Bile Canaliculi: Minute intercellular channels that occur between liver cells and carry bile towards interlobar bile ducts. Also called bile capillaries.Bile: An emulsifying agent produced in the LIVER and secreted into the DUODENUM. Its composition includes BILE ACIDS AND SALTS; CHOLESTEROL; and ELECTROLYTES. It aids DIGESTION of fats in the duodenum.Bile Acids and Salts: Steroid acids and salts. The primary bile acids are derived from cholesterol in the liver and usually conjugated with glycine or taurine. The secondary bile acids are further modified by bacteria in the intestine. They play an important role in the digestion and absorption of fat. They have also been used pharmacologically, especially in the treatment of gallstones.Liver: A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.Bile Ducts, Intrahepatic: Passages within the liver for the conveyance of bile. Includes right and left hepatic ducts even though these may join outside the liver to form the common hepatic duct.Bile Ducts: The channels that collect and transport the bile secretion from the BILE CANALICULI, the smallest branch of the BILIARY TRACT in the LIVER, through the bile ductules, the bile ducts out the liver, and to the GALLBLADDER for storage.Cholestasis: Impairment of bile flow due to obstruction in small bile ducts (INTRAHEPATIC CHOLESTASIS) or obstruction in large bile ducts (EXTRAHEPATIC CHOLESTASIS).Hepatocytes: The main structural component of the LIVER. They are specialized EPITHELIAL CELLS that are organized into interconnected plates called lobules.Microscopy, Electron: Microscopy using an electron beam, instead of light, to visualize the sample, thereby allowing much greater magnification. The interactions of ELECTRONS with specimens are used to provide information about the fine structure of that specimen. In TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen are imaged. In SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY an electron beam falls at a non-normal angle on the specimen and the image is derived from the reactions occurring above the plane of the specimen.Taurocholic Acid: The product of conjugation of cholic acid with taurine. Its sodium salt is the chief ingredient of the bile of carnivorous animals. It acts as a detergent to solubilize fats for absorption and is itself absorbed. It is used as a cholagogue and cholerectic.Intestinal Obstruction: Any impairment, arrest, or reversal of the normal flow of INTESTINAL CONTENTS toward the ANAL CANAL.Airway Obstruction: Any hindrance to the passage of air into and out of the lungs.Cytochalasin B: A cytotoxic member of the CYTOCHALASINS.Microscopy, Electron, Scanning: Microscopy in which the object is examined directly by an electron beam scanning the specimen point-by-point. The image is constructed by detecting the products of specimen interactions that are projected above the plane of the sample, such as backscattered electrons. Although SCANNING TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY also scans the specimen point by point with the electron beam, the image is constructed by detecting the electrons, or their interaction products that are transmitted through the sample plane, so that is a form of TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY.Ureteral Obstruction: Blockage in any part of the URETER causing obstruction of urine flow from the kidney to the URINARY BLADDER. The obstruction may be congenital, acquired, unilateral, bilateral, complete, partial, acute, or chronic. Depending on the degree and duration of the obstruction, clinical features vary greatly such as HYDRONEPHROSIS and obstructive nephropathy.Lacrimal Duct Obstruction: Interference with the secretion of tears by the lacrimal glands. Obstruction of the LACRIMAL SAC or NASOLACRIMAL DUCT causing acute or chronic inflammation of the lacrimal sac (DACRYOCYSTITIS). It is caused also in infants by failure of the nasolacrimal duct to open into the inferior meatus and occurs about the third week of life. In adults occlusion may occur spontaneously or after injury or nasal disease. (Newell, Ophthalmology: Principles and Concepts, 7th ed, p250)Cell Membrane: The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.Parietal Cells, Gastric: Rounded or pyramidal cells of the GASTRIC GLANDS. They secrete HYDROCHLORIC ACID and produce gastric intrinsic factor, a glycoprotein that binds VITAMIN B12.Common Bile Duct: The largest bile duct. It is formed by the junction of the CYSTIC DUCT and the COMMON HEPATIC DUCT.Biliary Tract: The BILE DUCTS and the GALLBLADDER.Hepatic Artery: A branch of the celiac artery that distributes to the stomach, pancreas, duodenum, liver, gallbladder, and greater omentum.Achlorhydria: A lack of HYDROCHLORIC ACID in GASTRIC JUICE despite stimulation of gastric secretion.Bile Duct Diseases: Diseases in any part of the ductal system of the BILIARY TRACT from the smallest BILE CANALICULI to the largest COMMON BILE DUCT.Bile Duct Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the BILE DUCTS.Bile Pigments: Linear TETRAPYRROLES that give a characteristic color to BILE including: BILIRUBIN; BILIVERDIN; and bilicyanin.Intubation: Introduction of a tube into a hollow organ to restore or maintain patency if obstructed. It is differentiated from CATHETERIZATION in that the insertion of a catheter is usually performed for the introducing or withdrawing of fluids from the body.Duodenal Obstruction: Hindrance of the passage of luminal contents in the DUODENUM. Duodenal obstruction can be partial or complete, and caused by intrinsic or extrinsic factors. Simple obstruction is associated with diminished or stopped flow of luminal contents. Strangulating obstruction is associated with impaired blood flow to the duodenum in addition to obstructed flow of luminal contents.Cholagogues and Choleretics: Gastrointestinal agents that stimulate the flow of bile into the duodenum (cholagogues) or stimulate the production of bile by the liver (choleretic).Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Dacryocystorhinostomy: Surgical fistulization of the LACRIMAL SAC for external drainage of an obstructed nasolacrimal duct.Lacrimal Apparatus Diseases: Diseases of the lacrimal apparatus.Bile Ducts, Extrahepatic: Passages external to the liver for the conveyance of bile. These include the COMMON BILE DUCT and the common hepatic duct (HEPATIC DUCT, COMMON).Hepatic Veins: Veins which drain the liver.Urinary Bladder Neck Obstruction: Blocked urine flow through the bladder neck, the narrow internal urethral opening at the base of the URINARY BLADDER. Narrowing or strictures of the URETHRA can be congenital or acquired. It is often observed in males with enlarged PROSTATE glands.Osteocytes: Mature osteoblasts that have become embedded in the BONE MATRIX. They occupy a small cavity, called lacuna, in the matrix and are connected to adjacent osteocytes via protoplasmic projections called canaliculi.Urethral Obstruction: Partial or complete blockage in any part of the URETHRA that can lead to difficulty or inability to empty the URINARY BLADDER. It is characterized by an enlarged, often damaged, bladder with frequent urges to void.Nasal Obstruction: Any hindrance to the passage of air into and out of the nose. The obstruction may be unilateral or bilateral, and may involve any part of the NASAL CAVITY.Bile Reflux: Retrograde bile flow. Reflux of bile can be from the duodenum to the stomach (DUODENOGASTRIC REFLUX); to the esophagus (GASTROESOPHAGEAL REFLUX); or to the PANCREAS.Gastric Outlet Obstruction: The hindering of output from the STOMACH into the SMALL INTESTINE. This obstruction may be of mechanical or functional origin such as EDEMA from PEPTIC ULCER; NEOPLASMS; FOREIGN BODIES; or AGING.H(+)-K(+)-Exchanging ATPaseChenodeoxycholic Acid: A bile acid, usually conjugated with either glycine or taurine. It acts as a detergent to solubilize fats for intestinal absorption and is reabsorbed by the small intestine. It is used as cholagogue, a choleretic laxative, and to prevent or dissolve gallstones.Ventricular Outflow Obstruction: Occlusion of the outflow tract in either the LEFT VENTRICLE or the RIGHT VENTRICLE of the heart. This may result from CONGENITAL HEART DEFECTS, predisposing heart diseases, complications of surgery, or HEART NEOPLASMS.Cholic Acids: The 3 alpha,7 alpha,12 alpha-trihydroxy-5 beta-cholanic acid family of bile acids in man, usually conjugated with glycine or taurine. They act as detergents to solubilize fats for intestinal absorption, are reabsorbed by the small intestine, and are used as cholagogues and choleretics.Cholestasis, Extrahepatic: Impairment of bile flow in the large BILE DUCTS by mechanical obstruction or stricture due to benign or malignant processes.Gallbladder: A storage reservoir for BILE secretion. Gallbladder allows the delivery of bile acids at a high concentration and in a controlled manner, via the CYSTIC DUCT to the DUODENUM, for degradation of dietary lipid.Histocytochemistry: Study of intracellular distribution of chemicals, reaction sites, enzymes, etc., by means of staining reactions, radioactive isotope uptake, selective metal distribution in electron microscopy, or other methods.Deoxycholic Acid: A bile acid formed by bacterial action from cholate. It is usually conjugated with glycine or taurine. Deoxycholic acid acts as a detergent to solubilize fats for intestinal absorption, is reabsorbed itself, and is used as a choleretic and detergent.Cholic Acid: A major primary bile acid produced in the liver and usually conjugated with glycine or taurine. It facilitates fat absorption and cholesterol excretion.Cholelithiasis: Presence or formation of GALLSTONES in the BILIARY TRACT, usually in the gallbladder (CHOLECYSTOLITHIASIS) or the common bile duct (CHOLEDOCHOLITHIASIS).Physical Examination: Systematic and thorough inspection of the patient for physical signs of disease or abnormality.Ammonia: A colorless alkaline gas. It is formed in the body during decomposition of organic materials during a large number of metabolically important reactions. Note that the aqueous form of ammonia is referred to as AMMONIUM HYDROXIDE.Liver Circulation: The circulation of BLOOD through the LIVER.Pallor: A clinical manifestation consisting of an unnatural paleness of the skin.Endocrine System Diseases: Pathological processes of the ENDOCRINE GLANDS, and diseases resulting from abnormal level of available HORMONES.

*Technetium (99mTc) mebrofenin

Once in the hepatocytes, 99mTc mebrofenin is secreted into the canaliculi and finally excreted by the bile ducts. The two ... HEF is 100% in normal individuals, in most patients remains close to 100% with partial common bile duct obstruction and in ... Mebrofenin's fast hepatic excretion (t½=17 minutes) and high hepatic uptake (98.1%) can be attributed to the 3-bromo-2,4,6- ... while maximal liver uptake occurs within 11 minutes. Mechanism of mebrofenin entering the gallbladder is thought to occur with ...

*Jaundice

However, although pale stools and dark urine are a feature of biliary obstruction, they can occur in many intra-hepatic ... probably by rupture of the congested bile canaliculi and direct emptying of the bile into the lymph leaving the liver. Thus, ... with the enlarged gallbladder squeezing on the common hepatic duct). In complete obstruction of the bile duct, no urobilinogen ... either intra-hepatic or post-hepatic. The presence of pale stools and dark urine suggests an obstructive or post-hepatic cause ...

*Cholestasis

... causing hepatic necrosis. These areas are known as bile lakes, and are typically seen only with extra-hepatic obstruction. ... Bile is secreted by the liver to aid in the digestion of fats. Bile formation begins in bile canaliculi that form between two ... When these plugs occur within the bile duct, sufficient pressure (caused by bile accumulation) can cause them to rupture, ... Canalicular bile plugs between individual hepatocytes or within bile ducts may also be seen, representing bile that has been ...

*Liver function tests

3. Posthepatic: Obstruction of the bile ducts is reflected as deficiencies in bilirubin excretion. (Obstruction can be located ... ALP is associated with the plasma membrane of hepatocytes adjacent to the biliary canaliculus. Obstruction or inflammation of ... GGT elevations occur in response to alcohol use and anticonvulsants, as GGT is induced by such agents. Prothrombin time (PT) ... Hepatic (liver) involvement in some diseases can be of crucial importance. This testing is performed on a patient's blood ...

