Immunoglobulins raised by any form of viral hepatitis; some of these antibodies are used to diagnose the specific kind of hepatitis.
INFLAMMATION of the LIVER in humans caused by a member of the ORTHOHEPADNAVIRUS genus, HEPATITIS B VIRUS. It is primarily transmitted by parenteral exposure, such as transfusion of contaminated blood or blood products, but can also be transmitted via sexual or intimate personal contact.
INFLAMMATION of the LIVER in humans caused by HEPATITIS C VIRUS, a single-stranded RNA virus. Its incubation period is 30-90 days. Hepatitis C is transmitted primarily by contaminated blood parenterally, and is often associated with transfusion and intravenous drug abuse. However, in a significant number of cases, the source of hepatitis C infection is unknown.
INFLAMMATION of the LIVER in humans caused by a member of the HEPATOVIRUS genus, HUMAN HEPATITIS A VIRUS. It can be transmitted through fecal contamination of food or water.
Immunoglobulin molecules having a specific amino acid sequence by virtue of which they interact only with the ANTIGEN (or a very similar shape) that induced their synthesis in cells of the lymphoid series (especially PLASMA CELLS).
The type species of the genus ORTHOHEPADNAVIRUS which causes human HEPATITIS B and is also apparently a causal agent in human HEPATOCELLULAR CARCINOMA. The Dane particle is an intact hepatitis virion, named after its discoverer. Non-infectious spherical and tubular particles are also seen in the serum.
Those hepatitis B antigens found on the surface of the Dane particle and on the 20 nm spherical and tubular particles. Several subspecificities of the surface antigen are known. These were formerly called the Australia antigen.
INFLAMMATION of the LIVER.
The property of antibodies which enables them to react with some ANTIGENIC DETERMINANTS and not with others. Specificity is dependent on chemical composition, physical forces, and molecular structure at the binding site.
Immunoglobulins produced in response to VIRAL ANTIGENS.
INFLAMMATION of the LIVER in humans that is caused by HEPATITIS C VIRUS lasting six months or more. Chronic hepatitis C can lead to LIVER CIRRHOSIS.
INFLAMMATION of the LIVER in humans caused by HEPATITIS B VIRUS lasting six months or more. It is primarily transmitted by parenteral exposure, such as transfusion of contaminated blood or blood products, but can also be transmitted via sexual or intimate personal contact.
INFLAMMATION of the LIVER in humans due to infection by VIRUSES. There are several significant types of human viral hepatitis with infection caused by enteric-transmission (HEPATITIS A; HEPATITIS E) or blood transfusion (HEPATITIS B; HEPATITIS C; and HEPATITIS D).
Antibodies to the HEPATITIS B ANTIGENS, including antibodies to the surface (Australia) and core of the Dane particle and those to the "e" antigens.
A species in the genus HEPATOVIRUS containing one serotype and two strains: HUMAN HEPATITIS A VIRUS and Simian hepatitis A virus causing hepatitis in humans (HEPATITIS A) and primates, respectively.
Vaccines or candidate vaccines containing inactivated hepatitis B or some of its component antigens and designed to prevent hepatitis B. Some vaccines may be recombinantly produced.
Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.
Immunoglobulins produced in a response to BACTERIAL ANTIGENS.
INFLAMMATION of the LIVER with ongoing hepatocellular injury for 6 months or more, characterized by NECROSIS of HEPATOCYTES and inflammatory cell (LEUKOCYTES) infiltration. Chronic hepatitis can be caused by viruses, medications, autoimmune diseases, and other unknown factors.
The hepatitis B antigen within the core of the Dane particle, the infectious hepatitis virion.
Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent infection with hepatitis A virus (HEPATOVIRUS).
A genus of FLAVIVIRIDAE causing parenterally-transmitted HEPATITIS C which is associated with transfusions and drug abuse. Hepatitis C virus is the type species.
Antibodies to the HEPATITIS C ANTIGENS including antibodies to envelope, core, and non-structural proteins.
A closely related group of antigens found in the plasma only during the infective phase of hepatitis B or in virulent chronic hepatitis B, probably indicating active virus replication; there are three subtypes which may exist in a complex with immunoglobulins G.
Antigens of the virion of the HEPATITIS B VIRUS or the Dane particle, its surface (HEPATITIS B SURFACE ANTIGENS), core (HEPATITIS B CORE ANTIGENS), and other associated antigens, including the HEPATITIS B E ANTIGENS.
The production of ANTIBODIES by proliferating and differentiated B-LYMPHOCYTES under stimulation by ANTIGENS.
Antibodies that reduce or abolish some biological activity of a soluble antigen or infectious agent, usually a virus.
Acute INFLAMMATION of the LIVER in humans; caused by HEPATITIS E VIRUS, a non-enveloped single-stranded RNA virus. Similar to HEPATITIS A, its incubation period is 15-60 days and is enterically transmitted, usually by fecal-oral transmission.
A positive-stranded RNA virus species in the genus HEPEVIRUS, causing enterically-transmitted non-A, non-B hepatitis (HEPATITIS E).
Antibodies to the HEPATITIS A ANTIGENS including antibodies to envelope, core, and non-structural proteins.
A chronic self-perpetuating hepatocellular INFLAMMATION of unknown cause, usually with HYPERGAMMAGLOBULINEMIA and serum AUTOANTIBODIES.
INFLAMMATION of the LIVER in animals due to viral infection.
A strain of HEPATITIS A VIRUS which causes hepatitis in humans. The virus replicates in hepatocytes and is presumed to reach the intestine via the bile duct. Transmission occurs by the fecal-oral route.
Any of the viruses that cause inflammation of the liver. They include both DNA and RNA viruses as well viruses from humans and animals.
A defective virus, containing particles of RNA nucleoprotein in virion-like form, present in patients with acute hepatitis B and chronic hepatitis. It requires the presence of a hepadnavirus for full replication. This is the lone species in the genus Deltavirus.
INFLAMMATION of the LIVER in humans caused by HEPATITIS DELTA VIRUS, a defective RNA virus that can only infect HEPATITIS B patients. For its viral coating, hepatitis delta virus requires the HEPATITIS B SURFACE ANTIGENS produced by these patients. Hepatitis D can occur either concomitantly with (coinfection) or subsequent to (superinfection) hepatitis B infection. Similar to hepatitis B, it is primarily transmitted by parenteral exposure, such as transfusion of contaminated blood or blood products, but can also be transmitted via sexual or intimate personal contact.
INFLAMMATION of the LIVER in non-human animals.
A measure of the binding strength between antibody and a simple hapten or antigen determinant. It depends on the closeness of stereochemical fit between antibody combining sites and antigen determinants, on the size of the area of contact between them, and on the distribution of charged and hydrophobic groups. It includes the concept of "avidity," which refers to the strength of the antigen-antibody bond after formation of reversible complexes.
Any vaccine raised against any virus or viral derivative that causes hepatitis.
Test for tissue antigen using either a direct method, by conjugation of antibody with fluorescent dye (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, DIRECT) or an indirect method, by formation of antigen-antibody complex which is then labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, INDIRECT). The tissue is then examined by fluorescence microscopy.
Agents used in the prophylaxis or therapy of VIRUS DISEASES. Some of the ways they may act include preventing viral replication by inhibiting viral DNA polymerase; binding to specific cell-surface receptors and inhibiting viral penetration or uncoating; inhibiting viral protein synthesis; or blocking late stages of virus assembly.
Antibodies which react with the individual structural determinants (idiotopes) on the variable region of other antibodies.
Local surface sites on antibodies which react with antigen determinant sites on antigens (EPITOPES.) They are formed from parts of the variable regions of FAB FRAGMENTS.
Sites on an antigen that interact with specific antibodies.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
A species of the CORONAVIRUS genus causing hepatitis in mice. Four strains have been identified as MHV 1, MHV 2, MHV 3, and MHV 4 (also known as MHV-JHM, which is neurotropic and causes disseminated encephalomyelitis with demyelination as well as focal liver necrosis).
A genus of PICORNAVIRIDAE causing infectious hepatitis naturally in humans and experimentally in other primates. It is transmitted through fecal contamination of food or water. HEPATITIS A VIRUS is the type species.
Antigens of the virions of HEPACIVIRUS, their surface, core, or other associated antigens.
Antibodies reactive with HIV ANTIGENS.
Ribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.
Autoantibodies directed against various nuclear antigens including DNA, RNA, histones, acidic nuclear proteins, or complexes of these molecular elements. Antinuclear antibodies are found in systemic autoimmune diseases including systemic lupus erythematosus, Sjogren's syndrome, scleroderma, polymyositis, and mixed connective tissue disease.
Immunoglobulins induced by antigens specific for tumors other than the normally occurring HISTOCOMPATIBILITY ANTIGENS.
Immunoglobulins produced in a response to PROTOZOAN ANTIGENS.
A class of immunoglobulin bearing mu chains (IMMUNOGLOBULIN MU-CHAINS). IgM can fix COMPLEMENT. The name comes from its high molecular weight and originally being called a macroglobulin.
Serological reactions in which an antiserum against one antigen reacts with a non-identical but closely related antigen.
One of the type I interferons produced by peripheral blood leukocytes or lymphoblastoid cells. In addition to antiviral activity, it activates NATURAL KILLER CELLS and B-LYMPHOCYTES, and down-regulates VASCULAR ENDOTHELIAL GROWTH FACTOR expression through PI-3 KINASE and MAPK KINASES signaling pathways.
Liver disease in which the normal microcirculation, the gross vascular anatomy, and the hepatic architecture have been variably destroyed and altered with fibrous septa surrounding regenerated or regenerating parenchymal nodules.
Antigens produced by various strains of HEPATITIS A VIRUS such as the human hepatitis A virus (HEPATITIS A VIRUS, HUMAN).
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
Antigens produced by various strains of HEPATITIS D VIRUS.
Antigens from any of the hepatitis viruses including surface, core, and other associated antigens.
A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.
Antibodies that react with self-antigens (AUTOANTIGENS) of the organism that produced them.
INFLAMMATION of the LIVER due to ALCOHOL ABUSE. It is characterized by NECROSIS of HEPATOCYTES, infiltration by NEUTROPHILS, and deposit of MALLORY BODIES. Depending on its severity, the inflammatory lesion may be reversible or progress to LIVER CIRRHOSIS.
A nucleoside antimetabolite antiviral agent that blocks nucleic acid synthesis and is used against both RNA and DNA viruses.
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.
EPIDEMIOLOGIC STUDIES based on the detection through serological testing of characteristic change in the serum level of specific ANTIBODIES. Latent subclinical infections and carrier states can thus be detected in addition to clinically overt cases.
A DNA virus that closely resembles human hepatitis B virus. It has been recovered from naturally infected ducks.
An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of L-alanine and 2-oxoglutarate to pyruvate and L-glutamate. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 2.6.1.2.
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
Proteins encoded by a VIRAL GENOME that are produced in the organisms they infect, but not packaged into the VIRUS PARTICLES. Some of these proteins may play roles within the infected cell during VIRUS REPLICATION or act in regulation of virus replication or VIRUS ASSEMBLY.
The measurement of infection-blocking titer of ANTISERA by testing a series of dilutions for a given virus-antiserum interaction end-point, which is generally the dilution at which tissue cultures inoculated with the serum-virus mixtures demonstrate cytopathology (CPE) or the dilution at which 50% of test animals injected with serum-virus mixtures show infectivity (ID50) or die (LD50).
A primary malignant neoplasm of epithelial liver cells. It ranges from a well-differentiated tumor with EPITHELIAL CELLS indistinguishable from normal HEPATOCYTES to a poorly differentiated neoplasm. The cells may be uniform or markedly pleomorphic, or form GIANT CELLS. Several classification schemes have been suggested.
The major immunoglobulin isotype class in normal human serum. There are several isotype subclasses of IgG, for example, IgG1, IgG2A, and IgG2B.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
Immunoglobulins produced in a response to FUNGAL ANTIGENS.
An ORTHOHEPADNAVIRUS causing chronic liver disease and hepatocellular carcinoma in woodchucks. It closely resembles the human hepatitis B virus.
Tumors or cancer of the LIVER.
The processes triggered by interactions of ANTIBODIES with their ANTIGENS.
The process of intracellular viral multiplication, consisting of the synthesis of PROTEINS; NUCLEIC ACIDS; and sometimes LIPIDS, and their assembly into a new infectious particle.
The complex formed by the binding of antigen and antibody molecules. The deposition of large antigen-antibody complexes leading to tissue damage causes IMMUNE COMPLEX DISEASES.
An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed.
Antibodies, often monoclonal, in which the two antigen-binding sites are specific for separate ANTIGENIC DETERMINANTS. They are artificial antibodies produced by chemical crosslinking, fusion of HYBRIDOMA cells, or by molecular genetic techniques. They function as the main mediators of targeted cellular cytotoxicity and have been shown to be efficient in the targeting of drugs, toxins, radiolabeled haptens, and effector cells to diseased tissue, primarily tumors.
Proteins found mainly in icosahedral DNA and RNA viruses. They consist of proteins directly associated with the nucleic acid inside the NUCLEOCAPSID.
Polymers of ETHYLENE OXIDE and water, and their ethers. They vary in consistency from liquid to solid depending on the molecular weight indicated by a number following the name. They are used as SURFACTANTS, dispersing agents, solvents, ointment and suppository bases, vehicles, and tablet excipients. Some specific groups are NONOXYNOLS, OCTOXYNOLS, and POLOXAMERS.
A form of antibodies consisting only of the variable regions of the heavy and light chains (FV FRAGMENTS), connected by a small linker peptide. They are less immunogenic than complete immunoglobulin and thus have potential therapeutic use.
The genetic constitution of the individual, comprising the ALLELES present at each GENETIC LOCUS.
Antibodies that inhibit the reaction between ANTIGEN and other antibodies or sensitized T-LYMPHOCYTES (e.g., antibodies of the IMMUNOGLOBULIN G class that compete with IGE antibodies for antigen, thereby blocking an allergic response). Blocking antibodies that bind tumors and prevent destruction of tumor cells by CYTOTOXIC T-LYMPHOCYTES have also been called enhancing antibodies. (Rosen et al., Dictionary of Immunology, 1989)
A reverse transcriptase inhibitor and ZALCITABINE analog in which a sulfur atom replaces the 3' carbon of the pentose ring. It is used to treat HIV disease.
Univalent antigen-binding fragments composed of one entire IMMUNOGLOBULIN LIGHT CHAIN and the amino terminal end of one of the IMMUNOGLOBULIN HEAVY CHAINS from the hinge region, linked to each other by disulfide bonds. Fab contains the IMMUNOGLOBULIN VARIABLE REGIONS, which are part of the antigen-binding site, and the first IMMUNOGLOBULIN CONSTANT REGIONS. This fragment can be obtained by digestion of immunoglobulins with the proteolytic enzyme PAPAIN.
Immunologic techniques based on the use of: (1) enzyme-antibody conjugates; (2) enzyme-antigen conjugates; (3) antienzyme antibody followed by its homologous enzyme; or (4) enzyme-antienzyme complexes. These are used histologically for visualizing or labeling tissue specimens.
INFLAMMATION of the LIVER in humans caused by HEPATITIS DELTA VIRUS in conjunction with HEPATITIS B VIRUS and lasting six months or more.
Administration of vaccines to stimulate the host's immune response. This includes any preparation intended for active immunological prophylaxis.
Substances elaborated by viruses that have antigenic activity.
Layers of protein which surround the capsid in animal viruses with tubular nucleocapsids. The envelope consists of an inner layer of lipids and virus specified proteins also called membrane or matrix proteins. The outer layer consists of one or more types of morphological subunits called peplomers which project from the viral envelope; this layer always consists of glycoproteins.
Deliberate stimulation of the host's immune response. ACTIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of ANTIGENS or IMMUNOLOGIC ADJUVANTS. PASSIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of IMMUNE SERA or LYMPHOCYTES or their extracts (e.g., transfer factor, immune RNA) or transplantation of immunocompetent cell producing tissue (thymus or bone marrow).
Antibodies elicited in a different species from which the antigen originated. These antibodies are directed against a wide variety of interspecies-specific antigens, the best known of which are Forssman, Hanganutziu-Deicher (H-D), and Paul-Bunnell (P-B). Incidence of antibodies to these antigens--i.e., the phenomenon of heterophile antibody response--is useful in the serodiagnosis, pathogenesis, and prognosis of infection and latent infectious states as well as in cancer classification.
A form of fluorescent antibody technique commonly used to detect serum antibodies and immune complexes in tissues and microorganisms in specimens from patients with infectious diseases. The technique involves formation of an antigen-antibody complex which is labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody. (From Bennington, Saunders Dictionary & Encyclopedia of Laboratory Medicine and Technology, 1984)
Methods used for studying the interactions of antibodies with specific regions of protein antigens. Important applications of epitope mapping are found within the area of immunochemistry.
The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.
Antibodies that can catalyze a wide variety of chemical reactions. They are characterized by high substrate specificity and share many mechanistic features with enzymes.
A genus of Sciuridae consisting of 14 species. They are shortlegged, burrowing rodents which hibernate in winter.
Serum that contains antibodies. It is obtained from an animal that has been immunized either by ANTIGEN injection or infection with microorganisms containing the antigen.
Represents 15-20% of the human serum immunoglobulins, mostly as the 4-chain polymer in humans or dimer in other mammals. Secretory IgA (IMMUNOGLOBULIN A, SECRETORY) is the main immunoglobulin in secretions.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
The condition of harboring an infective organism without manifesting symptoms of infection. The organism must be readily transmissible to another susceptible host.
The quantity of measurable virus in a body fluid. Change in viral load, measured in plasma, is sometimes used as a SURROGATE MARKER in disease progression.
The transference of a part of or an entire liver from one human or animal to another.
In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.
Cells artificially created by fusion of activated lymphocytes with neoplastic cells. The resulting hybrid cells are cloned and produce pure MONOCLONAL ANTIBODIES or T-cell products, identical to those produced by the immunologically competent parent cell.
Antibodies from non-human species whose protein sequences have been modified to make them nearly identical with human antibodies. If the constant region and part of the variable region are replaced, they are called humanized. If only the constant region is modified they are called chimeric. INN names for humanized antibodies end in -zumab.
Classic quantitative assay for detection of antigen-antibody reactions using a radioactively labeled substance (radioligand) either directly or indirectly to measure the binding of the unlabeled substance to a specific antibody or other receptor system. Non-immunogenic substances (e.g., haptens) can be measured if coupled to larger carrier proteins (e.g., bovine gamma-globulin or human serum albumin) capable of inducing antibody formation.
Transfer of immunity from immunized to non-immune host by administration of serum antibodies, or transplantation of lymphocytes (ADOPTIVE TRANSFER).
A technique using antibodies for identifying or quantifying a substance. Usually the substance being studied serves as antigen both in antibody production and in measurement of antibody by the test substance.
Disease having a short and relatively severe course.
The total number of cases of a given disease in a specified population at a designated time. It is differentiated from INCIDENCE, which refers to the number of new cases in the population at a given time.
The complete genetic complement contained in a DNA or RNA molecule in a virus.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
Substances that are recognized by the immune system and induce an immune reaction.
The main structural component of the LIVER. They are specialized EPITHELIAL CELLS that are organized into interconnected plates called lobules.
Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.
The common chimpanzee, a species of the genus Pan, family HOMINIDAE. It lives in Africa, primarily in the tropical rainforests. There are a number of recognized subspecies.
Autoantibodies directed against phospholipids. These antibodies are characteristically found in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (LUPUS ERYTHEMATOSUS, SYSTEMIC;), ANTIPHOSPHOLIPID SYNDROME; related autoimmune diseases, some non-autoimmune diseases, and also in healthy individuals.
Diagnostic procedures involving immunoglobulin reactions.
Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)
A family of RNA viruses, many of which cause disease in humans and domestic animals. There are three genera FLAVIVIRUS; PESTIVIRUS; and HEPACIVIRUS, as well as several unassigned species.
Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.
Immunologic method used for detecting or quantifying immunoreactive substances. The substance is identified by first immobilizing it by blotting onto a membrane and then tagging it with labeled antibodies.
Pathological processes of the LIVER.
Antigens on surfaces of cells, including infectious or foreign cells or viruses. They are usually protein-containing groups on cell membranes or walls and may be isolated.
Multi-subunit proteins which function in IMMUNITY. They are produced by B LYMPHOCYTES from the IMMUNOGLOBULIN GENES. They are comprised of two heavy (IMMUNOGLOBULIN HEAVY CHAINS) and two light chains (IMMUNOGLOBULIN LIGHT CHAINS) with additional ancillary polypeptide chains depending on their isoforms. The variety of isoforms include monomeric or polymeric forms, and transmembrane forms (B-CELL ANTIGEN RECEPTORS) or secreted forms (ANTIBODIES). They are divided by the amino acid sequence of their heavy chains into five classes (IMMUNOGLOBULIN A; IMMUNOGLOBULIN D; IMMUNOGLOBULIN E; IMMUNOGLOBULIN G; IMMUNOGLOBULIN M) and various subclasses.
Lymphocytes responsible for cell-mediated immunity. Two types have been identified - cytotoxic (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and helper T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, HELPER-INDUCER). They are formed when lymphocytes circulate through the THYMUS GLAND and differentiate to thymocytes. When exposed to an antigen, they divide rapidly and produce large numbers of new T cells sensitized to that antigen.
Blood tests that are used to evaluate how well a patient's liver is working and also to help diagnose liver conditions.
Includes the spectrum of human immunodeficiency virus infections that range from asymptomatic seropositivity, thru AIDS-related complex (ARC), to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS).
Therapy with two or more separate preparations given for a combined effect.
Serologic tests based on inactivation of complement by the antigen-antibody complex (stage 1). Binding of free complement can be visualized by addition of a second antigen-antibody system such as red cells and appropriate red cell antibody (hemolysin) requiring complement for its completion (stage 2). Failure of the red cells to lyse indicates that a specific antigen-antibody reaction has taken place in stage 1. If red cells lyse, free complement is present indicating no antigen-antibody reaction occurred in stage 1.
Substances elaborated by bacteria that have antigenic activity.
Lymphoid cells concerned with humoral immunity. They are short-lived cells resembling bursa-derived lymphocytes of birds in their production of immunoglobulin upon appropriate stimulation.
The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.
Proteins found in any species of virus.
Sensitive tests to measure certain antigens, antibodies, or viruses, using their ability to agglutinate certain erythrocytes. (From Stedman, 26th ed)
Diseases which have one or more of the following characteristics: they are permanent, leave residual disability, are caused by nonreversible pathological alteration, require special training of the patient for rehabilitation, or may be expected to require a long period of supervision, observation, or care. (Dictionary of Health Services Management, 2d ed)
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
Partial immunoglobulin molecules resulting from selective cleavage by proteolytic enzymes or generated through PROTEIN ENGINEERING techniques.
An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.
Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.
Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.
Abuse, overuse, or misuse of a substance by its injection into a vein.
A clinical manifestation of HYPERBILIRUBINEMIA, characterized by the yellowish staining of the SKIN; MUCOUS MEMBRANE; and SCLERA. Clinical jaundice usually is a sign of LIVER dysfunction.
Removal and pathologic examination of specimens in the form of small pieces of tissue from the living body.
Enzymes of the transferase class that catalyze the conversion of L-aspartate and 2-ketoglutarate to oxaloacetate and L-glutamate. EC 2.6.1.1.
Proteins secreted by vertebrate cells in response to a wide variety of inducers. They confer resistance against many different viruses, inhibit proliferation of normal and malignant cells, impede multiplication of intracellular parasites, enhance macrophage and granulocyte phagocytosis, augment natural killer cell activity, and show several other immunomodulatory functions.
Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.
The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.
A spectrum of clinical liver diseases ranging from mild biochemical abnormalities to ACUTE LIVER FAILURE, caused by drugs, drug metabolites, and chemicals from the environment.
Technique using an instrument system for making, processing, and displaying one or more measurements on individual cells obtained from a cell suspension. Cells are usually stained with one or more fluorescent dyes specific to cell components of interest, e.g., DNA, and fluorescence of each cell is measured as it rapidly transverses the excitation beam (laser or mercury arc lamp). Fluorescence provides a quantitative measure of various biochemical and biophysical properties of the cell, as well as a basis for cell sorting. Other measurable optical parameters include light absorption and light scattering, the latter being applicable to the measurement of cell size, shape, density, granularity, and stain uptake.
Any DNA sequence capable of independent replication or a molecule that possesses a REPLICATION ORIGIN and which is therefore potentially capable of being replicated in a suitable cell. (Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)
A condition characterized by the presence of abnormal quantities of CRYOGLOBULINS in the blood. Upon cold exposure, these abnormal proteins precipitate into the microvasculature leading to restricted blood flow in the exposed areas.
The presence of viruses in the blood.
Techniques used to demonstrate or measure an immune response, and to identify or measure antigens using antibodies.
Small synthetic peptides that mimic surface antigens of pathogens and are immunogenic, or vaccines manufactured with the aid of recombinant DNA techniques. The latter vaccines may also be whole viruses whose nucleic acids have been modified.
Serologic tests in which a known quantity of antigen is added to the serum prior to the addition of a red cell suspension. Reaction result is expressed as the smallest amount of antigen which causes complete inhibition of hemagglutination.
The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.
The introduction of whole blood or blood component directly into the blood stream. (Dorland, 27th ed)
That region of the immunoglobulin molecule that varies in its amino acid sequence and composition, and comprises the binding site for a specific antigen. It is located at the N-terminus of the Fab fragment of the immunoglobulin. It includes hypervariable regions (COMPLEMENTARITY DETERMINING REGIONS) and framework regions.
Measurable and quantifiable biological parameters (e.g., specific enzyme concentration, specific hormone concentration, specific gene phenotype distribution in a population, presence of biological substances) which serve as indices for health- and physiology-related assessments, such as disease risk, psychiatric disorders, environmental exposure and its effects, disease diagnosis, metabolic processes, substance abuse, pregnancy, cell line development, epidemiologic studies, etc.
Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.
Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.
Technique involving the diffusion of antigen or antibody through a semisolid medium, usually agar or agarose gel, with the result being a precipitin reaction.
Autoantibodies directed against cytoplasmic constituents of POLYMORPHONUCLEAR LEUKOCYTES and/or MONOCYTES. They are used as specific markers for GRANULOMATOSIS WITH POLYANGIITIS and other diseases, though their pathophysiological role is not clear. ANCA are routinely detected by indirect immunofluorescence with three different patterns: c-ANCA (cytoplasmic), p-ANCA (perinuclear), and atypical ANCA.
Tetraspanin proteins that are involved in a variety of cellular functions including BASEMENT MEMBRANE assembly, and in the formation of a molecular complexes on the surface of LYMPHOCYTES.
Conjugated protein-carbohydrate compounds including mucins, mucoid, and amyloid glycoproteins.
Disorders that are characterized by the production of antibodies that react with host tissues or immune effector cells that are autoreactive to endogenous peptides.
Unique genetically-controlled determinants present on ANTIBODIES whose specificity is limited to a single group of proteins (e.g., another antibody molecule or an individual myeloma protein). The idiotype appears to represent the antigenicity of the antigen-binding site of the antibody and to be genetically codetermined with it. The idiotypic determinants have been precisely located to the IMMUNOGLOBULIN VARIABLE REGION of both immunoglobin polypeptide chains.
Proteins, glycoprotein, or lipoprotein moieties on surfaces of tumor cells that are usually identified by monoclonal antibodies. Many of these are of either embryonic or viral origin.
Carbon-containing phosphonic acid compounds. Included under this heading are compounds that have carbon bound to either OXYGEN atom or the PHOSPHOROUS atom of the (P=O)O2 structure.
Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.
The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.
Partial proteins formed by partial hydrolysis of complete proteins or generated through PROTEIN ENGINEERING techniques.
Techniques for removal by adsorption and subsequent elution of a specific antibody or antigen using an immunosorbent containing the homologous antigen or antibody.
Antibodies obtained from a single clone of cells grown in mice or rats.
The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.
A collection of cloned peptides, or chemically synthesized peptides, frequently consisting of all possible combinations of amino acids making up an n-amino acid peptide.
The return of a sign, symptom, or disease after a remission.
Severe inability of the LIVER to perform its normal metabolic functions, as evidenced by severe JAUNDICE and abnormal serum levels of AMMONIA; BILIRUBIN; ALKALINE PHOSPHATASE; ASPARTATE AMINOTRANSFERASE; LACTATE DEHYDROGENASES; and albumin/globulin ratio. (Blakiston's Gould Medical Dictionary, 4th ed)
Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.
Differentiation antigens residing on mammalian leukocytes. CD stands for cluster of differentiation, which refers to groups of monoclonal antibodies that show similar reactivity with certain subpopulations of antigens of a particular lineage or differentiation stage. The subpopulations of antigens are also known by the same CD designation.
The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.
The interaction of two or more substrates or ligands with the same binding site. The displacement of one by the other is used in quantitative and selective affinity measurements.
The ability of viruses to resist or to become tolerant to chemotherapeutic agents or antiviral agents. This resistance is acquired through gene mutation.
An encapsulated lymphatic organ through which venous blood filters.
A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.
Simultaneous infection of a host organism by two or more pathogens. In virology, coinfection commonly refers to simultaneous infection of a single cell by two or more different viruses.
Endogenous tissue constituents that have the ability to interact with AUTOANTIBODIES and cause an immune response.
The classes of immunoglobulins found in any species of animal. In man there are nine classes that migrate in five different groups in electrophoresis; they each consist of two light and two heavy protein chains, and each group has distinguishing structural and functional properties.
The infective system of a virus, composed of the viral genome, a protein core, and a protein coat called a capsid, which may be naked or enclosed in a lipoprotein envelope called the peplos.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.

