A branch of the celiac artery that distributes to the stomach, pancreas, duodenum, liver, gallbladder, and greater omentum.
The vessels carrying blood away from the heart.
A short thick vein formed by union of the superior mesenteric vein and the splenic vein.
The circulation of BLOOD through the LIVER.
Veins which drain the liver.
Hemorrhage in or through the BILIARY TRACT due to trauma, inflammation, CHOLELITHIASIS, vascular disease, or neoplasms.
The arterial trunk that arises from the abdominal aorta and after a short course divides into the left gastric, common hepatic and splenic arteries.
The largest branch of the celiac trunk with distribution to the spleen, pancreas, stomach and greater omentum.
The transference of a part of or an entire liver from one human or animal to another.
Regional infusion of drugs via an arterial catheter. Often a pump is used to impel the drug through the catheter. Used in therapy of cancer, upper gastrointestinal hemorrhage, infection, and peripheral vascular disease.
The short wide vessel arising from the conus arteriosus of the right ventricle and conveying unaerated blood to the lungs.
A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.
A branch of the abdominal aorta which supplies the kidneys, adrenal glands and ureters.
A large vessel supplying the whole length of the small intestine except the superior part of the duodenum. It also supplies the cecum and the ascending part of the colon and about half the transverse part of the colon. It arises from the anterior surface of the aorta below the celiac artery at the level of the first lumbar vertebra.
A method of hemostasis utilizing various agents such as Gelfoam, silastic, metal, glass, or plastic pellets, autologous clot, fat, and muscle as emboli. It has been used in the treatment of spinal cord and INTRACRANIAL ARTERIOVENOUS MALFORMATIONS, renal arteriovenous fistulas, gastrointestinal bleeding, epistaxis, hypersplenism, certain highly vascular tumors, traumatic rupture of blood vessels, and control of operative hemorrhage.
Tumors or cancer of the LIVER.
Radiography of blood vessels after injection of a contrast medium.
Either of the two principal arteries on both sides of the neck that supply blood to the head and neck; each divides into two branches, the internal carotid artery and the external carotid artery.
Pathological outpouching or sac-like dilatation in the wall of any blood vessel (ARTERIES or VEINS) or the heart (HEART ANEURYSM). It indicates a thin and weakened area in the wall which may later rupture. Aneurysms are classified by location, etiology, or other characteristics.
The arterial blood vessels supplying the CEREBRUM.
The main artery of the thigh, a continuation of the external iliac artery.
Not an aneurysm but a well-defined collection of blood and CONNECTIVE TISSUE outside the wall of a blood vessel or the heart. It is the containment of a ruptured blood vessel or heart, such as sealing a rupture of the left ventricle. False aneurysm is formed by organized THROMBUS and HEMATOMA in surrounding tissue.
Arteries which arise from the abdominal aorta and distribute to most of the intestines.
The artery formed by the union of the right and left vertebral arteries; it runs from the lower to the upper border of the pons, where it bifurcates into the two posterior cerebral arteries.
A preparation of oil that contains covalently bound IODINE. It is commonly used as a RADIOCONTRAST AGENT and as a suspension medium for CHEMOTHERAPEUTIC AGENTS.
Application of a ligature to tie a vessel or strangulate a part.
Either of two large arteries originating from the abdominal aorta; they supply blood to the pelvis, abdominal wall and legs.
The first branch of the SUBCLAVIAN ARTERY with distribution to muscles of the NECK; VERTEBRAE; SPINAL CORD; CEREBELLUM; and interior of the CEREBRUM.
Surgical therapy of ischemic coronary artery disease achieved by grafting a section of saphenous vein, internal mammary artery, or other substitute between the aorta and the obstructed coronary artery distal to the obstructive lesion.
Pathological processes which result in the partial or complete obstruction of ARTERIES. They are characterized by greatly reduced or absence of blood flow through these vessels. They are also known as arterial insufficiency.
Delivery of drugs into an artery.
Pathological processes of the LIVER.
Excision of all or part of the liver. (Dorland, 28th ed)
Tomography using x-ray transmission and a computer algorithm to reconstruct the image.
The channels that collect and transport the bile secretion from the BILE CANALICULI, the smallest branch of the BILIARY TRACT in the LIVER, through the bile ductules, the bile ducts out the liver, and to the GALLBLADDER for storage.
The direct continuation of the brachial trunk, originating at the bifurcation of the brachial artery opposite the neck of the radius. Its branches may be divided into three groups corresponding to the three regions in which the vessel is situated, the forearm, wrist, and hand.
Arteries originating from the subclavian or axillary arteries and distributing to the anterior thoracic wall, mediastinal structures, diaphragm, pectoral muscles and mammary gland.
Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.
Branch of the common carotid artery which supplies the anterior part of the brain, the eye and its appendages, the forehead and nose.
Artery arising from the brachiocephalic trunk on the right side and from the arch of the aorta on the left side. It distributes to the neck, thoracic wall, spinal cord, brain, meninges, and upper limb.
An antineoplastic antimetabolite that is metabolized to fluorouracil when administered by rapid injection; when administered by slow, continuous, intra-arterial infusion, it is converted to floxuridine monophosphate. It has been used to treat hepatic metastases of gastrointestinal adenocarcinomas and for palliation in malignant neoplasms of the liver and gastrointestinal tract.
Severe inability of the LIVER to perform its normal metabolic functions, as evidenced by severe JAUNDICE and abnormal serum levels of AMMONIA; BILIRUBIN; ALKALINE PHOSPHATASE; ASPARTATE AMINOTRANSFERASE; LACTATE DEHYDROGENASES; and albumin/globulin ratio. (Blakiston's Gould Medical Dictionary, 4th ed)
Formation and development of a thrombus or blood clot in the blood vessel.
The condition of an anatomical structure's being constricted beyond normal dimensions.
Pathological conditions involving the CAROTID ARTERIES, including the common, internal, and external carotid arteries. ATHEROSCLEROSIS and TRAUMA are relatively frequent causes of carotid artery pathology.
Pathologic processes that affect patients after a surgical procedure. They may or may not be related to the disease for which the surgery was done, and they may or may not be direct results of the surgery.
Ultrasonography applying the Doppler effect, with frequency-shifted ultrasound reflections produced by moving targets (usually red blood cells) in the bloodstream along the ultrasound axis in direct proportion to the velocity of movement of the targets, to determine both direction and velocity of blood flow. (Stedman, 25th ed)
Surgical union or shunt between ducts, tubes or vessels. It may be end-to-end, end-to-side, side-to-end, or side-to-side.
Administration of antineoplastic agents together with an embolizing vehicle. This allows slow release of the agent as well as obstruction of the blood supply to the neoplasm.
The continuation of the axillary artery; it branches into the radial and ulnar arteries.
A syndrome characterized by central nervous system dysfunction in association with LIVER FAILURE, including portal-systemic shunts. Clinical features include lethargy and CONFUSION (frequently progressing to COMA); ASTERIXIS; NYSTAGMUS, PATHOLOGIC; brisk oculovestibular reflexes; decorticate and decerebrate posturing; MUSCLE SPASTICITY; and bilateral extensor plantar reflexes (see REFLEX, BABINSKI). ELECTROENCEPHALOGRAPHY may demonstrate triphasic waves. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp1117-20; Plum & Posner, Diagnosis of Stupor and Coma, 3rd ed, p222-5)
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.
The two principal arteries supplying the structures of the head and neck. They ascend in the neck, one on each side, and at the level of the upper border of the thyroid cartilage, each divides into two branches, the external (CAROTID ARTERY, EXTERNAL) and internal (CAROTID ARTERY, INTERNAL) carotid arteries.
Passages within the liver for the conveyance of bile. Includes right and left hepatic ducts even though these may join outside the liver to form the common hepatic duct.
A primary malignant neoplasm of epithelial liver cells. It ranges from a well-differentiated tumor with EPITHELIAL CELLS indistinguishable from normal HEPATOCYTES to a poorly differentiated neoplasm. The cells may be uniform or markedly pleomorphic, or form GIANT CELLS. Several classification schemes have been suggested.
Ethyl ester of iodinated fatty acid of poppyseed oil. It contains 37% organically bound iodine and has been used as a diagnostic aid (radiopaque medium) and as an antineoplastic agent when part of the iodine is 131-I. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)
Liver disease in which the normal microcirculation, the gross vascular anatomy, and the hepatic architecture have been variably destroyed and altered with fibrous septa surrounding regenerated or regenerating parenchymal nodules.
Predominantly extrahepatic bile duct which is formed by the junction of the right and left hepatic ducts, which are predominantly intrahepatic, and, in turn, joins the cystic duct to form the common bile duct.
The veins and arteries of the HEART.
The domestic dog, Canis familiaris, comprising about 400 breeds, of the carnivore family CANIDAE. They are worldwide in distribution and live in association with people. (Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, p1065)
Perisinusoidal cells of the liver, located in the space of Disse between HEPATOCYTES and sinusoidal endothelial cells.
Peculiarities associated with the internal structure, form, topology, or architecture of organisms that distinguishes them from others of the same species or group.
Any surgical procedure performed on the biliary tract.
Operative procedures for the treatment of vascular disorders.
Non-cadaveric providers of organs for transplant to related or non-related recipients.
The flow of BLOOD through or around an organ or region of the body.
A system of vessels in which blood, after passing through one capillary bed, is conveyed through a second set of capillaries before it returns to the systemic circulation. It pertains especially to the hepatic portal system.
Experimentally induced tumors of the LIVER.
Artery originating from the internal carotid artery and distributing to the eye, orbit and adjacent facial structures.
The BILE DUCTS and the GALLBLADDER.
Blood tests that are used to evaluate how well a patient's liver is working and also to help diagnose liver conditions.
A gamma-emitting radionuclide imaging agent used for the diagnosis of diseases in many tissues, particularly in cardiovascular and cerebral circulation.
Diseases in any part of the ductal system of the BILIARY TRACT from the smallest BILE CANALICULI to the largest COMMON BILE DUCT.
The physiological widening of BLOOD VESSELS by relaxing the underlying VASCULAR SMOOTH MUSCLE.
The tearing or bursting of the weakened wall of the aneurysmal sac, usually heralded by sudden worsening pain. The great danger of a ruptured aneurysm is the large amount of blood spilling into the surrounding tissues and cavities, causing HEMORRHAGIC SHOCK.
Specialized arterial vessels in the umbilical cord. They carry waste and deoxygenated blood from the FETUS to the mother via the PLACENTA. In humans, there are usually two umbilical arteries but sometimes one.
The largest of the cerebral arteries. It trifurcates into temporal, frontal, and parietal branches supplying blood to most of the parenchyma of these lobes in the CEREBRAL CORTEX. These are the areas involved in motor, sensory, and speech activities.
Narrowing or occlusion of the RENAL ARTERY or arteries. It is due usually to ATHEROSCLEROSIS; FIBROMUSCULAR DYSPLASIA; THROMBOSIS; EMBOLISM, or external pressure. The reduced renal perfusion can lead to renovascular hypertension (HYPERTENSION, RENOVASCULAR).
Neoplasm drug therapy involving an extracorporeal circuit with temporary exclusion of the tumor-bearing area from the general circulation during which high concentrations of the drug are perfused to the isolated part.
Endogenously-synthesized compounds that influence biological processes not otherwise classified under ENZYMES; HORMONES or HORMONE ANTAGONISTS.
Arteries originating from the subclavian or axillary arteries and distributing to the anterior thoracic wall, mediastinal structures, diaphragm, pectoral muscles, mammary gland and the axillary aspect of the chest wall.
Arteries arising from the external carotid or the maxillary artery and distributing to the temporal region.
A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.
Tear or break of an organ, vessel or other soft part of the body, occurring in the absence of external force.
A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.
Left bronchial arteries arise from the thoracic aorta, the right from the first aortic intercostal or the upper left bronchial artery; they supply the bronchi and the lower trachea.
Devices that provide support for tubular structures that are being anastomosed or for body cavities during skin grafting.
A repeat operation for the same condition in the same patient due to disease progression or recurrence, or as followup to failed previous surgery.
The excision of the head of the pancreas and the encircling loop of the duodenum to which it is connected.
Enzymes of the transferase class that catalyze the conversion of L-aspartate and 2-ketoglutarate to oxaloacetate and L-glutamate. EC 2.6.1.1.
Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.
The survival of a graft in a host, the factors responsible for the survival and the changes occurring within the graft during growth in the host.
A malignant tumor arising from the epithelium of the BILE DUCTS.
The nonstriated involuntary muscle tissue of blood vessels.
Accumulation of purulent EXUDATES beneath the DIAPHRAGM, also known as upper abdominal abscess. It is usually associated with PERITONITIS or postoperative infections.
Small uniformly-sized spherical particles, of micrometer dimensions, frequently labeled with radioisotopes or various reagents acting as tags or markers.
The continuation of the femoral artery coursing through the popliteal fossa; it divides into the anterior and posterior tibial arteries.
An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of L-alanine and 2-oxoglutarate to pyruvate and L-glutamate. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 2.6.1.2.
The larger of the two terminal branches of the brachial artery, beginning about one centimeter distal to the bend of the elbow. Like the RADIAL ARTERY, its branches may be divided into three groups corresponding to their locations in the forearm, wrist, and hand.
The movement and the forces involved in the movement of the blood through the CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM.
A branch arising from the internal iliac artery in females, that supplies blood to the uterus.
Procedures used to reconstruct, restore, or improve defective, damaged, or missing structures.
Non-invasive method of vascular imaging and determination of internal anatomy without injection of contrast media or radiation exposure. The technique is used especially in CEREBRAL ANGIOGRAPHY as well as for studies of other vascular structures.
Impairment of bile flow due to obstruction in small bile ducts (INTRAHEPATIC CHOLESTASIS) or obstruction in large bile ducts (EXTRAHEPATIC CHOLESTASIS).
Tumors or cancer of the BILE DUCTS.
Diseases in any part of the BILIARY TRACT including the BILE DUCTS and the GALLBLADDER.
Ultrasonography applying the Doppler effect, with the superposition of flow information as colors on a gray scale in a real-time image. This type of ultrasonography is well-suited to identifying the location of high-velocity flow (such as in a stenosis) or of mapping the extent of flow in a certain region.
A method of delineating blood vessels by subtracting a tissue background image from an image of tissue plus intravascular contrast material that attenuates the X-ray photons. The background image is determined from a digitized image taken a few moments before injection of the contrast material. The resulting angiogram is a high-contrast image of the vessel. This subtraction technique allows extraction of a high-intensity signal from the superimposed background information. The image is thus the result of the differential absorption of X-rays by different tissues.
Radiography of the vascular system of the heart muscle after injection of a contrast medium.
The main structural component of the LIVER. They are specialized EPITHELIAL CELLS that are organized into interconnected plates called lobules.
A transplantable carcinoma of the rat that originally appeared spontaneously in the mammary gland of a pregnant albino rat, and which now resembles a carcinoma in young transplants and a sarcoma in older transplants. (Stedman, 25th ed)
Branch of the common carotid artery which supplies the exterior of the head, the face, and the greater part of the neck.
Abnormal increase of resistance to blood flow within the hepatic PORTAL SYSTEM, frequently seen in LIVER CIRRHOSIS and conditions with obstruction of the PORTAL VEIN.
Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).
Any adverse condition in a patient occurring as the result of treatment by a physician, surgeon, or other health professional, especially infections acquired by a patient during the course of treatment.
Single pavement layer of cells which line the luminal surface of the entire vascular system and regulate the transport of macromolecules and blood components.
Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.
A dead body, usually a human body.
A spectrum of congenital, inherited, or acquired abnormalities in BLOOD VESSELS that can adversely affect the normal blood flow in ARTERIES or VEINS. Most are congenital defects such as abnormal communications between blood vessels (fistula), shunting of arterial blood directly into veins bypassing the CAPILLARIES (arteriovenous malformations), formation of large dilated blood blood-filled vessels (cavernous angioma), and swollen capillaries (capillary telangiectases). In rare cases, vascular malformations can result from trauma or diseases.
PRESSURE of the BLOOD on the ARTERIES and other BLOOD VESSELS.
Damages to the CAROTID ARTERIES caused either by blunt force or penetrating trauma, such as CRANIOCEREBRAL TRAUMA; THORACIC INJURIES; and NECK INJURIES. Damaged carotid arteries can lead to CAROTID ARTERY THROMBOSIS; CAROTID-CAVERNOUS SINUS FISTULA; pseudoaneurysm formation; and INTERNAL CAROTID ARTERY DISSECTION. (From Am J Forensic Med Pathol 1997, 18:251; J Trauma 1994, 37:473)
The physiological narrowing of BLOOD VESSELS by contraction of the VASCULAR SMOOTH MUSCLE.
Abdominal artery that follows the curvature of the stomach. The right gastroepiploic artery is frequently used in CORONARY ARTERY BYPASS GRAFTING; MYOCARDIAL REVASCULARIZATION, and other vascular reconstruction.
An abnormal direct communication between an artery and a vein without passing through the CAPILLARIES. An A-V fistula usually leads to the formation of a dilated sac-like connection, arteriovenous aneurysm. The locations and size of the shunts determine the degree of effects on the cardiovascular functions such as BLOOD PRESSURE and HEART RATE.
Vomiting of blood that is either fresh bright red, or older "coffee-ground" in character. It generally indicates bleeding of the UPPER GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT.
Substances used to allow enhanced visualization of tissues.
The act of constricting.
Treatment process involving the injection of fluid into an organ or tissue.
Lipid infiltration of the hepatic parenchymal cells resulting in a yellow-colored liver. The abnormal lipid accumulation is usually in the form of TRIGLYCERIDES, either as a single large droplet or multiple small droplets. Fatty liver is caused by an imbalance in the metabolism of FATTY ACIDS.
The black, tarry, foul-smelling FECES that contain degraded blood.
The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.
Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.
The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.
An imbalance between myocardial functional requirements and the capacity of the CORONARY VESSELS to supply sufficient blood flow. It is a form of MYOCARDIAL ISCHEMIA (insufficient blood supply to the heart muscle) caused by a decreased capacity of the coronary vessels.
Techniques for controlling bleeding.
The pathological process occurring in cells that are dying from irreparable injuries. It is caused by the progressive, uncontrolled action of degradative ENZYMES, leading to MITOCHONDRIAL SWELLING, nuclear flocculation, and cell lysis. It is distinct it from APOPTOSIS, which is a normal, regulated cellular process.
Precursor of epinephrine that is secreted by the adrenal medulla and is a widespread central and autonomic neurotransmitter. Norepinephrine is the principal transmitter of most postganglionic sympathetic fibers and of the diffuse projection system in the brain arising from the locus ceruleus. It is also found in plants and is used pharmacologically as a sympathomimetic.
Diagnostic and therapeutic procedures that are invasive or surgical in nature, and require the expertise of a specially trained radiologist. In general, they are more invasive than diagnostic imaging but less invasive than major surgery. They often involve catheterization, fluoroscopy, or computed tomography. Some examples include percutaneous transhepatic cholangiography, percutaneous transthoracic biopsy, balloon angioplasty, and arterial embolization.
An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.
Examination of the portal circulation by the use of X-ray films after injection of radiopaque material.
The degree to which BLOOD VESSELS are not blocked or obstructed.
Use or insertion of a tubular device into a duct, blood vessel, hollow organ, or body cavity for injecting or withdrawing fluids for diagnostic or therapeutic purposes. It differs from INTUBATION in that the tube here is used to restore or maintain patency in obstructions.
NECROSIS occurring in the MIDDLE CEREBRAL ARTERY distribution system which brings blood to the entire lateral aspects of each CEREBRAL HEMISPHERE. Clinical signs include impaired cognition; APHASIA; AGRAPHIA; weak and numbness in the face and arms, contralaterally or bilaterally depending on the infarction.
The continuation of the subclavian artery; it distributes over the upper limb, axilla, chest and shoulder.
Adverse functional, metabolic, or structural changes in ischemic tissues resulting from the restoration of blood flow to the tissue (REPERFUSION), including swelling; HEMORRHAGE; NECROSIS; and damage from FREE RADICALS. The most common instance is MYOCARDIAL REPERFUSION INJURY.
A vascular anomaly due to proliferation of BLOOD VESSELS that forms a tumor-like mass. The common types involve CAPILLARIES and VEINS. It can occur anywhere in the body but is most frequently noticed in the SKIN and SUBCUTANEOUS TISSUE. (from Stedman, 27th ed, 2000)
A polymer prepared from polyvinyl acetates by replacement of the acetate groups with hydroxyl groups. It is used as a pharmaceutic aid and ophthalmic lubricant as well as in the manufacture of surface coatings artificial sponges, cosmetics, and other products.
Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. This also includes animals with a long history of closed colony breeding.
'Rats, Inbred BUF' is a strain of laboratory rats (Rattus norvegicus) that are selectively bred and inbred for research purposes, characterized by their uniform genetic background, high susceptibility to cancer, and frequent use in oncology and carcinogenesis studies.
Computed tomography where there is continuous X-ray exposure to the patient while being transported in a spiral or helical pattern through the beam of irradiation. This provides improved three-dimensional contrast and spatial resolution compared to conventional computed tomography, where data is obtained and computed from individual sequential exposures.
An imaging test of the BILIARY TRACT in which a contrast dye (RADIOPAQUE MEDIA) is injected into the BILE DUCT and x-ray pictures are taken.
The venous trunk which receives blood from the lower extremities and from the pelvic and abdominal organs.
Sudden ISCHEMIA in the RETINA due to blocked blood flow through the CENTRAL RETINAL ARTERY or its branches leading to sudden complete or partial loss of vision, respectively, in the eye.
Drugs used to cause dilation of the blood vessels.