*Jaundice

... occur in many intra-hepatic illnesses and are therefore not a reliable clinical feature to distinguish obstruction from hepatic ... probably by rupture of the congested bile canaliculi and direct emptying of the bile into the lymph leaving the liver. Thus, ... Post-hepaticEdit. Post-hepatic jaundice, also called obstructive jaundice, is caused by an interruption to the drainage of bile ... Pre-hepatic/ hemolytic The pathology is occurring prior to the liver due to either: A. Intrinsic defects in RB cells B. ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Bile acid efflux mediated by the rat liver canalicular bile acid transport/ecto-ATPase protein requires serine 503 phosphorylation and is regulated by tyrosine 488 phosphorylation. AU - Sippel, C. Jeffrey. AU - Fallon, Robert. AU - Perlmutter, David H.. PY - 1994/7/29. Y1 - 1994/7/29. N2 - Transfection of cDNA for a hepatocyte canalicular phosphoprotein, the rat liver canalicular bile acid transporter/ecto-ATPase/cell CAM 105, confers bile acid efflux and ecto-ATPase activities on heterologous cells (Sippel, C. J., Suchy, F. J., Ananthanarayanan, M., and Perlmutter D. H. (1993) J. Biol. Chem. 268, 2083-2091). Our previous studies have also indicated that there is a positive correlation between the degree of phosphorylation of this transporter and its bile acid efflux activity. In this study, we introduced site-specific ...
The effect of a new potent choleretic drug (Febuprol) on lipid composition and cholesterol nucleation time in gallbladder bile was studied in 8 patients with cholesterol gallstones. Nine untreated patients with cholesterol cholecystolithiasis and functioning gallbladder served as controls. Under Febuprol treatment (3 X 100 mg for 6-10 days) mean concentrations of total bile acids (125.4 vs. 59.5 mmol/l), phospholipids (46.1 vs. 25.6 mmol/l) and total lipids (10.4 vs. 5.9 g/dl) were significantly higher (p less than 0.01) than in controls. No significant difference between both groups was calculated for the mean values of cholesterol (17.8 vs. 13.3 mmol/l), cholesterol saturation index (1.5 vs. 2.1) and cholesterol nucleation time (2.1 vs. 2.6 days). Our findings are compatible with a choleretic effect of Febuprol but no alteration of the rapid cholesterol crystallisation in gallbladder bile of patients with ...
Intrahepatic cholestasis represents 20%-40%of drug-induced injuries from which a large proportion remains unpredictable. We aimed to investigate mechanisms underlying drug-induced cholestasis and improve its early detection using human HepaRG cells and a set of 12 cholestatic drugs and six noncholestatic drugs. In this study, we analyzed bile canaliculi dynamics, Rho kinase (ROCK)/myosin light chain kinase (MLCK) pathway implication, efflux inhibition of taurocholate [a predominant bile salt export pump (BSEP) substrate], and expression of the major canalicular and basolateral bile acid transporters. We demonstrated that 12 cholestatic drugs classified on the basis of reported clinical findings caused disturbances of both bile canaliculi dynamics, characterized by either dilatation or constriction, and alteration of the ...
Purpose. Biliary organic anion excretion is mediated by an ATP-dependent primary active transporter, a so-called canalicular multispecific organic anion transporter (cMOAT). As there appear to be many canalicular organic anion transports, we examined the effects of various organic anions and bile acid conjugates on the biliary excretion of pravastatin in rats. Methods. [l4C]pravastatin was intravenously injected into rats with bile drainage in the presence and absence of the continuous infusion of organic anions and bile acids, and radioactivity of its biliary excretion was studied. Results. Biliary excretion of [14C]pravastatin was markedly inhibited by sulfobromophthalein-glutathione, taurolithocholate-3-sulfate, ursodeoxycholate-3,7-sulfate, and ursodeoxycholate-3-O-glucuronide. In contrast, dibromosulfophthalein only slightly inhibited biliary pravastatin excretion, and cefpiramide did not affect biliary ...
Irinotecan, 7-ethyl-10-[4-(1-piperidino)-1-piperidino]-carbonyloxycamptothecin (CPT-11), is a potent anticancer drug that is increasingly used in chemotherapy. A frequent limiting side effect involves gastrointestinal toxicity (diarrhea), which is thought to be related to the biliary excretion of CPT-11 and its metabolites. Accordingly, the biliary excretion mechanisms for both the lactone and carboxylate forms of CPT-11 and its metabolites, SN-38 and its glucuronide (SN38-Glu), were investigated using Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats and Eisai hyperbilirubinemic rats (EHBR), with the latter being mutant rats with a genetic deficiency of the canalicular multispecific organic anion transporter. After i.v. administration of CPT-11, the biliary excretion clearance, defined as the biliary excretion rate normalized to the hepatic concentration, of both the lactone and carboxylate forms of SN38-Glu was much lower in EHBR. The biliary excretion clearance for the carboxylate form of both CPT-11 and SN-38 ...
Epomediol (1,3,3-trimethyl-2-oxabicyclo(2.2.2.)octan-6,7-endo,endo-diol) (EPO) is a terpenoid compound shown to reverse 17 alpha-ethinylestradiol (EE)-induced cholestasis in rat. The effect is related to the restoration of normal liver plasma membrane fluidity values. To further characterize the effect of EPO, bile flow and biliary lipid composition were measured in rats treated either with EE or EE associated with EPO. EE significantly reduced the bile flow; this reduction was prevented by concomitant treatment with EPO with an increase in the bile salt secretion rate. EPO alone showed a choleretic effect. The biliary secretion rate of cholesterol was also significantly reduced by EE while being comparable to controls in EE-EPO-treated animals. Phospholipid (PL) biliary excretion was significantly (P less than 0.002) increased by EE either alone or combined with EPO. After EE treatment, the biliary PL ...
Disruption of the murine mdr2 gene leads to the complete absence of biliary phospholipids. We tested the hypothesis that the increase in biliary phospholipid output induced by fibrates is mediated via induction of the hepatic mdr2 gene and its encoded product, the P-glycoprotein canalicular flippase. Increased levels of mdr2 mRNA were observed in the liver of mice treated with different fibrates: ciprofibrate, 660±155% (as compared with control group); clofibrate, 611±77%; bezafibrate, 410±47%; fenofibrate, 310±52%; gemfibrozil, 190±25% (P , 0.05 compared with control group). Induction of expression of the mdr gene family was specific to the mdr2 gene. Two- to three-fold increases in P-glycoprotein immunodetection were evident on the canalicular plasma-membrane domain of clofibrate- and ciprofibrate-treated mice. Biliary phospholipid output increased from 4.2±1.2 nmol/min per g of liver in the control group to 8.5±0.6, 7.1±2.9 and 5.8±2.5 in ciprofibrate-, clofibrate- and ...
Dec 22, 2005. SAN DIEGO, CA - Dec 22, 2005 - Diazyme Laboratories, a company that applies its proprietary enzyme technologies to develop low cost and high quality diagnostic products for clinical and research uses, announced today that the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has granted Diazyme 510(K) clearance to market its Enzymatic Total Bile Acids (TBA) Assay Kit for the quantitative determination of total bile acids in human blood samples.. Total bile acids is a well known bio-marker for diagnosis of liver diseases. Serum total bile acids are elevated in patients with acute hepatitis, chronic hepatitis, liver sclerosis, and liver cancer. Total bile acids levels are found to be the most sensitive indicator for monitoring the effectiveness of interferon treatment of chronic hepatitis C patients. Moreover, total ...
Recent studies have suggested that the canalicular bile salt transport system of rat liver corresponds to a 100-kDa membrane glycoprotein. In the present study we attempted to functionally reconstitute the 100-kDa protein into artificial proteoliposomes. Canalicular membrane proteins were solubilized with octyl glucoside in the presence of asolectin phospholipids. The extracts were treated with preimmune serum or the 100-kDa protein selectively immunoprecipitated with a polyclonal antiserum. Proteins remaining in the supernatant were then incorporated into proteoliposomes by gel-filtration chromatography. Canalicular proteoliposomes containing the 100-kDa protein exhibited transstimulatable taurocholate uptake that could be inhibited by 4,4-diisothiocyanato-2,2-stilbenedisulfonic acid (DIDS). In contrast, no DIDS-sensitive transstimulatable taurocholate uptake was found in 100-kDa protein-free canalicular proteoliposomes. However, when the immunoprecipitated 100-kDa protein ...
Uchiumi T., Hinoshita E., Haga S., Nakamura T., Tanaka T., Toh S., Furukawa M., Kawabe T., Wada M., Kagotani K., Okumura K., Kohno K., Akiyama S., Kuwano M.. The human multidrug resistance protein (MRP) gene encodes a membrane protein involved in the ATP-dependent transport of hydrophobic compounds. We previously isolated a canalicular multispecific organic anion transporter, cMOAT1/MRP2, that belongs to the ATP binding cassette (ABC) superfamily, which is specifically expressed in liver, and cMOAT1/MRP2 is responsible for the defects in hyperbilirubinemia II/Dubin-Johnson syndrome. In this study, we isolated a new cDNA of the ABC superfamily designated cMOAT2/MRP3 that is homologous to human MRP1 and cMOAT1/MRP2: cMOAT2/MRP3 is 56% identical to MRP1 and 45% identical to cMOAT1/MRP2, respectively. Fluorescence in situ hybridization demonstrated the chromosomal locus of this gene on chromosome 17q22. The human cMOAT2 cDNA hybridized to a 6.5-kb mRNA that was mainly expressed in liver and to a ...
In this study, we have characterized the pathway of ATP7B transport from the TGN to the bile canaliculus in response to the elevation of intracellular Cu+ levels in the rat hepatoma cell line Can 10.. The Cu+-induced release of ATP7B from the TGN was found to be a rapid process that begins within 5 min of the addition of 40 µM Cu+ and is completed within 20-25 min. Treatment with bafilomycin A1 delayed the detachment of the cisterna carrying ATP7B from the TGN, demonstrating that cisterna detachment is a prerequisite to the generation of transport vesicles, as has previously been described in plants (Uemura et al., 2014). This process is pH dependent, and the rapidity of this occurrence in mammalian cells is probably why it has not been previously observed in organisms other than plants. Our studies also show that the vesicles loaded with ATP7B budding from the TGN do not contain lysosomal membrane proteins, suggesting that these are instead segregated into vesicles distinct ...
Since the last International Bile Acid Meeting in Freiburg in 1996, considerable progress has been made in several areas of bile acid research. The different pathways of bile acid synthesis and their regulation have been further characterized. The molecular mechanisms for biliary secretion of bile acids have been elucidated and genetic defects of bile acid transport have been defined. Injurious as well as protective effects of different bile acids on the liver have been further studied. Finally, the beneficial effects of ursodeoxycholic acid in cholestatic liver diseases have been substantiated and the potential mechanisms of action have been explored. This book, the proceedings of the Falk Symposium No. 108 (XV International Bile Acid Meeting), held in Titisee, Germany, ...
Bile acids are steroidal amphipathic molecules derived from the catabolism of cholesterol. They modulate bile flow and lipid secretion, are essential for the absorption of dietary fats and vitamins, and have been implicated in the regulation of all the key enzymes involved in cholesterol homeostasis. Bile acids recirculate through the liver, bile ducts, small intestine and portal vein to form an enterohepatic circuit. They exist as anions at physiological pH and, consequently, require a carrier for transport across the membranes of the enterohepatic tissues. Individual bile acid carriers have now been cloned from several species. Na(+)-dependent transporters that mediate uptake into hepatocytes and reabsorption from the intestine and biliary epithelium and an ATP-dependent transporter that pumps ...
For the past year we have employed a mixture of oleic acid and bile salts for the treatment of patients suffering from various forms of gall-bladder disease. The results obtained, which were reported elsewhere15 were gratifying in a large number of cases. We then decided to undertake an experimental study of the choleretic effect of bile salts and of oleic acid with bile salts to ascertain whether oleic acid which has a direct action on the gall-bladder also enhances the well known choleretic effect of bile salts. Theoretically, as will be shown later, it appeared plausible that such would be ...
2H2O affects many membrane transport processes by solvent and kinetic isotope effects. Since bile formation is a process of osmotic filtration where such effects could be important, we investigated the effects of 2H2O on bile formation in the in situ perfused rat liver. Dose finding experiments showed that at high concentrations, 2H2O increased vascular resistance and induced cholestasis; at 60% 2H2O however, a clear dissociation between the vascular and biliary effects was observed. Therefore, further experiments were carried out at this concentration. The main finding was a reduction in bile salt-independent bile flow from 0.99 +/- 0.04 to 0.66 +/- 0.04 microliters.min-1.g-1 (P , 0.001). This was associated with a 40% reduction in biliary bicarbonate concentration (P , 0.001). Choleretic response to neither taurocholate nor ursodeoxycholate was altered by 2H2O; in ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Dissociation of bile flow and biliary lipid secretion from biliary lysosomal enzyme output in experimental cholestasis. AU - Lopez del Pino, V. H.. AU - La Russo, Nicholas F. PY - 1981. Y1 - 1981. UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=0019429543&partnerID=8YFLogxK. UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=0019429543&partnerID=8YFLogxK. M3 - Article. C2 - 6787157. AN - SCOPUS:0019429543. VL - 22. SP - 229. EP - 235. JO - Journal of Lipid Research. JF - Journal of Lipid Research. SN - 0022-2275. IS - 2. ER - ...