Prevalence of enteric hepatitis A and E viruses in the Mekong River delta region of Vietnam. (1/538)

A study of antibody prevalence for hepatitis A virus (HAV) and hepatitis E virus (HEV) was carried out in southwestern Vietnam in an area adjacent to a known focus of epidemic HEV transmission. The purpose of this investigation was first to provide a prevalence measure of hepatitis infections, and second to determine the outbreak potential of HEV as a function of the susceptible population. Blood specimens collected from 646 persons in randomly selected village hamlets were examined by an ELISA for anti-HEV IgG and anti-HAV IgG. The prevalences of anti-HEV IgG and anti-HAV IgG were 9% and 97%, respectively. There was a significant increase (P < 0.01) in age-specific anti-HEV IgG. A notable increase in anti-HAV IgG prevalence (P < 0.0001) occurred between child populations 0-4 (64%) and 5-9 (95%) years of age. No evidence of familial clustering of anti-HEV IgG-positive individuals was detected, and household crowding was not associated with the spread of HEV. Boiling of water was found to be of protective value against HEV transmission. A relatively low prevalence of anti-HEV indicates considerable HEV outbreak potential, against a background of 1) poor, water-related hygiene/sanitation, 2) dependence on a (likely human/animal waste)-contaminated Mekong riverine system, and 3) periodic river flooding.  (+info)

A hepatitis E virus variant from the United States: molecular characterization and transmission in cynomolgus macaques. (2/538)

The partial sequence of a hepatitis E virus (HEV-US1) isolated from a patient in the United States (US), suffering from acute viral hepatitis with no known risk factors for acquiring HEV, has been reported. These sequences were significantly different from previously characterized HEV isolates, alluding to the existence of a distinct human variant. In this paper, we report the near full-length sequences of HEV-US1 and a second US isolate (HEV-US2). HEV-US2 was identified in a US patient suffering from acute viral hepatitis. These sequences verify the presence of a new HEV strain in North America and provide information as to the degree of variability between variants. The HEV-US nucleotide sequences are 92% identical to each other and only 74% identical to the Burmese and Mexican strains. Amino acid and phylogenetic analyses also demonstrate that the US isolates are genetically distinct, suggesting the presence of three genotypes of HEV. Serum from the second US patient induced hepatitis following inoculation into a cynomolgus macaque. Within 2-4 weeks, HEV-US2 RNA was detectable in both the serum and faecal material coinciding with elevated serum alanine transaminase levels. Infection resolved as antibody titres increased 8 weeks post-inoculation.  (+info)

Analysis of hepatitis G virus (HGV) RNA, antibody to HGV envelope protein, and risk factors for blood donors coinfected with HGV and hepatitis C virus. (3/538)

Serologic, biochemical, and molecular analyses were used to study hepatitis G virus (HGV), antibody to the HGV envelope protein (anti-E2), risk factors, clinical significance, and the impact of HGV on coexistent hepatitis C virus (HCV). Among 329 donors with confirmed HCV infection, 12% were HGV RNA-positive and 44% were anti-E2-positive (total exposure, 56%). HGV RNA and anti-E2 were mutually exclusive except in 9 donors (1.5%); 8 of 9 subsequently lost HGV RNA but anti-E2 persisted. HGV had little impact on alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, or gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase in donors with HGV infection alone or those coinfected with HCV. A multivariate analysis showed that intravenous drug abuse was the leading risk factor for HGV transmission, followed by blood transfusion, snorting cocaine, imprisonment, and a history of sexually transmitted diseases. In summary, HGV and HCV infections were frequently associated and shared common parenteral risk factors; HGV did not appear to cause hepatitis or to worsen the course of coexistent hepatitis C.  (+info)

Age-dependent acquisition of hepatitis G virus/GB virus C in a nonrisk population: detection of the virus by antibodies. (4/538)

Until now there have been few seroepidemiological data for hepatitis G virus/GB virus type C (HGV/GBV-C). A four-antigen HGV/GBV-C immunoblot was established to examine 446 serum specimens from healthy individuals without risk factors for parenteral viral transmission. These individuals were divided into seven groups according to age. Seroprevalence rates were low for children and adolescents (5.6%) and increased for the age groups assumed to be the most sexually active (15.3 to 26.8%). Remarkably, none of the 80 individuals who tested positive for HGV/GBV-C antibodies were simultaneously positive for HGV/GBV-C viremia. From our data we conclude that HGV/GBV-C infection is widespread in the general population (16 to 25%). The development of an antibody response is associated with clearance of HGV/GBV-C viremia. Due to the lack of risk factors for HGV/GBV-C infection of blood, other efficient transmission routes must exist. It must be assumed that HGV/GBV-C transmission may be linked to sexual activity.  (+info)

Interferon-alpha may exacerbate cryoblobulinemia-related ischemic manifestations: an adverse effect potentially related to its anti-angiogenic activity. (5/538)

The discovery of the strong association between hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection and the development of mixed cryoglobulinemia has motivated active testing of antiviral-directed alternative therapies. Several trials have demonstrated that classic cryoglobulinemia-associated manifestations improve with interferon-alpha (IFNalpha) treatment. Herein we report on 3 HCV-infected patients with severe cryoglobulinemia-related ischemic manifestations who were closely followed up during IFNalpha therapy. Clinical evaluations with special attention to ischemic lesions, liver function tests, and cryocrit determinations were serially performed. In addition to prednisone and immunosuppressive agents, the patients received IFNalpha at 3 x 10(6) units, 3 times per week for 2 months, 3 months, and 4 months, respectively. In all 3 patients, systemic features improved, liver function results returned to normal, and cryocrit values decreased. However, ischemic lesions became less vascularized and ischemia progressed, leading to transmetatarsal and subcondylar amputation, respectively, in 2 of the patients and fingertip necrosis and ulcer enlargement in the third. Skin biopsies performed before IFNalpha therapy and after 2 months of IFNalpha therapy in the third patient showed a significant decrease in subepidermal microvessels. When IFNalpha was discontinued, the lesions finally healed. Cryoglobulinemia-related ischemic lesions may worsen during IFNalpha treatment, presumably through a decrease in inflammation-induced angiogenesis. The anti-angiogenic activity of IFNalpha may delay the appropriate healing of ischemic lesions.  (+info)

The epidemiology of viral hepatitis in children in South Texas: increased prevalence of hepatitis A along the Texas-Mexico border. (6/538)

An initial retrospective study of 194 children demonstrated a high prevalence of hepatitis A but not hepatitis B or C infection among children living along the Texas-Mexico border. A larger prospective study of hepatitis A was conducted with 285 children (aged 6 months to 13 years) living in 3 sociodemographically dissimilar areas of South Texas. Children living in colonias along the border had a significantly higher prevalence of hepatitis A virus infection (37%) than children living in urban border communities (17%) or in a large metropolitan area (San Antonio [6%]). Independent risk factors for hepatitis A infection included increased age, colonia residence, and history of residence in a developing country. Use of bottled water (vs. municipal or spring/well water) and years of maternal secondary education were protective. Improved sanitation or routine hepatitis A vaccination in early childhood may reduce the prevalence of hepatitis A in these areas.  (+info)

Prevalence of GB virus C/hepatitis G virus among blood donors in north-eastern Brazil. (7/538)

We tested 70 blood donors from Fortaleza (Ceara state, Brazil) for GB virus C/hepatitis G virus (GBV/HGV) infection by polymerase chain reaction and detection of antienvelope antibodies. Twenty-seven (38.6%) showed signs of an active or resolved infection. Sixty-four percent of those with indications of other blood-borne viral infections showed signs of GBV-C/HGV infection also.  (+info)

Age distribution of Helicobacter pylori seroprevalence among young children in a United States/Mexico border community: evidence for transitory infection. (8/538)

Helicobacter pylori infection has been linked to a spectrum of gastroduodenal diseases of broad public health impact, yet the natural history of this frequently asymptomatic infection remains poorly understood. Evidence suggests that initial acquisition occurs primarily during childhood and may persist throughout life. The seroprevalence of H. pylori antibodies was examined in 365 primary schoolchildren aged 4-7 years in a low-income United States/Mexico border community from January to May 1996. Overall, 21% of the 365 children tested positive, with a significant monotonic decrease in seroprevalence by 1-year age intervals (36% in children aged 4 years, 24% in those aged 5 years, 20% in those aged 6 years, and 14% in those aged 7 years). The odds ratio for each 1-year age increase was 0.76 (95% confidence interval: 0.6, 1.0) after adjustment for relevant covariates. Given that H. pylori antibodies diminish after infection clears, this trend suggests that transient infection may be common in young children. In contrast, hepatitis A virus seroprevalence increased with age. There was a moderate association (odds ratio = 1.47, 95% confidence interval: 0.8, 2.9) of H. pylori with hepatitis A virus seroprevalence that weakened after adjustment for age and socioeconomic status (odds ratio = 1.26, 95% confidence interval: 0.6, 2.5). Follow-up studies are needed to clarify the natural history of Helicobacter pylori infection and identify predictors of initial acquisition, persistence, and recurrence.  (+info)