Casts of hepatic blood vessels: a comparison of the microcirculation of the penguin, Pygoscelis adeliae, with some common laboratory animals. (1/997)

Latex casts of the hepatic blood vessels of the penguin, Pygoscelis adeliae, and of some common laboratory animals were compared. There was general similarity between the different species, but the portal venous and hepatic arterial systems of the penguin were simpler than those of other species. Measurements were made of the volume and length of portal veins and it appears that the portal venous system is capable of being a more efficient blood reservoir in the penguin than in other species studied. The peribiliary plexus was especially well formed in the penguin and was drained by long veins which usually joined portal venous branches. Some of the long veins drained directly into the hepatic venous tree: these translobular veins were more prominent than in mammals. Anastomoses between hepatic artery and portal vein were not present in penguins, and the supply to the sinusoids appeared to be separate. The morphology of small hepatic veins of all the species appeared to be similar.  (+info)

Pulsed Doppler ultrasonographic evaluation of portal blood flow in dogs with experimental portal vein branch ligation. (2/997)

Portal blood flow was measured using pulsed Doppler ultrasound in 6 dogs before and after left portal vein branch ligation. Mean portal vein blood flow velocity and mean portal vein blood flow were significantly reduced after ligation and the congestion index was increased (p < 0.01). Pulsed Doppler ultrasound studies provide valuable physiological information which may assist the clinician with the diagnosis of canine hepatic circulatory disorders.  (+info)

Colorectal liver metastasis thymidylate synthase staining correlates with response to hepatic arterial floxuridine. (3/997)

We assessed whether intensity of colorectal liver metastasis staining with the thymidylate synthase (TS) antibody TS106 predicted response to hepatic arterial infusion (HAI) of floxuridine chemotherapy. Liver metastasis biopsies were taken during laparotomy for hepatic arterial cannulation and stained using the TS106 monoclonal antibody. Staining intensity was designated at histological examination by two independent assessors as either "high" or "low." Patients were treated by HAI, and liver metastasis response was assessed by comparison of computed tomography scan tumor volume before and after 4 months of treatment. A significant correlation (Fisher's exact test, P = 0.01) was noted between partial response to HAI and TS106 staining intensity in patients with colorectal liver metastases. Seventy-five percent of patients with evidence of a partial response had low TS staining compared with 29% of nonresponders. There was a significant difference (Fisher's exact test, P = 0.01) in the proportion of low (9 of 16) compared with high (3 of 20) TS staining tumors in which a partial response occurred. There was no significant difference (logrank test, P = 0.4) in survival from hepatic cannulation and HAI treatment of high (median, 322 days; interquartile range, 236-411) compared with low (median, 335 days; interquartile range, 301-547) TS staining patients. This study demonstrates an inverse correlation between TS immunohistochemical staining intensity in colorectal liver metastases and response to HAI. The results suggest that a prospective assessment of TS staining intensity in colorectal liver metastases would be useful to determine whether this method can be used to define patients who will benefit from HAI chemotherapy.  (+info)

A phase I/II study of continuous intra-arterial chemotherapy using an implantable reservoir for the treatment of liver metastases from breast cancer: a Japan Clinical Oncology Group (JCOG) study 9113. JCOG Breast Cancer Study Group. (4/997)

BACKGROUND: Liver metastasis from breast cancer has a poor prognosis. While there are some reports of good response rates of hepatic metastasis from breast cancer by hepatic intra-arterial infusion chemotherapy, no phase I study including pharmacokinetic analysis has been reported. We performed a phase I/II study of intra-arterial infusion chemotherapy using adriamycin and 5-fluorouracil to find the maximum tolerated dose and response rate in patients with advanced or recurrent breast cancer. METHODS: A hepatic arterial catheter with an access port was inserted into the proper hepatic artery. Patients received 30 mg/m2 adriamycin on days 1 and 8 and 100 mg/m2 5-fluorouracil at level 1, 200 mg/m2 at level 2,300 mg/m2 at level 3 and 400 mg/m2 at level 4 continuously from day 1 through day 14 every 28 days. At least two cycles were required before evaluation. Twenty-eight patients were entered into this study and 26 patients were evaluable. Seventeen patients had hepatic metastasis only, although nine patients had additional metastasis to other sites. RESULTS: Dose-limiting toxicity of thrombocytopenia and neurotoxicity occurred at level 4. Leukocytopenia (ECOG grade 3-4) was observed in five (19%), thrombocytopenia in three (12%) and anemia in two (8%) patients. There were 11 catheter-related complications which were not dose dependent. Seven out of 13 evaluable patients (54%) responded at level 3. The median duration of response was 5.8 months (range, 1-23+) and median survival was 25.3 months (range, 6.2-54.7+). CONCLUSION: Hepatic arterial infusion therapy appears to be safe and effective but catheter-related complications must be overcome before starting a phase III trial.  (+info)

Preserved arterial flow secures hepatic oxygenation during haemorrhage in the pig. (5/997)

1. This study examined the extent of liver perfusion and its oxygenation during progressive haemorrhage. We examined hepatic arterial flow and hepatic oxygenation following the reduced portal flow during haemorrhage in 18 pigs. The hepatic surface oxygenation was assessed by near-infrared spectroscopy and the hepatic metabolism of oxygen, lactate and catecholamines determined the adequacy of the hepatic flow. 2. Stepwise haemorrhage until circulatory collapse resulted in proportional reductions in cardiac output and in arterial, central venous and pulmonary wedge pressures. While heart rate increased, pulmonary arterial pressure remained stable. In addition, renal blood flow decreased, renal vascular resistance increased and there was elevated noradrenaline spill-over. Further, renal surface oxygenation was lowered from the onset of haemorrhage. 3. Similarly, the portal blood flow was reduced in response to haemorrhage, and, as for the renal flow, the reduced splanchnic blood flow was associated with an elevated noradrenaline spill-over. In contrast, hepatic arterial blood flow was only slightly reduced by haemorrhage, and surface oxygenation did not change. The hepatic oxygen uptake was maintained until the blood loss represented more than 30 % of the estimated blood volume. At 30 % reduced blood volume, hepatic catecholamine uptake was reduced, and the lactate uptake approached zero. 4. Subsequent reduction of cardiac output and portal blood flow elicited a selective dilatation of the hepatic arterial vascular bed. Due to this dilatation liver blood flow and hepatic cell oxygenation and metabolism were preserved prior to circulatory collapse.  (+info)

Hepatosplanchnic haemodynamics and renal blood flow and function in rats with liver failure. (6/997)

BACKGROUND: Massive liver necrosis, characteristic of acute liver failure, may affect hepatosplanchnic haemodynamics, and contribute to the alterations in renal haemodynamics and function. AIMS: To investigate the relation between hepatosplanchnic haemodynamics, including portal systemic shunting, and renal blood flow and function in rats with acute liver failure. METHODS: Liver failure was induced in male Wistar rats by intraperitoneal injection of 1.1 g/kg of D(+)-galactosamine hydrochloride. The parameters assessed included; systemic, hepatosplanchnic, and renal blood flow (57Co microsphere method); portal-systemic shunting and intrarenal shunting (consecutive intrasplenic, intraportal, or renal arterial injections of 99mTc methylene diphosphonate and 99mTc albumin microspheres); arterial blood pressure and portal pressure; renal function; and liver function (liver function tests and 14C aminopyrine breath test). RESULTS: Progressive liver dysfunction was accompanied by the development of a hyperdynamic circulation, a highly significant decrease in renal blood flow and function, and an increase in intrarenal shunting 36, 42, and 48 hours after administration of D-galactosamine. The alterations in renal blood flow and function were accompanied by significant increases in portal pressure, portal venous inflow, and intrahepatic portal systemic shunting in galactosamine treated rats compared with controls. There was a significant correlation between changes in renal blood flow and changes in portal pressure, intrahepatic portal systemic shunting, and deterioration in liver function (r = 0.8, p < 0.0001). CONCLUSIONS: The results of this study suggest that both increased intrahepatic portal systemic shunting and hepatocyte impairment may contribute to alterations in renal haemodynamics and function.  (+info)

Effect of a selective rise in hepatic artery insulin on hepatic glucose production in the conscious dog. (7/997)

In the present study we compared the hepatic effects of a selective increase in hepatic sinusoidal insulin brought about by insulin infusion into the hepatic artery with those resulting from insulin infusion into the portal vein. A pancreatic clamp was used to control the endocrine pancreas in conscious overnight-fasted dogs. In the control period, insulin was infused via peripheral vein and the portal vein. After the 40-min basal period, there was a 180-min test period during which the peripheral insulin infusion was stopped and an additional 1.2 pmol. kg-1. min-1 of insulin was infused into the hepatic artery (HART, n = 5) or the portal vein (PORT, n = 5, data published previously). In the HART group, the calculated hepatic sinusoidal insulin level increased from 99 +/- 20 (basal) to 165 +/- 21 pmol/l (last 30 min). The calculated hepatic artery insulin concentration rose from 50 +/- 8 (basal) to 289 +/- 19 pmol/l (last 30 min). However, the overall arterial (50 +/- 8 pmol/l) and portal vein insulin levels (118 +/- 24 pmol/l) did not change over the course of the experiment. In the PORT group, the calculated hepatic sinusoidal insulin level increased from 94 +/- 30 (basal) to 156 +/- 33 pmol/l (last 30 min). The portal insulin rose from 108 +/- 42 (basal) to 192 +/- 42 pmol/l (last 30 min), whereas the overall arterial insulin (54 +/- 6 pmol/l) was unaltered during the study. In both groups hepatic sinusoidal glucagon levels remained unchanged, and euglycemia was maintained by peripheral glucose infusion. In the HART group, net hepatic glucose output (NHGO) was suppressed from 9.6 +/- 2.1 micromol. kg-1. min-1 (basal) to 4.6 +/- 1.0 micromol. kg-1. min-1 (15 min) and eventually fell to 3.5 +/- 0.8 micromol. kg-1. min-1 (last 30 min, P < 0.05). In the PORT group, NHGO dropped quickly (P < 0.05) from 10.0 +/- 0.9 (basal) to 7.8 +/- 1.6 (15 min) and eventually reached 3.1 +/- 1.1 micromol. kg-1. min-1 (last 30 min). Thus NHGO decreases in response to a selective increase in hepatic sinusoidal insulin, regardless of whether it comes about because of hyperinsulinemia in the hepatic artery or portal vein.  (+info)

Total and functional hepatic blood flow decrease in parallel with ageing. (8/997)

OBJECTIVES: To study changes in hepatic blood flow with age. DESIGN: Functional hepatic flow (FHF) and total hepatic flow (THF) were determined by non-invasive methods in 40 normal subjects in four age groups (<45, 45-60, 61-75 and >75 years). All subjects had normal routine liver function tests and no history of liver disease. RESULTS: THF was measured by pulsed echo-Doppler, as the sum of portal and hepatic artery blood flow; FHF was measured by the hepatic clearance of D-sorbitol. THF significantly decreased with age, particularly in subjects over 75 (from 1445+/-220 ml/min to 1020+/-148; P<0.001), and a similar reduction was observed in FHF (from 1514+/-250 ml/min to 1015+/-163; P<0.001). THF and FHF were strictly correlated in the whole population (r = 0.871; P<0.001) and both correlated with age (r = -0.510 and r = -0.596; P<0.005). CONCLUSION: With ageing there is a reduction of hepatic blood flow without any additional intrahepatic shunting.  (+info)

The hepatic artery is a branch of the celiac trunk or abdominal aorta that supplies oxygenated blood to the liver. It typically divides into two main branches, the right and left hepatic arteries, which further divide into smaller vessels to supply different regions of the liver. The hepatic artery also gives off branches to supply other organs such as the gallbladder, pancreas, and duodenum.

