INFLAMMATION of the LIVER in humans caused by a member of the ORTHOHEPADNAVIRUS genus, HEPATITIS B VIRUS. It is primarily transmitted by parenteral exposure, such as transfusion of contaminated blood or blood products, but can also be transmitted via sexual or intimate personal contact.
INFLAMMATION of the LIVER in humans caused by HEPATITIS C VIRUS, a single-stranded RNA virus. Its incubation period is 30-90 days. Hepatitis C is transmitted primarily by contaminated blood parenterally, and is often associated with transfusion and intravenous drug abuse. However, in a significant number of cases, the source of hepatitis C infection is unknown.
INFLAMMATION of the LIVER in humans caused by a member of the HEPATOVIRUS genus, HUMAN HEPATITIS A VIRUS. It can be transmitted through fecal contamination of food or water.
Immunoglobulin molecules having a specific amino acid sequence by virtue of which they interact only with the ANTIGEN (or a very similar shape) that induced their synthesis in cells of the lymphoid series (especially PLASMA CELLS).
The type species of the genus ORTHOHEPADNAVIRUS which causes human HEPATITIS B and is also apparently a causal agent in human HEPATOCELLULAR CARCINOMA. The Dane particle is an intact hepatitis virion, named after its discoverer. Non-infectious spherical and tubular particles are also seen in the serum.
Those hepatitis B antigens found on the surface of the Dane particle and on the 20 nm spherical and tubular particles. Several subspecificities of the surface antigen are known. These were formerly called the Australia antigen.
The property of antibodies which enables them to react with some ANTIGENIC DETERMINANTS and not with others. Specificity is dependent on chemical composition, physical forces, and molecular structure at the binding site.
Immunoglobulins produced in response to VIRAL ANTIGENS.
INFLAMMATION of the LIVER in humans that is caused by HEPATITIS C VIRUS lasting six months or more. Chronic hepatitis C can lead to LIVER CIRRHOSIS.
INFLAMMATION of the LIVER in humans caused by HEPATITIS B VIRUS lasting six months or more. It is primarily transmitted by parenteral exposure, such as transfusion of contaminated blood or blood products, but can also be transmitted via sexual or intimate personal contact.
INFLAMMATION of the LIVER in humans due to infection by VIRUSES. There are several significant types of human viral hepatitis with infection caused by enteric-transmission (HEPATITIS A; HEPATITIS E) or blood transfusion (HEPATITIS B; HEPATITIS C; and HEPATITIS D).
Antibodies to the HEPATITIS B ANTIGENS, including antibodies to the surface (Australia) and core of the Dane particle and those to the "e" antigens.
A species in the genus HEPATOVIRUS containing one serotype and two strains: HUMAN HEPATITIS A VIRUS and Simian hepatitis A virus causing hepatitis in humans (HEPATITIS A) and primates, respectively.
Vaccines or candidate vaccines containing inactivated hepatitis B or some of its component antigens and designed to prevent hepatitis B. Some vaccines may be recombinantly produced.
Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.
Immunoglobulins produced in a response to BACTERIAL ANTIGENS.
INFLAMMATION of the LIVER with ongoing hepatocellular injury for 6 months or more, characterized by NECROSIS of HEPATOCYTES and inflammatory cell (LEUKOCYTES) infiltration. Chronic hepatitis can be caused by viruses, medications, autoimmune diseases, and other unknown factors.
The hepatitis B antigen within the core of the Dane particle, the infectious hepatitis virion.
Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent infection with hepatitis A virus (HEPATOVIRUS).
A genus of FLAVIVIRIDAE causing parenterally-transmitted HEPATITIS C which is associated with transfusions and drug abuse. Hepatitis C virus is the type species.
Antibodies to the HEPATITIS C ANTIGENS including antibodies to envelope, core, and non-structural proteins.
Immunoglobulins raised by any form of viral hepatitis; some of these antibodies are used to diagnose the specific kind of hepatitis.
A closely related group of antigens found in the plasma only during the infective phase of hepatitis B or in virulent chronic hepatitis B, probably indicating active virus replication; there are three subtypes which may exist in a complex with immunoglobulins G.
Antigens of the virion of the HEPATITIS B VIRUS or the Dane particle, its surface (HEPATITIS B SURFACE ANTIGENS), core (HEPATITIS B CORE ANTIGENS), and other associated antigens, including the HEPATITIS B E ANTIGENS.
The production of ANTIBODIES by proliferating and differentiated B-LYMPHOCYTES under stimulation by ANTIGENS.
Antibodies that reduce or abolish some biological activity of a soluble antigen or infectious agent, usually a virus.
Acute INFLAMMATION of the LIVER in humans; caused by HEPATITIS E VIRUS, a non-enveloped single-stranded RNA virus. Similar to HEPATITIS A, its incubation period is 15-60 days and is enterically transmitted, usually by fecal-oral transmission.
A positive-stranded RNA virus species in the genus HEPEVIRUS, causing enterically-transmitted non-A, non-B hepatitis (HEPATITIS E).
Antibodies to the HEPATITIS A ANTIGENS including antibodies to envelope, core, and non-structural proteins.
A chronic self-perpetuating hepatocellular INFLAMMATION of unknown cause, usually with HYPERGAMMAGLOBULINEMIA and serum AUTOANTIBODIES.
INFLAMMATION of the LIVER in animals due to viral infection.
A strain of HEPATITIS A VIRUS which causes hepatitis in humans. The virus replicates in hepatocytes and is presumed to reach the intestine via the bile duct. Transmission occurs by the fecal-oral route.
Any of the viruses that cause inflammation of the liver. They include both DNA and RNA viruses as well viruses from humans and animals.
A defective virus, containing particles of RNA nucleoprotein in virion-like form, present in patients with acute hepatitis B and chronic hepatitis. It requires the presence of a hepadnavirus for full replication. This is the lone species in the genus Deltavirus.
INFLAMMATION of the LIVER in humans caused by HEPATITIS DELTA VIRUS, a defective RNA virus that can only infect HEPATITIS B patients. For its viral coating, hepatitis delta virus requires the HEPATITIS B SURFACE ANTIGENS produced by these patients. Hepatitis D can occur either concomitantly with (coinfection) or subsequent to (superinfection) hepatitis B infection. Similar to hepatitis B, it is primarily transmitted by parenteral exposure, such as transfusion of contaminated blood or blood products, but can also be transmitted via sexual or intimate personal contact.
INFLAMMATION of the LIVER in non-human animals.
A measure of the binding strength between antibody and a simple hapten or antigen determinant. It depends on the closeness of stereochemical fit between antibody combining sites and antigen determinants, on the size of the area of contact between them, and on the distribution of charged and hydrophobic groups. It includes the concept of "avidity," which refers to the strength of the antigen-antibody bond after formation of reversible complexes.
Any vaccine raised against any virus or viral derivative that causes hepatitis.
Test for tissue antigen using either a direct method, by conjugation of antibody with fluorescent dye (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, DIRECT) or an indirect method, by formation of antigen-antibody complex which is then labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, INDIRECT). The tissue is then examined by fluorescence microscopy.
Agents used in the prophylaxis or therapy of VIRUS DISEASES. Some of the ways they may act include preventing viral replication by inhibiting viral DNA polymerase; binding to specific cell-surface receptors and inhibiting viral penetration or uncoating; inhibiting viral protein synthesis; or blocking late stages of virus assembly.
Antibodies which react with the individual structural determinants (idiotopes) on the variable region of other antibodies.
Local surface sites on antibodies which react with antigen determinant sites on antigens (EPITOPES.) They are formed from parts of the variable regions of FAB FRAGMENTS.
Sites on an antigen that interact with specific antibodies.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
A species of the CORONAVIRUS genus causing hepatitis in mice. Four strains have been identified as MHV 1, MHV 2, MHV 3, and MHV 4 (also known as MHV-JHM, which is neurotropic and causes disseminated encephalomyelitis with demyelination as well as focal liver necrosis).
A genus of PICORNAVIRIDAE causing infectious hepatitis naturally in humans and experimentally in other primates. It is transmitted through fecal contamination of food or water. HEPATITIS A VIRUS is the type species.
Antigens of the virions of HEPACIVIRUS, their surface, core, or other associated antigens.
Antibodies reactive with HIV ANTIGENS.
Ribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.
Autoantibodies directed against various nuclear antigens including DNA, RNA, histones, acidic nuclear proteins, or complexes of these molecular elements. Antinuclear antibodies are found in systemic autoimmune diseases including systemic lupus erythematosus, Sjogren's syndrome, scleroderma, polymyositis, and mixed connective tissue disease.
Immunoglobulins induced by antigens specific for tumors other than the normally occurring HISTOCOMPATIBILITY ANTIGENS.
Immunoglobulins produced in a response to PROTOZOAN ANTIGENS.
A class of immunoglobulin bearing mu chains (IMMUNOGLOBULIN MU-CHAINS). IgM can fix COMPLEMENT. The name comes from its high molecular weight and originally being called a macroglobulin.
Serological reactions in which an antiserum against one antigen reacts with a non-identical but closely related antigen.
One of the type I interferons produced by peripheral blood leukocytes or lymphoblastoid cells. In addition to antiviral activity, it activates NATURAL KILLER CELLS and B-LYMPHOCYTES, and down-regulates VASCULAR ENDOTHELIAL GROWTH FACTOR expression through PI-3 KINASE and MAPK KINASES signaling pathways.
Liver disease in which the normal microcirculation, the gross vascular anatomy, and the hepatic architecture have been variably destroyed and altered with fibrous septa surrounding regenerated or regenerating parenchymal nodules.
Antigens produced by various strains of HEPATITIS A VIRUS such as the human hepatitis A virus (HEPATITIS A VIRUS, HUMAN).
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
Antigens produced by various strains of HEPATITIS D VIRUS.
Antigens from any of the hepatitis viruses including surface, core, and other associated antigens.
A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.
Antibodies that react with self-antigens (AUTOANTIGENS) of the organism that produced them.
INFLAMMATION of the LIVER due to ALCOHOL ABUSE. It is characterized by NECROSIS of HEPATOCYTES, infiltration by NEUTROPHILS, and deposit of MALLORY BODIES. Depending on its severity, the inflammatory lesion may be reversible or progress to LIVER CIRRHOSIS.
A nucleoside antimetabolite antiviral agent that blocks nucleic acid synthesis and is used against both RNA and DNA viruses.
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.
EPIDEMIOLOGIC STUDIES based on the detection through serological testing of characteristic change in the serum level of specific ANTIBODIES. Latent subclinical infections and carrier states can thus be detected in addition to clinically overt cases.
A DNA virus that closely resembles human hepatitis B virus. It has been recovered from naturally infected ducks.
An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of L-alanine and 2-oxoglutarate to pyruvate and L-glutamate. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
Proteins encoded by a VIRAL GENOME that are produced in the organisms they infect, but not packaged into the VIRUS PARTICLES. Some of these proteins may play roles within the infected cell during VIRUS REPLICATION or act in regulation of virus replication or VIRUS ASSEMBLY.
The measurement of infection-blocking titer of ANTISERA by testing a series of dilutions for a given virus-antiserum interaction end-point, which is generally the dilution at which tissue cultures inoculated with the serum-virus mixtures demonstrate cytopathology (CPE) or the dilution at which 50% of test animals injected with serum-virus mixtures show infectivity (ID50) or die (LD50).
A primary malignant neoplasm of epithelial liver cells. It ranges from a well-differentiated tumor with EPITHELIAL CELLS indistinguishable from normal HEPATOCYTES to a poorly differentiated neoplasm. The cells may be uniform or markedly pleomorphic, or form GIANT CELLS. Several classification schemes have been suggested.
The major immunoglobulin isotype class in normal human serum. There are several isotype subclasses of IgG, for example, IgG1, IgG2A, and IgG2B.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
Immunoglobulins produced in a response to FUNGAL ANTIGENS.
An ORTHOHEPADNAVIRUS causing chronic liver disease and hepatocellular carcinoma in woodchucks. It closely resembles the human hepatitis B virus.
Tumors or cancer of the LIVER.
The processes triggered by interactions of ANTIBODIES with their ANTIGENS.
The process of intracellular viral multiplication, consisting of the synthesis of PROTEINS; NUCLEIC ACIDS; and sometimes LIPIDS, and their assembly into a new infectious particle.
The complex formed by the binding of antigen and antibody molecules. The deposition of large antigen-antibody complexes leading to tissue damage causes IMMUNE COMPLEX DISEASES.
An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed.
Antibodies, often monoclonal, in which the two antigen-binding sites are specific for separate ANTIGENIC DETERMINANTS. They are artificial antibodies produced by chemical crosslinking, fusion of HYBRIDOMA cells, or by molecular genetic techniques. They function as the main mediators of targeted cellular cytotoxicity and have been shown to be efficient in the targeting of drugs, toxins, radiolabeled haptens, and effector cells to diseased tissue, primarily tumors.
Proteins found mainly in icosahedral DNA and RNA viruses. They consist of proteins directly associated with the nucleic acid inside the NUCLEOCAPSID.
Polymers of ETHYLENE OXIDE and water, and their ethers. They vary in consistency from liquid to solid depending on the molecular weight indicated by a number following the name. They are used as SURFACTANTS, dispersing agents, solvents, ointment and suppository bases, vehicles, and tablet excipients. Some specific groups are NONOXYNOLS, OCTOXYNOLS, and POLOXAMERS.
A form of antibodies consisting only of the variable regions of the heavy and light chains (FV FRAGMENTS), connected by a small linker peptide. They are less immunogenic than complete immunoglobulin and thus have potential therapeutic use.
The genetic constitution of the individual, comprising the ALLELES present at each GENETIC LOCUS.
Antibodies that inhibit the reaction between ANTIGEN and other antibodies or sensitized T-LYMPHOCYTES (e.g., antibodies of the IMMUNOGLOBULIN G class that compete with IGE antibodies for antigen, thereby blocking an allergic response). Blocking antibodies that bind tumors and prevent destruction of tumor cells by CYTOTOXIC T-LYMPHOCYTES have also been called enhancing antibodies. (Rosen et al., Dictionary of Immunology, 1989)
A reverse transcriptase inhibitor and ZALCITABINE analog in which a sulfur atom replaces the 3' carbon of the pentose ring. It is used to treat HIV disease.
Univalent antigen-binding fragments composed of one entire IMMUNOGLOBULIN LIGHT CHAIN and the amino terminal end of one of the IMMUNOGLOBULIN HEAVY CHAINS from the hinge region, linked to each other by disulfide bonds. Fab contains the IMMUNOGLOBULIN VARIABLE REGIONS, which are part of the antigen-binding site, and the first IMMUNOGLOBULIN CONSTANT REGIONS. This fragment can be obtained by digestion of immunoglobulins with the proteolytic enzyme PAPAIN.
Immunologic techniques based on the use of: (1) enzyme-antibody conjugates; (2) enzyme-antigen conjugates; (3) antienzyme antibody followed by its homologous enzyme; or (4) enzyme-antienzyme complexes. These are used histologically for visualizing or labeling tissue specimens.
INFLAMMATION of the LIVER in humans caused by HEPATITIS DELTA VIRUS in conjunction with HEPATITIS B VIRUS and lasting six months or more.
Administration of vaccines to stimulate the host's immune response. This includes any preparation intended for active immunological prophylaxis.
Substances elaborated by viruses that have antigenic activity.
Layers of protein which surround the capsid in animal viruses with tubular nucleocapsids. The envelope consists of an inner layer of lipids and virus specified proteins also called membrane or matrix proteins. The outer layer consists of one or more types of morphological subunits called peplomers which project from the viral envelope; this layer always consists of glycoproteins.
Deliberate stimulation of the host's immune response. ACTIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of ANTIGENS or IMMUNOLOGIC ADJUVANTS. PASSIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of IMMUNE SERA or LYMPHOCYTES or their extracts (e.g., transfer factor, immune RNA) or transplantation of immunocompetent cell producing tissue (thymus or bone marrow).
Antibodies elicited in a different species from which the antigen originated. These antibodies are directed against a wide variety of interspecies-specific antigens, the best known of which are Forssman, Hanganutziu-Deicher (H-D), and Paul-Bunnell (P-B). Incidence of antibodies to these antigens--i.e., the phenomenon of heterophile antibody response--is useful in the serodiagnosis, pathogenesis, and prognosis of infection and latent infectious states as well as in cancer classification.
A form of fluorescent antibody technique commonly used to detect serum antibodies and immune complexes in tissues and microorganisms in specimens from patients with infectious diseases. The technique involves formation of an antigen-antibody complex which is labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody. (From Bennington, Saunders Dictionary & Encyclopedia of Laboratory Medicine and Technology, 1984)
Methods used for studying the interactions of antibodies with specific regions of protein antigens. Important applications of epitope mapping are found within the area of immunochemistry.
The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.
Antibodies that can catalyze a wide variety of chemical reactions. They are characterized by high substrate specificity and share many mechanistic features with enzymes.
A genus of Sciuridae consisting of 14 species. They are shortlegged, burrowing rodents which hibernate in winter.
Serum that contains antibodies. It is obtained from an animal that has been immunized either by ANTIGEN injection or infection with microorganisms containing the antigen.
Represents 15-20% of the human serum immunoglobulins, mostly as the 4-chain polymer in humans or dimer in other mammals. Secretory IgA (IMMUNOGLOBULIN A, SECRETORY) is the main immunoglobulin in secretions.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
The condition of harboring an infective organism without manifesting symptoms of infection. The organism must be readily transmissible to another susceptible host.
The quantity of measurable virus in a body fluid. Change in viral load, measured in plasma, is sometimes used as a SURROGATE MARKER in disease progression.
The transference of a part of or an entire liver from one human or animal to another.
In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.
Cells artificially created by fusion of activated lymphocytes with neoplastic cells. The resulting hybrid cells are cloned and produce pure MONOCLONAL ANTIBODIES or T-cell products, identical to those produced by the immunologically competent parent cell.
Antibodies from non-human species whose protein sequences have been modified to make them nearly identical with human antibodies. If the constant region and part of the variable region are replaced, they are called humanized. If only the constant region is modified they are called chimeric. INN names for humanized antibodies end in -zumab.
Classic quantitative assay for detection of antigen-antibody reactions using a radioactively labeled substance (radioligand) either directly or indirectly to measure the binding of the unlabeled substance to a specific antibody or other receptor system. Non-immunogenic substances (e.g., haptens) can be measured if coupled to larger carrier proteins (e.g., bovine gamma-globulin or human serum albumin) capable of inducing antibody formation.
Transfer of immunity from immunized to non-immune host by administration of serum antibodies, or transplantation of lymphocytes (ADOPTIVE TRANSFER).
A technique using antibodies for identifying or quantifying a substance. Usually the substance being studied serves as antigen both in antibody production and in measurement of antibody by the test substance.
Disease having a short and relatively severe course.
The total number of cases of a given disease in a specified population at a designated time. It is differentiated from INCIDENCE, which refers to the number of new cases in the population at a given time.
The complete genetic complement contained in a DNA or RNA molecule in a virus.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
Substances that are recognized by the immune system and induce an immune reaction.
The main structural component of the LIVER. They are specialized EPITHELIAL CELLS that are organized into interconnected plates called lobules.
Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.
The common chimpanzee, a species of the genus Pan, family HOMINIDAE. It lives in Africa, primarily in the tropical rainforests. There are a number of recognized subspecies.
Autoantibodies directed against phospholipids. These antibodies are characteristically found in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (LUPUS ERYTHEMATOSUS, SYSTEMIC;), ANTIPHOSPHOLIPID SYNDROME; related autoimmune diseases, some non-autoimmune diseases, and also in healthy individuals.
Diagnostic procedures involving immunoglobulin reactions.
Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)
A family of RNA viruses, many of which cause disease in humans and domestic animals. There are three genera FLAVIVIRUS; PESTIVIRUS; and HEPACIVIRUS, as well as several unassigned species.
Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.
Immunologic method used for detecting or quantifying immunoreactive substances. The substance is identified by first immobilizing it by blotting onto a membrane and then tagging it with labeled antibodies.
Pathological processes of the LIVER.
Antigens on surfaces of cells, including infectious or foreign cells or viruses. They are usually protein-containing groups on cell membranes or walls and may be isolated.
Multi-subunit proteins which function in IMMUNITY. They are produced by B LYMPHOCYTES from the IMMUNOGLOBULIN GENES. They are comprised of two heavy (IMMUNOGLOBULIN HEAVY CHAINS) and two light chains (IMMUNOGLOBULIN LIGHT CHAINS) with additional ancillary polypeptide chains depending on their isoforms. The variety of isoforms include monomeric or polymeric forms, and transmembrane forms (B-CELL ANTIGEN RECEPTORS) or secreted forms (ANTIBODIES). They are divided by the amino acid sequence of their heavy chains into five classes (IMMUNOGLOBULIN A; IMMUNOGLOBULIN D; IMMUNOGLOBULIN E; IMMUNOGLOBULIN G; IMMUNOGLOBULIN M) and various subclasses.
Lymphocytes responsible for cell-mediated immunity. Two types have been identified - cytotoxic (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and helper T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, HELPER-INDUCER). They are formed when lymphocytes circulate through the THYMUS GLAND and differentiate to thymocytes. When exposed to an antigen, they divide rapidly and produce large numbers of new T cells sensitized to that antigen.
Blood tests that are used to evaluate how well a patient's liver is working and also to help diagnose liver conditions.
Includes the spectrum of human immunodeficiency virus infections that range from asymptomatic seropositivity, thru AIDS-related complex (ARC), to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS).
Therapy with two or more separate preparations given for a combined effect.
Serologic tests based on inactivation of complement by the antigen-antibody complex (stage 1). Binding of free complement can be visualized by addition of a second antigen-antibody system such as red cells and appropriate red cell antibody (hemolysin) requiring complement for its completion (stage 2). Failure of the red cells to lyse indicates that a specific antigen-antibody reaction has taken place in stage 1. If red cells lyse, free complement is present indicating no antigen-antibody reaction occurred in stage 1.
Substances elaborated by bacteria that have antigenic activity.
Lymphoid cells concerned with humoral immunity. They are short-lived cells resembling bursa-derived lymphocytes of birds in their production of immunoglobulin upon appropriate stimulation.
The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.
Proteins found in any species of virus.
Sensitive tests to measure certain antigens, antibodies, or viruses, using their ability to agglutinate certain erythrocytes. (From Stedman, 26th ed)
Diseases which have one or more of the following characteristics: they are permanent, leave residual disability, are caused by nonreversible pathological alteration, require special training of the patient for rehabilitation, or may be expected to require a long period of supervision, observation, or care. (Dictionary of Health Services Management, 2d ed)
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
Partial immunoglobulin molecules resulting from selective cleavage by proteolytic enzymes or generated through PROTEIN ENGINEERING techniques.
An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.
Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.
Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.
Abuse, overuse, or misuse of a substance by its injection into a vein.
A clinical manifestation of HYPERBILIRUBINEMIA, characterized by the yellowish staining of the SKIN; MUCOUS MEMBRANE; and SCLERA. Clinical jaundice usually is a sign of LIVER dysfunction.
Removal and pathologic examination of specimens in the form of small pieces of tissue from the living body.
Enzymes of the transferase class that catalyze the conversion of L-aspartate and 2-ketoglutarate to oxaloacetate and L-glutamate. EC
Proteins secreted by vertebrate cells in response to a wide variety of inducers. They confer resistance against many different viruses, inhibit proliferation of normal and malignant cells, impede multiplication of intracellular parasites, enhance macrophage and granulocyte phagocytosis, augment natural killer cell activity, and show several other immunomodulatory functions.
Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.
The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.
A spectrum of clinical liver diseases ranging from mild biochemical abnormalities to ACUTE LIVER FAILURE, caused by drugs, drug metabolites, and chemicals from the environment.
Technique using an instrument system for making, processing, and displaying one or more measurements on individual cells obtained from a cell suspension. Cells are usually stained with one or more fluorescent dyes specific to cell components of interest, e.g., DNA, and fluorescence of each cell is measured as it rapidly transverses the excitation beam (laser or mercury arc lamp). Fluorescence provides a quantitative measure of various biochemical and biophysical properties of the cell, as well as a basis for cell sorting. Other measurable optical parameters include light absorption and light scattering, the latter being applicable to the measurement of cell size, shape, density, granularity, and stain uptake.
Any DNA sequence capable of independent replication or a molecule that possesses a REPLICATION ORIGIN and which is therefore potentially capable of being replicated in a suitable cell. (Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)
A condition characterized by the presence of abnormal quantities of CRYOGLOBULINS in the blood. Upon cold exposure, these abnormal proteins precipitate into the microvasculature leading to restricted blood flow in the exposed areas.
The presence of viruses in the blood.
Techniques used to demonstrate or measure an immune response, and to identify or measure antigens using antibodies.
Small synthetic peptides that mimic surface antigens of pathogens and are immunogenic, or vaccines manufactured with the aid of recombinant DNA techniques. The latter vaccines may also be whole viruses whose nucleic acids have been modified.
Serologic tests in which a known quantity of antigen is added to the serum prior to the addition of a red cell suspension. Reaction result is expressed as the smallest amount of antigen which causes complete inhibition of hemagglutination.
The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.
The introduction of whole blood or blood component directly into the blood stream. (Dorland, 27th ed)
That region of the immunoglobulin molecule that varies in its amino acid sequence and composition, and comprises the binding site for a specific antigen. It is located at the N-terminus of the Fab fragment of the immunoglobulin. It includes hypervariable regions (COMPLEMENTARITY DETERMINING REGIONS) and framework regions.
Measurable and quantifiable biological parameters (e.g., specific enzyme concentration, specific hormone concentration, specific gene phenotype distribution in a population, presence of biological substances) which serve as indices for health- and physiology-related assessments, such as disease risk, psychiatric disorders, environmental exposure and its effects, disease diagnosis, metabolic processes, substance abuse, pregnancy, cell line development, epidemiologic studies, etc.
Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.
Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.
Technique involving the diffusion of antigen or antibody through a semisolid medium, usually agar or agarose gel, with the result being a precipitin reaction.
Autoantibodies directed against cytoplasmic constituents of POLYMORPHONUCLEAR LEUKOCYTES and/or MONOCYTES. They are used as specific markers for GRANULOMATOSIS WITH POLYANGIITIS and other diseases, though their pathophysiological role is not clear. ANCA are routinely detected by indirect immunofluorescence with three different patterns: c-ANCA (cytoplasmic), p-ANCA (perinuclear), and atypical ANCA.
Tetraspanin proteins that are involved in a variety of cellular functions including BASEMENT MEMBRANE assembly, and in the formation of a molecular complexes on the surface of LYMPHOCYTES.
Conjugated protein-carbohydrate compounds including mucins, mucoid, and amyloid glycoproteins.
Disorders that are characterized by the production of antibodies that react with host tissues or immune effector cells that are autoreactive to endogenous peptides.
Unique genetically-controlled determinants present on ANTIBODIES whose specificity is limited to a single group of proteins (e.g., another antibody molecule or an individual myeloma protein). The idiotype appears to represent the antigenicity of the antigen-binding site of the antibody and to be genetically codetermined with it. The idiotypic determinants have been precisely located to the IMMUNOGLOBULIN VARIABLE REGION of both immunoglobin polypeptide chains.
Proteins, glycoprotein, or lipoprotein moieties on surfaces of tumor cells that are usually identified by monoclonal antibodies. Many of these are of either embryonic or viral origin.
Carbon-containing phosphonic acid compounds. Included under this heading are compounds that have carbon bound to either OXYGEN atom or the PHOSPHOROUS atom of the (P=O)O2 structure.
Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.
The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.
Partial proteins formed by partial hydrolysis of complete proteins or generated through PROTEIN ENGINEERING techniques.
Techniques for removal by adsorption and subsequent elution of a specific antibody or antigen using an immunosorbent containing the homologous antigen or antibody.
Antibodies obtained from a single clone of cells grown in mice or rats.
The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.
A collection of cloned peptides, or chemically synthesized peptides, frequently consisting of all possible combinations of amino acids making up an n-amino acid peptide.
The return of a sign, symptom, or disease after a remission.
Severe inability of the LIVER to perform its normal metabolic functions, as evidenced by severe JAUNDICE and abnormal serum levels of AMMONIA; BILIRUBIN; ALKALINE PHOSPHATASE; ASPARTATE AMINOTRANSFERASE; LACTATE DEHYDROGENASES; and albumin/globulin ratio. (Blakiston's Gould Medical Dictionary, 4th ed)
Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.
Differentiation antigens residing on mammalian leukocytes. CD stands for cluster of differentiation, which refers to groups of monoclonal antibodies that show similar reactivity with certain subpopulations of antigens of a particular lineage or differentiation stage. The subpopulations of antigens are also known by the same CD designation.
The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.
The interaction of two or more substrates or ligands with the same binding site. The displacement of one by the other is used in quantitative and selective affinity measurements.
The ability of viruses to resist or to become tolerant to chemotherapeutic agents or antiviral agents. This resistance is acquired through gene mutation.
An encapsulated lymphatic organ through which venous blood filters.
A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.
Simultaneous infection of a host organism by two or more pathogens. In virology, coinfection commonly refers to simultaneous infection of a single cell by two or more different viruses.
Endogenous tissue constituents that have the ability to interact with AUTOANTIBODIES and cause an immune response.
The classes of immunoglobulins found in any species of animal. In man there are nine classes that migrate in five different groups in electrophoresis; they each consist of two light and two heavy protein chains, and each group has distinguishing structural and functional properties.
The infective system of a virus, composed of the viral genome, a protein core, and a protein coat called a capsid, which may be naked or enclosed in a lipoprotein envelope called the peplos.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.