This graph shows the total number of publications written about Hepatitis Antibodies by people in Harvard Catalyst Profiles by year, and whether Hepatitis Antibodies was a major or minor topic of these publication ...
A container made of plastic or rubber with means of securing the bag to a person or bed, stand, or the like. It may have provisions for measuring the urinary output. For items designed to be worn by ambulatory incontinent persons, see URINAL, INCONTINENT. ...
Hepatitis E infection is usually a self-limiting disease and an important cause of acute hepatitis in tropical and subtropical regions where the virus is endemic. In industrialized countries, sporadic cases of acute hepatitis E virus (HEV) infections have been described and the number of documented autochthonous infections seems to be increasing. We report three sporadic cases of autochthonous hepatitis E infections in Southwestern Germany which presented at our university hospital within two years. All cases were men who presented with acute hepatitis, icterus and elevated liver. In case 1 and case 2, liver biopsy revealed acute hepatitis, both patients were positive for anti-HEV antibodies, case 1 was also positive for HEV RNA with a viral load of 3.0x10(3)copies/ml in serum. In case 3, anti-HEV antibodies were detectable and HEV RNA was detected in serum (4.3x10(3)copies/ml) and stool (1.4x10(6)copies/ml). None of the patients had a recent travel history outside Germany and close contact to ...
In Brazil, the circulation of hepatitis E virus (HEV) has been demonstrated in distinct groups of individuals and some animals, but its prevalence among individuals with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection is unknown. This study aimed to assess the frequency of serological and molecular HEV markers in individuals infected with HIV from São Paulo, Brazil. Serum and plasma samples of 354 HIV-infected patients collected between 2007 and 2013 were included. All samples were tested for anti-HEV IgG and IgM antibodies and HEV RNA. Anti-HEV IgG and IgM antibodies were detected in 10.7% (38/354) and 1.4% (5/354) of the samples, respectively. Both antibodies were detected simultaneously in only two samples. HEV RNA was not detected in any sample. There was no significant correlation of anti-HEV serological status (positivity to anti-HEV IgG and/or IgM) with sex, age, CD4(+) T cell count, HIV viral load, antiretroviral therapy, liver enzyme levels, or coinfection with hepatitis B virus and/or ...
Hepatitis E, caused by infection with hepatitis E virus (HEV), is a common cause of enterically-transmitted acute hepatitis in developing countries. Occasional cases of sporadic hepatitis E have been increasingly recognized in developed countries over the past decade. These cases differ from those in developing countries in being possibly caused by zoonotic transmission, often affecting people with a suppressed immune system and occasionally leading to persistent HEV infection. The commonly used tests for HEV infection include detection of IgM and IgG anti-HEV antibodies and detection of HEV RNA. IgM anti-HEV antibodies can be detected during the first few months after HEV infection, whereas IgG anti-HEV antibodies represent either recent or remote exposure. The presence of HEV RNA indicates current infection, whether acute or chronic. Although several diagnostic assays for anti-HEV antibodies are available, they have undergone fairly limited testing and often provide discordant results, particularly
To investigate characteristics of hepatitis E cases in the United States, we tested samples from persons seronegative for acute hepatitis A and B whose clinical specimens were referred to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention during June 2005-March 2012 for hepatitis E virus (HEV) testing. We found that 26 (17%) of 154 persons tested had hepatitis E. Of these, 15 had not recently traveled abroad (nontravelers), and 11 had (travelers). Compared with travelers, nontravelers were older (median 61 vs. 32 years of age) and more likely to be anicteric (53% vs. 8%); the nontraveler group also had fewer persons of South Asian ethnicity (7% vs. 73%) and more solid-organ transplant recipients (47% vs. 0). HEV genotype 3 was characterized from 8 nontravelers and genotypes 1 or 4 from 4 travelers. Clinicians should consider HEV infection in the differential diagnosis of hepatitis, regardless of patient travel history ...
To investigate characteristics of hepatitis E cases in the United States, we tested samples from persons seronegative for acute hepatitis A and B whose clinical specimens were referred to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention during June 2005-March 2012 for hepatitis E virus (HEV) testing. We found that 26 (17%) of 154 persons tested had hepatitis E. Of these, 15 had not recently traveled abroad (nontravelers), and 11 had (travelers). Compared with travelers, nontravelers were older (median 61 vs. 32 years of age) and more likely to be anicteric (53% vs. 8%); the nontraveler group also had fewer persons of South Asian ethnicity (7% vs. 73%) and more solid-organ transplant recipients (47% vs. 0). HEV genotype 3 was characterized from 8 nontravelers and genotypes 1 or 4 from 4 travelers. Clinicians should consider HEV infection in the differential diagnosis of hepatitis, regardless of patient travel history.
The aim of this study was to analyze the sensitivity of hepatitis E virus antigen (HEV-Ag) to determine acute E hepatitis. Ninety-four serum samples resulting anti-HEV IgM by DIA.PRO assay were analyzed with Wantai assay to check for HEV-Ag. Thirty samples were anti-HEV IgM positive and HEV-RNA positive, 19 samples harbored genotype 3, whereas 11 samples were genotype 1. Overall, 16% of anti-HEV IgM samples resulted HEV-Ag positive and 33.3% of HEV-RNA positive were also HEV-Ag positive. Among 64 HEV-RNA negative samples, 5 (7.8%) were HEV-Ag positive. The concordance of HEV-RNA and HEV-Ag was low (Cohens Kappa=0.36). The Bland-Altman plot revealed a low agreement between HEV-RNA viral load and HEV-Ag, confirmed by a not significant Spearmans correlation coefficient (rho=0.137, p >0.05). Moreover, the HEV-Ag showed 100% specificity. In genotype 3f samples with a viral load >800cp/ml HEV-Ag was positive in 80% of samples, whereas all patients harboring genotype 3e were HEV-Ag-negative ...
Since 2010, reports of infection with hepatitis E virus (HEV) have increased in England and Wales. Despite mounting evidence regarding the zoonotic potential of porcine HEV, there are limited data on its prevalence in pigs in the United Kingdom. We investigated antibody prevalence, active infection, and virus variation in serum and cecal content samples from 629 pigs at slaughter. Prevalence of antibodies to HEV was 92.8% (584/629), and HEV RNA was detected in 15% of cecal contents (93/629), 3% of plasma samples (22/629), and 2% of both (14/629). However, although HEV is prevalent in pigs in the United Kingdom and viremic pigs are entering the food chain, most (22/23) viral sequences clustered separately from the dominant type seen in humans. Thus, pigs raised in the United Kingdom are unlikely to be the main source of human HEV infections in the United Kingdom. Further research is needed to identify the source of these infections.
Discussion: We have reported elsewhere (1) that HEV infection can evolve into chronic hepatitis E in organ transplant recipients receiving immunosuppressive drugs. Two other cases (2, 3) of prolonged HEV infection have been reported: 1 in a patient with lymphoma being treated with rituximab (2), and another in an immunocompromised patient with HIV infection (3). The lymphocyte and CD4+ cell counts were lower than normal in our transplant recipients (1) and in the patient with HIV (3), and they were not reported for the patient with lymphoma (2). Hairy cell leukemia is an indolent chronic B-cell lymphoproliferative disease with a good long-term prognosis, and its main complication is infection (4). We chose to treat this patient with pegylated interferon-α2b for several reasons. We have reported (1) that immunosuppressive drugs are associated with progression to severe liver fibrosis in chronic HEV infection, so we treated this patients chronic HEV infection with pegylated interferon-α2b ...
Rabbits have also been suggested as a zoonotic source of Hepatitis E Virus. French researchers found that farmed and wild rabbits in France are naturally infected with Hepatitis E Virus. They also characterized a human Hepatitis E Virus strain that is closely related to rabbit Hepatitis E Virus strains; this finding thus supports the potential of zoonotic transmission from rabbits to humans[3]. However, research showed that isolates from farmed, wild and pet rabbits in The Netherlands were distinct from most human isolates and are unlikely to be a zoonotic source[4] ...
Boutrouille A, Bakkali-Kassimi L, Crucière C, Pavio N. Prevalence of anti-hepatitis E virus antibodies in French blood donors. J Clin Microbiol. 2007; 45(6): 2009-10 ...
State Key Laboratory of Molecular Vaccinology and Molecular Diagnostics, National Institute of Diagnostics and Vaccine Development in infectious diseases, School of Public Health, Xiamen University, Xiamen, Fujian Province, 361102 China. Along with the improved sensitivity and specificity of Hepatitis E diagnostics, awareness of hepatitis E has increased a lot all over the world. Hepatitis E virus (HEV) is now the leading cause of acute viral hepatitis. In China, the annually reported number of new acute hepatitis E cases gradually increased from 16,444 in 2003 to 29,202 in 2011, and similarly the sales of anti-HEV IgM rose from 378,000 tests in 2003 to 6,096,000 tests in 2011. Although more clinical sites started to consider HEV infection as a diagnosis of hepatitis-like symptoms, the fact that the sales of anti-HEV IgM tests are much lower than those of anti-HAV IgM tests in China and that there is still no commercialized hepatitis E diagnostic reagents on the United States market, would ...
1] Purdy MA, Khudyakov YE. Evolutionary history and population dynamics of hepatitis E virus. PLoS One. 2010 Dec 17;5(12):e14376. http://pmid.us/21203540.. [2] Purdy MA, Khudyakov YE. The molecular epidemiology of hepatitis E virus infection. Virus Res. 2011 Oct;161(1):31-9. http://pmid.us/21600939.. [3] Satou K, Nishiura H. Transmission dynamics of hepatitis E among swine: potential impact upon human infection. BMC Vet Res. 2007 May 10;3:9. http://pmid.us/17493260.. [4] Kaba M et al. Frequent transmission of hepatitis E virus among piglets in farms in Southern France. J Med Virol. 2009 Oct;81(10):1750-9. http://pmid.us/19697419.. [5] Bouquet J et al. Close similarity between sequences of hepatitis E virus recovered from humans and swine, France, 2008-2009. Emerg Infect Dis. 2011 Nov;17(11):2018-25. http://pmid.us/22099089.. [6] Colson P et al. Pig liver sausage as a source of hepatitis E virus transmission to humans. J Infect Dis. 2010 Sep 15;202(6):825-34. http://pmid.us/20695796.. [7] Purcell ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Hepatitis e virus (HEV) detection and quantification by a real-time reverse transcription-PCR assay calibrated to the world health organization standard for HEV RNA. AU - Germer, Jeffrey J.. AU - Ankoudinova, Irina. AU - Belousov, Yevgeniy S.. AU - Mahoney, Walt. AU - Dong, Chen. AU - Meng, Jihong. AU - Mandrekar, Jayawant. AU - Yao, Joseph D.. PY - 2017/5/1. Y1 - 2017/5/1. N2 - Hepatitis E virus (HEV) has emerged as a cause of chronic hepatitis among immunocompromised patients. Molecular assays have become important tools for the diagnosis and management of these chronically infected patients. A real-time reverse transcription-quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR) assay utilizing Pleiades probe chemistry and an RNA internal control for the simultaneous detection and quantification of HEV RNA in human serum was developed based on an adaptation of a previously described and broadly reactive primer set targeting the overlapping open reading frame 2/3 (ORF2/3) nucleotide sequence of HEV. A ...
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Justification and scope. Hepatitis E virus (HEV) infection is one of the main causes of acute hepatitis in both developed and developing countries. This infectious disease has a high prevalence and incidence in Europe.1 HEV infection has a greater clinical impact in vulnerable populations, such as immunosuppressed patients, pregnant women, and patients with underlying liver disease.2,3 Thus, the World Health Organisation (WHO) ranks it as one of the leading causes of death due to acute hepatitis of viral origin worldwide.4 However, national and international recommendations for the screening, diagnosis, and treatment of HEV have not been developed (EASL guidelines has been reported after submission of the present document),5 which makes it difficult to manage patients. This, combined with the fact that HEV infection is not a notifiable disease in most countries, allows us to speculate that its incidence and clinical impact may be higher than expected. The European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) ...
Hepatitis E is a viral hepatitis that affects the liver and is caused by the hepatitis E virus, or HEV. The liver is an organ found on the right side of our belly (abdomen) under the rib cage. It cleans our blood of toxins, poisons, and bacteria. It produces bile which helps our body breakdown food. It stores vitamins, minerals and sugars. And it helps control cholesterol levels. Hepatitis E occurs when the hepatitis E virus causes the liver to swell, scar, and become inflamed, which stops it from working properly or completely Symptoms may include nausea, diarrhea, fatigue, and jaundice (yellowing of the skin). Hepatitis E symptoms usually go away after 4-6 weeks. It is rare for HEV to become chronic, but it can be very serious for pregnant women. HEV is spread through food or water that is contaminated with the feces (bowel movement) of people infected with HEV. There is some concern that it may also be passed through pigs in areas where HEV is common. There is no evidence that HEV is passed ...
Pigs carry hepatitis E virus (HEV) which they can pass on to humans. ...Kunio Satou and Hiroshi Nishiura analysed blood test data from 2500 p...Inoculation studies have shown that the virus remains in pigs?faeces a...HEV which is found worldwide can potentially cause acute hepatitis i...Suckling pigs dont contract the virus in their first 30 days because...,Hepatitis,E,takes,a,piggyback,biological,biology news articles,biology news today,latest biology news,current biology news,biology newsletters
Hepatitis E Virus (HEV) infection is a newly recognized serious threat to global public health and Africa is suspected to be among the most severely affected regions in the world. Understanding HEV epidemiology in Africa will expedite the implementation of evidence-based control policies aimed at preventing the spread of HEV including policies for the use of available resources such as HEV vaccines. Here we present a comprehensive review of HEV epidemiology in Africa based on published data. We searched for articles on HEV epidemiology in Africa from online databases such as PubMed, Scopus, and ISI Web of Science and critically reviewed appropriate publications to extract consistent findings, identify knowledge gaps, and suggest future studies. Taking a particularly high toll in pregnant women and their fetuses, HEV has infected human populations in 28 of 56 African countries. Since 1979, 17 HEV outbreaks have been reported about once every other year from Africa causing a reported 35,300 cases with 650
The lack of an efficient cell culture system for hepatitis E virus (HEV) has greatly hampered detailed analyses of this virus. The first efficient cell culture systems for HEV that were developed were
Prevalence and genetic characterization of hepatitis E virus in paired samples of feces and serum from naturally infected pigs.: This study describes the distri
Hep C antibody tests are used to see if a person has ever developed hep c antibodies - whether they have ever been infected with hepatitis C at any point.
Hepatitis E is a liver disease caused by the hepatitis E virus (HEV). HEV occurs sporadically in developed countries, primarily in the genotypes 3 and 4, which originate in animals. Infection with HEV often progresses in general without symptoms. The infection can also lead to an acute liver infection that often causes more serious complications, especially in pregnant women.
Hepatitis E virus (HEV), the causative agent of hepatitis E, belongs to the family Hepeviridae. At least four major genotypes of HEV have been recognized: genotypes 1 and 2 are restricted to humans an
Hepatitis E is a viral infection of the liver that causes inflammation of the organ. The Hepatitis E virus is a positive-sense single-stranded RNA virus with an icosahedral structure comprising a genome of 7.5 kilobases. It was initially classified as belonging to the Caliciviridae family but has since been classified as a member of the Hepeviridae family.
Introduction this year of a new assay for the most common viral form of non-A, non-B hepatitis is expected to bring a surge of patients with asymptomatic infection to doctors' surgeries.
Hepatitis E virus (HEV) was for many years thought to be found almost exclusively in developing countries, where it is a major health issue. Recent studies have shown that HEV causes acute and chronic infection in developed countries. In these geographical settings, HEV is primarily a porcine zoonos …
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ProSpecs Hepatitis E Antigens include: HEV ORF2 (452-617 a.a.), HEV ORF2 (403-461 a.a.), HEV ORF2 (633-659 a.a.) HEV ORF3, HEV Mosaic-S
Hepatitis E represents a major health challenge worldwide and is still difficult to control. For example, prevention in disinfection is reaching its limits and vaccination is currently only available in China.
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Description: Hepatitis E virus (HEV) is a spherical, nonenveloped, single stranded RNA virus that is approximately 32 to 34 nm in diameter. ...
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Read Hepatitis E virus infection in patients on dialysis and in solid organ transplant recipients in Argentina: exploring associated risk factors, Archives of Virology on DeepDyve, the largest online rental service for scholarly research with thousands of academic publications available at your fingertips.
In the present study, we detected anti-HEV IgM and IgG in a cohort of 497 women at mid-term pregnancy and at 6 years postpartum and also in their 497 children. We found that the positive rate of anti-HEV IgM or the prevalence of anti-HEV IgG was constant in women at the two time points. The unchanged positive rates do not reflect that there was no novel HEV infection occurred during the observation period, but it was resulted from the balance of seronegative conversion due to the natural decay of anti-HEV IgG and the seropositive conversion caused by the novel infections. Additionally, we found that anti-HEV prevalence in Chinese children was extremely low.. Previous studies have indicated that commercially available immunoassays for detection of anti-HEV antibodies differ dramatically in the sensitivity and specificity. The sensitivity could range from 72 to 98 % in detecting the same diagnostic sensitivity panel [20], and highly discrepant results existed in evaluation of anti-HEV IgG ...
ENGLISH ABSTRACT: Hepatitis E virus (HEV) is an important cause of enterically transmitted acute hepatitis worldwide and is a locally acquired disease in both developing and developed nations. Different genotypes in these two regions display the different characteristics of this interesting infection. HEV is classified into four major genotypes and it can present as two contrasting clinical entities. HEV genotypes 1 (HEV1) and 2 (HEV 2) are related to waterborne transmission and poor sanitation. Whereas genotypes 3 (HEV3) and 4 (HEV4) are associated with zoonotic transmission mainly through pigs, wild boar and deer. HEV infections in Africa are thought to be caused by HEV1 and HEV2. The seroprevalence of HEV has been described in Southern Africa, but all more than 10 years ago when assays were not well developed. South Africa has three HEV reports, describing a hospital outbreak, and the seroprevalence in specific communities of South Africa. The seroprevalence from these studies ranged from 2% ...
Background. In many developed countries hepatitis E virus (HEV) infections have occurred predominantly in travellers to countries endemic for HEV. HEV is a potential threat to blood safety as the virus is transfusion-transmissible. To minimise this risk in Australia, individuals diagnosed with HEV are deferred. Malarial deferrals, when donors are restricted from donating fresh blood components following travel to an area in which malaria is endemic, probably also decrease the HEV risk, by deferring donors who travel to many countries also endemic for HEV. The aim of this study is to describe overseas-acquired HEV cases in Australia, in order to determine whether infection in travellers poses a risk to Australian blood safety. Materials and methods. Details of all notified HEV cases in Australia from 2002 to 2014 were accessed, and importation rates estimated. Countries in which HEV was acquired were compared to those for which donations are restricted following travel because of a malaria risk.