It's worth noting that there is significant variability in the anatomy of the hepatic artery, with some individuals having additional branches or variations in the origin of the vessel. This variability can have implications for surgical procedures involving the liver and surrounding organs.

Arteries are blood vessels that carry oxygenated blood away from the heart to the rest of the body. They have thick, muscular walls that can withstand the high pressure of blood being pumped out of the heart. Arteries branch off into smaller vessels called arterioles, which further divide into a vast network of tiny capillaries where the exchange of oxygen, nutrients, and waste occurs between the blood and the body's cells. After passing through the capillary network, deoxygenated blood collects in venules, then merges into veins, which return the blood back to the heart.

The portal vein is the large venous trunk that carries blood from the gastrointestinal tract, spleen, pancreas, and gallbladder to the liver. It is formed by the union of the superior mesenteric vein (draining the small intestine and a portion of the large intestine) and the splenic vein (draining the spleen and pancreas). The portal vein then divides into right and left branches within the liver, where the blood flows through the sinusoids and gets enriched with oxygen and nutrients before being drained by the hepatic veins into the inferior vena cava. This unique arrangement allows the liver to process and detoxify the absorbed nutrients, remove waste products, and regulate metabolic homeostasis.

Liver circulation, also known as hepatic circulation, refers to the blood flow through the liver. The liver receives blood from two sources: the hepatic artery and the portal vein.

The hepatic artery delivers oxygenated blood from the heart to the liver, accounting for about 25% of the liver's blood supply. The remaining 75% comes from the portal vein, which carries nutrient-rich, deoxygenated blood from the gastrointestinal tract, spleen, pancreas, and gallbladder to the liver.

In the liver, these two sources of blood mix in the sinusoids, small vessels with large spaces between the endothelial cells that line them. This allows for efficient exchange of substances between the blood and the hepatocytes (liver cells). The blood then leaves the liver through the hepatic veins, which merge into the inferior vena cava and return the blood to the heart.

The unique dual blood supply and extensive sinusoidal network in the liver enable it to perform various critical functions, such as detoxification, metabolism, synthesis, storage, and secretion of numerous substances, maintaining body homeostasis.

The hepatic veins are blood vessels that carry oxygen-depleted blood from the liver back to the heart. There are typically three major hepatic veins - right, middle, and left - that originate from the posterior aspect of the liver and drain into the inferior vena cava just below the diaphragm. These veins are responsible for returning the majority of the blood flow from the gastrointestinal tract and spleen to the heart. It's important to note that the hepatic veins do not have valves, which can make them susceptible to a condition called Budd-Chiari syndrome, where blood clots form in the veins and obstruct the flow of blood from the liver.

Hemobilia is a medical condition that refers to the presence of blood in the bile ducts, which can lead to the passage of blood in the stool or vomiting of blood (hematemesis). This condition usually results from a traumatic injury, rupture of a blood vessel, or a complication from a medical procedure involving the liver, gallbladder, or bile ducts. In some cases, hemobilia may also be caused by tumors or abnormal blood vessels in the liver. Symptoms of hemobilia can include abdominal pain, jaundice, and gastrointestinal bleeding. Diagnosis typically involves imaging tests such as CT scans or endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) to visualize the bile ducts and identify the source of bleeding. Treatment may involve endovascular procedures, surgery, or other interventions to stop the bleeding and manage any underlying conditions.

The celiac artery, also known as the anterior abdominal aortic trunk, is a major artery that originates from the abdominal aorta and supplies oxygenated blood to the foregut, which includes the stomach, liver, spleen, pancreas, and upper part of the duodenum. It branches into three main branches: the left gastric artery, the splenic artery, and the common hepatic artery. The celiac artery plays a crucial role in providing blood to these vital organs, and any disruption or damage to it can lead to serious health consequences.

The splenic artery is the largest branch of the celiac trunk, which arises from the abdominal aorta. It supplies blood to the spleen and several other organs in the upper left part of the abdomen. The splenic artery divides into several branches that ultimately form a network of capillaries within the spleen. These capillaries converge to form the main venous outflow, the splenic vein, which drains into the hepatic portal vein.

The splenic artery is a vital structure in the human body, and any damage or blockage can lead to serious complications, including splenic infarction (reduced blood flow to the spleen) or splenic rupture (a surgical emergency that can be life-threatening).

Liver transplantation is a surgical procedure in which a diseased or failing liver is replaced with a healthy one from a deceased donor or, less commonly, a portion of a liver from a living donor. The goal of the procedure is to restore normal liver function and improve the patient's overall health and quality of life.

Liver transplantation may be recommended for individuals with end-stage liver disease, acute liver failure, certain genetic liver disorders, or liver cancers that cannot be treated effectively with other therapies. The procedure involves complex surgery to remove the diseased liver and implant the new one, followed by a period of recovery and close medical monitoring to ensure proper function and minimize the risk of complications.

The success of liver transplantation has improved significantly in recent years due to advances in surgical techniques, immunosuppressive medications, and post-transplant care. However, it remains a major operation with significant risks and challenges, including the need for lifelong immunosuppression to prevent rejection of the new liver, as well as potential complications such as infection, bleeding, and organ failure.

Intra-arterial infusion is a medical procedure in which a liquid medication or fluid is delivered directly into an artery. This technique is used to deliver drugs directly to a specific organ or region of the body, bypassing the usual systemic circulation and allowing for higher concentrations of the drug to reach the target area. It is often used in cancer treatment to deliver chemotherapeutic agents directly to tumors, as well as in other conditions such as severe infections or inflammation.

Intra-arterial infusions are typically administered through a catheter that is inserted into an artery, usually under the guidance of imaging techniques such as fluoroscopy, CT, or MRI. The procedure requires careful monitoring and precise control to ensure proper placement of the catheter and accurate delivery of the medication.

It's important to note that intra-arterial infusions are different from intra venous (IV) infusions, where medications are delivered into a vein instead of an artery. The choice between intra-arterial and intra-venous infusion depends on various factors such as the type of medication being used, the location of the target area, and the patient's overall medical condition.

The pulmonary artery is a large blood vessel that carries deoxygenated blood from the right ventricle of the heart to the lungs for oxygenation. It divides into two main branches, the right and left pulmonary arteries, which further divide into smaller vessels called arterioles, and then into a vast network of capillaries in the lungs where gas exchange occurs. The thin walls of these capillaries allow oxygen to diffuse into the blood and carbon dioxide to diffuse out, making the blood oxygen-rich before it is pumped back to the left side of the heart through the pulmonary veins. This process is crucial for maintaining proper oxygenation of the body's tissues and organs.

The liver is a large, solid organ located in the upper right portion of the abdomen, beneath the diaphragm and above the stomach. It plays a vital role in several bodily functions, including:

1. Metabolism: The liver helps to metabolize carbohydrates, fats, and proteins from the food we eat into energy and nutrients that our bodies can use.
2. Detoxification: The liver detoxifies harmful substances in the body by breaking them down into less toxic forms or excreting them through bile.
3. Synthesis: The liver synthesizes important proteins, such as albumin and clotting factors, that are necessary for proper bodily function.
4. Storage: The liver stores glucose, vitamins, and minerals that can be released when the body needs them.
5. Bile production: The liver produces bile, a digestive juice that helps to break down fats in the small intestine.
6. Immune function: The liver plays a role in the immune system by filtering out bacteria and other harmful substances from the blood.

Overall, the liver is an essential organ that plays a critical role in maintaining overall health and well-being.

The renal artery is a pair of blood vessels that originate from the abdominal aorta and supply oxygenated blood to each kidney. These arteries branch into several smaller vessels that provide blood to the various parts of the kidneys, including the renal cortex and medulla. The renal arteries also carry nutrients and other essential components needed for the normal functioning of the kidneys. Any damage or blockage to the renal artery can lead to serious consequences, such as reduced kidney function or even kidney failure.

The superior mesenteric artery (SMA) is a major artery that supplies oxygenated blood to the intestines, specifically the lower part of the duodenum, jejunum, ileum, cecum, ascending colon, and the first and second parts of the transverse colon. It originates from the abdominal aorta, located just inferior to the pancreas, and passes behind the neck of the pancreas before dividing into several branches to supply the intestines. The SMA is an essential vessel in the digestive system, providing blood flow for nutrient absorption and overall gut function.

Therapeutic embolization is a medical procedure that involves intentionally blocking or obstructing blood vessels to stop excessive bleeding or block the flow of blood to a tumor or abnormal tissue. This is typically accomplished by injecting small particles, such as microspheres or coils, into the targeted blood vessel through a catheter, which is inserted into a larger blood vessel and guided to the desired location using imaging techniques like X-ray or CT scanning. The goal of therapeutic embolization is to reduce the size of a tumor, control bleeding, or block off abnormal blood vessels that are causing problems.

Liver neoplasms refer to abnormal growths in the liver that can be benign or malignant. Benign liver neoplasms are non-cancerous tumors that do not spread to other parts of the body, while malignant liver neoplasms are cancerous tumors that can invade and destroy surrounding tissue and spread to other organs.

Liver neoplasms can be primary, meaning they originate in the liver, or secondary, meaning they have metastasized (spread) to the liver from another part of the body. Primary liver neoplasms can be further classified into different types based on their cell of origin and behavior, including hepatocellular carcinoma, cholangiocarcinoma, and hepatic hemangioma.

The diagnosis of liver neoplasms typically involves a combination of imaging studies, such as ultrasound, CT scan, or MRI, and biopsy to confirm the type and stage of the tumor. Treatment options depend on the type and extent of the neoplasm and may include surgery, radiation therapy, chemotherapy, or liver transplantation.

Angiography is a medical procedure in which an x-ray image is taken to visualize the internal structure of blood vessels, arteries, or veins. This is done by injecting a radiopaque contrast agent (dye) into the blood vessel using a thin, flexible catheter. The dye makes the blood vessels visible on an x-ray image, allowing doctors to diagnose and treat various medical conditions such as blockages, narrowing, or malformations of the blood vessels.

There are several types of angiography, including:

* Cardiac angiography (also called coronary angiography) - used to examine the blood vessels of the heart
* Cerebral angiography - used to examine the blood vessels of the brain
* Peripheral angiography - used to examine the blood vessels in the limbs or other parts of the body.

Angiography is typically performed by a radiologist, cardiologist, or vascular surgeon in a hospital setting. It can help diagnose conditions such as coronary artery disease, aneurysms, and peripheral arterial disease, among others.

The carotid arteries are a pair of vital blood vessels in the human body that supply oxygenated blood to the head and neck. Each person has two common carotid arteries, one on each side of the neck, which branch off from the aorta, the largest artery in the body.

The right common carotid artery originates from the brachiocephalic trunk, while the left common carotid artery arises directly from the aortic arch. As they ascend through the neck, they split into two main branches: the internal and external carotid arteries.

The internal carotid artery supplies oxygenated blood to the brain, eyes, and other structures within the skull, while the external carotid artery provides blood to the face, scalp, and various regions of the neck.

Maintaining healthy carotid arteries is crucial for overall cardiovascular health and preventing serious conditions like stroke, which can occur when the arteries become narrowed or blocked due to the buildup of plaque or fatty deposits (atherosclerosis). Regular check-ups with healthcare professionals may include monitoring carotid artery health through ultrasound or other imaging techniques.

An aneurysm is a localized, balloon-like bulge in the wall of a blood vessel. It occurs when the pressure inside the vessel causes a weakened area to swell and become enlarged. Aneurysms can develop in any blood vessel, but they are most common in arteries at the base of the brain (cerebral aneurysm) and the main artery carrying blood from the heart to the rest of the body (aortic aneurysm).

Aneurysms can be classified as saccular or fusiform, depending on their shape. A saccular aneurysm is a round or oval bulge that projects from the side of a blood vessel, while a fusiform aneurysm is a dilated segment of a blood vessel that is uniform in width and involves all three layers of the arterial wall.

The size and location of an aneurysm can affect its risk of rupture. Generally, larger aneurysms are more likely to rupture than smaller ones. Aneurysms located in areas with high blood pressure or where the vessel branches are also at higher risk of rupture.

Ruptured aneurysms can cause life-threatening bleeding and require immediate medical attention. Symptoms of a ruptured aneurysm may include sudden severe headache, neck stiffness, nausea, vomiting, blurred vision, or loss of consciousness. Unruptured aneurysms may not cause any symptoms and are often discovered during routine imaging tests for other conditions.

Treatment options for aneurysms depend on their size, location, and risk of rupture. Small, unruptured aneurysms may be monitored with regular imaging tests to check for growth or changes. Larger or symptomatic aneurysms may require surgical intervention, such as clipping or coiling, to prevent rupture and reduce the risk of complications.

Cerebral arteries refer to the blood vessels that supply oxygenated blood to the brain. These arteries branch off from the internal carotid arteries and the vertebral arteries, which combine to form the basilar artery. The major cerebral arteries include:

1. Anterior cerebral artery (ACA): This artery supplies blood to the frontal lobes of the brain, including the motor and sensory cortices responsible for movement and sensation in the lower limbs.
2. Middle cerebral artery (MCA): The MCA is the largest of the cerebral arteries and supplies blood to the lateral surface of the brain, including the temporal, parietal, and frontal lobes. It is responsible for providing blood to areas involved in motor function, sensory perception, speech, memory, and vision.
3. Posterior cerebral artery (PCA): The PCA supplies blood to the occipital lobe, which is responsible for visual processing, as well as parts of the temporal and parietal lobes.
4. Anterior communicating artery (ACoA) and posterior communicating arteries (PComAs): These are small arteries that connect the major cerebral arteries, forming an important circulatory network called the Circle of Willis. The ACoA connects the two ACAs, while the PComAs connect the ICA with the PCA and the basilar artery.

These cerebral arteries play a crucial role in maintaining proper brain function by delivering oxygenated blood to various regions of the brain. Any damage or obstruction to these arteries can lead to serious neurological conditions, such as strokes or transient ischemic attacks (TIAs).

