Hepatitis B: INFLAMMATION of the LIVER in humans caused by a member of the ORTHOHEPADNAVIRUS genus, HEPATITIS B VIRUS. It is primarily transmitted by parenteral exposure, such as transfusion of contaminated blood or blood products, but can also be transmitted via sexual or intimate personal contact.Hepatitis C: INFLAMMATION of the LIVER in humans caused by HEPATITIS C VIRUS, a single-stranded RNA virus. Its incubation period is 30-90 days. Hepatitis C is transmitted primarily by contaminated blood parenterally, and is often associated with transfusion and intravenous drug abuse. However, in a significant number of cases, the source of hepatitis C infection is unknown.Hepatitis A: INFLAMMATION of the LIVER in humans caused by a member of the HEPATOVIRUS genus, HUMAN HEPATITIS A VIRUS. It can be transmitted through fecal contamination of food or water.Hepatitis B virus: The type species of the genus ORTHOHEPADNAVIRUS which causes human HEPATITIS B and is also apparently a causal agent in human HEPATOCELLULAR CARCINOMA. The Dane particle is an intact hepatitis virion, named after its discoverer. Non-infectious spherical and tubular particles are also seen in the serum.Hepatitis B Surface Antigens: Those hepatitis B antigens found on the surface of the Dane particle and on the 20 nm spherical and tubular particles. Several subspecificities of the surface antigen are known. These were formerly called the Australia antigen.Hepatitis: INFLAMMATION of the LIVER.Hepatitis C, Chronic: INFLAMMATION of the LIVER in humans that is caused by HEPATITIS C VIRUS lasting six months or more. Chronic hepatitis C can lead to LIVER CIRRHOSIS.Hepatitis B, Chronic: INFLAMMATION of the LIVER in humans caused by HEPATITIS B VIRUS lasting six months or more. It is primarily transmitted by parenteral exposure, such as transfusion of contaminated blood or blood products, but can also be transmitted via sexual or intimate personal contact.Hepatitis, Viral, Human: INFLAMMATION of the LIVER in humans due to infection by VIRUSES. There are several significant types of human viral hepatitis with infection caused by enteric-transmission (HEPATITIS A; HEPATITIS E) or blood transfusion (HEPATITIS B; HEPATITIS C; and HEPATITIS D).Hepatitis A virus: A species in the genus HEPATOVIRUS containing one serotype and two strains: HUMAN HEPATITIS A VIRUS and Simian hepatitis A virus causing hepatitis in humans (HEPATITIS A) and primates, respectively.Hepatitis B Vaccines: Vaccines or candidate vaccines containing inactivated hepatitis B or some of its component antigens and designed to prevent hepatitis B. Some vaccines may be recombinantly produced.Hepatitis B Antibodies: Antibodies to the HEPATITIS B ANTIGENS, including antibodies to the surface (Australia) and core of the Dane particle and those to the "e" antigens.Hepatitis, Chronic: INFLAMMATION of the LIVER with ongoing hepatocellular injury for 6 months or more, characterized by NECROSIS of HEPATOCYTES and inflammatory cell (LEUKOCYTES) infiltration. Chronic hepatitis can be caused by viruses, medications, autoimmune diseases, and other unknown factors.Hepatitis B Core Antigens: The hepatitis B antigen within the core of the Dane particle, the infectious hepatitis virion.Hepatitis A Vaccines: Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent infection with hepatitis A virus (HEPATOVIRUS).Hepatitis Antibodies: Immunoglobulins raised by any form of viral hepatitis; some of these antibodies are used to diagnose the specific kind of hepatitis.Hepacivirus: A genus of FLAVIVIRIDAE causing parenterally-transmitted HEPATITIS C which is associated with transfusions and drug abuse. Hepatitis C virus is the type species.Hepatitis B e Antigens: A closely related group of antigens found in the plasma only during the infective phase of hepatitis B or in virulent chronic hepatitis B, probably indicating active virus replication; there are three subtypes which may exist in a complex with immunoglobulins G.Hepatitis B Antigens: Antigens of the virion of the HEPATITIS B VIRUS or the Dane particle, its surface (HEPATITIS B SURFACE ANTIGENS), core (HEPATITIS B CORE ANTIGENS), and other associated antigens, including the HEPATITIS B E ANTIGENS.Hepatitis E: Acute INFLAMMATION of the LIVER in humans; caused by HEPATITIS E VIRUS, a non-enveloped single-stranded RNA virus. Similar to HEPATITIS A, its incubation period is 15-60 days and is enterically transmitted, usually by fecal-oral transmission.Hepatitis C Antibodies: Antibodies to the HEPATITIS C ANTIGENS including antibodies to envelope, core, and non-structural proteins.Hepatitis E virus: A positive-stranded RNA virus species in the genus HEPEVIRUS, causing enterically-transmitted non-A, non-B hepatitis (HEPATITIS E).Hepatitis A Antibodies: Antibodies to the HEPATITIS A ANTIGENS including antibodies to envelope, core, and non-structural proteins.Hepatitis, Viral, Animal: INFLAMMATION of the LIVER in animals due to viral infection.Hepatitis, Autoimmune: A chronic self-perpetuating hepatocellular INFLAMMATION of unknown cause, usually with HYPERGAMMAGLOBULINEMIA and serum AUTOANTIBODIES.Hepatitis A Virus, Human: A strain of HEPATITIS A VIRUS which causes hepatitis in humans. The virus replicates in hepatocytes and is presumed to reach the intestine via the bile duct. Transmission occurs by the fecal-oral route.Hepatitis Viruses: Any of the viruses that cause inflammation of the liver. They include both DNA and RNA viruses as well viruses from humans and animals.Hepatitis Delta Virus: A defective virus, containing particles of RNA nucleoprotein in virion-like form, present in patients with acute hepatitis B and chronic hepatitis. It requires the presence of a hepadnavirus for full replication. This is the lone species in the genus Deltavirus.Hepatitis D: INFLAMMATION of the LIVER in humans caused by HEPATITIS DELTA VIRUS, a defective RNA virus that can only infect HEPATITIS B patients. For its viral coating, hepatitis delta virus requires the HEPATITIS B SURFACE ANTIGENS produced by these patients. Hepatitis D can occur either concomitantly with (coinfection) or subsequent to (superinfection) hepatitis B infection. Similar to hepatitis B, it is primarily transmitted by parenteral exposure, such as transfusion of contaminated blood or blood products, but can also be transmitted via sexual or intimate personal contact.Hepatitis, Animal: INFLAMMATION of the LIVER in non-human animals.Viral Hepatitis Vaccines: Any vaccine raised against any virus or viral derivative that causes hepatitis.Antiviral Agents: Agents used in the prophylaxis or therapy of VIRUS DISEASES. Some of the ways they may act include preventing viral replication by inhibiting viral DNA polymerase; binding to specific cell-surface receptors and inhibiting viral penetration or uncoating; inhibiting viral protein synthesis; or blocking late stages of virus assembly.Murine hepatitis virus: A species of the CORONAVIRUS genus causing hepatitis in mice. Four strains have been identified as MHV 1, MHV 2, MHV 3, and MHV 4 (also known as MHV-JHM, which is neurotropic and causes disseminated encephalomyelitis with demyelination as well as focal liver necrosis).Hepatitis C Antigens: Antigens of the virions of HEPACIVIRUS, their surface, core, or other associated antigens.Hepatovirus: A genus of PICORNAVIRIDAE causing infectious hepatitis naturally in humans and experimentally in other primates. It is transmitted through fecal contamination of food or water. HEPATITIS A VIRUS is the type species.RNA, Viral: Ribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.Liver Cirrhosis: Liver disease in which the normal microcirculation, the gross vascular anatomy, and the hepatic architecture have been variably destroyed and altered with fibrous septa surrounding regenerated or regenerating parenchymal nodules.Interferon-alpha: One of the type I interferons produced by peripheral blood leukocytes or lymphoblastoid cells. In addition to antiviral activity, it activates NATURAL KILLER CELLS and B-LYMPHOCYTES, and down-regulates VASCULAR ENDOTHELIAL GROWTH FACTOR expression through PI-3 KINASE and MAPK KINASES signaling pathways.Hepatitis A Antigens: Antigens produced by various strains of HEPATITIS A VIRUS such as the human hepatitis A virus (HEPATITIS A VIRUS, HUMAN).Hepatitis delta Antigens: Antigens produced by various strains of HEPATITIS D VIRUS.Hepatitis Antigens: Antigens from any of the hepatitis viruses including surface, core, and other associated antigens.Hepatitis, Alcoholic: INFLAMMATION of the LIVER due to ALCOHOL ABUSE. It is characterized by NECROSIS of HEPATOCYTES, infiltration by NEUTROPHILS, and deposit of MALLORY BODIES. Depending on its severity, the inflammatory lesion may be reversible or progress to LIVER CIRRHOSIS.Ribavirin: A nucleoside antimetabolite antiviral agent that blocks nucleic acid synthesis and is used against both RNA and DNA viruses.Hepatitis B Virus, Duck: A DNA virus that closely resembles human hepatitis B virus. It has been recovered from naturally infected ducks.Alanine Transaminase: An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of L-alanine and 2-oxoglutarate to pyruvate and L-glutamate. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 18.104.22.168.DNA, Viral: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.Viral Nonstructural Proteins: Proteins encoded by a VIRAL GENOME that are produced in the organisms they infect, but not packaged into the VIRUS PARTICLES. Some of these proteins may play roles within the infected cell during VIRUS REPLICATION or act in regulation of virus replication or VIRUS ASSEMBLY.Liver: A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.Carcinoma, Hepatocellular: A primary malignant neoplasm of epithelial liver cells. It ranges from a well-differentiated tumor with EPITHELIAL CELLS indistinguishable from normal HEPATOCYTES to a poorly differentiated neoplasm. The cells may be uniform or markedly pleomorphic, or form GIANT CELLS. Several classification schemes have been suggested.Hepatitis B Virus, Woodchuck: An ORTHOHEPADNAVIRUS causing chronic liver disease and hepatocellular carcinoma in woodchucks. It closely resembles the human hepatitis B virus.Liver Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the LIVER.Lamivudine: A reverse transcriptase inhibitor and ZALCITABINE analog in which a sulfur atom replaces the 3' carbon of the pentose ring. It is used to treat HIV disease.Virus Replication: The process of intracellular viral multiplication, consisting of the synthesis of PROTEINS; NUCLEIC ACIDS; and sometimes LIPIDS, and their assembly into a new infectious particle.Polyethylene Glycols: Polymers of ETHYLENE OXIDE and water, and their ethers. They vary in consistency from liquid to solid depending on the molecular weight indicated by a number following the name. They are used as SURFACTANTS, dispersing agents, solvents, ointment and suppository bases, vehicles, and tablet excipients. Some specific groups are NONOXYNOLS, OCTOXYNOLS, and POLOXAMERS.Viral Core Proteins: Proteins found mainly in icosahedral DNA and RNA viruses. They consist of proteins directly associated with the nucleic acid inside the NUCLEOCAPSID.Genotype: The genetic constitution of the individual, comprising the ALLELES present at each GENETIC LOCUS.Hepatitis D, Chronic: INFLAMMATION of the LIVER in humans caused by HEPATITIS DELTA VIRUS in conjunction with HEPATITIS B VIRUS and lasting six months or more.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Marmota: A genus of Sciuridae consisting of 14 species. They are shortlegged, burrowing rodents which hibernate in winter.Seroepidemiologic Studies: EPIDEMIOLOGIC STUDIES based on the detection through serological testing of characteristic change in the serum level of specific ANTIBODIES. Latent subclinical infections and carrier states can thus be detected in addition to clinically overt cases.Liver Transplantation: The transference of a part of or an entire liver from one human or animal to another.Viral Load: The quantity of measurable virus in a body fluid. Change in viral load, measured in plasma, is sometimes used as a SURROGATE MARKER in disease progression.Carrier State: The condition of harboring an infective organism without manifesting symptoms of infection. The organism must be readily transmissible to another susceptible host.Genome, Viral: The complete genetic complement contained in a DNA or RNA molecule in a virus.Hepatocytes: The main structural component of the LIVER. They are specialized EPITHELIAL CELLS that are organized into interconnected plates called lobules.Flaviviridae: A family of RNA viruses, many of which cause disease in humans and domestic animals. There are three genera FLAVIVIRUS; PESTIVIRUS; and HEPACIVIRUS, as well as several unassigned species.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Blood DonorsLiver Function Tests: Blood tests that are used to evaluate how well a patient's liver is working and also to help diagnose liver conditions.Liver Diseases: Pathological processes of the LIVER.Recombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.Prevalence: The total number of cases of a given disease in a specified population at a designated time. It is differentiated from INCIDENCE, which refers to the number of new cases in the population at a given time.Pan troglodytes: The common chimpanzee, a species of the genus Pan, family HOMINIDAE. It lives in Africa, primarily in the tropical rainforests. There are a number of recognized subspecies.Acute Disease: Disease having a short and relatively severe course.Drug Therapy, Combination: Therapy with two or more separate preparations given for a combined effect.Jaundice: A clinical manifestation of HYPERBILIRUBINEMIA, characterized by the yellowish staining of the SKIN; MUCOUS MEMBRANE; and SCLERA. Clinical jaundice usually is a sign of LIVER dysfunction.Substance Abuse, Intravenous: Abuse, overuse, or misuse of a substance by its injection into a vein.Aspartate Aminotransferases: Enzymes of the transferase class that catalyze the conversion of L-aspartate and 2-ketoglutarate to oxaloacetate and L-glutamate. EC 22.214.171.124.Drug-Induced Liver Injury: A spectrum of clinical liver diseases ranging from mild biochemical abnormalities to ACUTE LIVER FAILURE, caused by drugs, drug metabolites, and chemicals from the environment.Polymerase Chain Reaction: In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.Replicon: Any DNA sequence capable of independent replication or a molecule that possesses a REPLICATION ORIGIN and which is therefore potentially capable of being replicated in a suitable cell. (Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)Viral Envelope Proteins: Layers of protein which surround the capsid in animal viruses with tubular nucleocapsids. The envelope consists of an inner layer of lipids and virus specified proteins also called membrane or matrix proteins. The outer layer consists of one or more types of morphological subunits called peplomers which project from the viral envelope; this layer always consists of glycoproteins.DucksInterferons: Proteins secreted by vertebrate cells in response to a wide variety of inducers. They confer resistance against many different viruses, inhibit proliferation of normal and malignant cells, impede multiplication of intracellular parasites, enhance macrophage and granulocyte phagocytosis, augment natural killer cell activity, and show several other immunomodulatory functions.Cryoglobulinemia: A condition characterized by the presence of abnormal quantities of CRYOGLOBULINS in the blood. Upon cold exposure, these abnormal proteins precipitate into the microvasculature leading to restricted blood flow in the exposed areas.Risk Factors: An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.Chronic Disease: Diseases which have one or more of the following characteristics: they are permanent, leave residual disability, are caused by nonreversible pathological alteration, require special training of the patient for rehabilitation, or may be expected to require a long period of supervision, observation, or care. (Dictionary of Health Services Management, 2d ed)Organophosphonates: Carbon-containing phosphonic acid compounds. Included under this heading are compounds that have carbon bound to either OXYGEN atom or the PHOSPHOROUS atom of the (P=O)O2 structure.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.HIV Infections: Includes the spectrum of human immunodeficiency virus infections that range from asymptomatic seropositivity, thru AIDS-related complex (ARC), to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS).Liver Failure: Severe inability of the LIVER to perform its normal metabolic functions, as evidenced by severe JAUNDICE and abnormal serum levels of AMMONIA; BILIRUBIN; ALKALINE PHOSPHATASE; ASPARTATE AMINOTRANSFERASE; LACTATE DEHYDROGENASES; and albumin/globulin ratio. (Blakiston's Gould Medical Dictionary, 4th ed)Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Treatment Outcome: Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.Drug Resistance, Viral: The ability of viruses to resist or to become tolerant to chemotherapeutic agents or antiviral agents. This resistance is acquired through gene mutation.Biopsy: Removal and pathologic examination of specimens in the form of small pieces of tissue from the living body.Coinfection: Simultaneous infection of a host organism by two or more pathogens. In virology, coinfection commonly refers to simultaneous infection of a single cell by two or more different viruses.Antigens, CD81: Tetraspanin proteins that are involved in a variety of cellular functions including BASEMENT MEMBRANE assembly, and in the formation of a molecular complexes on the surface of LYMPHOCYTES.Antibodies, Viral: Immunoglobulins produced in response to VIRAL ANTIGENS.Vaccination: Administration of vaccines to stimulate the host's immune response. This includes any preparation intended for active immunological prophylaxis.Hepadnaviridae: A family of hepatotropic DNA viruses which contains double-stranded DNA genomes and causes hepatitis in humans and animals. There are two genera: AVIHEPADNAVIRUS and ORTHOHEPADNAVIRUS. Hepadnaviruses include HEPATITIS B VIRUS, duck hepatitis B virus (HEPATITIS B VIRUS, DUCK), heron hepatitis B virus, ground squirrel hepatitis virus, and woodchuck hepatitis B virus (HEPATITIS B VIRUS, WOODCHUCK).Viremia: The presence of viruses in the blood.Blood Transfusion: The introduction of whole blood or blood component directly into the blood stream. (Dorland, 27th ed)Retrospective Studies: Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.Hepatitis Virus, Duck: Unassigned species, in the family PICORNAVIRIDAE, causing high mortality in ducklings 3 days to 3 weeks old.Egypt: A country in northern Africa, bordering the Mediterranean Sea, between Libya and the Gaza Strip, and the Red Sea north of Sudan, and includes the Asian Sinai Peninsula Its capital is Cairo.Adenine: A purine base and a fundamental unit of ADENINE NUCLEOTIDES.Phylogeny: The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.Recurrence: The return of a sign, symptom, or disease after a remission.Hepadnaviridae Infections: Virus diseases caused by the HEPADNAVIRIDAE.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay: An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed.Tattooing: The indelible marking of TISSUES, primarily SKIN, by pricking it with NEEDLES to imbed various COLORING AGENTS. Tattooing of the CORNEA is done to colorize LEUKOMA spots.Viral Proteins: Proteins found in any species of virus.Liver Failure, Acute: A form of rapid-onset LIVER FAILURE, also known as fulminant hepatic failure, caused by severe liver injury or massive loss of HEPATOCYTES. It is characterized by sudden development of liver dysfunction and JAUNDICE. Acute liver failure may progress to exhibit cerebral dysfunction even HEPATIC COMA depending on the etiology that includes hepatic ISCHEMIA, drug toxicity, malignant infiltration, and viral hepatitis such as post-transfusion HEPATITIS B and HEPATITIS C.Gene Expression Regulation, Viral: Any of the processes by which cytoplasmic factors influence the differential control of gene action in viruses.China: A country spanning from central Asia to the Pacific Ocean.Hepatitis, Infectious Canine: A contagious disease caused by canine adenovirus (ADENOVIRUSES, CANINE) infecting the LIVER, the EYE, the KIDNEY, and other organs in dogs, other canids, and bears. Symptoms include FEVER; EDEMA; VOMITING; and DIARRHEA.Pregnancy Complications, Infectious: The co-occurrence of pregnancy and an INFECTION. The infection may precede or follow FERTILIZATION.Serologic Tests: Diagnostic procedures involving immunoglobulin reactions.Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitors: Inhibitors of reverse transcriptase (RNA-DIRECTED DNA POLYMERASE), an enzyme that synthesizes DNA on an RNA template.Sequence Analysis, DNA: A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.Virion: The infective system of a virus, composed of the viral genome, a protein core, and a protein coat called a capsid, which may be naked or enclosed in a lipoprotein envelope called the peplos.Antigens, Viral: Substances elaborated by viruses that have antigenic activity.GB virus C: A species of virus (unassigned to a genus) in the family FLAVIVIRIDAE. It is genetically heterogeneous, of human origin, and transmitted by blood or blood products. Despite its alternate name (Hepatitis G virus), its pathogenicity remains controversial.5' Untranslated Regions: The sequence at the 5' end of the messenger RNA that does not code for product. This sequence contains the ribosome binding site and other transcription and translation regulating sequences.Flaviviridae Infections: Infections with viruses of the family FLAVIVIRIDAE.Genes, Viral: The functional hereditary units of VIRUSES.Infectious Disease Transmission, Vertical: The transmission of infectious disease or pathogens from one generation to another. It includes transmission in utero or intrapartum by exposure to blood and secretions, and postpartum exposure via breastfeeding.Immunoglobulin M: A class of immunoglobulin bearing mu chains (IMMUNOGLOBULIN MU-CHAINS). IgM can fix COMPLEMENT. The name comes from its high molecular weight and originally being called a macroglobulin.Bilirubin: A bile pigment that is a degradation product of HEME.Prospective Studies: Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.Transaminases: A subclass of enzymes of the transferase class that catalyze the transfer of an amino group from a donor (generally an amino acid) to an acceptor (generally a 2-keto acid). Most of these enzymes are pyridoxyl phosphate proteins. (Dorland, 28th ed) EC 2.6.1.Blood-Borne Pathogens: Infectious organisms in the BLOOD, of which the predominant medical interest is their contamination of blood-soiled linens, towels, gowns, BANDAGES, other items from individuals in risk categories, NEEDLES and other sharp objects, MEDICAL WASTE and DENTAL WASTE, all of which health workers are exposed to. This concept is differentiated from the clinical conditions of BACTEREMIA; VIREMIA; and FUNGEMIA where the organism is present in the blood of a patient as the result of a natural infectious process.Saguinus: A genus in the subfamily CALLITRICHINAE consisting of 12 species and found in Panama as well as South America. Species seen most frequently in the literature are S. oedipus (cotton-top marmoset), S. nigricollis, and S. fusicollis.Biological Markers: Measurable and quantifiable biological parameters (e.g., specific enzyme concentration, specific hormone concentration, specific gene phenotype distribution in a population, presence of biological substances) which serve as indices for health- and physiology-related assessments, such as disease risk, psychiatric disorders, environmental exposure and its effects, disease diagnosis, metabolic processes, substance abuse, pregnancy, cell line development, epidemiologic studies, etc.Disease Progression: The worsening of a disease over time. This concept is most often used for chronic and incurable diseases where the stage of the disease is an important determinant of therapy and prognosis.Immunization Schedule: Schedule giving optimum times usually for primary and/or secondary immunization.Incidence: The number of new cases of a given disease during a given period in a specified population. It also is used for the rate at which new events occur in a defined population. It is differentiated from PREVALENCE, which refers to all cases, new or old, in the population at a given time.Coronavirus Infections: Virus diseases caused by the CORONAVIRUS genus. Some specifics include transmissible enteritis of turkeys (ENTERITIS, TRANSMISSIBLE, OF TURKEYS); FELINE INFECTIOUS PERITONITIS; and transmissible gastroenteritis of swine (GASTROENTERITIS, TRANSMISSIBLE, OF SWINE).Cohort Studies: Studies in which subsets of a defined population are identified. These groups may or may not be exposed to factors hypothesized to influence the probability of the occurrence of a particular disease or other outcome. Cohorts are defined populations which, as a whole, are followed in an attempt to determine distinguishing subgroup characteristics.BrazilCase-Control Studies: Studies which start with the identification of persons with a disease of interest and a control (comparison, referent) group without the disease. The relationship of an attribute to the disease is examined by comparing diseased and non-diseased persons with regard to the frequency or levels of the attribute in each group.Sensitivity and Specificity: Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Epitopes: Sites on an antigen that interact with specific antibodies.Immunoglobulin G: The major immunoglobulin isotype class in normal human serum. There are several isotype subclasses of IgG, for example, IgG1, IgG2A, and IgG2B.Disease Outbreaks: Sudden increase in the incidence of a disease. The concept includes EPIDEMICS and PANDEMICS.Sciuridae: A family of the order Rodentia which contains 49 genera. Some of the more common genera are MARMOTA, which includes the marmot and woodchuck; Sciurus, the gray squirrel, S. carolinensis, and the fox squirrel, S. niger; Tamias, the eastern and western chipmunk; and Tamiasciurus, the red squirrel. The flying squirrels, except the scaly-tailed Anomaluridae, also belong to this family.Transfection: The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.Follow-Up Studies: Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.DNA Primers: Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.RNA Replicase: An enzyme that catalyses RNA-template-directed extension of the 3'- end of an RNA strand by one nucleotide at a time, and can initiate a chain de novo. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992, p293)Immunization Programs: Organized services to administer immunization procedures in the prevention of various diseases. The programs are made available over a wide range of sites: schools, hospitals, public health agencies, voluntary health agencies, etc. They are administered to an equally wide range of population groups or on various administrative levels: community, municipal, state, national, international.Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction: A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.Hepatic Encephalopathy: A syndrome characterized by central nervous system dysfunction in association with LIVER FAILURE, including portal-systemic shunts. Clinical features include lethargy and CONFUSION (frequently progressing to COMA); ASTERIXIS; NYSTAGMUS, PATHOLOGIC; brisk oculovestibular reflexes; decorticate and decerebrate posturing; MUSCLE SPASTICITY; and bilateral extensor plantar reflexes (see REFLEX, BABINSKI). ELECTROENCEPHALOGRAPHY may demonstrate triphasic waves. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp1117-20; Plum & Posner, Diagnosis of Stupor and Coma, 3rd ed, p222-5)Genetic Variation: Genotypic differences observed among individuals in a population.Sexually Transmitted Diseases, Viral: Viral diseases which are transmitted or propagated by sexual conduct.Virus Internalization: The entering of cells by viruses following VIRUS ATTACHMENT. This is achieved by ENDOCYTOSIS, by direct MEMBRANE FUSION of the viral membrane with the CELL MEMBRANE, or by translocation of the whole virus across the cell membrane.Gene Products, pol: Retroviral proteins coded by the pol gene. They are usually synthesized as a protein precursor (POLYPROTEINS) and later cleaved into final products that include reverse transcriptase, endonuclease/integrase, and viral protease. Sometimes they are synthesized as a gag-pol fusion protein (FUSION PROTEINS, GAG-POL). pol is short for polymerase, the enzyme class of reverse transcriptase.Orthohepadnavirus: A genus of HEPADNAVIRIDAE causing hepatitis in humans, woodchucks (HEPATITIS B VIRUS, WOODCHUCK) and ground squirrels. hepatitis b virus is the type species.DNA Virus InfectionsPakistanLiver Cirrhosis, Biliary: FIBROSIS of the hepatic parenchyma due to obstruction of BILE flow (CHOLESTASIS) in the intrahepatic or extrahepatic bile ducts (BILE DUCTS, INTRAHEPATIC; BILE DUCTS, EXTRAHEPATIC). Primary biliary cirrhosis involves the destruction of small intra-hepatic bile ducts and bile secretion. Secondary biliary cirrhosis is produced by prolonged obstruction of large intrahepatic or extrahepatic bile ducts from a variety of causes.Trans-Activators: Diffusible gene products that act on homologous or heterologous molecules of viral or cellular DNA to regulate the expression of proteins.Liver Cirrhosis, Alcoholic: FIBROSIS of the hepatic parenchyma due to chronic excess ALCOHOL DRINKING.Protein PrecursorsHemophilia A: The classic hemophilia resulting from a deficiency of factor VIII. It is an inherited disorder of blood coagulation characterized by a permanent tendency to hemorrhage.Prisons: Penal institutions, or places of confinement for war prisoners.Immunoenzyme Techniques: Immunologic techniques based on the use of: (1) enzyme-antibody conjugates; (2) enzyme-antigen conjugates; (3) antienzyme antibody followed by its homologous enzyme; or (4) enzyme-antienzyme complexes. These are used histologically for visualizing or labeling tissue specimens.Virus Activation: The mechanism by which latent viruses, such as genetically transmitted tumor viruses (PROVIRUSES) or PROPHAGES of lysogenic bacteria, are induced to replicate and then released as infectious viruses. It may be effected by various endogenous and exogenous stimuli, including B-cell LIPOPOLYSACCHARIDES, glucocorticoid hormones, halogenated pyrimidines, IONIZING RADIATION, ultraviolet light, and superinfecting viruses.Virus Assembly: The assembly of VIRAL STRUCTURAL PROTEINS and nucleic acid (VIRAL DNA or VIRAL RNA) to form a VIRUS PARTICLE.Virology: The study of the structure, growth, function, genetics, and reproduction of viruses, and VIRUS DISEASES.Immunoglobulins: Multi-subunit proteins which function in IMMUNITY. They are produced by B LYMPHOCYTES from the IMMUNOGLOBULIN GENES. They are comprised of two heavy (IMMUNOGLOBULIN HEAVY CHAINS) and two light chains (IMMUNOGLOBULIN LIGHT CHAINS) with additional ancillary polypeptide chains depending on their isoforms. The variety of isoforms include monomeric or polymeric forms, and transmembrane forms (B-CELL ANTIGEN RECEPTORS) or secreted forms (ANTIBODIES). They are divided by the amino acid sequence of their heavy chains into five classes (IMMUNOGLOBULIN A; IMMUNOGLOBULIN D; IMMUNOGLOBULIN E; IMMUNOGLOBULIN G; IMMUNOGLOBULIN M) and various subclasses.Cross-Sectional Studies: Studies in which the presence or absence of disease or other health-related variables are determined in each member of the study population or in a representative sample at one particular time. This contrasts with LONGITUDINAL STUDIES which are followed over a period of time.Severity of Illness Index: Levels within a diagnostic group which are established by various measurement criteria applied to the seriousness of a patient's disorder.PrisonersRadioimmunoassay: Classic quantitative assay for detection of antigen-antibody reactions using a radioactively labeled substance (radioligand) either directly or indirectly to measure the binding of the unlabeled substance to a specific antibody or other receptor system. Non-immunogenic substances (e.g., haptens) can be measured if coupled to larger carrier proteins (e.g., bovine gamma-globulin or human serum albumin) capable of inducing antibody formation.Fatty Liver: Lipid infiltration of the hepatic parenchymal cells resulting in a yellow-colored liver. The abnormal lipid accumulation is usually in the form of TRIGLYCERIDES, either as a single large droplet or multiple small droplets. Fatty liver is caused by an imbalance in the metabolism of FATTY ACIDS.Tupaia: A genus of tree shrews of the family TUPAIIDAE which consists of about 12 species. One of the most frequently encountered species is T. glis. Members of this genus inhabit rain forests and secondary growth areas in southeast Asia.Nucleosides: Purine or pyrimidine bases attached to a ribose or deoxyribose. (From King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Vaccines, Synthetic: Small synthetic peptides that mimic surface antigens of pathogens and are immunogenic, or vaccines manufactured with the aid of recombinant DNA techniques. The latter vaccines may also be whole viruses whose nucleic acids have been modified.TaiwanInfant, Newborn: An infant during the first month after birth.Nucleocapsid: A protein-nucleic acid complex which forms part or all of a virion. It consists of a CAPSID plus enclosed nucleic acid. Depending on the virus, the nucleocapsid may correspond to a naked core or be surrounded by a membranous envelope.Cell Line, Tumor: A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.GuanineTorque teno virus: A species of non-enveloped DNA virus in the genus ANELLOVIRUS, associated with BLOOD TRANSFUSIONS; and HEPATITIS. However, no etiological role has been found for TTV in hepatitis.Renal Dialysis: Therapy for the insufficient cleansing of the BLOOD by the kidneys based on dialysis and including hemodialysis, PERITONEAL DIALYSIS, and HEMODIAFILTRATION.Plasmids: Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.Viral Structural Proteins: Viral proteins that are components of the mature assembled VIRUS PARTICLES. They may include nucleocapsid core proteins (gag proteins), enzymes packaged within the virus particle (pol proteins), and membrane components (env proteins). These do not include the proteins encoded in the VIRAL GENOME that are produced in infected cells but which are not packaged in the mature virus particle,i.e. the so called non-structural proteins (VIRAL NONSTRUCTURAL PROTEINS).Disease Transmission, Infectious: The transmission of infectious disease or pathogens. When transmission is within the same species, the mode can be horizontal or vertical (INFECTIOUS DISEASE TRANSMISSION, VERTICAL).Hemodialysis Units, Hospital: Hospital units in which care is provided the hemodialysis patient. This includes hemodialysis centers in hospitals.United StatesHep G2 Cells: A human liver tumor cell line used to study a variety of liver-specific metabolic functions.Infectious Disease Transmission, Professional-to-Patient: The transmission of infectious disease or pathogens from health professional or health care worker to patients. It includes transmission via direct or indirect exposure to bacterial, fungal, parasitic, or viral agents.Interleukins: Soluble factors which stimulate growth-related activities of leukocytes as well as other cell types. They enhance cell proliferation and differentiation, DNA synthesis, secretion of other biologically active molecules and responses to immune and inflammatory stimuli.Reagent Kits, Diagnostic: Commercially prepared reagent sets, with accessory devices, containing all of the major components and literature necessary to perform one or more designated diagnostic tests or procedures. They may be for laboratory or personal use.alpha-Fetoproteins: The first alpha-globulins to appear in mammalian sera during FETAL DEVELOPMENT and the dominant serum proteins in early embryonic life.Polyproteins: Proteins which are synthesized as a single polymer and then cleaved into several distinct proteins.Autoantibodies: Antibodies that react with self-antigens (AUTOANTIGENS) of the organism that produced them.Age Factors: Age as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or the effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from AGING, a physiological process, and TIME FACTORS which refers only to the passage of time.