Hepatitis E virus (HEV) is an increasingly recognised pathogen, affecting several hundred thousand individuals in western countries each year. Importantly, the majority of immunocompromised individuals are not able to clear HEV but develop a chronic course of infection. In the case of lymphoma, which is an inherent immunosuppressive disease per se, chemotherapy can even further exacerbate the immunosuppressive status. As the mechanism of HEV chronification is barely understood, it is important to gain knowledge about the influence of chemotherapeutic drugs on the HEV replication cycle to guide rational clinical management of HEV infection in such patients. In this case report, a 70 year old man was diagnosed with lymphoplasmacytic lymphoma. As we observed the occurrence of chronic HEV after treatment with the Brutons tyrosine kinase (BTK) inhibitor ibrutinib in vivo, we investigated the influence of BTK signaling and ibrutinib treatment in the HEV replication cycle in vitro. First, we detected ...
Hepatitis E virus (HEV) is a nonenveloped RNA virus causing hepatitis E worldwide. The increase in transfusion-transmitted cases of HEV infections from asymptomatic blood donors causing serious illnesses among immunosuppressed recipients has been reported in the past few years. China is one of the most prevalent regions of HEV; as a result, it is important to evaluate the risk of transfusion-transmitted HEV. A total of 1864 serum samples (including demographic characteristics) from blood donors were randomly collected from February to March 2018 in Dali city. Anti-HEV IgG, IgM and IgA antibodies and HEV antigen were examined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). HEV RNA was detected by real-time PCR. Multivariable logistic regression modelling was used to examine the risk factors associated with HEV prevalence. Overall, the positive rates of anti-HEV IgG, IgM, and IgA antibodies were 13.36% (249/1864), 1.13% (21/1864), and 1.82% (34/1864), respectively. However, none of the 1864 serum samples
The aim of the study was to describe the characteristics of acute hepatitis E in Greater Cairo. Patients with acute hepatitis E were identified through a surveillance of acute hepatitis using the following definition: recent (|3 weeks) onset of fever or jaundice, alanine aminotransferase at least …
Hepatitis E is a disease of major public-health concern mainly in developing countries. Although molecular and sero-epidemiological investigations of HEV have been performed in many provinces in China, the epidemiological data from Yunnan Province are limited and genotypes are not be fully characterized. In this study the prevalence and characteristics of hepatitis E virus (HEV) detected in pigs from Yunnan province, China was evaluated. A total of 13 out of 187 pig fecal samples collected in 2011 revealed HEV positive results; likewise, 7 out of 69 samples collected in 2012 exhibited positive results. These findings indicated a total prevalence of 7.8% (20/256). Phylogenetic and molecular evolutionary analysis results revealed that nine strains were found in the samples obtained in 2011, in which 87.1% to 99.4% nucleotide sequence identity was shared among these strains; and 77.0% to 81.9%, 52.2% to 53.6%, 77.0% to 88.2% and 77.9% to 96.8% nucleotide sequence identities were shared with strains
The American Society for Clinical Pathology advises against Hepatitis C virus antibody testing in patients with a previous positive Hepatitis C virus (HCV) test.
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Background Hepatitis E is caused by the hepatitis E virus (hepatitis E virus, HEV) an acute self-limiting disease, mainly by the fecal - oral transmission, sporadic outbreaks in two forms. Patients wi
TY - JOUR. T1 - Hepatitis C virus antibodies in gammaglobulin. AU - Quinti, Isabella. AU - Paganelli, Roberto. AU - Scala, Enrico. AU - Guerra, Emma. AU - Mezzaroma, Ivano. AU - DOffizi, GianPiero. AU - Aiuti, Fernando. PY - 1990/12/1. Y1 - 1990/12/1. UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=0025227886&partnerID=8YFLogxK. UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=0025227886&partnerID=8YFLogxK. U2 - 10.1016/0140-6736(90)92927-A. DO - 10.1016/0140-6736(90)92927-A. M3 - Article. C2 - 1700250. AN - SCOPUS:0025227886. VL - 336. SP - 1377. JO - The Lancet. JF - The Lancet. SN - 0140-6736. IS - 8727. ER - ...
Lab Reagents Human IgG antibody Laboratories manufactures the hepatitis e virus igg antibody reagents distributed by Genprice. The Hepatitis E Virus Igg Antibody reagent is RUO (Research Use Only) to test human serum or cell culture lab samples. To purchase these products, for the MSDS, Data Sheet, protocol, storage conditions/temperature or for the concentration, please contact . Other Hepatitis products are available in stock. Specificity: Hepatitis Category: E Group: Virus Igg. Virus Igg information ...
In this study,we detected anti-HEV and anti-HCV in a group of blood donors in Wuhan areabv enzyme linked immunosorbent assay.The anti-HEV and anti-HCV positive rates were 5.74%and 9.35%,respectively,In plasma donor group,the people who had a elevanted ALT historywere 14.04% for anti-HEV and 14.18% for anti-HCV,and all of them were higher than thosefor the people who had no ALT elevanted history(4.12%and 6.45%,all P
Large protracted outbreaks of hepatitis E virus (HEV) have been documented in displaced populations in Africa over the past decade though data are limited outside these exceptional settings. Serological studies can provide insights useful for improving surveillance and disease control. We conducted an age-stratified serological survey using samples previously collected for another research study from 206 residents of an internally displaced person camp in Juba, South Sudan. We tested serum for anti-HEV antibodies (IgM and IgG) and estimated the prevalence of recent and historical exposure to the virus. Using data on individuals serostatus, camp arrival date, and state of origin, we used catalytic transmission models to estimate the relative risk of HEV infection in the camp compared with that in the participants home states. The age-adjusted seroprevalence of anti-HEV IgG was 71% (95% confidence interval = 63-78), and 4% had evidence of recent exposure (IgM). We estimated HEV exposure rates to ...
Methods: The HEV open reading frame (ORF)2 protein was purified from plant tissue by using immobilized metal-anion chromatography (IMAC). The recombinant protein was used to develop an in-house ELISA for testing anti-HEV antibodies in both human and swine sera. Thirty-six serum samples collected from patients with serologically proven HEV infection with commercial kits were tested for anti-HEV IgG antibodies by using the plant-expressed protein. Forty-five serum samples collected from apparently healthy pigs in Bulgarian farms were also tested ...
Hepatitis E is an important medical pathogen in many developing countries but is rarely reported from the United States, although antibody to hepatitis E virus anti-HEV is found in1% of U.S. citizens. Zoonotic spread of the virus is suspected. Sera obtained from 239 wild rats trapped in widely separated regions of the United States were tested...
Hepatitis E Diagnostic Tests Market, Hepatitis E Diagnostic Tests Market Size, Hepatitis E Diagnostic Tests Market Share, Hepatitis E Diagnostic Tests Market Trends, Hepatitis E Diagnostic Tests Market Growth, Hepatitis E Diagnostic Tests Market Research
We assessed hepatitis E virus (HEV) antibody seroprevalence in a sample of the adult population in Germany. Overall HEV IgG prevalence was 16.8% (95% CI 15.6%-17.9%) and increased with age, leveling off at |60 years of age. HEV is endemic in Germany,
Recent publications. Caballero-Gomez J, Jimenez-Ruiz S, Lopez-Lopez P, Vicente J, Risalde MA, Cano-Terriza D, Frias M, Barasona JA, Rivero A, Garcia-Bocanegra I, Rivero-Juarez A; Emergent subtype of hepatitis E virus genotype 3 in wild boar in Spain. TRANSBOUNDARY AND EMERGING DISEASES. 2019 Sep;66(5):1803-1808. doi: 10.1111/tbed.13251. IF: 3,554. D1. Caballero-Gomez J, Rivero-Juarez A, Cano-Terriza D, Risalde MA, Lopez-Lopez P, Frias M, Jimenez-Ruiz S, Rivero A, Garcia-Bocanegra I; Survey for Hepatitis E virus infection in non-human primates in zoos in Spain. TRANSBOUNDARY AND EMERGING DISEASES. 2019 Jul;66(4):1771-1775. doi: 10.1111/tbed.13196. IF: 3,504. D1 Rivero-Juarez A, Lopez-Lopez P, Frias M, Rivero A; Hepatitis E Infection in HIV-Infected Patients. FRONTIERS IN MICROBIOLOGY. 2019 Jun 26;10:1425. doi: 10.3389/fmicb.2019.01425. IF: 4,259. Q1.. Lopez-Lopez P, Rivero-Juarez A, Frias M, Machuca I, Caballero-Gomez J, Olivas I, Camacho A, Risalde MD, Garcia-Bocanegra I, Rivero A; Mutations in ...
Hepatitis E virus (HEV) causes acute hepatitis with approximately 20 million cases per year globally. Based on genetic diversity, HEV is classified into different genotypes, with genotype 3 (HEV-3) being most prevalent in Europe and North America. The transmission of HEV-3 has been shown to be zoonotic and mainly associated with the consumption of raw or undercooked pork products. Herein, we investigated the efficacy of high-pressure processing (HPP) in inactivation of HEV-3 using a cell culture system. HPP has been indicated as a promising non-thermal pathogen inactivation strategy for treatment of certain high-risk food commodities, without any noticeable changes in their nature. For this purpose, we treated HEV-3 in media with different conditions of HPP: 400 MPa for 1 and 5 min, as well as 600 MPa for 1 and 5 min, at ambient temperature. All four HPP treatments of HEV in media were observed to result in a 2-log reduction in HEV load, as determined by the amounts of extracellular HEV RNA produced at
Background and aims: Autochthonous hepatitis E virus (HEV) infection is a porcine zoonosis and increasingly recognized in developed countries. In most cases the route of infection is uncertain. A previous study showed that HEV was associated geographically with pig farms and coastal areas.. Aim: The aim of the present research was to study the geographical, environmental and social factors in autochthonous HEV infection.. Methods: Cases of HEV genotype 3 infection and controls were identified from 2047 consecutive patients attending a rapid-access hepatology clinic. For each case/control the following were recorded: distance from home to nearest pig farm, distance from home to coast, rainfall levels during the 8 weeks before presentation, and socioeconomic status.. Results: A total of 36 acute hepatitis E cases, 170 age/sex-matched controls and 53 hepatitis controls were identified. The geographical spread of hepatitis E cases was not even when compared with both control groups. Cases were more ...
Matthew Garrett PharmD Candidate 2015 It is estimated that around 20 million hepatitis E infections occur every year. The hepatitis E virus causes liver disease and is usually transmitted through contaminated drinking water. The highest prevalence of hepatitis E is seen in eastern Asia. Hepatitis E infection usually resolves in 4-6 weeks and is…
This review details the molecular virology of the hepatitis E virus (HEV). a few variants from Africa, and genotypes 3 and 4 include human and swine HEV strains from industrialized countries and Asia (particularly China), respectively. While genotypes 1 and 2 have only been found in humans, genotypes 3 and 4 have been recovered from humans as well as pigs and other animal species. Genotype 3 is usually evenly distributed across the world while genotype 4 is found more often in China and Japan. Early studies on HEV transmission and pathogenesis as well as preclinical vaccine development studies have mostly been carried out in non-human primates such as cynomolgus, rhesus and owl monkeys, and chimpanzees (Uchida et al., 1991; Purdy et al., 1992; Ticehurst et al., 1992; McCaustland et al., 2000). More recently, pigs have also been used for transmission and molecular studies (Meng et al., 1998). However, a small animal model for HEV is still elusive. That and the lack of a suitable cell culture ...
Among ten patients who contracted sporadic acute or fulminant hepatitis E between 2001 and 2002 in Hokkaido, Japan, nine (90 %) had a history of consuming grilled or undercooked pig liver 2-8 weeks before the disease onset. We tested packages of raw pig liver sold in grocery stores as food in Hokkaido for the presence of hepatitis E virus (HEV) RNA by RT-PCR. Pig liver specimens from seven (1·9 %) of 363 packages had detectable HEV RNA. Partial sequence analyses revealed that the seven swine HEV isolates belonged to genotype III or IV. One swine HEV isolate (swJL145) from a packaged pig liver had 100 % identity with the HE-JA18 isolate recovered from an 86-year-old patient in Hokkaido. Two swine HEV isolates (swJL234 and swJL325) had 98·5-100 % identity with the HE-JA4 isolate obtained from a 44-year-old patient in Hokkaido. These results indicate that inadequately cooked pig liver may transmit HEV to humans.
Read A549 and PLC/PRF/5 cells can support the efficient propagation of swine and wild boar hepatitis E virus (HEV) strains: demonstration of HEV infectivity of porcine liver sold as food, Archives of Virology on DeepDyve, the largest online rental service for scholarly research with thousands of academic publications available at your fingertips.
Hepatitis E virus sequences were detected by RT-PCR in 14/15 (93%) of untreated sewage samples from Edinburgh, Scotland, UK. Phylogenetic analysis of amplicons at limiting dilution revealed the co-circulation of multiple variants of HEV-3, with a pattern of diversity matching that observed in a local cohort of HEV-infected hepatitis patients. J. Med. Virol. 88:915-918, 2016. © 2015 The Authors. Journal of Medical Virology Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
The interplay between host antiviral immunity and immunopathology during hepatitis E virus (HEV) infection determines important clinical outcomes. We characterized the specificity, functionality, and durability of host T-cell responses against the full-length HEV virus and assessed a novel Quantiferon assay for the rapid diagnosis of HEV infection. Eighty-nine volunteers were recruited from Oxford, Truro (UK), and Toulouse (France), including 44 immune-competent patients with acute HEV infection, 18 HEV-exposed immunosuppressed organ-transplant recipients (8 with chronic HEV), and 27 healthy volunteers. A genotype 3a peptide library (616 overlapping peptides spanning open reading frames [ORFs] 1-3) was used in interferon-gamma (IFN-γ) T-cell ELISpot assays. CD4+ /CD8+ T-cell subsets and polyfunctionality were defined using ICCS and SPICE analysis. Quantification of IFN-γ used whole-blood stimulation with recombinant HEV-capsid protein in the QuantiFERON kit. HEV-specific T-cell responses were
In this recommendation, we update our 2016 table of reference sequences of subtypes of hepatitis E virus (HEV; species Orthohepevirus A, family Hepeviridae) for which complete genome sequences are available (Smith et al., 2016). This takes into account subsequent publications describing novel viruses and additional proposals for subtype names; there are now eight genotypes and 36 subtypes. Although it remains difficult to define strict criteria for distinguishing between virus subtypes, and is not within the remit of the International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses (ICTV), the use of agreed reference sequences will bring clarity and stability to researchers, epidemiologists and clinicians working with HEV.. ...
To determine the origin of hepatitis E virus in the Czech Republic, we analyzed patient clinical samples. Five isolates of genotypes 3e, 3f, and 3g were obtained. Their genetic relatedness with Czech strains from domestic pigs and wild boars and patient recollections suggest an autochthonous source likely linked to consumption of contaminated pork ...
Via Eurosurveillance: Hepatitis E in pigs in Israel: seroprevalence, molecular characterisation and potential impact on humans. The abstract: Introduction The zoonotic hepatitis E virus (HEV) genotype 3 (HEV-G3) has become a common cause of acute and chronic hepatitis among humans...
This test determines whether you are infected with the hepatitis C virus, a virus that attacks the liver and can lead to liver disease.
This test determines whether you are infected with the hepatitis C virus, a virus that attacks the liver and can lead to liver disease.
Laskus, T., Cianciara, J. and Šlusarczyk, J. (1990), A follow-up study of an outbreak of non-A, non-B hepatitis in a plasmapheresis unit. Liver, 10: 49-53. doi: 10.1111/j.1600-0676.1990.tb00434.x ...
This is a test for the presence of antibodies to the Hepatitis C which is responsible for over 90% of hepatitis from blood transfusion. However, most cases of Hepatitis C (96%) is transmitted from intravenous drug use. Recombinant immunoblot assay (RIBA) detects antibodies to four HCV antigens ...
AJOL is a Non Profit Organisation that cannot function without donations. AJOL and the millions of African and international researchers who rely on our free services are deeply grateful for your contribution.. AJOL is annually audited and was also independently assessed in 2019 by E&Y. Your donation is guaranteed to directly contribute to Africans sharing their research output with a global readership.. ...
2019 for liver-related causes and ~40,000 persons in 2022 for all causes.8.. Full Guidance - HCV Guidance. May 24, 2018 … 1998). An estimated 29% of incarcerated persons in North America are HCV ...
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HEV seroprevalence in blood donors in Turkey by two business whole anti-HEV Ab ELISA kits. Earlier hepatitis E virus (HEV) seroprevalence research in Turkey have proven excessive variabilities ...
Hepatitis E has claimed a third life since the outbreak in December 2017. Despite the governments effort to contain the outbreak, the number of people diagnosed with the disease has been increasing.
You may be aware of some recent articles in the newspapers regarding the presence of hepatitis E in pork and the risk of infection due to consumption of...
The key objective of this meeting was to verify the rationale and objectives of molecular typing for surveillance of hepatitis E virus (HEV) through the hepatitis E network (HEVnet). The workshop reviewed HEVnet as a tool for molecular surveillance of HEV in Europe. ...
The key objective of this meeting was to verify the rationale and objectives of molecular typing for surveillance of hepatitis E virus (HEV) through the hepatitis E network (HEVnet). The workshop reviewed HEVnet as a tool for molecular surveillance of HEV in Europe. ...
UC Davis researchers have developed a way to use the empty shell of a Hepatitis E virus to carry vaccines or drugs into the body.
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Antibody to hepatitis C. *Antibody to HIV, usually subtypes 1 and 2 ... For example, the HIV antibody test will not detect a recently infected donor, so some blood banks use a p24 antigen or HIV ... "Donate blood, get antibody test". Queens Chronicle. 25 February 2021. Archived from the original on 26 February 2021. Retrieved ... The screening includes testing for diseases that can be transmitted by a blood transfusion, including HIV and viral hepatitis. ...
The appearance of anti-nuclear antibodies in autoimmune hepatitis was found to correlated with A1-B8-DR3.[26] One of the ... In autoimmune hepatitis[edit]. In 1972, a link between "HLA A1,8" (current:HLA A1-B8) active chronic hepatitis, subsequently B8 ... "Frequency and significance of anti-gliadin and anti-endomysial antibodies in autoimmune hepatitis" (PDF). Dig. Dis. Sci. 43 (10 ... doi:10.1002/hep.1840210411. PMID 7705806.. *^ Muratori P, Czaja AJ, Muratori L, et al. (March 2005). "Genetic distinctions ...
"Anti-Saccharomyces cerevisiae as unusual antibodies in autoimmune hepatitis". Minerva Gastroenterologica e Dietologica. 55 (1 ... If all these antibodies are negative, then anti-DGP antibodies (antibodies against deamidated gliadin peptides) should be ... Other antibodies such as anti-Saccharomyces cerevisiae antibodies occur in some people with coeliac disease but also occur in ... anti-DGP antibodies perform better than anti-endomysial and anti-transglutaminase antibodies tests. Because of the major ...
Hepatitis C may also induce rheumatoid factor auto-antibodies. Rarer causes which usually behave differently but may cause ... RF is a non-specific antibody and seen in about 10% of healthy people, in many other chronic infections like hepatitis C, and ... Binding of an autoreactive antibody to the Fc receptors is mediated through the antibody's N-glycans, which are altered to ... ACPAs measured as anti-CCP antibodies).[page needed] It is positive in 75-85%, but a negative RF or CCP antibody does not rule ...
"Anti-Saccharomyces cerevisiae as unusual antibodies in autoimmune hepatitis". Minerva Gastroenterologica E Dietologica. 55 (1 ... If all these antibodies are negative, then it should be determined anti-DGP antibodies (antibodies against deamidated gliadin ... Other antibodies such as anti-Saccharomyces cerevisiae antibodies occur in some people with coeliac disease but also occur in ... anti-DGP antibodies perform better than anti-endomysial and anti-transglutaminase antibodies tests.[8] ...
The technique is named immunoprophylaxis by gene transfer (IGT). Animal tests for antibodies to ebola, malaria, influenza, and ... hepatitis were underway. In March, scientists, including an inventor of CRISPR, Jennifer Doudna, urged a worldwide moratorium ... In March researchers delivered a recombinant gene encoding a broadly neutralizing antibody into monkeys infected with simian ... HIV; the monkeys' cells produced the antibody, which cleared them of HIV. ...