The epidemiology of viral hepatitis in children in South Texas: increased prevalence of hepatitis A along the Texas-Mexico border. (1/165)

An initial retrospective study of 194 children demonstrated a high prevalence of hepatitis A but not hepatitis B or C infection among children living along the Texas-Mexico border. A larger prospective study of hepatitis A was conducted with 285 children (aged 6 months to 13 years) living in 3 sociodemographically dissimilar areas of South Texas. Children living in colonias along the border had a significantly higher prevalence of hepatitis A virus infection (37%) than children living in urban border communities (17%) or in a large metropolitan area (San Antonio [6%]). Independent risk factors for hepatitis A infection included increased age, colonia residence, and history of residence in a developing country. Use of bottled water (vs. municipal or spring/well water) and years of maternal secondary education were protective. Improved sanitation or routine hepatitis A vaccination in early childhood may reduce the prevalence of hepatitis A in these areas.  (+info)

Age distribution of Helicobacter pylori seroprevalence among young children in a United States/Mexico border community: evidence for transitory infection. (2/165)

Helicobacter pylori infection has been linked to a spectrum of gastroduodenal diseases of broad public health impact, yet the natural history of this frequently asymptomatic infection remains poorly understood. Evidence suggests that initial acquisition occurs primarily during childhood and may persist throughout life. The seroprevalence of H. pylori antibodies was examined in 365 primary schoolchildren aged 4-7 years in a low-income United States/Mexico border community from January to May 1996. Overall, 21% of the 365 children tested positive, with a significant monotonic decrease in seroprevalence by 1-year age intervals (36% in children aged 4 years, 24% in those aged 5 years, 20% in those aged 6 years, and 14% in those aged 7 years). The odds ratio for each 1-year age increase was 0.76 (95% confidence interval: 0.6, 1.0) after adjustment for relevant covariates. Given that H. pylori antibodies diminish after infection clears, this trend suggests that transient infection may be common in young children. In contrast, hepatitis A virus seroprevalence increased with age. There was a moderate association (odds ratio = 1.47, 95% confidence interval: 0.8, 2.9) of H. pylori with hepatitis A virus seroprevalence that weakened after adjustment for age and socioeconomic status (odds ratio = 1.26, 95% confidence interval: 0.6, 2.5). Follow-up studies are needed to clarify the natural history of Helicobacter pylori infection and identify predictors of initial acquisition, persistence, and recurrence.  (+info)

Hepatitis A incidence rate estimates from a pilot seroprevalence survey in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. (3/165)

BACKGROUND: To assess the impact of water sanitation and sewage disposal, part of a major environmental control programme in Rio de Janeiro, we carried out sero-prevalence studies for Hepatitis A virus (HAV) in three micro-regions in Rio de Janeiro. Each region varied with regard to level of sanitation. We are interested in assessing the discriminating power of age-specific prevalence curves for HAV as a proxy for improvement in sanitation. These curves will serve as baseline information to future planned surveys as the sanitation programme progresses. METHODS: Incidence rate curves from prevalence data are estimated parametrically via a Weibull-like survival function, and non-parametrically via maximum likelihood and monotonic splines. Sera collected from children and adults in the three areas are used to detect antibodies against HAV through ELISA. RESULTS: We compare baseline incidence curves at the three sites estimated by the three methods. We observe a strong negative correlation between level of sanitation and incidence rates for HAV infection. Incidence estimates yielded by the parametric and non-parametric approaches tend to agree at early ages in the microregion showing the best level of sanitation and to increasingly disagree in the other two. CONCLUSION: Our results support the choice of HAV as a sentinel disease that is associated with level of sanitation. We also introduce monotonic splines as a novel non-parametric approach to estimate incidence from prevalence data. This approach outperforms current estimating procedures.  (+info)

Lack of evidence for increased risk of hepatitis A infection in homosexual men. (4/165)

In 1997, prevalence of and risk factors for hepatitis A virus (HAV) infection were evaluated in 146 homosexual and 286 heterosexual men attending a Sexually Transmitted Disease (STD) Clinic in Rome, Italy. Total HAV antibody (anti-HAV) was detected in 60.3% of homosexuals and 62.2% of heterosexuals. After adjustment for the confounding effects of age, years of schooling, number of sexual partners, use of condoms, and history of STD, homosexuals were not found to be at increased risk of previous HAV exposure than heterosexuals (OR 1.1; 95% CI 0.7-1.9). Independent predictors of the likelihood of anti-HAV seropositivity among homosexuals and heterosexuals were: age older than 35 years and positive syphilis serology which is likely a proxy of lifestyles that increase the risk of faecal-oral infections. These findings do not support a higher risk in homosexual men but could suggest a role for the vaccination of susceptible patients attending STD clinics.  (+info)

Immunogenicity and safety of hepatitis A vaccine in liver and renal transplant recipients. (5/165)

Organ transplant recipients with chronic hepatitis B or hepatitis C virus infection may be at increased risk of fulminant hepatitis A. Liver transplant (LTX) recipients, renal transplant (RTX) recipients, and healthy controls received 2 doses of hepatitis A vaccine 6 months apart. Anti-hepatitis A virus (anti-HAV) seroconversion after the primary dose occurred in 41% of the LTX patients, 24% of the RTX patients, and 90% of the controls. After the booster dose, the respective rates were 97%, 72%, and 100% (P<.001). RTX patients also had significantly lower geometric mean titers (GMTs) of anti-HAV than LTX patients and controls. In the RTX group, the seroconversion rate and GMT were inversely associated with the number of immunosuppressive drugs received by the patients. The vaccine was well tolerated. Hepatitis A vaccine can be recommended to LTX and RTX patients, but the patients should receive a full course of 2 doses before imminent exposure.  (+info)

Hepatitis A in Latin America: a changing epidemiologic pattern. (6/165)

In a multicenter study, hepatitis A virus (HAV) seroprevalence was surveyed in six countries in Latin America in which in 12,000 subjects were stratified for age. The highest rates of seroprevalence were recorded in the Dominican Republic (89.0%) and Mexico (81.0%), with lower rates in Brazil (64.7%), Chile (58.1%), Venezuela (55.7%), and Argentina (55.0%). The seroprevalence of HAV in children between 1 and 5 years of age was less than 50%, except in the Dominican Republic. In the 5-10-year-old age group, seroprevalence rates have also decreased compared with previous reports. This suggests that the epidemiology is shifting from high to intermediate endemicity, with the population susceptible to HAV infection shifting from children to adolescents and adults. Furthermore, data from Brazil, Argentina, and Mexico show that HAV seroprevalence is significantly lower in people living in medium and high socioeconomic conditions. This study suggests the need for appropriate vaccination programs to be implemented targeting children, adolescents, and adults, particularly in higher socioeconomic groups.  (+info)