A multistate, foodborne outbreak of hepatitis A. National Hepatitis A Investigation Team. (1/837)BACKGROUND: We investigated a large, foodborne outbreak of hepatitis A that occurred in February and March 1997 in Michigan and then extended the investigation to determine whether it was related to sporadic cases reported in other states among persons who had consumed frozen strawberries, the food suspected of causing the outbreak. METHODS: The cases of hepatitis A were serologically confirmed. Epidemiologic studies were conducted in the two states with sufficient numbers of cases, Michigan and Maine. Hepatitis A virus RNA detected in clinical specimens was sequenced to determine the relatedness of the virus from outbreak-related cases and other cases. RESULTS: A total of 213 cases of hepatitis A were reported from 23 schools in Michigan and 29 cases from 13 schools in Maine, with the median rate of attack ranging from 0.2 to 14 percent. Hepatitis A was associated with the consumption of frozen strawberries in a case-control study (odds ratio for the disease, 8.3; 95 percent confidence interval, 2.1 to 33) and a cohort study (relative risk of infection, 7.5; 95 percent confidence interval, 1.1 to 53) in Michigan and in a case-control study in Maine (odds ratio for infection, 3.4; 95 percent confidence interval, 1.0 to 14). The genetic sequences of viruses from 126 patients in Michigan and Maine were identical to one another and to those from 5 patients in Wisconsin and 7 patients in Arizona, all of whom attended schools where frozen strawberries from the same processor had been served, and to those in 2 patients from Louisiana, both of whom had consumed commercially prepared products containing frozen strawberries from the same processor. CONCLUSIONS: We describe a large outbreak of hepatitis A in Michigan that was associated with the consumption of frozen strawberries. We found apparently sporadic cases in other states that could be linked to the same source by viral genetic analysis. (+info)
Changing epidemiology of hepatitis A in the 1990s in Sydney, Australia. (2/837)Surveillance of hepatitis A in residents of Eastern Sydney Health Area identified substantial epidemics in homosexual males in 1991-2 with a peak rate of 520 per 100,000 recorded in males aged 25-29 years, and again in 1995-6, with a peak rate of 405 per 100,000 per year in males aged 30-34 years. During 1994-5 an epidemic was detected among disadvantaged youth associated with injecting drug use; peak rates of 200 per 100,000 per year were reported in males aged 25-29 years and of 64 per 100,000 per year among females aged 20-24 years. The epidemiology of hepatitis A in these inner suburbs of Sydney is characterized by very few childhood cases and recurrent epidemics among homosexual men. Identified risk groups need to be targeted with appropriate messages regarding the importance of hygiene and vaccination in preventing hepatitis A. However, poor access to health services among disadvantaged youth and a constant influx of young homosexual males into these inner suburbs present major challenges to hepatitis A control. (+info)
Prevalence of enteric hepatitis A and E viruses in the Mekong River delta region of Vietnam. (3/837)A study of antibody prevalence for hepatitis A virus (HAV) and hepatitis E virus (HEV) was carried out in southwestern Vietnam in an area adjacent to a known focus of epidemic HEV transmission. The purpose of this investigation was first to provide a prevalence measure of hepatitis infections, and second to determine the outbreak potential of HEV as a function of the susceptible population. Blood specimens collected from 646 persons in randomly selected village hamlets were examined by an ELISA for anti-HEV IgG and anti-HAV IgG. The prevalences of anti-HEV IgG and anti-HAV IgG were 9% and 97%, respectively. There was a significant increase (P < 0.01) in age-specific anti-HEV IgG. A notable increase in anti-HAV IgG prevalence (P < 0.0001) occurred between child populations 0-4 (64%) and 5-9 (95%) years of age. No evidence of familial clustering of anti-HEV IgG-positive individuals was detected, and household crowding was not associated with the spread of HEV. Boiling of water was found to be of protective value against HEV transmission. A relatively low prevalence of anti-HEV indicates considerable HEV outbreak potential, against a background of 1) poor, water-related hygiene/sanitation, 2) dependence on a (likely human/animal waste)-contaminated Mekong riverine system, and 3) periodic river flooding. (+info)
An outbreak of hepatitis A associated with an infected foodhandler. (4/837)OBJECTIVE: The recommended criteria for public notification of a hepatitis A virus (HAV)-infected foodhandler include assessment of the foodhandler's hygiene and symptoms. In October 1994, a Kentucky health department received a report of a catering company foodhandler with hepatitis A. Patrons were not offered immune globulin because the foodhandler's hygiene was assessed to be good and he denied having diarrhea. During early November, 29 cases of hepatitis A were reported among people who had attended an event catered by this company. Two local health departments and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, in collaboration with two state health departments, undertook an investigation to determine the extent of the outbreak, to identify the foods and event characteristics associated with illness, and to investigate the apparent failure of the criteria for determining when immune globulin (IG) should be offered to exposed members of the public. METHODS: Cases were IgM anti-HAV-positive people with onset of symptoms during October or November who had eaten foods prepared by the catering company. To determine the outbreak's extent and factors associated with illness, the authors interviewed all case patients and the infected foodhandler and collected information on menus and other event characteristics. To investigate characteristics of events associated with transmission, the authors conducted a retrospective analysis comparing the risk of illness by selected event characteristics. To evaluate what foods were associated with illness, they conducted a retrospective cohort study of attendees of four events with high attack rates. RESULTS: A total of 91 cases were identified. At least one case was reported from 21 (51%) of the 41 catered events. The overall attack rate was 7% among the 1318 people who attended these events (range 0 to 75% per event). Attending an event at which there was no on-site sink (relative risk [RR] = 2.3, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.4, 3.8) or no on-site kitchen (RR = 1.9, 95% Cl 1.1, 2.9) was associated with illness. For three events with high attack rates, eating at least one of several uncooked foods was associated with illness, with RRs ranging from 8 to undefined. CONCLUSION: A large hepatitis A outbreak resulted from an infected foodhandler with apparent good hygiene and no reported diarrhea who prepared many uncooked foods served at catered events. Assessing hygiene and symptoms s subjective, and may be difficult to accomplish. The effectiveness of the recommended criteria for determining when IG should be provided to exposed members of the public needs to be evaluated. (+info)
Identifying target groups for a potential vaccination program during a hepatitis A communitywide outbreak. (5/837)OBJECTIVES: This study sought to identify groups for targeted vaccination during a communitywide hepatitis A outbreak in 1996. METHODS: Residents of the Sioux City, Iowa, metropolitan area reported with hepatitis A between September 1995 and August 1996 were sampled and compared with population-based controls. RESULTS: In comparison with 51 controls, the 40 case patients were more likely to inject methamphetamine, to attend emergency rooms more often than other health care facilities, and to have a family member who used the Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children. CONCLUSIONS: Groups at increased risk of hepatitis A can be identified that might be [corrected] accessed for vaccination during communitywide outbreaks. (+info)
The epidemiology of viral hepatitis in children in South Texas: increased prevalence of hepatitis A along the Texas-Mexico border. (6/837)An initial retrospective study of 194 children demonstrated a high prevalence of hepatitis A but not hepatitis B or C infection among children living along the Texas-Mexico border. A larger prospective study of hepatitis A was conducted with 285 children (aged 6 months to 13 years) living in 3 sociodemographically dissimilar areas of South Texas. Children living in colonias along the border had a significantly higher prevalence of hepatitis A virus infection (37%) than children living in urban border communities (17%) or in a large metropolitan area (San Antonio [6%]). Independent risk factors for hepatitis A infection included increased age, colonia residence, and history of residence in a developing country. Use of bottled water (vs. municipal or spring/well water) and years of maternal secondary education were protective. Improved sanitation or routine hepatitis A vaccination in early childhood may reduce the prevalence of hepatitis A in these areas. (+info)
Antigenic epitopes of the hepatitis A virus polyprotein. (7/837)Forty-two antigenic domains were identified across the hepatitis A virus (HAV) polyprotein by using a set of 237 overlapping 20-mer synthetic peptides spanning the entire HAV polyprotein and a panel of serum samples from acutely HAV-infected patients. The term "antigenic domain" is used in this study to define a protein region spanned with consecutive overlapping immunoreactive peptides. Nineteen antigenic domains were found within the structural proteins, and 22 were found within the nonstructural proteins, with 1 domain spanning the junction of VP1 and P2A proteins. Five of these domains were considered immunodominant, as judged by both the breadth and the strength of their immunoreactivity. One domain is located within the VP2 protein at position 57-90 aa. A second domain, located at position 767-842 aa, contains the C-terminal part of the VP1 protein and the entire P2A protein. A third domain, located at position 1403-1456 aa, comprises the C-terminal part of the P2C protein and the N-terminal half of the P3A protein. The fourth domain, located at position 1500-1519 aa, includes almost the entire P3B, and the last domain, located at position 1719-1764 aa, contains the C-terminal region of the P3C protein and the N-terminal region of the P3D protein. It is interesting to note that four of the five most immunoreactive domains are derived from small HAV proteins and/or encompass protein cleavage sites separating different HAV proteins. The HAV-specific immunoreactivity of each antigenically reactive peptide was confirmed by using seven HAV seroconversion panels. Collectively, these data demonstrate that HAV structural and nonstructural proteins contain antigenic epitopes that can be efficiently modeled with short synthetic peptides. (+info)
Ascertainment of secondary cases of hepatitis A--Kansas, 1996-1997. (8/837)Each year, 25,000-30,000 cases of hepatitis A are reported in the United States. The most common infection source (22%-26%) is household or sexual contact with a person already infected with hepatitis A virus (HAV) (i.e., the source-patient). In Kansas during 1992-1997, contact with a source-patient was reported by 39% of persons with hepatitis A. Cases reported in 1996 and 1997 were studied retrospectively to determine the reasons for the apparently high proportion of secondary cases and to evaluate missed opportunities for prevention (i.e., postexposure prophylaxis with immune globulin [IG]). Results of this investigation indicate that persons with hepatitis A often were classified incorrectly as secondary cases and that some correctly identified secondary cases represented missed opportunities for prevention. (+info)
Infectious hepatitis synonyms, infectious hepatitis antonyms - FreeThesaurus.com
NewYork-Presbyterian Queens - Glossary - Infectious Diseases
Hepatitis A - a form of infectious hepatitis caused by the hepatitis A virus. The virus may be spread by fecal-oral contact, fecal-infected food or water, and may also be spread by a blood-borne infection (which is rare).. Hepatitis B - a form of infectious hepatitis caused by the hepatitis B virus. Transmission of the hepatitis B virus occurs through blood and body fluid exposure such as blood, semen, vaginal secretions, or saliva.. Hepatitis C - a form of infectious hepatitis caused by the hepatitis C virus. Transmission of the hepatitis C virus occurs primarily from contact with infected blood, but can also occur from sexual contact or from an infected mother to her baby.. Hepatitis D - a form of infectious hepatitis caused by the hepatitis (Delta) virus. This form of hepatitis can only occur in the presence of hepatitis B. Transmission of hepatitis D occurs the same way as hepatitis B.. Hepatitis E - a form of infectious hepatitis caused by the hepatitis E virus. This form of hepatitis is ...
Persistent Infection of Human Fibroblasts by Hepatitis a Virus† | Microbiology Society
Summary Infection of human embryo fibroblasts with hepatitis A virus (HAV), a picornavirus, leads to an inapparent, persistent infection; cultures can be passed serially with consistent recovery of the virus in the supernatant. All of the cells of a HAV carrier culture are infected and proliferate. Subcultivation under HAV-immune serum cannot achieve a cure or even a reduction in the number of infected cells in HAV carrier cultures. No interferon activity can be detected during HAV infection and persistence. Addition of exogenous interferon eliminates HAV infection in vitro. Persistence of HAV in vitro appears to contradict the clinical course of HAV infection in vivo. The system presented offers the possibility of evaluating the role of immunological injury of HAV-infected cells, an injury which may lead to damage of these cells and to elimination of HAV during an HAV infection in vivo.
Is Hepatitis A Vaccine Effective In Preventing Infectious Hepatitis?
People who Inject Drugs and Viral Hepatitis | Populations and Settings | Division of Viral Hepatitis | CDC
People who inject drugs (PWID) are at risk for Hepatitis B virus (HBV) and Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection through the sharing of needles and drug-preparation equipment. In addition, outbreaks of Hepatitis A infection have been reported among PWIDs; such outbreaks are believed to occur through both percutaneous and fecal-oral routes. The Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices recommends that PWIDs get vaccinated against Hepatitis A and Hepatitis B. Because of higher rates of infection among this population, CDC also recommends testing anyone who has injected drugs for HBV and HCV infection.. ...
Hepatitis A Questions and Answers for Health Professionals | Division of Viral Hepatitis | CDC
Persons traveling to or working in countries that have high or intermediate endemicity of hepatitis A. Persons who travel to developing countries are at high risk for hepatitis A, even those traveling to urban areas, staying in luxury hotels, and those who report maintaining good hand hygiene and being careful about what they drink and eat (see https://wwwnc.cdc.gov/travel/yellowbook/2018/infectious-diseases-related-to-travel/hepatitis-a for more information).. Men who have sex with men. Men who have sex with men should be vaccinated.. Users of injection and non-injection drugs. Persons who use injection and non-injection drugs should be vaccinated.. Persons who have occupational risk for infection. Persons who work with HAV-infected primates or with HAV in a research laboratory setting should be vaccinated. No other groups have been shown to be at increased risk for HAV infection because of occupational exposure.. Persons who have chronic liver disease. Persons with chronic liver disease who ...
Infectious hepatitis in dogs: treatment regimen and diagnosis
Schedule: Two doses of hepatitis A vaccine are recommended for all children beginning at age 12 months. The two doses should be separated by 6 months. Older children can receive it as well. If you didnt get the vaccine as a child, you should get vaccinated now if you are in a group at risk for hepatitis A, or just if you want to be protected. Hepatitis A is a vaccine-preventable, communicable disease of the liver caused by the hepatitis A virus (HAV). It is usually transmitted person-to-person through the fecal-oral route or consumption of contaminated food or water. Hepatitis A is a self-limited disease that does not result in chronic infection. Most adults with hepatitis A have symptoms, including fatigue, low appetite, stomach pain, nausea, and jaundice, that usually resolve within 2 months of infection; most children less than 6 years of age do not have symptoms or have an unrecognized infection. Antibodies produced in response to hepatitis A infection last for life and protect against ...
Hepatitis A - The Full Wiki
Hepatitis A (formerly known as infectious hepatitis) is an acute infectious disease of the liver caused by the hepatitis A virus (HAV), which is most commonly transmitted by the fecal-oral route via contaminated food or drinking water. Every year, approximately 10 million people worldwide are infected with the virus. The time between infection and the appearance of the symptoms, (the incubation period), is between two and six weeks and the average incubation period is 28 days.. In developing countries, and in regions with poor hygiene standards, the incidence of infection with this virus is high and the illness is usually contracted in early childhood. HAV has also been found in samples taken to study ocean water quality. Hepatitis A infection causes no clinical signs and symptoms in over 90% of infected children and since the infection confers lifelong immunity, the disease is of no special significance to the indigenous population. In Europe, the United States and other ...
Hepatitis A Vaccine Recommendations | FROM THE AMERICAN ACADEMY OF PEDIATRICS | Pediatrics
Humans, great apes, and some species of monkeys can be infected with hepatitis A virus. The primary source of hepatitis A for human transmission is person-to-person spread through the fecal-oral route. On rare occasions, hepatitis A infection has been transmitted by transfusion of blood or blood products collected from donors during the viremic phase of infection.15,16 Since 2002, nucleic acid amplification tests, such as the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay, have been applied to the screening of source plasma used for the manufacture of plasma-derived products.17. Transmission generally is limited to close contacts, and hepatitis A rarely is spread by casual interactions. Spread of hepatitis A within families is common, with disease occurring more commonly in older family members after being introduced into the household by an asymptomatically infected young child.12 In child care center outbreaks, contact with feces and subsequent personal contact are important means by which transmission ...
The Hepatitis A virus is the most common cause of Hepatitis in the world, and commonly occurs in young adults. It is spread from person to person by the fecal-oral route: that is, coming in contact with contaminated food, water, hands toilets, dishes, etc., of the infected person and eventually ingesting the fecal contaminant. Therefore, people sharing food, kitchen, or bathroom facilities with someone who has Hepatitis A can get infected. Hepatitis A is common in developing countries.. ...
China Foundation for Hepatitis Prevention and Control (CFHPC) | World Hepatitis Alliance
The World Hepatitis Alliance is an ambitious patient-led and patient-driven not-for-profit organisation who works with governments, national members and other key partners to raise awareness of viral hepatitis and influence global change - transforming the lives of the 325 million people living with viral hepatitis and the future we share.. ...
Hepatitis Viral Type A
Description of illness: Hepatitis A is a vaccine-preventable, acute, self-limited illness characterized by fever, malaise, jaundice, anorexia, and nausea. It is transmitted person-to-person through the fecal-oral route or through exposure to contaminated food or water. Only 30% of infected children younger than 6 years of age will become symptomatic, and few will have jaundice. Among older children and adults, infection usually is symptomatic and typically lasts several weeks, with jaundice occurring in ≥70%. Ten to fifteen percent of symptomatic people have prolonged or relapsing disease lasting as long as 6 months. Fulminant hepatitis and death is rare and is more common in people with underlying liver disease. Chronic infection does not occur. Serologic testing for HAV IgM in the absence of acute illness compatible with hepatitis A is not recommended due to the possibility false positive results, especially in older adults.. ...
Clinical Signs | Chronic Hepatitis
Hepatitis A is an acute and contagious infection of the liver which is caused by the hepatitis A. It is an RNA virus as its genetic material. Hepatitis A usually spread the fecal-oral route, generally transmitted person to person by hand to mouth contact with stool from an infected person or through ingested contaminated food or water. Millions of individuals Read more ...
Hepatitis A | Health.mil
Hepatitis Type A & Type E
New ultrastructural marker in hepatocytes in non‐A, non‐B viral hepatitis<...
TY - JOUR. T1 - New ultrastructural marker in hepatocytes in non‐A, non‐B viral hepatitis. AU - De Vos, R.. AU - De Wolf‐Peeters, C.. AU - Van Stapel, M. J.. AU - Callea, F.. AU - De Groote, G.. AU - Desmyter, J.. AU - Mortelmans, J.. AU - Fevery, J.. AU - De Groote, J.. AU - Desmet, V. J.. PY - 1982. Y1 - 1982. N2 - ABSTRACT- A new ultrastructural cytoplasmic marker designated as type 2, and distinct from type 1 previously associated with NA‐NB hepatitis in chimpanzees, was found in hepatocytes of two patients and of one experimentally infected chimpanzee. These cases represent a minority of all cases we studied as presumed NA‐NB viral hepatitis. Type 2 marker consists of tubular structures composed of an assembly of ring‐like units coated with smaller uniform fragments, accumulated in different patterns in dilated cisternae of the endoplasmic reticulum. Preliminary data using immunofluorescence with NA‐NB hepatitis convalescent serum and antiserum against fibrinogen are reported. ...
Hepatitis NSW Inc | World Hepatitis Alliance
A world free of viral hepatitis. Mission statement. We work to prevent the transmission of viral hepatitis and to improve the health and well-being of affected people and communities. Values. Inclusiveness - We provide a range of non-judgemental services and information to all people living with or affected by viral hepatitis. Excellence - We deliver quality and innovative services informed by evidence-based research, harm reduction principles and dialogue with affected communities. Collaboration - We build strong partnerships with our stakeholders. Integrity - We are accountable to our communities and transparent in our actions. Independence - We work in the best interests of people affected by viral hepatitis. We commit to our vision.. We stand by and work to our mission statement.. We will promote, cherish and abide by our values. ...