"Long-term follow-up of antimitochondrial antibody-positive autoimmune hepatitis". Hepatology. 48 (2): 550-6. doi:10.1002/hep. ... These are called anti-mitochondrial antibodies (AMA) and anti-nuclear antibodies (ANA), respectively. These antibodies are ... There is also evidence of anti-PDC-E2 antibodies in autoimmune hepatitis (AIH) patients. Pyruvate dehydrogenase deficiency (PDH ... 49 (3): 871-9. doi:10.1002/hep.22736. hdl:2434/55031. PMC 2665925. PMID 19185000. Bellucci R, Oertelt S, Gallagher M, Li S, ...
"Sleep Enhances the Human Antibody response to Hepatitis A Vaccination". Psychosomatic Medicine. 65: 831-835. PMID 14508028.. ... Burton, Dennis R. (2005). "Antibody vs. HIV in a clash of evolutionary titans". Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 102 (42): 14943-8. ... Satu kelas dari molekul non-self adalah antigen (kependekan dari bahasa Inggris antibody generator atau "pembangkit antibodi") ... Van de Perre P (2003). "Transfer of antibody via mother's milk". Vaccine. 21 (24): 3374-6. PMID 12850343.. ...
Kennedy, R.; Eichberg, J.; Lanford, R.; Dreesman, G. (1986). "Anti-idiotypic antibody vaccine for type B viral hepatitis in ... Kennedy has also helped to develop hepatitis B vaccines for chimpanzees and proposed their use in humans in a 1986 study. His ... Some of Kennedy's other research focused on the immune response to viral hepatitis. ...
Immunofluorescence pattern of SS-A and SS-B antibodies. Produced using serum from a patient on HEp-20-10 cells with a FITC ... Approximately only 0.1 to 0.5 percent of the general population has the antibody.[citation needed] ... Franceschini F, Cavazzana I (February 2005). "Anti-Ro/SSA and La/SSB antibodies". Autoimmunity. 38 (1): 55-63. doi:10.1080/ ... Franceschini, F.; Cavazzana, I. (2005). "Anti-Ro/SSA and La/SSB antibodies". Autoimmunity. 38 (1): 55-63. doi:10.1080/ ...
"Acceptable recipient outcomes with the use of hearts from donors with hepatitis-B core antibodies". J. Heart Lung Transplant. ... "Anti-HLA antibodies are associated with restenosis after percutaneous coronary intervention for cardiac allograft vasculopathy ...
... is a human monoclonal antibody directed against the hepatitis B virus. WHO Drug Information Shouval D, Terrault N, ... in Hepatitis B Virus (Hbv) in Liver Transplant (Lt) Recipients". Hepatology. 44 (4): 188A-700A [196A]. doi:10.1002/hep.21395. v ...
"Anti-hepatitis C antibodies and non-A, non-B post-transfusion hepatitis in the Netherlands". Lancet. 334 (8658): 297-298. doi: ... Alter, HJ; Purcell, RH; Shih, JW; Melpolder, JC; Houghton, M; Choo, Q-L; Kuo, G (1989). "Detection of antibody to hepatitis C ... De Bisceglie, AM; Alter, H; Kuo, G; Houghton, M; Hoofnagle, JH (1989). "Detection of antibody to hepatitis C virus in patients ... Houghton was co-author of a series of seminal studies published in 1989 and 1990 that identified hepatitis C antibodies in ...
... (INN; development code VAY736) is a monoclonal antibody that is being investigated for autoimmune hepatitis. This ...
... is a human monoclonal antibody developed for the treatment of hepatitis B infections. "WHO Drug Information" (PDF ... in Hepatitis B Virus (Hbv) in Liver Transplant (Lt) Recipients". Hepatology. 44 (4): 188A-700A [196A]. doi:10.1002/hep.21395. v ...
"Selection pressure from neutralizing antibodies drives sequence evolution during acute infection with hepatitis C virus". ... "Hepatitis C: The Insidious Spread Of A Killer Virus" Newsweek, Geoffrey Cowley, April 22, 2002. "The Insidious Spread of a ... "Johns Hopkins Team Finds 'Ancestral' Hepatitis-C Virus at Root of Evolution in Acute and Chronic Infections. AScribe, June 9, ... Netski, D.; Mao, Q.; Ray, S.; Klein, R. (2008). "Genetic divergence of hepatitis C virus: the role of HIV-related ...
May 2011). "Importance of the cutoff ratio for detecting antibodies against hepatitis A virus in oral fluids by enzyme ... The second study, conducted by Pascoe, et al., compared saliva antibody testing to serum antibody testing using ELISA followed ... and compared saliva antibody testing and serum antibody testing using ELISA technique in 820 individuals. ... Hepatitis C has also been identified using salivary detection methods. Yaari, et al., reported in 2006 that saliva testing for ...
1993). "Rescue, expression, and analysis of a neutralizing human anti-hepatitis A virus monoclonal antibody". J. Immunol. 151 ( ...
A Revalidation Study of Viral Clearance in the Purification of Monoclonal Antibody CB.Hep-1". Retrieved 12 July 2009. El Eman, ...
It was discovered to be part of the virus that caused serum hepatitis by virologist Alfred Prince in 1968. Heptavax, a "first- ... These antigens are recognized by antibody proteins that bind specifically to one of these surface proteins. Today, these ... generation" hepatitis B vaccine in the 1980s, was made from HBsAg extracted from the blood plasma of hepatitis patients. ... HBsAg (also known as the Australia antigen) is the surface antigen of the hepatitis B virus (HBV). It indicates current ...
Detection of antibodies to hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) using monoclonal antibody and the avidin-biotin system. Folia ... KOREC, E., HLOŽÁNEK, I., STARÁ, J., & NĔMECEK, V. Anti-idiotype antibody as a prospective vaccine against hepatitis B. Folia ... KOREC, E., KORCOVÁ, J., KÖNIG, J., & HLOŽÁNEK, I. Detection of antibodies against hepatitis B core antigen using the avidin- ... HLOŽÁNEK, I., DOSTÁLOVÁ, V., KOREC, E., ZELENÝ, V., KÖNIG, J., & NĔMECEK, V. Monoclonal antibodies to hepatitis B surface ...
With the introduction of second-generation ELISA antibody tests for hepatitis C, the Red Cross changed the ALT policy. As of ... Prior to July 1992, widespread blood donation testing in the USA for hepatitis C was not carried out by major blood banks. ... The intent was to identify donors potentially infected with hepatitis C because no specific test for that disease was available ... doi:10.1002/hep.23789. PMID 20658466. S2CID 5141849. Marshall W (2012). "Alanine aminotransferase: analyte monograph" (PDF). ...
"Antibody responses to the hepatitis C virus E2 protein: relationship to viraemia and prevalence in anti-HCV seronegative ... antibody and protection against DENV-4 challenge in mice and rhesus monkeys by passively transferred humanized antibody". J ...
... and there was the potential risk from hepatitis virus and cytotoxic antibodies. The absence of lipo-proteins from the perfusate ... The solution was incubated at 60 °C for 10 hours to inactivate the agent of serum hepatitis. The result was a 45 g/l human ... Murray R, Diefenbach WCL (1953). "Effect of heat on the agent of homologous serum hepatitis". Proc Soc Exp Biol Med. 84 (1): ... "Hyperacute Rejection of Renal Allografts Following Pulsatile Perfusion with a Perfusate Containing Specific Antibody". ...
October 1998). "Hepatitis C virus serotype-specific core and NS4 antibodies in injecting drug users participating in the ... Nonstructural protein 4A (NS4A) is a viral protein found in the hepatitis C virus. It acts as a cofactor for the enzyme NS3. ...
October 1998). "Hepatitis C virus serotype-specific core and NS4 antibodies in injecting drug users participating in the ... Nonstructural protein 4B (NS4B) is a viral protein found in the hepatitis C virus. It has mass of 27 kDa and probably involved ... Chapter 8. HCV NS4B: From Obscurity to Central Stage in "Hepatitis C Viruses: Genomes and Molecular Biology." / Tan SL. - ...
... between envelope proteins of hepatitis B viruses from Brazilian carriers and antibodies raised against recombinant hepatitis B ... A secondary antibody is added which recognizes and binds to the primary antibody. The secondary antibody is visualized through ... the membrane is exposed to another antibody known as the secondary antibody. Antibodies come from animal sources (or animal ... Then, the serum to be tested is applied in the primary antibody incubation step; free antibody is washed away, and a secondary ...
His firm provided the $300,000 start-up funding, and Hybritech's first product, antibodies for the hepatitis B virus, reached ... He was one of the first to use monoclonal antibodies to treat patients with melanoma, leukemia and T cell lymphoma. He ... The idea behind Hybritech was to harness monoclonal antibodies to quickly diagnose and treat diseases. Financier Brook Byers, ... IDEC - Founded in 1985 to develop monoclonal antibodies. Founders include Ivor Royston, Howard Birndorf, Richard Miller and ...
... (INN; development code GC1102) is a monoclonal antibody that is being investigated for hepatitis B. This drug is ... "A recombinant human immunoglobulin with coherent avidity to hepatitis B virus surface antigens of various viral genotypes and ...
Hepatitis B Virus-Specific CD8+ T Cells Maintain Functional Exhaustion after Antigen Reexposure in an Acute Activation Immune ... Disappearance of T Cell-Mediated Rejection Despite Continued Antibody-Mediated Rejection in Late Kidney Transplant Recipients. ... in immune function in patients with sepsis are associated with PD-1 or PD-L1 expression and can be restored by antibodies ...
IgM antibodies are detectable two days after symptom onset and IgG antibodies can be detected six to 18 days after symptom ... and viral hepatitis among others.[104] ... Finding the virus, viral RNA, or antibodies in blood[1]. ... Survivors develop antibodies against Ebola that last at least 10 years, but it is unclear whether they are immune to additional ... "Investigational Monoclonal Antibody to Treat Ebola Is Safe in Adults" (Press release). National Institute of Allergy and ...
"Chronic Hepatitis After Hepatitis E Virus Infection in a Patient With Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma Taking Rituximab" (PDF). Retrieved ... antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity).[55] This strategy for enhancing a monoclonal antibody's ability to induce ADCC takes ... Rituximab has been reported as a possible cofactor in a chronic Hepatitis E infection in a person with lymphoma. Hepatitis E ... The antibody binds to the cell surface protein CD20. CD20 is widely expressed on B cells, from early pre-B cells to later in ...
... has been reported as a possible cofactor in a chronic Hepatitis E infection in a person with lymphoma. Hepatitis E ... antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity).[57] This strategy for enhancing a monoclonal antibody's ability to induce ADCC takes ... The antibody binds to the cell surface protein CD20. CD20 is widely expressed on B cells, from early pre-B cells to later in ... Rituximab is a chimeric monoclonal antibody against the protein CD20, which is primarily found on the surface of immune system ...
Clinical trials have been conducted on mice using tomatoes expressing antibodies or proteins that stimulate antibody production ... targeted to norovirus, hepatitis B, rabies, HIV, anthrax and respiratory syncytial virus.[41] Korean scientists are looking at ...
... antibodies for the virus, or the virus itself in cell culture.[1] Other conditions that may present similarly include Ebola, ... An ELISA test for antigen and Immunoglobulin M antibodies give 88% sensitivity and 90% specificity for the presence of the ...
... hepatitis B, hepatitis C), autoimmune conditions (systemic lupus erythematosus, ANCA vasculitis), paraproteinemias (amyloidosis ... Newer, so-called "biologic drugs" or monoclonal antibodies, are also used in these conditions and include rituximab, ...
The level of A1AT in serum is most often determined by adding an antibody that binds to A1AT, then using turbidimetry to ... doi:10.1002/hep.20815. PMID 16044402. Mahr AD, Neogi T, Merkel PA (2006). "Epidemiology of Wegener's granulomatosis: Lessons ...
Toxoplasma antibodies» (en anglès). PLoS Negl Trop Dis, 2018 Ag 16; 12 (8), pp: e0006536. DOI: 10.1371/journal.pntd.0006536. ... Acute Seronegative Toxoplasma gondii Hepatitis Allergic to First-Line Treatment» (en anglès). Case Reports in Infectious ... aquest protozou provoca hepatitis agudes.[23] En persones immunodeprimides desencadena infeccions oportunistes molt serioses[24 ...
One study has identified antibodies to an M-type phospholipase A2 receptor in 70% (26 of 37) cases evaluated.[2] In 2014, a ... Within membranous glomerulonephritis, especially in cases caused by viral hepatitis, serum C3 levels are low.[7] ... The immune complexes are formed by binding of antibodies to antigens in the glomerular basement membrane. The antigens may be ...
The Center of molecular immunology (CIM) developed nimotuzumab, a monoclonal antibody used to treat cancer. Nimotuzumab is an ... hepatitis and chicken pox. Other campaigns included a program to reduce the infant mortality rate in 1970 directed at maternal ...
Hepatitis. DNA virus. HBV (B). RNA virus. CBV. HAV (A). HCV (C). HDV (D). HEV (E). HGV (G). ... Padgett, B.L.; Walker, D.L. (1973). "Prevalence of antibodies in human sera against JC virus, an isolate from a case of ...
Engineers of small-scale humanised antibody production. Prices on application.. *^ Immunisation article in Ganfyd, the online ... because the antibodies which are transferred have a lifespan of only about 3-6 months.[18] Every placental mammal (which ... known as antibodies or immunoglobulins. This was first performed (and is still sometimes performed) by taking blood from a ... In the future it might be possible to artificially design antibodies to fit specific antigens, then produce them in large ...
... antibodies - antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity (ADCC) - antibody-mediated immunity - antifungal medication - ... hepatitis - hepatitis C and HIV coinfection - hepatomegaly - herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) - herpes simplex virus 2 (HSV-2) - ... neutralizing antibody - neutralizing domain - neutropenia - neutrophil - New Drug Application (NDA) - New York Cares - NIAID - ... functional antibody - fungus - fusin - fusion inhibitor - fusion mechanism - fusion peptide ...
B cells: releases antibodies and assists activation of T cells. *T cells: *CD4+ Th (T helper) cells: activate and regulate T ... Infectious diseases - viral (AIDS, SARS, West Nile encephalitis, hepatitis, herpes, measles, others), bacterial (TB, typhoid, ... This causes an antibody response to be mounted. Monocytes eventually leave the bloodstream and become tissue macrophages, which ... B cells make antibodies that can bind to pathogens, block pathogen invasion, activate the complement system, and enhance ...
Jules Bordet received the Nobel prize in 1919 for his discoveries on immunity, especially the implication of antibodies and the ... In 1985, the first human vaccine obtained by genetic engineering from animal cells, the vaccine against hepatitis B, was ... and hepatitis B. The discovery and use of sulfonamides in treating infections was another breakthrough. Some researchers won ... produced a genetically engineered vaccine against hepatitis B and a rapid diagnostic test for the detection of the Helicobacter ...
In the case of dengue virus, monoclonal anti-CLEC5A antibodies are able to suppress the secretion of proinflammatory cytokines ... "New genetic associations detected in a host response study to hepatitis B vaccine". Genes and Immunity. 11 (3): 232-8. doi ... With the discovery of CLEC5A interactions with different viruses, scientists are testing blocking anti-CLEC5A antibodies, Syk ...
Laurence J (2006). "Hepatitis A and B virus immunization in HIV-infected persons". AIDS Reader 16 (1): 15-17. பப்மெட் 16433468. ... Planque S, Nishiyama Y, Taguchi H, Salas M, Hanson C, Paul S (June 2008). "Catalytic antibodies to HIV: Physiological role and ... 1990). "Infection with human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) among recipients of antibody-positive blood donations". Ann ... "The challenges of eliciting neutralizing antibodies to HIV-1 and to influenza virus". Nat. Rev. Microbiol. 6 (2): 143-55. doi: ...
Using antibodies and gold particles this approach can quantify proteins in serum with high sensitivity and specificity.[43] ... report that gene sequences for HIV, Ebola, Hepatitis, and Bacillus Anthracis can be uniquely identified using this technique. ...
"Hepatitis C". World Health Organization. Archived from the original on 2011-07-12. Retrieved 2013-04-25.. ... The tests are based upon the ability of an antibody to bind specifically to an antigen. The antigen (usually a protein or ... This technique is the current standard for detecting viral infections such as AIDS and hepatitis. ... carbohydrate made by an infectious agent) is bound by the antibody, allowing this type of test to be used for organisms other ...
It also has an immunological role in supplying antibodies to the system, such as immunoglobulin A.[16] This is seen to be key ...
Afucosylated monoclonal antibodies. References[edit]. *^ Hashimoto, G.; Wright, P. F.; Karzon, D. T. (1983-11-01). "Antibody- ... Antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC), also referred to as antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity, is a ... Antibodies can then bind to these viral proteins. Next, the NK cells which have Fc Receptors will bind to that antibody, ... whose membrane-surface antigens have been bound by specific antibodies.[1] It is one of the mechanisms through which antibodies ...
This test only works for IgE antibodies. Allergic reactions caused by other antibodies cannot be detected through skin-prick ... IgE antibodies bind to a receptor on the surface of the protein, creating a tag, just as a virus or parasite becomes tagged. ... 2 - IgE antibody. 3 - FcεRI receptor. 4 - preformed mediators (histamine, proteases, chemokines, heparin). 5 - granules. 6 - ... Anaphylaxis occurs when IgE antibodies are involved, and areas of the body that are not in direct contact with the food become ...
Unlike the other types, it is not antibody-mediated but rather is a type of cell-mediated response. ...
For development of a system to study the replication of the virus that causes hepatitis C and for use of this system to ... For the discovery and development of a monoclonal antibody therapy that unleashes the immune system to combat cancer.[15] ... Discovery of the virus that causes hepatitis C and the development of screening methods that reduced the risk of blood ... For their invention of Herceptin, the first monoclonal antibody that blocks a cancer-causing protein, and for its development ...
Hepatitis B virus reactivation may also occur.[5] Interactions[edit]. Nilotinib has been reported as a substrate for OATP1B1 ... Antibodies: Against TrkA: GBR-900; Against NGF: ABT-110 (PG110). *ASP-6294 ...
Typically, HEp-2 cells are used as a substrate to detect the antibodies in human serum. Microscope slides are coated with HEp-2 ... anti-Sm antibodies, anti-nRNP antibodies, anti-Scl-70 antibodies, anti-dsDNA antibodies, anti-histone antibodies, antibodies to ... This pattern is associated with anti-dsDNA antibodies, antibodies to nucleosomal components, and anti-histone antibodies. There ... If the serum contains antibodies, they will bind to antigens within the HEp-2 cell nucleus. These antibodies can be visualised ...
1960s - Developed the first licensed rubella vaccine and the first test for rubella antibodies for large scale testing. ... and the creation of vaccines against hepatitis, Haemophilus influenzae (HIB), and human papillomavirus (HPV).[7] ...
West Nile virus and hepatitis.[98] Also in 2006, SRI selected St. Petersburg, Florida, as the site for a new marine technology ... Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases to provide preclinical services for the development of drugs and antibodies for ...
... hes new wwasnt my doc back then did a hep panel said i had ... ... Your Guide to Hep C Treatments What you need to know about Hep ... Hi, Im non reactive for HEP C but my concern is that it reads: Hepatitis C antibody result is NON-REACTIVE SIGNAL TO CUT-OFF ... Hi, Im non reactive for HEP C but my concern is that it reads: Hepatitis C antibody result is NON-REACTIVE SIGNAL TO CUT-OFF ... hes new wwasnt my doc back then did a hep panel said i had antibodies 8.2...Im freaking out do i have hep c again and how ...
This test detectes both IgG and IgM antibodies to Hepatitis B Core ... Hepatitis B Core Ab. Chemiluminescent Microparticle Immunoassay (CMIA) CMI, Immunology Negative or Positive. ...
Hepatitis C virus antibodies in systemic lupus erythematosus.. Kowdley KV1, Subler DE, Scheffel J, Moore B, Smith H. ... To determine the prevalence and significance of serum antibody to hepatitis C virus (HCV) in patients with systemic lupus ... erythematosus (SLE), we measured serum antibodies to HCV by enzyme-linked immunosorbent (ELISA) and by Abbott MATRIX Immunoblot ...
... hes new wwasnt my doc back then did a hep panel said i had ... ... Communities>Hepatitis C: Post Treatment Issues>hep c antibodies ... hes new wwasnt my doc back then did a hep panel said i had antibodies 8.2...Im freaking out do i have hep c again and how ... So, looks like I have liver cancer which is not uncommon for those who suffered from Hep C and treatment to be cured from Hep C ... So, looks like I have liver cancer which is not uncommon for those who suffered from Hep C and treatment to be cured from Hep C ...
... then you probably dont have hepatitis c. however, if youve been exposed within the past 6 months, youll need to be checked ... How reliable is the antibody test for hepatitis C?. ANSWER If the antibody test doesnt find anything, then you probably dont ... The antibody test isnt perfect. It may show a hepatitis C infection when you dont have one. It could be positive even if you ... More Answers On Hepatitis. *What tests might I need after being diagnosed with hepatitis C? ...
For follow up to a low positive Hepatitis C Virus Antibody by immunoassay result, and in lieu of the unavailable HCV RIBA, see ... For follow up to a low positive Hepatitis C Virus Antibody by Immunoassay result, and in lieu of the unavailable HCV RIBA, ARUP ... Hepatitis C Virus RNA Quantitative, PCR This assay has a lower limit of detection of 18 IU/mL, and a lower limit of ... Hepatitis C Virus RNA Qualitative PCR This assay has a lower limit of detection of 100 IU/mL. ...