A ten year serological survey of hepatitis A, B and C viruses infections in Nepal. (7/165)

BACKGROUND: In 1987, we reported that the prevalence of hepatitis B virus (HBV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection in Nepal was low, as compared to hepatitis A virus (HAV) infection, and that no human T-lymphotropic type-1 (HTLV-1) infection was found in Nepal. OBJECTIVES: To determine changes in the prevalence of HAV, HBV, and HCV infections between 1987 and 1996 in inhabitants of Bhadrakali (suburban) and Kotyang (rural) villages in Nepal. STUDY DESIGN: We did a cross-sectional survey of 458 inhabitants of two Nepalese villages, to assess the prevalence of antibody to HAV (anti-HAV), antibody to hepatitis B core antigen (anti-HBc), hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg), antibody to HCV (anti-HCV), and antibody to HTLV-I (anti-HTLV-I). RESULTS: Anti-HAV was detected in 454 (99.1%), HBsAg in 5 (1.1%), anti-HBc in 33 (7.2%) and anti-HCV in 8 (1.7%) of serum samples tested in 1996. Statistically significant differences by gender or age group were nil. The prevalence of HCV infection was significantly higher in 1996 than in 1987 after adjusting for age of subjects living in the two villages (p < 0.01). The prevalence of HBsAg was significantly higher in 1996 than 1987 in Bhadrakali after adjusting for the factor of age (p < 0.05). Between 1987 and 1996, evidence for HTLV-1 positive residents was nil. CONCLUSION: These results suggest that HAV has been endemic in Nepal for long time while not of HBV, and that HCV infection tends to be increased recently.  (+info)

Prevalence of anti-hepatitis A antibodies in an urban middle class area of Argentina: some associated factors. (8/165)

OBJECTIVE: This study evaluated the seroprevalence of hepatitis A virus (HAV) antibodies in 360 middle-class subjects from Buenos Aires City and its outskirts. METHODS: The study population included 360 individuals between 10 and 89 years of age, from the socioeconomic middle class in Buenos Aires City and some suburban areas of Buenos Aires province. Antibodies to hepatitis A virus were determined by enzyme immunoassay test kits. RESULTS: The overall prevalence of HAV antibodies was 42.2%. The highest percentage of seronegativity was found in the subgroup of younger people without a history of symptomatic hepatitis and living in houses with more than one bathroom (86.9%). In the subgroup aged 21 to 60 years, the highest rates of seronegativity were found in individuals with higher level of education living in houses with tap water (66.6%). In both groups, seronegativity may be correlated with a higher socioeconomic status. CONCLUSIONS: In the middle-class community studied, more than 50% of people under 30 years of age were unprotected against HAV. Thus, the use of a vaccine against hepatitis A has to be considered for the prevention of symptomatic hepatitis, especially in adults at risk of infection, such as those who travel to areas with poor sanitation, taking into consideration that the severity of the disease increases with age.  (+info)