Recommendations for Hepatitis Prevention and Treatment - AATOD
We have been receiving alarming reports from our colleagues throughout the United States about the increasing incidence of Hepatitis C. This is the result of improved testing techniques and greater access to laboratory tests for Hepatitis C.. Programs will need access to increased funds to implement several of these recommendations and we encourage our colleagues to work with the states while we work with the federal agencies, who are involved in providing guidance to improve practice standards. The most important aspect to keep in mind in reviewing the following guidelines is that we must do all that we can to improve the quality of life for patients, who have been diagnosed with Hepatitis C.. ...
Breastfeeding and Hepatitis
Breastmilk is the ideal in infant nutrition, and breastfeeding the optimal delivery system. The American Academy of Pediatrics recommends exclusive breastfeeding for the first six months of life and continued breastfeeding with the addition of appropriate complementary foods for at least one year, and thereafter for as long as mother and baby desire.. The benefits of breastfeeding in terms of nutrition, increased resistance to diseases, allergy protection and psychosocial development, make it the most important, cost effective substance we have in medicine today. Unfortunately, breastfeeding has been implicated as a possible mode of transmission of various forms of hepatitis from mothers to their infants. Acute viral hepatitis is a frequent cause of liver disease in the United States and results in significant illness and sometimes death. The range of viruses of concern is expanding significantly and has become a true alphabet soup, with hepatitis A, B, C, D, E, and now hepatitis G as well. ...
Disease Causing Agents by Fecal - Oral Route - The Forest Cloak
This science poster has the watercolor illustration of 6 Disease Causing Parasite and Bacteria by Fecal-Oral route. Main Route of fecal-oral disease transmission include lack of hygiene practices and sanitation by Pathogens in fecal particles pass from one person to the mouth of other people. List of Archaea* Cyclospor
JCI - Genetic control of hepatitis A severity and susceptibility to allergy
There is a reciprocal relationship between the incidence of hepatitis A and the prevalence of allergic disease, as evidenced by rates of each in the United States and Argentina (where the patients included in the Kim et al. study were recruited). A minority of HAV-infected individuals exhibit a very severe form of the disease, and there is compelling evidence that HAV infection protects from allergic diseases. The work by Kim et al ...
World Hepatitis Day: Freeing the world from viral hepatitis | BMI Healthcare UK
Viral Hepatitis - Types, Symptoms, Tests, Treatment, Prevention | Diseases Pictures
Fecal-Oral Transmission: A-to-Z Guide from Diagnosis to Treatment to Prevention | DrGreene
Eukaryotic Parasites Eukaryotic parasites typically fall into one of two categories; either protozoa or helminthes. Protozoa are one-celled eukaryotes and can be transmitted by a vector or by water, as they have difficulty surviving in the environment since they are susceptible to desiccation. Transmission by the fecal-oral route is common, as in Giardia, which causes Beaver fever. Protozoa typically damage the host cell by replication, and do not release any toxins, and can inhabit the body both intracellular and extracellular. At some point in the life cycle of protozoa, a cyst form and tropozoite form normally exist. The cyst is more resistant to the environment and is normally infectious, while the tropozoite is the form that inhabits the body. Protozoa include Plasmodium falciparum, which causes malaria ...
Finally, U.S. Takes Aim at Viral Hepatitis | Hepatitis Central
Primary care integral to new national viral hepatitis action plan | ACP Internist
Amitabh Bachchan is now the WHO goodwill ambassador for Hepatitis
He will lend his voice and support to public awareness programmes that aim to scale up preventive measures and advocate for early diagnosis and treatment of viral Hepatitis to reduce the disease burden.. Announcing his association with WHO, Poonam Khetrapal Singh, regional director for WHO southeast Asia, said, "This association is expected to help strengthen WHOs efforts in reducing the high numbers of premature deaths and illnesses from viral Hepatitis which is not only causing hardships to individuals and families, but also impacting health and development across the region.". ...
IDENTIFICATION OF A NEW TRANSMISSIBLE VIRAL AGENT ASSOCIATED WITH VIRAL HEPATITIS OF UNKNOWN ETIOLOGY (NANE HEPATITIS)
Viral Hepatitis: Page Not Found
Viral Hepatitis: Page Not Found
Glossary - Immune serum globulin
anti-HAV IgM (hepatitis A IgM antibody) | Newfoundland & Labrador Public Health Laboratory
Serological diagnosis of acute viral hepatitis A depends on the detection of specific anti-HAV IgM. Its presence in the patients serum indicates a recent exposure to HAV. Anti-HAV IgM becomes detectable in the blood within 2 weeks after infection, persisting at elevated levels for about 2 months before declining to undetectable levels by 6 months. However, sensitive immunoassays may occasionally detect anti-HAV IgM for up to 1 year after acute hepatitis A.. Hepatitis A virus (HAV) is endemic throughout the world, occurring most commonly in areas of poor hygiene and low socioeconomic conditions. The virus is transmitted by the fecal-oral route, and it is spread by close person-to-person contact and by contaminated food and water. Thorough cooking is necessary to inactivate HAV in contaminated foods. Outbreaks frequently occur in overcrowded situations and in high-density institutions and centers, such as prisons and health care or day care centers. Viral spread by parenteral routes (eg, exposure ...
Immune serum globulin mass prophylaxis of hepatitis due to virus A in epidemic surroundings. - Semantic Scholar
July 2019 | Viral Hepatitis Prevention Board
The VHPB endorsers the annual World Hepatitis Day campaign: Find the missing millions.. Worldwide, 300 million people are living with viral hepatitis unaware. Without finding the undiagnosed and linking them to care, millions will continue to suffer, and lives will be lost. On World Hepatitis Day, 28 July, we call on people from across the world to take action and raise awareness on the prevention and control of viral hepatitis, aiming to find the "missing millions".. A World Hepatitis Day film has been made to raise awareness of viral hepatitis.. The VHPB not only draws the attention to viral hepatitis during the world hepatitis day, but continues to sensitize people and policy makers throughout the year, and year after year. The VHPB assists policy makers, health care providers and public health specialist and guides countries to prevent and control viral hepatitis:. ...
Immunogenicity and Tolerance of Two Strategies of Anti-HAV Vaccination in HIV-infected Patients - Full Text View -...
RECOMMANDATIONS for hepatitis A vaccination is the same for HIV-infected patients than for general population. However, immunogenicity induced with 2 doses of anti-HAV vaccine is lower in HIV-infected patients. The primary objective of the study is to compare the immunogenicity (percentage of patients with anti-HAV antibodies , 20 mUI/ml at month 7) of 2 strategies (2 doses at months 1 and 6, versus 3 doses at months 1, 2 and 6)of anti-HAV vaccine in HIV-1 infected patients co-infected with HBV and/or HCV with CD4 cell count between 200 and 500/mm3. The second objectives are to compare mean anti-HAV antibodies titers obtained with the 2 strategies, the durability of the seroprotection 12 months after the end of vaccination, and the safety. The PARAMATERS than may have an effect on the immune response will be evaluated.. This open, prospective, study have included 99 patients, aged from 18 to 55 years old. Patients were randomized to receive 2 or 3 doses of HAVRIX 1440 UI intramuscularly at week ...
Immunogenicity and Tolerance of Two Strategies of Anti-HAV Vaccination in HIV-infected Patients - Full Text View -...
RECOMMANDATIONS for hepatitis A vaccination is the same for HIV-infected patients than for general population. However, immunogenicity induced with 2 doses of anti-HAV vaccine is lower in HIV-infected patients. The primary objective of the study is to compare the immunogenicity (percentage of patients with anti-HAV antibodies , 20 mUI/ml at month 7) of 2 strategies (2 doses at months 1 and 6, versus 3 doses at months 1, 2 and 6)of anti-HAV vaccine in HIV-1 infected patients co-infected with HBV and/or HCV with CD4 cell count between 200 and 500/mm3. The second objectives are to compare mean anti-HAV antibodies titers obtained with the 2 strategies, the durability of the seroprotection 12 months after the end of vaccination, and the safety. The PARAMATERS than may have an effect on the immune response will be evaluated.. This open, prospective, study have included 99 patients, aged from 18 to 55 years old. Patients were randomized to receive 2 or 3 doses of HAVRIX 1440 UI intramuscularly at week ...
Hepatitis A (Infectious Hepatitis) - Southern Nevada Health District
Does the vaccine work if I only get one dose?. Two shots of the hepatitis A virus vaccine are recommended. Although the first dose of the vaccine is considered to be around 95 percent effective, that protection will eventually begin to decrease and a second shot boosts immunity for between 20 and 40 years, according to the CDC.. You can get a combination vaccine to protect you against both hepatitis A and B. Check with your health care provider.. Can I get my hepatitis A shot when I get other immunizations? You can receive the hepatitis A vaccine when you receive other immunizations. The injection site will be different.. Is the hepatitis A vaccine effective?. Yes, the hepatitis A vaccine is highly effective in preventing hepatitis A virus infection. A second hepatitis A shot results in long-term protection.. Is the hepatitis A vaccine safe?. Yes, the hepatitis A vaccine is safe. No serious side effects have been reported from the hepatitis A vaccine. Soreness at the injection site is the most ...
Hepatitis A immune status (Anti-HAV IgG) | Newfoundland & Labrador Public Health Laboratory
Hepatitis A characteristically is an acute, self-limited illness associated with fever, malaise, jaundice, anorexia, and nausea. Among older children and adults, infection usually is symptomatic and typically lasts several weeks, with jaundice occurring in 70% or more. Symptomatic infection occurs in approximately 30% of infected children younger than 6 years of age; few of these children will have jaundice. Fulminate hepatitis is rare but is more common in people with underlying liver disease. Chronic infection does not occur.. Hepatitis A virus (HAV) is endemic throughout the world, occurring most commonly in areas of poor hygiene and low socioeconomic conditions. The virus is transmitted by the fecal-oral route, and it is spread by close person-to-person contact and by contaminated food and water. Thorough cooking is necessary to inactivate HAV in contaminated foods. Outbreaks frequently occur in overcrowded situations and in high-density institutions and centers, such as prisons and health ...
HCV Research and News: Viral hepatitis requires more attention in the WHO European Region
There is a silent epidemic of viral hepatitis types B and C in the WHO European Region, where 13.3 million people are estimated to live with chronic hepatitis B and 15 million people with hepatitis C. Worldwide, hepatitis B and C lead to chronic disease in about 500 million people. Together, they are the most common causes of liver cirrhosis and cancer.. Although a blood test shows when someone has viral hepatitis, most people infected with hepatitis B and C do not know it. Only 1 infected person in 5 is estimated to display acute symptoms. Even among such people, testing often does not occur, since acute symptoms are often mild or confused with influenza-like illness. If left untreated, hepatitis B and C may become chronic, and can lead to disease, cirrhosis and cancer of the liver.. There are five strains of viral hepatitis (types A- E), but types B and C account for the largest burden of disease in the WHO European Region, and thus are the main focus of effort.. While hepatitis A and E ...
Viral Hepatitis kills more people than HIV, malaria or tuberculosis | World Hepatitis Alliance
World Hepatitis Alliance calls for immediate political action to counteract fatal trend. [London, 14 September] According to the Global Burden of Disease study released today, deaths caused by viral hepatitis have surpassed all chronic infectious diseases including HIV/AIDS, malaria and tuberculosis.. The study illustrates that in 2016, the total deaths caused by viral hepatitis, including liver cancer, acute cases, cirrhosis, hepatitis A, E, B, C and D account for 1.34 million deaths globally, exceeding tuberculosis (1.2 million), HIV/AIDS (1 million) and malaria (719,000).. These staggering death rates occurred despite recent advances in hepatitis C medications that can cure most infections within three months and the availability of highly-effective vaccinations for hepatitis B.. "Its outrageous, but not surprising, that the Global Burden of Disease Report found that deaths related to viral hepatitis have surpassed HIV, TB and malaria" said Charles Gore, President of the World Hepatitis ...
An Outbreak of Infectious Hepatitis on a College Campus | The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
Summary An epidemic of infectious hepatitis has been described, involving at least 222 individuals in a college, for a total attack rate of 8 per cent. Cases were distributed throughout the campus population with great uniformity, with two exceptions: disproportionately low attack rates (0.4%) were observed in students who lived off campus, and disproportionately high attack rates (17 to 50%) were observed in student workers in the common dining hall. Although every evidence pointed to a common source and mode of infection, these could not be determined with certainty. The outbreak is described as a
Patent US6153421 - Cloned genomes of infectious hepatitis C viruses and uses thereof - Google Patents
The present invention discloses nucleic acid sequences which encode infectious hepatitis C viruses and the use of these sequences, and polypeptides encoded by all or part of these sequences, in the development of vaccines and diagnostics for HCV and in the development of screening assays for the identification of antiviral agents for HCV.
Health District declares acute hepatitis A outbreak in Clark County - Southern Nevada Health District
Hepatitis A is commonly spread from person-to-person through the fecal-oral route. Symptoms include jaundice (yellowing of the skin and eyes), fever, fatigue, loss of appetite, nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain, dark urine, and light-colored stools.. Vaccination is the best prevention against hepatitis A. Practicing good hygiene can also help prevent the transmission of hepatitis A. Wash hands thoroughly after using the bathroom, changing diapers, and before preparing or eating food. More information on hepatitis A is available on the Health District website. For up to date information on the nationwide Hepatitis A outbreak visit the CDC website.. "This current outbreak of hepatitis A in our community is an unfortunate but important reminder of why vaccines are vital to both our individual and community health," said Dr. Joe Iser, Chief Health Officer of the Southern Nevada Health District.. Since March of 2017, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention has assisted multiple states and local ...
PPT - An Update of a Hepatitis C Strategic Plan for Action Hepatitis Prevention, Education, Treatment & Support Network ...
A systematic review of the epidemiology of hepatitis A in Africa | BMC Infectious Diseases | Full Text
Hepatitis A, caused by the hepatitis A virus (HAV), is a vaccine preventable disease. In Low and Middle-Income Countries (LMICs), poor hygiene and sanitation conditions are the main risk factors contributing to HAV infection. There have been, however, notable improvements in hygiene and sanitation conditions in many LMICs. As a result, there are studies showing a possible transition of some LMICs from high to intermediate HAV endemicity. The World Health Organization (WHO) recommends that countries should routinely collect, analyse and review local factors (including disease burden) to guide the development of hepatitis A vaccination programs. Up-to-date information on hepatitis A burden is, therefore, critical in aiding the development of country-specific recommendations on hepatitis A vaccination. We conducted a systematic review to present an up-to-date, comprehensive synthesis of hepatitis A epidemiological data in Africa. The main results of this review include: 1) the reported HAV seroprevalence
Hepatitis at 20x Magnification | MicroscopyU
The means of hepatitis transmission varies depending upon the virus responsible for the inflammation. The hepatitis viruses A, E, and F are predominantly spread via the fecal-oral route through food or water that has been contaminated. These viruses are primarily responsible for epidemics of hepatitis in many less-developed regions of the world where crowded conditions and inadequate sanitation are often problems. The other main hepatitis viruses, B, C, D, and G, are chiefly spread through bodily fluids or blood, making their transmission through sexual activity and accidental contact with infected blood a common occurrence. Blood transfusions were also widely responsible for the transmission of the blood-borne varieties of hepatitis until adequate screening measures were introduced in the 1970s. Needle-exchange programs in some areas have also helped decrease incidence of the disease in recent years among intravenous drug users.
Expert blames viral hepatitis on lack of awareness | Nigerian Pilot: Nigerian Newspaper
EXECUTIVE eirector of the Beacon Youth Initiative, BYI, Mr. Evoh Emmanuel has attributed the perpetuating global burden of viral hepatitis on lack of awareness at individual, community and government levels in the country and world at large. He observed that less than five percent of the people living with viral hepatitis worldwide were unaware of their condition, largely due to the disease being mostly asymptomatic and the lack of routine screening and awareness. Emmanuel made the assertion yesterday at an event marking the 2016 World Hepatitis Day in Lafia, Nasarawa State, with theme as Elimination of Viral Hepatitis. He called on the federal and state governments and other partners to take responsibility by scaling up hepatitis testing services and bproviding treatment to reduce needless deaths. Emmanuel revealed that his organisation had carried out a four-day activities to mark the 2016 Hepatitis Day at four different locations across the southern part of Nasarawa State. "This years ...
Failure to detect circulating interferon during acute viral hepatitis.<...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Failure to detect circulating interferon during acute viral hepatitis.. AU - Rakela, J.. AU - Ishizawa, L.. PY - 1984/5/1. Y1 - 1984/5/1. UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=0021436398&partnerID=8YFLogxK. UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=0021436398&partnerID=8YFLogxK. M3 - Letter. C2 - 6202808. AN - SCOPUS:0021436398. VL - 149. JO - Journal of Infectious Diseases. JF - Journal of Infectious Diseases. SN - 0022-1899. IS - 5. ER - ...
Low serum globulin levels - Things You Didn't Know
Late Presentation for Viral Hepatitis
In early 2015 a group of viral hepatitis experts within the HIV Europe Initiative formed a working group to develop a consensus definition for viral hepatitis. After discussions, meetings and several reviews the final two agreed upon definitions were approved by the EASL GB in early October 2015 and on Thursday 22 October EASL and HIV in Europe announced a consensus definition of late presentation for viral hepatitis. The announcement coincided with the European AIDS Conference in Barcelona and aims to encourage policy makers, health professionals, public health institutions and civil society organisations to implement this definition to improve the European surveillance of and response to the viral hepatitis epidemic. Presentations and Publications ...
Canine Viral Hepatitis | Article about Canine Viral Hepatitis by The Free Dictionary
Viral hepatitis | PeaceHealth
A virus that causes hepatitis can spread from one person to another. Some hepatitis viruses spread when an uninfected person comes in contact with infected body fluids. Body fluids include blood, semen, or vaginal fluid. Other viruses are spread by contaminated food and water or by coming in direct contact with the stool (feces) of a person who is infected with the virus. In the early stage of infection, the type of hepatitis virus causing the infection may be hard to identify. But several weeks to several months after infection occurs, blood tests can show which of the viruses is causing hepatitis.. Most people with viral hepatitis recover on their own. Antiviral medicine can treat many cases of hepatitis. Some forms of hepatitis can become chronic and increase a persons chance of liver failure or liver cancer. ...
July 2020 | Viral Hepatitis Prevention Board
The VHPB endorsers the annual World Hepatitis Day campaign: Find the missing millions.. Worldwide, 290 million people are living with viral hepatitis unaware. Without finding the undiagnosed and linking them to care, millions will continue to suffer, and lives will be lost. On World Hepatitis Day, 28 July, we call on people from across the world to take action and raise awareness to find the "missing millions". ...
Hepatitis | DAN Southern Africa
I contracted Hepatitis a few years ago. Otherwise Im healthy and would like to learn to dive. What are my options? Condition: Hepatitis A -- formerly called infectious hepatitis, is most common in children in developing countries, but it is seen frequently in adults in the Western world. Hepatitis B -- formerly called serum hepatitis, it is the most common form of hepatitis, with 300 million c...
Seroepidemiology of hepatitis A in Mexico: a detector of social inequity and monitor of immunization policies
VALDESPINO, José Luis et al. Seroepidemiology of hepatitis A in Mexico: a detector of social inequity and monitor of immunization policies. Salud pública Méx [online]. 2007, vol.49, suppl.3, pp.s377-s385. ISSN 0036-3634.. OBJECTIVE: Hepatitis A Virus (HAV) in Mexico has traditionally been considered a disease with a homogeneous pattern of transmission, high rates of infection at early ages, and infrequent complication rates. The purpose of this study was to take advantage of the 2000 NHS, a probabilistic population-based survey, in order to describe the seroepidemiology of HAV infection in Mexico. MATERIAL AND METHODS: This study is based on information obtained from the National Health Survey that was conducted in 2000. The present report is based on 4 907 randomly selected samples that were studied to determine the prevalence of HAV antibodies using immunoenzymatic assay. Sera were collected from November 1999 to June 2000. RESULTS: Seroprevalence among the general population was 81.3% ...
Civil Society - Introduction - Global Report - World Hepatitis Alliance
The World Hepatitis Alliance seeks to ensure that a unified global response to viral hepatitis is manifested in the comprehensive national strategies that all countries are being encouraged to develop in a timely manner. A solid strategic foundation exists upon which all countries can build. The components of this foundation are put forth in World Health Assembly resolutions WHA 63.18 and WHA 67.6 and in the WHO viral hepatitis strategic framework.34,35,36. As the resolutions and strategic framework reflect, we already know what to do in many regards in order to prevent new infections and to reduce suffering and death from viral hepatitis. Indeed, the section of resolution WHA 67.6 that is directed at governments itemises 16 key actions that could potentially have an enormous impact on hepatitis prevention and treatment (Box 5). The challenge is to apply this knowledge - which in many parts of the world will involve overcoming formidable barriers relating to complacency, ignorance, stigma and ...
Viral Hepatitis video: Viral Hepatitis Made Simple!
Nigeria: World Hepatitis Day - to Prevent Liver Cancer »
Every year, July 28 is marked as World Hepatitis Day (WHD). It is a day dedicated to increase the global awareness and understanding of viral hepatitis and the diseases that it causes. The theme of this years WHD is "Prevent Hepatitis. Act Now". Viral hepatitis is inflammation of the liver caused by a group of virus known as hepatitis A, B, C, D, and E. The liver is the largest internal organ. It is shaped like a pyramid and lies under the right ribs just beneath the right lung.. The liver is an indispensible organ. It has several important functions including: break down and storage of many of the nutrients absorbed from the intestine; production of most of the clotting factors that prevent excessive bleeding from cuts or injuries; release of bile into the intestines to help absorb nutrients (especially fats) as well as removal of harmful substances from the blood.. Annually, viral hepatitis affects 400 million people worldwide, causing acute and chronic liver disease and killing about 1.5 ...
Hepatitis C Action Alert!
State and Zip code. Dear (Name of Health Staffer):. My name is ____________ and I live in City/State. I am writing to urge Representative/Senator________________ to include funding for viral hepatitis in his/her Fiscal Year 2012 programmatic appropriations request letter. [Include brief details on the impact of viral hepatitis on yourself or describe your organization].. There are over 5.3 million Americans impacted by viral hepatitis but, in FY2012, the only dedicated federal funding stream provided a mere $29.7 million through CDC. This is insufficient to provide the most basic public health services such as education, counseling, testing, or medical management for people living with or at risk of viral hepatitis.. I urge Representative/Senator ___________ to support a total funding level of $35 million for the Division of Viral Hepatitis in FY2014 to effectively combat these epidemics. I will be following up with you in the near future to discuss this request. In the meantime, feel free to ...
Publications | PROF. OGUTU ELLY OTIENO
Department of Medicine, College of Health Sciences, University of Nairobi, P.O. Box 19676, Nairobi, Kenya. OBJECTIVE: To determine the prevalence of hepatitis A, B, C and HIV seropositivity among patients with acute icteric hepatitis. DESIGN: Cross-sectional descriptive survey. SETTING: Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi. SUBJECTS: Eighty four patients aged above six months with a history of jaundice not exceeding six months were recruited. There were 47 males and 17 females with an age range of eight months to 67 years and a median age of 25 years. METHODS: History was obtained physical examination done and blood taken for determination of bilirubin, ALT, AST and ALP levels. Sera that had disproportionately greater transaminase than ALP elevation were assayed for IgM anti-HAV, IgM anti-HBc, HbsAg, anti-HCV and anti-HIV antibodies. RESULTS: Evidence of hepatitis A, B, and C was round in 41.7%, 26.2%, and 7.1% of the patients respectively, 13.1% of the patients were HBsAg carriers while 30.1% of ...
Polyvalent Human Immune Globulin: A Prospective, Open-Label Study Assessing Anti-Hepatitis A Virus (HAV) Antibody Levels,...
Three ingredients needed to eliminate viral hepatitis by 2030
Eliminating viral hepatitis by 2030 is firmly on the global health agenda.. The minister, who made the call at a press briefing to mark World Hepatitis Day, in Abuja, said the disease had become a silent killer because much importance had not been attached to dangers it posed to health.. The WHO baseline data previously revealed that although some of the 2030 targets, such as childhood vaccination and injection safety are within reach, there is a crucial need for all stakeholders, including policy makers, medical professionals and civil society to step-up efforts and work together to address access to effective treatment, diagnoses and mother-to-child transmissions.. Hepatitis A is caused by contaminated food and water and Hepatitis B is caused by unprotected sex and unsafe needle usage.. How can you catch one of the viruses? Peck reminded the increasing number of hepatitis related deaths and urged for efficient testing and early treatment in all parts of the world. Now, however, people are ...
Drugs for the Treatment of Viral Hepatitis -YAKHAK HOEJI | Korea Science
Viral hepatitis is the inflammation of liver cells caused by viruses, and still one of the major health-care problems worldwide. A number of viruses to cause hepatitis are type A, B, C, D, E or G. Among these viruses leading to hepatitis, B and C are more troublesome being more prone to chronic illness which can cause the potentially fatal conditions of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and/or liver failure. If immediate treatment is not initiated, liver transplant is the only option left. Over the past few decades there has been remarkable progress in diagnose and monitor all hepatitis virus infections for treatment and prevention. Nonetheless, important challenges remain to develop more effective and safe vaccines for prevention as well as antiviral agents to reduce viremia/viral load by inhibiting viral replication. The development and evaluation of antiviral agents through carefully designed clinical trials over the last 25 years has heralded a new dawn in the treatment of patients chronically
Viral Hepatitis Guidelines and Recommendations | National Prevention Information Network
HEPATITIS A IS ON THE RISE ALL OVER THE US NEW REPORT FROM STATE OF FL SHOWS IT IS MOSTLY MALES AGAIN HAVING SEX WITH MALES I...
Dear DWIGHT COLLMAN, Health Care Provider Advisory Reemphasis of Hepatitis A Vaccination Recommendations After Substantial Increase in Locally Acquired Infections in Florida and Outbreak Reports Across the Nation November 14, 2017 Since January 2017, 217 cases of hepatitis A virus (HAV) infection were reported in Florida. This is significantly higher than…
Nosocomial transmission of hepatitis A in a pediatric hospital traced to an anti-hepatitis A virus-negative patient with...
From July through October 1991, an outbreak of hepatitis A virus HAV infection involving 26 hospital staff, inpatients and household contacts occurred in a pediatric hospital. All ill staff members had cared for one inpatient who had profuse diarrhea with gross fecal contamination of the environment, negative HAV serology and idiopathic...