The femoral artery is the major blood vessel that supplies oxygenated blood to the lower extremity of the human body. It is a continuation of the external iliac artery and becomes the popliteal artery as it passes through the adductor hiatus in the adductor magnus muscle of the thigh.

The femoral artery is located in the femoral triangle, which is bound by the sartorius muscle anteriorly, the adductor longus muscle medially, and the biceps femoris muscle posteriorly. It can be easily palpated in the groin region, making it a common site for taking blood samples, measuring blood pressure, and performing surgical procedures such as femoral artery catheterization and bypass grafting.

The femoral artery gives off several branches that supply blood to the lower limb, including the deep femoral artery, the superficial femoral artery, and the profunda femoris artery. These branches provide blood to the muscles, bones, skin, and other tissues of the leg, ankle, and foot.

A false aneurysm, also known as a pseudoaneurysm, is a type of aneurysm that occurs when there is a leakage or rupture of blood from a blood vessel into the surrounding tissues, creating a pulsating hematoma or collection of blood. Unlike true aneurysms, which involve a localized dilation or bulging of the blood vessel wall, false aneurysms do not have a complete covering of all three layers of the arterial wall (intima, media, and adventitia). Instead, they are typically covered by only one or two layers, such as the intima and adventitia, or by surrounding tissues like connective tissue or fascia.

False aneurysms can result from various factors, including trauma, infection, iatrogenic causes (such as medical procedures), or degenerative changes in the blood vessel wall. They are more common in arteries than veins and can occur in any part of the body. If left untreated, false aneurysms can lead to serious complications such as rupture, thrombosis, distal embolization, or infection. Treatment options for false aneurysms include surgical repair, endovascular procedures, or observation with regular follow-up imaging.

The mesenteric arteries are the arteries that supply oxygenated blood to the intestines. There are three main mesenteric arteries: the superior mesenteric artery, which supplies blood to the small intestine (duodenum to two-thirds of the transverse colon) and large intestine (cecum, ascending colon, and the first part of the transverse colon); the inferior mesenteric artery, which supplies blood to the distal third of the transverse colon, descending colon, sigmoid colon, and rectum; and the middle colic artery, which is a branch of the superior mesenteric artery that supplies blood to the transverse colon. These arteries are important in maintaining adequate blood flow to the intestines to support digestion and absorption of nutrients.

The basilar artery is a major blood vessel that supplies oxygenated blood to the brainstem and cerebellum. It is formed by the union of two vertebral arteries at the lower part of the brainstem, near the junction of the medulla oblongata and pons.

The basilar artery runs upward through the center of the brainstem and divides into two posterior cerebral arteries at the upper part of the brainstem, near the midbrain. The basilar artery gives off several branches that supply blood to various parts of the brainstem, including the pons, medulla oblongata, and midbrain, as well as to the cerebellum.

The basilar artery is an important part of the circle of Willis, a network of arteries at the base of the brain that ensures continuous blood flow to the brain even if one of the arteries becomes blocked or narrowed.

Iodized oil is a type of oil, often sesame or soybean oil, that has been artificially enriched with the essential micromineral iodine. It is typically used as a medical treatment for iodine deficiency disorders, such as goiter and cretinism, and for preventing their occurrence.

The iodization process involves binding iodine to the oil molecules, which allows the iodine to be slowly released and absorbed by the body over an extended period of time. This makes it an effective long-term supplement for maintaining adequate iodine levels in the body. Iodized oil is usually administered via intramuscular injection, and its effects can last for several months to a year.

It's important to note that while iodized oil is a valuable tool in addressing iodine deficiency on an individual level, global public health initiatives have focused on adding iodine to table salt (known as iodization of salt) as a more widespread and sustainable solution for eliminating iodine deficiency disorders.

Ligation, in the context of medical terminology, refers to the process of tying off a part of the body, usually blood vessels or tissue, with a surgical suture or another device. The goal is to stop the flow of fluids such as blood or other substances within the body. It is commonly used during surgeries to control bleeding or to block the passage of fluids, gases, or solids in various parts of the body.

The iliac arteries are major branches of the abdominal aorta, the large artery that carries oxygen-rich blood from the heart to the rest of the body. The iliac arteries divide into two branches, the common iliac arteries, which further bifurcate into the internal and external iliac arteries.

The internal iliac artery supplies blood to the lower abdomen, pelvis, and the reproductive organs, while the external iliac artery provides blood to the lower extremities, including the legs and feet. Together, the iliac arteries play a crucial role in circulating blood throughout the body, ensuring that all tissues and organs receive the oxygen and nutrients they need to function properly.

The vertebral artery is a major blood vessel that supplies oxygenated blood to the brain and upper spinal cord. It arises from the subclavian artery, then ascends through the transverse processes of several cervical vertebrae before entering the skull through the foramen magnum. Inside the skull, it joins with the opposite vertebral artery to form the basilar artery, which supplies blood to the brainstem and cerebellum. The vertebral artery also gives off several important branches that supply blood to various regions of the brainstem and upper spinal cord.

Coronary artery bypass surgery, also known as coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG), is a surgical procedure used to improve blood flow to the heart in patients with severe coronary artery disease. This condition occurs when the coronary arteries, which supply oxygen-rich blood to the heart muscle, become narrowed or blocked due to the buildup of fatty deposits, called plaques.

During CABG surgery, a healthy blood vessel from another part of the body is grafted, or attached, to the coronary artery, creating a new pathway for oxygen-rich blood to flow around the blocked or narrowed portion of the artery and reach the heart muscle. This bypass helps to restore normal blood flow and reduce the risk of angina (chest pain), shortness of breath, and other symptoms associated with coronary artery disease.

There are different types of CABG surgery, including traditional on-pump CABG, off-pump CABG, and minimally invasive CABG. The choice of procedure depends on various factors, such as the patient's overall health, the number and location of blocked arteries, and the presence of other medical conditions.

It is important to note that while CABG surgery can significantly improve symptoms and quality of life in patients with severe coronary artery disease, it does not cure the underlying condition. Lifestyle modifications, such as regular exercise, a healthy diet, smoking cessation, and medication therapy, are essential for long-term management and prevention of further progression of the disease.

Arterial occlusive diseases are medical conditions characterized by the blockage or narrowing of the arteries, which can lead to a reduction in blood flow to various parts of the body. This reduction in blood flow can cause tissue damage and may result in serious complications such as tissue death (gangrene), organ dysfunction, or even death.

The most common cause of arterial occlusive diseases is atherosclerosis, which is the buildup of plaque made up of fat, cholesterol, calcium, and other substances in the inner lining of the artery walls. Over time, this plaque can harden and narrow the arteries, restricting blood flow. Other causes of arterial occlusive diseases include blood clots, emboli (tiny particles that travel through the bloodstream and lodge in smaller vessels), inflammation, trauma, and certain inherited conditions.

Symptoms of arterial occlusive diseases depend on the location and severity of the blockage. Common symptoms include:

* Pain, cramping, or fatigue in the affected limb, often triggered by exercise and relieved by rest (claudication)
* Numbness, tingling, or weakness in the affected limb
* Coldness or discoloration of the skin in the affected area
* Slow-healing sores or wounds on the toes, feet, or legs
* Erectile dysfunction in men

Treatment for arterial occlusive diseases may include lifestyle changes such as quitting smoking, exercising regularly, and eating a healthy diet. Medications to lower cholesterol, control blood pressure, prevent blood clots, or manage pain may also be prescribed. In severe cases, surgical procedures such as angioplasty, stenting, or bypass surgery may be necessary to restore blood flow.

Intra-arterial injection is a type of medical procedure where a medication or contrast agent is delivered directly into an artery. This technique is used for various therapeutic and diagnostic purposes.

For instance, intra-arterial chemotherapy may be used to deliver cancer drugs directly to the site of a tumor, while intra-arterial thrombolysis involves the administration of clot-busting medications to treat arterial blockages caused by blood clots. Intra-arterial injections are also used in diagnostic imaging procedures such as angiography, where a contrast agent is injected into an artery to visualize the blood vessels and identify any abnormalities.

It's important to note that intra-arterial injections require precise placement of the needle or catheter into the artery, and are typically performed by trained medical professionals using specialized equipment.

Liver diseases refer to a wide range of conditions that affect the normal functioning of the liver. The liver is a vital organ responsible for various critical functions such as detoxification, protein synthesis, and production of biochemicals necessary for digestion.

Liver diseases can be categorized into acute and chronic forms. Acute liver disease comes on rapidly and can be caused by factors like viral infections (hepatitis A, B, C, D, E), drug-induced liver injury, or exposure to toxic substances. Chronic liver disease develops slowly over time, often due to long-term exposure to harmful agents or inherent disorders of the liver.

Common examples of liver diseases include hepatitis, cirrhosis (scarring of the liver tissue), fatty liver disease, alcoholic liver disease, autoimmune liver diseases, genetic/hereditary liver disorders (like Wilson's disease and hemochromatosis), and liver cancers. Symptoms may vary widely depending on the type and stage of the disease but could include jaundice, abdominal pain, fatigue, loss of appetite, nausea, and weight loss.

Early diagnosis and treatment are essential to prevent progression and potential complications associated with liver diseases.

Hepatectomy is a surgical procedure that involves the removal of part or all of the liver. This procedure can be performed for various reasons, such as removing cancerous or non-cancerous tumors, treating liver trauma, or donating a portion of the liver to another person in need of a transplant (live donor hepatectomy). The extent of the hepatectomy depends on the medical condition and overall health of the patient. It is a complex procedure that requires significant expertise and experience from the surgical team due to the liver's unique anatomy, blood supply, and regenerative capabilities.

X-ray computed tomography (CT or CAT scan) is a medical imaging method that uses computer-processed combinations of many X-ray images taken from different angles to produce cross-sectional (tomographic) images (virtual "slices") of the body. These cross-sectional images can then be used to display detailed internal views of organs, bones, and soft tissues in the body.

The term "computed tomography" is used instead of "CT scan" or "CAT scan" because the machines take a series of X-ray measurements from different angles around the body and then use a computer to process these data to create detailed images of internal structures within the body.

CT scanning is a noninvasive, painless medical test that helps physicians diagnose and treat medical conditions. CT imaging provides detailed information about many types of tissue including lung, bone, soft tissue and blood vessels. CT examinations can be performed on every part of the body for a variety of reasons including diagnosis, surgical planning, and monitoring of therapeutic responses.

In computed tomography (CT), an X-ray source and detector rotate around the patient, measuring the X-ray attenuation at many different angles. A computer uses this data to construct a cross-sectional image by the process of reconstruction. This technique is called "tomography". The term "computed" refers to the use of a computer to reconstruct the images.

CT has become an important tool in medical imaging and diagnosis, allowing radiologists and other physicians to view detailed internal images of the body. It can help identify many different medical conditions including cancer, heart disease, lung nodules, liver tumors, and internal injuries from trauma. CT is also commonly used for guiding biopsies and other minimally invasive procedures.

In summary, X-ray computed tomography (CT or CAT scan) is a medical imaging technique that uses computer-processed combinations of many X-ray images taken from different angles to produce cross-sectional images of the body. It provides detailed internal views of organs, bones, and soft tissues in the body, allowing physicians to diagnose and treat medical conditions.

Bile ducts are tubular structures that carry bile from the liver to the gallbladder for storage or directly to the small intestine to aid in digestion. There are two types of bile ducts: intrahepatic and extrahepatic. Intrahepatic bile ducts are located within the liver and drain bile from liver cells, while extrahepatic bile ducts are outside the liver and include the common hepatic duct, cystic duct, and common bile duct. These ducts can become obstructed or inflamed, leading to various medical conditions such as cholestasis, cholecystitis, and gallstones.

The radial artery is a key blood vessel in the human body, specifically a part of the peripheral arterial system. Originating from the brachial artery in the upper arm, the radial artery travels down the arm and crosses over the wrist, where it can be palpated easily. It then continues into the hand, dividing into several branches to supply blood to the hand's tissues and digits.

The radial artery is often used for taking pulse readings due to its easy accessibility at the wrist. Additionally, in medical procedures such as coronary angiography or bypass surgery, the radial artery can be utilized as a site for catheter insertion. This allows healthcare professionals to examine the heart's blood vessels and assess cardiovascular health.

The mammary arteries are a set of blood vessels that supply oxygenated blood to the mammary glands, which are the structures in female breasts responsible for milk production during lactation. The largest mammary artery, also known as the internal thoracic or internal mammary artery, originates from the subclavian artery and descends along the inner side of the chest wall. It then branches into several smaller arteries that supply blood to the breast tissue. These include the anterior and posterior intercostal arteries, lateral thoracic artery, and pectoral branches. The mammary arteries are crucial in maintaining the health and function of the breast tissue, and any damage or blockage to these vessels can lead to various breast-related conditions or diseases.

Treatment outcome is a term used to describe the result or effect of medical treatment on a patient's health status. It can be measured in various ways, such as through symptoms improvement, disease remission, reduced disability, improved quality of life, or survival rates. The treatment outcome helps healthcare providers evaluate the effectiveness of a particular treatment plan and make informed decisions about future care. It is also used in clinical research to compare the efficacy of different treatments and improve patient care.

The internal carotid artery is a major blood vessel that supplies oxygenated blood to the brain. It originates from the common carotid artery and passes through the neck, entering the skull via the carotid canal in the temporal bone. Once inside the skull, it branches into several smaller vessels that supply different parts of the brain with blood.

The internal carotid artery is divided into several segments: cervical, petrous, cavernous, clinoid, and supraclinoid. Each segment has distinct clinical significance in terms of potential injury or disease. The most common conditions affecting the internal carotid artery include atherosclerosis, which can lead to stroke or transient ischemic attack (TIA), and dissection, which can cause severe headache, neck pain, and neurological symptoms.

It's important to note that any blockage or damage to the internal carotid artery can have serious consequences, as it can significantly reduce blood flow to the brain and lead to permanent neurological damage or even death. Therefore, regular check-ups and screening tests are recommended for individuals at high risk of developing vascular diseases.

The subclavian artery is a major blood vessel that supplies the upper limb and important structures in the neck and head. It arises from the brachiocephalic trunk (in the case of the right subclavian artery) or directly from the aortic arch (in the case of the left subclavian artery).

The subclavian artery has several branches, including:

1. The vertebral artery, which supplies blood to the brainstem and cerebellum.
2. The internal thoracic artery (also known as the mammary artery), which supplies blood to the chest wall, breast, and anterior mediastinum.
3. The thyrocervical trunk, which gives rise to several branches that supply the neck, including the inferior thyroid artery, the suprascapular artery, and the transverse cervical artery.
4. The costocervical trunk, which supplies blood to the neck and upper back, including the posterior chest wall and the lower neck muscles.

The subclavian artery is a critical vessel in maintaining adequate blood flow to the upper limb, and any blockage or damage to this vessel can lead to significant morbidity, including arm pain, numbness, weakness, or even loss of function.

Floxuridine is a chemotherapeutic antimetabolite medication that is primarily used in the treatment of colon cancer. It is a fluorinated pyrimidine nucleoside analogue, which means it is similar in structure to the building blocks of DNA and RNA, and can be incorporated into these molecules during cell division, disrupting their normal function and preventing cell replication.

Floxuridine works by inhibiting the enzyme thymidylate synthase, which is necessary for the synthesis of thymidine, a nucleoside that is essential for DNA replication. By blocking this enzyme, floxuridine can prevent the growth and proliferation of cancer cells.

Floxuridine is often used in combination with other chemotherapy drugs as part of a treatment regimen for colon cancer. It may be administered intravenously or via continuous infusion, depending on the specific treatment plan. As with all chemotherapy drugs, floxuridine can have significant side effects, including nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, and myelosuppression (suppression of bone marrow function), which can lead to anemia, neutropenia, and thrombocytopenia.