RECOMMANDATIONS for hepatitis A vaccination is the same for HIV-infected patients than for general population. However, immunogenicity induced with 2 doses of anti-HAV vaccine is lower in HIV-infected patients. The primary objective of the study is to compare the immunogenicity (percentage of patients with anti-HAV antibodies , 20 mUI/ml at month 7) of 2 strategies (2 doses at months 1 and 6, versus 3 doses at months 1, 2 and 6)of anti-HAV vaccine in HIV-1 infected patients co-infected with HBV and/or HCV with CD4 cell count between 200 and 500/mm3. The second objectives are to compare mean anti-HAV antibodies titers obtained with the 2 strategies, the durability of the seroprotection 12 months after the end of vaccination, and the safety. The PARAMATERS than may have an effect on the immune response will be evaluated.. This open, prospective, study have included 99 patients, aged from 18 to 55 years old. Patients were randomized to receive 2 or 3 doses of HAVRIX 1440 UI intramuscularly at week ...
RECOMMANDATIONS for hepatitis A vaccination is the same for HIV-infected patients than for general population. However, immunogenicity induced with 2 doses of anti-HAV vaccine is lower in HIV-infected patients. The primary objective of the study is to compare the immunogenicity (percentage of patients with anti-HAV antibodies , 20 mUI/ml at month 7) of 2 strategies (2 doses at months 1 and 6, versus 3 doses at months 1, 2 and 6)of anti-HAV vaccine in HIV-1 infected patients co-infected with HBV and/or HCV with CD4 cell count between 200 and 500/mm3. The second objectives are to compare mean anti-HAV antibodies titers obtained with the 2 strategies, the durability of the seroprotection 12 months after the end of vaccination, and the safety. The PARAMATERS than may have an effect on the immune response will be evaluated.. This open, prospective, study have included 99 patients, aged from 18 to 55 years old. Patients were randomized to receive 2 or 3 doses of HAVRIX 1440 UI intramuscularly at week ...
Polyvalent Human Immune Globulin: A Prospective, Open-Label Study Assessing Anti-Hepatitis A Virus (HAV) Antibody Levels, Pharmacokinetics, and Safety in HAV-Seronegative Healthy Subjects
Hepatitis A characteristically is an acute, self-limited illness associated with fever, malaise, jaundice, anorexia, and nausea. Among older children and adults, infection usually is symptomatic and typically lasts several weeks, with jaundice occurring in 70% or more. Symptomatic infection occurs in approximately 30% of infected children younger than 6 years of age; few of these children will have jaundice. Fulminate hepatitis is rare but is more common in people with underlying liver disease. Chronic infection does not occur.. Serological diagnosis of acute viral hepatitis A depends on the detection of specific anti-HAV IgM. Its presence in the patients serum indicates a recent exposure to HAV. Anti-HAV IgM becomes detectable in the blood within 2 weeks after infection, persisting at elevated levels for about 2 months before declining to undetectable levels by 6 months. However, sensitive immunoassays may occasionally detect anti-HAV IgM for up to 1 year after acute hepatitis A.. Hepatitis A ...
Persons traveling to or working in countries that have high or intermediate endemicity of hepatitis A. Persons who travel to developing countries are at high risk for hepatitis A, even those traveling to urban areas, staying in luxury hotels, and those who report maintaining good hand hygiene and being careful about what they drink and eat (see for more information).. Men who have sex with men. Men who have sex with men should be vaccinated.. Users of injection and non-injection drugs. Persons who use injection and non-injection drugs should be vaccinated.. Persons who have occupational risk for infection. Persons who work with HAV-infected primates or with HAV in a research laboratory setting should be vaccinated. No other groups have been shown to be at increased risk for HAV infection because of occupational exposure.. Persons who have chronic liver disease. Persons with chronic liver disease who ...
These recommendations must be read with the footnotes that follow. For those who fall behind or start late, provide catch-up vaccination at the earliest opportunity as indicated by the green bars in tables below. To determine minimum intervals between doses, see the catch-up schedule. School entry and adolescent vaccine age groups are 4-6 yrs and 11-12 yrs.. ...
1. MILYEN T PUS GY GYSZER A VAQTA SZUSZPENZI S INJEKCI S MILYEN BETEGS GEK ESET N ALKALMAZHAT ?A Vaqta szuszpenzi s injekci egyetlen, 1,0 milliliteres (egy
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Serological diagnosis of acute viral hepatitis A depends on the detection of specific anti-HAV IgM. Its presence in the patients serum indicates a recent exposure to HAV. Anti-HAV IgM becomes detectable in the blood within 2 weeks after infection, persisting at elevated levels for about 2 months before declining to undetectable levels by 6 months. However, sensitive immunoassays may occasionally detect anti-HAV IgM for up to 1 year after acute hepatitis A.. Hepatitis A virus (HAV) is endemic throughout the world, occurring most commonly in areas of poor hygiene and low socioeconomic conditions. The virus is transmitted by the fecal-oral route, and it is spread by close person-to-person contact and by contaminated food and water. Thorough cooking is necessary to inactivate HAV in contaminated foods. Outbreaks frequently occur in overcrowded situations and in high-density institutions and centers, such as prisons and health care or day care centers. Viral spread by parenteral routes (eg, exposure ...
Lab Reagents Igg Antibody Laboratories manufactures the comparing igg and total antibody scholarly reagents distributed by Genprice. The Comparing Igg And Total Antibody Scholarly reagent is RUO (Research Use Only) to test human serum or cell culture lab samples. To purchase these products, for the MSDS, Data Sheet, protocol, storage conditions/temperature or for the concentration, please contact igg antibody. Other Comparing products are available in stock. Specificity: Comparing Category: Igg Group: And Total. And Total information ...
ஸ்டீபன் பெயின்ஸ்டோன் (Stephen M. Feinstone) ஒரு நச்சுயிரியல் வல்லுநர் ஆவார், இவர் ஆல்பர்ட் கபிகியன் மற்றும் ராபர்ட் எச். பர்செல் ஆகியோருடன் சேர்ந்து, 1973 இல் கல்லீரல் அழற்சி வகை ஏ வைரஸ் (HAV) ஐக் கண்டறிந்தார்.[1]. அவர் தனது இளங்கலை கல்வியை ஜான்ஸ் ஹாப்கின்ஸ் பல்கலைக்கழகத்தில் நிறைவுசெய்தார். தனது மருத்துவ பட்டப் படிப்பை டென்னசி பல்கலைக்கழகத்தில் முடித்தார்.[2] 1971 ஆம் ஆண்டில் அவர் தொற்று ...
Hi Marcia, So excited for you and your family! The 1st trip to WDW is always amazing! Honestly, Id do a 3rd evening at MK. You can never go wrong...
Hepatitis A is caused by a contagious virus, the hepatitis A virus (HAV) that infects the liver-it can lead to serious liver problems. The virus spreads through the feces of people who have the virus. If a person with the virus doesnt wash their hands after going to the bathroom, feces can get on their hands and can transfer to objects, food and drinks. When these things are shared, other people can unknowingly swallow the virus. If a person who has the virus comes in close contact or touches other people-this includes sex-the virus can also spread.. CDC says the following groups are at highest risk for acquiring HAV infection or developing serious complications from HAV infection in these outbreaks and should be offered the hepatitis A vaccine in order to prevent or control an outbreak:. ...
VALDESPINO, José Luis et al. Seroepidemiology of hepatitis A in Mexico: a detector of social inequity and monitor of immunization policies. Salud pública Méx [online]. 2007, vol.49, suppl.3, pp.s377-s385. ISSN 0036-3634.. OBJECTIVE: Hepatitis A Virus (HAV) in Mexico has traditionally been considered a disease with a homogeneous pattern of transmission, high rates of infection at early ages, and infrequent complication rates. The purpose of this study was to take advantage of the 2000 NHS, a probabilistic population-based survey, in order to describe the seroepidemiology of HAV infection in Mexico. MATERIAL AND METHODS: This study is based on information obtained from the National Health Survey that was conducted in 2000. The present report is based on 4 907 randomly selected samples that were studied to determine the prevalence of HAV antibodies using immunoenzymatic assay. Sera were collected from November 1999 to June 2000. RESULTS: Seroprevalence among the general population was 81.3% ...
Hepatitis A virus (HAV) is primarily transmitted fecal-orally after close contact with an infected person (1); it is the most common cause of viral hepatitis worldwide, typically causing acute and self-limited symptoms, although rarely liver failure and death can occur (1). Rates of hepatitis A had declined by approximately 95% during 1996-2011; however, during 2016-2018, CDC received approximately 15,000 reports of HAV infections from U.S. states and territories, indicating a recent increase in transmission (2,3). Since 2017, the vast majority of these reports were related to multiple outbreaks of infections among persons reporting drug use or homelessness (4). In addition, increases of HAV infections have also occurred among men who have sex with men (MSM) and, to a much lesser degree, in association with consumption of imported HAV-contaminated food (5,6). Overall, reports of hepatitis A cases increased 294% during 2016-2018 compared with 2013-2015. During 2016-2018, CDC tested 4,282 ...
Export Data And Price Of Havrix , Eximpulse Services is the place where you can find the recent and updated Trade intelligence report of Havrix Export Data. Whole information is based on updated Export shipment data of Indian Customs. All the compilation is done on the basis of All India ports data and has been done on daily basis. This helps you to get all India Havrix Export data. You can find previous two days Havrix Export data on Eximpulse Services. Havrix Export data can be useful in different kind of analysis such as: Export price, Quantity, market scenarios, Price trends, Duty optimization and many more. Some Sample Shipment records for Havrix Export Data of India are mentioned above. Further for Free sample and pricing of detailed reports contact on [email protected] Data post 2012 as per Notification No.18/2012 - Customs(N.T.) and does not have names of Indian companies and Foreign Companies.. ...
From July through October 1991, an outbreak of hepatitis A virus HAV infection involving 26 hospital staff, inpatients and household contacts occurred in a pediatric hospital. All ill staff members had cared for one inpatient who had profuse diarrhea with gross fecal contamination of the environment, negative HAV serology and idiopathic...
|!-- .style1 {font-weight: bold} .style2 {font-size: xx-small} --| Hepatits, Viral, Type A Description: Hepatitis A is a viral infection of the liver caused by hepatitis A virus (HAV). The clinical manifestations of HAV infection range in cli...
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Summary Infection of human embryo fibroblasts with hepatitis A virus (HAV), a picornavirus, leads to an inapparent, persistent infection; cultures can be passed serially with consistent recovery of the virus in the supernatant. All of the cells of a HAV carrier culture are infected and proliferate. Subcultivation under HAV-immune serum cannot achieve a cure or even a reduction in the number of infected cells in HAV carrier cultures. No interferon activity can be detected during HAV infection and persistence. Addition of exogenous interferon eliminates HAV infection in vitro. Persistence of HAV in vitro appears to contradict the clinical course of HAV infection in vivo. The system presented offers the possibility of evaluating the role of immunological injury of HAV-infected cells, an injury which may lead to damage of these cells and to elimination of HAV during an HAV infection in vivo.
In this issue of the Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition, Urganci and Kalyoncu (5) evaluate the response to hepatitis A (HAV) and HBV vaccinations in 30 pediatric Turkish patients with CD ages 1 to 15 years compared with that of 50 healthy subjects in a 7-year follow-up. Twelve patients and 35 controls received HAV vaccine and were protected against anti-HAV antibodies, and, overall, 80% of the patients and 96% of the controls achieved seroprotection after the whole HBV vaccination series. There was a clear difference, although nonsignificant, between responders compliant with a strict GFD and noncompliant nonresponders to vaccinations. The strength of the present study was the long follow-up of 7 years, and the limitation was the lack of a validated questionnaire to measure the accuracy of GFD in all patients with CD.. It is obvious that untreated patients with celiac disease, like other patients with inadequately treated chronic conditions, have an impaired humoral immune ...
We investigated the seroprevalence of hepatitis A virus (HAV) and hepatitis E virus (HEV) infection in subjects living in the community of Manguinhos, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, and assisted at the Health Unit of Escola Nacional de Saúde Pública, Fundação Oswaldo Cruz. After formal consent, individuals were submitted to an interview using a standardized questionnaire. Anti-HAV and anti-HEV antibodies were detected by ELISA. Statistical analysis was carried out using the Epi-Info 6.04b software, to investigate possible associations between serological markers and risk factors. Results were regarded as significant when p value < 0.05. Although a high prevalence of anti-HAV was observed (87%), almost 50% of subjects under the age of 10 were susceptible to HAV infection, an unexpected rate in endemic areas. This fact could be attributed to improvements in environmental sanitation, occurring in this area in the last years. The increasing proportion of susceptible people may result in outbreaks of ...
An outbreak of hepatitis A virus (HAV) Infections in fall 2019 was linked to fresh blackberries and involved 20 cases from 7 states.
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Serological tests for SARS-CoV-2, while not intended as a primary diagnostic tool for COVID-19, are used to detect antibodies to the SARS-CoV-2 virus. These antibodies are produced following activation of the bodys adaptive immune response. This process is triggered after viral exposure and results in the viruss destruction and subsequent elimination from the body.
Richard and Lindas Hepatitis A infections arose out of an extremely large outbreak in Western Pennsylvania in late 2003. The infections were linked by federal, state, and local health officials to green onions served in salsa prepared at a Chi Chis restaurant. Richard and Linda were health department-confirmed members of the outbreak. Richard and Linda dined at the implicated Chi Chis between September 14 and October 17, 2003, the period of identified exposure. The onset of their illnesses matched the expected incubation period for Hepatitis A. Finally, both Richard and Linda had laboratory confirmations of acute Hepatitis A virus (HAV) infection, i.e. positive IgM anti-HAV. On Sunday, October 12, 2003, Richard and Linda ate lunch at Chi Chis in the Beaver Valley Mall. On Tuesday, October 28, just days after visiting their son and daughter-in-law, Linda and Richard developed flu-like symptoms. Over the following days, their symptoms grew worse, particularly Richards. By early November, ...
Hepatitis A is a liver disease caused by the hepatitis A virus (HAV). Hepatitis A can affect anyone. Vaccines are available for long-term prevention of HAV infection in persons 1 year of age and older. Good personal hygiene and proper sanitation can also help prevent the spread of hepatitis A
Dear DWIGHT COLLMAN, Health Care Provider Advisory Reemphasis of Hepatitis A Vaccination Recommendations After Substantial Increase in Locally Acquired Infections in Florida and Outbreak Reports Across the Nation November 14, 2017 Since January 2017, 217 cases of hepatitis A virus (HAV) infection were reported in Florida. This is significantly higher than…
Symptoms usually start appearing four weeks after exposure but can occur as early as two and as late as seven weeks after exposure; however people can spread hepatitis A even if they dont look or feel sick.. Careful hand washing, including under the fingernails, with soap and water, is always an important tool to prevent the spread of this and many other diseases. Hepatitis A is a vaccine-preventable disease. The best protection against HAV infections and outbreaks is through widespread vaccination, particularly among populations most at risk:. ...
Bulgaria is a country in an intermediate endemic area for HAV infection but data on seroprevalence are poorly reported. 705 individuals from the region of Plodiv were enr..
There is a reciprocal relationship between the incidence of hepatitis A and the prevalence of allergic disease, as evidenced by rates of each in the United States and Argentina (where the patients included in the Kim et al. study were recruited). A minority of HAV-infected individuals exhibit a very severe form of the disease, and there is compelling evidence that HAV infection protects from allergic diseases. The work by Kim et al ...
Test with Confidence. Test with ZEUS. Clinical Performance Studies Four separate cohorts of clinically characterized specimens were tested: COVID-19 RT-PCR Positive Patient Specimens (n=35). The date between EUA-approved PCR test result and specimen draw was 3 to 37 days, with an average of 15.97 days and a median of 14 days.COVID-19 RT-PCR Negative Patient Specimens…
Given a unit sphere, a triangle on the surface of the sphere is defined by the great circles connecting three points u, v, and w on the sphere. If the lengths of these three sides are a (from u to v), b (from u to w), and c (from v to w), and the angle of the corner opposite c is C, then the law of haversines states: 1. hav ⁡ ( c ) = hav ⁡ ( a − b ) + sin ⁡ ( a ) sin ⁡ ( b ) hav ⁡ ( C ) . {\\displaystyle \\operatorname {hav} (c)=\\operatorname {hav} (a-b)+\\sin(a)\\sin(b)\\operatorname {hav} (C).} Since this is a unit sphere, the lengths a, b, and c are simply equal to the angles (in radians) subtended by those sides from the center of the sphere (for a non-unit sphere, each of these arc lengths is equal to its central angle multiplied by the radius Rof the sphere). In order to obtain the haversine formula of the previous section from this law, one simply considers the special case where u is the north pole, while v and w are the two points whose separation d is to be determined. ...
TweetAşılar sadece çocuklar için değildir, her yaşta insanı birçok tehlikeli ve ölümcül hastalığa karşı korurlar. Hangi yaşta olursanız olun yaptırmanız gereken bir …. ...
A quartet of smoked salmon blini had soft pancake-like bases (Ukrainian rather than Russian-style), topped with lox (of standard quality), crème fraîche, and a microgreen array including tiny flower petals. The surprise was a shot of hot - a hidden jolt of red pepper flakes cooked into the blini dough. They cant mean for one person to eat this whole appetizer! said Rebecca, Johns petite wife. (Well, I know who that person would be, but then Id call it dinner.). The signature strawberry salad is Leylas improvisation on Californias ubiquitous raspberry-vinaigrette salads, with strawberries as her original touch. It offers organic spring greens, mild, creamy goat cheese, plump roasted pistachios, plus sliced strawbs doused in a sweet-tart strawberry vinaigrette with streaks of scarlet raspberry syrup decorating the plate. Normally Im not fond of sweet salad dressings, nor of large commercial strawberries (particularly underripe exports from South America), but this was such a blast of ...
Hepatitis A virus (HAV) is well known worldwide as a causative virus of acute hepatitis. In recent years, numerous cases of HAV infection caused by HAV-contaminated berries have occurred around the world. Because berries are often consumed without prior heating, reliable disinfection of the raw fruit is important in order to prevent HAV outbreaks. Previous studies have found that murine norovirus strain 1 (MNV-1) and human norovirus GII.4 were inactivated in heat-denatured lysozyme solution. In this study, we investigated whether or not heat-denatured lysozyme is effective in inactivating HAV and whether it could be an effective disinfectant for berries contaminated with HAV or MNV-1 ...
(CIDRAP News) - At least 63 million Americans, 21% of the population, may have been infected by pandemic H1N1 influenza, Pittsburgh researchers estimate-creating enough population-wide immunity to potentially explain the lack of a third wave of H1N1 so far.
Hello all: I resisted taking an immunesuppressant ever since cellcept made me feel so sick (took for six weeks in spring of 2007). But twice my doctors hav...
Results. We identified 402 HA-related deaths between 1989 and 2000; the annual age-adjusted HA-related mortality rate was 1.20 deaths per 1 million persons. Older individuals, men, Latinos, and American Indians/Alaska Natives had elevated mortality rates. Liver conditions and non-A viral hepatitis infections were more common among HA-related deaths than among all other deaths.. Mortality rates for large epidemics are less than 1 per 1,000. (Note: The mortality rate among people over age 50 who contract hepatitis A is higher: about 1.8 percent.) Rarely does Hepatitis A cause liver failure, and it does not lead to development of cirrhosis of the liver or chronic hepatitis..…t.overviewa.htm. No patient with HAV infection alone developed complications, and all recovered fully.. It was demonstrated that HAV infection may have a more severe clinical course in patients with underlying CLD*, particularly ...
Hepatitis A, caused by the hepatitis A virus (HAV), is a vaccine preventable disease. In Low and Middle-Income Countries (LMICs), poor hygiene and sanitation conditions are the main risk factors contributing to HAV infection. There have been, however, notable improvements in hygiene and sanitation conditions in many LMICs. As a result, there are studies showing a possible transition of some LMICs from high to intermediate HAV endemicity. The World Health Organization (WHO) recommends that countries should routinely collect, analyse and review local factors (including disease burden) to guide the development of hepatitis A vaccination programs. Up-to-date information on hepatitis A burden is, therefore, critical in aiding the development of country-specific recommendations on hepatitis A vaccination. We conducted a systematic review to present an up-to-date, comprehensive synthesis of hepatitis A epidemiological data in Africa. The main results of this review include: 1) the reported HAV seroprevalence