Bile or gall is a dark green to yellowish brown fluid, produced by the liver of most vertebrates, that aids the digestion of lipids in the small intestine. In humans, bile is produced continuously by the liver (liver bile), and stored and concentrated in the gallbladder (gallbladder bile). After eating, this stored bile is discharged into the duodenum. The composition of gallbladder bile is 97% water, 0.7% bile salts, 0.2% bilirubin, 0.51% fats (cholesterol, fatty acids and lecithin), and 200 meq/l inorganic salts. Bile was the yellow bile in the four humor system of medicine, the standard of medical practice in Europe from 500 B.C. to the early nineteenth century. About 400 to 800 ml of ...
The presence of a renal bile fistula with escape of all bile into the urinary tract seriously impairs the capacity of an anemic dog to form new hemoglobin on standard diets. These bile fistula dogs will produce about one-half as much hemoglobin in anemia on standard diets as during earlier control periods without a bile fistula. Iron given by mouth to an anemic bile fistula dog will effect the production of about one-half the amount of new hemoglobin as in control periods. Iron given by vein to an anemic bile fistula dog will approximate the theoretical 100 per cent return of new hemoglobin. Obviously absorption is a very important factor in the utilization of iron by these dogs. The reaction to liver feeding is much like the reaction to iron feeding but we have no proof of inadequate protein digestion and ...
The membrane-associated protein encoded by this gene is a member of the superfamily of ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters. ABC proteins transport various molecules across extra- and intra-cellular membranes. ABC genes are divided into seven distinct subfamilies (ABC1, MDR/TAP, MRP, ALD, OABP, GCN20, White). This protein is a member of the MDR/TAP subfamily. Members of the MDR/TAP subfamily are involved in multidrug resistance. The protein encoded by this gene is the major canalicular bile salt export pump in man. Mutations in this gene cause a form of progressive familial intrahepatic cholestases which are a group of inherited disorders with severe cholestatic liver disease from early infancy. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008 ...
50% cholesterol monohydrate plus an admixture of calcium salts, bile pigments, and proteins. Pigment stones are composed primarily of calcium bilirubinate; -There are several important mechanisms in the formation of lithogenic (stone-forming) bile. The most important is increased biliary secretion of cholesterol. This may occur in association with obesity, the metabolic syndrome, high-caloric and cholesterol-rich diets. cholesterol gallstone disease occurs because of several defects, which include:- (1) bile supersaturation with cholesterol, (2) nucleation of cholesterol monohydrate with subsequent crystal retention and stone growth, and (3) abnormal gallbladder motor function with delayed emptying and stasis. Gallbladder hypomotility leading to stasis and formation of Sludge in:- a. Prolonged parenteral nutrition b. Fasting c. Pregnancy d. Drugs such as octreotide Excess Weight loss: ...
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Gerloff, T., Meier, P. J. and Stieger, B. (1998), Taurocholate induces preferential release of phosphatidylcholine from rat liver canalicular vesicles. Liver, 18: 306-312. doi: 10.1111/j.1600-0676.1998.tb00810.x ...
Chemicals. MRL-I, [ethyl-14C]MRL-I, MRL-II, [13CD3]MRL-II, and [methyl-14C]MRL-II (Fig. 1) were synthesized at Merck Research Laboratories and were provided as their arginine salts. Alamethicin, saccharolactone, and UDPGA were purchased from Sigma-Aldrich (St. Louis, MO). Acetonitrile and methanol (HPLC grade) were obtained from Fisher Scientific Co. (Pittsburgh, PA). All other reagents were of analytical or HPLC grade.. Animals. Male Sprague-Dawley and obese Zucker rats were obtained from Charles River Laboratories Inc. (Wilmington, MA). They were housed in cages and maintained on a 12-h light/dark cycle. Access to food and water was allowed ad libitum. Rats used in this study were 14 to 16 weeks old; the Sprague-Dawley rats weighed ∼300 g and the obese Zucker rats weighed ∼600 g. All procedures for animal experiments were approved by the Merck Research Laboratories Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee.. Studies in Bile Duct-Cannulated Rats. [14C]MRL-I (1 mg/kg) or ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Expression and subcellular localization of aquaporin water channels in the polarized hepatocyte cell line, WIF-B. AU - Gradilone, Sergio A.. AU - Tietz, Pamela S.. AU - Splinter, Patrick L.. AU - Marinelli, Raúl A.. AU - LaRusso, Nicholas F.. PY - 2005/8/18. Y1 - 2005/8/18. N2 - Background: Recent data suggest that canalicular bile secretion involves selective expression and coordinated regulation of aquaporins (AQPs), a family of water channels proteins. In order to further characterize the role of AQPs in this process, an in vitro cell system with retained polarity and expression of AQPs and relevant solute transporters involved in bile formation is highly desirable. The WIF-B cell line is a highly differentiated and polarized rat hepatoma/human fibroblast hybrid, which forms abundant bile canalicular structures. This cell line has been reported to be a good in vitro model for studying ...
A number of processes could have contributed to the lower canalicular enzyme activities in diclofenac-treated rats including: 1) redistribution of proteins from the canalicular membrane to other intracellular domains, 2) decreased protein synthesis, or 3) decreased activity as a result of adduct formation. It has been reported that several models of cholestasis are associated with redistribution of canalicular proteins and/or decreased synthesis (Barr and Hubbard, 1993; Stieger et al., 1994; Rost et al., 1999). For example, phalloidin-induced cholestasis in rats causes redistribution of ecto-ATPase, dipeptidylpeptidase IV, and a number of ATP-dependent transporter proteins as a result of disruption and internalization of canalicular membrane fragments (Rost et al., 1999). Bile duct ligation in rats has also been associated with decreased localization of dipeptidylpeptidase IV and ecto-ATPase to canalicular membranes and intracellular accumulation as a result of altered ...
The discovery of unidirectional, ATP-dependent canalicular transport systems (also termed export pumps) for bile salts, amphiphilic anionic conjugates, lipophilic cations, and phospholipids has opened new opportunities for understanding biliary phy
TY - CHAP. T1 - Elevation of pancreatic enzymes in bile of PBM. AU - Fujimoto, Takaaki. AU - Ohtsuka, Takao. AU - Nakamura, Masafumi. PY - 2018/6/5. Y1 - 2018/6/5. N2 - Pancreaticobiliary maljunction (PBM) is a congenital anomaly in which the reciprocal reflux between pancreatic and bile juice occurs because the conflu- ence of the pancreatic and bile ducts lies outside of the area of contractile influence of the sphincter of Oddi. The reflux of pancreatic juice into the bile duct and subse- quent elevated pancreatic enzyme level in bile are usually recognized in PBM. Amylase is the most popular pancreatic enzyme for assessment in daily prac- tice, and assessment of amylase level in bile is useful to definitively confirm the presence of PBM, and the mixture of pancreatic and ...
Stieger, Bruno; Kullak-Ublick, Gerd A (2013). Bile salt Export Pump BSEP (ABCB11): Role in liver physiology and liver disease. In: Ishikawa, T; Kim, R B; König, J. Pharmacogenomics of Human Drug Transporters: Clinical Impacts. Hoboken, NJ, USA: Wiley-Blackwell, 295-309. ...
Shop the best NutriCology Allergy Research Ox Bile 100 Veg Caps products at Swanson Health Products. Trusted since 1969, we offer trusted quality and great value on NutriCology Allergy Research Ox Bile 100 Veg Caps products.. Dec 22, 2012 · 7-Keto DHEA; Vitamin. ox bile Extracts or Beef Bile Supplements are a combination of bile salts and bile acids that enhance or. why do we need ox bile.. For informational purposes only. Please consult your health care practitioner before.. Yahoo Lifestyle is your source for style, beauty, and wellness, including health, inspiring stories, and the latest fashion trends.. Feb 3, 2012. But she had a gallstone blocking her common bile duct - extremely painful and impossible to eat ANY foods. Not long after, ...
Gene name: ATP binding cassette subfamily B, member 11 (ABCB11). Summary. ABCB11, more commonly referred to as BSEP (Bile Salt Export Pump) is a uni-directional, ATP-dependent efflux transporter that plays an important role in the elimination of bile salts from the hepatocyte into the bile canaliculi for export into the gastrointestinal tract (GIT). It is almost exclusively expressed in the liver, with much lower levels reported in the kidney. It is predominantly of relevance to hepatotoxicity, as BSEP inhibition by a drug and/or its metabolites can result in the build-up of bile salts in the liver, which can lead to cholestasis and drug-induced liver injury (DILI). Compared to other drug transporters there are only few identified drug substrates and inhibitors of BSEP; thus, its involvement in drug-drug interactions (DDI) is very limited. The relevance of ...
Multiplicity for the transport of organic anions across the bile canalicular membrane was studied in vivo and in vitro using dibromosulfophthalein (DBSP), [14C]cefodizime, [3H]leukotriene C4 (LTC4) and indocyanine green (ICG) as model compounds in rats. A high concentration of DBSP in plasma reduced the biliary excretion of cefodizime and leukotriene radioactivity to about 15 and 35% of their control values, respectively, but did not affect the excretion of ICG. A high plasma concentration of ICG reduced the excretion of cefodizime to about 60% of the control value, but exerted minimal effect on the excretion of leukotriene radio-activity and DBSP. In vitro, ATP-dependent uptake of LTC4 into the canalicular membrane vesicles was reduced by DBSP, cefodizime and ICG in a dose-dependent manner, with approximate IC50 values of 0.1 microM, 10 microM, and 1 microM, respectively. The hepatic unbound concentration of DBSP sufficient to reduce the excretion of ...
Bile culture is a laboratory test to detect disease-causing germs in the biliary system. Alternative Names: Culture - bile. A sample of bile is needed.
Purpose. To investigate the microstructure of the lacrimal canaliculus and the characteristics of lacrimal canalicular diseases by 80-MHz ultrasound biomicroscopy (UBM).. Methods. This study included 33 participants: 20 normal subjects (40 eyes), 2 patients with chronic lacrimal canaliculitis (4 eyes), 10 patients with chronic dacryocystitis (16 eyes), and 1 patient with lacrimal punctum atresia (2 eyes). All participants underwent 80-MHz UBM; disease-specific features were noted.. Results. On 80-MHz UBM of the lacrimal canaliculi (vertical section) in normal subjects, low echo of the lacrimal canalicular lumen and high echo of the lacrimal canalicular wall were observed. The uniform low echo near the wall was the mucosal epithelium. The outermost layer of medium-to-high echo was the subepithelial elastic fibrous layer. In the horizontal section, the lumen was continuous. Two linear high echoes parallel to the canalicular wall could be observed at the center of the lacrimal ...
Specialized transmembrane proteins recognize the substance and allow it to move across the membrane when it otherwise would not, either because the phospholipid bilayer of the membrane is impermeable to the substance moved or because the substance is moved against the direction of its concentration gradient.[7] There are two forms of active transport, primary active transport and secondary active transport. In primary active transport, the proteins involved are pumps that normally use chemical energy in the form of ATP. Secondary active transport, however, makes use of potential energy, which is usually derived through exploitation of an electrochemical gradient. The energy created from one ion moving down its electrochemical gradient is used to power the transport of another ion moving against its electrochemical gradient.[8] This involves pore-forming proteins that form channels across the cell membrane. The difference between passive transport and active transport is that the active transport ...
This study compares the biliary and urinary metabolic profiles of 1,2-diethyl-3-hydroxypyridin-4-one (CP94), an orally active iron chelator, in the normal rat. Surprisingly, CP94 was found to form two phase II metabolites, the 3-O- and 4-O-glucuronides. These glucuronides accounted for 38 and 28% of the administered CP94 dose, in bile and urine, respectively. Unchanged CP94 accounted for 5% of the CP94 dose in both bile and urine. The 2-(1′-hydroxy) metabolite of CP94 was found to be the dominant metabolite in urine. In addition, an unstable metabolite was detected in the bile although its structure remains unknown at the present stage. The excretion of iron in bile, after administration of CP94, was found to parallel the biliary elimination of CP94 together with its hydroxylated derivatives, indicating the importance of metabolites in iron excretion.. ...