Liver failure is a serious condition in which the liver is no longer able to perform its normal functions, such as removing toxins and waste products from the blood, producing bile to help digest food, and regulating blood clotting. This can lead to a buildup of toxins in the body, jaundice (yellowing of the skin and eyes), fluid accumulation in the abdomen, and an increased risk of bleeding. Liver failure can be acute (sudden) or chronic (developing over time). Acute liver failure is often caused by medication toxicity, viral hepatitis, or other sudden illnesses. Chronic liver failure is most commonly caused by long-term damage from conditions such as cirrhosis, hepatitis, alcohol abuse, and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease.

It's important to note that Liver Failure is a life threatening condition and need immediate medical attention.

Thrombosis is the formation of a blood clot (thrombus) inside a blood vessel, obstructing the flow of blood through the circulatory system. When a clot forms in an artery, it can cut off the supply of oxygen and nutrients to the tissues served by that artery, leading to damage or tissue death. If a thrombus forms in the heart, it can cause a heart attack. If a thrombus breaks off and travels through the bloodstream, it can lodge in a smaller vessel, causing blockage and potentially leading to damage in the organ that the vessel supplies. This is known as an embolism.

Thrombosis can occur due to various factors such as injury to the blood vessel wall, abnormalities in blood flow, or changes in the composition of the blood. Certain medical conditions, medications, and lifestyle factors can increase the risk of thrombosis. Treatment typically involves anticoagulant or thrombolytic therapy to dissolve or prevent further growth of the clot, as well as addressing any underlying causes.

Pathological constriction refers to an abnormal narrowing or tightening of a body passage or organ, which can interfere with the normal flow of blood, air, or other substances through the area. This constriction can occur due to various reasons such as inflammation, scarring, or abnormal growths, and can affect different parts of the body, including blood vessels, airways, intestines, and ureters. Pathological constriction can lead to a range of symptoms and complications depending on its location and severity, and may require medical intervention to correct.

Carotid artery diseases refer to conditions that affect the carotid arteries, which are the major blood vessels that supply oxygen-rich blood to the head and neck. The most common type of carotid artery disease is atherosclerosis, which occurs when fatty deposits called plaques build up in the inner lining of the arteries.

These plaques can cause the arteries to narrow or become blocked, reducing blood flow to the brain and increasing the risk of stroke. Other carotid artery diseases include carotid artery dissection, which occurs when there is a tear in the inner lining of the artery, and fibromuscular dysplasia, which is a condition that affects the muscle and tissue in the walls of the artery.

Symptoms of carotid artery disease may include neck pain or pulsations, transient ischemic attacks (TIAs) or "mini-strokes," and strokes. Treatment options for carotid artery disease depend on the severity and type of the condition but may include lifestyle changes, medications, endarterectomy (a surgical procedure to remove plaque from the artery), or angioplasty and stenting (procedures to open blocked arteries using a balloon and stent).

Postoperative complications refer to any unfavorable condition or event that occurs during the recovery period after a surgical procedure. These complications can vary in severity and may include, but are not limited to:

1. Infection: This can occur at the site of the incision or inside the body, such as pneumonia or urinary tract infection.
2. Bleeding: Excessive bleeding (hemorrhage) can lead to a drop in blood pressure and may require further surgical intervention.
3. Blood clots: These can form in the deep veins of the legs (deep vein thrombosis) and can potentially travel to the lungs (pulmonary embolism).
4. Wound dehiscence: This is when the surgical wound opens up, which can lead to infection and further complications.
5. Pulmonary issues: These include atelectasis (collapsed lung), pneumonia, or respiratory failure.
6. Cardiovascular problems: These include abnormal heart rhythms (arrhythmias), heart attack, or stroke.
7. Renal failure: This can occur due to various reasons such as dehydration, blood loss, or the use of certain medications.
8. Pain management issues: Inadequate pain control can lead to increased stress, anxiety, and decreased mobility.
9. Nausea and vomiting: These can be caused by anesthesia, opioid pain medication, or other factors.
10. Delirium: This is a state of confusion and disorientation that can occur in the elderly or those with certain medical conditions.

Prompt identification and management of these complications are crucial to ensure the best possible outcome for the patient.

Ultrasonography, Doppler refers to a non-invasive diagnostic medical procedure that uses high-frequency sound waves to create real-time images of the movement of blood flow through vessels, tissues, or heart valves. The Doppler effect is used to measure the frequency shift of the ultrasound waves as they bounce off moving red blood cells, which allows for the calculation of the speed and direction of blood flow. This technique is commonly used to diagnose and monitor various conditions such as deep vein thrombosis, carotid artery stenosis, heart valve abnormalities, and fetal heart development during pregnancy. It does not use radiation or contrast agents and is considered safe with minimal risks.

Surgical anastomosis is a medical procedure that involves the connection of two tubular structures, such as blood vessels or intestines, to create a continuous passage. This technique is commonly used in various types of surgeries, including vascular, gastrointestinal, and orthopedic procedures.

During a surgical anastomosis, the ends of the two tubular structures are carefully prepared by removing any damaged or diseased tissue. The ends are then aligned and joined together using sutures, staples, or other devices. The connection must be secure and leak-free to ensure proper function and healing.

The success of a surgical anastomosis depends on several factors, including the patient's overall health, the location and condition of the structures being joined, and the skill and experience of the surgeon. Complications such as infection, bleeding, or leakage can occur, which may require additional medical intervention or surgery.

Proper postoperative care is also essential to ensure the success of a surgical anastomosis. This may include monitoring for signs of complications, administering medications to prevent infection and promote healing, and providing adequate nutrition and hydration.

Chemoembolization, therapeutic is a medical procedure that involves the delivery of chemotherapy drugs directly to a tumor through its blood supply, followed by the blocking of the blood vessel leading to the tumor. This approach allows for a higher concentration of the chemotherapy drug to be delivered directly to the tumor while minimizing exposure to the rest of the body. The embolization component of the procedure involves blocking the blood vessel with various substances such as microspheres, gel foam, or coils, which can help to starve the tumor of oxygen and nutrients.

Therapeutic chemoembolization is typically used in the treatment of liver cancer, including primary liver cancer (hepatocellular carcinoma) and metastatic liver cancer. It may also be used in other types of cancer that have spread to the liver. The procedure can help to reduce the size of the tumor, relieve symptoms, and improve survival rates in some patients. However, like all medical procedures, it carries a risk of complications such as infection, bleeding, and damage to surrounding tissues.

The brachial artery is a major blood vessel in the upper arm. It supplies oxygenated blood to the muscles and tissues of the arm, forearm, and hand. The brachial artery originates from the axillary artery at the level of the shoulder joint and runs down the medial (inner) aspect of the arm, passing through the cubital fossa (the depression on the anterior side of the elbow) where it can be palpated during a routine blood pressure measurement. At the lower end of the forearm, the brachial artery bifurcates into the radial and ulnar arteries, which further divide into smaller vessels to supply the hand and fingers.

Hepatic encephalopathy (HE) is a neuropsychiatric syndrome associated with liver dysfunction and/or portosystemic shunting. It results from the accumulation of toxic substances, such as ammonia and inflammatory mediators, which are normally metabolized by the liver. HE can present with a wide range of symptoms, including changes in sleep-wake cycle, altered mental status, confusion, disorientation, asterixis (flapping tremor), and in severe cases, coma. The diagnosis is based on clinical evaluation, neuropsychological testing, and exclusion of other causes of cognitive impairment. Treatment typically involves addressing the underlying liver dysfunction, reducing ammonia production through dietary modifications and medications, and preventing further episodes with lactulose or rifaximin therapy.

In the field of medicine, "time factors" refer to the duration of symptoms or time elapsed since the onset of a medical condition, which can have significant implications for diagnosis and treatment. Understanding time factors is crucial in determining the progression of a disease, evaluating the effectiveness of treatments, and making critical decisions regarding patient care.

For example, in stroke management, "time is brain," meaning that rapid intervention within a specific time frame (usually within 4.5 hours) is essential to administering tissue plasminogen activator (tPA), a clot-busting drug that can minimize brain damage and improve patient outcomes. Similarly, in trauma care, the "golden hour" concept emphasizes the importance of providing definitive care within the first 60 minutes after injury to increase survival rates and reduce morbidity.

Time factors also play a role in monitoring the progression of chronic conditions like diabetes or heart disease, where regular follow-ups and assessments help determine appropriate treatment adjustments and prevent complications. In infectious diseases, time factors are crucial for initiating antibiotic therapy and identifying potential outbreaks to control their spread.

Overall, "time factors" encompass the significance of recognizing and acting promptly in various medical scenarios to optimize patient outcomes and provide effective care.

Retrospective studies, also known as retrospective research or looking back studies, are a type of observational study that examines data from the past to draw conclusions about possible causal relationships between risk factors and outcomes. In these studies, researchers analyze existing records, medical charts, or previously collected data to test a hypothesis or answer a specific research question.

Retrospective studies can be useful for generating hypotheses and identifying trends, but they have limitations compared to prospective studies, which follow participants forward in time from exposure to outcome. Retrospective studies are subject to biases such as recall bias, selection bias, and information bias, which can affect the validity of the results. Therefore, retrospective studies should be interpreted with caution and used primarily to generate hypotheses for further testing in prospective studies.

The common carotid artery is a major blood vessel in the neck that supplies oxygenated blood to the head and neck. It originates from the brachiocephalic trunk or the aortic arch and divides into the internal and external carotid arteries at the level of the upper border of the thyroid cartilage. The common carotid artery is an important structure in the circulatory system, and any damage or blockage to it can have serious consequences, including stroke.

Intrahepatic bile ducts are the small tubular structures inside the liver that collect bile from the liver cells (hepatocytes). Bile is a digestive fluid produced by the liver that helps in the absorption of fats and fat-soluble vitamins from food. The intrahepatic bile ducts merge to form larger ducts, which eventually exit the liver and join with the cystic duct from the gallbladder to form the common bile duct. The common bile duct then empties into the duodenum, the first part of the small intestine, where bile aids in digestion. Intrahepatic bile ducts can become obstructed or damaged due to various conditions such as gallstones, tumors, or inflammation, leading to complications like jaundice, liver damage, and infection.

Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the most common type of primary liver cancer in adults. It originates from the hepatocytes, which are the main functional cells of the liver. This type of cancer is often associated with chronic liver diseases such as cirrhosis caused by hepatitis B or C virus infection, alcohol abuse, non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), and aflatoxin exposure.

The symptoms of HCC can vary but may include unexplained weight loss, lack of appetite, abdominal pain or swelling, jaundice, and fatigue. The diagnosis of HCC typically involves imaging tests such as ultrasound, CT scan, or MRI, as well as blood tests to measure alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) levels. Treatment options for Hepatocellular carcinoma depend on the stage and extent of the cancer, as well as the patient's overall health and liver function. Treatment options may include surgery, radiation therapy, chemotherapy, targeted therapy, or liver transplantation.

Ethiodized oil is a type of poppy seed oil that has been chemically treated with iodine. It is a highly dense form of iodine, which is used as a radiocontrast medium for imaging studies, such as X-rays and CT scans. The iodine in the ethiodized oil absorbs the X-rays and makes certain structures in the body more visible on the images. It is typically used to help diagnose conditions related to the gastrointestinal tract, such as ulcers or tumors.

It's important to note that the use of ethiodized oil as a radiocontrast medium has declined in recent years due to the development of newer, safer contrast agents. Additionally, there are potential risks associated with its use, including allergic reactions and kidney damage, so it is typically used only when other options are not available or have been determined to be inappropriate.

Liver cirrhosis is a chronic, progressive disease characterized by the replacement of normal liver tissue with scarred (fibrotic) tissue, leading to loss of function. The scarring is caused by long-term damage from various sources such as hepatitis, alcohol abuse, nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, and other causes. As the disease advances, it can lead to complications like portal hypertension, fluid accumulation in the abdomen (ascites), impaired brain function (hepatic encephalopathy), and increased risk of liver cancer. It is generally irreversible, but early detection and treatment of underlying causes may help slow down its progression.

The common hepatic duct is a medical term that refers to the duct in the liver responsible for carrying bile from the liver. More specifically, it is the duct that results from the convergence of the right and left hepatic ducts, which themselves carry bile from the right and left lobes of the liver, respectively. The common hepatic duct then joins with the cystic duct from the gallbladder to form the common bile duct, which ultimately drains into the duodenum, a part of the small intestine.

The primary function of the common hepatic duct is to transport bile, a digestive juice produced by the liver, to the small intestine. Bile helps break down fats during the digestion process, making it possible for the body to absorb them properly. Any issues or abnormalities in the common hepatic duct can lead to problems with bile flow and potentially cause health complications such as jaundice, gallstones, or liver damage.

Coronary vessels refer to the network of blood vessels that supply oxygenated blood and nutrients to the heart muscle, also known as the myocardium. The two main coronary arteries are the left main coronary artery and the right coronary artery.

The left main coronary artery branches off into the left anterior descending artery (LAD) and the left circumflex artery (LCx). The LAD supplies blood to the front of the heart, while the LCx supplies blood to the side and back of the heart.

The right coronary artery supplies blood to the right lower part of the heart, including the right atrium and ventricle, as well as the back of the heart.

Coronary vessel disease (CVD) occurs when these vessels become narrowed or blocked due to the buildup of plaque, leading to reduced blood flow to the heart muscle. This can result in chest pain, shortness of breath, or a heart attack.

I believe there might be a misunderstanding in your question. "Dogs" is not a medical term or condition. It is the common name for a domesticated carnivore of the family Canidae, specifically the genus Canis, which includes wolves, foxes, and other extant and extinct species of mammals. Dogs are often kept as pets and companions, and they have been bred in a wide variety of forms and sizes for different purposes, such as hunting, herding, guarding, assisting police and military forces, and providing companionship and emotional support.

If you meant to ask about a specific medical condition or term related to dogs, please provide more context so I can give you an accurate answer.

Hepatic stellate cells, also known as Ito cells or lipocytes, are specialized perisinusoidal cells located in the space of Disse in the liver. They play a crucial role in maintaining the normal architecture and function of the liver. In response to liver injury or disease, these cells can become activated and transform into myofibroblasts, which produce extracellular matrix components and contribute to fibrosis and scarring in the liver. This activation process is regulated by various signaling pathways and mediators, including cytokines, growth factors, and oxidative stress. Hepatic stellate cells also have the ability to store vitamin A and lipids, which they can release during activation to support hepatocyte function and regeneration.

An anatomic variation refers to a deviation from the typical or normal anatomical structure, position, or configuration of organs, tissues, or bodily parts. These variations can occur in any part of the body and can be congenital (present at birth) or acquired (develop later in life).

Anatomic variations are relatively common and usually do not cause any symptoms or problems. However, in some cases, they may affect the function of adjacent structures, predispose to injury or disease, or complicate medical procedures or surgeries. Therefore, it is essential for healthcare professionals to be aware of these variations during diagnoses, treatment planning, and surgical interventions.

Examples of anatomic variations include:

* Variations in the course or number of blood vessels, such as a persistent left superior vena cava or an accessory renal artery.
* Variations in the position or shape of organs, such as a mobile cecum or a horseshoe kidney.
* Variations in the number or configuration of bones, such as an extra rib or a bifid uvula.
* Variations in the innervation or sensory distribution of nerves, such as a variant course of the brachial plexus or a cross-innervated hand.

Anatomic variations can be detected through various imaging techniques, such as X-rays, CT scans, MRI scans, and ultrasound examinations. Sometimes, they are discovered during surgical procedures or autopsies. Understanding anatomic variations is crucial for accurate diagnosis, effective treatment, and optimal patient outcomes.