Age-Specific Anti-Hepatitis A Virus Seroepidemiology in Italian Travelers: Indications for Anti-Hepatitis A Vaccination | Francesco Castelli; Giampiero Carosi; the Lombard Study Group on International Travelers | download | BookSC. Download books for free. Find books
The report presents a detailed analysis of the Hepatitis diagnostics market in France. Current scientific views on the Hepatitis definition, epidemiology and etiology are reviewed. The report provides five-year test volume and sales forecasts for HAV NAT, HBV NAT, HBs Ag, HCV, HCV NAT, Anti-HBc, Anti-HBs, Anti-HAV, Hepatitis Delta, HBc Ag, HBe Ag, and ALT/SGPT tests performed in the following markets ...
Over The Rainbow guide to Hepatitis A (HAV): signs and symptoms - what to look out for, diagnosis and treatment, immunisation and where to go for help.
KOMMISSIONENS FORORDNING (EF) Nr. 2995/95 af 19. december 1995 om ændring af forordning (EF) nr. 3254/93 for så vidt angår den særlige forsyningsordning for visse frugter og grøntsager til fordel for de mindre øer i Det Ægæiske Hav for 1996 KOMMISSIONEN FOR DE EUROPÆISKE FÆLLESSKABER HAR -. under henvisning til traktaten om oprettelse af Det Europæiske Fællesskab,. under henvisning til Rådets forordning (EØF) nr. 2019/93 af 19. juli 1993 om særlige foranstaltninger for visse landbrugsprodukter til fordel for de mindre øer i Det Ægæiske Hav (1), senest ændret ved Kommissionens forordning (EF) nr. 2417/95 (2), særlig artikel 4, og. ud fra følgende betragtninger:. Ved Kommissionens forordning (EØF) nr. 2958/93 (3), senest ændret ved forordning (EF) nr. 1802/95 (4), er der fastsat fælles gennemførelsesbestemmelser til ordningen for forsyning af de mindre øer i Det Ægæiske Hav med visse landbrugsprodukter, og støttebeløbene for denne forsyning, opdelt efter gruppe af ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - A multi-target lateral flow immunoassay enabling the specific and sensitive detection of total antibodies to SARS COV-2. AU - Cavalera, Simone. AU - Colitti, Barbara. AU - Rosati, Sergio. AU - Ferrara, Gianmarco. AU - Bertolotti, Luigi. AU - Nogarol, Chiara. AU - Guiotto, Cristina. AU - Cagnazzo, Celeste. AU - Denina, Marco. AU - Fagioli, Franca. AU - Di Nardo, Fabio. AU - Chiarello, Matteo. AU - Baggiani, Claudio. AU - Anfossi, Laura. PY - 2021/2/1. Y1 - 2021/2/1. N2 - © 2020 Elsevier B.V. A rapid test for detecting total immunoglobulins directed towards the nucleocapsid protein (N) of severe acute syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS CoV-2) was developed, based on a multi-target lateral flow immunoassay comprising two test lines. Both test lines bound to several classes of immunoglobulins (G, M, and A). Specific anti-SARS immunoglobulins were revealed by a colorimetric probe formed by N and gold nanoparticles. Targeting the total antibodies response to infection enabled achieving 100% ...
Although studies investigating the nature of Ab-secreting cells (ASCs) during acute infection with influenza or dengue virus found that the ASC response was dominated by virus-specific IgG secretion, the Ag specificity and phenotype of ASCs during primary acute viral infection were not identified. To this end, we investigated the nature of ASCs in direct ex vivo assays from patients with acute hepatitis A caused by primary infection with hepatitis A virus (HAV). We found that the frequency of CD27highCD38high ASCs was markedly increased in the peripheral blood during the acute phase of HAV infection. Moreover, substantial numbers of ASCs were non-HAV-specific and dominantly secreted IgM. We detected HAV-specific ASCs by staining with fluorochrome-tagged HAV-VP1 protein. As compared with HAV-specific ASCs, non-HAV-specific ASCs were Ki-67lowCD138highCD31highCD38high, demonstrating that non-HAV-specific ASCs had a bone marrow plasma cell-like phenotype whereas HAV-specific ASCs had a phenotype ...
The proportion of the population with access to clean drinking water, the value of the human development index (HDI), and per capita gross domestic product (GDP) are all inverse predictors of HAV infection rates. Declining infection rates were observed in 65.6% of the surveys. Discussion This work d …
Boutrouille A, Bakkali-Kassimi L, Crucière C, Pavio N. Prevalence of anti-hepatitis E virus antibodies in French blood donors. J Clin Microbiol. 2007; 45(6): 2009-10 ...
Jay Bhattacharya: It has generated a huge reaction. I mean I kind of anticipated the reaction. I said early in the epidemic when I worked on these seroprevalence studies, I didnt anticipate the reaction. So, I wasnt quite ready for that. But, this time I was more ready, sort of emotionally, to deal with it.. I dont regret signing it at all. I think, I have this position for a purpose. Its not simply to be comfortable and have a happy life. I feel some sense of responsibility to express what my ideas are on this. I mean, I may be right, I may be wrong. And, of course its for folks who are listening to decide. But, I mean, I think we all, as academics, have that responsibility--which is to say what we think.. Actually, its been discouraging that we see both economists and non-economists, other scientists--I thought that we were in a liberal profession. Liberal, in the sense of free exchange of ideas. Were not aiming to destroy one and another: Were aiming to learn from one another. I might ...
LightDeck Diagnostics has selected GS Plastic Optics to make optical components for its new COVID-19 antibody testing platform. Boulder, Colorado-based LightDeck developed a screening platform to deliver results as quickly as five minutes for SARS-CoV-2 ultra-rapid antigen and COVID-19 total antibody tests, using a laser waveguide with a consumable cartridge for each testing sample. Rochester ...
Antibody to hepatitis C. *Antibody to HIV, usually subtypes 1 and 2 ... For example, the HIV antibody test will not detect a recently infected donor, so some blood banks use a p24 antigen or HIV ... "Donate blood, get antibody test". Queens Chronicle. 25 February 2021. Archived from the original on 26 February 2021. Retrieved ... The screening includes testing for diseases that can be transmitted by a blood transfusion, including HIV and viral hepatitis. ...
The appearance of anti-nuclear antibodies in autoimmune hepatitis was found to correlated with A1-B8-DR3.[26] One of the ... In autoimmune hepatitis[edit]. In 1972, a link between "HLA A1,8" (current:HLA A1-B8) active chronic hepatitis, subsequently B8 ... "Frequency and significance of anti-gliadin and anti-endomysial antibodies in autoimmune hepatitis" (PDF). Dig. Dis. Sci. 43 (10 ... doi:10.1002/hep.1840210411. PMID 7705806.. *^ Muratori P, Czaja AJ, Muratori L, et al. (March 2005). "Genetic distinctions ...
"Anti-Saccharomyces cerevisiae as unusual antibodies in autoimmune hepatitis". Minerva Gastroenterologica e Dietologica. 55 (1 ... If all these antibodies are negative, then anti-DGP antibodies (antibodies against deamidated gliadin peptides) should be ... Other antibodies such as anti-Saccharomyces cerevisiae antibodies occur in some people with coeliac disease but also occur in ... anti-DGP antibodies perform better than anti-endomysial and anti-transglutaminase antibodies tests. Because of the major ...
Hepatitis C may also induce rheumatoid factor auto-antibodies. Rarer causes which usually behave differently but may cause ... RF is a non-specific antibody and seen in about 10% of healthy people, in many other chronic infections like hepatitis C, and ... Binding of an autoreactive antibody to the Fc receptors is mediated through the antibody's N-glycans, which are altered to ... ACPAs measured as anti-CCP antibodies).[page needed] It is positive in 75-85%, but a negative RF or CCP antibody does not rule ...
"Anti-Saccharomyces cerevisiae as unusual antibodies in autoimmune hepatitis". Minerva Gastroenterologica E Dietologica. 55 (1 ... If all these antibodies are negative, then it should be determined anti-DGP antibodies (antibodies against deamidated gliadin ... Other antibodies such as anti-Saccharomyces cerevisiae antibodies occur in some people with coeliac disease but also occur in ... anti-DGP antibodies perform better than anti-endomysial and anti-transglutaminase antibodies tests.[8] ...
The technique is named immunoprophylaxis by gene transfer (IGT). Animal tests for antibodies to ebola, malaria, influenza, and ... hepatitis were underway. In March, scientists, including an inventor of CRISPR, Jennifer Doudna, urged a worldwide moratorium ... In March researchers delivered a recombinant gene encoding a broadly neutralizing antibody into monkeys infected with simian ... HIV; the monkeys' cells produced the antibody, which cleared them of HIV. ...
"Long-term follow-up of antimitochondrial antibody-positive autoimmune hepatitis". Hepatology. 48 (2): 550-6. doi:10.1002/hep. ... These are called anti-mitochondrial antibodies (AMA) and anti-nuclear antibodies (ANA), respectively. These antibodies are ... There is also evidence of anti-PDC-E2 antibodies in autoimmune hepatitis (AIH) patients. Pyruvate dehydrogenase deficiency (PDH ... 49 (3): 871-9. doi:10.1002/hep.22736. hdl:2434/55031. PMC 2665925. PMID 19185000. Bellucci R, Oertelt S, Gallagher M, Li S, ...
"Sleep Enhances the Human Antibody response to Hepatitis A Vaccination". Psychosomatic Medicine. 65: 831-835. PMID 14508028.. ... Burton, Dennis R. (2005). "Antibody vs. HIV in a clash of evolutionary titans". Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 102 (42): 14943-8. ... Satu kelas dari molekul non-self adalah antigen (kependekan dari bahasa Inggris antibody generator atau "pembangkit antibodi") ... Van de Perre P (2003). "Transfer of antibody via mother's milk". Vaccine. 21 (24): 3374-6. PMID 12850343.. ...
"Anti-hepatitis C antibodies and non-A, non-B post-transfusion hepatitis in the Netherlands". Lancet. 334 (8658): 297-298. doi: ... Alter, HJ; Purcell, RH; Shih, JW; Melpolder, JC; Houghton, M; Choo, Q-L; Kuo, G (1989). "Detection of antibody to hepatitis C ... De Bisceglie, AM; Alter, H; Kuo, G; Houghton, M; Hoofnagle, JH (1989). "Detection of antibody to hepatitis C virus in patients ... Houghton was co-author of a series of seminal studies published in 1989 and 1990 that identified hepatitis C antibodies in ...
Kennedy, R.; Eichberg, J.; Lanford, R.; Dreesman, G. (1986). "Anti-idiotypic antibody vaccine for type B viral hepatitis in ... Kennedy has also helped to develop hepatitis B vaccines for chimpanzees and proposed their use in humans in a 1986 study. His ... Some of Kennedy's other research focused on the immune response to viral hepatitis. ...
Immunofluorescence pattern of SS-A and SS-B antibodies. Produced using serum from a patient on HEp-20-10 cells with a FITC ... Approximately only 0.1 to 0.5 percent of the general population has the antibody.[citation needed] ... Franceschini F, Cavazzana I (February 2005). "Anti-Ro/SSA and La/SSB antibodies". Autoimmunity. 38 (1): 55-63. doi:10.1080/ ... Franceschini, F.; Cavazzana, I. (2005). "Anti-Ro/SSA and La/SSB antibodies". Autoimmunity. 38 (1): 55-63. doi:10.1080/ ...
"Selection pressure from neutralizing antibodies drives sequence evolution during acute infection with hepatitis C virus". ... "Hepatitis C: The Insidious Spread Of A Killer Virus" Newsweek, Geoffrey Cowley, April 22, 2002. "The Insidious Spread of a ... "Johns Hopkins Team Finds 'Ancestral' Hepatitis-C Virus at Root of Evolution in Acute and Chronic Infections. AScribe, June 9, ... Netski, D.; Mao, Q.; Ray, S.; Klein, R. (2008). "Genetic divergence of hepatitis C virus: the role of HIV-related ...
"Acceptable recipient outcomes with the use of hearts from donors with hepatitis-B core antibodies". J. Heart Lung Transplant. ... "Anti-HLA antibodies are associated with restenosis after percutaneous coronary intervention for cardiac allograft vasculopathy ...
... is a human monoclonal antibody directed against the hepatitis B virus. WHO Drug Information Shouval D, Terrault N, ... in Hepatitis B Virus (Hbv) in Liver Transplant (Lt) Recipients". Hepatology. 44 (4): 188A-700A [196A]. doi:10.1002/hep.21395. v ...
... (INN; development code VAY736) is a monoclonal antibody that is being investigated for autoimmune hepatitis. This ...
... is a human monoclonal antibody developed for the treatment of hepatitis B infections. "WHO Drug Information" (PDF ... in Hepatitis B Virus (Hbv) in Liver Transplant (Lt) Recipients". Hepatology. 44 (4): 188A-700A [196A]. doi:10.1002/hep.21395. v ...
May 2011). "Importance of the cutoff ratio for detecting antibodies against hepatitis A virus in oral fluids by enzyme ... The second study, conducted by Pascoe, et al., compared saliva antibody testing to serum antibody testing using ELISA followed ... and compared saliva antibody testing and serum antibody testing using ELISA technique in 820 individuals. ... Hepatitis C has also been identified using salivary detection methods. Yaari, et al., reported in 2006 that saliva testing for ...
1993). "Rescue, expression, and analysis of a neutralizing human anti-hepatitis A virus monoclonal antibody". J. Immunol. 151 ( ...
October 1998). "Hepatitis C virus serotype-specific core and NS4 antibodies in injecting drug users participating in the ... Nonstructural protein 4A (NS4A) is a viral protein found in the hepatitis C virus. It acts as a cofactor for the enzyme NS3. ...
October 1998). "Hepatitis C virus serotype-specific core and NS4 antibodies in injecting drug users participating in the ... Nonstructural protein 4B (NS4B) is a viral protein found in the hepatitis C virus. It has mass of 27 kDa and probably involved ... Chapter 8. HCV NS4B: From Obscurity to Central Stage in "Hepatitis C Viruses: Genomes and Molecular Biology." / Tan SL. - ...
A Revalidation Study of Viral Clearance in the Purification of Monoclonal Antibody CB.Hep-1". Retrieved 12 July 2009. El Eman, ...
It was discovered to be part of the virus that caused serum hepatitis by virologist Alfred Prince in 1968. Heptavax, a "first- ... These antigens are recognized by antibody proteins that bind specifically to one of these surface proteins. Today, these ... generation" hepatitis B vaccine in the 1980s, was made from HBsAg extracted from the blood plasma of hepatitis patients. ... HBsAg (also known as the Australia antigen) is the surface antigen of the hepatitis B virus (HBV). It indicates current ...
Detection of antibodies to hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) using monoclonal antibody and the avidin-biotin system. Folia ... KOREC, E., HLOŽÁNEK, I., STARÁ, J., & NĔMECEK, V. Anti-idiotype antibody as a prospective vaccine against hepatitis B. Folia ... KOREC, E., KORCOVÁ, J., KÖNIG, J., & HLOŽÁNEK, I. Detection of antibodies against hepatitis B core antigen using the avidin- ... HLOŽÁNEK, I., DOSTÁLOVÁ, V., KOREC, E., ZELENÝ, V., KÖNIG, J., & NĔMECEK, V. Monoclonal antibodies to hepatitis B surface ...
With the introduction of second-generation ELISA antibody tests for hepatitis C, the Red Cross changed the ALT policy. As of ... Prior to July 1992, widespread blood donation testing in the USA for hepatitis C was not carried out by major blood banks. ... The intent was to identify donors potentially infected with hepatitis C because no specific test for that disease was available ... doi:10.1002/hep.23789. PMID 20658466. S2CID 5141849. Marshall W (2012). "Alanine aminotransferase: analyte monograph" (PDF). ...
"Antibody responses to the hepatitis C virus E2 protein: relationship to viraemia and prevalence in anti-HCV seronegative ... antibody and protection against DENV-4 challenge in mice and rhesus monkeys by passively transferred humanized antibody". J ...
... and there was the potential risk from hepatitis virus and cytotoxic antibodies. The absence of lipo-proteins from the perfusate ... The solution was incubated at 60 °C for 10 hours to inactivate the agent of serum hepatitis. The result was a 45 g/l human ... Murray R, Diefenbach WCL (1953). "Effect of heat on the agent of homologous serum hepatitis". Proc Soc Exp Biol Med. 84 (1): ... "Hyperacute Rejection of Renal Allografts Following Pulsatile Perfusion with a Perfusate Containing Specific Antibody". ...
... between envelope proteins of hepatitis B viruses from Brazilian carriers and antibodies raised against recombinant hepatitis B ... A secondary antibody is added which recognizes and binds to the primary antibody. The secondary antibody is visualized through ... the membrane is exposed to another antibody known as the secondary antibody. Antibodies come from animal sources (or animal ... Then, the serum to be tested is applied in the primary antibody incubation step; free antibody is washed away, and a secondary ...
His firm provided the $300,000 start-up funding, and Hybritech's first product, antibodies for the hepatitis B virus, reached ... He was one of the first to use monoclonal antibodies to treat patients with melanoma, leukemia and T cell lymphoma. He ... The idea behind Hybritech was to harness monoclonal antibodies to quickly diagnose and treat diseases. Financier Brook Byers, ... IDEC - Founded in 1985 to develop monoclonal antibodies. Founders include Ivor Royston, Howard Birndorf, Richard Miller and ...
... (INN; development code GC1102) is a monoclonal antibody that is being investigated for hepatitis B. This drug is ... "A recombinant human immunoglobulin with coherent avidity to hepatitis B virus surface antigens of various viral genotypes and ...
Hepatitis B Virus-Specific CD8+ T Cells Maintain Functional Exhaustion after Antigen Reexposure in an Acute Activation Immune ... Disappearance of T Cell-Mediated Rejection Despite Continued Antibody-Mediated Rejection in Late Kidney Transplant Recipients. ... in immune function in patients with sepsis are associated with PD-1 or PD-L1 expression and can be restored by antibodies ...
IgM antibodies are detectable two days after symptom onset and IgG antibodies can be detected six to 18 days after symptom ... and viral hepatitis among others.[104] ... Finding the virus, viral RNA, or antibodies in blood[1]. ... Survivors develop antibodies against Ebola that last at least 10 years, but it is unclear whether they are immune to additional ... "Investigational Monoclonal Antibody to Treat Ebola Is Safe in Adults" (Press release). National Institute of Allergy and ...
"Chronic Hepatitis After Hepatitis E Virus Infection in a Patient With Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma Taking Rituximab" (PDF). Retrieved ... antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity).[55] This strategy for enhancing a monoclonal antibody's ability to induce ADCC takes ... Rituximab has been reported as a possible cofactor in a chronic Hepatitis E infection in a person with lymphoma. Hepatitis E ... The antibody binds to the cell surface protein CD20. CD20 is widely expressed on B cells, from early pre-B cells to later in ...
... has been reported as a possible cofactor in a chronic Hepatitis E infection in a person with lymphoma. Hepatitis E ... antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity).[57] This strategy for enhancing a monoclonal antibody's ability to induce ADCC takes ... The antibody binds to the cell surface protein CD20. CD20 is widely expressed on B cells, from early pre-B cells to later in ... Rituximab is a chimeric monoclonal antibody against the protein CD20, which is primarily found on the surface of immune system ...
Clinical trials have been conducted on mice using tomatoes expressing antibodies or proteins that stimulate antibody production ... targeted to norovirus, hepatitis B, rabies, HIV, anthrax and respiratory syncytial virus.[41] Korean scientists are looking at ...
... antibodies for the virus, or the virus itself in cell culture.[1] Other conditions that may present similarly include Ebola, ... An ELISA test for antigen and Immunoglobulin M antibodies give 88% sensitivity and 90% specificity for the presence of the ...
... hepatitis B, hepatitis C), autoimmune conditions (systemic lupus erythematosus, ANCA vasculitis), paraproteinemias (amyloidosis ... Newer, so-called "biologic drugs" or monoclonal antibodies, are also used in these conditions and include rituximab, ...
The level of A1AT in serum is most often determined by adding an antibody that binds to A1AT, then using turbidimetry to ... doi:10.1002/hep.20815. PMID 16044402. Mahr AD, Neogi T, Merkel PA (2006). "Epidemiology of Wegener's granulomatosis: Lessons ...
Toxoplasma antibodies» (en anglès). PLoS Negl Trop Dis, 2018 Ag 16; 12 (8), pp: e0006536. DOI: 10.1371/journal.pntd.0006536. ... Acute Seronegative Toxoplasma gondii Hepatitis Allergic to First-Line Treatment» (en anglès). Case Reports in Infectious ... aquest protozou provoca hepatitis agudes.[23] En persones immunodeprimides desencadena infeccions oportunistes molt serioses[24 ...
One study has identified antibodies to an M-type phospholipase A2 receptor in 70% (26 of 37) cases evaluated.[2] In 2014, a ... Within membranous glomerulonephritis, especially in cases caused by viral hepatitis, serum C3 levels are low.[7] ... The immune complexes are formed by binding of antibodies to antigens in the glomerular basement membrane. The antigens may be ...
The Center of molecular immunology (CIM) developed nimotuzumab, a monoclonal antibody used to treat cancer. Nimotuzumab is an ... hepatitis and chicken pox. Other campaigns included a program to reduce the infant mortality rate in 1970 directed at maternal ...
Hepatitis. DNA virus. HBV (B). RNA virus. CBV. HAV (A). HCV (C). HDV (D). HEV (E). HGV (G). ... Padgett, B.L.; Walker, D.L. (1973). "Prevalence of antibodies in human sera against JC virus, an isolate from a case of ...
Engineers of small-scale humanised antibody production. Prices on application.. *^ Immunisation article in Ganfyd, the online ... because the antibodies which are transferred have a lifespan of only about 3-6 months.[18] Every placental mammal (which ... known as antibodies or immunoglobulins. This was first performed (and is still sometimes performed) by taking blood from a ... In the future it might be possible to artificially design antibodies to fit specific antigens, then produce them in large ...
... antibodies - antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity (ADCC) - antibody-mediated immunity - antifungal medication - ... hepatitis - hepatitis C and HIV coinfection - hepatomegaly - herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) - herpes simplex virus 2 (HSV-2) - ... neutralizing antibody - neutralizing domain - neutropenia - neutrophil - New Drug Application (NDA) - New York Cares - NIAID - ... functional antibody - fungus - fusin - fusion inhibitor - fusion mechanism - fusion peptide ...
B cells: releases antibodies and assists activation of T cells. *T cells: *CD4+ Th (T helper) cells: activate and regulate T ... Infectious diseases - viral (AIDS, SARS, West Nile encephalitis, hepatitis, herpes, measles, others), bacterial (TB, typhoid, ... This causes an antibody response to be mounted. Monocytes eventually leave the bloodstream and become tissue macrophages, which ... B cells make antibodies that can bind to pathogens, block pathogen invasion, activate the complement system, and enhance ...