LBDHEG - Hepatitis E IgG (anti-HEV). Variable Name: LBDHEG SAS Label: Hepatitis E IgG (anti-HEV). English Text: Hepatitis E IgG ... LBDHEM - Hepatitis E IgM (anti-HEV). Variable Name: LBDHEM SAS Label: Hepatitis E IgM (anti-HEV). English Text: Hepatitis E IgM ... Hepatitis E: IgG & IgM Antibodies (HEPE_I) Data File: HEPE_I.xpt First Published: September 2017. Last Revised: NA ... Hepatitis E IgG Antibody (IgG Anti-HEV) DS-EIA-ANTI-HEV-G is an enzyme immunoassay kit intended for the detection of IgG ...
LBDHEG - Hepatitis E IgG antibody (IgG anti-HEV). Variable Name: LBDHEG SAS Label: Hepatitis E IgG antibody (IgG anti-HEV). ... LBDHEM - Hepatitis E IgM antibody (IgM anti-HEV). Variable Name: LBDHEM SAS Label: Hepatitis E IgM antibody (IgM anti-HEV). ... The age ranges and constraints for hepatitis E testing are as follows: The IgM and IgG hepatitis E antibody tests are performed ... Hepatitis E IgG Antibody (IgG Anti-HEV) DS-EIA-ANTI-HEV-G is an enzyme immunoassay kit intended for the detection of IgG ...
Learn how a hepatitis C antibody test works and what the test results mean. ... There are several tests that doctors order to check for the hepatitis C virus. The earlier its caught and treated, the less ... Its important to get tested if youve been exposed to hepatitis C. ... The hepatitis C antibody test is a blood test that looks for hepatitis C antibodies in the bloodstream. A positive result ...
... whether they have ever been infected with hepatitis C at any point. ... Hep C antibody tests are used to see if a person has ever developed hep c antibodies - ... How do hep C antibody tests work?. Hep C antibody tests are used to see if a person has ever developed hep C antibodies. If the ... Hepatitis NSW. Hepatitis factsheets. Hep C antibody testing. Last reviewed 18 August 2017. https://www.hep.org.au/wp-content/ ...
LabCorp test details for Hepatitis A Antibody, IgM ... If hepatitis A antibody is IgM, the hepatitis A infection is ... Differential diagnosis of hepatitis; the presence of IgM antibody to hepatitis A virus is good evidence for acute hepatitis A. ... Presence of IgG antibody to HAV does not exclude acute hepatitis B or other forms of hepatitis. ... IgM antibody develops within a week of symptom onset, peaks in three months, and is usually gone after six months. Hepatitis A ...
If hepatitis A antibody is IgM, the hepatitis A infection is probably acute. IgM antibody develops within a week of symptom ... Differential diagnosis of hepatitis; the presence of IgM antibody to hepatitis A virus is good evidence for acute hepatitis A. ... Presence of IgG antibody to HAV does not exclude acute hepatitis B or other forms of hepatitis. ... Hepatitis A antibody of IgG type is indicative of old infection, is found in almost 50% of adults, and is not usually ...
... Muhammad Imtiaz Shafiq,1,2 Amna ... "Thyroid Peroxidase Antibodies in Non-Interferon Treated Hepatitis C Patients in Pakistan," BioMed Research International, vol. ...
... Turan Calhan,1 Abdurrahman Sahin,1 Resul ... Turan Calhan, Abdurrahman Sahin, Resul Kahraman, et al., "Antineutrophil Cytoplasmic Antibody Frequency in Chronic Hepatitis B ...
Hepatitis C virus RNA concentration and chronic hepatitis in a cohort of patients followed after developing acute hepatitis C. ... Testing for the presence of antibody to hepatitis C virus (anti-HCV) is recommended for initially identifying persons with ... Antibody to hepatitis C virus. CIA. Chemiluminescence immunoassay, a screening test format for anti-HCV (e.g., VITROS® Anti-HCV ... Tests to detect antibody to hepatitis C virus (anti-HCV) were first licensed by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) in 1990 ...
Flaviviridae ; broadly neutralizing antibodies; epitope; hepatitis C virus; hepatitis C virus clearance; humoral immunity; ... Broadly Neutralizing Antibodies Targeting New Sites of Vulnerability in Hepatitis C Virus E1E2.. Colbert MD1, Flyak AI2,3, ... Antibodies targeting four sites (AR3, AR4-5, AS108, and AS146) were broadly neutralizing. These MAbs also displayed distinct ... Here, we isolated thirteen E1E2-specific monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) from B cells of a single HCV-infected individual who ...
A vaccine for hepatitis C virus (HCV) is urgently needed. Development of broadly neutralizing plasma antibodies during acute ... Plasma deconvolution identifies broadly neutralizing antibodies associated with hepatitis C virus clearance. ... Plasma deconvolution identifies broadly neutralizing antibodies associated with hepatitis C virus clearance. ... Identifying these epitopes could define the specificity and function of neutralizing antibodies (NAbs) that should be induced ...
Antibody response to hypervariable region 1 interferes with broadly neutralizing antibodies to hepatitis C virus. J Virol. 2016 ... Human broadly neutralizing antibodies to the envelope glycoprotein complex of hepatitis C virus. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2012 ... Neutralizing antibody response during acute and chronic hepatitis C virus infection. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2004;101(27): ... Broadly neutralizing antibody mediated clearance of human hepatitis C virus infection. Cell Host Microbe. 2018;24(5):717-730.e5 ...
... have been detected in patients with hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection and have been associated in autoimmune diseases (i.e. ... Lupus anticoagulant, anticardiolipin antibodies and hepatitis C virus infection in thalassaemia Br J Haematol. 1998 Sep;102(4): ... Anticardiolipin antibodies (ACA) and lupus anticoagulant (LA) have been detected in patients with hepatitis C virus (HCV) ... None of patients developed any complications related to antiphospholipid antibodies (APL); therefore the clinical significance ...
Furthermore, viral evasion from host neutralizing antibodies has been revealed to be an important contributor in leading both ... This review summarizes recent concepts of the role of neutralizing antibodies in viral clearance and protection, and highlights ... Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is a major cause of chronic liver disease worldwide. The interplay between the virus and host ... and neutralization has allowed a detailed understanding of the molecular mechanisms of virus-host interactions during antibody- ...
AIDS virus antibody in polytransfused dialysis patients vaccinated against hepatitis B. Br Med J (Clin Res Ed) 1986; 293 :537 ... AIDS virus antibody in polytransfused dialysis patients vaccinated against hepatitis B.. Br Med J (Clin Res Ed) 1986; 293 doi: ...
If you test postive for Hep B CORE Antibody & {NEGATIVE FOR HEP B. SURFACE ANTIGEN & POSITIVE FOR HEP B. SURFACE ANTIBODIES, ... If you test postive for Hep B CORE Antibody & {NEGATIVE FOR HEP B. SURFACE ANTIGEN & POSITIVE FOR HEP B. SURFACE ANTIBODIES, ... Hep B Core antibody is an antibody to a specific part of the HepB virus. You can NOT transmit it to others. ... Hep B Core antibody is an antibody to a specific part of the HepB virus. You can NOT transmit it to others. ...
A core antibody would help to tell the... ... It means protection from hepatitis B. Either you had a vaccine ... Ask the Experts > Forum on Hepatitis and HIV Coinfection > Q & A hepititis bs antibody. Jan 3, 2008 I had a physical done aout ... It means protection from hepatitis B. Either you had a vaccine in the past or you had natural infection and recovered. A core ... Read More About Hepatitis B Prevention Browse Forums: <-- Select . Aging. Choosing Your Meds. En Español. In Italiano. ...
"Hepatitis Antibodies" by people in Harvard Catalyst Profiles by year, and whether "Hepatitis Antibodies" was a major or minor ... "Hepatitis Antibodies" is a descriptor in the National Library of Medicines controlled vocabulary thesaurus, MeSH (Medical ... Immunoglobulins raised by any form of viral hepatitis; some of these antibodies are used to diagnose the specific kind of ... Prevalence of hepatitis E virus and reassessment of HIV and other hepatitis virus seroprevalences among French prison inmates. ...
All antibodies of IgM class, when present in the test sample, can be captured by anti-human IgM antibodies immobilized on the ... All antibodies of IgM class, when present in the test sample, can be captured by anti-human IgM antibodies immobilized on the ... In addition, immobilized rabbit IgG antibodies which can be recognized by colloidal gold-labeled anti-rabbit IgG antibodies ... In addition, immobilized rabbit IgG antibodies which can be recognized by colloidal gold-labeled anti-rabbit IgG antibodies ...
Browse our Hepatitis C Virus E2 Antibody catalog backed by our Guarantee+. ... Hepatitis C Virus E2 Antibodies available through Novus Biologicals. ... Hepatitis C Virus E2 Antibodies. We offer Hepatitis C Virus E2 Antibodies for use in common research applications: ELISA, ... Choose from our Hepatitis C Virus E2 polyclonal antibodies and browse our Hepatitis C Virus E2 monoclonal antibody catalog. ...
Browse our Hepatitis A Surface Antigen Antibody catalog backed by our Guarantee+. ... Hepatitis A Surface Antigen Antibodies available through Novus Biologicals. ... Hepatitis A Surface Antigen Antibodies. We offer Hepatitis A Surface Antigen Antibodies for use in common research applications ... Choose from our Hepatitis A Surface Antigen monoclonal antibodies.. Alternate Names for Hepatitis A Surface Antigen Antibodies ...
The hepatitis B surface antibody test is used to help identify if a person has developed immunity to the hepatitis B virus, ... The hepatitis B surface antibody test is used to help identify if a person has developed immunity to the hepatitis B virus, ... Core antibodies are the first antibodies produced by the body in response to infection with hepatitis B. A positive core ... This hepatitis B surface antibody test detects antibodies produced by the body in response to the presence of surface antigens ...
Validated in WB and tested in Hepatitis C virus. Cited in 2 publication(s). Immunogen corresponding to synthetic peptide. ... Anti-Hepatitis C Virus antibody. See all Hepatitis C Virus primary antibodies. ... Primary antibodies. Secondary antibodies. ELISA and Matched Antibody Pair Kits. Cell and tissue imaging tools. Cellular and ... it is likely that these antibodies will react with Hepatitis C strain 2a. Ab18662 - Mouse monoclonal [24-8 ] to Hepatitis C ...
Validated in WB and tested in Hepatitis C virus. Cited in 6 publication(s). Immunogen corresponding to synthetic peptide. ... Anti-Hepatitis C Virus antibody. See all Hepatitis C Virus primary antibodies. ... Primary - Rabbit Anti-Hepatitis C Virus antibody (ab1033) WB Protein - Recombinant Human Hepatitis C Virus (mutated D168 V) ... Primary antibodies. Secondary antibodies. ELISA and Matched Antibody Pair Kits. Cell and tissue imaging tools. Cellular and ...
  • Induction of multiple broadly neutralizing antibodies (bNAbs) that target distinct epitopes on the HCV envelope proteins is one approach to vaccine development. (nih.gov)
  • A vaccine for hepatitis C virus (HCV) is urgently needed. (jci.org)
  • Identifying these epitopes could define the specificity and function of neutralizing antibodies (NAbs) that should be induced by a vaccine. (jci.org)
  • These studies have the potential to inform new strategies for vaccine development by identifying broadly neutralizing antibody combinations in plasma associated with the natural clearance of HCV, while also providing a high-throughput assay that could identify these responses after vaccination trials. (jci.org)
  • It means protection from hepatitis B . Either you had a vaccine in the past or you had natural infection and recovered. (thebody.com)
  • Demonstration of real-time and accelerated stability of hepatitis E vaccine with a combination of different physicochemical and immunochemical methods. (harvard.edu)
  • Multifaceted characterization of recombinant protein-based vaccines: An immunochemical toolbox for epitope-specific analyses of the hepatitis E vaccine. (harvard.edu)
  • Among these, 880 children were completely immunized and were given a birth dose of hepatitis B vaccine, 686 were completely immunized but were not given a birth dose of hepatitis B vaccine and 844 were unvaccinated. (yahoo.com)
  • It was found that children who were given complete vaccination (with or without birth-dose of hepatitis B vaccine) had a similar level of protection against infection. (yahoo.com)
  • 1 Departments of Molecular Biology, International AIDS Vaccine Initiative Neutralizing Antibody Center, and The Skaggs Institute for Chemical Biology, The Scripps Research Institute, La Jolla, CA 92037, USA. (nih.gov)
  • Duration of Immunity After Hepatitis B Vaccination: Efficacy of Low-Dose Booster Vaccine. (ebscohost.com)
  • Studies health care workers three years after initial vaccination with hepatitis B vaccine to determine the prevalence of immunity indicated by levels of antibody to hepatitis B surface antigen. (ebscohost.com)
  • Decline of vaccine coverage for hepatitis B. (ebscohost.com)
  • An effective vaccine to the antigenically diverse hepatitis C virus (HCV) must target conserved immune epitopes. (sciencemag.org)
  • This was the first marker for any hepatitis virus and became not only a diagnostic assay, but also a mandatory blood donor screening test and the basis for the first generation hepatitis B vaccine. (medworm.com)
  • The Hepatitis B vaccine is recommended for those who have not been previously vaccinated. (personalabs.com)
  • To evaluate viral vaccine antibody levels in children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia after chemotherapy and after vaccine booster doses. (scielo.br)
  • Antibody levels against hepatitis B, rubella, measles and mumps vaccine antigens were evaluated in 33 children after completing chemotherapy (before and after vaccine booster doses) and the results were compared to the data of 33 healthy children matched for gender, age and social class. (scielo.br)
  • After receiving a vaccine booster dose for these antigens the patients had high antibody levels consistent with potential protection against measles, mumps and hepatitis B, but not against rubella. (scielo.br)
  • After this, viral vaccine antibody levels should be verified to define the individual's protective status. (scielo.br)
  • Trans Am Clin Climatol Assoc. 2019;130:104-118 Authors: Alter HJ Abstract The modern age of viral hepatitis began in the early 1960s with the serendipitous discovery of the Australia antigen, a protein that was later shown to represent the envelope of the hepatitis B virus leading to its designation as the hepatitis B surface antigen. (medworm.com)
  • Hepatitis D virus (HDV), also known as delta hepatitis virus, is a defective RNA virus comprising of a delta antigen and a hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) as the core and protein coat of the virus, respectively. (mayomedicallaboratories.com)
  • Serum samples from study subjects were examined for anti-HCV by enzyme immunoassays as well as hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) and e antigen (HBeAg) by radioimmunoassays using commercial kits. (aacrjournals.org)
  • In the clinical follow-up study of 11 patients with anti-preS1 positive serological profile, HBsAg and HBV-DNA clearance occurred in 6 of 10 acute hepatitis B patients in 5-6 mo, and seroconversion of HBeAg and disappearance of HBV-DNA occurred in 1 chronic patients treated with lavumidine, a antiviral agent. (wjgnet.com)
  • This study was done to evaluate efficacy of HBV vaccination on hepatitis B virus surface antigen [‎HBsAg]‎ carrier rate in children with thalassaemia major receiving multiple blood transfusions. (who.int)
  • Presence of hepatitis B surface antigen (HbsAg) and alanine-aminotransferase (ALAT) level are routinely assessed, as well as HIV and human T-lymphotropic virus type l infection. (cdc.gov)
  • HBsAg is the surface antigenof the Hepatitis-B-Virus (HBV). (prospecbio.com)
  • HBsAg is a serological marker produced on the surface of the hepatitis B virus and is one of the first disease state markers to be detected in the serum of patients infected with the hepatitis B virus. (prospecbio.com)
  • Background and Objective: Presence of hepatitis B core antibody (anti-HBc) in the absence of hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) and hepatitis B surface antibody (anti-HBs) is defined, as isolated anti-HBc. (psu.edu)
  • HBsAg, anti-HBs, anti-HBc, Hepatitis C antibody (anti-HCV) and Alanine aminotransferase (ALT) levels were tested in all subjects. (psu.edu)
  • For decades, people living with chronic hepatitis B were told they would be "cured" only when they lost the hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) and developed surface antibodies. (hepb.org)
  • Researchers, including expert Dr. Robert Gish, suggest if people have an undetectable viral load (HBV DNA), undetectable HBsAg, and no signs of liver damage, they may be "functionally cured," even if they haven't developed surface antibodies. (hepb.org)
  • Today, we're only measuring one type of surface antibody, and for some reason we don't know yet, it may never become positive in people who have been chronically infected and cleared HBsAg. (hepb.org)
  • Dr. Gish speculates that the surface antibodies that labs measure may all bind to any HBsAg that remain following infection, so there may not be any excess of this one type of surface antibodies to measure. (hepb.org)
  • As a result of these findings, people who have gone two or more years with undetectable viral load and HBsAg, and no signs of liver damage just might be "functionally cured", Dr. Gish suggests, even if their surface antibodies remain undetectable. (hepb.org)
  • The hepatitis virus consists of a core containing DNA ( HBV-DNA ) with an enzyme known as DNA polymerase that assists with viral replication and is surrounded by surface proteins ( HBsAg ). (healthhype.com)
  • The surface proteins surrounding the viral core is known as the hepatitis B surface antigen ( HBsAg ). (healthhype.com)
  • To determine the prevalence and significance of serum antibody to hepatitis C virus (HCV) in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), we measured serum antibodies to HCV by enzyme-linked immunosorbent (ELISA) and by Abbott MATRIX Immunoblot assays in 42 patients with SLE, a condition associated with hypergammaglobulinemia. (nih.gov)
  • Prevalence of hepatitis E virus and reassessment of HIV and other hepatitis virus seroprevalences among French prison inmates. (harvard.edu)
  • To determine the prevalence of antibodies to hepatitis B core antigen, hepatitis C virus, and HIV in the prison population of the Republic of Ireland and to examine risk factors for infection. (bmj.com)
  • Prevalence of antibodies to hepatitis B core antigen, antibodies to hepatitis C virus, and antibodies to HIV. (bmj.com)
  • 6 Given the association between injecting drug use and infection with hepatitis B virus, hepatitis C virus, and HIV, it is important to know both the prevalence of these infections and the pattern of risk behaviours in prison environments so that appropriate responses can be instituted. (bmj.com)
  • We report the results of a national study examining the relations between self reported risk behaviour and the prevalence of antibodies to hepatitis B core antigen, hepatitis C virus, and HIV in the Irish prisoner population. (bmj.com)
  • We estimated that a sample of 1200 prisoners was required to measure the prevalence of antibodies to hepatitis C virus in the high and medium risk prisons. (bmj.com)
  • The prevalence of HCV antibodies in blood donors in Dakar in 2001 appears to be one of the lowest in West Africa, close to published estimates for Mauritania and Benin (1.1% and 1.4%, respectively) and lower than in other West African countries such as Ghana or Guinea, where prevalence ranges from 2.8% to 6.7% ( 1 - 4 ). (cdc.gov)
  • Hepatitis B and C virus prevalence in a rural area of South Korea: the role of acupuncture. (ebscohost.com)
  • A cross-sectional study evaluated the prevalence of and the risk factors for hepatitis C and B viruses among 700 adults above the age of 40 years in a rural area of South Korea. (ebscohost.com)
  • It discusses the aim of the study, the recruitment of the participants, semiquantitative analysis of anti-HBs antibodies for hepatitis B, and the prevalence of Hepatitis B. (ebscohost.com)
  • Hepatitis B virus and hepatitis C virus share routes of transmission but the prevalence of hepatitis C virus infection in this population is unknown. (ebscohost.com)
  • Prevalence of antibodies to hepatitis E in two rural Egyptian communities. (ajtmh.org)
  • A population-based serosurvey in two rural Egyptian communities was used to assess age-specific prevalence of antibody to hepatitis E virus (anti-HEV). (ajtmh.org)
  • Prevalence of this magnitude is among the highest reported in the world, with an age-specific pattern more similar to hyperendemic hepatitis A virus transmission than generally described. (ajtmh.org)
  • Hepatitis viruses constitute a major public health problem because of the morbidity and mortality associated with the acute and chronic consequences of these infections. (cdc.gov)
  • Infection with hepatitis E virus (HEV) has been responsible for large water-borne epidemics of acute disease in developing countries and for acute sporadic disease in industrialized developed countries. (cdc.gov)
  • the presence of IgM antibody to hepatitis A virus is good evidence for acute hepatitis A. (labcorp.com)
  • If hepatitis A antibody is IgM, the hepatitis A infection is probably acute. (labcorp.com)