Biliary tract surgical procedures refer to a range of operations that involve the biliary system, which includes the liver, gallbladder, and bile ducts. These procedures can be performed for various reasons, including the treatment of gallstones, bile duct injuries, tumors, or other conditions affecting the biliary tract. Here are some examples of biliary tract surgical procedures:

1. Cholecystectomy: This is the surgical removal of the gallbladder, which is often performed to treat symptomatic gallstones or chronic cholecystitis (inflammation of the gallbladder). It can be done as an open procedure or laparoscopically.
2. Bile duct exploration: This procedure involves opening the common bile duct to remove stones, strictures, or tumors. It is often performed during a cholecystectomy if there is suspicion of common bile duct involvement.
3. Hepaticojejunostomy: This operation connects the liver's bile ducts directly to a portion of the small intestine called the jejunum, bypassing a damaged or obstructed segment of the biliary tract. It is often performed for benign or malignant conditions affecting the bile ducts.
4. Roux-en-Y hepaticojejunostomy: This procedure involves creating a Y-shaped limb of jejunum and connecting it to the liver's bile ducts, bypassing the common bile duct and duodenum. It is often performed for complex biliary tract injuries or malignancies.
5. Whipple procedure (pancreaticoduodenectomy): This extensive operation involves removing the head of the pancreas, the duodenum, a portion of the jejunum, the gallbladder, and the common bile duct. It is performed for malignancies involving the pancreas, bile duct, or duodenum.
6. Liver resection: This procedure involves removing a portion of the liver to treat primary liver tumors (hepatocellular carcinoma or cholangiocarcinoma) or metastatic cancer from other organs.
7. Biliary stenting or bypass: These minimally invasive procedures involve placing a stent or creating a bypass to relieve bile duct obstructions caused by tumors, strictures, or stones. They can be performed endoscopically (ERCP) or percutaneously (PTC).
8. Cholecystectomy: This procedure involves removing the gallbladder, often for symptomatic cholelithiasis (gallstones) or cholecystitis (inflammation of the gallbladder). It can be performed laparoscopically or open.
9. Biliary drainage: This procedure involves placing a catheter to drain bile from the liver or bile ducts, often for acute or chronic obstructions caused by tumors, strictures, or stones. It can be performed endoscopically (ERCP) or percutaneously (PTC).
10. Bilioenteric anastomosis: This procedure involves connecting the biliary tract to a portion of the small intestine, often for benign or malignant conditions affecting the bile ducts or pancreas. It can be performed open or laparoscopically.

Vascular surgical procedures are operations that are performed to treat conditions and diseases related to the vascular system, which includes the arteries, veins, and capillaries. These procedures can be invasive or minimally invasive and are often used to treat conditions such as peripheral artery disease, carotid artery stenosis, aortic aneurysms, and venous insufficiency.

Some examples of vascular surgical procedures include:

* Endarterectomy: a procedure to remove plaque buildup from the inside of an artery
* Bypass surgery: creating a new path for blood to flow around a blocked or narrowed artery
* Angioplasty and stenting: using a balloon to open a narrowed artery and placing a stent to keep it open
* Aneurysm repair: surgically repairing an aneurysm, a weakened area in the wall of an artery that has bulged out and filled with blood
* Embolectomy: removing a blood clot from a blood vessel
* Thrombectomy: removing a blood clot from a vein

These procedures are typically performed by vascular surgeons, who are trained in the diagnosis and treatment of vascular diseases.

A living donor is a person who voluntarily donates an organ or part of an organ to another person while they are still alive. This can include donations such as a kidney, liver lobe, lung, or portion of the pancreas or intestines. The donor and recipient typically undergo medical evaluation and compatibility testing to ensure the best possible outcome for the transplantation procedure. Living donation is regulated by laws and ethical guidelines to ensure that donors are fully informed and making a voluntary decision.

Regional blood flow (RBF) refers to the rate at which blood flows through a specific region or organ in the body, typically expressed in milliliters per minute per 100 grams of tissue (ml/min/100g). It is an essential physiological parameter that reflects the delivery of oxygen and nutrients to tissues while removing waste products. RBF can be affected by various factors such as metabolic demands, neural regulation, hormonal influences, and changes in blood pressure or vascular resistance. Measuring RBF is crucial for understanding organ function, diagnosing diseases, and evaluating the effectiveness of treatments.

A portal system in medicine refers to a venous system in which veins from various tissues or organs (known as tributaries) drain into a common large vessel (known as the portal vein), which then carries the blood to a specific organ for filtration and processing before it is returned to the systemic circulation. The most well-known example of a portal system is the hepatic portal system, where veins from the gastrointestinal tract, spleen, pancreas, and stomach merge into the portal vein and then transport blood to the liver for detoxification and nutrient processing. Other examples include the hypophyseal portal system, which connects the hypothalamus to the anterior pituitary gland, and the renal portal system found in some animals.

Experimental liver neoplasms refer to abnormal growths or tumors in the liver that are intentionally created or manipulated in a laboratory setting for the purpose of studying their development, progression, and potential treatment options. These experimental models can be established using various methods such as chemical induction, genetic modification, or transplantation of cancerous cells or tissues. The goal of this research is to advance our understanding of liver cancer biology and develop novel therapies for liver neoplasms in humans. It's important to note that these experiments are conducted under strict ethical guidelines and regulations to minimize harm and ensure the humane treatment of animals involved in such studies.

The ophthalmic artery is the first branch of the internal carotid artery, which supplies blood to the eye and its adnexa. It divides into several branches that provide oxygenated blood to various structures within the eye, including the retina, optic nerve, choroid, iris, ciliary body, and cornea. Any blockage or damage to the ophthalmic artery can lead to serious vision problems or even blindness.

The biliary tract is a system of ducts that transport bile from the liver to the gallbladder and then to the small intestine. Bile is a digestive fluid produced by the liver that helps in the breakdown and absorption of fats in the small intestine. The main components of the biliary tract are:

1. Intrahepatic bile ducts: These are the smaller branches of bile ducts located within the liver that collect bile from the liver cells or hepatocytes.
2. Gallbladder: A small pear-shaped organ located beneath the liver, which stores and concentrates bile received from the intrahepatic bile ducts. The gallbladder releases bile into the small intestine when food is ingested, particularly fats, to aid digestion.
3. Common hepatic duct: This is a duct that forms by the union of the right and left hepatic ducts, which carry bile from the right and left lobes of the liver, respectively.
4. Cystic duct: A short duct that connects the gallbladder to the common hepatic duct, forming the beginning of the common bile duct.
5. Common bile duct: This is a larger duct formed by the union of the common hepatic duct and the cystic duct. It carries bile from the liver and gallbladder into the small intestine.
6. Pancreatic duct: A separate duct that originates from the pancreas, a gland located near the liver and stomach. The pancreatic duct joins the common bile duct just before they both enter the duodenum, the first part of the small intestine.
7. Ampulla of Vater: This is the dilated portion where the common bile duct and the pancreatic duct join together and empty their contents into the duodenum through a shared opening called the papilla of Vater.

Disorders related to the biliary tract include gallstones, cholecystitis (inflammation of the gallbladder), bile duct stones, bile duct strictures or obstructions, and primary sclerosing cholangitis, among others.

Liver function tests (LFTs) are a group of blood tests that are used to assess the functioning and health of the liver. These tests measure the levels of various enzymes, proteins, and waste products that are produced or metabolized by the liver. Some common LFTs include:

1. Alanine aminotransferase (ALT): An enzyme found primarily in the liver, ALT is released into the bloodstream in response to liver cell damage. Elevated levels of ALT may indicate liver injury or disease.
2. Aspartate aminotransferase (AST): Another enzyme found in various tissues, including the liver, heart, and muscles. Like ALT, AST is released into the bloodstream following tissue damage. High AST levels can be a sign of liver damage or other medical conditions.
3. Alkaline phosphatase (ALP): An enzyme found in several organs, including the liver, bile ducts, and bones. Elevated ALP levels may indicate a blockage in the bile ducts, liver disease, or bone disorders.
4. Gamma-glutamyl transferase (GGT): An enzyme found mainly in the liver, pancreas, and biliary system. Increased GGT levels can suggest liver disease, alcohol consumption, or the use of certain medications.
5. Bilirubin: A yellowish pigment produced when hemoglobin from red blood cells is broken down. Bilirubin is processed by the liver and excreted through bile. High bilirubin levels can indicate liver dysfunction, bile duct obstruction, or certain types of anemia.
6. Albumin: A protein produced by the liver that helps maintain fluid balance in the body and transports various substances in the blood. Low albumin levels may suggest liver damage, malnutrition, or kidney disease.
7. Total protein: A measure of all proteins present in the blood, including albumin and other types of proteins produced by the liver. Decreased total protein levels can indicate liver dysfunction or other medical conditions.

These tests are often ordered together as part of a routine health checkup or when evaluating symptoms related to liver function or disease. The results should be interpreted in conjunction with clinical findings, medical history, and other diagnostic tests.

Technetium Tc 99m Aggregated Albumin is a radiopharmaceutical preparation used in diagnostic imaging. It consists of radioactive technetium-99m (^99m^Tc) chemically bonded to human serum albumin, which has been aggregated to increase its size and alter its clearance from the body.

The resulting compound is injected into the patient's bloodstream, where it accumulates in the reticuloendothelial system (RES), including the liver, spleen, and bone marrow. The radioactive emission of technetium-99m can then be detected by a gamma camera, producing images that reflect the distribution and function of the RES.

This imaging technique is used to diagnose and monitor various conditions, such as liver disease, inflammation, or tumors. It provides valuable information about the patient's health status and helps guide medical decision-making.

Bile duct diseases refer to a group of medical conditions that affect the bile ducts, which are tiny tubes that carry bile from the liver to the gallbladder and small intestine. Bile is a digestive juice produced by the liver that helps break down fats in food.

There are several types of bile duct diseases, including:

1. Choledocholithiasis: This occurs when stones form in the common bile duct, causing blockage and leading to symptoms such as abdominal pain, jaundice, and fever.
2. Cholangitis: This is an infection of the bile ducts that can cause inflammation, pain, and fever. It can occur due to obstruction of the bile ducts or as a complication of other medical procedures.
3. Primary Biliary Cirrhosis (PBC): This is a chronic autoimmune disease that affects the bile ducts in the liver, causing inflammation and scarring that can lead to cirrhosis and liver failure.
4. Primary Sclerosing Cholangitis (PSC): This is another autoimmune disease that causes inflammation and scarring of the bile ducts, leading to liver damage and potential liver failure.
5. Bile Duct Cancer: Also known as cholangiocarcinoma, this is a rare form of cancer that affects the bile ducts and can cause jaundice, abdominal pain, and weight loss.
6. Benign Strictures: These are narrowing of the bile ducts that can occur due to injury, inflammation, or surgery, leading to blockage and potential infection.

Symptoms of bile duct diseases may include jaundice, abdominal pain, fever, itching, dark urine, and light-colored stools. Treatment depends on the specific condition and may involve medication, surgery, or other medical interventions.

Vasodilation is the widening or increase in diameter of blood vessels, particularly the involuntary relaxation of the smooth muscle in the tunica media (middle layer) of the arteriole walls. This results in an increase in blood flow and a decrease in vascular resistance. Vasodilation can occur due to various physiological and pathophysiological stimuli, such as local metabolic demands, neural signals, or pharmacological agents. It plays a crucial role in regulating blood pressure, tissue perfusion, and thermoregulation.

A ruptured aneurysm is a serious medical condition that occurs when the wall of an artery or a blood vessel weakens and bulges out, forming an aneurysm, which then bursts, causing bleeding into the surrounding tissue. This can lead to internal hemorrhage, organ damage, and even death, depending on the location and severity of the rupture.

Ruptured aneurysms are often caused by factors such as high blood pressure, smoking, aging, and genetic predisposition. They can occur in any part of the body but are most common in the aorta (the largest artery in the body) and the cerebral arteries (in the brain).

Symptoms of a ruptured aneurysm may include sudden and severe pain, weakness or paralysis, difficulty breathing, confusion, loss of consciousness, and shock. Immediate medical attention is required to prevent further complications and increase the chances of survival. Treatment options for a ruptured aneurysm may include surgery, endovascular repair, or medication to manage symptoms and prevent further bleeding.

The umbilical arteries are a pair of vessels that develop within the umbilical cord during fetal development. They carry oxygenated and nutrient-rich blood from the mother to the developing fetus through the placenta. These arteries arise from the internal iliac arteries in the fetus and pass through the umbilical cord to connect with the two umbilical veins within the placenta. After birth, the umbilical arteries become ligaments (the medial umbilical ligaments) that run along the inner abdominal wall.

The Middle Cerebral Artery (MCA) is one of the main blood vessels that supplies oxygenated blood to the brain. It arises from the internal carotid artery and divides into several branches, which supply the lateral surface of the cerebral hemisphere, including the frontal, parietal, and temporal lobes.

The MCA is responsible for providing blood flow to critical areas of the brain, such as the primary motor and sensory cortices, Broca's area (associated with speech production), Wernicke's area (associated with language comprehension), and the visual association cortex.

Damage to the MCA or its branches can result in a variety of neurological deficits, depending on the specific location and extent of the injury. These may include weakness or paralysis on one side of the body, sensory loss, language impairment, and visual field cuts.

Renal artery obstruction is a medical condition that refers to the blockage or restriction of blood flow in the renal artery, which is the main vessel that supplies oxygenated and nutrient-rich blood to the kidneys. This obstruction can be caused by various factors, such as blood clots, atherosclerosis (the buildup of fats, cholesterol, and other substances in and on the artery walls), emboli (tiny particles or air bubbles that travel through the bloodstream and lodge in smaller vessels), or compressive masses like tumors.

The obstruction can lead to reduced kidney function, hypertension, and even kidney failure in severe cases. Symptoms may include high blood pressure, proteinuria (the presence of protein in the urine), hematuria (blood in the urine), and a decrease in kidney function as measured by serum creatinine levels. Diagnosis typically involves imaging studies like Doppler ultrasound, CT angiography, or magnetic resonance angiography to visualize the renal artery and assess the extent of the obstruction. Treatment options may include medications to control blood pressure and reduce kidney damage, as well as invasive procedures like angioplasty and stenting or surgical intervention to remove the obstruction and restore normal blood flow to the kidneys.

Regional perfusion chemotherapy for cancer is a medical treatment in which a specific area or region of the body is infused with high concentrations of cancer-killing (cytotoxic) drugs via a temporary isolation and perfusion of that region. This technique is typically used to treat isolated areas of cancer that are locally advanced, recurrent, or cannot be removed surgically.

The procedure involves isolating the regional blood circulation by cannulating the artery and vein that supply blood to the target area, often the limbs (such as in melanoma or sarcoma) or the liver (for liver tumors). The chemotherapeutic drugs are then introduced into the isolated arterial circulation, allowing for a high concentration of the drug to be delivered directly to the cancerous tissue while minimizing systemic exposure and toxicity.

After the infusion, the region is rinsed with a blood-substitute solution to remove any residual chemotherapeutic agents before reconnecting the circulation. This procedure can be repeated multiple times if necessary.

Regional perfusion chemotherapy has been shown to improve local control and potentially increase survival rates in certain types of cancer, while reducing systemic side effects compared to traditional intravenous chemotherapy. However, it is a complex and invasive procedure that requires specialized medical expertise and facilities.

Biological factors are the aspects related to living organisms, including their genes, evolution, physiology, and anatomy. These factors can influence an individual's health status, susceptibility to diseases, and response to treatments. Biological factors can be inherited or acquired during one's lifetime and can interact with environmental factors to shape a person's overall health. Examples of biological factors include genetic predisposition, hormonal imbalances, infections, and chronic medical conditions.

The Thoracic Arteries are branches of the aorta that supply oxygenated blood to the thoracic region of the body. The pair of arteries originate from the descending aorta and divide into several smaller branches, including intercostal arteries that supply blood to the muscles between the ribs, and posterior intercostal arteries that supply blood to the back and chest wall. Other branches of the thoracic arteries include the superior phrenic arteries, which supply blood to the diaphragm, and the bronchial arteries, which supply blood to the lungs. These arteries play a crucial role in maintaining the health and function of the chest and respiratory system.