We have previously shown that the multidrug resistance protein (MRP) mediates the ATP-dependent membrane transport of the endogenous glutathione conjugate leukotriene C4 (LTC4) and of structurally related anionic conjugates of lipophilic compounds [Jedlitschky, Leier, Buchholz, Center and Keppler (1994) Cancer Res. 54, 4833-4836; Leier, Jedlitschky, Buchholz, Cole, Deeley and Keppler (1994) J. Biol. Chem. 269, 27807-27810]. We demonstrate in the present study that MRP also mediates the ATP-dependent transport of GSSG, as shown in membrane vesicles from human leukaemia cells overexpressing MRP (HL60/ADR cells) or HeLa cells transfected with an MRP expression vector (HeLa T5 cells) in comparison with the respective parental or control cells. The Km value for ATP-dependent transport of GSSG was 93±26 μM (mean value±S.D., n = 5) in membrane vesicles from HeLa T5 cells. GSH, at a concentration of 100 μM, was not a substrate for any significant ATP-dependent MRP-mediated transport. The transport ...
The Lith1 region on Chromosome (Chr) 2 contains a gene that markedly affects the prevalence of cholesterol gallstones in inbred mice. We report the high-resolution genetic and radiation hybrid maps of the chromosomal region surrounding Lith1, using three resources: a DNA panel from 188 progeny from two reciprocal backcrosses between C57BL/6 and Mus spretus inbred strains; 423 progeny of an N4 generation from backcrossing the susceptible C57L/J alleles at Lith1 into the resistant AKR/J strain; and the newly developed hamster-mouse T31 radiation hybrid panel. We mapped 17 microsatellite markers in the D2Mit182 to D2Mit14 region and two candidate genes for Lith1, the canalicular bile salt export pump (Bsep) also known as sister of P-glycoprotein (Spgp) and the low-density-lipoprotein-receptor-related gene megalin (Gp330). Both genetic maps were in agreement and ordered the microsatellite markers into a 10.4 +/- 1.5 cM region. The high-resolution physical map ...
Previous studies have identified the ATP-dependent export of glutathione conjugates as a physiological function of the multidrug resistance protein (MRP). The involvement of MRP in the transport of endogenous and xenobiotic conjugates was investigated further using membrane vesicles from MRP-transfected HeLa cells. The ATP-dependent transport of the glutathione conjugates [3H]leukotriene C4, S-(2,4-dinitrophenyl)-[3H]glutathione, and 3H-labeled oxidized glutathione was characterized by determination of the transport efficiency Vmax:Km amounting to 1031, 114, and 7.1 ml × mg protein-1 × min-1, respectively. Additional endogenous substrates for MRP-mediated transport included the steroid conjugate 17β-glucuronosyl [3H]estradiol and the bile salt conjugates [6α-14C]glucuronosylhyodeoxycholate and 3α-sulfatolithocholyl [3H]taurine. The Km value of MRP for 17β-glucuronosyl [3H]estradiol was 1.5 ± 0.3 µm, with a Vmax:Km ratio of 42 ml × mg protein-1 × min-1, and a Ki value of 0.7 ...
Involved in bile acid metabolism. In liver hepatocytes catalyzes the second step in the conjugation of C24 bile acids (choloneates) to glycine and taurine before excretion into bile canaliculi. The major components of bile are cholic acid and chenodeoxycholic acid. In a first step the bile acids are converted to an acyl-CoA thioester, either in peroxisomes (primary bile acids deriving from the cholesterol pathway), or cytoplasmic at the endoplasmic reticulum (secondary bile acids). May catalyze the conjugation of primary or secondary bile acids, or both. The conjugation increases the detergent properties of bile acids in the intestine, which facilitates lipid and fat-soluble vitamin ...
Involved in bile acid metabolism. In liver hepatocytes catalyzes the second step in the conjugation of C24 bile acids (choloneates) to glycine and taurine before excretion into bile canaliculi. The major components of bile are cholic acid and chenodeoxycholic acid. In a first step the bile acids are converted to an acyl-CoA thioester, either in peroxisomes (primary bile acids deriving from the cholesterol pathway), or cytoplasmic at the endoplasmic reticulum (secondary bile acids). May catalyze the conjugation of primary or secondary bile acids, or both. The conjugation increases the detergent properties of bile acids in the intestine, which facilitates lipid and fat-soluble vitamin ...
Acyl-CoA synthetase involved in bile acid metabolism. Proposed to catalyze the first step in the conjugation of C24 bile acids (choloneates) to glycine and taurine before excretion into bile canaliculi by activating them to their CoA thioesters. Seems to activate secondary bile acids entering the liver from the enterohepatic circulation. In vitro, also activates 3-alpha,7-alpha,12-alpha-trihydroxy-5-beta-cholestanate (THCA), the C27 precursor of cholic acid deriving from the de novo synthesis from cholesterol.
The bile salt export pump (BSEP) is an ABC-transporter expressed at the canalicular membrane of hepatocytes. Its physiological role is to expel bile salts into the canaliculi from where they drain into the bile duct. Inhibition of this transporter may lead to intrahepatic cholestasis. Predictive computational models of BSEP inhibition may allow for fast identification of potentially harmful compounds in large databases. This article presents a predictive in silico model based on physicochemical descriptors that is able to flag compounds as potential BSEP inhibitors. This model was built using a training set of 670 compounds with available BSEP inhibition potencies. It successfully predicted BSEP inhibition for two independent test sets and was in a further step used for a virtual screening experiment. After in vitro testing of selected candidates, a marketed drug, ...
Anatomy. Bile canaliculi in the liver combine to form the hepatic ducts. The number of hepatic ducts varies from 3-5; they join the extrahepatic biliary system at the cystic duct. The gallbladder lies in the right medial and quadrate liver lobes in the gallbladder fossa. One duct, the cystic duct, leaves the gallbladder and receives the hepatic ducts. After the last hepatic duct has joined the cystic duct, the duct travelling towards the duodenum becomes the bile duct or common bile duct. The common bile duct enters the duodenum on the major duodenal papilla. The bile duct tunnels submucosally aboral to the serosal attachment of the duct; this is more pronounced in dogs than cats. The gallbladder wall contains smooth muscle and the bladder ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - X-linked cholestasis in mouse due to mutations of the P4-ATPase ATP11C. AU - Siggs, Owen M.. AU - Schnabl, Bernd. AU - Webb, Bill. AU - Beutler, Bruce. PY - 2011/5/10. Y1 - 2011/5/10. N2 - Transporters at the hepatic canalicular membrane are essential for the formation of bile and the prevention of cholestatic liver disease. One such example is ATP8B1, a P4-type ATPase disrupted in three inherited forms of intrahepatic cholestasis. Mutation of the X-linked mouse gene Atp11c, which encodes a paralogous P4-type ATPase, precludes B-cell development in the adult bone marrow, but also causes hyperbilirubinemia. Here we explore this hyperbilirubinemia in two independent Atp11c mutant mouse lines, and find that it originates from an effect on nonhematopoietic cells. Liver function tests and histology revealed only minor pathology, although cholic acid was elevated in the serum of mutant mice, and became toxic to mutant mice when ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - The unique polarity phenotype of hepatocytes. AU - Müsch, Anne. PY - 2014/11/1. Y1 - 2014/11/1. N2 - Hepatocytes, the main epithelial cell type of the liver, function like all epithelial cells to mediate the vectorial flow of macromolecules into and out of the organ they encompass. They do so by establishing polarized surface domains and by restricting paracellular flow via their tight junctions and cell-cell adhesion. Yet, the cell and tissue organization of hepatocytes differs profoundly from that of most other epithelia, including those of the digestive and urinary tracts, the lung or the breast. The latter form monolayered tissues in which the apical domains of individual cells align around a central continuous luminal cavity that constitutes the tubules and acini characteristic of these organs. Hepatocytes, by contrast, form capillary-sized lumina with multiple neighbors resulting in a branched, tree-like bile canaliculi network that ...
Implant devices, systems and methods for insertion into a punctum of a patient optionally comprises a drug core and a sheath body disposed over the drug core. The drug core includes a therapeutic agent deliverable into the eye, and the sheath defines at least one exposed surface of the drug core. The exposed surface(s) of the drug core may contact a tear or tear film fluid and release the therapeutic agent at therapeutic levels over a sustained period when the implant is implanted for use. The implant may include a retention element to retain the drug core and sheath body near the punctum, optionally comprising a shape memory alloy that can resiliently expand. An occlusive element may be attached to the retention element to at least partially occlude tear flow through the canalicular lumen.
Transmembrane P-glycoproteins (P-gps) are responsible for multidrug resistance (MDR) phenotypes in tumor cell lines. P-glycoproteins function as energy dependent efflux flippases that prevent the cellular accumulation of a wide variety of compounds. We characterized P-gp expression in populations of several fish species exposed in their natural habitat to environmental contaminants which may be P-gp substrates/inducers. We evaluated whether P-gp activity may be implicated in this multixenobiotic resistant phenotype. In winter flounder (Pleuronectes americanus) with contaminant-associated liver tumors, P-gp was highly expressed in bile canaliculi of non-tumorous liver surrounding cholangiocellular carcinoma, but was not detected within tumors. Cellular stress caused by impaired bile elimination may be responsible for elevated P-gp. Killifish (Fundulus heteroclitus) from a contaminated field sites had higher intestinal P-gp ...
hypothetical protein, ABCB1LB, ATP-binding cassette, sub-family B (MDR/TAP), member 1-like B, A306_07528, ABC16, ABC member 16, MDR/TAP subfamily, AS27_06659, AS28_00614, ATP-binding cassette protein B11, ATP-binding cassette, sub-family B (MDR/TAP), member 11, ATP-binding cassette, subfamily B (MDR/TAP), member 11, ATP-binding cassette, sub-family B (MDR/TAP), member 11-like protein, ATP-binding cassette sub-family B member 11, ATP-binding cassette, sub-family B, member 11, bile salt export pump, BRIC2, BSEP, BSEP/SPGP, CB1_000638007, D623_10034923, GW7_06212, H920_16172, I79_001236, Lith1, liver bile salt export pump, M91_01875, M959_07155, MDA_GLEAN10024246, Multidrug resistance protein 1, N301_03105, N302_06788, N303_07198, N305_06591, N306_04080, N307_07545, N308_11810, N309_07944, N312_11735, N321_13718, N327_01303, N328_07355, N329_09470, N331_01374, N332_02914, N333_01536, N334_13094, N336_04014, N340_01262, N341_10800, ...
Bilirubin, resulting largely from the turnover of hemoglobin, is found in the plasma in two main forms: unconjugated or conjugated with glucuronic acid. Unconjugated bilirubin is transported into hepatocytes. There, it is glucuronidated by UGT1A1 and secreted into the bile canaliculi. We report a genome wide association scan in 4300 Sardinian individuals for total serum bilirubin levels. In addition to the two known loci previously involved in the regulation of bilirubin levels, UGT1A1 (P = 6.2 x 10-62) and G6PD (P = 2.5 x 10-8), we observed a strong association on chromosome 12 within the SLCO1B3 gene (P = 3.9 x 10-9). Our findings were replicated in an independent sample of 1860 Sardinians and in 832 subjects from the Old Order Amish (combined P , 5 x 10-14). We also show that SLC01B3 variants contribute to idiopathic mild unconjugated hyperbilirubinemia. Thus, SLC01B3 appears to be involved in the regulation of serum bilirubin levels in healthy ...
We have compared by immunocytochemistry and immunoblotting the expression and distribution of adhesion molecules participating in cell-matrix and cell-cell interactions during embryonic development and regeneration of rat liver. Fibronectin and the fibronectin receptor, integrin alpha 5 beta 1, were distributed pericellularly and expressed at a steady level during development from the 16th day of gestation and in neonate and adult liver. AGp110, a nonintegrin fibronectin receptor was first detected on the 17th day of gestation in a similar, nonpolarized distribution on parenchymal cell surfaces. At that stage of development haemopoiesis is at a peak in rat liver and fibronectin and receptors alpha 5 beta 1 and AGp110 were prominent on the surface of blood cell precursors. During the last 2 d of gestation (20th and 21st day) hepatocytes assembled around lumina. AGp110 was initially depolarized on the surface of these acinar cells but then confined to the lumen and to newly-formed ...
1. A liver canalicular plasma-membrane fraction enriched 115-155-fold in five marker enzymes relative to the tissue homogenate was obtained by sonication of liver plasma membranes followed by fractionation in iso-osmotic Nycodenz gradients. 2. Two lateral-plasma membrane fractions were also collected by this procedure; the lighter-density fraction was still associated with canalicular membranes, as assessed by enzymic and polypeptide analysis. 3. The polypeptide composition of the domain-defined plasma-membrane fractions was evaluated. It was demonstrated by immunoblotting that the 41 kDa alpha-subunit of the inhibitory G-protein, associated in high relative amounts with canalicular plasma-membrane fractions, was partially lost in the last stage of purification; however, this subunit was retained by lateral plasma membranes. 4. Antibodies to the proteins of bile-canalicular vesicles were shown to localize to the hepatocyte surface in thin liver sections examined by ...