Serum CMV IgM positivity in Acute Hepatitis A: fact or fallacy? - Semantic Scholar
We describe a 74 year-old patient with chronic renal failure due to focal glomerulonephritis who was admitted to our department because of one-week jaundice and fatigue. Medical history was negative for any type of hepatitis or biliary tract lithiasis. Clinical examination revealed an icteric patient with upper right quadrant tenderness, hepatomegaly, dark-colored urine and colorless feces. Laboratory investigation of peripheral blood revealed anemia, lymphocytopenia, elevated serum urea and creatinine, transaminasemia, hyperbilirubinemia with direct bilirubin predominance and ã-GT and alkaline phosphatase elevation. Abdominal ultrasonography was within normal limits. Laboratory investigation for hepatitis A to E and liver related viruses revealed positivity for IgM immunoglobulins of hepatitis A and cytomegalovirus(CMV) virus. IgM CMV antibodies were 6-fold increased above the cut-off value while CMV IgG antibodies existed in titers below the cut-off reference value. IgM HAV antibodies were increased
ISDH: 2005 - Hepatitis A
Hepatitis A is a viral infection of the liver transmitted most commonly by fecal-oral contact from contaminated food or water, or from person to person via contaminated hands or oral-anal contact. Hepatitis A virus infects primarily humans. In 2005, 23 cases of hepatitis A were reported in Indiana for a rate of less than 1 case per 100,000 population (Table 1). This represents a decrease from 2004 (0.58). Figure 1 shows the number of reported cases per year for 2001-2005. The number of reported cases was highest during the spring and fall months (Figure 2). Figure 3 shows age-specific rates were greatest for infants under the age of 1 (1.16) and preschoolers aged 1-4 years (1.16), followed by adults aged 80 years and older (0.88). Females (0.35) were just as likely to be reported as males (0.36). The rate for whites (0.34) was higher than that for blacks (0.18); however, three cases (13%) did not report race data. In 2005, 11 Indiana counties reported cases of hepatitis A, but only Marion County ...
VHAP At A Glance Viral Hepatitis Action Plan Updated 2014 - 2016 - Robert G. Gish Consultants, LLC
Building on the success of the nations first comprehensive cross-agency action plan, released in 2011, Combating the Silent Epidemic of Viral Hepatitis: Action Plan for the Prevention, Care, & Treatment of Viral Hepatitis, the U.S. Departments of Health and Human Services (HHS), Housing and Urban Development (HUD), Justice (DOJ), and Veterans Affairs (VA) released a 3-year update of the plan in April 2014.. https://jumpshare.com/v/zkq80TPb4Guy49817MxP. ...
HCV Research and News: 07/26/13
WORLD HEPATITIS DAY, 2013. - - - - - - -. BY THE PRESIDENT OF THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA. A PROCLAMATION. Each year, we mark World Hepatitis Day to bring attention to a disease that afflicts one in twelve people worldwide. Viral hepatitis is a major cause of liver cancer and cirrhosis in the United States, leading to approximately 18,000 American deaths every year. Outcomes can significantly improve with treatment, but because viral hepatitis can be present without symptoms for decades, most infected Americans do not know they have it. Today, we raise awareness about preventing and treating viral hepatitis, and we renew our commitment to combat this disease in all its forms.. Public awareness is key to halting the spread of viral hepatitis. All types of this disease pose serious health threats, and both hepatitis B and C can become chronic infections that lead to liver cancer and liver disease. Vaccines for hepatitis A and B are crucial to preventing new cases, and they are recommended for all ...
HCV Research and News: 07/26/13
WORLD HEPATITIS DAY, 2013. - - - - - - -. BY THE PRESIDENT OF THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA. A PROCLAMATION. Each year, we mark World Hepatitis Day to bring attention to a disease that afflicts one in twelve people worldwide. Viral hepatitis is a major cause of liver cancer and cirrhosis in the United States, leading to approximately 18,000 American deaths every year. Outcomes can significantly improve with treatment, but because viral hepatitis can be present without symptoms for decades, most infected Americans do not know they have it. Today, we raise awareness about preventing and treating viral hepatitis, and we renew our commitment to combat this disease in all its forms.. Public awareness is key to halting the spread of viral hepatitis. All types of this disease pose serious health threats, and both hepatitis B and C can become chronic infections that lead to liver cancer and liver disease. Vaccines for hepatitis A and B are crucial to preventing new cases, and they are recommended for all ...
Contagious: Viral Hepatitis - RightDiagnosis.com
Hepatitis prevention needs more investment - Society - Health - Vietnam News | Politics, Business, Economy, Society, Life,...
Polio or infantile paralysis, is an acute viral infectious disease spread from person to person, primarily via the fecal-oral route. Although around 90% of polio infections cause no symptoms at all, affected individuals can exhibit a range of symptoms if the virus enters the blood stream.. An infectious disease is a clinically evident illness resulting from the presence of pathogenic microbial agents, including pathogenic viruses, pathogenic bacteria, fungi, protozoa, multicellular parasites, and aberrant proteins known as prions. These pathogens are able to cause disease in animals and/or plants. Infectious pathologies are also called communicable diseases or transmissible diseases due to their potential of transmission from one person or species to another by a replicating agent (as opposed to a toxin). One of the ways to prevent or slow down the transmission of infectious diseases is to recognize the different characteristics of various diseases. Some critical disease characteristics that ...
In autoimmune hepatitis. In 1972, a link between "HLA A1,8" (current:HLA A1-B8) active chronic hepatitis, subsequently B8 ... doi:10.1002/hep.1840210411. PMID 7705806.. *^ Muratori P, Czaja AJ, Muratori L, et al. (March 2005). "Genetic distinctions ... "HLA-C genes and susceptibility to type 1 autoimmune hepatitis". Hepatology. 26 (4): 1023-6. doi:10.1002/hep.510260434. PMID ... Autoimmune hepatitis, Primary biliary cirrhosis, Myasthenia gravis, Dermatitis herpetiformis HLA A1-B8-DR3-DQ2 haplotype (Also ...
Willowbrook State School
Hepatitis studies. Throughout the first decade of its operation, outbreaks of hepatitis, primarily hepatitis A, were ... Although it was known that hepatitis was caused by a virus, it wasn't known how hepatitis virus spread, whether it could be ... One result of the research was a better understanding of the differences between serum hepatitis, which is spread by blood ... One of his studies involved feeding live hepatitis virus to sixty healthy children. Krugman watched as their skin and eyes ...
The compound 13-cis retinoic acid was first studied in the 1960s at Roche Laboratories in Switzerland by Werner Bollag as a treatment for skin cancer. Experiments completed in 1971 showed that the compound was likely to be ineffective for cancer and, surprisingly, that it could be useful to treat acne. However, they also showed that the compound was likely to cause birth defects, so in light of the events around thalidomide, Roche abandoned the product. In 1975, Gary Peck and Frank Yoder independently rediscovered the drug's use as a treatment of cystic acne while studying it as a treatment for lamellar ichthyosis, and published that work. Roche resumed work on the drug. In clinical trials, subjects were carefully screened to avoid including women who were or might become pregnant. Roche's New Drug Application for isotretinoin for the treatment of acne included data showing that the drug caused birth defects in rabbits. The FDA approved the application in 1982. Scientists involved in the ...
Alcohol use and sleep
Moderate alcohol consumption 30-60 minutes before bedtime results in disruptions in sleep maintenance and sleep architecture that are mediated by blood alcohol levels. Disruptions in sleep maintenance are most marked once alcohol has been completely metabolized from the body. Under conditions of moderate alcohol consumption where blood alcohol levels average 0.06-0.08% and decrease 0.01-0.02% per hour, an alcohol clearance rate of 4-5 hours would coincide with disruptions in sleep maintenance in the second half of an 8-hour sleep episode. In terms of sleep architecture, moderate doses of alcohol facilitate "rebounds" in rapid eye movement (REM) and stage 1 sleep; following suppression in REM and stage 1 sleep in the first half of an 8-hour sleep episode, REM and stage 1 sleep increase well beyond baseline in the second half. Moderate doses of alcohol also increase slow wave sleep (SWS) in the first half of an 8-hour sleep episode. Enhancements in REM sleep and SWS following moderate ...
For instance, for genotype 1 hepatitis C treated with Pegylated interferon-alpha-2a or Pegylated interferon-alpha-2b (brand ... This finding, originally reported in Nature, showed that genotype 1 hepatitis C patients carrying certain genetic variant ... "Genetic variation in IL28B predicts hepatitis C treatment-induced viral clearance". Nature. 461 (7262): 399-401. Bibcode: ... demonstrated that the same genetic variants are also associated with the natural clearance of the genotype 1 hepatitis C virus ...
a) Viral hepatitis: Halothane, isoniazid, phenytoin. (b) Focal hepatitis: Aspirin. (c) Chronic hepatitis: Methyldopa, ... Toxic hepatitis. Toxin induced hepatitis. Drug induced hepatitis. Drug-induced hepatic necrosis. Drug induced hepatic fibrosis ... A) viral hepatitis is the most common, where histological features are similar to acute viral hepatitis. (B) in focal or non- ... C) chronic hepatitis is very similar to autoimmune hepatitis clinically, serologically, and histologically. ...
House (season 7)
... (development code GS-5734) is an antiviral drug, a novel nucleotide analog prodrug. It was developed by Gilead Sciences as a treatment for Ebola virus disease and Marburg virus infections, though it has subsequently also been found to show reasonable antiviral activity against more distantly related viruses such as respiratory syncytial virus, Junin virus, Lassa fever virus, and MERS-coronavirus. Remdesivir was rapidly pushed through clinical trials due to the 2013-2016 West African Ebola virus epidemic crisis, eventually being used in at least one human patient despite its early development stage at the time. Preliminary results were promising and it was used in the emergency setting for the 2018 Kivu Ebola outbreak along with further clinical trials, until August 2019, when Congolese health officials announced it was ineffective compared to other treatments such as mAb114 and the Regeneron-produced REGN3470-3471-3479. It may also help protect against Nipah ...
The vitamin thiamine also referred to as Vitamin B1, is required by three different enzymes to allow for conversion of ingested nutrients into energy.  Thiamine can not be produced in the body and must be obtained through diet and supplementation.  The duodenum is responsible for absorbing thiamine. The liver can store thiamine for 18 days. Prolonged and frequent consumption of alcohol causes a decreased ability to absorb thiamine in the duodenum. Thiamine deficiency is also related to malnutrition from poor diet, impaired use of thiamine by the cells and impaired storage in the liver. Without thiamine the Kreb's Cycle enzymes pyruvate dehydrogenase complex (PDH) and alpha-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase (alpha-KGDH) are impaired. The impaired functioning of the Kreb's Cycle results in inadequate production of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) or energy for the cells functioning.  Energy is required by the brain for proper functioning and use of its neurotransmitters. Injury to ...
Protease inhibitor (pharmacology)
"Chronic Hepatitis After Hepatitis E Virus Infection in a Patient With Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma Taking Rituximab" (PDF). Retrieved ... Rituximab has been reported as a possible cofactor in a chronic Hepatitis E infection in a person with lymphoma. Hepatitis E ... Other severe side effects include reactivation of hepatitis B in those previously infected, progressive multifocal ...
Usually due to hepatitis B and C, HIV, cytomegalovirus, Epstein-Barr virus, and Parvo B19 virus. ... A detailed history is important to elicit any recent medications, any risk of hepatitis infection, or any recent diagnosis with ... Complement levels that are low can suggest mixed cryoglobulinemia, hepatitis C infection, and SLE, but not most other ... Most often due to hepatitis C infection, immune complexes of cryoglobulins --- proteins that consists of immunoglobulins and ...
Hep B. It protects against the infectious diseases diphtheria, tetanus, pertussis, poliomyelitis, and hepatitis B. ... "FDA licensure of diphtheria and tetanus toxoids and acellular pertussis adsorbed, hepatitis B (recombinant), and poliovirus ... "Diphtheria, Tetanus Toxoids, Acellular Pertussis, Hepatitis B (Recombinant), and Poliovirus (Inactivated) Vaccine". Drugs.com. ... hepatitis B (recombinant) and inactivated poliovirus vaccine or DTaP-IPV- ...
Poor immune function, autoimmune diseases, Helicobacter pylori infection, hepatitis C, obesity, Epstein-Barr virus infection ... Hepatitis C virus: associated with splenic marginal zone lymphoma, lymphoplasmacytic lymphoma and diffuse large B-cell lymphoma ... Peveling-Oberhag J, Arcaini L, Hansmann ML, Zeuzem S (2013). "Hepatitis C-associated B-cell non-Hodgkin lymphomas. Epidemiology ... hepatitis C, obesity and Epstein-Barr virus infection. The World Health Organization (WHO) classifies lymphomas into five ...
2017 Gorakhpur hospital deaths
eds.). Hepatitis Viruses in: Baron's Medical Microbiology (4th ed.). Univ of Texas Medical Branch. ISBN 978-0-9631172-1-2. . ( ... Diseases caused by fecal-oral transmission include diarrhea, typhoid, cholera, polio and hepatitis. ... "Hepatitis E: an overview and recent advances in vaccine research". World J Gastroenterol. 10 (15): 2157-62. doi:10.3748/wjg. ...
"Acute alcoholic hepatitis". J. Clin. Gastroenterol. 40 (9): 833-41. doi:10.1097/01.mcg.0000225570.04773.5d. PMID 17016141.. ... Hep) moieties. The outer core oligosaccharide chain varies depending on the bacterial strain. The term ... is considered to be an important factor in the development of alcoholic hepatitis, which is likely to develop on the basis ...
21st century Madagascar plague outbreaks
Porphyria cutanea tarda
... due to the strong association between PCT and Hepatitis C, the treatment of Hepatitis C (if present) is vital to the effective ... Hepatitis C virus. Pathogenesis. Porphyria cutanea tarda is primarily caused by uroporphyrinogen decarboxylase ... One of the most common risk factors observed is infection with the Hepatitis C virus. One review of a collection of PCT ... Typically in these individuals, a variety of risk factors such as alcohol abuse and Hepatitis C infection conspire to result in ...
List of foodborne illness outbreaks by death toll
2003 United States hepatitis A outbreak. Hepatitis A. green onions. 00555 !555. 003 !3. Largest foodborne hepatitis ... "Hepatitis A Outbreak Associated with Green Onions at a Restaurant - Monaca, Pennsylvania, 2003". Centers for Disease Control ... The Pennsylvania Department of Health and CDC are investigating an outbreak of hepatitis A outbreak among patrons of a ... Preliminary sequence analysis of a 340 nucleotide region of viral RNA obtained from three patrons who had hepatitis A indicated ...
Needle exchange programme
doi:10.1002/hep.1840360703. PMID 12407572.. *^ a b c d e f g h i Tilson, H.; et al. (2007). "Preventing HIV Infection Among ... "Needle Exchange and Hepatitis C". Drug Free Australia. Archived from the original on 4 May 2013. Retrieved 13 July 2013.. ... "Hepatitis C Support Project. Archived from the original on 26 June 2013. Retrieved 20 July 2013.. ... According to the Centers for Disease Control (CDC), around 1/5 of all new HIV infections and the vast majority of Hepatitis C ...
"Hepatitis C". World Health Organization. Archived from the original on 2011-07-12. Retrieved 2013-04-25.. ... This technique is the current standard for detecting viral infections such as AIDS and hepatitis. ... which was produced in 1979 using recombinant DNA and the first genetically engineered vaccine was created in 1986 for hepatitis ...
WHO Model List of Essential Medicines
Other antivirals for hepatitis C. *Ribavirin[note 40]. *Pegylated interferon-alpha-2a or pegylated interferon-alpha-2bα[ ... Medicines for hepatitis C. Pangenotypic direct-acting antivirals. *Daclatasvir[note 38] ... Medicines for hepatitis B. Nucleoside/Nucleotide reverse transcriptase inhibitors. *Entecavir ... 126.96.36.199 Medicines for hepatitis B *188.8.131.52.1 Nucleoside/Nucleotide reverse transcriptase inhibitors ...
Nonstructural protein 5B (NS5B) is a viral protein found in the hepatitis C virus (HCV). It is an RNA polymerase, having the ... O'Farrell, D; Trowbridge, R; Rowlands, D; Jäger, J (2003). "Substrate complexes of hepatitis C virus RNA polymerase (HC-J4): ... Moradpour, D; Penin, F; Rice, CM (2007). "Replication of hepatitis C virus". Nature Reviews. Microbiology. 5 (6): 453-63. doi: ... "Crystal structures of the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase genotype 2a of hepatitis C virus reveal two conformations and suggest ...
Davi Kopenawa Yanomami
Up to 80% of liver cancers can be attributed to either hepatitis B or hepatitis C virus. In terms of mortality, the former is ... Only in 1992 was a blood test created that could detect hepatitis C in donated blood. The word hepatology is from Ancient Greek ... More than two billion people have been infected with hepatitis B virus at some point in their life, and approximately 350 ... Baruch S. Blumberg discovered hepatitis B virus in 1966 and developed the first vaccine against it 1969. He was awarded the ...
Hepatitis viruses, including hepatitis B and hepatitis C, can induce a chronic viral infection that leads to liver cancer in ... Hepatitis. DNA virus. HBV (B). RNA virus. CBV. HAV (A). HCV (C). HDV (D). HEV (E). HGV (G). ... The main viruses associated with human cancers are human papillomavirus, hepatitis B and hepatitis C virus, Epstein-Barr virus ... Hepatitis C (HCV). HCV is a known carcinogen, causing hepatocarcinoma. Human T-lymphotropic virus (HTLV). 0.03. Adult T- ...
It was discovered to be part of the virus that caused serum hepatitis by virologist Alfred Prince in 1968. Heptavax, a "first- ... generation" hepatitis B vaccine in the 1980s, was made from HBsAg extracted from the blood plasma of hepatitis patients. ... HBsAg (also known as the Australia antigen) is the surface antigen of the hepatitis B virus (HBV). It indicates current ... It is present in the sera of patients with viral hepatitis B (with or without clinical symptoms). Patients who developed ...
Recently, the pathogen-host interactomes of Hepatitis C Virus/Human (2008), Epstein Barr virus/Human (2008), Influenza ... "Hepatitis C virus infection protein network". Molecular Systems Biology. 4 (4): 230. doi:10.1038/msb.2008.66. PMC 2600670 ... "The Hepatitis E virus intraviral interactome". Sci Rep. 5: 13872. Bibcode:2015NatSR...513872O. doi:10.1038/srep13872. PMC ... "Hepatitis C Virus Protein Interaction Network Analysis Based on Hepatocellular Carcinoma". PLoS ONE. 11 (4): e0153882. Bibcode ...
History of virology
Bihl F, Negro F (May 2010). "Hepatitis E virus: a zoonosis adapting to humans". The Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy. 65 ( ... In 1963, the hepatitis B virus was discovered by Baruch Blumberg (b. 1925). Reverse transcriptase, the key enzyme that ... Zetterström R (March 2008). "Nobel Prize to Baruch Blumberg for the discovery of the aetiology of hepatitis B". Acta ... Yap SF (June 2004). "Hepatitis B: review of development from the discovery of the "Australia Antigen" to end of the twentieth ...
1994 Sep; 89(9):1578-9. Proctor DD, Chopra S, Rubenstein SC, Jokela JA, Uhl L. Mycobacteremia and granulomatous hepatitis ... Byrnes, Valerie; Chopra, Sanjiv; Koziel, Margaret J (2007). "Resolution of chronic hepatitis C following parasitosis". World ... Cheney, Catherine Petruff; Chopra, Sanjiv; Graham, Camilla (2000). "Hepatitis C". Infectious Disease Clinics of North America. ... Petruff, Catherine Ann; Bedford, Andrew; Gordon, Fredric D.; Chopra, Sanjiv (1997). "Hepatitis Vaccines". Digestive Diseases. ...
Typically, HEp-2 cells are used as a substrate to detect the antibodies in human serum. Microscope slides are coated with HEp-2 ... Comparison with autoimmune hepatitis and impact on the disease profile". Hepatology. 26 (3): 561-566. doi:10.1002/hep.510260305 ... HEp-2 cells are currently one of the most common substrates for ANA detection by immunofluorescence. Originally started a ... The first demonstration of the role of antibodies in L.E. by Haserick, J.R., et al., 1950 Autoimmunityblog - HEp-2 ANA ...
List of autoimmune diseases
It is a feature of viral hepatitis (especially chronic hepatitis) as well as autoimmune hepatitis and steatohepatitis. Defined ... Piecemeal necrosis in liver aka interface hepatitis is necrosis of the limiting plates. It may be identified as actual necrosis ... Chronic hepatitis > Chapter 3 > PATHOLOGIC FEATURES Last Modified: Mar 12, 2010. ...
Chronic hepatitis C. Infection with the hepatitis C virus causes inflammation of the liver and a variable grade of damage to ... Chronic hepatitis B. The hepatitis B virus causes liver inflammation and injury that over several decades can lead to cirrhosis ... Hepatitis D is dependent on the presence of hepatitis B and accelerates cirrhosis in co-infection. Primary biliary cholangitis ... Hepatitis B and C may be treatable with antiviral medications. Autoimmune hepatitis may be treated with steroid medications. ...
Infectious causes of cancer
Infection by some hepatitis viruses, especially hepatitis B and hepatitis C, can induce a chronic viral infection that leads to ... World-wide, liver cancer mortality is more often due to hepatitis B virus (HBV) (33%), less often due to hepatitis C virus (HCV ... Liver cancer in the United States is primarily due to three main factors: hepatitis C virus (HCV) (22%), hepatitis B virus (HBV ... Liver cancer is largely caused by infectious hepatitis B virus (HBV) plus hepatitis C virus (HBC) and stomach cancer is largely ...
It may also trigger or unmask autoimmune hepatitis. Also, more so than other tetracyclines, minocycline can cause the rare ... Gough A, Chapman S, Wagstaff K, Emery P, Elias E (January 1996). "Minocycline induced autoimmune hepatitis and systemic lupus ... Occasionally minocycline therapy may result in autoimmune disorders such as drug related lupus and auto-immune hepatitis; ... Krawitt EL (January 2006). "Autoimmune hepatitis". N. Engl. J. Med. 354 (1): 54-66. doi:10.1056/NEJMra050408. PMID 16394302. ...
Okuno T, Takeda M, Horishi M, Okanoue T, Takino T (1985). "Hepatitis due to repeated inhalation of methoxyflurane in ... Min KW, Cain GD, Sabel JS, Gyorkey F (1977). "Methoxyflurane hepatitis". Southern Medical Journal. 70 (11): 1363-4. doi:10.1097 ... CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors list (link) Brenner AI, Kaplan MM (1971). "Recurrent hepatitis due to methoxyflurane ... Joshi PH, Conn HO (1974). "The syndrome of methoxyflurane associated hepatitis". Annals of Internal Medicine. 80 (3): 395-401. ...
These include HIV, Hepatitis B, Hepatitis C, Treponema pallidum (syphilis) and, where relevant, other infections that pose a ... Hepatitis B; Hepatitis C; or syphilis. One of the main reasons for this is because testing kits are not always available. ... The transmission of hepatitis C via transfusion currently stands at a rate of about 1 in 2 million units. As with HIV, this low ... Other rare transmissible infections include hepatitis B, syphilis, Chagas disease, cytomegalovirus infections (in ...
After administering injections to hepatitis B patients, researchers found hepatitis B had penetrated the protective cap and ... "There is Hope for Hepatitis C". Yahoo. Retrieved July 31, 2017.. *^ A laser based reusable microjet injector for transdermal ... Hepatitis B can be transmitted by less than one millionth of a millilitre so makers of injectors must ensure there is no ... 1986: A hepatitis B outbreak occurs amongst 57 patients at a Los Angeles clinic due to a Med-E-Jet injector. ...
Women with hepatitis C are advised to abstain from breastfeeding if their nipples are cracked or bleeding. American studies ... "Hepatitis B and C Infections - Breastfeeding - CDC". www.cdc.gov. Retrieved 3 August 2017. This article incorporates text from ... It has been found safe for breastfeeding mothers with hepatitis B and cracked nipples to breastfeed. In the event that a ... "HCV FAQs for Health Professionals - Division of Viral Hepatitis - CDC". www.cdc.gov. Retrieved 3 August 2017. This article ...
Its indication is for treatment of chronic hepatitis C of the genotypes 1 and 4 for adults. Hepatitis C is a global disease ... an inhibitor of hepatitis C virus's NS5A protein) and grazoprevir (an NS3/4A inhibitor). It is used to treat chronic hepatitis ... with or without ribavirin in patients with hepatitis C virus genotype 1 mono-infection and HIV/hepatitis C virus co-infection ( ... Some treatments for Hepatitis C are on the cheaper side, in some instances as low as $8,400. Additional ribavirin costs can add ...
Consumers United for Evidence-based Healthcare
Azzam HS, Goertz C, Fritts M, Jonas WB (2007). "Natural products and chronic hepatitis C virus". Liver Int. 27 (1): 17-25. doi: ... Beside interacting with the cell membrane, lactoferrin also directly binds to viral particles, such as the hepatitis viruses. ... hepatitis C virus, hantaviruses, rotaviruses, poliovirus type 1, human respiratory syncytial virus, murine leukemia viruses and ... "Identification of a lactoferrin-derived peptide possessing binding activity to hepatitis C virus E2 envelope protein". J. Biol ...
Public health intervention
Diseases associated with this family include: hepatitis; high mortality rate during pregnancy; and avian hepatitis E virus is ... Kelly AG, Netzler NE, White PA (2016) Ancient recombination events and the origins of hepatitis E virus. BMC Evol Biol 16(1): ... The virus that causes Hepatitis E belongs to the Orthohepevirus genus. Group: ssRNA+ Order: Unassigned Family: Hepeviridae ... the cause of hepatitis-splenomegaly (HS) syndrome among chickens.Orthohepevirus used to be known as Hepevirus. ...
Sociology of health and illness
Incubation of Hepatitis D typically lasts for thirty five days. Most often Hepatitis D is a co-infection with Hepatitis B or a ... Normally Hepatitis B is transmitted through blood or any type of blood product. In South America Hepatitis D was found to be ... People who are treated for Hepatitis B have been able to control Hepatitis D. People who have chronic HDB will continue to get ... They called it "Hepatitis Delta Virus" (HDV). This new virus was found to be defective. HDV needed HBV to act as a helper ...
