B in a Patient with Antibodies to Hepatitis B Surface Antigen Who Was Receiving Rituximab. (ebscohost.com)
- A letter to the editor on acute hepatitis B in a patient with antibodies to hepatitis B surface antigen who was having rituximab therapy is presented. (ebscohost.com)
- Acute hepatitis B virus infection: relation of age to the clinical expression of disease and subsequent development of the carrier state. (arctichealth.org)
- The proportion of patients who progress to chronicity following acute hepatitis B (AHB) varies widely worldwide. (sigmaaldrich.com)
- Acute hepatitis with subsequent recovery and total clearance of the virus in a person with a healthy immune system. (healthhype.com)
- Acute hepatitis B lasts for less than 6 months. (healthhype.com)
Positive for hepatitis1
- Pregnant women who are positive for hepatitis B surface antigen should be identified before delivery to prevent hepatitis B infection in their neonates by passive or active immunisation, or both. (bmj.com)
- Other clinical markers aiding the hepatitis diagnosis are abnormal levels of alkaline phosphatase and bilirubin. (prweb.com)
- The 2-step diagnostic process is seen as a major obstacle to diagnosis and treatment of hepatitis C on the scale needed to achieve ambitious targets for reducing the burden of the disease and eliminating hepatitis C as a public health problem. (hivandhepatitis.com)
- A rapid point-of-care test for HCV antigen that could be used by health care workers in the same way as point-of-care tests for HIV or HCV antibodies was viewed as the highest priority for improving HCV diagnosis, and a feasible target for product development by a recent stakeholder consultation convened by the Forum for Collaborative HIV Research and the Foundation for Innovative Diagnostics (FIND). (hivandhepatitis.com)
- HCV RNA tests can cost between $13 and $100 per test, and the cost of diagnosis and monitoring may increase the overall cost of curing hepatitis C by one-third in some settings. (hivandhepatitis.com)
- Hepatitis C Core Antigen Testing for Diagnosis of Hepatitis C Virus Infection: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis. (hivandhepatitis.com)
- In this study we compare the utility of HCV core-antigen compared to qRT-PCR in the diagnosis on acute HCV in an HIV-positive cohort. (natap.org)
- Yamagiwa S, Kamimura H, Takamura M, Genda T, Ichida T, Nomoto M, Aoyagi Y. Presence of Antibodies against Self Human Leukocyte Antigen Class II Molecules in Autoimmune Hepatitis. (medsci.org)
Tests for hepatitis1
- 1 2 3 Therefore, a multicentre study was designed in 1982 to determine whether efficient organisation of screening for hepatitis B could be set up in and outside hospital by adding tests for hepatitis B surface antigen to the already accepted and widely used protocol for routine antenatal screening at 14 weeks of gestation. (bmj.com)
- Tapasin along with the transporter associated with antigen processing (TAP), ERp57 and calreticulin form the peptide loading complex (PLC), which loads viral peptides onto HLA class I. Tapasin binds to HLA class I and is thought to assist in the dissociation of peptides which bind with low affinity. (nih.gov)
- All six cases of clinically symptomatic hepatitis were associated with infliximab therapy. (springer.com)
- We aimed to investigate the usefulness of HBcrAg measurement for monitoring chronic hepatitis B disease. (asm.org)
- A higher HBcrAg concentration was associated with a greater proportion of hepatitis B core antigen immunostaining. (asm.org)
- A greater reduction in posttreatment HBcrAg concentration was associated with histological improvement and a decrease in hepatitis B core antigen immunostaining. (asm.org)