  • Presence of IgG antibody to HAV does not exclude acute hepatitis B or other forms of hepatitis. (labcorp.com)
  • Development of broadly neutralizing plasma antibodies during acute infection is associated with HCV clearance, but the viral epitopes of these plasma antibodies are unknown. (jci.org)
  • Furthermore, viral evasion from host neutralizing antibodies has been revealed to be an important contributor in leading both to viral persistence in acute liver graft infection following liver transplantation, and to chronic viral infection. (mdpi.com)
  • Acute liver failure caused by hepatitis E virus genotype 3 and 4: A systematic review and pooled analysis. (harvard.edu)
  • HDV superinfection in chronic HBV or in HBV carrier state typically manifests as an acute exacerbation of chronic hepatitis B, with tendency to result in chronic HBV-HDV coinfection and early cirrhosis or liver failure. (mayomedicallaboratories.com)
  • HDV IgG and HDV total antibodies persist in serum after resolution of acute HDV infection and in chronic coinfection. (mayomedicallaboratories.com)
  • Positive results usually indicate 1 of the following conditions: 1) simultaneous acute or chronic coinfection with hepatitis B virus (HBV) and HDV, 2) acute HDV infection in patients with known chronic HBV infection (ie, HDV superinfection), or 3) resolved HDV infection. (mayomedicallaboratories.com)
  • The source of HCV was plasma obtained from a patient during the acute phase of posttransfusion non-A, non-B hepatitis, which had previously been titered for infectivity in chimpanzees. (pnas.org)
  • IgM antibody against hepatitis C virus (IgM anti-HCV) was measured in serial samples from 15 transfusion recipients in whom posttransfusion chronic non-A, non-B hepatitis (NANBH) developed and three plasmapheresis donors during acute HCV infection using recombinant proteins derived from three immunodominant regions: core, NS-3, and NS-4 (c100). (unboundmedicine.com)
  • TY - JOUR T1 - IgM antibody response in acute hepatitis C viral infection. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • Recombinant preS1(21-119 aa) protein was successfully applied in the immunoassay which could sensitively detect the anti-preS1 antibodies in serum specimens of acute or chronic hepatitis B patients. (wjgnet.com)
  • Results showed that more than half of 19 acute hepatitis B patients produced anti-preS1 antibodies during recovery of the disease, however, the response was only found in a few of chronic patients. (wjgnet.com)
  • Acute Hepatitis B in a Patient with Antibodies to Hepatitis B Surface Antigen Who Was Receiving Rituximab. (ebscohost.com)
  • A letter to the editor on acute hepatitis B in a patient with antibodies to hepatitis B surface antigen who was having rituximab therapy is presented. (ebscohost.com)
  • Specimens analyzed were from 200 blood donors, 79 patients with acute viral hepatitis (AVH), 392 hemodialyzed patients, and 30 carriers of schistosomiasis. (ajtmh.org)
  • That level was used because most adults who had a short-term or acute case of hepatitis B were able to generate lots of surface antibodies once they've cleared the infection, and people who were vaccinated also tended to generate high surface antibody levels. (hepb.org)
  • To this end, we investigated the nature of ASCs in direct ex vivo assays from patients with acute hepatitis A caused by primary infection with hepatitis A virus (HAV). (jimmunol.org)
  • The hepatitis B virus (HBV) can infect the liver cells resulting in an acute infection or persist with chronic inflammation of the liver. (healthhype.com)
  • Acute hepatitis with subsequent recovery and total clearance of the virus in a person with a healthy immune system. (healthhype.com)
  • Non-progressive chronic hepatitis which may occur after an acute infection. (healthhype.com)
  • Acute hepatitis B lasts for less than 6 months. (healthhype.com)
  • The Hepatitis B Surface Antigen test is the earliest indicator of acute infection, while it also indicates chronic infection as well. (personalabs.com)
  • Extra doses of measles-mumps-rubella plus hepatitis B vaccines are recommended in acute lymphoblastic leukemia patients submitted to treatment after hematologic recovery. (scielo.br)
  • Hepatitis C Virus RNA Quantitative, PCR This assay has a lower limit of detection of 18 IU/mL, and a lower limit of quantitation of 43 IU/mL. (legacyhealth.org)
  • Hepatitis C Virus RNA Qualitative PCR This assay has a lower limit of detection of 100 IU/mL. (legacyhealth.org)
  • Testing for anti-HCV should include use of an antibody screening assay, and for screening test-positive results, a more specific supplemental assay. (cdc.gov)
  • An Optimized High-Throughput Neutralization Assay for Hepatitis E Virus (HEV) Involving Detection of Secreted Porf2. (harvard.edu)
  • The presence of HEV specific IgM antibodies can be differentially detected by a colloidal gold-labeled HEV antigen immobilized within the device, and can be visualized as pink/purple lines after assay. (mpbio.com)
  • Antibody to HCV was tested for using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) (Ortho Diagnostic Systems, Raritan, New Jersey). (annals.org)
  • Analysis of discordant test results among five second-generation assays for anti-hepatitis C virus antibodies also tested by polymerase chain reaction-RNA assay and other laboratory and clinical tests for hepatitis. (asm.org)
  • The diagnostic performances of five commercially available second-generation assays for anti-hepatitis C virus antibody, two enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays, one enzyme immunoassay, and two particle agglutination assays (passive hemagglutination assay and particle agglutination assay), were evaluated. (asm.org)
  • Assay sensitivities were further evaluated by testing serially diluted World Health Organization (WHO) reference reagent for hepatitis E virus antibody and one patient sample infected with HEV genotype 3. (mdpi.com)
  • The detection of antibodies to hepatitis C virus (HCV) using a recombinant-based immunoassay in patients who did not have risk factors for infection or evidence of liver disease has raised doubts about the test's specificity (1). (annals.org)
  • We then investigated the allele specificity of the antibodies and identified the HLA alleles in each patient using DNA-based HLA typing. (medsci.org)
  • We confirmed that the anti-HLA class II antibodies in the AIH patients showed specificity for several HLA class II alleles, including self HLA class II alleles. (medsci.org)
  • The tightness and specificity with which antibodies bind to protein complexes has led to many fruitful applications in structural biology. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Choose from our Hepatitis C Virus E2 polyclonal antibodies and browse our Hepatitis C Virus E2 monoclonal antibody catalog. (novusbio.com)
  • The following product was used in this experiment: Hepatitis C Virus NS3 Monoclonal Antibody (24-8) from Thermo Fisher Scientific, catalog # MA1-21375, RRID AB_559424. (thermofisher.com)
  • Assess safety and tolerability of escalating doses of a human monoclonal antibody against Hepatitis C E2 glycoprotein (MBL-HCV1) in healthy adults. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Determine pharmacokinetics of a human monoclonal antibody against Hepatitis C E2 glycoprotein (MBL-HCV1) given as a single intravenous infusion. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • A single dose of human monoclonal antibody will be administered. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • A single dose of human monoclonal antibody MBL-HCV1 will be administered on Day 0 and subjects will be followed for 56 days. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Mouse monoclonal antibody raised against recombinant hepatitis B virus core antigen. (abnova.com)
  • The prognosis for autoimmune hepatitis becomes worse when it is associated with liver cirrhosis and the presence of soluble liver antigen and the liver pancreas antigen (SLA/LP) antibodies. (belmarrahealth.com)
  • Recent studies done on patients with autoimmune hepatitis show that the first diagnosis of cirrhosis of the liver and the presence of the above mentioned antibodies increase the risk of poor short-term and poor long-term outcomes. (belmarrahealth.com)
  • A chronic inflammatory disease, autoimmune hepatitis results in damage to the liver as a result of the body's immune system attacking healthy liver cells. (belmarrahealth.com)
  • According to lead author Dr. Arndt Vogel from Hannover Medical School in Germany, early diagnosis and timely medical therapy can help patients with autoimmune hepatitis have a good prognosis. (belmarrahealth.com)
  • Dr. Vogel explains that their study examines the genetic and clinical features of remission, relapse and liver transplant-free survival in patients with autoimmune hepatitis. (belmarrahealth.com)
  • For the study, the team analyzed 264 patients with autoimmune hepatitis who were treated at Hannover Medical School between 2000 and 2014, and 399 patients without autoimmune hepatitis. (belmarrahealth.com)
  • And the patients with a childhood diagnosis of autoimmune hepatitis had an increased risk of relapse, higher risk of needing a liver transplant and a reduced life expectancy. (belmarrahealth.com)
  • Besides cirrhosis of the liver, there are other factors that could influence and increase the risk of autoimmune hepatitis. (belmarrahealth.com)
  • Being female - Although autoimmune hepatitis can occur in both men and women the incidence of occurrence is higher in women. (belmarrahealth.com)
  • Age - While type-1 autoimmune hepatitis is not associated with age and can occur any time, type-2 autoimmune hepatitis usually affects young females. (belmarrahealth.com)
  • Infections - A bacterial or viral infection may pave the way for autoimmune hepatitis. (belmarrahealth.com)
  • Medications - Certain medicines like the antibiotic, minocycline, and the cholesterol medication, Lipitor, have been known to be risk factors for autoimmune hepatitis. (belmarrahealth.com)
  • Heredity - The predisposition for autoimmune hepatitis to run in families is backed by historical evidence. (belmarrahealth.com)
  • Autoimmune disease - People who already have an autoimmune disease may be more likely to develop autoimmune hepatitis. (belmarrahealth.com)
  • Type-1 autoimmune hepatitis has antinuclear and smooth muscle antibodies. (belmarrahealth.com)
  • Type-2 autoimmune hepatitis show liver-kidney-microsomal antibodies. (belmarrahealth.com)
  • Type-3 autoimmune hepatitis displays SLA/LP antibodies. (belmarrahealth.com)
  • Of the three, the most common type in North America is type-1 autoimmune hepatitis . (belmarrahealth.com)
  • Females account for about 70 percent of type-1 autoimmune hepatitis patients. (belmarrahealth.com)
  • Most people with type-1 autoimmune hepatitis commonly have other autoimmune disorders. (belmarrahealth.com)
  • Type-2 autoimmune hepatitis is not as common as its type-1 cousin and occurs more often in children than adults. (belmarrahealth.com)
  • For both type-1 and type-2 autoimmune hepatitis, the aim of the treatment is to deter the body's immune system from attacking the liver, and in the process slow down the progression of the disease. (belmarrahealth.com)
  • Autoimmune hepatitis (AIH) can arise de novo after liver transplantation (LT) for non-autoimmune liver diseases. (medsci.org)
  • Yamagiwa S, Kamimura H, Takamura M, Genda T, Ichida T, Nomoto M, Aoyagi Y. Presence of Antibodies against Self Human Leukocyte Antigen Class II Molecules in Autoimmune Hepatitis. (medsci.org)
  • These antibodies are typically associated with autoimmune hepatitis. (wikipedia.org)
  • In autoimmune hepatitis anti-actin antibodies correlate with patterns of immune recognition, the pattern of recognition was specific to a small percentage of auto-immune hepatitis type 1 or cryptogenic hepatitis patients. (wikipedia.org)
  • This recommendation is consistent with testing practices for hepatitis B surface antigen and antibody to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), for which laboratories routinely conduct more specific reflex testing before reporting a result as positive ( 1 , 3 ). (cdc.gov)
  • Hepatitis B antigen and antibody in a male homosexual population. (bmj.com)
  • The hepatitis B surface antibody test is used to help identify if a person has developed immunity to the hepatitis B virus, either by previous infection or by vaccination. (healthtestingcenters.com)
  • There is no vaccination for hep c but there is for hep a and hep b. (medhelp.org)
  • hepatitis B vaccination at birth may not be necessary. (yahoo.com)
  • When the nurse practioner was going over my vaccination schedule she noted that I had finished up my Hep. (allnurses.com)
  • The results provide structural information for a neutralizing epitope on the HCV E2 glycoprotein and should help guide rational design of HCV immunogens to elicit similar broadly neutralizing antibodies through vaccination. (nih.gov)
  • To evaluate the effectiveness of hepatitis B virus [‎HBV]‎ vaccination of household contacts of HBV carriers in Tulkarm district, Palestine, quantitative hepatitis B surface [‎anti-HBs]‎ antibody response in 161 household contacts was measured after vaccination. (who.int)
  • Integration of hepatitis B vaccination into rural African primary health care programmes. (ebscohost.com)
  • Examines the integration of hepatitis B vaccination into rural health care programs in South Africa. (ebscohost.com)
  • Kosalaraksa P, Chokephaibulkit K, Benjaponpitak S, Pancharoen C, Chuenkitmongkol S, B'Chir S, Da Costa X, Vidor E. Persistence of hepatitis B immune memory until 9-10 years of age following hepatitis B vaccination at birth and DTaP-IPV-HB-PRP∼T vaccination at 2, 4 and 6 months. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • The primary aim of the study is to show that the antibody response to hepatitis B, acellular pertussis toxin and inactivated poliovirus antigens after the 4th vaccination with Hexavac® is not influenced by the concomitant administration of NeisVac-C. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • The levels of hepatitis A antibodies in the primary vaccination were the only factor independently associated with maintaining these antibodies for 7 years. (scielo.br)
  • The antibodies levels acquired in the primary vaccination in the HIV group were the main factor associated with antibodies loss after HAV immunization. (scielo.br)
  • Bottom line, "immune memory" and antibodies that labs may not be able to identify remain ready to fight infection following vaccination and even after a chronic infection. (hepb.org)
  • DS-EIA-ANTI-HEV-G is an enzyme immunoassay kit intended for the detection of IgG antibodies to hepatitis E virus in human serum or plasma. (cdc.gov)
  • Serum specimens were processed, stored, and shipped to the Division of Viral Hepatitis, National Center for HIV/AIDS, Viral Hepatitis, STD, and TB Prevention, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (cdc.gov)
  • Technician tests human blood serum for antibodies to hepatitis C virus. (sciencephoto.com)
  • Moreover, positive reactivity with anti-self HLA class II antibodies was associated with higher serum transaminase levels. (medsci.org)
  • N-glycopeptide signatures of IgA2 in serum from patients with hepatitis B virus-related liver diseases. (medworm.com)
  • We evaluated 5 commercially available HEp-2 antinuclear antibody (ANA) indirect fluorescent antibody (IFA) assays using patient serum samples from 45 patients with rheumatoid arthritis, 50 with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), 35 with scleroderma, 20 with Sjögren syndrome, 10 with polymyositis, and 100 healthy control subjects. (biomedsearch.com)
  • In this study anticardiolipin antibodies (immunoglobulin G [IgG] isotype) were determined in serum from 100 patients with chronic hepatitis C and 52 healthy controls. (cun.es)
  • If you test postive for Hep B CORE Antibody & {NEGATIVE FOR HEP B. 'SURFACE ANTIGEN' & POSITIVE FOR HEP B. SURFACE ANTIBODIES, Which turned out to be greater than 1000.0 } and are immuned, can you still transmit the {HEP B CORE ANTIBODIES} to your sexual partner? (medhelp.org)
  • Despite their "inactive" infection, studies show two-thirds of these people will never develop surface antibodies, said Dr. Gish, medical consultant to the Hepatitis B Foundation and professor consultant of gastroenterology and hepatology at Stanford University. (hepb.org)
  • But isn't developing surface antibodies the gold standard for recovery from hepatitis B? (hepb.org)
  • Historically, medical guidelines dictated that chronically-infected patients must generate at least 10 mIU/mL of surface antibodies to be "functionally cured. (hepb.org)
  • Hepatitis B surface antibodies are very specific in their mission, and we're learning that the body may be making other types of surface antibodies that we cannot measure. (hepb.org)
  • It may be similar to what happens in vaccinated people who over time no longer test positive for surface antibodies. (hepb.org)
  • In the old literature, people thought having lots of surface antibodies meant better protection, but now we know people who've been vaccinated remain protected by their immune system's T-cell response and also 'memory B cells' even if their surface antibodies decline or become undetectable," he said. (hepb.org)
  • However, Dr. Gish cautions, it's important to remember that once infected with hepatitis B (indicated by presence of the hepatitis B core antibody - anti-HBc), people will always retain low levels of the hepatitis B virus in their bodies - even if they develop surface antibodies. (hepb.org)
  • Broadly neutralizing antibodies abrogate established hepatitis C virus infection. (natap.org)
  • Goat polyclonal antibody raised against recombinant human hepatitis C virus. (abnova.com)
  • If hepatitis B core total antibodies is positive, then hepatitis B core antibody IgM is performed at an additional charge. (mayomedicallaboratories.com)
  • Do you live in Wyoming and need Hepatitis B Core Antibody IgM testing ? (personalabs.com)
  • In addition, NHANES provides the means to better define the epidemiology of other hepatitis viruses. (cdc.gov)
  • NHANES testing for markers of infection with hepatitis viruses will be used to determine secular trends in infection rates across most age and racial/ethnic groups, and will provide a national picture of the epidemiologic determinants of these infections. (cdc.gov)
  • As well as the passive function of sticking to viruses, some antibodies trigger a series of events which result in inflammation of the area around a cell area, making it generally inhospitable to bacteria and viruses. (mydr.com.au)
  • Not sure what you mean by strain if you are thinking about Hepatitis a or Hepatitis b those are 2 entirely different viruses. (medhelp.org)
  • INTRODUCTION Co-infections between hepatitis B and HIV viruses are frequent due to their similar epidemiological characteristics. (ebscohost.com)
  • Fourteen (17.7%) of the AVH patients were positive, as were six (25%) of 24 with hepatitis A virus, three (11%) of 26 with hepatitis B virus, 0 (0%) of 12 with hepatitis C virus, and five (29%) of 17 with non-A, non-B, non-C hepatitis viruses. (ajtmh.org)
  • Patients with AVH due to hepatitis A had a greater frequency of anti-HEV, probably because of similar routes of transmission for both hepatitis A and E viruses. (ajtmh.org)
  • The five types of hepatitis viruses are common infectious causes of liver inflammation, and some like hepatitis A (HAV), B (HBV) and C (HCV) are more frequently seen infectious agents. (healthhype.com)
  • There are six types of hepatitis C. Each type, or genotype , represents a specific combination of genes within a cell. (healthline.com)
  • The hepatitis C genotyping test shows which genotype of hepatitis C must be treated. (healthline.com)
  • About 70 to 75 percent of people who have hepatitis C have genotype 1. (healthline.com)
  • Genotype 2 accounts for 13 to 15 percent of people with hepatitis C. About 10 percent have genotype 3. (healthline.com)
  • Each hepatitis C genotype represents a genetically distinct group of the virus. (healthline.com)
  • Further, they can also tell what hep C genotype a person has. (mydr.com.au)
  • Here, we isolated thirteen E1E2-specific monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) from B cells of a single HCV-infected individual who cleared one genotype 1a infection and then became persistently infected with a second genotype 1a strain. (nih.gov)
  • Hepatitis C virus is classified into six genotypes(1-6) with several subtypes within each genotype. (acris-antibodies.com)
  • The preS1 fragment purified by Ni 2+ -IDA affinity chromatography was used as coated antigen to establish the indirect ELISA based on streptavidin-biotin system for detection of the anti-preS1 antibodies in sera from HBV-infected patients. (wjgnet.com)
  • Blood samples for human anti-human antibody detection will be drawn on days 0, 14+/-1 and 56+/-7. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Diagnosis of hepatitis E virus (HEV) is usually determined serologically by detection of the presence of immunoglobulin (Ig)M antibodies or rising anti-HEV IgG titers. (mdpi.com)
  • Considerable variations were observed particularly for the detection period of IgM antibodies. (mdpi.com)
  • No absolute correlation between the detection of HBs Ag, or previous history of hepatitis, jaundice, or current hepatitis was found. (bmj.com)
  • Although we quickly eradicate lots of hepatitis C once it's identified, there are always some which have mutated, are not recognised and survive our immune response. (mydr.com.au)