Peoples' Democratic Party (Turkey)
Mir-181 microRNA precursor
Intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy
Democratic Party of Iranian Kurdistan
doi:10.1002/hep.22683. PMID 19101985. Ho RH, Leake BF, Kilkenny DM, Meyer Zu Schwabedissen HE, Glaeser H, Kroetz DL, Kim RB ( ... doi:10.1002/hep.23151. PMC 3013376 . PMID 19821532. Rose CS, Grarup N, Krarup NT, Poulsen P, Wegner L, Nielsen T, Banasik K, ... doi:10.1002/hep.21287. PMID 16871584. Guey LT, García-Closas M, Murta-Nascimento C, Lloreta J, Palencia L, Kogevinas M, Rothman ...
... ing is an unlikely mode of transmission of infection by Hepatitis B or gonorrhea. "French kissing ups risk of oral ... "Hepatitis B" (PDF). CDC. 2012-05-08. Retrieved 2015-05-12. "Syphilis Symptoms, Causes, and Diagnosis". WebMD. Retrieved 2015-05 ... The CDC considers transmission of Hepatitis B via French kissing to be an unlikely mode of infection. Occasionally syphilis can ...
... hepatitis B, hepatitis C, dengue, yellow fever, Japanese encephalitis virus and human immunodeficiency virus in cell culture ... Burra P (2009). "Hepatitis C". Semin. Liver Dis. 29 (1): 53-65. doi:10.1055/s-0029-1192055. PMID 19235659. Nokes JD, Cane PA ( ... doi:10.1002/hep.26246. PMC 3683983 . PMID 23315914. Beckman, Adam L.; Bilinski, Alyssa; Boyko, Ryan; Camp, George M.; Wall, A. ... Most of the antiviral drugs now available are designed to help deal with HIV, herpes viruses, the hepatitis B and C viruses, ...
"Hepatitis D Virus". web.stanford.edu. Retrieved 2017-12-01. "Hepatitis D: Background, Etiology, Epidemiology". 2017-11-20. ICTV ... Hepatitis D (HDV) was discovered in 1977 by an Mario Rizzetto and is unique from Hepatitis A, B, and C because it requires ... Hepatitis B (HBV) provides a surface antigen HBsAG which in return is utilized by HDV to create a super infection resulting in ... Hepatitis Delta Virus is found all over the globe but most Prevalent in Africa, the Middle East and Southern Italy Satellite ...
GB virus C
"Detection of the GBV-C Hepatitis Virus Genome in Serum from Patients with Fulminant Hepatitis of Unknown Aetiology". Lancet. ... Hepatitis G virus and GB virus C (GBV-C) are RNA viruses that were independently identified in 1995, and were subsequently ... 2012). Hepatitis G Virus or GBV-C: A Natural Anti-HIV Interfering Virus. In: Witzany, G. (Ed). Viruses. Essential Agents of ... "Hepatitis G". My Health and Nutrition. Archived from the original on 2013-11-02. George SL, Varmaz D, Stapleton JT (2006). "GB ...
List of awareness days
Shiv Kumar Sarin
He has been one of the initiators of the Hepatitis B vaccination program in India and one of the organizers of Yellow Ribbon ... His work has assisted in the understanding of Chronic HBV Infection, Liver cancer and the B and C variants of Hepatitis and his ... He has also contributed in analyzing the mother-baby transmission of Hepatitis B and its pathogenesis. Sarin is credited with ... Sarin, Shiv Kumar (29 July 2014). "World Hepatitis Day". Radio Amity (Interview). Interview with Samiksha Mehra, Amit Bhaskar. ...
Thomas Walter Warnes
2014 Odisha jaundice outbreak
21 were found to contain the Hepatitis A virus and 4 Hepatitis E virus. On the same day, the town was visited by a team from ... refers to an outbreak of mainly Hepatitis E and also Hepatitis A which began in the town of Sambalpur in Odisha, India. The ... "Hepatitis in Sambalpur". The New Indian Express. 31 October 2014. Retrieved 7 January 2015. "Flood to Blame in Sambalpur". The ...
Baruch Samuel Blumberg
In 1964, while studying "yellow jaundice" (hepatitis), he discovered a surface antigen for hepatitis B in the blood of an ... a nonprofit organization dedicated to finding a cure for hepatitis B and improving the lives of those affected by hepatitis B ... Blumberg and his team were able to develop a screening test for the hepatitis B virus, to prevent its spread in blood donations ... "Hepatitis B: The Hunt for a Killer Virus" ''Princeton University Press.''". Press.princeton.edu. 2010-10-28. Retrieved 2011-04- ...
Because of the hepatitis rumours he lost for a few months the national team, but he was recalled for the friendly against ... "Hepatitis sidelines Sanmartean". UEFA.com. 3 February 2003. "Rapidistii au pus doctorul sa minta" (in Romanian). prosport.ro. ... On 2 February, he was diagnosed as suffering from type B and type D hepatitis at the Sports Medicine Institute in Bucharest. ...
Introduction to viruses
This is common in hepatitis B virus and hepatitis C virus infections. People chronically infected with a virus are known as ... link) Paul N, Han SH; Han (June 2011). "Combination Therapy for Chronic Hepatitis B: Current Indications". Current Hepatitis ... hepatitis B and hepatitis C are often transmitted by unprotected sex or contaminated hypodermic needles. It is important to ... Hepatitis B vaccine is an example of this type of vaccine. These vaccines are safer because they can never cause the disease. ...
ATC J06 - Immunszérumok és immunglobulinok - Wikipédia
Levels 5-10× tend to indicate viral hepatitis. Levels less than 5× normal tend to indicate drug toxicity. Acute hepatitis will ... On the other hand, if ALT is higher than AST, this is indicative of hepatitis. Levels of ALT and AST are not well correlated to ... Low levels of albumin tend to indicate a chronic condition, while it is normal in hepatitis and cholestasis. ... High conjugated bilirubin may be due to liver diseases such as cirrhosis or hepatitis, infections, medications, or blockage of ...
What is Hepatitis A - FAQ | CDC
Hepatitis A is a liver infection caused by the Hepatitis A virus. It is usually a short-term infection. Learn about ... What is the difference between hepatitis A, hepatitis B, and hepatitis C?. Hepatitis A, hepatitis B, and hepatitis C are liver ... In the United States, the most common hepatitis viruses are hepatitis A virus, hepatitis B virus, and hepatitis C virus. ... The page "What is hepatitis?" more information about the differences between hepatitis A, hepatitis B, and hepatitis C. ...
FastStats - Viral Hepatitis
Surveillance for Viral Hepatitis - United States, 2017. *Prevalence and Trends in Hepatitis B Virus Infection in the United ... Centers for Disease Control and Prevention: Viral Hepatitis. *National Institute for Allergy and Infectious Diseases: Viral ... Viral Hepatitis Among Non-Hispanic Asian Adults in the United States, 2011-2014 ...
Hepatitis B - Chapter 4 - 2020 Yellow Book | Travelers' Health | CDC
... antibody to hepatitis B core antigen; anti-HBs, antibody to hepatitis B surface antigen; hepatitis B-directed care, physical ... Hepatitis B. Aaron M. Harris. INFECTIOUS AGENT. Hepatitis B virus (HBV), a small, circular, partially double-stranded DNA virus ... Four doses of hepatitis B vaccine can be administered when a combination vaccine containing hepatitis B is administered after ... Abbreviations: HBsAg, hepatitis B surface antigen; IM, intramuscular; ELU, ELISA units of inactivated HAV; HAV, hepatitis A ...
Hepatitis A | Disease Directory | Travelers' Health | CDC
Get a hepatitis A vaccine:. *Ask your doctor or nurse about hepatitis A vaccine. *The hepatitis A vaccine is given in 2 doses, ... What is hepatitis A?. Hepatitis A is a liver disease spread by contaminated food and water. It can also be spread from the ... International Travel and Hepatitis A vaccination. *Hepatitis A in Epidemiology and Prevention of Vaccine-Preventable Diseases ... If you feel sick and think you may have hepatitis A:. *Talk to your doctor or nurse if you feel seriously ill, especially if ...
The three most common hepatitis viruses are hepatitis A, hepatitis B, and hepatitis C. (Hepatitis viruses D and E are rare in ... Hepatitis. What Is Hepatitis?. Hepatitis (pronounced: hep-uh-TIE-tiss) is an inflammation of the liver. The liver, in the right ... Read more about hepatitis B.. What Is Hepatitis C?. Like hepatitis B, the hepatitis C virus (HCV) spreads from person to person ... Read more about hepatitis A.. What Is Hepatitis B?. Hepatitis B is a more serious infection. It can lead to cirrhosis ( ...
Most cases are caused by a virus - either hepatitis A, hepatitis B, or hepatitis C - all of which can be passed to others by ... The three most common hepatitis viruses are hepatitis A, hepatitis B, and hepatitis C. (Hepatitis viruses D and E are rare in ... Read more about hepatitis B.. What Is Hepatitis C?. Like hepatitis B, the hepatitis C virus (HCV) spreads from person to person ... en españolHepatitis. What Is Hepatitis?. Hepatitis is an inflammation of the liver. The liver, in the right side of the abdomen ...
Hepatitis B - Wikipedia
World Hepatitis Day, observed July 28, aims to raise global awareness of hepatitis B and hepatitis C and encourage prevention, ... WHO , Hepatitis B Archived 9 November 2014 at the Wayback Machine. *^ a b Zuckerman AJ (1996). "Hepatitis Viruses". In Baron S ... Hepatitis. DNA virus. HBV (B). RNA virus. CBV. HAV (A). HCV (C). HDV (D). HEV (E). HGV (G). ... doi:10.1002/hep.21347. PMID 16941687.. *^ Schilsky ML (2013). "Hepatitis B "360"". Transplantation Proceedings. 45 (3): 982-985 ...
Hepatitis E - Wikipedia
"What is hepatitis?". www.who.int. WHO. Retrieved 17 April 2019.. *^ a b c d e "Hepatitis E". www.who.int. WHO. Retrieved 17 ... Hepatitis E is inflammation of the liver caused by infection with the hepatitis E virus (HEV). Hepatitis E has mainly a ... Hepatitis. DNA virus. HBV (B). RNA virus. CBV. HAV (A). HCV (C). HDV (D). HEV (E). HGV (G). ... "Hepatitis E: Background, Etiopathophysiology, Epidemiology". medscape.com. Medscape. 13 March 2019.. *^ a b c d e f g Kamar, ...
Nature Outlook : Hepatitis C
Hepatitis C. Vol. 474 No. 7350_supp S1-S48 *. In this Supplement. *Outlook ... Real-time imaging of hepatitis C virus infection using a fluorescent cell-based reporter system *Christopher T Jones ... Decreased levels of microRNA miR-122 in individuals with hepatitis C responding poorly to interferon therapy *Magdalena Sarasin ... Infecting around 120 million people worldwide, hepatitis C virus (HCV) is more common than HIV yet it is a neglected epidemic. ...
Autoimmune hepatitis | SpringerLink
Chronic hepatitis with combined features of autoimmune chronic hepatitis and chronic hepatitis C: favorable response to ... Tagle Arrospide, M., Leon Barva, R.: Viral hepatitis A as triggering agent of autoimmune hepatitis Report of case and review of ... Meyer zum Büschenfelde, K.H.: Autoimmune hepatitis: "Hepatitis sui generic". J. Hepatol. 2003; 38: 130-135Google Scholar ... Rahaman, S.M., Chira, P., Koff, R.S.: Idiopathic autoimmune chronic hepatitis triggered by hepatitis A. Amer. J. Gastroent. ...
Hepatitis | Britannica.com
Infectious agents that cause hepatitis include viruses and ... Hepatitis, inflammation of the liver that results from a ... Hepatitis A. Hepatitis A, caused by the hepatitis A virus (HAV), is the most common worldwide. The onset of hepatitis A usually ... Hepatitis B. Hepatitis B is a much more severe and longer-lasting disease than hepatitis A. It may occur as an acute disease, ... Hepatitis F and G. Some cases of hepatitis transmitted through contaminated food or water are attributed to the hepatitis F ...
Hepatitis A - NHS
Hepatitis A can be unpleasant, but its not usually serious and most people make a full recovery within a couple of months. ... Hepatitis A is a liver infection caused by a virus thats spread in the poo of an infected person. ... Read more about the hepatitis A vaccine.. Treatments for hepatitis A. Theres currently no cure for hepatitis A, but it will ... Read more about treating hepatitis A. Outlook for hepatitis A. For most people, hepatitis A will pass within two months and ...
Hepatitis B - NHS
Read about hepatitis B, an infection of the liver caused by a virus. Find out about the symptoms, causes, treatments and risks ... Hepatitis B can be serious, so you should get medical advice if:. *you think you may have been exposed to the hepatitis B virus ... How hepatitis B is spread. The hepatitis B virus is found in the blood and bodily fluids, such as semen and vaginal fluids, of ... Outlook for hepatitis B. The vast majority of people infected with hepatitis B in adulthood are able to fight off the virus and ...
Hepatitis C | Medscape
... hepatitis C symptoms and hepatitis C treatment. Read about hepatitis C transmission, hepatitis C tests, hepatitis C vaccine, ... Hepatitis C : Review clinical reference information, guidelines, and medical news on hepatitis C-- ... Hep C and Drug Abuse Often Go Hand in Hand, but Screening Lags ... Hepatitis C Treatment Linked to Reduced CVD Risk. Reuters ... Hep C Infection May Be on the Rise Among Men Using PrEP ... Viral Hepatitis: Five Highlights From the Liver Meeting. ...
ISDH: Hepatitis C
Saturday, July 28, is World Hepatitis Day, which aims to increase public awareness about all types of viral hepatitis, which ... The number of hepatitis A cases in Florida continues to grow, and its concerning health officials, because the infection can ... Its World Hepatitis Testing Day and if youre a baby boomer or born between 1945 and 1965, the state health department ... The number of hepatitis A cases in Florida has increased significantly, prompting health officials to issue an advisory on ...
... is an inflammation of the liver. Types include viral, toxic and autoimmune. Learn about hepatitis symptoms tests and ... Tests: Hepatitis A Testing, Hepatitis B Testing, Hepatitis C Testing, Acute Viral Hepatitis Panel, Liver Panel, AST, ALP, ALT, ... HBeAg = Hepatitis B e-antigen. Anti-HBe = Hepatitis B e-antibody. Anti-HBc = Anti-hepatitis B core antigen. HBV DNA = Hepatitis ... Summary Table: Most common causes of viral hepatitis. Virus. Hepatitis A. Hepatitis B. Hepatitis C. ...
Hepatitis D Virus | SpringerLink
The hepatitis D virus (HDV) was described in 1977, and it is considered the most pathogenic among all hepatotropic viruses. HDV ... Casey JL, Niro GA, Engle RE, Veja A, Gomez H, McCarthy WDM, Hyams KC, Gerin JL (1996) Hepatitis B virus (HBV)/hepatitis D virus ... Viana S, Paraná R, Moreira RC, Compri AP, Macedo V (2005) High prevalence of hepatitis B virus and hepatitis D virus in the ... Bensag A (1983) Labrea hepatitis and other fulminant hepatitis in Serra Madureira Acre and Boca de Acre Amazonas Brasil. Rev ...
ISDH: Hepatitis B 2002
Cases of acute hepatitis B infection varied with age. Figure 3 shows incidence rates of acute hepatitis B cases per 100,000 ... Hepatitis B 2002. Table 1. Hepatitis B Cases by Race and Sex, Indiana, 2002 ... The hepatitis B incidence rate for the United States in 2002 was 2.8 acute cases/100,000 population. As shown in Table 1, the ... Hepatitis B is a serious viral disease of the liver transmitted by direct contact, including sexual contact, with blood or body ...
Hepatitis C | HCV | MedlinePlus
Hepatitis C virus can spread through contact with infected blood, by sharing needles or needle-stick injuries. Learn who should ... There are different types of hepatitis. One type, hepatitis C, is caused by the hepatitis C virus (HCV). Hepatitis C can range ... Can hepatitis C be prevented?. There is no vaccine for hepatitis C. But you can help protect yourself from hepatitis C ... What are the symptoms of hepatitis C?. Most people with hepatitis C have no symptoms. Some people with acute hepatitis C do ...
CISDOC - About Hepatitis B
Training booklet on the dangers of exposure to hepatitis B virus: transmission of hepatitis B; dangers of exposure ( ... About Hepatitis B. Bibliographic information. Scriptographic Publications Ltd., Channing House, Butts Road, Alton, Hants GU34 ... infectious diseases; training material; health services; infectious hepatitis. Descriptors (secondary). safety guides; ...
Hepatitis - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus
Health Information on Hepatitis: MedlinePlus Multiple Languages Collection ... Hepatitis: MedlinePlus Health Topic - English Hepatitis: Tema de salud de MedlinePlus - español (Spanish) ... Viral Hepatitis - 简体中文 (Chinese, Simplified (Mandarin dialect)) Bilingual PDF ... Viral Hepatitis - 繁體中文 (Chinese, Traditional (Cantonese dialect)) Bilingual PDF ...
ISDH: Hepatitis C 2001
serological tests negative for hepatitis A and hepatitis B; and *antibody to hepatitis C virus verified by an additional more ... View CDCs Hepatitis C page. It is estimated that 3.9 million Americans have been infected with the hepatitis C virus, and 2.7 ... In 2001, no cases identified in Indiana met the case definition of acute hepatitis C. The acute case definition of hepatitis C ... Hepatitis C 2001. View ISDHs Quick Facts about Hepatitis C. ... Reporting of acute hepatitis C is unreliable for monitoring ...
Hepatitis: Symptoms, Treatment & Prevention
Hepatitis is the inflammation of the liver, which is most often caused by a viral infection. ... Babies born to mothers infected with hepatitis B should receive hepatitis B immune globulin and the hepatitis B vaccine within ... Hepatitis E is rare in the United States, but common in other parts of the world, according to the CDC. Hepatitis B is spread ... Most acute hepatitis infections brought on by the hepatitis A, B, C and E virus will resolve on their own over several weeks or ...
Hepatocellular hepatitis | pathology | Britannica
... hepatitis A virus (HAV), hepatitis B virus (HBV), and… ... Acute hepatocellular hepatitis: Although a number of viruses ... Other articles where Hepatocellular hepatitis is discussed: digestive system disease: ... hepatitis A virus (HAV), hepatitis B virus (HBV), and… ... In digestive system disease: Acute hepatocellular hepatitis. ...
Hepatitis B Shots Coverage
Get Hep B vaccine cost paid & use preventive services to stay healthy. Learn more. ... Learn how Hepatitis B shots coverage is part of Medicare Part B. ... Hepatitis B Virus (HBV) infection screening. *Hepatitis C ... Hepatitis B shots Medicare Part B (Medical Insurance) covers these shots if youre at medium or high risk for Hepatitis B. Your ... Other factors may also increase your risk for Hepatitis B. Check with your doctor to see if youre at high or medium risk for ...
Hepatitis a, e, b
Viral hepatitis is a systemic disease primarily involving the liver. Hepatotropic viruses : liver is the target organ and the ... Hepatitis A virus (HAV) hepatitis B virus (HBV) Hepatitis C virus (HCV) Hepatitis D virus (HDV, delta virus) Hepatitis E virus ... Hepatitis A virus (HAV)• hepatitis B virus (HBV)• Hepatitis C virus (HCV)• Hepatitis D virus (HDV, delta virus)• Hepatitis E ... Hepatitis a, e, b * 1. Viral hepatitis is a systemic disease primarily involving the liver.Hepatotropic viruses : liver is ...
Hepatitis C | Encyclopedia.com
In fact, before other viral types were found, hepatitis C was referred to as non-A, non-B hepatitis. It is not a new ... Acute (newly developed) hepatitis C is rarely observed as the early disease is generally quite mild. Spread mainly by contact ... with infected blood, the hepatitis C virus (HCV) causes most cases of viral liver infection not due to the A and B hepatitis ... Hepatitis C Definition Hepatitis C is a form of liver inflammation that causes primarily a long-lasting (chronic) disease. ...
What is hepatitis C?
... along with hepatitis A, B, D, E, and G viruses) that cause viral hepatitis. Prior to identification of the virus, it was termed ... Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is one of 6 viruses ( ... non-A/non-B hepatitis to di... more ... Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is one of 6 viruses (along with hepatitis A, B, D, E, and G viruses) that cause viral hepatitis. Prior ... Transmission of hepatitis C virus from mothers to infants. The Vertical Transmission of Hepatitis C Virus Collaborative Study ...
... is a major global public health problem. New infections continue to occur, and the source of infection includes ... household or sexual contacts of hepatitis C virus (HCV)-infected persons; and infants of HCV-infected mothers. In many ... Hepatitis C has been identified as the most common cause of post-transfusion hepatitis worldwide, accounting for approximately ... Hepatitis C has been identified as the most common cause of post-transfusion hepatitis worldwide, accounting for approximately ...