A novel hard transmission X-ray microscope (TXM) at the Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Light-source operating from 5 to 15 keV X-ray energy with 14 to 30 mu m(2) field of view has been used for high-resolution (30-40 nm) imaging and density quantification of mineralized tissue. TXM is uniquely suited for imaging of internal cellular structures and networks in mammalian mineralized tissues using relatively thick (50 mu m), untreated samples that preserve tissue micro-and nanostructure. To test this method we performed Zernike phase contrast and absorption contrast imaging of mouse cancellous bone prepared under different conditions of in vivo loading, fixation, and contrast agents. In addition, the three-dimensional structure was examined using tomography. Individual osteocytic lacunae were observed embedded within trabeculae in cancellous bone. Extensive canalicular networks were evident and included processes with diameters near the 30-40 nm instrument resolution that have not been reported ...
Sigma-Aldrich offers abstracts and full-text articles by [Brandy Garzel, Hui Yang, Lei Zhang, Shiew-Mei Huang, James E Polli, Hongbing Wang].
A light-and electron-microscopic study of pig hepatocytes from late prenatal to early neonatal animals shows changes which reflect an increasing rate of synthetic activity. The granular endoplasmic reticulum (ER) in the prenatal pig hepatocyte is situated along the periphery of the cytoplasm and in the region immediately surrounding the nucleus. Mitochondria are most abundant in the area adjacent to the nucleus, while the Golgi complex is generally located in the region of the bile canaliculus. The remaining portion of the hepatocyte is occupied with glycogen. A few hours after birth the hepatocyte increases about twofold in size with the nucleus shifting from a peripheral to a more centrally located position. The glycogen decreases quickly coincident with a rapid increase in the amount of granular ER and the dispersion of the mitochondria throughout the cell. The Golgi complex becomes distended and numerous vesicles appear in its immediate vicinity containing a moderately ...
Bilirubin diglucuronide is a conjugated form of bilirubin formed in bilirubin metabolism. The hydrophilic character of bilirubin diglucuronide enables it to be water-soluble. It is pumped across the hepatic canalicular membrane into the bile by the transporter MRP2. Lengyel, G.; et al. (2007-08-29). "Modulation of sinusoidal and canalicular elimination of bilirubin-glucuronides by rifampicin and other cholestatic drugs in a sandwich culture of rat hepatocytes". Hepatology Research. Wiley. 38 (3): 300-309. doi:10.1111/j.1872-034X.2007.00255.x. Metabolism ...
Irinotecan is a relatively new anticancer agent of interest for both its clinical activity and its complex clinical pharmacology. It is a prodrug, requiring activation by carboxylesterases to SN-38, an inhibitor of topoisomerase I. Recent studies suggest that human carboxylesterase-2 is the primary carboxylesterase involved in the hydrolysis at pharmacological concentrations (1) . Irinotecan is also oxidized by CYP3A43 to the inactive metabolite 7-ethyl-10-[4-N-(5-aminopentanoic acid)-1-piperidino]carbonyloxycamptothecin as well as to 7-ethyl-10-[4-(piperidino)-1-amino]carbonyloxycamptothecin, which can undergo hydrolysis to SN-38 (2, 3, 4) . SN-38 undergoes glucuronidation by UGT1A1 (5) and is possibly oxidized by CYP3A4 as well (6) . Mass balance studies have demonstrated that 64% of the total dose is excreted in the feces, confirming the important role of biliary excretion (7) . Studies suggest that canalicular multispecific organic anion transporter is the major transporter of irinotecan and ...
The purpose was to determine the effect on the morphine-morphine glucuronide systems of Triton X-100 instilled into the area of the hepatic canalicular membrane by segmented retrograde intrabiliary injection (40 microliters of 0.4% Triton + 31 microliters of saline) in the isolated in situ perfused livers of male Sprague-Dawley rats. In all experiments, [14C]morphine was given by segmented retrograde intrabiliary injection (40 microliters of [14C]morphine + 110 microliters of saline). The control single pass perfusate contained 15.8% [14C]morphine glucuronide (MG) and 6.2% [14C]morphine. With Triton, the major changes observed were an unusual plateau-like pattern of egress of the [14C]MG into the perfusate and a profound decrease in the [14C]MG excretion into bile. In controls, 45 mg of unlabeled morphine sulfate intraportally 5 min before the [14C]morphine reduced the perfusate [14C]MG and increased [14C]morphine as expected by isotope dilution. Also, ...
Membrane transport proteins are known to influence the absorption, distribution, metabolism, excretion and toxicity (ADMET) of drugs. At the onset of this thesis work, only a few structure-activity models, in general describing P-glycoprotein (Pgp/ABCB1) interactions, were developed using small datasets with little structural diversity. In this thesis, drug-transport protein interactions were explored using large, diverse datasets representing the chemical space of orally administered registered drugs. Focus was set on the ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transport proteins expressed in the canalicular membrane of human hepatocytes.. The inhibition of the ABC transport proteins multidrug-resistance associated protein 2 (MRP2/ABCC2) and bile salt export pump (BSEP/ABCB11) was experimentally investigated using membrane vesicles from cells overexpressing the investigated proteins and sandwich cultured human hepatocytes (SCHH). Several previously unknown inhibitors were identified for ...
Chen, H.-L., Chen, H.-L., Yuan, R.-H., Wu, S.-H., Chen, Y.-H., Chien, C.-S., Chou, S.-P., Wang, R., Ling, V. and Chang, M.-H. (2012), Hepatocyte transplantation in bile salt export pump-deficient mice: selective growth advantage of donor hepatocytes under bile acid stress. Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine, 16: 2679-2689. doi: 10.1111/j.1582-4934.2012.01586.x ...
ATP-binding cassette, sub-family B member 11 also known as ABCB11 is a protein which in humans is encoded by the ABCB11 gene. The product of the ABCB11 gene is an ABC transporter named BSEP (Bile Salt Export Pump), or sPgp (sister of P-glycoprotein). This membrane-associated protein is a member of the superfamily of ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters. ABC proteins transport various molecules across extra- and intra-cellular membranes. ABC genes are divided into seven distinct subfamilies (ABC1, MDR/TAP, MRP, ALD, OABP, GCN20, White). This protein is a member of the MDR/TAP subfamily. Some members of the MDR/TAP subfamily are involved in multidrug resistance. This particular protein is responsible for the transport of taurocholate and other cholate conjugates from hepatocytes (liver cells) to the bile. In humans, the activity of this transporter is the major determinant of bile formation and ...
Bile acid in the stomach plays a key role in the digestion of food in the small intestine. Two chief bile acids produced in the body include chenodeoxycholic acid and cholic acid. These acids assist in the creation of micelles, which aids in breaking down dietary fat, and is integral for the digestion of fat in the small intestine. Bile acid is a fluid secreted by the hepatocytes that flows into the canaliculi. From the canaliculi, it reaches the bile ducts, and is then transferred to the gall bladder where it is concentrated with time and the addition of other bodily fluids. Bile acids are derived from the cholesterol inside of the hepatocytem, and are made up of hydrophilic or polar faces and lipid or hydrophobic faces. Cholesterol gets converted into chenodeoxycholic and cholic acids, which are two forms ...
Other Course Information A. Objectives The overall objectives of this course are to introduce the students to the study of the medical sciences by both studying the subject matter as well as developing effective learning skills. The specific learning objectives are as follows: CASE 1 Anatomy: 1. Outline the common characteristics of synovial joints 2. Describe the normal composition of the synovial fluid 3. Explain the joints associated with the big toe 4. Describe the metatarsophalangeal joint of the big toe and associated movements 5. Trace the pathway from pain receptors of the thumb and big toe to the cerebral cortex Molecular Medicine: 1. Understand the metabolic pathways used for purine metabolism in man, and how that pathway is controlled. 2. Know the function of a key enzyme in the pathway that is a target for treatment. Physiology: 1. Differentiate among the following terms: diffusion, facilitated diffusion, secondary active transport and primary active transport. 2. Describe the ...
Canali Milano charcoal birdseye wool suit 52/42R jacket, 36x30 pants Top line of Canali, full canvas construction, retailed about $2k Fratelli Tallia...
1. The interference between biliary phospholipid and bilirubin secretion was investigated in rats with bile fistulae, under conditions of normal and maximal bilirubin secretion. The enterohepatic circulation of bile salts was interrupted and the animals received infusions of sodium taurocholate, a micelle-forming physiological bile salt.. 2. Sodium taurocholate infusion (0.19 μmol min−1 100 g−1 body weight) induced an increase in bile flow and phospholipid secretion, while basal bilirubin secretion was not increased.. 3. Bilirubin infusion (0.26 μmol min−1 100 g−1 body weight) induced a decrease in basal and taurocholate-stimulated phospholipid secretion. Biliary mixed micelle formation was presumably altered during bilirubin infusion, although bile taurocholate concentration, taurocholate secretion rate and ...
Here is a new paper on dinosaur bone histology, from this weeks Nature: Rensberger, J.M. & M. Watabe. 2000. Fine of bone in dinosaurs, birds, and mammals. Nature 406: 619-621. Unlike most papers so far on bone histology, this one concentrates on the fine-scale structures: in particular, the canaliculi and the college fibre bundles. The looked at a variety of modern mammal and bird bones, as well as previously published material on squamates and amphibians. Among fossils, they examined _Gallimimus_ and a Lancian ornithomimid, a Nemegt hadrosaur, _Protoceratops_, _Triceratops_, and previously published prosauropod material. In all non-dinosaurian taxa the canaliculi are radially oriented and the college bundles highly organized: this is almost certainly the primitive condition for tetrapods. In ornithomimids and birds the canaliculi are randomly oriented and college bundles are irregularly organized. Lamellae in the primary osteons of ornithischians and ...
Henoch-Sch nlein purpura (HSP) is the most common form of childhood vasculitis. Various viral and bacterial infections, drugs, vaccines, food allergy and even insect bites have been considered as triggering factors in pathogenesis of HSP. Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection, which is associated with HSP, have been rarely reported. Herein we present HSP patient possibly caused by EBV infection. A 8-year old boy was admitted to our department with fever, rashes on legs and arms and intermittant mild abdominal pain. Multiple purpuric rashes were on his extremities, abdomen and buttock. Laboratory investigations revealed that monospot test was positive, EBV seriology tests; Anti-EA-D Ig G: 3+, Anti-VCA gp125 Ig G: 3+, Anti-VCA p19 Ig M: 2+, Anti EBNA-1 Ig M: negative, Anti EBNA-1 Ig M: negative, Anti EBNA-1 Ig G: negative. The patient was interpreted as the primary active acute EBV infection. A skin biopsy showed leucocytoclastic vasculitis. The other viral and bacterial investigations were negative. The
A lacrimal silicone stent has a very large diameter segment with a diameter greater than the largest diameter stent which can be pulled through the canaliculi readily without damaging the canaliculi, a thin central segment, a moderate diameter segment, and a distal segment with a lumen extending partway from its end. A lumen can also be provided in the very large diameter segment to enhance its flexibility. In addition, a lumina may be provided in the moderate diameter segment when it is formed as an extruded tube. Except for the lumina, the stent is solid. The stent may be molded in one piece, but it may also be made of molded and extruded segments which are fused together. To install the stent, according to a first method a sheath is inserted through the lacrimal system from the eye, through a DCR ostium into the nasal cavity. The distal segment is threaded into the sheath which is used to pull the distal segment back through the lacrimal system and out the superior ...
Introduction to pharmacogenomics of drug transporters / Marianne K DeGorter and Richard B Kim -- ADME pharmacogenomics in drug development / Liangfu Chen and Joseph W. Polli -- Regulatory perspective on pharmacogenomics of drug metabolizing enzymes and transporters / Lei Zhang [and others] -- The pharmacogenomics of membrane transporters project / Sook Wah Yee, Deanna L. Kroetz, Kathleen M. Giacomini -- Emerging new technology of SNP typing / Toshihisa Ishikawa and Yoshihide Hayashizaki -- Chapters 6: OATP1A2, OAT1 and OAT3 / Rommel G. Tirona -- OATP1B1, OATB1B3 and OATP2B1 / Jorg Konig and Martin Fromm -- OCT (SLC22A) and OCTN families / Sophie L. Stocker [and others] -- MATE (SLC47) family / Atsushi Yonezawa and Ken-ichi Inui -- PEPT (SLC15A) family / Tomoko Sugiura [and others] -- Nucleoside transporters (SLC28 and SLC29) family / Míriam Molina-Arcas -- Maral pastor-anglada -- P-glycoprotein (MDR1/ABCB1) / Ingolf Cascorbi -- Bile salt export pump BSEP (ABCB11) : role in ...