Temporal arteries are the paired set of arteries that run along the temples on either side of the head. They are branches of the external carotid artery and play a crucial role in supplying oxygenated blood to the scalp and surrounding muscles. One of the most common conditions associated with temporal arteries is Temporal Arteritis (also known as Giant Cell Arteritis), which is an inflammation of these arteries that can lead to serious complications like vision loss if not promptly diagnosed and treated.

Sprague-Dawley rats are a strain of albino laboratory rats that are widely used in scientific research. They were first developed by researchers H.H. Sprague and R.C. Dawley in the early 20th century, and have since become one of the most commonly used rat strains in biomedical research due to their relatively large size, ease of handling, and consistent genetic background.

Sprague-Dawley rats are outbred, which means that they are genetically diverse and do not suffer from the same limitations as inbred strains, which can have reduced fertility and increased susceptibility to certain diseases. They are also characterized by their docile nature and low levels of aggression, making them easier to handle and study than some other rat strains.

These rats are used in a wide variety of research areas, including toxicology, pharmacology, nutrition, cancer, and behavioral studies. Because they are genetically diverse, Sprague-Dawley rats can be used to model a range of human diseases and conditions, making them an important tool in the development of new drugs and therapies.

Spontaneous rupture in medical terms refers to the sudden breaking or tearing of an organ, tissue, or structure within the body without any identifiable trauma or injury. This event can occur due to various reasons such as weakening of the tissue over time because of disease or degeneration, or excessive pressure on the tissue.

For instance, a spontaneous rupture of the appendix is called an "appendiceal rupture," which can lead to peritonitis, a serious inflammation of the abdominal cavity. Similarly, a spontaneous rupture of a blood vessel, like an aortic aneurysm, can result in life-threatening internal bleeding.

Spontaneous ruptures are often medical emergencies and require immediate medical attention for proper diagnosis and treatment.

"Wistar rats" are a strain of albino rats that are widely used in laboratory research. They were developed at the Wistar Institute in Philadelphia, USA, and were first introduced in 1906. Wistar rats are outbred, which means that they are genetically diverse and do not have a fixed set of genetic characteristics like inbred strains.

Wistar rats are commonly used as animal models in biomedical research because of their size, ease of handling, and relatively low cost. They are used in a wide range of research areas, including toxicology, pharmacology, nutrition, cancer, cardiovascular disease, and behavioral studies. Wistar rats are also used in safety testing of drugs, medical devices, and other products.

Wistar rats are typically larger than many other rat strains, with males weighing between 500-700 grams and females weighing between 250-350 grams. They have a lifespan of approximately 2-3 years. Wistar rats are also known for their docile and friendly nature, making them easy to handle and work with in the laboratory setting.

The bronchial arteries are a pair of arteries that originate from the descending thoracic aorta and supply oxygenated blood to the bronchi, bronchioles, and connected tissues within the lungs. They play a crucial role in providing nutrients and maintaining the health of the airways in the respiratory system. The bronchial arteries also help in the defense mechanism of the lungs by delivering immune cells and participating in the process of angiogenesis (the formation of new blood vessels) during lung injury or repair.

A stent is a small mesh tube that's used to treat narrow or weak arteries. Arteries are blood vessels that carry blood away from your heart to other parts of your body. A stent is placed in an artery as part of a procedure called angioplasty. Angioplasty restores blood flow through narrowed or blocked arteries by inflating a tiny balloon inside the blocked artery to widen it.

The stent is then inserted into the widened artery to keep it open. The stent is usually made of metal, but some are coated with medication that is slowly and continuously released to help prevent the formation of scar tissue in the artery. This can reduce the chance of the artery narrowing again.

Stents are also used in other parts of the body, such as the neck (carotid artery) and kidneys (renal artery), to help maintain blood flow and prevent blockages. They can also be used in the urinary system to treat conditions like ureteropelvic junction obstruction or narrowing of the urethra.

A reoperation is a surgical procedure that is performed again on a patient who has already undergone a previous operation for the same or related condition. Reoperations may be required due to various reasons, such as inadequate initial treatment, disease recurrence, infection, or complications from the first surgery. The nature and complexity of a reoperation can vary widely depending on the specific circumstances, but it often carries higher risks and potential complications compared to the original operation.

Pancreaticoduodenectomy, also known as the Whipple procedure, is a complex surgical operation that involves the removal of the head of the pancreas, the duodenum (the first part of the small intestine), the gallbladder, and the distal common bile duct. In some cases, a portion of the stomach may also be removed. The remaining parts of the pancreas, bile duct, and intestines are then reconnected to allow for the digestion of food and drainage of bile.

This procedure is typically performed as a treatment for various conditions affecting the pancreas, such as tumors (including pancreatic cancer), chronic pancreatitis, or traumatic injuries. It is a major surgical operation that requires significant expertise and experience to perform safely and effectively.

Aspartate aminotransferases (ASTs) are a group of enzymes found in various tissues throughout the body, including the heart, liver, and muscles. They play a crucial role in the metabolic process of transferring amino groups between different molecules.

In medical terms, AST is often used as a blood test to measure the level of this enzyme in the serum. Elevated levels of AST can indicate damage or injury to tissues that contain this enzyme, such as the liver or heart. For example, liver disease, including hepatitis and cirrhosis, can cause elevated AST levels due to damage to liver cells. Similarly, heart attacks can also result in increased AST levels due to damage to heart muscle tissue.

It is important to note that an AST test alone cannot diagnose a specific medical condition, but it can provide valuable information when used in conjunction with other diagnostic tests and clinical evaluation.

Follow-up studies are a type of longitudinal research that involve repeated observations or measurements of the same variables over a period of time, in order to understand their long-term effects or outcomes. In medical context, follow-up studies are often used to evaluate the safety and efficacy of medical treatments, interventions, or procedures.

In a typical follow-up study, a group of individuals (called a cohort) who have received a particular treatment or intervention are identified and then followed over time through periodic assessments or data collection. The data collected may include information on clinical outcomes, adverse events, changes in symptoms or functional status, and other relevant measures.

The results of follow-up studies can provide important insights into the long-term benefits and risks of medical interventions, as well as help to identify factors that may influence treatment effectiveness or patient outcomes. However, it is important to note that follow-up studies can be subject to various biases and limitations, such as loss to follow-up, recall bias, and changes in clinical practice over time, which must be carefully considered when interpreting the results.

Graft survival, in medical terms, refers to the success of a transplanted tissue or organ in continuing to function and integrate with the recipient's body over time. It is the opposite of graft rejection, which occurs when the recipient's immune system recognizes the transplanted tissue as foreign and attacks it, leading to its failure.

Graft survival depends on various factors, including the compatibility between the donor and recipient, the type and location of the graft, the use of immunosuppressive drugs to prevent rejection, and the overall health of the recipient. A successful graft survival implies that the transplanted tissue or organ has been accepted by the recipient's body and is functioning properly, providing the necessary physiological support for the recipient's survival and improved quality of life.

Cholangiocarcinoma is a type of cancer that arises from the cells that line the bile ducts, which are small tubes that carry digestive enzymes from the liver to the small intestine. It can occur in different parts of the bile duct system, including the bile ducts inside the liver (intrahepatic), the bile ducts outside the liver (extrahepatic), and the area where the bile ducts join the pancreas and small intestine (ampulla of Vater).

Cholangiocarcinoma is a relatively rare cancer, but its incidence has been increasing in recent years. It can be difficult to diagnose because its symptoms are often nonspecific and similar to those of other conditions, such as gallstones or pancreatitis. Treatment options depend on the location and stage of the cancer, and may include surgery, radiation therapy, chemotherapy, or a combination of these approaches.

A smooth muscle within the vascular system refers to the involuntary, innervated muscle that is found in the walls of blood vessels. These muscles are responsible for controlling the diameter of the blood vessels, which in turn regulates blood flow and blood pressure. They are called "smooth" muscles because their individual muscle cells do not have the striations, or cross-striped patterns, that are observed in skeletal and cardiac muscle cells. Smooth muscle in the vascular system is controlled by the autonomic nervous system and by hormones, and can contract or relax slowly over a period of time.

A subphrenic abscess is a localized collection of pus (purulent material) that forms in the area below the diaphragm and above the upper part of the stomach, known as the subphrenic space. This condition often results from a complication of abdominal or pelvic surgery, perforated ulcers, or severe intra-abdominal infections. The abscess can cause symptoms such as abdominal pain, fever, and decreased appetite, and it may require medical intervention, including antibiotics, drainage, or surgical management.

Microspheres are tiny, spherical particles that range in size from 1 to 1000 micrometers in diameter. They are made of biocompatible and biodegradable materials such as polymers, glass, or ceramics. In medical terms, microspheres have various applications, including drug delivery systems, medical imaging, and tissue engineering.

In drug delivery, microspheres can be used to encapsulate drugs and release them slowly over time, improving the efficacy of the treatment while reducing side effects. They can also be used for targeted drug delivery, where the microspheres are designed to accumulate in specific tissues or organs.

In medical imaging, microspheres can be labeled with radioactive isotopes or magnetic materials and used as contrast agents to enhance the visibility of tissues or organs during imaging procedures such as X-ray, CT, MRI, or PET scans.

In tissue engineering, microspheres can serve as a scaffold for cell growth and differentiation, promoting the regeneration of damaged tissues or organs. Overall, microspheres have great potential in various medical applications due to their unique properties and versatility.

The popliteal artery is the continuation of the femoral artery that passes through the popliteal fossa, which is the area behind the knee. It is the major blood vessel that supplies oxygenated blood to the lower leg and foot. The popliteal artery divides into the anterior tibial artery and the tibioperoneal trunk at the lower border of the popliteus muscle. Any damage or blockage to this artery can result in serious health complications, including reduced blood flow to the leg and foot, which may lead to pain, cramping, numbness, or even tissue death (gangrene) if left untreated.

Alanine transaminase (ALT) is a type of enzyme found primarily in the cells of the liver and, to a lesser extent, in the cells of other tissues such as the heart, muscles, and kidneys. Its primary function is to catalyze the reversible transfer of an amino group from alanine to another alpha-keto acid, usually pyruvate, to form pyruvate and another amino acid, usually glutamate. This process is known as the transamination reaction.

When liver cells are damaged or destroyed due to various reasons such as hepatitis, alcohol abuse, nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, or drug-induced liver injury, ALT is released into the bloodstream. Therefore, measuring the level of ALT in the blood is a useful diagnostic tool for evaluating liver function and detecting liver damage. Normal ALT levels vary depending on the laboratory, but typically range from 7 to 56 units per liter (U/L) for men and 6 to 45 U/L for women. Elevated ALT levels may indicate liver injury or disease, although other factors such as muscle damage or heart disease can also cause elevations in ALT.

The Ulnar Artery is a major blood vessel that supplies the forearm, hand, and fingers with oxygenated blood. It originates from the brachial artery in the upper arm and travels down the medial (towards the body's midline) side of the forearm, passing through the Guyon's canal at the wrist before branching out to supply the hand and fingers.

The ulnar artery provides blood to the palmar aspect of the hand and the ulnar side of the little finger and half of the ring finger. It also contributes to the formation of the deep palmar arch, which supplies blood to the deep structures of the hand. The ulnar artery is an important structure in the circulatory system, providing critical blood flow to the upper limb.

Hemodynamics is the study of how blood flows through the cardiovascular system, including the heart and the vascular network. It examines various factors that affect blood flow, such as blood volume, viscosity, vessel length and diameter, and pressure differences between different parts of the circulatory system. Hemodynamics also considers the impact of various physiological and pathological conditions on these variables, and how they in turn influence the function of vital organs and systems in the body. It is a critical area of study in fields such as cardiology, anesthesiology, and critical care medicine.

The uterine artery is a paired branch of the internal iliac (hip) artery that supplies blood to the uterus and vagina. It anastomoses (joins) with the ovarian artery to form a rich vascular network that nourishes the female reproductive organs. The right and left uterine arteries run along the sides of the uterus, where they divide into several branches to supply oxygenated blood and nutrients to the myometrium (uterine muscle), endometrium (lining), and cervix. These arteries undergo significant changes in size and structure during pregnancy to accommodate the growing fetus and placenta, making them crucial for maintaining a healthy pregnancy.

Reconstructive surgical procedures are a type of surgery aimed at restoring the form and function of body parts that are defective or damaged due to various reasons such as congenital abnormalities, trauma, infection, tumors, or disease. These procedures can involve the transfer of tissue from one part of the body to another, manipulation of bones, muscles, and tendons, or use of prosthetic materials to reconstruct the affected area. The goal is to improve both the physical appearance and functionality of the body part, thereby enhancing the patient's quality of life. Examples include breast reconstruction after mastectomy, cleft lip and palate repair, and treatment of severe burns.

Magnetic Resonance Angiography (MRA) is a non-invasive medical imaging technique that uses magnetic fields and radio waves to create detailed images of the blood vessels or arteries within the body. It is a type of Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) that focuses specifically on the circulatory system.

MRA can be used to diagnose and evaluate various conditions related to the blood vessels, such as aneurysms, stenosis (narrowing of the vessel), or the presence of plaques or tumors. It can also be used to plan for surgeries or other treatments related to the vascular system. The procedure does not use radiation and is generally considered safe, although people with certain implants like pacemakers may not be able to have an MRA due to safety concerns.

Cholestasis is a medical condition characterized by the interruption or reduction of bile flow from the liver to the small intestine. Bile is a digestive fluid produced by the liver that helps in the breakdown and absorption of fats. When the flow of bile is blocked or reduced, it can lead to an accumulation of bile components, such as bilirubin, in the blood, which can cause jaundice, itching, and other symptoms.

Cholestasis can be caused by various factors, including liver diseases (such as hepatitis, cirrhosis, or cancer), gallstones, alcohol abuse, certain medications, pregnancy, and genetic disorders. Depending on the underlying cause, cholestasis may be acute or chronic, and it can range from mild to severe in its symptoms and consequences. Treatment for cholestasis typically involves addressing the underlying cause and managing the symptoms with supportive care.

Bile duct neoplasms, also known as cholangiocarcinomas, refer to a group of malignancies that arise from the bile ducts. These are the tubes that carry bile from the liver to the gallbladder and small intestine. Bile duct neoplasms can be further classified based on their location as intrahepatic (within the liver), perihilar (at the junction of the left and right hepatic ducts), or distal (in the common bile duct).

These tumors are relatively rare, but their incidence has been increasing in recent years. They can cause a variety of symptoms, including jaundice, abdominal pain, weight loss, and fever. The diagnosis of bile duct neoplasms typically involves imaging studies such as CT or MRI scans, as well as blood tests to assess liver function. In some cases, a biopsy may be necessary to confirm the diagnosis.

Treatment options for bile duct neoplasms depend on several factors, including the location and stage of the tumor, as well as the patient's overall health. Surgical resection is the preferred treatment for early-stage tumors, while chemotherapy and radiation therapy may be used in more advanced cases. For patients who are not candidates for surgery, palliative treatments such as stenting or bypass procedures may be recommended to relieve symptoms and improve quality of life.

Biliary tract diseases refer to a group of medical conditions that affect the biliary system, which includes the gallbladder, bile ducts, and liver. Bile is a digestive juice produced by the liver, stored in the gallbladder, and released into the small intestine through the bile ducts to help digest fats.

Biliary tract diseases can cause various symptoms such as abdominal pain, jaundice, fever, nausea, vomiting, and changes in stool color. Some of the common biliary tract diseases include:

1. Gallstones: Small, hard deposits that form in the gallbladder or bile ducts made up of cholesterol or bilirubin.
2. Cholecystitis: Inflammation of the gallbladder, often caused by gallstones.
3. Cholangitis: Infection or inflammation of the bile ducts.
4. Biliary dyskinesia: A motility disorder that affects the contraction and relaxation of the muscles in the biliary system.
5. Primary sclerosing cholangitis: A chronic autoimmune disease that causes scarring and narrowing of the bile ducts.
6. Biliary tract cancer: Rare cancers that affect the gallbladder, bile ducts, or liver.