ViralInfectionVaccineJaundiceCirrhosisType of hepatitisSymptoms of hepatitisVaccination2017Inflammation2018InfectionsVirusesPrevent hepatitisWorld Hepatitis DayAutoimmuneRisk for hepatitisCaused by the hepatitis A virAntibodiesContract hepatitisIncubation periodFulminant hepatitisDiagnosisSevereTypes of hepatitisComplicationsDiseasePatientsTreatmentsInfected with the hepatitis C virIllness2016Liver damageOutbreaksInject drugsImmune globulinInterferonSpreadsHealthcareForm of hepatitisTreatment for hepatitisPreventionVaccinesCasesGenotypeNauseaPrevalence of hepatitisCommonCure hepatitisTreat hepatitisCause hepatitisAlcoholic-hepatitisInfectious hepatitisOccursBlood transfusionIntravenous drug usersExposureLikely to get hepatitisPeople infected with hepatitis
- The clinical diagnosis of acute HBV infection is based on signs or symptoms consistent with viral hepatitis and elevated hepatic transaminases but cannot be distinguished from other causes of acute hepatitis. (cdc.gov)
- The two scientists managed to coax viral cells that cause hepatitis C to multiply inside lab-grown host cells, enabling crucial testing required to invent candidate drugs. (scientificamerican.com)
- Acute infection with hepatitis B virus is associated with acute viral hepatitis , an illness that begins with general ill-health, loss of appetite, nausea, vomiting, body aches, mild fever, and dark urine, and then progresses to development of jaundice . (wikipedia.org)
- Please complete this short survey to help guide our planning process for Viral Hepatitis Elimination in Hawaii. (google.com)
- At the in-person meeting on July 28, the planning group agreed to create a plan that focused on both viral hepatitis B and C. The plan would cover efforts from 2020 to 2030, in alignment with the World Health Organization's Hepatitis Elimination Plan. (google.com)
- Thus, although viral hepatitis (inflammation of the liver) predominantly affects hepatocytes, it commonly leads to damaged canaliculi, small channels that transport bile from hepatocytes. (britannica.com)
- The signs and symptoms of acute viral hepatitis result from damage to the liver and are similar regardless of the hepatitis virus responsible. (britannica.com)
- Complications of acute viral hepatitis include fulminant hepatitis, which is a very severe, rapidly developing form of the disease that results in severe liver failure, impaired kidney function, difficulty in the clotting of blood, and marked changes in neurological function. (britannica.com)
- The term viral hepatitis , however, usually is applied only to those cases of liver disease caused by the hepatitis viruses. (britannica.com)
- Saturday, July 28, is World Hepatitis Day, which aims to increase public awareness about all types of viral hepatitis, which affect more than 300 million people worldwide. (orlandosentinel.com)
- Chronic HBV/HDV coinfection leads to the most severe form of chronic viral hepatitis, so it is important to elucidate the molecular mechanisms regulating virus-host interplay and pathogenesis. (springer.com)
- Hepatitis B is a serious viral disease of the liver transmitted by direct contact, including sexual contact, with blood or body fluids that contain the virus. (in.gov)
- Although hepatitis can be the symptom of many illnesses, including autoimmune diseases, it is most often caused by a viral infection. (livescience.com)
- There are five main types of viral hepatitis - A, B, C, D and E. Of those, Hepatitis A, B and C are the most common types in the United States, according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). (livescience.com)
- Viral hepatitis sometimes goes away without any treatment, but in some cases, the virus will stay in the body and cause a chronic infection. (livescience.com)
- Hepatitis A and E are acute (short-term) viral infections typically transmitted through food or water contaminated by fecal matter, the WHO says. (livescience.com)
- Viral hepatitis is a systemic disease primarily involving the liver. (slideshare.net)
- Spread mainly by contact with infected blood, the hepatitis C virus (HCV) causes most cases of viral liver infection not due to the A and B hepatitis viruses. (encyclopedia.com)
- In fact, before other viral types were found, hepatitis C was referred to as "non-A, non-B hepatitis. (encyclopedia.com)
- The meeting highlighted the importance of viral hepatitis to the public's health. (hhs.gov)
- Review Management issues in chronic viral hepatitis: hepatitis C. [J Gastroenterol Hepatol. (nih.gov)
- Infectious hepatitis commonly includes hepatitis A, B, or C. All of these forms are caused by viral infections. (medicalnewstoday.com)
- Two webinars featured individuals and experts from the 11 priority populations in the National Viral Hepatitis Action Plan sharing their perspectives. (hhs.gov)
- FRIDAY, Dec. 21 (HealthDay News) -- Of all the diseases people worry about getting, viral hepatitis is usually way down on the list. (medicinenet.com)
- The vast majority of people who have viral hepatitis, especially hepatitis C , don't know they have it, and that's the biggest problem we have with hepatitis," said Dr. David Bernstein, chief of hepatology at North Shore University Hospital in Manhasset, N.Y. (medicinenet.com)
- A bipartisan bill was introduced in Congress last year, the Viral Hepatitis Testing Act of 2011, that would establish a national system to identify the incidence of hepatitis B and C infections, and provide funding to increase the availability of testing. (medicinenet.com)
- Hepatitis C is one of the three most common forms of viral hepatitis, the other two being hepatitis A and B. Hepatitis is an inflammation of the liver, and when that inflammation is caused by a viral infection, the disease is known as viral hepatitis. (medicinenet.com)
- Hepatitis B, on the other hand, is a more serious form of viral hepatitis. (medicinenet.com)
- Hepatitis is mostly caused by liver infection s, typically viral ones, but it can also be caused by exposure to toxic drug s and other chemical s that irritate and poison the liver. (everything2.com)
- A rare, severe complication of viral hepatitis is a condition called icterus gravis , or massive hepatic necrosis . (everything2.com)
- There are several vaccines that are available to protect against hepatitis B. The vaccine component is one of the viral envelope proteins, which the immune system recognises and starts to produce antibodies against. (news-medical.net)
- Acute viral hepatitis is caused by several types of blood-borne viruses that produce inflammation of the liver. (healthcentral.com)
- Hepatitis A, another common form of acute viral hepatitis, can cause flu-like symptoms but usually results in complete recovery and immunity to future type A infection. (healthcentral.com)
- Hepatitis A is a viral infection of the liver caused by the Hepatitis A virus (HAV). (healthcentral.com)
- In fact, there are five forms of acute viral Hepatitis that are often clinically indistinguishable from one another. (healthcentral.com)
- It is important not to confuse hepatitis A with any other viral Hepatitis. (healthcentral.com)
- Hepatitis D is a viral infection that causes liver inflammation and damage. (nih.gov)
- The Centers for Disease Control (CDC) and its public health partners join together in raising public awareness of viral hepatitis during the month of May. (prweb.com)
- Throughout Hepatitis Awareness month, people are encouraged to learn about Viral Hepatitis, its risks and consequences, and its prevention. (prweb.com)
- Hepatitis Testing Day is recognized on May 19th, and people who are at risk of Viral Hepatitis are encouraged to get tested. (prweb.com)
- A number of populations are at risk of Viral Hepatitis. (prweb.com)
- Injection drug users who use and/or share contaminated needles or other drug-injection equipment are one of the populations at high risk of Viral Hepatitis infection. (prweb.com)
- The two most common types of Viral Hepatitis caused by drug use are Hepatitis A and Hepatitis B, though there is risk of Hepatitis C, as well. (prweb.com)
- Hepatitis B is a common viral infection that can have serious consequences. (medicalnewstoday.com)
- There are five types of viral hepatitis: A, B,C, D, and E. Hepatitis A, an acute infection caused by a virus of the genus Hepatovirus is transmitted by contaminated food and water. (dictionary.com)
- The United Nations' World Health Organization says millions of lives could be saved if people infected with viral hepatitis were tested and treated for these potentially fatal diseases. (voanews.com)
- Latest estimates show that viral hepatitis caused 1.34 million deaths in 2015 and that some 1.75 million people were newly infected with hepatitis C, bringing the total number of people living with this disease globally to 71 million. (voanews.com)
- Gottfried Hirnschall, director of WHOs department of HIV/global hepatitis program, said that the number of deaths from viral hepatitis was comparable to that of tuberculosis. (voanews.com)
- For information on chronic viral hepatitis in your jurisdiction, contact your local health department. (ca.gov)
- Specific serological diagnosis of viral hepatitis. (cmaj.ca)
- The Massachusetts General Hospital Center for Viral Hepatitis provides care to patients living with chronic viral hepatitis, including hepatitis B virus (HBV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV). (massgeneral.org)
- The Massachusetts General Hospital Center for Viral Hepatitis is a joint Infectious Disease Division/Gastrointestinal Unit effort created to provide expertise and care to patients living with chronic viral hepatitis, including hepatitis B virus (HBV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV). (massgeneral.org)
- The practice is staffed by a team of individuals trained in infectious disease with experience and expertise in the diagnosis, evaluation and management of viral hepatitis. (massgeneral.org)
- Something new are viral load measurements (PCR) of Hep B DNA and Hep C RNA, which gives you an actual count of viral activity. (thebody.com)
- Viral hepatitis is a major cause of morbidity and mortality world over and a rising cause for concern in Asian countries including Pakistan. (selfgrowth.com)
- Despite the burden it places on communities across the world, hepatitis appears to have been largely ignored as a public health concern: Hepatitis B and C are among the most common viral infections in the world. (roche.com)
- Viral hepatitis caused 1.34 million deaths in 2015, a number comparable to deaths caused by tuberculosis and higher than those caused by HIV. (roche.com)
- There are five main types of viral hepatitis, the most common being hepatitis A (HAV), B (HBV) and C (HCV). (roche.com)
- Thanks to a United Nations resolution on the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development 6 , viral hepatitis will finally get the awareness it deserves as the WHO introduced global targets for care and management of viral hepatitis. (roche.com)
- The diagnosis of 90% of patients with viral hepatitis. (roche.com)
- Although we have made progress in combatting viral hepatitis, there's more to be done. (roche.com)
- Roche is committed to the fight against viral hepatitis, and continues to look for new and innovative ways to prevent, test and treat viral hepatitis. (roche.com)
- Global Health Sector Strategy on Viral Hepatitis 2016−2021. (roche.com)
- Our expertise includes challenging conditions such as chronic viral hepatitis (hepatitis C or hepatitis B), fatty liver, inherited liver diseases including hemochromatosis, autoimmune liver diseases, cirrhosis, end-stage liver disease, hepatocellular (liver) cancer, cholangiocarcinoma (bile duct cancer) and liver metastases from other cancers. (massgeneral.org)
- National Institute on Drug Abuse - Provides information about the types of viral Hepatitis including their description, transmission, treatment, and prevention. (bms.com)
- Viral Hepatitis U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs - A resource for veterans and the public offering information for living with and treating Hepatitis. (bms.com)
- Viral hepatitis - a group of infectious diseases known as hepatitis A, B, C, D, and E - affects hundreds of millions of people worldwide, causing acute and chronic liver disease and killing close to 1.5 million people every year, mostly from hepatitis B and C. These infections can be prevented, but most people don't know how. (who.int)
- In May 2014, World Health Assembly delegates from 194 governments adopted a resolution to promote global action to prevent, diagnose, and treat viral hepatitis. (who.int)
- Hepatitis A is a viral infection that can inflame and damage the liver. (womenshealthmag.com)
- It starts with acute symptoms in 30% of the cases with jaundice, fever, malaise, liver tenderness, like an acute viral hepatitis. (luc.edu)
- Tackling the undiagnosed fraction: the ECDC Guidance outlines whom, where, how and when to test for viral hepatitis and HIV and offers options for testing strategies that are applicable to all healthcare settings and beyond, e.g. self-sampling and self-testing. (europa.eu)
- Hepatitis A is a highly contagious viral infection of the liver. (emoryhealthcare.org)
- World Hepatitis Day is marked on 28 July each year to increase the awareness and understanding of viral hepatitis. (europa.eu)
- This entry represent the core antigen of the viral capsid (HBcAg) from various Hepatitis B virus (HBV), which is a major human pathogen. (ebi.ac.uk)
- It is characterized by inflammation of the liver and is the least serious of the viral forms of hepatitis. (latimes.com)
- These new recommendations are critical to identifying people who are living with the disease without the benefits of medical attention," Dr. John W. Ward, director of CDC?s division of viral hepatitis said in a statement. (redorbit.com)
- This is a very graphic example of the public health impact, the incredible power that vaccinations can have," said Dr. Beth P. Bell, chief epidemiologist in the National Center for Infectious Disease viral hepatitis division. (latimes.com)
- There are five main types of viral hepatitis: type A, B, C, D, and E. Hepatitis A and E are mainly spread by contaminated food and water. (wikipedia.org)
- Medications may be used to treat chronic cases of viral hepatitis. (wikipedia.org)
- The acute form of hepatitis, generally caused by viral infection, is characterized by constitutional symptoms that are typically self-limiting. (wikipedia.org)
- Acute viral hepatitis follows a pattern of infection that involves three distinct phases: The initial prodromal phase (preceding symptoms) involves non-specific and flu-like symptoms common to many acute viral infections. (wikipedia.org)
- Both drug-induced hepatitis and autoimmune hepatitis can present very similarly to acute viral hepatitis, with slight variations in symptoms depending on the cause. (wikipedia.org)
- Hepatitis A is usually a short-term infection and does not become chronic. (cdc.gov)
- Hepatitis A is a highly contagious, short-term liver infection caused by the hepatitis A virus. (cdc.gov)
- Can I prevent infection after an exposure to the hepatitis A virus? (cdc.gov)
- Disease data source: Schweitzer A, Horn J, Mikolajczyk R, Krause G, Ott J. Estimations of worldwide prevalence of chronic hepatitis B virus infection: a systematic review of data published between 1965 and 2013. (cdc.gov)
- Serologic markers specific for hepatitis B are necessary to diagnose HBV infection and for appropriate clinical management ( Table 4-03 ). (cdc.gov)
- Hepatitis A is a common infection among travelers to developing countries. (cdc.gov)
- The hepatitis A vaccine has helped to make the infection rare in the United States and other developed countries. (kidshealth.org)
- Although a hepatitis A infection can cause severe symptoms, unlike some other hepatitis viruses, it rarely leads to long-lasting liver damage. (kidshealth.org)
- People who have recovered from a hepatitis A infection have immunity to the virus and won't get it again. (kidshealth.org)
- Hepatitis B is a more serious infection. (kidshealth.org)
- The hepatitis B vaccine is approved for people of all ages to prevent HBV infection. (kidshealth.org)
- Infection around the time of birth or from contact with other people's blood during childhood is the most frequent method by which hepatitis B is acquired in areas where the disease is common . (wikipedia.org)
- It is also recommended that all blood be tested for hepatitis B before transfusion and condoms be used to prevent infection. (wikipedia.org)
- Chronic infection with hepatitis B virus either may be asymptomatic or may be associated with a chronic inflammation of the liver (chronic hepatitis), leading to cirrhosis over a period of several years. (wikipedia.org)
- Hepatitis E is inflammation of the liver caused by infection with the hepatitis E virus (HEV). (wikipedia.org)
- While usually lasting weeks and then resolving, in people with weakened immune systems -particularly in people who have had solid organ transplant-hepatitis E may cause a chronic infection . (wikipedia.org)
- Infection with hepatitis E virus can also lead to problems in other organs. (wikipedia.org)
- Hepatitis A is a liver disease caused by infection with the hepatitis A virus (HAV). (webmd.com)
- Infection can be prevented by getting immunized with the hepatitis A vaccine. (webmd.com)
- Hepatitis A is a liver infection caused by a virus that's spread in the poo of an infected person. (www.nhs.uk)
- A hepatitis A vaccine is available for people at a high risk of infection. (www.nhs.uk)
- Vaccination against hepatitis A isn't routinely offered in the UK because the risk of infection is low for most people. (www.nhs.uk)
- Hepatitis B is an infection of the liver caused by a virus that's spread through blood and body fluids. (www.nhs.uk)
- These symptoms will usually pass within 1 to 3 months (acute hepatitis B), although occasionally the infection can last for 6 months or more (chronic hepatitis B). (www.nhs.uk)
- The hepatitis B vaccine may also be recommended to reduce your risk of infection. (www.nhs.uk)
- If you have only had the infection for a few weeks or months (acute hepatitis B), you may only need treatment to relieve your symptoms while your body fights off the infection. (www.nhs.uk)
- If you have had the infection for more than 6 months (chronic hepatitis B), you may be offered treatment with medicines that can keep the virus under control and reduce the risk of liver damage. (www.nhs.uk)
- The hepatitis B vaccine is given to infants as part of the routine childhood vaccination schedule and those at high risk of developing the infection. (www.nhs.uk)
- The number of hepatitis A cases in Florida continues to grow, and it's concerning health officials, because the infection can be prevented by vaccination, but there are no drugs to treat it. (orlandosentinel.com)
- Most often, hepatitis is caused by infection with certain viruses . (labtestsonline.org)
- Barros A, Gomes-gouvêa B, Pinho B, Alvarado-mora BA, Dos Santos A, Mendes-corrêa AJM, Caldas AMT, Sousa MDC, Santos SP, Ferreira ASP (2011) Hepatitis delta virus genotype 8 infection in northeast Brazil: inheritance from african slaves. (springer.com)
- Braga WS, Castilho Mda C, Borges FG, Leão JR, Martinho AC, Rodrigues IS, Azevedo EP, Barros Júnior GM, Paraná R (2012) Hepatitis D virus infection in the Western Brazilian Amazon-far from a vanishing disease. (springer.com)
- and targeted vaccination of individuals at increased risk of hepatitis B including health care workers, dialysis patients, household contacts and sex partners of persons with chronic hepatitis B infection, recipients of certain blood products, persons with a recent history of having multiple sex partners or a sexually transmitted disease, men who have sex with men, and injecting drug users. (in.gov)
- Cases of acute hepatitis B infection varied with age. (in.gov)
- Acute hepatitis C is a short-term infection. (medlineplus.gov)
- Chronic hepatitis C is a long-lasting infection. (medlineplus.gov)
- If you have acute hepatitis C, your health care provider may wait to see if your infection becomes chronic before starting treatment. (medlineplus.gov)
- Reporting of acute hepatitis C is unreliable for monitoring incidence of newly acquired infection, because no serologic marker is available to diagnose acute hepatitis C, and persons testing positive for hepatitis C antibody may be reported as acute hepatitis C when the case definition has not been met. (in.gov)
- Hepatitis can be caused by drugs, alcohol or other toxins, by infection with bacteria, viruses or parasites, or when the body mistakenly attacks the liver (an autoimmune disease), according to the World Health Organization . (livescience.com)
- About 2 to 6 percent of adults infected with hepatitis B, and about 75 to 85 percent of people infected with hepatitis C, will develop a chronic infection, according to the CDC . (livescience.com)
- Infants and children who contract hepatitis B have a higher risk for chronic infection. (livescience.com)
- Hepatitis B infections can also increase the risk of becoming infected with hepatitis D, which cannot be contracted unless there's already a pre-existing hepatitis B infection, according to the Mayo Clinic. (livescience.com)
- Most (four in five) patients will not develop cirrhosis and instead have a mild, chronic form of infection called chronic persistent hepatitis and when they die, will die with, not of, the infection. (encyclopedia.com)
- The hepatitis B virus (HBV) can cause lifelong infection, cirrhosis (scarring) of the liver, liver cancer, liver failure, and death. (ca.gov)
- Is there any way to prevent hepatitis A infection? (babycenter.com)
- The term 'hepatitis' simply means inflammation or swelling of the liver, and can be caused by chemicals or drugs, or by infection. (netdoctor.co.uk)
- a fixed-dose combination of ledipasvir, a hepatitis C virus (HCV) NS5A inhibitor, and sofosbuvir, an HCV nucleotide analog NS5B polymerase inhibitor, and is indicated for the treatment of chronic hepatitis C (CHC) genotype 1 infection in adults. (fda.gov)
- Review Innate immune responses in hepatitis C virus infection. (nih.gov)
- Review Mechanisms of hepatitis C virus infection. (nih.gov)
- New research from the CDC suggests that the recent steep increase in cases of acute hepatitis C virus infection is associated with increases in opioid injection. (hhs.gov)
- With increased Congressional funding, the Department of Veterans Affairs is planning to treat all veterans with chronic hepatitis C infection enrolled in VA. (hhs.gov)
- May 21, 2007 -- A new report shows that patients with hepatitis C infection can not only be successfully treated by the best available drug therapies, but they also can be cured. (webmd.com)
- Up to seven years after treatment, 99% of close to 1,000 successfully treated patients showed no evidence of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection. (webmd.com)
- Hepatitis A is primarily an acute infection that gets better on its own. (medicinenet.com)
- Individuals who recover also develop antibodies against any future hepatitis B infection. (news-medical.net)
- Of all the acute hepatitis cases in the United States from 1982-1993, 47% were caused by hepatitis A, 34% by hepatitis B, 16% by hepatitis C, and 3% by some other infection. (everything2.com)
- Hepatitis B may cause mild symptoms that resolve without treatment, but this virus, like type C, can cause chronic infection. (healthcentral.com)
- About 29,500 new cases of acute hepatitis C occur each year-and some 3 million Americans are estimated to have chronic hepatitis C infection. (healthcentral.com)
- In about 25% of people who contract hepatitis C, acute infection resolves on its own, often within six months but sometimes years later. (healthcentral.com)
- The hepatitis D virus is unusual because it can only infect you when you also have a hepatitis B virus infection. (nih.gov)
- In this way, hepatitis D is a double infection. (nih.gov)
- The hepatitis D virus can cause an acute or chronic infection, or both. (nih.gov)
- Although acute liver failure is uncommon, hepatitis D and B infections are more likely to lead to acute liver failure than hepatitis B infection alone. (nih.gov)
- Hepatitis E typically causes acute, or short-term, infection. (nih.gov)
- Blood tests can detect antibodies to the hepatitis E virus and show whether you have hepatitis E. The virus can also be detected in blood and in stool samples taken during acute hepatitis E infection. (nih.gov)
- Hepatitis A does not lead to a chronic Hepatitis infection. (prweb.com)
- A Hepatitis C infection sometimes causes an acute illness lasting a few weeks. (prweb.com)
- Acute Hepatitis C commonly leads to a chronic infection. (prweb.com)
- The CDC recommends that anyone who has been an injection drug user get tested for Hepatitis B and Hepatitis C infection. (prweb.com)
- Hepatitis B is an infection of the liver by the hepatitis B virus. (medicalnewstoday.com)
- Hepatitis B is a virus that infects the liver which can cause a chronic infection that could lead to cirrhosis and liver cancer. (mycentraljersey.com)
- Chronic hepatitis B infection affects 350 million people worldwide and 1.2 million people in the US. (mycentraljersey.com)
- You should get to a doctor right away in order to receive a shot of hepatitis B immune globulin and hepatitis B Vaccine that will help your body's own immune system to fight off the infection. (mycentraljersey.com)
- Prior to exposure a very effective vaccine will protect the vast majority of people for getting Hepatitis B. This vaccine has contributed to a 96% decline in the incidence of hepatitis B infection. (mycentraljersey.com)
- Percentage of patients aged 18 years and older with one or more of the following: a history of injection drug use, receipt of a blood transfusion prior to 1992, receiving maintenance hemodialysis, OR birthdate in the years 1945-1965 who received one-time screening for hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection. (acponline.org)
- Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection causes liver inflammation that can lead to liver problems, including cancer. (healthline.com)
- Your own immune system response causes some of the symptoms associated with Hep B infection. (thebody.com)
- Chronic Hep C infection is associated with cirrhosis of t he liver, which is scar formation in the tissue, and related to an increased risk of liver cancer. (thebody.com)
- There is no antiviral treatment for Hep A infection. (thebody.com)
- 3TC may suppress Hep B replication, but might not get rid of the infection. (thebody.com)
- There is no vaccine for Hep C yet, so to avoid infection, have safer sex and use clean needles. (thebody.com)
- Hep B and Hep C can be latent (very low level), active (initial infection), or chronic (life-long high level). (thebody.com)
- Although treatment for chronic hepatitis C infections is available, no post-exposure prophylaxis regimen is available to prevent infection. (kingcounty.gov)
- The prevalence of chronic hepatitis C infection is the highest among persons born during 1945-1965. (kingcounty.gov)
- Seventy-five to 85% of people who get infected with hepatitis C virus will become chronic carriers (chronic infection). (kingcounty.gov)
- Until recently, there was no cure for most people with hepatitis C infection. (kingcounty.gov)
- Hepatitis C Test & Cure is committed to making the most of recent advances in medicine that can improve the lives of thousands suffering from chronic hepatitis infection. (kingcounty.gov)
- They provide hepatitis B vaccine only to well-defined risk groups, in addition to screening pregnant women to identify and immunize neonates exposed to infection. (who.int)
- Hepatitis A virus infects the liver and can cause illnesses that range from a mild infection that has no symptoms to a more severe illness that can last for months. (kingcounty.gov)
- Hepatitis C infection is the most common chronic blood borne infection in the U.S. (kpbs.org)
- A Department of Health spokeswoman said: "The UK has one of the lowest rates of chronic hepatitis B infection in the world and the incidence of acute hepatitis B remains relatively stable and low. (telegraph.co.uk)
- Expert advice has been that we should seek to improve immunisation of groups most at risk of infection, such as babies born to mothers with hepatitis B - we already have universal screening of all pregnant women for hepatitis B - injecting drug users and gay and bisexual men, and this is what we have been doing. (telegraph.co.uk)
- On World Hepatitis Day, 28 July 2015, WHO and partners will urge policy-makers, health workers and the public to act now to prevent infection and death from hepatitis. (who.int)
- Unsafe blood, unsafe injections, and sharing drug-injection equipment can all result in hepatitis infection. (who.int)
- Approximately 780 000 persons die each year from hepatitis B infection. (who.int)
- A safe and effective vaccine can protect from hepatitis B infection for life. (who.int)
- Hepatitis A is a highly contagious liver infection that can be caught from another person or from consuming contaminated food or water, according to the CDC . (cnn.com)
- In rare cases, hepatitis A can be spread by contact with the blood of a person who has the infection, for instance, when intravenous drug users share needles. (womenshealthmag.com)
- HepVu: Interactive online resource that visualizes the first standardized state-level estimates of people with past or current Hepatitis C infection across the United States. (nfid.org)
- People who believe that they are at high risk for hepatitis A infection should contact their healthcare provider or local health department for information about vaccination. (ohio.gov)
- In a collaborative effort with groups across Europe and the USA, scientists from Nottingham University have recently identified antibodies that can successfully prevent infection with many diverse strains of Hepatitis C virus in laboratory models. (eurekalert.org)
- The surgeon in this case had previously received the hepatitis B vaccine, but did not respond to the vaccine because he already had an infection, Sifri said. (livescience.com)
- A surgeon with a chronic hepatitis B infection transmitted the virus to two of his patients. (livescience.com)
- Delhi is among the first states that made it mandatory to immunize a child against hepatitis infection in 2000 but even a decade later, most states are still to follow suit," said Dr Sarin, speaking on Hepatitis Day. (hindustantimes.com)
- Technivie is a prescription medicine used with ribavirin to treat adults with genotype 4 chronic (lasting a long time) hepatitis C virus ( HCV ) infection without cirrhosis or with a certain type of cirrhosis (compensated). (medicinenet.com)
- Before starting treatment with Technivie, your healthcare provider will do blood tests to check for hepatitis B virus infection. (medicinenet.com)
- If you have ever had hepatitis B virus infection, the hepatitis B virus could become active again during or after treatment for hepatitis C virus with Technivie. (medicinenet.com)
- The complication more frequently occurs in instances of hepatitis B and D co-infection at a rate of 2-20% and in pregnant women with hepatitis E at rate of 15-20% of cases. (wikipedia.org)
- however, there is no vaccine for hepatitis C. (cdc.gov)
- Since the hepatitis A vaccine was first recommended in 1996, cases of hepatitis A in the United States declined dramatically. (cdc.gov)
- People 1 year of age and older who are traveling to or working in countries where they would have a high or intermediate risk of hepatitis A virus, should strongly consider the Hepatitis A vaccine. (cdc.gov)
- Ask your doctor or nurse about hepatitis A vaccine. (cdc.gov)
- The hepatitis A vaccine is given in 2 doses, 6 months apart. (cdc.gov)
- Scientists have been trying for decades to develop a hepatitis C vaccine, but none has been successful yet. (kidshealth.org)