Jules Bordet received the Nobel prize in 1919 for his discoveries on immunity, especially the implication of antibodies and the ... In 1985, the first human vaccine obtained by genetic engineering from animal cells, the vaccine against hepatitis B, was ... and hepatitis B. The discovery and use of sulfonamides in treating infections was another breakthrough. Some researchers won ... produced a genetically engineered vaccine against hepatitis B and a rapid diagnostic test for the detection of the Helicobacter ...
In the case of dengue virus, monoclonal anti-CLEC5A antibodies are able to suppress the secretion of proinflammatory cytokines ... "New genetic associations detected in a host response study to hepatitis B vaccine". Genes and Immunity. 11 (3): 232-8. doi ... With the discovery of CLEC5A interactions with different viruses, scientists are testing blocking anti-CLEC5A antibodies, Syk ...
Laurence J (2006). "Hepatitis A and B virus immunization in HIV-infected persons". AIDS Reader 16 (1): 15-17. பப்மெட் 16433468. ... Planque S, Nishiyama Y, Taguchi H, Salas M, Hanson C, Paul S (June 2008). "Catalytic antibodies to HIV: Physiological role and ... 1990). "Infection with human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) among recipients of antibody-positive blood donations". Ann ... "The challenges of eliciting neutralizing antibodies to HIV-1 and to influenza virus". Nat. Rev. Microbiol. 6 (2): 143-55. doi: ...
Using antibodies and gold particles this approach can quantify proteins in serum with high sensitivity and specificity.[43] ... report that gene sequences for HIV, Ebola, Hepatitis, and Bacillus Anthracis can be uniquely identified using this technique. ...
"Hepatitis C". World Health Organization. Archived from the original on 2011-07-12. Retrieved 2013-04-25.. ... The tests are based upon the ability of an antibody to bind specifically to an antigen. The antigen (usually a protein or ... This technique is the current standard for detecting viral infections such as AIDS and hepatitis. ... carbohydrate made by an infectious agent) is bound by the antibody, allowing this type of test to be used for organisms other ...
It also has an immunological role in supplying antibodies to the system, such as immunoglobulin A.[16] This is seen to be key ...
Afucosylated monoclonal antibodies. References[edit]. *^ Hashimoto, G.; Wright, P. F.; Karzon, D. T. (1983-11-01). "Antibody- ... Antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC), also referred to as antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity, is a ... Antibodies can then bind to these viral proteins. Next, the NK cells which have Fc Receptors will bind to that antibody, ... whose membrane-surface antigens have been bound by specific antibodies.[1] It is one of the mechanisms through which antibodies ...
This test only works for IgE antibodies. Allergic reactions caused by other antibodies cannot be detected through skin-prick ... IgE antibodies bind to a receptor on the surface of the protein, creating a tag, just as a virus or parasite becomes tagged. ... 2 - IgE antibody. 3 - FcεRI receptor. 4 - preformed mediators (histamine, proteases, chemokines, heparin). 5 - granules. 6 - ... Anaphylaxis occurs when IgE antibodies are involved, and areas of the body that are not in direct contact with the food become ...
Unlike the other types, it is not antibody-mediated but rather is a type of cell-mediated response. ...
For development of a system to study the replication of the virus that causes hepatitis C and for use of this system to ... For the discovery and development of a monoclonal antibody therapy that unleashes the immune system to combat cancer.[15] ... Discovery of the virus that causes hepatitis C and the development of screening methods that reduced the risk of blood ... For their invention of Herceptin, the first monoclonal antibody that blocks a cancer-causing protein, and for its development ...
Hepatitis B virus reactivation may also occur.[5] Interactions[edit]. Nilotinib has been reported as a substrate for OATP1B1 ... Antibodies: Against TrkA: GBR-900; Against NGF: ABT-110 (PG110). *ASP-6294 ...
Typically, HEp-2 cells are used as a substrate to detect the antibodies in human serum. Microscope slides are coated with HEp-2 ... anti-Sm antibodies, anti-nRNP antibodies, anti-Scl-70 antibodies, anti-dsDNA antibodies, anti-histone antibodies, antibodies to ... This pattern is associated with anti-dsDNA antibodies, antibodies to nucleosomal components, and anti-histone antibodies. There ... If the serum contains antibodies, they will bind to antigens within the HEp-2 cell nucleus. These antibodies can be visualised ...
1960s - Developed the first licensed rubella vaccine and the first test for rubella antibodies for large scale testing. ... and the creation of vaccines against hepatitis, Haemophilus influenzae (HIB), and human papillomavirus (HPV).[7] ...
West Nile virus and hepatitis.[98] Also in 2006, SRI selected St. Petersburg, Florida, as the site for a new marine technology ... Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases to provide preclinical services for the development of drugs and antibodies for ...
... hes new wwasnt my doc back then did a hep panel said i had ... ... Your Guide to Hep C Treatments What you need to know about Hep ... Hi, Im non reactive for HEP C but my concern is that it reads: Hepatitis C antibody result is NON-REACTIVE SIGNAL TO CUT-OFF ... Hi, Im non reactive for HEP C but my concern is that it reads: Hepatitis C antibody result is NON-REACTIVE SIGNAL TO CUT-OFF ... hes new wwasnt my doc back then did a hep panel said i had antibodies 8.2...Im freaking out do i have hep c again and how ...
This test detectes both IgG and IgM antibodies to Hepatitis B Core ... Hepatitis B Core Ab. Chemiluminescent Microparticle Immunoassay (CMIA) CMI, Immunology Negative or Positive. ...
Hepatitis C virus antibodies in systemic lupus erythematosus.. Kowdley KV1, Subler DE, Scheffel J, Moore B, Smith H. ... To determine the prevalence and significance of serum antibody to hepatitis C virus (HCV) in patients with systemic lupus ... erythematosus (SLE), we measured serum antibodies to HCV by enzyme-linked immunosorbent (ELISA) and by Abbott MATRIX Immunoblot ...
... hes new wwasnt my doc back then did a hep panel said i had ... ... Communities>Hepatitis C: Post Treatment Issues>hep c antibodies ... hes new wwasnt my doc back then did a hep panel said i had antibodies 8.2...Im freaking out do i have hep c again and how ... So, looks like I have liver cancer which is not uncommon for those who suffered from Hep C and treatment to be cured from Hep C ... So, looks like I have liver cancer which is not uncommon for those who suffered from Hep C and treatment to be cured from Hep C ...
... then you probably dont have hepatitis c. however, if youve been exposed within the past 6 months, youll need to be checked ... How reliable is the antibody test for hepatitis C?. ANSWER If the antibody test doesnt find anything, then you probably dont ... The antibody test isnt perfect. It may show a hepatitis C infection when you dont have one. It could be positive even if you ... More Answers On Hepatitis. *What tests might I need after being diagnosed with hepatitis C? ...
For follow up to a low positive Hepatitis C Virus Antibody by immunoassay result, and in lieu of the unavailable HCV RIBA, see ... For follow up to a low positive Hepatitis C Virus Antibody by Immunoassay result, and in lieu of the unavailable HCV RIBA, ARUP ... Hepatitis C Virus RNA Quantitative, PCR This assay has a lower limit of detection of 18 IU/mL, and a lower limit of ... Hepatitis C Virus RNA Qualitative PCR This assay has a lower limit of detection of 100 IU/mL. ...
LBDHEG - Hepatitis E IgG (anti-HEV). Variable Name: LBDHEG SAS Label: Hepatitis E IgG (anti-HEV). English Text: Hepatitis E IgG ... LBDHEM - Hepatitis E IgM (anti-HEV). Variable Name: LBDHEM SAS Label: Hepatitis E IgM (anti-HEV). English Text: Hepatitis E IgM ... Hepatitis E: IgG & IgM Antibodies (HEPE_I) Data File: HEPE_I.xpt First Published: September 2017. Last Revised: NA ... Hepatitis E IgG Antibody (IgG Anti-HEV) DS-EIA-ANTI-HEV-G is an enzyme immunoassay kit intended for the detection of IgG ...
LBDHEG - Hepatitis E IgG antibody (IgG anti-HEV). Variable Name: LBDHEG SAS Label: Hepatitis E IgG antibody (IgG anti-HEV). ... LBDHEM - Hepatitis E IgM antibody (IgM anti-HEV). Variable Name: LBDHEM SAS Label: Hepatitis E IgM antibody (IgM anti-HEV). ... The age ranges and constraints for hepatitis E testing are as follows: The IgM and IgG hepatitis E antibody tests are performed ... Hepatitis E IgG Antibody (IgG Anti-HEV) DS-EIA-ANTI-HEV-G is an enzyme immunoassay kit intended for the detection of IgG ...
Learn how a hepatitis C antibody test works and what the test results mean. ... There are several tests that doctors order to check for the hepatitis C virus. The earlier its caught and treated, the less ... Its important to get tested if youve been exposed to hepatitis C. ... The hepatitis C antibody test is a blood test that looks for hepatitis C antibodies in the bloodstream. A positive result ...
... whether they have ever been infected with hepatitis C at any point. ... Hep C antibody tests are used to see if a person has ever developed hep c antibodies - ... How do hep C antibody tests work?. Hep C antibody tests are used to see if a person has ever developed hep C antibodies. If the ... Hepatitis NSW. Hepatitis factsheets. Hep C antibody testing. Last reviewed 18 August 2017. ...
LabCorp test details for Hepatitis A Antibody, IgM ... If hepatitis A antibody is IgM, the hepatitis A infection is ... Differential diagnosis of hepatitis; the presence of IgM antibody to hepatitis A virus is good evidence for acute hepatitis A. ... Presence of IgG antibody to HAV does not exclude acute hepatitis B or other forms of hepatitis. ... IgM antibody develops within a week of symptom onset, peaks in three months, and is usually gone after six months. Hepatitis A ...
If hepatitis A antibody is IgM, the hepatitis A infection is probably acute. IgM antibody develops within a week of symptom ... Differential diagnosis of hepatitis; the presence of IgM antibody to hepatitis A virus is good evidence for acute hepatitis A. ... Presence of IgG antibody to HAV does not exclude acute hepatitis B or other forms of hepatitis. ... Hepatitis A antibody of IgG type is indicative of old infection, is found in almost 50% of adults, and is not usually ...
... Muhammad Imtiaz Shafiq,1,2 Amna ... "Thyroid Peroxidase Antibodies in Non-Interferon Treated Hepatitis C Patients in Pakistan," BioMed Research International, vol. ...
... Turan Calhan,1 Abdurrahman Sahin,1 Resul ... Turan Calhan, Abdurrahman Sahin, Resul Kahraman, et al., "Antineutrophil Cytoplasmic Antibody Frequency in Chronic Hepatitis B ...
Hepatitis C virus RNA concentration and chronic hepatitis in a cohort of patients followed after developing acute hepatitis C. ... Testing for the presence of antibody to hepatitis C virus (anti-HCV) is recommended for initially identifying persons with ... Antibody to hepatitis C virus. CIA. Chemiluminescence immunoassay, a screening test format for anti-HCV (e.g., VITROS® Anti-HCV ... Tests to detect antibody to hepatitis C virus (anti-HCV) were first licensed by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) in 1990 ...
Flaviviridae ; broadly neutralizing antibodies; epitope; hepatitis C virus; hepatitis C virus clearance; humoral immunity; ... Broadly Neutralizing Antibodies Targeting New Sites of Vulnerability in Hepatitis C Virus E1E2.. Colbert MD1, Flyak AI2,3, ... Antibodies targeting four sites (AR3, AR4-5, AS108, and AS146) were broadly neutralizing. These MAbs also displayed distinct ... Here, we isolated thirteen E1E2-specific monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) from B cells of a single HCV-infected individual who ...
A vaccine for hepatitis C virus (HCV) is urgently needed. Development of broadly neutralizing plasma antibodies during acute ... Plasma deconvolution identifies broadly neutralizing antibodies associated with hepatitis C virus clearance. ... Plasma deconvolution identifies broadly neutralizing antibodies associated with hepatitis C virus clearance. ... Identifying these epitopes could define the specificity and function of neutralizing antibodies (NAbs) that should be induced ...
Antibody response to hypervariable region 1 interferes with broadly neutralizing antibodies to hepatitis C virus. J Virol. 2016 ... Human broadly neutralizing antibodies to the envelope glycoprotein complex of hepatitis C virus. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2012 ... Neutralizing antibody response during acute and chronic hepatitis C virus infection. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2004;101(27): ... Broadly neutralizing antibody mediated clearance of human hepatitis C virus infection. Cell Host Microbe. 2018;24(5):717-730.e5 ...
... have been detected in patients with hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection and have been associated in autoimmune diseases (i.e. ... Lupus anticoagulant, anticardiolipin antibodies and hepatitis C virus infection in thalassaemia Br J Haematol. 1998 Sep;102(4): ... Anticardiolipin antibodies (ACA) and lupus anticoagulant (LA) have been detected in patients with hepatitis C virus (HCV) ... None of patients developed any complications related to antiphospholipid antibodies (APL); therefore the clinical significance ...
Furthermore, viral evasion from host neutralizing antibodies has been revealed to be an important contributor in leading both ... This review summarizes recent concepts of the role of neutralizing antibodies in viral clearance and protection, and highlights ... Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is a major cause of chronic liver disease worldwide. The interplay between the virus and host ... and neutralization has allowed a detailed understanding of the molecular mechanisms of virus-host interactions during antibody- ...
AIDS virus antibody in polytransfused dialysis patients vaccinated against hepatitis B. Br Med J (Clin Res Ed) 1986; 293 :537 ... AIDS virus antibody in polytransfused dialysis patients vaccinated against hepatitis B.. Br Med J (Clin Res Ed) 1986; 293 doi: ...
If you test postive for Hep B CORE Antibody & {NEGATIVE FOR HEP B. SURFACE ANTIGEN & POSITIVE FOR HEP B. SURFACE ANTIBODIES, ... If you test postive for Hep B CORE Antibody & {NEGATIVE FOR HEP B. SURFACE ANTIGEN & POSITIVE FOR HEP B. SURFACE ANTIBODIES, ... Hep B Core antibody is an antibody to a specific part of the HepB virus. You can NOT transmit it to others. ... Hep B Core antibody is an antibody to a specific part of the HepB virus. You can NOT transmit it to others. ...
A core antibody would help to tell the... ... It means protection from hepatitis B. Either you had a vaccine ... Ask the Experts > Forum on Hepatitis and HIV Coinfection > Q & A hepititis bs antibody. Jan 3, 2008 I had a physical done aout ... It means protection from hepatitis B. Either you had a vaccine in the past or you had natural infection and recovered. A core ... Read More About Hepatitis B Prevention Browse Forums: <-- Select . Aging. Choosing Your Meds. En Español. In Italiano. ...
"Hepatitis Antibodies" by people in Harvard Catalyst Profiles by year, and whether "Hepatitis Antibodies" was a major or minor ... "Hepatitis Antibodies" is a descriptor in the National Library of Medicines controlled vocabulary thesaurus, MeSH (Medical ... Immunoglobulins raised by any form of viral hepatitis; some of these antibodies are used to diagnose the specific kind of ... Prevalence of hepatitis E virus and reassessment of HIV and other hepatitis virus seroprevalences among French prison inmates. ...
All antibodies of IgM class, when present in the test sample, can be captured by anti-human IgM antibodies immobilized on the ... All antibodies of IgM class, when present in the test sample, can be captured by anti-human IgM antibodies immobilized on the ... In addition, immobilized rabbit IgG antibodies which can be recognized by colloidal gold-labeled anti-rabbit IgG antibodies ... In addition, immobilized rabbit IgG antibodies which can be recognized by colloidal gold-labeled anti-rabbit IgG antibodies ...
Browse our Hepatitis C Virus E2 Antibody catalog backed by our Guarantee+. ... Hepatitis C Virus E2 Antibodies available through Novus Biologicals. ... Hepatitis C Virus E2 Antibodies. We offer Hepatitis C Virus E2 Antibodies for use in common research applications: ELISA, ... Choose from our Hepatitis C Virus E2 polyclonal antibodies and browse our Hepatitis C Virus E2 monoclonal antibody catalog. ...
Browse our Hepatitis A Surface Antigen Antibody catalog backed by our Guarantee+. ... Hepatitis A Surface Antigen Antibodies available through Novus Biologicals. ... Hepatitis A Surface Antigen Antibodies. We offer Hepatitis A Surface Antigen Antibodies for use in common research applications ... Choose from our Hepatitis A Surface Antigen monoclonal antibodies.. Alternate Names for Hepatitis A Surface Antigen Antibodies ...
The hepatitis B surface antibody test is used to help identify if a person has developed immunity to the hepatitis B virus, ... The hepatitis B surface antibody test is used to help identify if a person has developed immunity to the hepatitis B virus, ... Core antibodies are the first antibodies produced by the body in response to infection with hepatitis B. A positive core ... This hepatitis B surface antibody test detects antibodies produced by the body in response to the presence of surface antigens ...
Validated in WB and tested in Hepatitis C virus. Cited in 2 publication(s). Immunogen corresponding to synthetic peptide. ... Anti-Hepatitis C Virus antibody. See all Hepatitis C Virus primary antibodies. ... Primary antibodies. Secondary antibodies. ELISA and Matched Antibody Pair Kits. Cell and tissue imaging tools. Cellular and ... it is likely that these antibodies will react with Hepatitis C strain 2a. Ab18662 - Mouse monoclonal [24-8 ] to Hepatitis C ...
Validated in WB and tested in Hepatitis C virus. Cited in 6 publication(s). Immunogen corresponding to synthetic peptide. ... Anti-Hepatitis C Virus antibody. See all Hepatitis C Virus primary antibodies. ... Primary - Rabbit Anti-Hepatitis C Virus antibody (ab1033) WB Protein - Recombinant Human Hepatitis C Virus (mutated D168 V) ... Primary antibodies. Secondary antibodies. ELISA and Matched Antibody Pair Kits. Cell and tissue imaging tools. Cellular and ...
  • Induction of multiple broadly neutralizing antibodies (bNAbs) that target distinct epitopes on the HCV envelope proteins is one approach to vaccine development. (
  • A vaccine for hepatitis C virus (HCV) is urgently needed. (
  • Identifying these epitopes could define the specificity and function of neutralizing antibodies (NAbs) that should be induced by a vaccine. (
  • These studies have the potential to inform new strategies for vaccine development by identifying broadly neutralizing antibody combinations in plasma associated with the natural clearance of HCV, while also providing a high-throughput assay that could identify these responses after vaccination trials. (
  • It means protection from hepatitis B . Either you had a vaccine in the past or you had natural infection and recovered. (
  • Demonstration of real-time and accelerated stability of hepatitis E vaccine with a combination of different physicochemical and immunochemical methods. (
  • Multifaceted characterization of recombinant protein-based vaccines: An immunochemical toolbox for epitope-specific analyses of the hepatitis E vaccine. (
  • Among these, 880 children were completely immunized and were given a birth dose of hepatitis B vaccine, 686 were completely immunized but were not given a birth dose of hepatitis B vaccine and 844 were unvaccinated. (
  • It was found that children who were given complete vaccination (with or without birth-dose of hepatitis B vaccine) had a similar level of protection against infection. (
  • 1 Departments of Molecular Biology, International AIDS Vaccine Initiative Neutralizing Antibody Center, and The Skaggs Institute for Chemical Biology, The Scripps Research Institute, La Jolla, CA 92037, USA. (
  • Duration of Immunity After Hepatitis B Vaccination: Efficacy of Low-Dose Booster Vaccine. (
  • Studies health care workers three years after initial vaccination with hepatitis B vaccine to determine the prevalence of immunity indicated by levels of antibody to hepatitis B surface antigen. (
  • Decline of vaccine coverage for hepatitis B. (
  • An effective vaccine to the antigenically diverse hepatitis C virus (HCV) must target conserved immune epitopes. (
  • This was the first marker for any hepatitis virus and became not only a diagnostic assay, but also a mandatory blood donor screening test and the basis for the first generation hepatitis B vaccine. (
  • The Hepatitis B vaccine is recommended for those who have not been previously vaccinated. (
  • To evaluate viral vaccine antibody levels in children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia after chemotherapy and after vaccine booster doses. (
  • Antibody levels against hepatitis B, rubella, measles and mumps vaccine antigens were evaluated in 33 children after completing chemotherapy (before and after vaccine booster doses) and the results were compared to the data of 33 healthy children matched for gender, age and social class. (
  • After receiving a vaccine booster dose for these antigens the patients had high antibody levels consistent with potential protection against measles, mumps and hepatitis B, but not against rubella. (
  • After this, viral vaccine antibody levels should be verified to define the individual's protective status. (
  • Trans Am Clin Climatol Assoc. 2019;130:104-118 Authors: Alter HJ Abstract The modern age of viral hepatitis began in the early 1960s with the serendipitous discovery of the Australia antigen, a protein that was later shown to represent the envelope of the hepatitis B virus leading to its designation as the hepatitis B surface antigen. (
  • Hepatitis D virus (HDV), also known as delta hepatitis virus, is a defective RNA virus comprising of a delta antigen and a hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) as the core and protein coat of the virus, respectively. (
  • Serum samples from study subjects were examined for anti-HCV by enzyme immunoassays as well as hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) and e antigen (HBeAg) by radioimmunoassays using commercial kits. (