annotations (the reliablity of the annotated protein expression using immunohistochemically (IH) stained on human tissues, the reliablity of the annotated protein expression in immunofluorescently (IF) stained human cell lines, tissue specificity (the distribution of antibody staining or protein expression in human cell types), cell line specificity (the distribution of RNA abundance in cell lines) and subcellular location (based on immunofluorescent staining of cell lines ...
Cell-derived membrane vesicles (CMVs) are endogenous carriers transporting proteins and nucleic acids between cells. They appear to play an important role in many disease processes, most notably inflammation and cancer, where their efficient functional delivery of biological cargo seems to contribute to the disease progress. CMVs encompass a variety of submicron vesicular structures that include exosomes and shedding vesicles. The lipids, proteins, mRNA and microRNA (miRNA) delivered by these vesicles change the phenotype of the receiving cells. CMVs have created excitement in the drug delivery field, because they appear to have multiple advantages over current artificial drug delivery systems. Two approaches to exploit CMVs for delivery of exogenous therapeutic cargoes in vivo are currently considered. One approach is based on engineering of natural CMVs in order to target certain cell types using CMVs loaded with therapeutic compounds. In the second approach, essential characteristics of CMVs are
The IUPHAR/BPS Guide to Pharmacology. trandolaprilat ligand page. Quantitative data and detailed annnotation of the targets of licensed and experimental drugs.
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Dr. Raffaella Canali of the National Research Institute on Food and Nutrition in Rome found Pycnogenol inhibits the generation of COX-2 and 5-LOX, two naturally occurring enzymes associated with a host of inflammatory conditions. "This study reveals that Pycnogenol can actually decrease pain and reduce inflammatory conditions, as has been previously reported, by shutting down the production of specific enzymes involved with inflammation," Canali said in a statement. Inflammation is a tightly controlled, concerted action of immune cells fighting infections, irritations and injuries, when inflammation goes out of control it may target the bodys own tissue such as in arthritis or asthma, Canali said. The study, published in International Immunopharmacology, investigated healthy volunteers ages 35-50, who consumed Pycnogenol 150 milligram tablets for five consecutive days in the morning before breakfast. The study found taking Pycnogenol almost entirely subdued COX-2, 5-LOX and FLAPinduction in the ...
Previous studies suggest that LPS-induced cholestasis is mediated by impairment of the hepatobiliary transporting systems involved in the formation of bile. To date, several genes encoding hepatobiliary transporters localized to sinusoidal or canalicular membranes of hepatocytes have been cloned. It has been shown that LPS-mediated repression of hepatobiliary transporters is principally the result of down-regulation of gene expression (Green et al., 1996; Moseley et al., 1996; Trauner et al., 1997, 1998; Vos et al., 1998). Consistent with these published studies on other transporters, the present data demonstrate that LPS treatment also produces a time-dependent decrease in mouse Oatp4 mRNA levels (Fig. 1). Oatp4 mRNA levels return to control values after a single injection of LPS, indicating that the effects of LPS on Oatp4 mRNA are reversible in this model. Among the rat Oatps, Oatp4 mRNA levels have been shown to be relatively high in liver (Li et al., 2002). Oatp4 ...
The historical introductory chapter brings home the almost startling rapidity with which the field has developed. Less than half a century ago it was first understood that bile secretion was an active process which could be sustained against a pressure gradient in contradistinction to urine. The energy which drives secretion is now known to emanate from an array of ATP binding cassette transporters responsible for secretion of osmotically active bile solutes. Many of those transporters have been cloned and characterised and disease associations worked out.. Similarly, the function and feedback regulation of a host of genes whose products contribute to the composition and secretion of bile is explained, along with the changes induced by various cholestatic perturbations. The scope of the book is comprehensive, including all aspects of cell physiology pertinent to bile ...
Unscramble cholestasis, Unscramble letters cholestasis, Point value for cholestasis, Word Decoder for cholestasis, Word generator using the letters cholestasis, Word Solver cholestasis, Possible Scrabble words with cholestasis, Anagram of cholestasis
Such requirements resulted, first, in the evolutionary appearance of more constrained channels that could assume carrier functions, secondly, in the appearance of larger, more complex obligatory secondary carriers that could no longer catalyse passive diffusion and, thirdly, in the emergence of primary active transporters and group translocators with superimposed energy-coupling subunits. Thus, the ancestral precursors of all these transporter types were simple peptide channels. The pathways most frequently taken were evidently tandem intragenic duplications giving rise to larger helical bundles that had the potential to form discrete stereospecific intramembranous substrate binding sites. They could also be constrained for coupling to other transport processes and, through conformational coupling, they were subject to control by a superimposed primary energy-yielding process such as ATP hydrolysis. We assume that none of these requirements could be satisfied by the ancestral one, two or three ...
Such requirements resulted, first, in the evolutionary appearance of more constrained channels that could assume carrier functions, secondly, in the appearance of larger, more complex obligatory secondary carriers that could no longer catalyse passive diffusion and, thirdly, in the emergence of primary active transporters and group translocators with superimposed energy-coupling subunits. Thus, the ancestral precursors of all these transporter types were simple peptide channels. The pathways most frequently taken were evidently tandem intragenic duplications giving rise to larger helical bundles that had the potential to form discrete stereospecific intramembranous substrate binding sites. They could also be constrained for coupling to other transport processes and, through conformational coupling, they were subject to control by a superimposed primary energy-yielding process such as ATP hydrolysis. We assume that none of these requirements could be satisfied by the ancestral one, two or three ...
Double Pleated + Cuffed. Hip: across the pants just underneath the bottom of the fly. Made in Italy. Inseam: the inner leg seam top to bottom cuff edge. Rise: from the bottom leg seam up to the top of the waistband.
Canal 4 El Salvador TV guide, live streaming listings, delayed and repeat programming, broadcast rights and provider availability.
A couple of years ago I had a very AGGRAVATING Amtrak train trip from New Haven CT to the Metropark stop in NJ to visit family. I do it 2 or 3 times a year; its uneventful. When I checked in at the ticket window I was told the train would be late. I asked HOW late.Maybe a couple hours, maybe longer. The trip is only around two and a half hours. After about three hours,a new announcement:the train wasnt coming. None of the other NJ bound trains that originated east of New Haven showed up,either-something to do with flooding on the tracks from a couple of days earlier! In the end, Amtrak took an Acela train off the schedule to transport all those whose trains had not shown up that morning. After we had been enroute for a while,it was announced that we would not know until just before reaching Penn station if Penn Station would be the end of the line for us,making it necessary to find alternate transportation the rest of the way. Closer to Penn Station we were told ALL of the NJ stops would ...
Hello everybody! I have a question concerning foreign names, to be more exact Russian names, because I translate from Russian. There are first names in Russian like Timofey, Alexey, Andrey (ey is read as a in the words fate, late etc., and not as ey in kidney, Sydney etc.). Accordingly, last names are formed by adding suffixes in Russian, on doing which we obtain, in direct transliteration, Alexeev, Timofeev, Andreev. It does not seem to be readable in English, because,
Results Girls and boys who went to bed at 19:30-20:00 had the lowest prevalence of clinically relevant socioemotional difficulties (4.4% and 9.5%), and the highest reading (115.3 and 111.8), maths (9.7 and 9.8) and spatial (53.8 and 54.2) test scores. Late, after 21:00, bedtime was associated with an increased likelihood of socioemotional difficulties in girls (OR=1.6, 95% CI=1.0 to 2.5) and lower test scores for girls (reading=110.6, maths=9.3, spatial=52.0, all p,0.01) and boys (reading=108.5, maths=9.3, spatial=50.3, all p,0.01). Not having a fixed bedtime was associated with an increased likelihood of socioemotional difficulties in girls (3.2, 1.8 to 5.7) and boys (2.1, 1.3 to 3.5) lower test scores for girls (reading=107.3, maths=8.9, spatial=51.6, all p,0.01) and boys (reading=106.3, maths=9.1, spatial=50.7, all p,0.01). Adjustment for socioeconomic and psychosocial markers attenuated some but not all associations.. ...
Born Humphrey Crum, nephew and heir of James Ewing (q.v.). Crum-Ewing was Liberal MP for Paisley 1857-1874. He was a Director of the Colonial Co., and a large-scale owner of estates in post-Emancipation British Guiana. The Humphrey C. Ewing who, according to the Argosy report reproduced by Walter Rodney, took over La Bonne Mere estate in British Guiana from George Lillie and was late by 1883, when trustees were in place, was Humphrey Ewing Crum Ewing jun., the youngest son of Humphrey Ewing Crum Ewing, who had died in Demerara c. 1878. The British Guiana 1882 Directory shows James Ewing & Co. as the owner of Better Hope and Vryheids Lust, La Bonne Mere and Montrose, while H.E. Crum Ewing was part proprietor of Canefield and Lochaber.. ...
Here is the very detailed birth story of Kira Zoey. Its a long story, so if these things interest you, it might be a good read: First baby, Big baby: 10 pounds 1 ounce (56 110lb pre- pregnancy mom), 10 days late, birthing center to hospital transfer, 10 hour birthing time from start to finish…
Renal failure is a pathological condition which is characterized by a complete or partial renal disfunction in maintaining chemical constancy of the organism. Renal failure is accompanied with improper process of secretion and removal of urine, water-salt, acid-alkaline and osmotic imbalance, slow removal of nonvolatile acids and nitrous products (urea, creatinine, urinary acid, etc.).. From the point of view of pathogeny and clinical development of the disease there are two types of renal failure: acute and chronic.. Acute renal failure (ARF) is a severe disfunction of one or both kidneys that affects either all nephrons, or all parts of canaliculi, or glomerular system. ARF develops as a result of affection of various pathological exogenous or endogenous causes on renal parenchyma.. Diagnostics is based first of all on the anamnesis: whether the patient used toxicant products or medicinal preparations, attempted to do an abortion, etc. Further, it is necessary to exclude ...
Lacerations of the canalicular system often occur in the setting of trauma. The canaliculi are the mucosal ducts through which tears drain from the eye.
(NaturalNews) There is definitely no shortage of scientific evidence these days to show that curcumin, the believed-to-be primary active ingredient in the spice turmeric, holds incredible therapeutic value, and just might be the most advisable medicinal spice of our day. And a prominent medical oncologist from Johns Hopkins University seems to agree, having recently held…
STRENGTHENING BUSINESS PLATFORM IN CHINA TO ADDRESS DIVERSE MEDICAL NEEDS Eisai Co., Ltd. (Headquarters: Tokyo, CEO: Haruo Naito, Eisai) announced today that its China holding company Eisai China...
Using improved physiological and chemical methods, we have investigated the effects on bile secretion of a high fat diet, of bile salt preparations, and of
prendi con le pinza, seriamente, ogni suggerimento che ricevi qui. Noi non sappiamo che pasticci hanno combinato i developers di papublablabla sopra ad una gentoo liscia, per cui potremmo benissimo darti in buona fede dei consigli molto sbagliati. A tal proposito forse sarebbe stato più produttivo rivolgerti ai canali di supporto propri di quella particolare distribuzione ...
S3 Granules are a full-strength synovial support supplement supplying the geriatric and arthritic dogs with Glucosamine, MSM, Creatine, Perna Canaliculus, Omega 3 fatty acids, Vitamins, Minerals & Antioxidants.
Irish drugmaker Elan has agreed to sell the European rights to Prialt (ziconotide), its non-opioid severe chronic pain agent, to Japans Eisai, but will retain product rights in the USA. - News - PharmaTimes
Just two months ahead of its self-imposed deadline to file a marketing app for a sepsis drug with blockbuster potential, Japans Eisai says that it is now scrapping those plans after the therapy
Do you know that sulfur disinfects the blood, helps the body resist bacteria, and protects the protoplasm of cells? It also aid in necessary oxidation reaction in the body, stimulates bile secretion,
Something had me thinking about bile recently. I cant be sure what it was and I wouldnt want to date this blog post by relating it to any recent news events to take a guess. It seems to me that it has something of an unfair reputation. Bile that is. Obviously. In language and to…
Hi, Im currently pregnant with my 2nd. Im only 5/6 weeks so wouldnt have it yet anyway, but I developed OC first time round and ... Read more on Netmums