- The hepatitis A vaccine is usually available for free on the NHS for anyone who needs it. (www.nhs.uk)
- A hepatitis B vaccine is available for people at high risk of the condition. (www.nhs.uk)
- A vaccine that offers protection against hepatitis B is routinely available for all babies born in the UK. (www.nhs.uk)
- You do not need to pay for the vaccine if your child is eligible to receive it as part of the routine childhood vaccination schedule, or they're born to a mother with hepatitis B. (www.nhs.uk)
- A vaccine is available to prevent Hepatitis B infections. (google.com)
- There is no vaccine for Hepatitis C. Treatment may keep the virus under control, but it will not cure the disease. (google.com)
- The hepatitis A vaccine will protect your child for about 20 years. (babycenter.com)
- Your baby will still need to get the hepatitis A vaccine after he turns 1. (babycenter.com)
- If you had hepatitis B when you gave birth, your baby should have received both the hepatitis B vaccine and an injection of immune globulin, which contains antibodies against the virus. (babycenter.com)
- And ask your doctor about getting the hepatitis B vaccine. (plannedparenthood.org)
- Hepatitis A does not require any specific treatment, and there's a vaccine available to prevent it. (medicinenet.com)
- There's no cure for hepatitis B, although a vaccine can prevent the disease. (medicinenet.com)
- The Hepatitis B vaccine is recommended, but not required, for students attending NIU. (niu.edu)
- The Preventive Medicine department offers the Hepatitis B vaccine for a charge. (niu.edu)
- You can protect yourself from hepatitis D by protecting yourself from hepatitis B by getting the hepatitis B vaccine . (nih.gov)
- She said 95 percent or 185 countries now use the hepatitis B vaccine in routine immunization programs. (voanews.com)
- That is great and as I mentioned because of this, 85 percent of the infants worldwide are protected with three doses of hepatitis B vaccine. (voanews.com)
- There is a vaccine, which can be given in combination with the vaccine for Hep B. (thebody.com)
- There is a vaccine that can protect you against Hep B, run to the doctor and get it. (thebody.com)
- There is no vaccine to prevent hepatitis C but there is, however, a cure. (kingcounty.gov)
- After years of speculation, it's finally been confirmed that the hepatitis B vaccine causes multiple sclerosis (MS). Researchers from Harvard estimate that it increases the risk by over three times, but they're not sure if the vaccine causes MS in. (healthy.net)
- Q:I learned through your articles that I, along with possibly many thousand other health workers across the country, had been vaccinated in the late Eighties with the serum hepatitis B vaccine. (healthy.net)
- The regional coverage rate with three doses of hepatitis B vaccine (HepB3) was 76% in 2008, according to data reported to WHO, compared with 67% in 2003 and 40% in 2000. (who.int)
- This indicator uses the total regional population of children under 1 year of age as a denominator and includes children in countries without universal immunization programmes against hepatitis B. National coverage data indicate that many countries have achieved high levels of Hep3 coverage, similar to coverage rate with three doses of diphtheria, tetanus and pertussis vaccine (DTP3). (who.int)
- Anyone who is in the higher risk groups should be sure to get the hepatitis A vaccine to protect themselves. (kingcounty.gov)
- You can also check www.vaccinefinder.org for pharmacies that offer hepatitis A vaccine. (kingcounty.gov)
- The date of 28 July was chosen for World Hepatitis Day in honour of the birthday of Nobel Laureate Professor Baruch Samuel Blumberg, discoverer of the hepatitis B virus and developer of the first hepatitis B vaccine. (who.int)
- For unvaccinated people who ate the recalled raw or undercooked tuna in the last two weeks, the CDC recommends getting the hepatitis A vaccine if they're ages 1 to 40, or hepatitis A virus-specific immunoglobulin for people outside the age range. (cnn.com)
- If you have been exposed to someone with hepatitis A, your doctor may give you the hepatitis vaccine or an injection of hepatitis A immune globulin to help prevent you from getting symptoms of the illness. (womenshealthmag.com)
- Hepatitis A is the most common vaccine-preventable disease acquired during travel. (nfid.org)
- The hepatitis A vaccine is 94-100% effective in preventing the disease. (nfid.org)
- Learn more about hepatitis A and the vaccine to prevent it in adolescents at adolescentvaccination.org and adults at adultvaccination.org . (nfid.org)
- Hepatitis A is a vaccine-preventable liver disease that usually spreads when a person ingests fecal matter - even in microscopic amounts - from contact with objects, food or drinks contaminated by the stool of an infected person. (ohio.gov)
- We are also using the information gained by identifying and characterising the antibody responses to Hepatitis C virus to design new ways of making vaccine candidates. (eurekalert.org)
- Dr Tarr is presenting the paper 'Human antibodies to Hepatitis C virus - potential for vaccine design' at 1615 on Tuesday 04 September 2007 in the Young Microbiologist of the Year Competition of the 161st Meeting of the Society for General Microbiology at the University of Edinburgh, 03 - 06 September 2007. (eurekalert.org)
- Most of the drop has been among Latino children, who had a rate of hepatitis so high that a UCLA medical school study of the pre-vaccine years of the early 1990s called it an epidemic. (latimes.com)
- Unlike inoculations for polio, measles and diphtheria that children are required to get before they can enroll in school, taking the vaccine for the most prevalent type of hepatitis is voluntary in California. (latimes.com)
- The hepatitis B vaccine has been available for 20 years and is required of children entering school in California. (latimes.com)
- Freda Montes, 8, who recently moved from Mexico to Santa Ana, had come to the clinic with her mother, father and aunt for a tuberculosis test and a hepatitis B vaccine so she could enroll at Taft Elementary School. (latimes.com)
- Acute hepatitis is often suspected and testing done because of the appearance of signs and symptoms, such as fever, loss of appetite, and nausea, often accompanied by dark urine, pale stools, and yellow discoloration of the skin and the whites of the eyes ( jaundice ). (labtestsonline.org)
- In 2002, there were 85 reported cases of acute hepatitis B in Indiana: 81 percent exhibited jaundice, 33 percent were hospitalized, and 1 case resulted in death. (in.gov)
- 3. The clinical manifestations of hepatitis are the same, regardless of which virus is the cause.is characterized by: Fever+ gastrointestinal symptoms ( anorexia, nausea, vomiting) + Jaundice No jaundice ↓ ↓ icteric hepatitis anicteric hepatitis (is more common). (slideshare.net)
- Most infected infants show no signs of illness, but symptoms of hepatitis B include fever , fatigue, vomiting , loss of appetite, and jaundice (yellowing of the skin and eyes). (babycenter.com)
- The most common symptoms of hepatitis A are fatigue, nausea and/or vomiting, low fever, loss of appetite, dark urine, rash, and jaundice (yellowing of the skin). (healthcentral.com)
- Symptoms of hepatitis include fever and jaundice . (dictionary.com)
- Although virtually all people get better, the symptoms from Hep A can be severe, even deadly: high liver enzymes, high fever, loss of appetite, nausea, vomiting, and tell-tale jaundice. (thebody.com)
- Signs and symptoms of alcoholic hepatitis include jaundice, ascites (fluid accumulation in the abdominal cavity), fatigue and hepatic encephalopathy (brain dysfunction due to liver failure). (wikipedia.org)
- Alcoholic hepatitis can vary from mild with only liver enzyme elevation to severe liver inflammation with development of jaundice, prolonged prothrombin time, and even liver failure. (wikipedia.org)
- HBV is a leading cause of chronic hepatitis, liver cirrhosis, and hepatocellular carcinoma worldwide, resulting in an estimated 887,000 deaths per year. (cdc.gov)
- Like hepatitis B, the hepatitis C virus (HCV) spreads from person to person through blood or other body fluids, and can lead to cirrhosis or liver cancer. (kidshealth.org)
- Although hepatitis A isn't usually serious, it's important to get a proper diagnosis to rule out more serious conditions with similar symptoms, such as hepatitis C or cirrhosis (scarring of the liver) . (www.nhs.uk)
- Chronic hepatitis may persist for 20 years or more before causing significant symptoms related to progressive liver damage, such as cirrhosis and liver cancer , and can cause death. (labtestsonline.org)
- If your hepatitis C causes cirrhosis, you should see a doctor who specializes in liver diseases. (medlineplus.gov)
- Patients with hepatitis C who develop cirrhosis may go on to have liver cancer - called hepatocellular carcinoma. (encyclopedia.com)
- I have cirrhosis and hepatitis c I also have a bad back I am on the waiting list for a live. (medhelp.org)
- Still, in recent years, about 15,000 people have died annually from cirrhosis or liver cancer caused by hepatitis C. Those numbers will probably decrease, however, as better treatments become widely available. (healthcentral.com)
- Chronic hepatitis D may lead to cirrhosis, liver failure, and liver cancer. (nih.gov)
- Chronic hepatitis E-which is rare and only occurs in people with weakened immune systems-may lead to complications such as cirrhosis or liver failure. (nih.gov)
- Most chronic Hep B carriers don't have any symptoms, but they have a good chance of developing cirrhosis of the liver , which can kill you. (thebody.com)
- All hepatitis can cause painful swelling and cirrhosis , liver damage, sometimes bad enough to cause the liver to stop working. (thebody.com)
- About 20% of persons with chronic hepatitis C will develop serious liver problems including cirrhosis and liver cancer 20 to 30 years after becoming infected. (kingcounty.gov)
- They have high specificity for immune hepatitis (88%), but they occur also in 7% of hepatitis B, 8% of alcoholic liver, 14% of primary biliary cirrhosis and in 82 % of patients with anti-ANA and anti-SMA. (luc.edu)
- In the United States, chronic hepatitis B is the underlying cause of an estimated 2,000 to 4,000 deaths each year from cirrhosis and liver cancer, the CDC said. (redorbit.com)
- Alcoholic hepatitis is distinct from cirrhosis caused by long-term alcohol consumption. (wikipedia.org)
- Alcoholic hepatitis can occur in patients with chronic alcoholic liver disease and alcoholic cirrhosis. (wikipedia.org)
- Alcoholic hepatitis by itself does not lead to cirrhosis, but cirrhosis is more common in patients with long term alcohol consumption. (wikipedia.org)
Type of hepatitis7
- Hepatitis C is the most serious type of hepatitis. (kidshealth.org)
- Hepatitis D is also spread through contact with blood, but infections with this virus only occur when someone is also infected with hepatitis B. Injection drug users are at greatest risk for this type of hepatitis, according to the NIDDK . (livescience.com)
- Someone with chronic hepatitis, on the other hand, continues to be infectious and may have a variety of complications, including liver damage, liver failure, and liver cancer, depending on the type of hepatitis and the health of the infected person. (babycenter.com)
- The symptoms of acute hepatitis D are the same as the symptoms of any type of hepatitis and are often more severe. (nih.gov)
- The therapy also wasn't very effective and worked in less than half of people with hepatitis C genotype 1, the most common type of hepatitis C in the United States. (healthline.com)
- They may be used to treat hepatitis C alone or in combination with older therapies depending on the type of hepatitis C. (healthline.com)
- Other autoimmune diseases frequently accompany this type of hepatitis: autoimmune thyroiditis, Sjogren syndrome, glomerulonephritis, systemic lupus erythematosus, etc. (luc.edu)
Symptoms of hepatitis10
- The symptoms of hepatitis A develop, on average, around four weeks after becoming infected, although not everyone will experience them. (www.nhs.uk)
- Read more about symptoms of hepatitis A . (www.nhs.uk)
- The signs and symptoms of hepatitis are the same, regardless of the cause, but they may vary from person to person and over time. (labtestsonline.org)
- What are the symptoms of hepatitis C? (medlineplus.gov)
- If someone is experiencing any of the symptoms of hepatitis, they should speak with their doctor immediately. (medicalnewstoday.com)
- If the skin becomes jaundiced and the person is exhibiting other symptoms of hepatitis, the doctor will do various lab tests, such as blood tests and liver panel tests. (healthcentral.com)
- Symptoms of hepatitis A usually emerge two to seven weeks after exposure to the virus. (emoryhealthcare.org)
- Individuals who experience symptoms of hepatitis A should contact their healthcare provider. (ohio.gov)
- But the shots generally are ineffective for people exposed to the disease more than 14 days previously, so for those earlier party guests, officials are recommending that they visit their doctors if they show symptoms of hepatitis A. (latimes.com)
- The recovery phase is characterized by resolution of the clinical symptoms of hepatitis with persistent elevations in liver lab values and potentially a persistently enlarged liver. (wikipedia.org)
- Central Florida is experiencing a spike in the number of hepatitis A infections, mostly among people who are homeless and use drugs, and to stymie the spread of the disease, local health departments are offering free vaccination to high-risk individuals. (orlandosentinel.com)
- People can protect themselves by getting a vaccination against the Hepatitis B virus and by using condom s and taking other precautions against being exposed to body fluids from infected people. (everything2.com)
- Because of effective vaccination strategies for preventing hepatitis A and B, rates for those infections have steadily declined in recent years. (healthcentral.com)
- Get a hepatitis A vaccination before traveling to areas such as Mexico, eastern Europe and developing countries. (healthcentral.com)
- There is a vaccination to prevent Hepatitis A. (prweb.com)
- A Hepatitis B vaccination is recommended by the CDC for at-risk adults. (prweb.com)
- There is no vaccination to prevent Hepatitis C. Avoiding injection drug use or other high risk behavior is recommended. (prweb.com)
- Additional protections that persons with hepatitis B should use to keep the liver safe included vaccination for Hepatitis A and eliminating alcohol intake. (mycentraljersey.com)
- The serological data on 15- to 19-year-old women in British Columbia 7 years after hepatitis B (HB) vaccination, presented recently by Meenakshi Dawar and associates, 1 are intriguing. (cmaj.ca)
- Dawar M, Patrick DM, Bigham M, Cook D, Krajden M, Ng H. Impact of universal preadolescent vaccination against hepatitis B on antenatal seroprevalence of hepatitis B markers in British Columbia women. (cmaj.ca)
- However, we do keep the UK's hepatitis B immunisation programme under ongoing review and a working group of our expert committee, the Joint Committee on Vaccination and Immunisation is currently considering whether the current hepatitis B immunisation programme might needed to be strengthened or expanded in future. (telegraph.co.uk)
- People who know that they have been exposed to someone with hepatitis A should contact their healthcare provider or local health department to discuss post-exposure vaccination options. (ohio.gov)
- Cases of hepatitis A have dropped dramatically in Southern California and much of the West over the last few years, and experts credit the decrease in large part to the widespread vaccination of children against the most common liver disease. (latimes.com)
- Hepatitis is the most common cause for liver failure and to prevent it, the health ministry should include hepatitis vaccination as part of its national immunization programme. (hindustantimes.com)
- Compulsory hepatitis vaccination is done in some states. (hindustantimes.com)
- In 2017, hepatitis E was estimated to affect more than 19 million people. (wikipedia.org)
- Below is a list of approved FDA therapies to treat Hepatitis B and C, The list below may not be comprehensive and was last updated on October 30, 2017. (fda.gov)
- New WHO data from the just released Hepatitis 2017 report show an estimated 325 million people globally are living with chronic hepatitis B or hepatitis C virus infections. (voanews.com)
- Hepatitis means inflammation of the liver. (cdc.gov)
- Hepatitis (pronounced: hep-uh-TIE-tiss) is an inflammation of the liver. (kidshealth.org)
- Hepatitis , inflammation of the liver that results from a variety of causes, both infectious and noninfectious. (britannica.com)
- Another complication is chronic hepatitis, which is characterized by liver cell death and inflammation over a period greater than six months. (britannica.com)
- Hepatitis is an inflammation of the liver. (labtestsonline.org)
- Fat deposited in the liver cells in increasing amounts can lead to inflammation and liver injury, causing hepatitis. (labtestsonline.org)
- Hepatitis C is a form of liver inflammation that causes primarily a long-lasting (chronic) disease. (encyclopedia.com)
- Hepatitis is an inflammation of the liver that can strike children and adults. (babycenter.com)
- The term 'hepatitis' is the Greek term for inflammation or swelling of the liver. (netdoctor.co.uk)
- Hepatitis B is a serious virus that causes inflammation of the liver. (niu.edu)
- Chronic hepatitis C is characterized by ongoing inflammation of the liver and destruction (necrosis) of liver cells that persist for more than six to 12 months. (healthcentral.com)
- Hepatitis literally refers to any inflammation of the liver. (healthcentral.com)
- Hepatitis is an inflammation of the liver, most frequently caused by a virus. (prweb.com)
- Hepatitis C is a disease that causes liver inflammation. (healthline.com)
- Hepatitis A can cause inflammation and compromise the liver's ability to function properly. (emoryhealthcare.org)
- Hepatitis is inflammation of the liver tissue. (wikipedia.org)
- Chronic hepatitis presents similarly, but can manifest signs and symptoms specific to liver dysfunction with long-standing inflammation and damage to the organ. (wikipedia.org)
- Cases of drug-induced hepatitis can manifest with systemic signs of an allergic reaction including rash, fever, serositis (inflammation of membranes lining certain organs), elevated eosinophils (a type of white blood cell), and suppression of bone marrow activity. (wikipedia.org)
- Alcoholic hepatitis is hepatitis (inflammation of the liver) due to excessive intake of alcohol. (wikipedia.org)
- In 2018, a total of 12,474 hepatitis A cases were reported in the United States. (cdc.gov)
- En enero se contabilizaron 194 casos y en febrero y marzo 231 y 265, respectivamente, lo que representa un "aumento constante cada mes desde abril de 2018" y por encima de la media en marzo pasado de los cinco años previos, señala el Departamento de Salud de Florida en su pagina web. (orlandosentinel.com)
- ODH has declared a statewide community outbreak of hepatitis A after observing an increase in cases linked to certain risk factors since the beginning of 2018. (ohio.gov)
- Hepatitis A , hepatitis B , and hepatitis C are liver infections caused by three different viruses. (cdc.gov)
- Hepatitis B and hepatitis C can also begin as short-term, acute infections, but in some people, the virus remains in the body, resulting in chronic disease and long-term liver problems. (cdc.gov)
- Travelers going to rural areas in developing countries have a higher risk of getting hepatitis A infections than other travelers. (cdc.gov)
- However, hepatitis A infections can happen in urban areas with "standard" tourist accommodations as well. (cdc.gov)
- Indiana law requires the reporting of both acute and chronic hepatitis B infections during pregnancy and perinatally exposed infants. (in.gov)
- Estimated numbers of newly acquired hepatitis C infections in the U.S. for 2001 were 25,000, compared to 35,000 for 2000. (in.gov)
- While the estimated number of new infections in the United States has been declining, hepatitis B and C viruses can persist as chronic infections, according to statistics reported to the National Notifiable Disease Surveillance System. (livescience.com)
- Both hepatitis A and E do not lead to chronic infections, according to the CDC. (livescience.com)
- Most acute hepatitis infections brought on by the hepatitis A, B, C and E virus will resolve on their own over several weeks or months, according to the NIH. (livescience.com)
- Ninety percent of babies under the age of 1 and 30 percent of children between the ages of 1 and 5 who are infected with hepatitis B develop chronic infections. (babycenter.com)
- Over 60 per cent of all hepatitis E infections occur in European countries. (netdoctor.co.uk)
- Up to 25% of all those who suffer from chronic hepatitis B infections will die from the damage caused to their liver . (everything2.com)
- About 85% of acute infections of hepatitis C become chronic. (healthcentral.com)
- How do hepatitis D and hepatitis B infections occur together? (nih.gov)
- Hepatitis D and hepatitis B infections may occur together as a coinfection or a superinfection. (nih.gov)
- A coinfection occurs when you get both hepatitis D and hepatitis B infections at the same time. (nih.gov)
- Coinfections usually cause acute, or short-term, hepatitis D and B infections. (nih.gov)
- In most cases, people are able to recover from and fight off the acute hepatitis D and B infections and the viruses go away. (nih.gov)
- The types of hepatitis E that are common in developing countries are likely to cause severe infections, especially in pregnant women. (nih.gov)
- Hepatitis B, caused by a virus of the genus Orthohepadnavirus and Hepatitis C, caused by a virus of the genus Hepacivirus, are more serious infections that are transmitted through infected bodily fluids such as blood and semen. (dictionary.com)
- It is estimated that about 325 million people worldwide have hepatitis B or C virus infections. (roche.com)
- Hepatitis C Virus (HCV) infects up to 500,000 people in the UK alone, many of the infections going undiagnosed. (eurekalert.org)
- In the United States, the most common hepatitis viruses are hepatitis A virus, hepatitis B virus, and hepatitis C virus. (cdc.gov)
- Hepatitis E has mainly a fecal-oral transmission route that is similar to hepatitis A , but the viruses are unrelated. (wikipedia.org)
- One of five known human hepatitis viruses: hepatitis A, B , C , D , and E, HEV is a positive-sense , single-stranded, nonenveloped, RNA icosahedral virus . (wikipedia.org)
- and a number of hepatitis viruses. (britannica.com)
- More than 1,000 patients who went to one of Nova Southeastern University's dental clinics in Davie for orthodontic procedures may have been exposed to certain viruses such HIV or hepatitis, because the surgical equipment weren't properly sterilized by some of the dental residents. (orlandosentinel.com)
- In the U.S., most common causes are hepatitis A, B and C viruses. (labtestsonline.org)
- The hepatitis D virus (HDV) was described in 1977, and it is considered the most pathogenic among all hepatotropic viruses. (springer.com)
- Hepatitis viruses are the most common cause of the illness. (livescience.com)
- The primary sources of the hepatitis A and E viruses are raw or undercooked food, food handled by people who have not properly washed their hands and water contaminated by animal or human waste. (livescience.com)
- Since liver damage can occur before there are any overt signs and symptoms, routine screenings for hepatitis B and C are recommended for people who have a high risk of coming in contact with the viruses. (livescience.com)
- 2. Other viruses also infect other sites of the body, and therefore are not exclusively hepatitis viruses. (slideshare.net)
- The existence of a third hepatitis virus (besides the A and B viruses) became clear in 1974, but HCV was first identified in 1989. (encyclopedia.com)
- Hepatitis viruses A, B, and C are the most common causes, but hepatitis D and E viruses also exist. (babycenter.com)
- The availability of serological tests for hepatitis A and B viruses in the 1970s made it clear that most parenterally transmitted hepatitis was due to neither of these viruses. (bmj.com)
- Hepatitis C Viruses: Genomes and Molecular Biology. (nih.gov)
- It is caused by DNA viruses in the family Hepadnaviridae and is much more serious than hepatitis A. Hepatitis B has a long incubation period (around three months) and can cause severe liver damage and even death. (everything2.com)
- Hepatitis C is a serious disease caused by either of two types of unclassified hepatitis-causing viruses. (everything2.com)
- Hepatitis C is considered the most serious of these viruses and is the most common cause of chronic hepatitis, which may cause no symptoms for years yet can result in long-term health problems. (healthcentral.com)
- Viruses cause acute hepatitis. (healthcentral.com)
- There is some exciting data about treating Hepatitis B (Hep B) and Hepatitis C (Hep C). These illnesses are similar, but are caused by structurally different viruses. (thebody.com)
- Historically, successful vaccines against viruses have required the production of antibodies, and this is likely to be the case for Hepatitis C virus", says Dr Alexander Tarr from the Virus Research Group at the University of Nottingham. (eurekalert.org)
- Hirnschall said there was a range of interventions and tools, including highly effective vaccines and medicines that can prevent hepatitis from becoming a chronic and fatal disease. (voanews.com)
- If you live in Lahore, find the best doctors in Lahore and ask a doctor online in Lahore about how you can prevent hepatitis. (selfgrowth.com)
- World Hepatitis Day: Prevent hepatitis. (who.int)
World Hepatitis Day3
- A particular form of chronic liver disease prevalent among young women with an excessive increase in protein and υ-globulin was first described by S. Amberg (1942) ( 2 ) and later by J. Waldenström (1950), who used the name "autoimmune hepatitis" . (springer.com)
- Treatment of autoimmune hepatitis: Current and future therapies. (springer.com)
- Liver transplantation for autoimmune hepatitis: A long-term pathologic study. (springer.com)
- Chronic hepatitis with combined features of autoimmune chronic hepatitis and chronic hepatitis C: favorable response to prednisone and azathioprine. (springer.com)
- New antibodies and autoantigens in autoimmune hepatitis. (springer.com)
- Prevalence and epidemiology of autoimmune hepatitis. (springer.com)
- Histological changes after the use of mycophenolate mofetil in autoimmune hepatitis. (springer.com)
- Improvement of autoimmune hepatitis during pregnancy followed by flare-up after delivery. (springer.com)
- Successful treatment of refractory type 1 autoimmune hepatitis with methotrexate. (springer.com)
- The role of histologic evaluation in the diagnosis and management of autoimmune hepatitis and its variants. (springer.com)
- Outcome of orthotopic liver transplantation in autoimmune hepatitis according to subtypes. (springer.com)
- Development of transient autoimmune hepatitis during interferon treatment of chronic hepatitis B. Dig. (springer.com)
- How reversible is hepatic functional impairment in autoimmune hepatitis? (springer.com)
- Oral pulse prednisone therapy after relapse of severe autoimmune chronic active hepatitis. (springer.com)
- Significance of HLA DR4 in type 1 autoimmune hepatitis. (springer.com)
- In some instances hepatitis results from an autoimmune reaction directed against the liver cells of the body. (britannica.com)
- We review the three different types of hepatotoxicity associated with minocycline and draw evidence to support the diagnosis of minocycline-induced autoimmune hepatitis. (nih.gov)
- Of the above only autoimmune hepatitis responds to steroid treatment. (luc.edu)
- Here we will discuss autoimmune hepatitis The other conditions will be treated in other sections. (luc.edu)
- These antibodies are easily assayed and are present in 20 to 80% of patients with autoimmune hepatitis, but they are not specific for liver antigens. (luc.edu)
- Typically absent in children with acute fulminant autoimmune hepatitis. (luc.edu)
- It supports the diagnosis of autoimmune hepatitis. (luc.edu)
- These cases are classified as cryptogenic chronic hepatitis or autoantibody-negative autoimmune hepatitis . (luc.edu)
- They are indistinguishable from type 1 autoimmune hepatitis and respond well to steroid therapy. (luc.edu)
- The vulnerable area affected by autoimmune hepatitis is the periportal region. (luc.edu)
- Autoimmune hepatitis may be treated with medications to suppress the immune system. (wikipedia.org)
- Fulminant hepatitis, or massive hepatic cell death, is a rare and life-threatening complication of acute hepatitis that can occur in cases of hepatitis B, D, and E, in addition to drug-induced and autoimmune hepatitis. (wikipedia.org)
Risk for hepatitis4
- Who is at risk for hepatitis A? (cdc.gov)
- If you are at high risk for hepatitis C, your health care provider will likely recommend that you get tested for it. (medlineplus.gov)
- Other factors may also increase your risk for Hepatitis B. Check with your doctor to see if you're at high or medium risk for Hepatitis B. (medicare.gov)
- Your healthcare provider will monitor you if you are at risk for hepatitis B virus reactivation during treatment and after you stop taking Technivie. (medicinenet.com)
Caused by the hepatitis A vir2
- The body's immune system inappropriately produces antibodies directed against liver tissue, causing hepatitis. (labtestsonline.org)
- Blood tests can then be used to determine the presence and quantity of hepatitis virus and antibodies in the body. (livescience.com)
- If you think your baby might have been exposed to hepatitis A (because a family member or friend has the illness, for example), he should get an injection of immune globulin (a.k.a. gamma globulin), which contains antibodies against the virus - preferably within seven days of exposure, but the sooner the better. (babycenter.com)
- But if there's any chance that a baby's mother is infected with hepatitis B, he'll get his first shot within 12 hours of birth, along with an injection of immune globulin, which contains antibodies against the virus. (babycenter.com)
- The diagnosis is based on the patient's symptoms and confirmed by a blood test showing antibodies to hepatitis E. (netdoctor.co.uk)
- In the U.S., about 33% of all adults have antibodies for hepatitis A, indicating that they've been infected with it at some point. (everything2.com)
- Hepatitis C can be diagnosed with blood tests that detect the virus or antibodies to the virus. (healthcentral.com)
- Even though there were no hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) carriers, 0.6% of the women in this age group had antibodies to HB core antigen. (cmaj.ca)
- For example, your baby could contract hepatitis A by putting his hand in his mouth after touching something contaminated with the stool of someone who has the virus. (babycenter.com)
- Though those groups are at higher risk, almost anyone can contract hepatitis. (medicinenet.com)
- 2 million people a year contract hepatitis from unsafe injections. (who.int)
- Mild cases often don't require treatment, and most people who contract hepatitis A recover completely without permanent liver damage . (emoryhealthcare.org)
- Typically, the incubation period for hepatitis B is 90 days (range, 60-150 days). (cdc.gov)
- The average incubation period of hepatitis E is 40 days, ranging from 2 to 8 weeks. (wikipedia.org)
- The incubation period of hepatitis B is 22 weeks, during which time infected individuals may present with few or no symptoms. (news-medical.net)