  • In the clinical follow-up study of 11 patients with anti-preS1 positive serological profile, HBsAg and HBV-DNA clearance occurred in 6 of 10 acute hepatitis B patients in 5-6 mo, and seroconversion of HBeAg and disappearance of HBV-DNA occurred in 1 chronic patients treated with lavumidine, a antiviral agent. (
  • This study was done to evaluate efficacy of HBV vaccination on hepatitis B virus surface antigen [‎HBsAg]‎ carrier rate in children with thalassaemia major receiving multiple blood transfusions. (
  • Presence of hepatitis B surface antigen (HbsAg) and alanine-aminotransferase (ALAT) level are routinely assessed, as well as HIV and human T-lymphotropic virus type l infection. (
  • HBsAg is the surface antigenof the Hepatitis-B-Virus (HBV). (
  • HBsAg is a serological marker produced on the surface of the hepatitis B virus and is one of the first disease state markers to be detected in the serum of patients infected with the hepatitis B virus. (
  • Background and Objective: Presence of hepatitis B core antibody (anti-HBc) in the absence of hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) and hepatitis B surface antibody (anti-HBs) is defined, as isolated anti-HBc. (
  • HBsAg, anti-HBs, anti-HBc, Hepatitis C antibody (anti-HCV) and Alanine aminotransferase (ALT) levels were tested in all subjects. (
  • For decades, people living with chronic hepatitis B were told they would be "cured" only when they lost the hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) and developed surface antibodies. (
  • Researchers, including expert Dr. Robert Gish, suggest if people have an undetectable viral load (HBV DNA), undetectable HBsAg, and no signs of liver damage, they may be "functionally cured," even if they haven't developed surface antibodies. (
  • Today, we're only measuring one type of surface antibody, and for some reason we don't know yet, it may never become positive in people who have been chronically infected and cleared HBsAg. (
  • Dr. Gish speculates that the surface antibodies that labs measure may all bind to any HBsAg that remain following infection, so there may not be any excess of this one type of surface antibodies to measure. (
  • As a result of these findings, people who have gone two or more years with undetectable viral load and HBsAg, and no signs of liver damage just might be "functionally cured", Dr. Gish suggests, even if their surface antibodies remain undetectable. (
  • The hepatitis virus consists of a core containing DNA ( HBV-DNA ) with an enzyme known as DNA polymerase that assists with viral replication and is surrounded by surface proteins ( HBsAg ). (
  • The surface proteins surrounding the viral core is known as the hepatitis B surface antigen ( HBsAg ). (
  • To determine the prevalence and significance of serum antibody to hepatitis C virus (HCV) in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), we measured serum antibodies to HCV by enzyme-linked immunosorbent (ELISA) and by Abbott MATRIX Immunoblot assays in 42 patients with SLE, a condition associated with hypergammaglobulinemia. (
  • Prevalence of hepatitis E virus and reassessment of HIV and other hepatitis virus seroprevalences among French prison inmates. (
  • To determine the prevalence of antibodies to hepatitis B core antigen, hepatitis C virus, and HIV in the prison population of the Republic of Ireland and to examine risk factors for infection. (
  • Prevalence of antibodies to hepatitis B core antigen, antibodies to hepatitis C virus, and antibodies to HIV. (
  • 6 Given the association between injecting drug use and infection with hepatitis B virus, hepatitis C virus, and HIV, it is important to know both the prevalence of these infections and the pattern of risk behaviours in prison environments so that appropriate responses can be instituted. (
  • We report the results of a national study examining the relations between self reported risk behaviour and the prevalence of antibodies to hepatitis B core antigen, hepatitis C virus, and HIV in the Irish prisoner population. (
  • We estimated that a sample of 1200 prisoners was required to measure the prevalence of antibodies to hepatitis C virus in the high and medium risk prisons. (
  • The prevalence of HCV antibodies in blood donors in Dakar in 2001 appears to be one of the lowest in West Africa, close to published estimates for Mauritania and Benin (1.1% and 1.4%, respectively) and lower than in other West African countries such as Ghana or Guinea, where prevalence ranges from 2.8% to 6.7% ( 1 - 4 ). (
  • Hepatitis B and C virus prevalence in a rural area of South Korea: the role of acupuncture. (
  • A cross-sectional study evaluated the prevalence of and the risk factors for hepatitis C and B viruses among 700 adults above the age of 40 years in a rural area of South Korea. (
  • It discusses the aim of the study, the recruitment of the participants, semiquantitative analysis of anti-HBs antibodies for hepatitis B, and the prevalence of Hepatitis B. (
  • Hepatitis B virus and hepatitis C virus share routes of transmission but the prevalence of hepatitis C virus infection in this population is unknown. (
  • Prevalence of antibodies to hepatitis E in two rural Egyptian communities. (
  • A population-based serosurvey in two rural Egyptian communities was used to assess age-specific prevalence of antibody to hepatitis E virus (anti-HEV). (
  • Prevalence of this magnitude is among the highest reported in the world, with an age-specific pattern more similar to hyperendemic hepatitis A virus transmission than generally described. (
  • Hepatitis viruses constitute a major public health problem because of the morbidity and mortality associated with the acute and chronic consequences of these infections. (
  • Infection with hepatitis E virus (HEV) has been responsible for large water-borne epidemics of acute disease in developing countries and for acute sporadic disease in industrialized developed countries. (
  • the presence of IgM antibody to hepatitis A virus is good evidence for acute hepatitis A. (
  • If hepatitis A antibody is IgM, the hepatitis A infection is probably acute. (
  • Presence of IgG antibody to HAV does not exclude acute hepatitis B or other forms of hepatitis. (
  • Development of broadly neutralizing plasma antibodies during acute infection is associated with HCV clearance, but the viral epitopes of these plasma antibodies are unknown. (
  • Furthermore, viral evasion from host neutralizing antibodies has been revealed to be an important contributor in leading both to viral persistence in acute liver graft infection following liver transplantation, and to chronic viral infection. (
  • Acute liver failure caused by hepatitis E virus genotype 3 and 4: A systematic review and pooled analysis. (
  • HDV superinfection in chronic HBV or in HBV carrier state typically manifests as an acute exacerbation of chronic hepatitis B, with tendency to result in chronic HBV-HDV coinfection and early cirrhosis or liver failure. (
  • HDV IgG and HDV total antibodies persist in serum after resolution of acute HDV infection and in chronic coinfection. (
  • Positive results usually indicate 1 of the following conditions: 1) simultaneous acute or chronic coinfection with hepatitis B virus (HBV) and HDV, 2) acute HDV infection in patients with known chronic HBV infection (ie, HDV superinfection), or 3) resolved HDV infection. (
  • The source of HCV was plasma obtained from a patient during the acute phase of posttransfusion non-A, non-B hepatitis, which had previously been titered for infectivity in chimpanzees. (
  • IgM antibody against hepatitis C virus (IgM anti-HCV) was measured in serial samples from 15 transfusion recipients in whom posttransfusion chronic non-A, non-B hepatitis (NANBH) developed and three plasmapheresis donors during acute HCV infection using recombinant proteins derived from three immunodominant regions: core, NS-3, and NS-4 (c100). (
  • TY - JOUR T1 - IgM antibody response in acute hepatitis C viral infection. (
  • Recombinant preS1(21-119 aa) protein was successfully applied in the immunoassay which could sensitively detect the anti-preS1 antibodies in serum specimens of acute or chronic hepatitis B patients. (
  • Results showed that more than half of 19 acute hepatitis B patients produced anti-preS1 antibodies during recovery of the disease, however, the response was only found in a few of chronic patients. (
  • Acute Hepatitis B in a Patient with Antibodies to Hepatitis B Surface Antigen Who Was Receiving Rituximab. (
  • A letter to the editor on acute hepatitis B in a patient with antibodies to hepatitis B surface antigen who was having rituximab therapy is presented. (
  • Specimens analyzed were from 200 blood donors, 79 patients with acute viral hepatitis (AVH), 392 hemodialyzed patients, and 30 carriers of schistosomiasis. (
  • That level was used because most adults who had a short-term or acute case of hepatitis B were able to generate lots of surface antibodies once they've cleared the infection, and people who were vaccinated also tended to generate high surface antibody levels. (
  • To this end, we investigated the nature of ASCs in direct ex vivo assays from patients with acute hepatitis A caused by primary infection with hepatitis A virus (HAV). (
  • The hepatitis B virus (HBV) can infect the liver cells resulting in an acute infection or persist with chronic inflammation of the liver. (
  • Acute hepatitis with subsequent recovery and total clearance of the virus in a person with a healthy immune system. (
  • Non-progressive chronic hepatitis which may occur after an acute infection. (
  • Acute hepatitis B lasts for less than 6 months. (
  • The Hepatitis B Surface Antigen test is the earliest indicator of acute infection, while it also indicates chronic infection as well. (
  • Extra doses of measles-mumps-rubella plus hepatitis B vaccines are recommended in acute lymphoblastic leukemia patients submitted to treatment after hematologic recovery. (
  • Hepatitis C Virus RNA Quantitative, PCR This assay has a lower limit of detection of 18 IU/mL, and a lower limit of quantitation of 43 IU/mL. (
  • Hepatitis C Virus RNA Qualitative PCR This assay has a lower limit of detection of 100 IU/mL. (
  • Testing for anti-HCV should include use of an antibody screening assay, and for screening test-positive results, a more specific supplemental assay. (
  • An Optimized High-Throughput Neutralization Assay for Hepatitis E Virus (HEV) Involving Detection of Secreted Porf2. (
  • The presence of HEV specific IgM antibodies can be differentially detected by a colloidal gold-labeled HEV antigen immobilized within the device, and can be visualized as pink/purple lines after assay. (
  • Antibody to HCV was tested for using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) (Ortho Diagnostic Systems, Raritan, New Jersey). (
  • Analysis of discordant test results among five second-generation assays for anti-hepatitis C virus antibodies also tested by polymerase chain reaction-RNA assay and other laboratory and clinical tests for hepatitis. (
  • The diagnostic performances of five commercially available second-generation assays for anti-hepatitis C virus antibody, two enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays, one enzyme immunoassay, and two particle agglutination assays (passive hemagglutination assay and particle agglutination assay), were evaluated. (
  • Assay sensitivities were further evaluated by testing serially diluted World Health Organization (WHO) reference reagent for hepatitis E virus antibody and one patient sample infected with HEV genotype 3. (
  • The detection of antibodies to hepatitis C virus (HCV) using a recombinant-based immunoassay in patients who did not have risk factors for infection or evidence of liver disease has raised doubts about the test's specificity (1). (
  • We then investigated the allele specificity of the antibodies and identified the HLA alleles in each patient using DNA-based HLA typing. (
  • We confirmed that the anti-HLA class II antibodies in the AIH patients showed specificity for several HLA class II alleles, including self HLA class II alleles. (
  • The tightness and specificity with which antibodies bind to protein complexes has led to many fruitful applications in structural biology. (
  • Choose from our Hepatitis C Virus E2 polyclonal antibodies and browse our Hepatitis C Virus E2 monoclonal antibody catalog. (
  • The following product was used in this experiment: Hepatitis C Virus NS3 Monoclonal Antibody (24-8) from Thermo Fisher Scientific, catalog # MA1-21375, RRID AB_559424. (
  • Assess safety and tolerability of escalating doses of a human monoclonal antibody against Hepatitis C E2 glycoprotein (MBL-HCV1) in healthy adults. (
  • Determine pharmacokinetics of a human monoclonal antibody against Hepatitis C E2 glycoprotein (MBL-HCV1) given as a single intravenous infusion. (
  • A single dose of human monoclonal antibody will be administered. (
  • A single dose of human monoclonal antibody MBL-HCV1 will be administered on Day 0 and subjects will be followed for 56 days. (
  • Mouse monoclonal antibody raised against recombinant hepatitis B virus core antigen. (
  • The prognosis for autoimmune hepatitis becomes worse when it is associated with liver cirrhosis and the presence of soluble liver antigen and the liver pancreas antigen (SLA/LP) antibodies. (
  • Recent studies done on patients with autoimmune hepatitis show that the first diagnosis of cirrhosis of the liver and the presence of the above mentioned antibodies increase the risk of poor short-term and poor long-term outcomes. (
  • A chronic inflammatory disease, autoimmune hepatitis results in damage to the liver as a result of the body's immune system attacking healthy liver cells. (
  • According to lead author Dr. Arndt Vogel from Hannover Medical School in Germany, early diagnosis and timely medical therapy can help patients with autoimmune hepatitis have a good prognosis. (
  • Dr. Vogel explains that their study examines the genetic and clinical features of remission, relapse and liver transplant-free survival in patients with autoimmune hepatitis. (
  • For the study, the team analyzed 264 patients with autoimmune hepatitis who were treated at Hannover Medical School between 2000 and 2014, and 399 patients without autoimmune hepatitis. (
  • And the patients with a childhood diagnosis of autoimmune hepatitis had an increased risk of relapse, higher risk of needing a liver transplant and a reduced life expectancy. (
  • Besides cirrhosis of the liver, there are other factors that could influence and increase the risk of autoimmune hepatitis. (
  • Being female - Although autoimmune hepatitis can occur in both men and women the incidence of occurrence is higher in women. (
  • Age - While type-1 autoimmune hepatitis is not associated with age and can occur any time, type-2 autoimmune hepatitis usually affects young females. (
  • Infections - A bacterial or viral infection may pave the way for autoimmune hepatitis. (
  • Medications - Certain medicines like the antibiotic, minocycline, and the cholesterol medication, Lipitor, have been known to be risk factors for autoimmune hepatitis. (
  • Heredity - The predisposition for autoimmune hepatitis to run in families is backed by historical evidence. (
  • Autoimmune disease - People who already have an autoimmune disease may be more likely to develop autoimmune hepatitis. (
  • Type-1 autoimmune hepatitis has antinuclear and smooth muscle antibodies. (
  • Type-2 autoimmune hepatitis show liver-kidney-microsomal antibodies. (
  • Type-3 autoimmune hepatitis displays SLA/LP antibodies. (
  • Of the three, the most common type in North America is type-1 autoimmune hepatitis . (
  • Females account for about 70 percent of type-1 autoimmune hepatitis patients. (
  • Most people with type-1 autoimmune hepatitis commonly have other autoimmune disorders. (
  • Type-2 autoimmune hepatitis is not as common as its type-1 cousin and occurs more often in children than adults. (
  • For both type-1 and type-2 autoimmune hepatitis, the aim of the treatment is to deter the body's immune system from attacking the liver, and in the process slow down the progression of the disease. (
  • Autoimmune hepatitis (AIH) can arise de novo after liver transplantation (LT) for non-autoimmune liver diseases. (
  • Yamagiwa S, Kamimura H, Takamura M, Genda T, Ichida T, Nomoto M, Aoyagi Y. Presence of Antibodies against Self Human Leukocyte Antigen Class II Molecules in Autoimmune Hepatitis. (
  • These antibodies are typically associated with autoimmune hepatitis. (
  • In autoimmune hepatitis anti-actin antibodies correlate with patterns of immune recognition, the pattern of recognition was specific to a small percentage of auto-immune hepatitis type 1 or cryptogenic hepatitis patients. (
  • This recommendation is consistent with testing practices for hepatitis B surface antigen and antibody to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), for which laboratories routinely conduct more specific reflex testing before reporting a result as positive ( 1 , 3 ). (
  • Hepatitis B antigen and antibody in a male homosexual population. (
  • The hepatitis B surface antibody test is used to help identify if a person has developed immunity to the hepatitis B virus, either by previous infection or by vaccination. (
  • There is no vaccination for hep c but there is for hep a and hep b. (
  • hepatitis B vaccination at birth may not be necessary. (
  • When the nurse practioner was going over my vaccination schedule she noted that I had finished up my Hep. (
  • The results provide structural information for a neutralizing epitope on the HCV E2 glycoprotein and should help guide rational design of HCV immunogens to elicit similar broadly neutralizing antibodies through vaccination. (
  • To evaluate the effectiveness of hepatitis B virus [‎HBV]‎ vaccination of household contacts of HBV carriers in Tulkarm district, Palestine, quantitative hepatitis B surface [‎anti-HBs]‎ antibody response in 161 household contacts was measured after vaccination. (
  • Integration of hepatitis B vaccination into rural African primary health care programmes. (
  • Examines the integration of hepatitis B vaccination into rural health care programs in South Africa. (
  • Kosalaraksa P, Chokephaibulkit K, Benjaponpitak S, Pancharoen C, Chuenkitmongkol S, B'Chir S, Da Costa X, Vidor E. Persistence of hepatitis B immune memory until 9-10 years of age following hepatitis B vaccination at birth and DTaP-IPV-HB-PRP∼T vaccination at 2, 4 and 6 months. (
  • The primary aim of the study is to show that the antibody response to hepatitis B, acellular pertussis toxin and inactivated poliovirus antigens after the 4th vaccination with Hexavac® is not influenced by the concomitant administration of NeisVac-C. (
  • The levels of hepatitis A antibodies in the primary vaccination were the only factor independently associated with maintaining these antibodies for 7 years. (
  • The antibodies levels acquired in the primary vaccination in the HIV group were the main factor associated with antibodies loss after HAV immunization. (
  • Bottom line, "immune memory" and antibodies that labs may not be able to identify remain ready to fight infection following vaccination and even after a chronic infection. (
  • DS-EIA-ANTI-HEV-G is an enzyme immunoassay kit intended for the detection of IgG antibodies to hepatitis E virus in human serum or plasma. (
  • Serum specimens were processed, stored, and shipped to the Division of Viral Hepatitis, National Center for HIV/AIDS, Viral Hepatitis, STD, and TB Prevention, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (
  • Technician tests human blood serum for antibodies to hepatitis C virus. (
  • Moreover, positive reactivity with anti-self HLA class II antibodies was associated with higher serum transaminase levels. (
  • N-glycopeptide signatures of IgA2 in serum from patients with hepatitis B virus-related liver diseases. (
  • We evaluated 5 commercially available HEp-2 antinuclear antibody (ANA) indirect fluorescent antibody (IFA) assays using patient serum samples from 45 patients with rheumatoid arthritis, 50 with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), 35 with scleroderma, 20 with Sjögren syndrome, 10 with polymyositis, and 100 healthy control subjects. (
  • In this study anticardiolipin antibodies (immunoglobulin G [IgG] isotype) were determined in serum from 100 patients with chronic hepatitis C and 52 healthy controls. (
  • If you test postive for Hep B CORE Antibody & {NEGATIVE FOR HEP B. 'SURFACE ANTIGEN' & POSITIVE FOR HEP B. SURFACE ANTIBODIES, Which turned out to be greater than 1000.0 } and are immuned, can you still transmit the {HEP B CORE ANTIBODIES} to your sexual partner? (
  • Despite their "inactive" infection, studies show two-thirds of these people will never develop surface antibodies, said Dr. Gish, medical consultant to the Hepatitis B Foundation and professor consultant of gastroenterology and hepatology at Stanford University. (
  • But isn't developing surface antibodies the gold standard for recovery from hepatitis B? (
  • Historically, medical guidelines dictated that chronically-infected patients must generate at least 10 mIU/mL of surface antibodies to be "functionally cured. (
  • Hepatitis B surface antibodies are very specific in their mission, and we're learning that the body may be making other types of surface antibodies that we cannot measure. (
  • It may be similar to what happens in vaccinated people who over time no longer test positive for surface antibodies. (
  • In the old literature, people thought having lots of surface antibodies meant better protection, but now we know people who've been vaccinated remain protected by their immune system's T-cell response and also 'memory B cells' even if their surface antibodies decline or become undetectable," he said. (
  • However, Dr. Gish cautions, it's important to remember that once infected with hepatitis B (indicated by presence of the hepatitis B core antibody - anti-HBc), people will always retain low levels of the hepatitis B virus in their bodies - even if they develop surface antibodies. (
  • Broadly neutralizing antibodies abrogate established hepatitis C virus infection. (
  • Goat polyclonal antibody raised against recombinant human hepatitis C virus. (
  • If hepatitis B core total antibodies is positive, then hepatitis B core antibody IgM is performed at an additional charge. (
  • Do you live in Wyoming and need Hepatitis B Core Antibody IgM testing ? (
  • In addition, NHANES provides the means to better define the epidemiology of other hepatitis viruses. (
  • NHANES testing for markers of infection with hepatitis viruses will be used to determine secular trends in infection rates across most age and racial/ethnic groups, and will provide a national picture of the epidemiologic determinants of these infections. (