Abnormal Liver Parameters - What Do They Tell Us? - WSAVA2013 - VINAbnormal Liver Parameters - What Do They Tell Us? - WSAVA2013 - VIN

... icterus is due to biliary tract obstructions anywhere from the biliary canaliculi to the major papilla where the bile duct ends ... Intrahepatic icterus occurs mostly due to hepatic disorders or in sepsis with gram-negative bacteria (the site of infection is ... Bile Acids. Bile acids are synthesized only in the liver as a result of cholesterol metabolism and are secreted into bile. ... Serum Hepatic Enzyme Activities. Serum hepatic enzyme activities do not reflect hepatic anabolic/catabolic function. Enzyme ...
more infohttp://www.vin.com/apputil/content/defaultadv1.aspx?pId=11372&catId=35322&id=5709875&ind=150&objTypeID=17

Bile salts | definition of bile salts by Medical dictionaryBile salts | definition of bile salts by Medical dictionary

... bile salts explanation free. What is bile salts? Meaning of bile salts medical term. What does bile salts mean? ... Looking for online definition of bile salts in the Medical Dictionary? ... bile duct obstruction may cause distention and rupture of biliary canaliculi. Small bile lakes result causing focal hepatic ... bile peritonitis. leakage of bile from the common bile duct or gallbladder may occur as a result of trauma, including ...
more infohttps://medical-dictionary.thefreedictionary.com/bile+salts

CM- Jaundice and Cholestasis  Flashcards by heather Fahey | BrainscapeCM- Jaundice and Cholestasis Flashcards by heather Fahey | Brainscape

1. transporter defect from the hepatocyte to the bile canaliculi. 2. back flux of bilirubin from hepatic AND biliary disease ... They can each occur separately but there is a lot of overlap.. Jaundice- icterus/elevated bilibubin. Cholestasis = obstruction ... Bile acids, bile salts, and biliary acids.. Bilirubin is only a MINOR component of bile ... ERCP- injection of contrast into the common bile duct to see if there is obstruction in the pancreas or biliary tree It is used ...
more infohttps://www.brainscape.com/flashcards/cm-jaundice-and-cholestasis-1710141/packs/3239092

An Approach to the Icteric Patient - WSAVA2004 - VINAn Approach to the Icteric Patient - WSAVA2004 - VIN

Post Hepatic Bilirubin Metabolism. Bilirubin flows in the bile from the biliary canaliculi down the bile ducts into the ... As with other types of disease the evaluation of the patient with liver disease or potential bile obstruction should include a ... This active transport process occurs against a large concentration gradient and is ordinarily not disrupted in hepatic disease. ... HEPATIC AND POST-HEPATIC ICTERUS. Liver disease is the most common cause of icterus in the dog and cat, accounting for ...
more infohttp://www.vin.com/apputil/content/defaultadv1.aspx?pId=11181&catId=30087&id=3852217&ind=270&objTypeID=17

Bile passages | definition of bile passages by Medical dictionaryBile passages | definition of bile passages by Medical dictionary

... bile passages explanation free. What is bile passages? Meaning of bile passages medical term. What does bile passages mean? ... Looking for online definition of bile passages in the Medical Dictionary? ... bile duct obstruction may cause distention and rupture of biliary canaliculi. Small bile lakes result causing focal hepatic ... bile peritonitis. leakage of bile from the common bile duct or gallbladder may occur as a result of trauma, including ...
more infohttp://medical-dictionary.thefreedictionary.com/bile+passages

Digestive system disease - Large intestine | Britannica.comDigestive system disease - Large intestine | Britannica.com

A wide variety of diseases and disorders occur in the large intestine. Abnormal rotation of the colon is fairly frequent and ... Hepatic encephalopathy. Hepatic encephalopathy refers to changes in the brain that occur in patients with advanced acute or ... These symptoms probably result from the compression of bile canaliculi and intralobular bile ducts by the swelling of ... Vomiting, a common symptom among newborn infants, may be due to intestinal obstruction or to overfeeding or may occur without ...
more infohttps://www.britannica.com/science/human-digestive-system-disease/Large-intestine

Snx - Medical Physiology - Euroform HealthcareSnx - Medical Physiology - Euroform Healthcare

... which most often occurs when a gallstone or cancer blocks the common bile duct) or by damage to the hepatic cells (which occurs ... probably by rupture of the congested bile canaliculi and direct emptying of the bile into the lymph leaving the liver. Thus, ... When there is total obstruction of bile flow, no biliru-bin can reach the intestines to be converted into uro-bilinogen by ... Wolkoff AW, Cohen DE: Bile acid regulation of hepatic physiology. I. Hepatocyte transport of bile acids. Am J Physiol ...
more infohttps://www.euroformhealthcare.biz/medical-physiology/a-snx.html