- coinfection increases the risk of fulminant hepatitis and rapidly progressive liver disease. (cdc.gov)
- Bensag A (1983) Labrea hepatitis and other fulminant hepatitis in Serra Madureira Acre and Boca de Acre Amazonas Brasil. (springer.com)
- This fatal condition is referred to as "fulminant hepatitis" and can lead to severe bleeding disorders and coma. (news-medical.net)
- Early diagnosis and treatment of hepatitis C can prevent these complications. (medlineplus.gov)
- A liver biopsy (removal by needle of a small sample of tissue) may be recommended to confirm a diagnosis of advanced chronic hepatitis C and determine the extent of liver damage. (healthcentral.com)
- 20 Early diagnosis and treatment of chronic hepatitis B and D can lower your chances of developing serious health problems. (nih.gov)
- Percentage of patients aged 18 years and older with a diagnosis of hepatitis C with whom a physician or other qualified healthcare professional reviewed the range of treatment options appropriate to their genotype and demonstrated a shared decision making approach with the patient. (acponline.org)
- TEHRAN - Iran is planning to provide free diagnosis and treatment services to people who are suffering from hepatitis and eradicate the disease by 2030. (tehrantimes.com)
- Hepatitis B is a much more severe and longer-lasting disease than hepatitis A. It may occur as an acute disease, or, in about 5 to 10 percent of cases, the illness may become chronic and lead to permanent liver damage. (britannica.com)
- However, severe cases of acute hepatitis B can be treated with antiviral drugs such as lamivudine (trade name Epivir). (livescience.com)
- According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), more than 2 million U.S. baby boomers are infected with hepatitis C and many more may have the disease but not know it because it often doesn't cause symptoms until it has caused severe liver damage. (medicinenet.com)
- The severity of hepatitis A can range from a mild illness that lasts a few weeks to a severe condition that lingers for months. (medicinenet.com)
- Sometimes, the symptoms of acute hepatitis B can be more severe and the patient requires hospitalization. (news-medical.net)
- In rare cases, the liver damage caused by acute hepatitis is so severe that the organ can no longer function. (news-medical.net)
- Coinfections may cause severe acute hepatitis. (nih.gov)
- A superinfection occurs if you already have chronic hepatitis B and then become infected with hepatitis D. When you get a superinfection, you may have severe acute hepatitis symptoms. (nih.gov)
- In people who already had liver disease or other types of hepatitis, such as hepatitis B and hepatitis C, the risk of severe disease from hepatitis A is much higher. (womenshealthmag.com)
- People with hepatitis A can experience mild illness lasting a few weeks to severe illness lasting several months. (ohio.gov)
- While not as severe as the other liver diseases, hepatitis A takes a toll. (latimes.com)
- Hepatitis has a broad spectrum of presentations that range from a complete lack of symptoms to severe liver failure. (wikipedia.org)
Types of hepatitis10
- The following table summarizes some common types of hepatitis. (labtestsonline.org)
- There are different types of hepatitis. (medlineplus.gov)
- The types of hepatitis E that are common in developed countries are often mild and cause no symptoms. (nih.gov)
- Many people don't know they've had these types of hepatitis E. (nih.gov)
- Different types of hepatitis E are more likely to affect different groups of people. (nih.gov)
- The types of hepatitis E that are more common in developing countries are more likely to affect adolescents and young adults. (nih.gov)
- In contrast, the types of hepatitis E that are more common in developed countries most often affect older men. (nih.gov)
- In Pakistan, the most prevalent types of hepatitis are Hepatitis B and C. There are however, 5 different types of hepatitis all of which are found in Pakistan. (selfgrowth.com)
- What are the types of hepatitis? (selfgrowth.com)
- There are 5 different types of hepatitis namely A, B, C, D and E. Types A and E are acquired by consuming contaminated food and water and coming in contact with poor sanitary conditions. (selfgrowth.com)
- Complications of Hepatitis include liver disease, liver failure and liver cancer. (google.com)
- People who have chronic hepatitis B and D develop complications more often and more quickly than people who have chronic hepatitis B alone. (nih.gov)
- What are the complications of acute hepatitis D? (nih.gov)
- What are the complications of chronic hepatitis D? (nih.gov)
- Most people recover from acute hepatitis E without complications . (nih.gov)
- In pregnant women, hepatitis E can cause other complications for the mother and baby, such as stillbirth , premature birth , or low birthweight . (nih.gov)
- No dietary supplement has proven to effectively treat hepatitis C or related complications. (healthline.com)
- Hepatitis B is a nationally notifiable disease. (cdc.gov)
- Hepatitis A is a liver disease spread by contaminated food and water. (cdc.gov)
- Hepatitis B is an infectious disease caused by the hepatitis B virus (HBV) that affects the liver . (wikipedia.org)
- Those persons at greatest risk for contracting hepatitis B include intravenous drug users, sexual partners of individuals with the disease, health care workers who are not adequately immunized, and recipients of organ transplants or blood transfusions. (britannica.com)
- Certain gene mutations that are passed from one generation to the next can result in a disease that damages the liver, causing hepatitis. (labtestsonline.org)
- for example, screening for exposure to hepatitis B or hepatitis C may be done because of increased risk of the disease (use of illegal drugs, multiple sex partners) or at the time of blood donation. (labtestsonline.org)
- Nationally, higher rates of hepatitis B disease continue among adults, particularly males 25-38 years of age and persons with identified risk factors (i.e., injection drug users, men who have sex with men, and persons with multiple sex partners). (in.gov)
- In 2002, 63 persons with acute hepatitis B were interviewed about risk factors for contracting the disease. (in.gov)
- The Indiana Communicable Disease Reporting Rule for Physicians, Hospitals, and Laboratories requires physicians and hospitals to report acute cases of hepatitis C. Laboratories must report positive antibody to hepatitis C (anti-HCV) by Enzyme Immunoassay (EIA), Recombinant Immunoblot Assay (RIBA), and RNA tests. (in.gov)
- Acute (newly developed) hepatitis C is rarely observed as the early disease is generally quite mild. (encyclopedia.com)
- More than half of all patients who develop hepatitis C have no symptoms or signs of liver disease. (encyclopedia.com)
- Hepatitis C has been identified as the most common cause of post-transfusion hepatitis worldwide, accounting for approximately 90% of this disease in Japan, the United States and Western Europe. (hindawi.com)
- Hepatitis B is a serious disease caused by a virus that attacks the liver. (ca.gov)
- Adults usually get the disease through unprotected sex and intravenous drug use, but new babies can get hepatitis B from being exposed to the virus in their mother's blood and vaginal fluids during childbirth. (babycenter.com)
- Hepatitis E can worsen existing chronic liver disease and occasionally cause acute liver failure, which can lead to death. (netdoctor.co.uk)
- Chronic hepatitis C is a serious public health problem and a disease burden in many parts of the world. (nih.gov)
- The CDC recommends that all people born between 1945 and 1965 -- the baby boom generation -- get a blood test test for the disease, and estimates that this would identify about 800,000 additional people as having hepatitis C, which could save more than 120,000 lives. (medicinenet.com)
- Those patients can now receive an organ that has tested positive for hepatitis C, and if they become infected, they can be administered the antivirals to rid them of the disease. (newsday.com)
- Heroin addicts often share needles, contributing to the 400 percent increase in acute hepatitis C among 18-to-29-year-olds from 2004 to 2014, according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (newsday.com)
- Up to one in ten adults who become infected with hepatitis B also go on to develop chronic disease. (news-medical.net)
- In cases where the immune system fails to control hepatitis B within six months, an individual is said to have chronic hepatitis B. Again, not everyone with the chronic form of this disease develops symptoms. (news-medical.net)
- Hepatitis can be an acute disease that makes the patient very sick and then they recover, but it can also result in a chronic disease that's hard to get rid of and can ultimately result in liver cancer or liver failure . (everything2.com)
- Hepatitis C is the culprit behind 60-70% of the chronic hepatitis cases in the U.S. More importantly, it's responsible for as much as half of all the cases of fatal liver disease and liver cancer in the U.S. (everything2.com)
- For some patients, therapy can retard progression of hepatitis C or cure the disease, and new combination therapies have dramatically improved cure rates. (healthcentral.com)
- The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention designates the month of May as Hepatitis Awareness Month in the United States. (prweb.com)
- It is a liver disease caused by the Hepatitis C virus (HCV). (prweb.com)
- Over time, he can transmit a bloodborne disease such as hepatitis C to the patients he is "sharing" narcotics with. (dictionary.com)
- While using clean needles and syringes will prevent transmission of the disease, Gottfried Hirnschall said there is a highly effective drug that can cure hepatitis C within a relatively short time. (voanews.com)
- In 2012, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) expanded their recommendations for hepatitis C testing. (healthline.com)
- Studies have shown that milk thistle, the most popular herbal supplement taken by people with liver disease, is not effective in people with hepatitis C. (healthline.com)
- This policy is unlikely to affect the circulation of the hepatitis B virus or to control the disease in those countries. (who.int)
- 40% of deaths from chronic liver disease can be attributed to hepatitis C. (kpbs.org)
- The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention predicts that deaths due to hepatitis C will double or triple in the next 15 to 20 years. (kpbs.org)
- All children in the UK should be immunised against potentially fatal liver disease caused by the hepatitis B virus, doctors' leaders have said. (telegraph.co.uk)
- An immunisation programme will not only save lives but be more cost effective than treating liver disease and cancer caused by Hepatitis B. (telegraph.co.uk)
- A hepatitis C outbreak was caused by workers improperly reusing syringes and medicine vials at a Las Vegas clinic, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention said. (latimes.com)
- Malcolm Chisholm, Scotland's Health Minister, was criticised yesterday when he failed to give a firm commitment towards compensating hepatitis C sufferers who have contracted the disease as a result of NHS treatment . (telegraph.co.uk)
- The report, commissioned by the Health Minister earlier this year, called for hepatitis C patients to be treated in the same way as HIV sufferers, who contracted the disease through infected blood products or tissue. (telegraph.co.uk)
- About 30% of people in the United States have been exposed to hepatitis A, but only a very small number of them develop symptoms from the disease. (womenshealthmag.com)
- Officials said many people who contract acute hepatitis A disease assume that it is no more than a bout of the flu. (latimes.com)
- Los Angeles County reported more than 400 cases of acute hepatitis A in each of the last two years but, since the mid-1990s, the disease has generally been in decline. (latimes.com)
- The national Centers for Disease Control and Prevention in Atlanta published new recommendations for healthcare providers that are designed to increase routine testing in the United States for chronic hepatitis B, a major cause of liver disease and liver cancer. (redorbit.com)
- Ashok K Chauhan, founder president, Amity Group, announced the launch of Amity Foundation for Hepatitis Prevention and Control to supplement government efforts to check the spread of disease. (hindustantimes.com)
- Just three years ago patients suffering from hepatitis C faced some bleak treatment options. (scientificamerican.com)
- Regular testing is recommended for injection-drug users, men who have sex with other men, people taking immunosuppressive drugs, HIV-positive patients and pregnant women, according to hepatitis B guidelines from the CDC . (livescience.com)
- HCV is a blood-borne virus that is and always was the major cause of "transfusion hepatitis," which can develop in patients who are given blood or most blood products except for gamma-globulin. (encyclopedia.com)
- About one-fourth of patients with hepatitis C do not belong to any of these high-risk groups. (encyclopedia.com)
- CA Providers: Are you testing your patients for Hepatitis B? (ca.gov)
- New antiviral drugs that promise a cure for the millions of Americans with chronic hepatitis are also benefiting another category of patients: those awaiting organ transplants. (newsday.com)
- However, many Hep C patients never have symptoms. (thebody.com)
- Hepatitis treatment is expensive and only successful in half of patients. (eurekalert.org)
- For the first time health professionals have guidance for effective management of chronically infected hepatitis B patients, U.S. health officials said. (redorbit.com)
- A doctor with hepatitis B who performed joint replacement surgeries unknowingly passed the virus on to at least two of his patients, according to a new report. (livescience.com)
- Out of 232 patients who were tested, two were found to be infected with a hepatitis B virus that was genetically identical to the one seen in the surgeon, meaning these two patients most likely caught the virus from the doctor. (livescience.com)
- Another six patients had been infected with hepatitis B in the past. (livescience.com)
- Because these patients did not currently have hepatitis B in their blood, researchers could not determine if the virus had been transmitted by the surgeon. (livescience.com)
- But because these patients did not have any known risk factors for developing hepatitis B, it's possible they could have caught the virus from the surgeon, and cleared it from their bodies before being tested. (livescience.com)
- When used alongside other drugs it also worked much faster than any other hepatitis C treatments and had both fewer side effects and much higher success rates. (scientificamerican.com)
- What are the treatments for hepatitis C? (medlineplus.gov)
- The guidance provides updated FDA recommendations regarding the overall development program and clinical trial designs to support improved hepatitis C treatments. (hhs.gov)
- We have treatments that can cure hepatitis C, so there's good reason to find out whether or not you've got it. (medicinenet.com)
- However there are treatments available where it is believed that damage due to hepatitis may be limited, cause relief of symptoms, help with interferon side effects etc And there are many reports of a reduction in LFT's and loss of the 'e' antigen in those taking these complimentary medicines. (hon.ch)
- Fortunately, getting tested for hepatitis C is a fairly simple process, and new treatments are making it easier to manage the virus. (healthline.com)
- See our Hepatitis C Topic Center for more helpful information on treatments. (healthline.com)
Infected with the hepatitis C vir1
- Better known as Sovaldi, the drug managed to recast hepatitis C from a hard-to-treat illness into an easily managed one that can be cured in just a few months. (scientificamerican.com)
- Hepatitis C can range from a mild illness lasting a few weeks to a serious, lifelong illness. (medlineplus.gov)
- Acute hepatitis B is a short-term illness that occurs within six months of exposure to the virus and is usually cleared by adults within three months (in 90% of cases). (news-medical.net)
- In 90% of cases, infected infants go on to develop the chronic form of hepatitis B. By contrast, only 6 to 10% of children older than five years go on to develop chronic illness. (news-medical.net)
- Symptoms and signs of hepatitis A can range from none to minimal in the early stages of the illness, to noticeable nausea, abdominal pain, fever, and malaise in the acute phase. (healthcentral.com)
- It is a short-term illness caused by the Hepatitis B virus. (prweb.com)
- It is a long-term illness caused by the Hepatitis B virus remaining in the person's body. (prweb.com)
- It is a short-term illness occurring within 6 months of initial exposure to the Hepatitis C virus. (prweb.com)
- Hepatitis A vaccinations can also be used to help prevent illness from hepatitis A among those who may have been exposed to the virus if given within two weeks of exposure. (kingcounty.gov)
- Call your doctor if you suspect that you have been exposed to someone with hepatitis A or if you are showing symptoms of the illness. (womenshealthmag.com)
- Since 2016, person-to-person outbreaks of hepatitis A have been occurring across the United States mainly among people who use injection drugs or are experiencing homelessness, resulting in more than 32,000 cases. (cdc.gov)
- The 2010 and 2016 case definitions change the name of Hepatitis C, past or present to Hepatitis C, chronic. (cdc.gov)
- I am not aware of any other development that has allowed us to expand the donor pool in this way," said Kelly Schlendorf, medical director of the adult heart transplant program at Vanderbilt University Medical Center, which started using hearts infected with hepatitis C in 2016 after successful transplants of infected livers at the Nashville hospital. (newsday.com)
- People who get hepatitis A may feel sick for a few weeks to several months but usually recover completely and do not have lasting liver damage. (cdc.gov)
- If you do have hepatitis C, you may need additional tests to check for liver damage. (medlineplus.gov)
- The doctor may suggest getting a liver biopsy if chronic hepatitis B and C is suspected and there's a chance of liver damage. (livescience.com)
- But if you've had hepatitis a long time, and have sever liver damage, your enzymes might be low because the liver can't produce them. (thebody.com)
- though, many HCV and hepatitis B (HBV) carriers don't have any symptoms until and unless liver damage becomes very serious. (roche.com)
- Unfortunately, in recent years the number of people infected has been increasing because there have been multiple outbreaks of hepatitis A in the United States resulting from person-to-person contact, especially among people who use drugs, people experiencing homelessness, and men who have sex with men. (cdc.gov)
- Responding to hepatitis A outbreaks requires partnerships between health departments, health centers, homeless service providers, & substance abuse services. (hhs.gov)
- Outbreaks of hepatitis A have been seen among intravenous drug users. (womenshealthmag.com)
- Outbreaks of hepatitis A are occurring in several states across the U.S., including neighboring states of Indiana, Kentucky, Michigan and West Virginia. (ohio.gov)
- N-Acetyl-Cysteine due to antiviral properties and the chance that it my enhance the probability of a response to interferon Hepatitis B V4.1 - Interferon . (hon.ch)
- Alpha-interferon injections are the standard treatment for chronic Hep B. The injections, usually daily or three times a week, are self-administered, and taken for four months. (thebody.com)
- Alpha-interferon three times a week for six to twelve months, is the standard treatment for Hep C. The combination of ribavirin and interferon has been shown to be more effective than interferon or ribavirin alone. (thebody.com)
- Hepatitis B virus (HBV) spreads from person to person through blood or other body fluids. (kidshealth.org)
- Hepatitis A spreads when people eat food or drink water that is contaminated by stool (feces) that has the virus in it. (webmd.com)
- Hepatitis C spreads through contact with the blood of someone who has HCV. (medlineplus.gov)
- This form of the hepatitis virus is carried in stool and spreads easily from person to person. (babycenter.com)
- Hepatitis D spreads the same way that hepatitis B spreads, through contact with an infected person's blood or other body fluids. (nih.gov)
- In developed countries, such as the United States, hepatitis E typically spreads from animals to people, when people eat undercooked pork or wild game, such as deer. (nih.gov)
- Hepatitis A virus spreads easily. (kingcounty.gov)
Form of hepatitis4
- Any form of hepatitis may keep the liver from eliminating certain colored (pigmented) substances as it normally does. (encyclopedia.com)
- Hepatitis B is the most common form of hepatitis found worldwide, although it is uncommon in the U.K. Regions where incidence of this condition is higher include Asia, sub-Saharan Africa, the Middle East, and southern Europe. (news-medical.net)
- This form of hepatitis usually clears up on its own within two months, but in serious cases it is treated with injections of gamma globulin s to boost the patient's immune system . (everything2.com)
- This form of hepatitis has thus far been observed almost exclusively in infants. (dictionary.com)
Treatment for hepatitis6
- There is no treatment for hepatitis A other than rest, a balanced diet, and avoiding alcohol. (webmd.com)
- Treatment for hepatitis B depends on how long you have been infected for. (www.nhs.uk)
- Treatment for hepatitis C is with antiviral medicines. (medlineplus.gov)
- There is currently no specific treatment for hepatitis E - it is self-limiting and usually the affected individual gets better after four to six weeks. (netdoctor.co.uk)
- Treatment for hepatitis C is evolving rapidly. (healthcentral.com)
- There is no specific treatment for hepatitis A, and most people recover completely from and spontaneously. (healthcentral.com)
- Narconon Arrowhead, a long-term drug and alcohol rehabilitation and education center located in Southeastern, Oklahoma, is issuing the following guide to Hepatitis prevention in support of Hepatitis Awareness Month. (prweb.com)
- Just like the measles shot and the hepatitis shot and the flu shot, the goal is prevention, pure and simple. (dictionary.com)
- TEHRAN - A national plan for the prevention of Hepatitis B transmission through blood transfusion, will be implemented by the beginning of [the Iranian calendar month of] Mehr (September 23) nationwide, Iranian Blood Transfusion Organization spokesman has said. (tehrantimes.com)
- The Florida Department of Health in Orange County is offering free on-the-go flu shots and hepatitis A vaccines Saturday. (orlandosentinel.com)
- Hepatitis B vaccines. (bmj.com)
- Vaccines.gov - Offers information about vaccines for Hepatitis A and B. A service provided by the federal government, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. (bms.com)
- Are cases of hepatitis A increasing in the United States? (cdc.gov)
- Most cases of hepatitis are caused by a virus . (kidshealth.org)
- Fortunately, medicines can now treat people with hepatitis C and cure them in most cases. (kidshealth.org)
- The number of hepatitis A cases in Florida has increased significantly, prompting health officials to issue an advisory on Wednesday and asking people, especially at-risk populations, to get vaccinated. (orlandosentinel.com)
- In other cases, hepatitis occurs with a drug that is not directly toxic to the liver but the body recognizes the drug as foreign and attacks it, causing hepatitis. (labtestsonline.org)
- There are several laboratory tests that may be performed in cases of known or suspected hepatitis. (labtestsonline.org)
- The hepatitis B incidence rate for the United States in 2002 was 2.8 acute cases/100,000 population. (in.gov)
- Figure 1 shows reported cases of hepatitis B for the five-year period 1998-2002. (in.gov)
- Figure 3 shows incidence rates of acute hepatitis B cases per 100,000 population by age group. (in.gov)
- In 2002, 23 Indiana counties reported cases of acute hepatitis B. The incidence rates were highest among the following counties reporting five or more cases: Vanderburgh (5.8), Marion (3.7), and Lake (2.3). (in.gov)
- There's no cure for hepatitis B, but in most cases, it goes away by itself within 4 to 8 weeks. (plannedparenthood.org)
- However, of the potentially-fatal chronic cases, hepatitis B and C cause the most cases with hepatitis C being overall the biggest killer. (everything2.com)
- In rare cases, acute hepatitis D can lead to acute liver failure, a condition in which the liver fails suddenly. (nih.gov)
- In some cases, acute hepatitis E may cause acute liver failure, a condition in which the liver fails suddenly. (nih.gov)
- Hilo Fish Company reported additional cases of hepatitis A found in product samples it independently tested in mid-May. (cnn.com)
- The Ohio Department of Health (ODH) and affected local health departments are investigating an increased number of hepatitis A cases in Ohio. (ohio.gov)
- In Orange County, the number of hepatitis A cases among Latinos 18 and younger has dropped 91% from 2000 to 2002, from 107 to 10, statistics show. (latimes.com)
- When all of the data for 2002 are in, state health officials say they expect that for the first time there will have been more cases of hepatitis A in adults than in children. (latimes.com)
- Last year, no cases of hepatitis B were reported among Californians younger than 16. (latimes.com)
- Fever, when present, is most common in cases of hepatitis A and E. Late in this phase, people can experience liver-specific symptoms, including choluria (dark urine) and clay-colored stools. (wikipedia.org)
- All cases of hepatitis A and E are expected to fully resolve after 1-2 months. (wikipedia.org)
- Most hepatitis B cases are also self-limiting and will resolve in 3-4 months. (wikipedia.org)
- Few cases of hepatitis C will resolve completely. (wikipedia.org)
- Alvarado-Mora MV, Romano CM, Gomes-Gouvêa MS, Gutierrez MF, Carrilho FJ, Pinho JR (2011) Dynamics of hepatitis D (delta) virus genotype 3 in the Amazon region of South America. (springer.com)
- Casey L, Brown TL, Colan EJ, Wignall F, Gerin JL (1993) A genotype of hepatitis D virus that occurs in northern America. (springer.com)
- Both drugs have been shown to cure hepatitis C in more than 90 percent of those with genotype 1. (healthline.com)
- Symptoms of acute hepatitis in others occurs within one to six months of contracting the virus and can include fever, fatigue, nausea, vomiting, belly pain, light-colored stool and yellowing of skin and eyes. (mycentraljersey.com)
- The surgeon had emigrated from a country that had a high prevalence of hepatitis B, and likely had had chronic hepatitis B for some time without showing symptoms, such as fever and nausea. (livescience.com)
Prevalence of hepatitis1
- How common is hepatitis A in the United States? (cdc.gov)
- Contamination of food and water happens more often in countries where hepatitis A is common. (cdc.gov)
- Infecting around 120 million people worldwide, hepatitis C virus (HCV) is more common than HIV yet it is a neglected epidemic. (nature.com)
- Hepatitis B is less common in the UK than other parts of the world, but certain groups are at an increased risk. (www.nhs.uk)
- In the United States, this is the most common way that people get hepatitis C. (medlineplus.gov)
- Hepatitis E is rare in the United States, but common in other parts of the world, according to the CDC. (livescience.com)
- The most common way of transmitting hepatitis C is when blood containing the virus enters another person's circulation through a break in the skin or the mucosa (inner lining) of the mouth or genitals. (encyclopedia.com)
- How common is hepatitis E? (netdoctor.co.uk)
- hepatitis A and B are the most common types and are caused by members of the family Hepadnaviridae , but other versions (C through F) are caused by water-borne calcivirus es and togovirus es. (everything2.com)
- Hepatitis A, formerly called infectious hepatitis, is most common in children in developing countries, but is being seen more frequently in developed nations and is the most frequent cause of hepatitis in the United States. (healthcentral.com)
- Maintain a reasonably high index of suspicion while traveling anywhere and be appropriately cautious about ingesting food or water where one might suspect hepatitis A is more common. (healthcentral.com)
- Hepatitis E is more common in developing countries, where sanitation is poor and access to clean water is limited. (nih.gov)
- Unsafe injections in health care settings and injecting drug use are the most common modes of hepatitis C transmission. (voanews.com)
- Liver failure from chronic hepatitis C is one of the most common reasons for liver transplants. (kpbs.org)
- Hepatitis A is less virulent than hepatitis B or C, but much more common. (latimes.com)
- Hepatitis A and E, which spread through contaminated food and water, are the most common cause of acute liver failure. (hindustantimes.com)
- In the United States, NASH affects about 11 million people and alcoholic hepatitis affects about 5 million people. (wikipedia.org)
- Alcoholic hepatitis is characterized by myriad symptoms, which may include feeling unwell, enlargement of the liver, development of fluid in the abdomen (ascites), and modest elevation of liver enzyme levels (as determined by liver function tests). (wikipedia.org)
- Subsequent trials have suggested that pentoxifylline may be superior to prednisolone in the management of acute alcoholic hepatitis with discriminant function score >32. (wikipedia.org)
- The onset of hepatitis A usually occurs 15 to 45 days after exposure to the virus, and some infected individuals, especially children, exhibit no clinical manifestations . (britannica.com)
- Chronic hepatitis D occurs when your body is not able to fight off the virus and the virus does not go away. (nih.gov)
- Chronic hepatitis E is rare and only occurs in people with weakened immune systems . (nih.gov)
- Hepatitis C may be spread by exposure to contaminated blood (both fresh and dried) on infected needles or during a blood transfusion. (healthcentral.com)
- Research suggests that hepatitis E can also spread through blood transfusion , but this is very rare. (nih.gov)
- Blood transfusion is no longer a risk for getting hepatitis B since donated blood is tested for the virus. (mycentraljersey.com)
- Besides the possibility of contracting AIDS or hepatitis, blood transfusion carries a host of other risks, perhaps even aiding recurrences of cancer. (healthy.net)
Intravenous drug users1
- Symptoms usually appear from 40 days to 6 months after exposure to the hepatitis B virus (HBV). (britannica.com)
- If symptoms do develop, they tend to happen 2 or 3 months after exposure to the hepatitis B virus. (www.nhs.uk)
- There are several forms of the virus including Hepatitis B and Hepatitis C. Hepatitis B can be contracted through sexual contact or exposure to blood and body fluids. (google.com)
- Hepatitis B is spread through exposure to infected blood, through sexual contact with an infected person, or during childbirth, when the virus can be transmitted from mother to child, according to the NIDDK. (livescience.com)
- Hepatitis is most often caused by a virus , but it can be the result of exposure to certain toxic agents, such as drugs or chemicals. (dictionary.com)
- Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infects the liver and is transmitted primarily by direct exposure to the blood of an infected person. (kingcounty.gov)