  • Increasing evidence indicates that broadly neutralizing antibodies (bNAbs) play an important role in immune-mediated control of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection, but the relative contribution of neutralizing antibodies targeting antigenic sites across the HCV envelope (E1 and E2) proteins is unclear. (nih.gov)
  • Negative result may not rule out hepatitis D virus (HDV) infection during the early phase of infection or in immunocompromised patients who have delayed or inadequate immune response. (mayomedicallaboratories.com)
  • Furthermore, the mononuclear cell infiltration in the immunized mice appeared earlier than in the nonimmunized mice, suggesting that the exogenous antibody might have activated host immune responses, and thus facilitated clearance of the virus or virus-infected cells. (asm.org)
  • Our results suggest that an antibody-mediated immune response against HLA class II molecules on hepatocytes may be involved in the pathogenesis or acceleration of liver injury in AIH. (medsci.org)
  • This study provides insight into the nature of effective immune response against HCV and demonstrates an innovative approach for constructing antibodies correlating with successful infection clearance. (frontiersin.org)
  • The cure is called "functional" because the only cure for hepatitis B is when the immune system controls or suppresses the virus. (hepb.org)
  • People with chronic hepatitis usually experience several infection stages, starting with a high viral load (called immune-tolerant or immune-trained) during childhood and early adulthood, followed by years and even decades of "active" hepatitis B where the immune system tries to clear the infection, indicated by elevated liver enzyme tests. (hepb.org)
  • Like the chicken pox virus, the hepatitis B virus remains suppressed only as long as the immune system remains healthy enough to keep it in check. (hepb.org)
  • Old age, other illnesses, chemotherapy or drugs that suppress the immune system can allow a reactivation of hepatitis B in the same way that chicken pox returns as "shingles" in older adults. (hepb.org)
  • Viral proteins (antigens) trigger the immune system to produce corresponding antibodies. (healthhype.com)
  • When these antibodies bind with the antigens it helps to direct the activity of immune cells. (healthhype.com)
  • Long-term HEV carriers without antibody seroconversion among eligible immunocompetent blood donors. (harvard.edu)
  • We report an assessment of the proportion of blood donors from the Hôpital Principal de Dakar who had HCV antibodies in 2001. (cdc.gov)
  • A systematic screening of HCV antibodies in blood donors could prevent, on average, 120 bloodborne HCV infections each year. (cdc.gov)
  • Hepatitis E is an emerging zoonotic disease caused by hepatitis E virus (HEV). (wur.nl)
  • These tests look for presence of the actual hep C virus. (mydr.com.au)
  • They look for the actual hep C virus and are used to see whether someone has a current infection. (mydr.com.au)
  • I am assuming you initially tested for hep c antibodies and later retested per standard protocol for the actual hep c virus with a HCV RNA by PCR test. (medhelp.org)
  • Hepatitis C is a virus that attacks the human liver. (healthline.com)
  • IMPORTANCE Worldwide, more than 70 million people are infected with hepatitis C virus (HCV), which is a leading cause of hepatocellular carcinoma and liver transplantation. (nih.gov)
  • Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is a major cause of chronic liver disease worldwide. (mdpi.com)
  • Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is a leading contributor to global chronic liver disease. (mdpi.com)
  • This virus cannot replicate effectively by itself, and it requires the presence of hepatitis B virus (HBV) to initiate and maintain its replication in the infected liver cells. (mayomedicallaboratories.com)
  • Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is the most important etiologic agent of non-A, non-B hepatitis and is a major cause of chronic liver disease and hepatocellular carcinoma. (pnas.org)
  • Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infects more than 2% of the global population and is a leading cause of liver cirrhosis, hepatocellular carcinoma, and end-stage liver diseases. (nih.gov)
  • Testing for hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection may reduce the risk of liver-related morbidity, by facilitating earlier access to treatment and care. (springer.com)
  • Hepatitis C is a serious liver infection most commonly contracted after a blood trans- fusion. (sciencephoto.com)
  • The hepatitis C virus is the cause of hepatitis C and some cancers such as liver cancer (hepatocellular carcinoma, abbreviated HCC) and lymphomas in humans. (thermofisher.com)
  • Hepatitis is an inflammation and enlargement of the liver, usually due to hepatitis virus infection. (apollohospitals.com)
  • The researchers did not take into account subjects with viral hepatitis, haemochromatosis, Wilson's disease and alcoholic and non-alcoholic liver disease . (belmarrahealth.com)
  • At the end of the study, the researchers found that in the patients with SLA/LP antibodies the overall survival and liver transplant-free survival was significantly reduced. (belmarrahealth.com)
  • Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is a major public health concern, with over 70 million people infected worldwide, who are at risk for developing life-threatening liver disease. (frontiersin.org)
  • In patients with no evidence of liver disease and a history of thrombotic events, hepatitis C markers were absent in all cases who tested negatively for anticardiolipin antibodies (n = 37), but were present in 16.7% of those positive for anticardiolipin (n = 36) (P = .01). (cun.es)
  • Hepatitis is the term for inflammation of the liver and may be due to infectious or non-infectious causes. (healthhype.com)
  • Fulminant hepatitis with destruction of large parts of the liver is life-threatening. (healthhype.com)
  • In chronic hepatitis B infection, the patient may be asymptomatic for long periods of time until there is severe damage to the liver. (healthhype.com)
  • Chronic hepatitis B is seen where the virus does not clear and the infection persists past 6 months.The clinical features of chronic HBV infection depends on the degree of liver damage. (healthhype.com)
  • A carrier is a person with chronic hepatitis B showing no symptoms of the infection and there is no damage to the liver. (healthhype.com)
  • The presence or absence of IgG antibodies to hepatitis E virus is determined by the ratio of the OD of each sample to the calculated cut-off value. (cdc.gov)
  • Testing for the presence of antibody to hepatitis C virus (anti-HCV) is recommended for initially identifying persons with hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection (CDC. (cdc.gov)
  • This hepatitis B surface antibody test detects antibodies produced by the body in response to the presence of surface antigens (viral proteins). (healthtestingcenters.com)
  • A large number of children who were unvaccinated also showed the presence of antibodies. (yahoo.com)
  • Considering the identical features of de novo AIH after LT and classical AIH, as well as the importance of anti-human leukocyte antigen (HLA) antibodies in graft rejection, we investigated the presence of circulating anti-HLA class II antibodies in the sera of 35 patients with AIH, 30 patients with primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC), and 30 healthy donors using fluorescent dye-impregnated beads bound to HLA molecules. (medsci.org)
  • The hepatitis C antibody test looks for antibodies that the body produces in response to the presence of HCV. (brighamandwomens.org)
  • This antibody reacts with the 44 kD core protein C3, the envelope protein, and E2 (NS1) of Hepatitis C Virus. (abcam.com)
  • Peptide corresponding to amino acids 33-43 of Hepatitis C Virus (HCV) core protein C3. (abcam.com)
  • This antibody recognizes the core protein C1 of Hepatitis C Virus. (abcam.com)
  • Some of mouse hepatitis virus strains contain an optional envelope glycoprotein, hemagglutinin-esterase (HE) protein. (asm.org)
  • To understand the functional significance of this protein, monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) specific for this protein were generated and used for passive immunization of mice. (asm.org)
  • The hypervariable region 1 (HVR1) of the E2 protein of hepatitis C virus (HCV) is a highly heterogeneous sequence that is promiscuously recognized by human sera via binding to amino acid residues with conserved physicochemical properties. (jimmunol.org)
  • Over 280,000 products but you can't find the right antibody for your protein or application? (acris-antibodies.com)
  • Hepatitis C virus (HCV) entry into host cells is a multistep process requiring various host factors, including the tight junction protein occludin (OCLN), which has been shown to be essential for HCV infection in in vitro cell culture systems. (asm.org)
  • Recombinant protein encompassing a sequence within the center region of Hepatitis C virus NS5B protein. (genetex.com)
  • RNA-directed RNA polymerase (HCV virus) antibody detects RNA-directed RNA polymerase (HCV virus) protein by western blot analysis. (genetex.com)
  • Recombinant protein corresponding to human hepatitis C virus. (abnova.com)
  • Recombinant protein corresponding to hepatitis B virus core antigen. (abnova.com)
  • Previously, the epitopes of seven murine monoclonal antibodies have been identified by cryo-EM analysis of Fab-labeled capsids. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • These results show that epitopes on the floor, far (~ 30 Å) from the immunodominant loop, are clinically relevant and that murine anti-cAg antibodies afford a good model for the human system. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • False-positive results may be due to cross-reactive antibodies from other viral infection or underlying illnesses. (mayomedicallaboratories.com)
  • Initial HCV infection is most often followed by chronic hepatitis with persistence of viremia in up to 85% of individuals [ 2 ]. (mdpi.com)
  • Anticardiolipin antibodies (ACA) and lupus anticoagulant (LA) have been detected in patients with hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection and have been associated in autoimmune diseases (i.e. systemic lupus erythematosus) with an increased risk of thromboembolic events. (nih.gov)
  • of these patients 37 cases tested negatively for anticardiolipin antibodies and 36 positively. (cun.es)
  • In conclusion, anticardiolipin antibodies are frequently found in patients with chronic hepatitis C and in these patients they may be implicated in the occurrence of thrombosis and in the development of thrombocytopenia. (cun.es)
  • The capsid (core antigen, HBcAg) is one of three major antigens present in patients infected with Hepatitis B Virus. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • CDC: "Hepatitis C: Information on Testing & Diagnosis. (webmd.com)
  • UpToDate: "Diagnosis and Evaluation of Chronic Hepatitis C Virus Infection. (webmd.com)
  • NB: Hep C diagnosis can be confirmed much earlier than 12 weeks by using PCR tests (which take only two weeks for an accurate test result). (mydr.com.au)
  • Prophylactic Hepatitis E Vaccines: Antigenic Analysis and Serological Evaluation. (harvard.edu)
  • If concerened about contracting either hep a or b there are vaccines available to protect against those infections. (medhelp.org)
  • This review summarizes recent concepts of the role of neutralizing antibodies in viral clearance and protection, and highlights consequences of viral escape from neutralizing antibodies in the pathogenesis of HCV infection. (mdpi.com)
  • Elimination of New Chronic Hepatitis B Virus Infections: Results of the Alaska Immunization Program. (ebscohost.com)
  • little is known about the clinical significance of the isolated anti-HBc in hepatitis B virus (HBV) infections. (psu.edu)
  • CATIE ensures that these resources, developed to help prevent the transmission of HIV, hepatitis C and other infections, are written and reviewed by health experts for content accuracy. (catie.ca)
  • In order to assess the association between antibodies to hepatitis C virus (anti-HCV) and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), as well as the interaction of anti-HCV with other HCC risk factors in Taiwan, a total of 127 pairs of newly diagnosed HCC patients and healthy community controls were studied. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Worldwide, hepatitis B infection is one of the main causes of hepatocellular carcinoma and cirrhosis. (ebscohost.com)
  • Over 40 million Indians are chronically infected with Hepatitis B. People can live without symptoms for years and realize later that they have an infection. (yahoo.com)
  • However, clinical reports using the B cell-depleting antibody rituximab in chronically infected patients showed that HCV viremia rose between 10- and 100-fold after rituximab treatment and returned to baseline after reappearance of B cells (13, 14). (natap.org)
  • To establish a convenient immunoassay method based on recombinant antigen preS1(21-119 aa) to detect anti-preS1 antibodies and evaluate the clinical significance of antibodies in hepatitis B. (wjgnet.com)
  • For follow-up study, serial sera were collected during the clinical course of 21 HBV-infected patients and anti-preS1 antibodies, preS1 antigen, HBV-DNA and other serological HBV markers were analyzed. (wjgnet.com)
  • Repeat HCV antibody testing, adds cost but no clinical benefit, so it should not be performed. (choosingwisely.org)
  • Four of the 17 samples were regarded as true positive, since all supplementary assays and clinical data indicated active hepatitis C virus infection. (asm.org)
  • These observations suggest that the male homosexual population represents a pool of individuals within which the hepatitis B virus is readily transmitted, mainly as a subclinical infection although clinical hepatitis does occur in some patients. (bmj.com)
  • We offer Hepatitis C Virus E2 Antibodies for use in common research applications: ELISA, Immunocytochemistry/Immunofluorescence, Western Blot. (novusbio.com)
  • We offer Hepatitis A Surface Antigen Antibodies for use in common research applications: ELISA, Radioimmunoassay. (novusbio.com)
  • Hepatitis C "ELISA" test. (sciencephoto.com)
  • The antibody titre for an indirect ELISA is 1:700,000. (genetex.com)
  • 2007). "IgA anti-actin antibodies ELISA in coeliac disease: A multicentre study" (PDF). (wikipedia.org)
  • Vials are stored under appropriate frozen (-30°C) conditions until they are shipped to Division of Viral Hepatitis, National Center for HIV/AIDS, Viral Hepatitis, STD, and TB Prevention for testing. (cdc.gov)
  • The material in this report originated in the National Center for Infectious Diseases, James M. Hughes, M.D., Director, and the Division of Viral Hepatitis, Harold S. Margolis, M.D., Director. (cdc.gov)
  • Remarkably, we identified multiple broadly neutralizing antibody combinations that were associated with greater plasma neutralizing breadth and with HCV clearance. (jci.org)
  • These special proteins are called antibodies. (healthline.com)
  • Hepatitis A virus is a picornavirus, and antibody is made to capsid proteins. (labcorp.com)
  • Neutralization was achieved with plasma obtained from the same patient 2 yr after the onset of primary infection but not with plasma obtained 11 yr later, although both plasmas contained antibodies against nonstructural and structural (including envelope) HCV proteins. (pnas.org)
  • In structural cell biology, antibodies coupled with electron-dense gold markers are used to map the distributions of proteins in cells by "immuno-gold" EM (e.g. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Screening for IgG Antinuclear Autoantibodies by HEp-2 Indirect Fluorescent Antibody Assays and the Need for Standardization. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Antiphospholipid antibodies are a type of autoantibodies that have been implicated in the occurrence of thrombocytopenia and thrombotic events and have been described in autoimmune disorders and diverse viral diseases. (cun.es)
  • Your antibodies never went away even after SVR, you will always be positive for antibodies, nothing you can do about it. (medhelp.org)
  • For follow up to a low positive Hepatitis C Virus Antibody by Immunoassay result, and in lieu of the unavailable HCV RIBA, ARUP offers the two options below. (legacyhealth.org)
  • A positive result usually means that you've been exposed to the hepatitis C virus. (healthline.com)
  • If you test positive but your doctor thinks it's unlikely that you have hepatitis C, they may have you repeat the test as well. (healthline.com)
  • If the test comes back positive, it means that HCV antibodies were found - proof that the virus has entered the bloodstream at some point in time. (mydr.com.au)
  • Thus, a positive antibody test doesn't always mean someone has a current infection. (mydr.com.au)
  • Hepatitis C Virus is a positive, single stranded RNA virus in the Flaviviridae family. (abcam.com)
  • I tested positive for hep c antibodies and retested with no infection. (medhelp.org)
  • Most likely you will test positive for Hepatitis c antibodies. (medhelp.org)
  • You will always test positive for antibodies. (medhelp.org)
  • However, if the mother is a hepatitis B carrier especially if she is e-antigen positive, the baby must be vaccinated at birth", Dr. Jacob Puliyel, the study's primary author and a pediatrician at St. Stephens Hospital in Delhi, told India Science Wire . (yahoo.com)
  • The most important predictor of being positive for hepatitis B and hepatitis C was a history of injecting drug use. (bmj.com)
  • Do not repeat Hepatitis C virus antibody testing in patients with a previous positive Hepatitis C virus (HCV) test. (choosingwisely.org)
  • A positive HCV antibody test remains positive for life (3). (choosingwisely.org)
  • A common reason for unnecessary repeat testing is the inclusion of this test in order sets (eg, hepatitis and/or opioid screening order sets), or a result of problematic follow-up of HCV positive patients in an outpatient setting. (choosingwisely.org)
  • Patients who have had a remote and resolved HCV infection who are suspected to have been reinfected, should be tested using the HCV viral load test, rather than the HCV antibody test, since this latter test remains positive for life. (choosingwisely.org)
  • those that change colour to yellow/orange are positive and confirm that the patient has antibodies for hepatitis C virus. (sciencephoto.com)
  • The hepatitis C virus (HCV) is a small (55-65 nm in size), enveloped, positive-sense single-stranded RNA virus of the family Flaviviridae. (thermofisher.com)
  • If your results on the hepatitis C antibody test are positive or you have symptoms that suggest HCV, your healthcare provider may order a hepatitis C RNA test. (brighamandwomens.org)
  • Radioimmunnoassay was used to determine the serologic subspecificities of 85 blood donor serums positive for hepatitis B virus-associated antigen. (sciencemag.org)
  • This test is also available as part of the Hepatitis B Infection and Immunity Package . (healthtestingcenters.com)
  • Indian Council of Medical Research (ICMR), was conducted to examine if the birth dose is crucial for attaining full immunity against hepatitis B infection. (yahoo.com)
  • We now have two studies, one from South India and this one from North India showing that many babies have acquired passive immunity that may be protecting them soon after birth when they are most vulnerable to develop chronic hepatitis. (yahoo.com)
  • Standardization among the HEp-2 IFA assays occurred when they exhibited the same titer ± 1 doubling dilution. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Along with subjectivity of interpretation, HEp-2 IFA assays are also vulnerable to standardization issues similar to other methods for ANA screening. (biomedsearch.com)
  • It is suggested that further work is necessary to determine whether the high antibody rate in male homosexuals is related more to sexual practice than to promiscuity. (bmj.com)
  • National Center for Biotechnology Information: "FibroSURE and FibroScan in relation to treatment response in chronic hepatitis C virus. (webmd.com)
  • New immunization strategies have been developed to eliminate the spread of hepatitis B virus (HBV) and hepatitis A virus (HAV) in the United States. (cdc.gov)
  • A Cross-Sectional Study of Anti-Hepatitis B Antibody Status in STD Patients: Need for Improved Immunization. (ebscohost.com)
  • Evaluates the effectiveness of a hepatitis B immunization program in eliminating hepatitis B virus (HBV) transmission among Alaska Natives in a region in which HBV is endemic. (ebscohost.com)
  • In this study, we successfully generated four rat anti-OCLN monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) by the genetic immunization method and unique cell differential screening. (asm.org)
  • To assess possible factors associated with the loss of antibodies to hepatitis A 7 years after the primary immunization in children of HIV-infected mothers and the response to revaccination in patients seronegative for hepatitis A. (scielo.br)
  • Hep c does have different "strains" called genotypes with names like 1a, 1b, 2a, 2b etc I think there are like 16 different genotypes in all. (medhelp.org)
  • Hep c has many different genotypes but they are all called Hepatitis c. (medhelp.org)
  • Here, we investigate cross-neutralization of HCV genotypes by broadly neutralizing antibodies (bNAbs) encoded by the relatively abundant human gene family V H 1-69 . (sciencemag.org)