4. Digestive System4. Digestive System

Obstruction to the biliary system can occur in the bile ducts, or at cellular level by swelling of the hepatic cells due to ... with resulting obstruction to the fine bile canaliculi. Posthepatic bilirubin then accumulates in the bloodstream to produce ... occurring mostly in men. Hepatoblastomas, a rare embryonal cancer, occur in early life, and have little geographic or ethnic ... The secretion of bile pigment into the intestine is hindered, and urobilinogen is no longer excreted in the urine. The stools ...
more infohttps://www.iloencyclopaedia.org/part-i-47946/digestive-system

Cholangitis, Acute | 5-Minute Clinical ConsultCholangitis, Acute | 5-Minute Clinical Consult

Obstruction of biliary flow by stones (90% of cases), neoplasms, or strictures promotes bile stasis and spread of bacteria from ... and pushes bacteria into hepatic veins, biliary canaliculi, and perihepatic lymphatics, leading to bacteremia (25-40%). ... Primary choledocholithiasis (formation of stones in the CBD) is uncommon; occurs with bile stasis (e.g., cystic fibrosis, ... Obstruction of biliary flow by stones (90% of cases), neoplasms, or strictures promotes bile stasis and spread of bacteria from ...
more infohttps://im.unboundmedicine.com/medicine/view/5-Minute-Clinical-Consult/116126/3.4/Cholangitis_Acute

Tom Prophet Hsiung » transaminaseTom 'Prophet' Hsiung » transaminase

... is expressed as a membrane protein in the canaliculus. In the setting of localized obstruction to the biliary tree, alkaline ... although some is also expressed in the bile canaliculi. Serum elevations in GGT are therefore largely reflective of ... In cirrhosis, where large portions of the liver may be replaced by fibrous tissue, little new cell injury may be occurring and ... The foregoing tests, while often referred to as "liver function" tests, are not strictly measures of actual hepatic function. ...
more infohttp://www.tomhsiung.com/wordpress/tag/transaminase/

UncategorizedUncategorized

... is expressed as a membrane protein in the canaliculus. In the setting of localized obstruction to the biliary tree, alkaline ... although some is also expressed in the bile canaliculi. Serum elevations in GGT are therefore largely reflective of ... Renal and hepatic disease. The binding of drugs to ablumin is often decreased in patients with severe renal disease. This ... Some diseases occur more frequently in males than in females, and vice versa. This is especially true for occupational diseases ...
more infohttp://www.tomhsiung.com/wordpress/category/uncategorized/

digestive system disease - Biliary tract | Britannica.comdigestive system disease - Biliary tract | Britannica.com

The ingestion of these medications increases the amount of bile acids in hepatic bile and increases the ratio of bile acids to ... Black stones tend to form mainly in the gallbladder and occur in sterile bile, while brown stones may occur in any part of the ... Enlargement of the gallbladder and bile ducts (resulting from obstruction) also can be detected by this method. ... Gallstones are easy to diagnose since canaliculi, small channels, in the gallbladder can be easily detected by ultrasonography ...
more infohttps://www.britannica.com/science/human-digestive-system-disease/Biliary-tract

Technetium (99mTc) mebrofenin - WikipediaTechnetium (99mTc) mebrofenin - Wikipedia

Once in the hepatocytes, 99mTc mebrofenin is secreted into the canaliculi and finally excreted by the bile ducts. The two ... HEF is 100% in normal individuals, in most patients remains close to 100% with partial common bile duct obstruction and in ... Mebrofenins fast hepatic excretion (t½=17 minutes) and high hepatic uptake (98.1%) can be attributed to the 3-bromo-2,4,6- ... while maximal liver uptake occurs within 11 minutes. Mechanism of mebrofenin entering the gallbladder is thought to occur with ...
more infohttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Technetium_(99mTc)_mebrofenin

Cardiac Cirrhosis and Congestive Hepatopathy: Background, Pathophysiology, EtiologyCardiac Cirrhosis and Congestive Hepatopathy: Background, Pathophysiology, Etiology

... includes a spectrum of hepatic derangements that occur in the setting of right-sided heart failure. Clinically, the signs and ... Cardiac cirrhosis (congestive hepatopathy) includes a spectrum of hepatic derangements that occur in the setting of right-sided ... 3] Also, there can be fatty change, cholestasis, and bile thrombi in the canaliculi. ... cardiac cirrhosis may require a higher grade of vascular obstruction, such as intrahepatic thrombosis, for its development. ...
more infohttps://emedicine.medscape.com/article/151792-overview

Gallstones Symptoms, Treatment, Causes, Diet & SurgeryGallstones Symptoms, Treatment, Causes, Diet & Surgery

However, when they do occur, the most common symptoms are biliary colic and cholecystitis. Biliary colic pain comes on suddenly ... are formed from bile, bilirubin, and cholesterol. They are common, and usually have no symptoms. ... In the case of hepatic duct or common bile duct obstruction, this is due to continued secretion of bile by the liver. In the ... The bile flows through the canaliculi and into larger collecting ducts within the liver referred to as intrahepatic bile ducts. ...
more infohttps://www.medicinenet.com/gallstones/article.htm

Jaundice - WikipediaJaundice - Wikipedia

However, although pale stools and dark urine are a feature of biliary obstruction, they can occur in many intra-hepatic ... probably by rupture of the congested bile canaliculi and direct emptying of the bile into the lymph leaving the liver. Thus, ... with the enlarged gallbladder squeezing on the common hepatic duct). In complete obstruction of the bile duct, no urobilinogen ... either intra-hepatic or post-hepatic. The presence of pale stools and dark urine suggests an obstructive or post-hepatic cause ...
more infohttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jaundice

Ch9: Genetics Flashcards by  | BrainscapeCh9: Genetics Flashcards by | Brainscape

Bile duct hyperplasia due to mucus plugging bile canaliculi. Focal biliary cirrhosis and diffuse hepatic nodularity ... Male hypogonadism that occurs when there are two or more X chromosomes and at least one Y chromosome (needed for the male ... Obstruction of Wolffian duct derivatives like epididymis and vas deferens leads to azoospermia and infertility in 95% of males ... Hepatic type (von Gierke disease, type I). Myopathic type (McArdle syndrome, type V). Miscellaneous types (Pompe disease, type ...
more infohttps://www.brainscape.com/flashcards/ch9-genetics-1109503/packs/1923500

Biliary Atresia - A SAGES Wiki ArticleBiliary Atresia - A SAGES Wiki Article

Increased viscosity of bile and obstruction of the canaliculi are implicated as causes. The condition has been seen in infants ... BA without any other anomalies or malformations - This pattern is sometimes referred to as perinatal BA and occurs in 70 to 85 ... The obliterative process of BA involves the common duct, cystic duct, one or both hepatic ducts, and the gallbladder, in ... It is very important to demonstrate the anatomy of the intrahepatic bile system. Reflux of contrast into the liver bile system ...
more infohttps://www.sages.org/wiki/biliary-atresia/

Oxidized low-density-lipoprotein accumulation is associated with liver fibrosis in experimental cholestasisOxidized low-density-lipoprotein accumulation is associated with liver fibrosis in experimental cholestasis

... whereas fibrosis that occurs as a secondary effect of exposure to toxic/metabolic damage (as in bile duct obstruction) is ... A prolonged obstruction of either the intra- or extra-hepatic biliary duct may damage hepatic tissue and lead to the ... This impairment may be accompanied by or caused by the failure to excrete bile acids into the hepatocyte canaliculus, which ... bile acid excretion might be considered a major hepatic defense mechanism counteracting bile acid accumulation within ...
more infohttp://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1807-59322008000400020

Cholestasis - WikipediaCholestasis - Wikipedia

... causing hepatic necrosis. These areas are known as bile lakes, and are typically seen only with extra-hepatic obstruction. ... Bile is secreted by the liver to aid in the digestion of fats. Bile formation begins in bile canaliculi that form between two ... When these plugs occur within the bile duct, sufficient pressure (caused by bile accumulation) can cause them to rupture, ... Canalicular bile plugs between individual hepatocytes or within bile ducts may also be seen, representing bile that has been ...
more infohttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cholestasis

Digestion probably more then you wanted to know. Enzymes and bile and stuff. - Lees StuffDigestion probably more then you wanted to know. Enzymes and bile and stuff. - Lee's Stuff

Osmotically active solutes such as glutathione and bicarbonate promote bile salt independent bile flow. Canaliculi empty bile ... If this occurs cholestasis can occur causing a backup of bile and it can enter the blood stream. If the problem causing the ... Bile travels through the liver in a series of ducts, eventually exiting through the common hepatic duct. Bile flows through ... When there is an obstruction urinary excretion of bile is the primary route of bile removal. If this continues for an extended ...
more infohttps://iamajuicer.wordpress.com/2018/12/04/digestion-probably-more-then-you-wanted-to-know/

Chlorpromazine Hydrochloride 100mg/5ml Oral Syrup - Summary of Product Characteristics (SmPC) - (emc)Chlorpromazine Hydrochloride 100mg/5ml Oral Syrup - Summary of Product Characteristics (SmPC) - (emc)

... jaundice and is associated with obstructions of the canaliculi by bile thrombi; the frequent presence of an accompanying ... Akathisia characteristically occurs after administration of large initial doses. Tardive dyskinesia may occur with ... Main route of metabolism is by oxidation, this is mediated by hepatic microsomal and other enzymes. Conjugation with glucuronic ... Transient leucopenia may occur and agranulocytosis has been reported very rarely, most often during the first three months of ...
more infohttps://www.medicines.org.uk/emc/product/6696/smpc

Hepatic Cirrhosis: Pathophysiology, Diagnosis & TreatmentHepatic Cirrhosis: Pathophysiology, Diagnosis & Treatment

Hepatic Cirrhosis is a chronic disease characterized by replacement of normal liver tissue with diffuse fibrosis that disrupts ... where the bile canaliculi of each lobule communicate to form the liver bile ducts. These areas become the sites of inflammation ... Death may occur in very late stage and if left untreated.. Preventive measures of Hepatic Cirrhosis. *Dont abuse alcohol (most ... Portal obstruction and ascites: organs become the seat of chronic passive congestion resulting in ingestion and altered bowel ...
more infohttps://soundhealthsolution.com/hepatic-cirrhosis/

Jaundice - WikipediaJaundice - Wikipedia

... occur in many intra-hepatic illnesses and are therefore not a reliable clinical feature to distinguish obstruction from hepatic ... probably by rupture of the congested bile canaliculi and direct emptying of the bile into the lymph leaving the liver. Thus, ... Post-hepaticEdit. Post-hepatic jaundice, also called obstructive jaundice, is caused by an interruption to the drainage of bile ... Pre-hepatic/ hemolytic The pathology is occurring prior to the liver due to either: A. Intrinsic defects in RB cells B. ...
more infohttps://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jaundice

Efecto de Dietas Bajas en Grasa Enriquecida con Purés de Frutas sobre Marcadores Bioquímicos en Ratas Inducidas con Analogia a...Efecto de Dietas Bajas en Grasa Enriquecida con Purés de Frutas sobre Marcadores Bioquímicos en Ratas Inducidas con Analogia a...

This enzyme is found in the sinusoidal membranes and in the bile canaliculi of liver; and therefore, an increase of its ... an increase in its activity indicates biliary obstruction, as probably occur in the MSA-StD group. The low ALP and GGT ... The decrease of urea is related to hypotaxis of a hepatic failure, and this can be due to the severity of the induced pathology ... This enzyme is found particularly in the bile canaliculi (Rubin & Strayer, 2012), and therefore, ...
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