  • As well as the passive function of sticking to viruses, some antibodies trigger a series of events which result in inflammation of the area around a cell area, making it generally inhospitable to bacteria and viruses. (
  • Not sure what you mean by strain if you are thinking about Hepatitis a or Hepatitis b those are 2 entirely different viruses. (
  • INTRODUCTION Co-infections between hepatitis B and HIV viruses are frequent due to their similar epidemiological characteristics. (
  • Fourteen (17.7%) of the AVH patients were positive, as were six (25%) of 24 with hepatitis A virus, three (11%) of 26 with hepatitis B virus, 0 (0%) of 12 with hepatitis C virus, and five (29%) of 17 with non-A, non-B, non-C hepatitis viruses. (
  • Patients with AVH due to hepatitis A had a greater frequency of anti-HEV, probably because of similar routes of transmission for both hepatitis A and E viruses. (
  • The five types of hepatitis viruses are common infectious causes of liver inflammation, and some like hepatitis A (HAV), B (HBV) and C (HCV) are more frequently seen infectious agents. (
  • There are six types of hepatitis C. Each type, or genotype , represents a specific combination of genes within a cell. (
  • The hepatitis C genotyping test shows which genotype of hepatitis C must be treated. (
  • About 70 to 75 percent of people who have hepatitis C have genotype 1. (
  • Genotype 2 accounts for 13 to 15 percent of people with hepatitis C. About 10 percent have genotype 3. (
  • Each hepatitis C genotype represents a genetically distinct group of the virus. (
  • Further, they can also tell what hep C genotype a person has. (
  • Here, we isolated thirteen E1E2-specific monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) from B cells of a single HCV-infected individual who cleared one genotype 1a infection and then became persistently infected with a second genotype 1a strain. (
  • Hepatitis C virus is classified into six genotypes(1-6) with several subtypes within each genotype. (
  • The preS1 fragment purified by Ni 2+ -IDA affinity chromatography was used as coated antigen to establish the indirect ELISA based on streptavidin-biotin system for detection of the anti-preS1 antibodies in sera from HBV-infected patients. (
  • Blood samples for human anti-human antibody detection will be drawn on days 0, 14+/-1 and 56+/-7. (
  • Diagnosis of hepatitis E virus (HEV) is usually determined serologically by detection of the presence of immunoglobulin (Ig)M antibodies or rising anti-HEV IgG titers. (
  • Considerable variations were observed particularly for the detection period of IgM antibodies. (
  • No absolute correlation between the detection of HBs Ag, or previous history of hepatitis, jaundice, or current hepatitis was found. (
  • Although we quickly eradicate lots of hepatitis C once it's identified, there are always some which have mutated, are not recognised and survive our immune response. (
  • Increasing evidence indicates that broadly neutralizing antibodies (bNAbs) play an important role in immune-mediated control of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection, but the relative contribution of neutralizing antibodies targeting antigenic sites across the HCV envelope (E1 and E2) proteins is unclear. (
  • Negative result may not rule out hepatitis D virus (HDV) infection during the early phase of infection or in immunocompromised patients who have delayed or inadequate immune response. (
  • Furthermore, the mononuclear cell infiltration in the immunized mice appeared earlier than in the nonimmunized mice, suggesting that the exogenous antibody might have activated host immune responses, and thus facilitated clearance of the virus or virus-infected cells. (
  • Our results suggest that an antibody-mediated immune response against HLA class II molecules on hepatocytes may be involved in the pathogenesis or acceleration of liver injury in AIH. (
  • This study provides insight into the nature of effective immune response against HCV and demonstrates an innovative approach for constructing antibodies correlating with successful infection clearance. (
  • The cure is called "functional" because the only cure for hepatitis B is when the immune system controls or suppresses the virus. (
  • People with chronic hepatitis usually experience several infection stages, starting with a high viral load (called immune-tolerant or immune-trained) during childhood and early adulthood, followed by years and even decades of "active" hepatitis B where the immune system tries to clear the infection, indicated by elevated liver enzyme tests. (
  • Like the chicken pox virus, the hepatitis B virus remains suppressed only as long as the immune system remains healthy enough to keep it in check. (
  • Old age, other illnesses, chemotherapy or drugs that suppress the immune system can allow a reactivation of hepatitis B in the same way that chicken pox returns as "shingles" in older adults. (
  • Viral proteins (antigens) trigger the immune system to produce corresponding antibodies. (
  • When these antibodies bind with the antigens it helps to direct the activity of immune cells. (
  • Long-term HEV carriers without antibody seroconversion among eligible immunocompetent blood donors. (
  • We report an assessment of the proportion of blood donors from the Hôpital Principal de Dakar who had HCV antibodies in 2001. (
  • A systematic screening of HCV antibodies in blood donors could prevent, on average, 120 bloodborne HCV infections each year. (
  • Hepatitis E is an emerging zoonotic disease caused by hepatitis E virus (HEV). (
  • These tests look for presence of the actual hep C virus. (
  • They look for the actual hep C virus and are used to see whether someone has a current infection. (
  • I am assuming you initially tested for hep c antibodies and later retested per standard protocol for the actual hep c virus with a HCV RNA by PCR test. (
  • Hepatitis C is a virus that attacks the human liver. (
  • IMPORTANCE Worldwide, more than 70 million people are infected with hepatitis C virus (HCV), which is a leading cause of hepatocellular carcinoma and liver transplantation. (
  • Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is a major cause of chronic liver disease worldwide. (
  • Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is a leading contributor to global chronic liver disease. (
  • This virus cannot replicate effectively by itself, and it requires the presence of hepatitis B virus (HBV) to initiate and maintain its replication in the infected liver cells. (
  • Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is the most important etiologic agent of non-A, non-B hepatitis and is a major cause of chronic liver disease and hepatocellular carcinoma. (
  • Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infects more than 2% of the global population and is a leading cause of liver cirrhosis, hepatocellular carcinoma, and end-stage liver diseases. (
  • Testing for hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection may reduce the risk of liver-related morbidity, by facilitating earlier access to treatment and care. (
  • Hepatitis C is a serious liver infection most commonly contracted after a blood trans- fusion. (
  • The hepatitis C virus is the cause of hepatitis C and some cancers such as liver cancer (hepatocellular carcinoma, abbreviated HCC) and lymphomas in humans. (
  • Hepatitis is an inflammation and enlargement of the liver, usually due to hepatitis virus infection. (
  • The researchers did not take into account subjects with viral hepatitis, haemochromatosis, Wilson's disease and alcoholic and non-alcoholic liver disease . (
  • At the end of the study, the researchers found that in the patients with SLA/LP antibodies the overall survival and liver transplant-free survival was significantly reduced. (
  • Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is a major public health concern, with over 70 million people infected worldwide, who are at risk for developing life-threatening liver disease. (
  • In patients with no evidence of liver disease and a history of thrombotic events, hepatitis C markers were absent in all cases who tested negatively for anticardiolipin antibodies (n = 37), but were present in 16.7% of those positive for anticardiolipin (n = 36) (P = .01). (
  • Hepatitis is the term for inflammation of the liver and may be due to infectious or non-infectious causes. (
  • Fulminant hepatitis with destruction of large parts of the liver is life-threatening. (
  • In chronic hepatitis B infection, the patient may be asymptomatic for long periods of time until there is severe damage to the liver. (
  • Chronic hepatitis B is seen where the virus does not clear and the infection persists past 6 months.The clinical features of chronic HBV infection depends on the degree of liver damage. (
  • A carrier is a person with chronic hepatitis B showing no symptoms of the infection and there is no damage to the liver. (
  • The presence or absence of IgG antibodies to hepatitis E virus is determined by the ratio of the OD of each sample to the calculated cut-off value. (
  • Testing for the presence of antibody to hepatitis C virus (anti-HCV) is recommended for initially identifying persons with hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection (CDC. (
  • This hepatitis B surface antibody test detects antibodies produced by the body in response to the presence of surface antigens (viral proteins). (
  • A large number of children who were unvaccinated also showed the presence of antibodies. (
  • Considering the identical features of de novo AIH after LT and classical AIH, as well as the importance of anti-human leukocyte antigen (HLA) antibodies in graft rejection, we investigated the presence of circulating anti-HLA class II antibodies in the sera of 35 patients with AIH, 30 patients with primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC), and 30 healthy donors using fluorescent dye-impregnated beads bound to HLA molecules. (
  • The hepatitis C antibody test looks for antibodies that the body produces in response to the presence of HCV. (
  • This antibody reacts with the 44 kD core protein C3, the envelope protein, and E2 (NS1) of Hepatitis C Virus. (
  • Peptide corresponding to amino acids 33-43 of Hepatitis C Virus (HCV) core protein C3. (
  • This antibody recognizes the core protein C1 of Hepatitis C Virus. (
  • Some of mouse hepatitis virus strains contain an optional envelope glycoprotein, hemagglutinin-esterase (HE) protein. (
  • To understand the functional significance of this protein, monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) specific for this protein were generated and used for passive immunization of mice. (
  • The hypervariable region 1 (HVR1) of the E2 protein of hepatitis C virus (HCV) is a highly heterogeneous sequence that is promiscuously recognized by human sera via binding to amino acid residues with conserved physicochemical properties. (
  • Over 280,000 products but you can't find the right antibody for your protein or application? (
  • Hepatitis C virus (HCV) entry into host cells is a multistep process requiring various host factors, including the tight junction protein occludin (OCLN), which has been shown to be essential for HCV infection in in vitro cell culture systems. (
  • Recombinant protein encompassing a sequence within the center region of Hepatitis C virus NS5B protein. (
  • RNA-directed RNA polymerase (HCV virus) antibody detects RNA-directed RNA polymerase (HCV virus) protein by western blot analysis. (
  • Recombinant protein corresponding to human hepatitis C virus. (
  • Recombinant protein corresponding to hepatitis B virus core antigen. (
  • Previously, the epitopes of seven murine monoclonal antibodies have been identified by cryo-EM analysis of Fab-labeled capsids. (
  • These results show that epitopes on the floor, far (~ 30 Å) from the immunodominant loop, are clinically relevant and that murine anti-cAg antibodies afford a good model for the human system. (
  • False-positive results may be due to cross-reactive antibodies from other viral infection or underlying illnesses. (
  • Initial HCV infection is most often followed by chronic hepatitis with persistence of viremia in up to 85% of individuals [ 2 ]. (
  • Anticardiolipin antibodies (ACA) and lupus anticoagulant (LA) have been detected in patients with hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection and have been associated in autoimmune diseases (i.e. systemic lupus erythematosus) with an increased risk of thromboembolic events. (
  • of these patients 37 cases tested negatively for anticardiolipin antibodies and 36 positively. (
  • In conclusion, anticardiolipin antibodies are frequently found in patients with chronic hepatitis C and in these patients they may be implicated in the occurrence of thrombosis and in the development of thrombocytopenia. (
  • The capsid (core antigen, HBcAg) is one of three major antigens present in patients infected with Hepatitis B Virus. (
  • CDC: "Hepatitis C: Information on Testing & Diagnosis. (
  • UpToDate: "Diagnosis and Evaluation of Chronic Hepatitis C Virus Infection. (
  • NB: Hep C diagnosis can be confirmed much earlier than 12 weeks by using PCR tests (which take only two weeks for an accurate test result). (
  • Prophylactic Hepatitis E Vaccines: Antigenic Analysis and Serological Evaluation. (
  • If concerened about contracting either hep a or b there are vaccines available to protect against those infections. (
  • This review summarizes recent concepts of the role of neutralizing antibodies in viral clearance and protection, and highlights consequences of viral escape from neutralizing antibodies in the pathogenesis of HCV infection. (
  • Elimination of New Chronic Hepatitis B Virus Infections: Results of the Alaska Immunization Program. (
  • little is known about the clinical significance of the isolated anti-HBc in hepatitis B virus (HBV) infections. (
  • CATIE ensures that these resources, developed to help prevent the transmission of HIV, hepatitis C and other infections, are written and reviewed by health experts for content accuracy. (
  • In order to assess the association between antibodies to hepatitis C virus (anti-HCV) and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), as well as the interaction of anti-HCV with other HCC risk factors in Taiwan, a total of 127 pairs of newly diagnosed HCC patients and healthy community controls were studied. (
  • Worldwide, hepatitis B infection is one of the main causes of hepatocellular carcinoma and cirrhosis. (
  • Over 40 million Indians are chronically infected with Hepatitis B. People can live without symptoms for years and realize later that they have an infection. (
  • However, clinical reports using the B cell-depleting antibody rituximab in chronically infected patients showed that HCV viremia rose between 10- and 100-fold after rituximab treatment and returned to baseline after reappearance of B cells (13, 14). (
  • To establish a convenient immunoassay method based on recombinant antigen preS1(21-119 aa) to detect anti-preS1 antibodies and evaluate the clinical significance of antibodies in hepatitis B. (
  • For follow-up study, serial sera were collected during the clinical course of 21 HBV-infected patients and anti-preS1 antibodies, preS1 antigen, HBV-DNA and other serological HBV markers were analyzed. (
  • Repeat HCV antibody testing, adds cost but no clinical benefit, so it should not be performed. (
  • Four of the 17 samples were regarded as true positive, since all supplementary assays and clinical data indicated active hepatitis C virus infection. (
  • These observations suggest that the male homosexual population represents a pool of individuals within which the hepatitis B virus is readily transmitted, mainly as a subclinical infection although clinical hepatitis does occur in some patients. (
  • We offer Hepatitis C Virus E2 Antibodies for use in common research applications: ELISA, Immunocytochemistry/Immunofluorescence, Western Blot. (
  • We offer Hepatitis A Surface Antigen Antibodies for use in common research applications: ELISA, Radioimmunoassay. (
  • Hepatitis C "ELISA" test. (
  • The antibody titre for an indirect ELISA is 1:700,000. (
  • 2007). "IgA anti-actin antibodies ELISA in coeliac disease: A multicentre study" (PDF). (
  • Vials are stored under appropriate frozen (-30°C) conditions until they are shipped to Division of Viral Hepatitis, National Center for HIV/AIDS, Viral Hepatitis, STD, and TB Prevention for testing. (
  • The material in this report originated in the National Center for Infectious Diseases, James M. Hughes, M.D., Director, and the Division of Viral Hepatitis, Harold S. Margolis, M.D., Director. (
  • Remarkably, we identified multiple broadly neutralizing antibody combinations that were associated with greater plasma neutralizing breadth and with HCV clearance. (
  • These special proteins are called antibodies. (
  • Hepatitis A virus is a picornavirus, and antibody is made to capsid proteins. (
  • Neutralization was achieved with plasma obtained from the same patient 2 yr after the onset of primary infection but not with plasma obtained 11 yr later, although both plasmas contained antibodies against nonstructural and structural (including envelope) HCV proteins. (
  • In structural cell biology, antibodies coupled with electron-dense gold markers are used to map the distributions of proteins in cells by "immuno-gold" EM (e.g. (
  • Screening for IgG Antinuclear Autoantibodies by HEp-2 Indirect Fluorescent Antibody Assays and the Need for Standardization. (
  • Antiphospholipid antibodies are a type of autoantibodies that have been implicated in the occurrence of thrombocytopenia and thrombotic events and have been described in autoimmune disorders and diverse viral diseases. (
  • Your antibodies never went away even after SVR, you will always be positive for antibodies, nothing you can do about it. (
  • For follow up to a low positive Hepatitis C Virus Antibody by Immunoassay result, and in lieu of the unavailable HCV RIBA, ARUP offers the two options below. (
  • A positive result usually means that you've been exposed to the hepatitis C virus. (
  • If you test positive but your doctor thinks it's unlikely that you have hepatitis C, they may have you repeat the test as well. (
  • If the test comes back positive, it means that HCV antibodies were found - proof that the virus has entered the bloodstream at some point in time. (
  • Thus, a positive antibody test doesn't always mean someone has a current infection. (
  • Hepatitis C Virus is a positive, single stranded RNA virus in the Flaviviridae family. (
  • I tested positive for hep c antibodies and retested with no infection. (
  • Most likely you will test positive for Hepatitis c antibodies. (
  • You will always test positive for antibodies. (
  • However, if the mother is a hepatitis B carrier especially if she is e-antigen positive, the baby must be vaccinated at birth", Dr. Jacob Puliyel, the study's primary author and a pediatrician at St. Stephens Hospital in Delhi, told India Science Wire . (
  • The most important predictor of being positive for hepatitis B and hepatitis C was a history of injecting drug use. (
  • Do not repeat Hepatitis C virus antibody testing in patients with a previous positive Hepatitis C virus (HCV) test. (
  • A positive HCV antibody test remains positive for life (3). (
  • A common reason for unnecessary repeat testing is the inclusion of this test in order sets (eg, hepatitis and/or opioid screening order sets), or a result of problematic follow-up of HCV positive patients in an outpatient setting. (
  • Patients who have had a remote and resolved HCV infection who are suspected to have been reinfected, should be tested using the HCV viral load test, rather than the HCV antibody test, since this latter test remains positive for life. (
  • those that change colour to yellow/orange are positive and confirm that the patient has antibodies for hepatitis C virus. (
  • The hepatitis C virus (HCV) is a small (55-65 nm in size), enveloped, positive-sense single-stranded RNA virus of the family Flaviviridae. (
  • If your results on the hepatitis C antibody test are positive or you have symptoms that suggest HCV, your healthcare provider may order a hepatitis C RNA test. (
  • Radioimmunnoassay was used to determine the serologic subspecificities of 85 blood donor serums positive for hepatitis B virus-associated antigen. (
  • This test is also available as part of the Hepatitis B Infection and Immunity Package . (
  • Indian Council of Medical Research (ICMR), was conducted to examine if the birth dose is crucial for attaining full immunity against hepatitis B infection. (
  • We now have two studies, one from South India and this one from North India showing that many babies have acquired passive immunity that may be protecting them soon after birth when they are most vulnerable to develop chronic hepatitis. (
  • Standardization among the HEp-2 IFA assays occurred when they exhibited the same titer ± 1 doubling dilution. (
  • Along with subjectivity of interpretation, HEp-2 IFA assays are also vulnerable to standardization issues similar to other methods for ANA screening. (
  • It is suggested that further work is necessary to determine whether the high antibody rate in male homosexuals is related more to sexual practice than to promiscuity. (
  • National Center for Biotechnology Information: "FibroSURE and FibroScan in relation to treatment response in chronic hepatitis C virus. (
  • New immunization strategies have been developed to eliminate the spread of hepatitis B virus (HBV) and hepatitis A virus (HAV) in the United States. (
  • A Cross-Sectional Study of Anti-Hepatitis B Antibody Status in STD Patients: Need for Improved Immunization. (
  • Evaluates the effectiveness of a hepatitis B immunization program in eliminating hepatitis B virus (HBV) transmission among Alaska Natives in a region in which HBV is endemic. (
  • In this study, we successfully generated four rat anti-OCLN monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) by the genetic immunization method and unique cell differential screening. (
  • To assess possible factors associated with the loss of antibodies to hepatitis A 7 years after the primary immunization in children of HIV-infected mothers and the response to revaccination in patients seronegative for hepatitis A. (
  • Hep c does have different "strains" called genotypes with names like 1a, 1b, 2a, 2b etc I think there are like 16 different genotypes in all. (
  • Hep c has many different genotypes but they are all called Hepatitis c. (
  • Here, we investigate cross-neutralization of HCV genotypes by broadly neutralizing antibodies (bNAbs) encoded by the relatively abundant human gene family V H 1-69 . (