Treatment for biliary tract diseases varies depending on the specific condition and severity but may include medications, surgery, or a combination of both.

Ultrasonography, Doppler, color is a type of diagnostic ultrasound technique that uses the Doppler effect to produce visual images of blood flow in vessels and the heart. The Doppler effect is the change in frequency or wavelength of a wave in relation to an observer who is moving relative to the source of the wave. In this context, it refers to the change in frequency of the ultrasound waves as they reflect off moving red blood cells.

In color Doppler ultrasonography, different colors are used to represent the direction and speed of blood flow. Red typically represents blood flowing toward the transducer (the device that sends and receives sound waves), while blue represents blood flowing away from the transducer. The intensity or brightness of the color is proportional to the velocity of blood flow.

Color Doppler ultrasonography is often used in conjunction with grayscale ultrasound imaging, which provides information about the structure and composition of tissues. Together, these techniques can help diagnose a wide range of conditions, including heart disease, blood clots, and abnormalities in blood flow.

Digital subtraction angiography (DSA) is a medical imaging technique used to visualize the blood vessels and blood flow within the body. It combines the use of X-ray technology with digital image processing to produce detailed images of the vascular system.

In DSA, a contrast agent is injected into the patient's bloodstream through a catheter, which is typically inserted into an artery in the leg and guided to the area of interest using fluoroscopy. As the contrast agent flows through the blood vessels, X-ray images are taken at multiple time points.

The digital subtraction process involves taking a baseline image without contrast and then subtracting it from subsequent images taken with contrast. This allows for the removal of background structures and noise, resulting in clearer images of the blood vessels. DSA can be used to diagnose and evaluate various vascular conditions, such as aneurysms, stenosis, and tumors, and can also guide interventional procedures such as angioplasty and stenting.

Coronary angiography is a medical procedure that uses X-ray imaging to visualize the coronary arteries, which supply blood to the heart muscle. During the procedure, a thin, flexible catheter is inserted into an artery in the arm or groin and threaded through the blood vessels to the heart. A contrast dye is then injected through the catheter, and X-ray images are taken as the dye flows through the coronary arteries. These images can help doctors diagnose and treat various heart conditions, such as blockages or narrowing of the arteries, that can lead to chest pain or heart attacks. It is also known as coronary arteriography or cardiac catheterization.

Hepatocytes are the predominant type of cells in the liver, accounting for about 80% of its cytoplasmic mass. They play a key role in protein synthesis, protein storage, transformation of carbohydrates, synthesis of cholesterol, bile salts and phospholipids, detoxification, modification, and excretion of exogenous and endogenous substances, initiation of formation and secretion of bile, and enzyme production. Hepatocytes are essential for the maintenance of homeostasis in the body.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Carcinoma 256, Walker" is not a recognized medical term or diagnosis. It seems that this term may be a misnomer or a typographical error. If you are referring to a specific type of carcinoma or a medical case report by Walker, could you please provide more context or clarify the term? I would be happy to help you with accurate and reliable medical information once I understand your question better.

A carcinoma is a type of cancer that begins in the cells that line various internal and external body surfaces, including organs, glands, and skin. If you are looking for general information about carcinomas or have any other medical questions, please feel free to ask!

The external carotid artery is a major blood vessel in the neck that supplies oxygenated blood to the structures of the head and neck, excluding the brain. It originates from the common carotid artery at the level of the upper border of the thyroid cartilage, then divides into several branches that supply various regions of the head and neck, including the face, scalp, ears, and neck muscles.

The external carotid artery has eight branches:

1. Superior thyroid artery: Supplies blood to the thyroid gland, larynx, and surrounding muscles.
2. Ascending pharyngeal artery: Supplies blood to the pharynx, palate, and meninges of the brain.
3. Lingual artery: Supplies blood to the tongue and floor of the mouth.
4. Facial artery: Supplies blood to the face, nose, lips, and palate.
5. Occipital artery: Supplies blood to the scalp and muscles of the neck.
6. Posterior auricular artery: Supplies blood to the ear and surrounding muscles.
7. Maxillary artery: Supplies blood to the lower face, nasal cavity, palate, and meninges of the brain.
8. Superficial temporal artery: Supplies blood to the scalp, face, and temporomandibular joint.

The external carotid artery is an essential structure for maintaining adequate blood flow to the head and neck, and any damage or blockage can lead to serious medical conditions such as stroke or tissue necrosis.

Portal hypertension is a medical condition characterized by an increased pressure in the portal vein, which is the large blood vessel that carries blood from the intestines, spleen, and pancreas to the liver. Normal portal venous pressure is approximately 5-10 mmHg. Portal hypertension is defined as a portal venous pressure greater than 10 mmHg.

The most common cause of portal hypertension is cirrhosis of the liver, which leads to scarring and narrowing of the small blood vessels in the liver, resulting in increased resistance to blood flow. Other causes include blood clots in the portal vein, inflammation of the liver or bile ducts, and invasive tumors that block the flow of blood through the liver.

Portal hypertension can lead to a number of complications, including the development of abnormal blood vessels (varices) in the esophagus, stomach, and intestines, which are prone to bleeding. Ascites, or the accumulation of fluid in the abdominal cavity, is another common complication of portal hypertension. Other potential complications include encephalopathy, which is a condition characterized by confusion, disorientation, and other neurological symptoms, and an increased risk of bacterial infections.

Treatment of portal hypertension depends on the underlying cause and the severity of the condition. Medications to reduce pressure in the portal vein, such as beta blockers or nitrates, may be used. Endoscopic procedures to band or inject varices can help prevent bleeding. In severe cases, surgery or liver transplantation may be necessary.

"Swine" is a common term used to refer to even-toed ungulates of the family Suidae, including domestic pigs and wild boars. However, in a medical context, "swine" often appears in the phrase "swine flu," which is a strain of influenza virus that typically infects pigs but can also cause illness in humans. The 2009 H1N1 pandemic was caused by a new strain of swine-origin influenza A virus, which was commonly referred to as "swine flu." It's important to note that this virus is not transmitted through eating cooked pork products; it spreads from person to person, mainly through respiratory droplets produced when an infected person coughs or sneezes.

Iatrogenic disease refers to any condition or illness that is caused, directly or indirectly, by medical treatment or intervention. This can include adverse reactions to medications, infections acquired during hospitalization, complications from surgical procedures, or injuries caused by medical equipment. It's important to note that iatrogenic diseases are unintended and often preventable with proper care and precautions.

The endothelium is a thin layer of simple squamous epithelial cells that lines the interior surface of blood vessels, lymphatic vessels, and heart chambers. The vascular endothelium, specifically, refers to the endothelial cells that line the blood vessels. These cells play a crucial role in maintaining vascular homeostasis by regulating vasomotor tone, coagulation, platelet activation, inflammation, and permeability of the vessel wall. They also contribute to the growth and repair of the vascular system and are involved in various pathological processes such as atherosclerosis, hypertension, and diabetes.

Animal disease models are specialized animals, typically rodents such as mice or rats, that have been genetically engineered or exposed to certain conditions to develop symptoms and physiological changes similar to those seen in human diseases. These models are used in medical research to study the pathophysiology of diseases, identify potential therapeutic targets, test drug efficacy and safety, and understand disease mechanisms.

The genetic modifications can include knockout or knock-in mutations, transgenic expression of specific genes, or RNA interference techniques. The animals may also be exposed to environmental factors such as chemicals, radiation, or infectious agents to induce the disease state.

Examples of animal disease models include:

1. Mouse models of cancer: Genetically engineered mice that develop various types of tumors, allowing researchers to study cancer initiation, progression, and metastasis.
2. Alzheimer's disease models: Transgenic mice expressing mutant human genes associated with Alzheimer's disease, which exhibit amyloid plaque formation and cognitive decline.
3. Diabetes models: Obese and diabetic mouse strains like the NOD (non-obese diabetic) or db/db mice, used to study the development of type 1 and type 2 diabetes, respectively.
4. Cardiovascular disease models: Atherosclerosis-prone mice, such as ApoE-deficient or LDLR-deficient mice, that develop plaque buildup in their arteries when fed a high-fat diet.
5. Inflammatory bowel disease models: Mice with genetic mutations affecting intestinal barrier function and immune response, such as IL-10 knockout or SAMP1/YitFc mice, which develop colitis.

Animal disease models are essential tools in preclinical research, but it is important to recognize their limitations. Differences between species can affect the translatability of results from animal studies to human patients. Therefore, researchers must carefully consider the choice of model and interpret findings cautiously when applying them to human diseases.

A cadaver is a deceased body that is used for medical research or education. In the field of medicine, cadavers are often used in anatomy lessons, surgical training, and other forms of medical research. The use of cadavers allows medical professionals to gain a deeper understanding of the human body and its various systems without causing harm to living subjects. Cadavers may be donated to medical schools or obtained through other means, such as through consent of the deceased or their next of kin. It is important to handle and treat cadavers with respect and dignity, as they were once living individuals who deserve to be treated with care even in death.

Vascular malformations are abnormalities in the development and growth of blood vessels and lymphatic vessels that can occur anywhere in the body. They can be present at birth or develop later in life, and they can affect both the form and function of the affected tissues and organs. Vascular malformations can involve arteries, veins, capillaries, and/or lymphatic vessels, and they can range from simple, localized lesions to complex, multifocal disorders.

Vascular malformations are typically classified based on their location, size, flow characteristics, and the type of blood or lymphatic vessels involved. Some common types of vascular malformations include:

1. Capillary malformations (CMs): These are characterized by abnormal dilated capillaries that can cause red or pink discoloration of the skin, typically on the face or neck.
2. Venous malformations (VMs): These involve abnormal veins that can cause swelling, pain, and disfigurement in the affected area.
3. Lymphatic malformations (LMs): These involve abnormal lymphatic vessels that can cause swelling, infection, and other complications.
4. Arteriovenous malformations (AVMs): These involve a tangled mass of arteries and veins that can cause high-flow lesions, bleeding, and other serious complications.
5. Combined vascular malformations: These involve a combination of different types of blood or lymphatic vessels, such as capillary-lymphatic-venous malformations (CLVMs) or arteriovenous-lymphatic malformations (AVLMs).

The exact cause of vascular malformations is not fully understood, but they are believed to result from genetic mutations that affect the development and growth of blood vessels and lymphatic vessels. Treatment options for vascular malformations depend on the type, size, location, and severity of the lesion, as well as the patient's age and overall health. Treatment may include medication, compression garments, sclerotherapy, surgery, or a combination of these approaches.

Blood pressure is the force exerted by circulating blood on the walls of the blood vessels. It is measured in millimeters of mercury (mmHg) and is given as two figures:

1. Systolic pressure: This is the pressure when the heart pushes blood out into the arteries.
2. Diastolic pressure: This is the pressure when the heart rests between beats, allowing it to fill with blood.

Normal blood pressure for adults is typically around 120/80 mmHg, although this can vary slightly depending on age, sex, and other factors. High blood pressure (hypertension) is generally considered to be a reading of 130/80 mmHg or higher, while low blood pressure (hypotension) is usually defined as a reading below 90/60 mmHg. It's important to note that blood pressure can fluctuate throughout the day and may be affected by factors such as stress, physical activity, and medication use.

Carotid artery injuries refer to damages or traumas that affect the carotid arteries, which are a pair of major blood vessels located in the neck that supply oxygenated blood to the head and neck. These injuries can occur due to various reasons such as penetrating or blunt trauma, iatrogenic causes (during medical procedures), or degenerative diseases.

Carotid artery injuries can be categorized into three types:

1. Blunt carotid injury (BCI): This type of injury is caused by a sudden and severe impact to the neck, which can result in intimal tears, dissection, or thrombosis of the carotid artery. BCIs are commonly seen in motor vehicle accidents, sports-related injuries, and assaults.
2. Penetrating carotid injury: This type of injury is caused by a foreign object that penetrates the neck and damages the carotid artery. Examples include gunshot wounds, stab wounds, or other sharp objects that pierce the skin and enter the neck.
3. Iatrogenic carotid injury: This type of injury occurs during medical procedures such as endovascular interventions, surgical procedures, or the placement of central lines.

Symptoms of carotid artery injuries may include:

* Stroke or transient ischemic attack (TIA)
* Neurological deficits such as hemiparesis, aphasia, or visual disturbances
* Bleeding from the neck or mouth
* Pulsatile mass in the neck
* Hypotension or shock
* Loss of consciousness

Diagnosis of carotid artery injuries may involve imaging studies such as computed tomography angiography (CTA), magnetic resonance angiography (MRA), or conventional angiography. Treatment options include endovascular repair, surgical repair, or anticoagulation therapy, depending on the severity and location of the injury.

Vasoconstriction is a medical term that refers to the narrowing of blood vessels due to the contraction of the smooth muscle in their walls. This process decreases the diameter of the lumen (the inner space of the blood vessel) and reduces blood flow through the affected vessels. Vasoconstriction can occur throughout the body, but it is most noticeable in the arterioles and precapillary sphincters, which control the amount of blood that flows into the capillary network.

The autonomic nervous system, specifically the sympathetic division, plays a significant role in regulating vasoconstriction through the release of neurotransmitters like norepinephrine (noradrenaline). Various hormones and chemical mediators, such as angiotensin II, endothelin-1, and serotonin, can also induce vasoconstriction.

Vasoconstriction is a vital physiological response that helps maintain blood pressure and regulate blood flow distribution in the body. However, excessive or prolonged vasoconstriction may contribute to several pathological conditions, including hypertension, stroke, and peripheral vascular diseases.

The gastroepiploic artery is a branch of the gastric artery that supplies blood to the greater curvature of the stomach and the adjacent portion of the omentum (a fatty membrane that hangs down from the stomach). There are two gastroepiploic arteries - right and left. The right gastroepiploic artery is a branch of the gastroduodenal artery, while the left gastroepiploic artery arises directly from the splenic artery. These arteries play an essential role in providing oxygenated blood and nutrients to the stomach and surrounding tissues, contributing to their overall health and function.

An arteriovenous fistula is an abnormal connection or passageway between an artery and a vein. This connection causes blood to flow directly from the artery into the vein, bypassing the capillary network that would normally distribute the oxygen-rich blood to the surrounding tissues.

Arteriovenous fistulas can occur as a result of trauma, disease, or as a planned surgical procedure for patients who require hemodialysis, a treatment for advanced kidney failure. In hemodialysis, the arteriovenous fistula serves as a site for repeated access to the bloodstream, allowing for efficient removal of waste products and excess fluids.

The medical definition of an arteriovenous fistula is:

"An abnormal communication between an artery and a vein, usually created by surgical means for hemodialysis access or occurring as a result of trauma, congenital defects, or disease processes such as vasculitis or neoplasm."

Hematemesis is the medical term for vomiting blood. It can range in appearance from bright red blood to dark, coffee-ground material that results from the stomach acid digesting the blood. Hematemesis is often a sign of a serious condition, such as bleeding in the esophagus, stomach, or duodenum, and requires immediate medical attention. The underlying cause can be various, including gastritis, ulcers, esophageal varices, or tumors.

Contrast media are substances that are administered to a patient in order to improve the visibility of internal body structures or processes in medical imaging techniques such as X-rays, CT scans, MRI scans, and ultrasounds. These media can be introduced into the body through various routes, including oral, rectal, or intravenous administration.

Contrast media work by altering the appearance of bodily structures in imaging studies. For example, when a patient undergoes an X-ray examination, contrast media can be used to highlight specific organs, tissues, or blood vessels, making them more visible on the resulting images. In CT and MRI scans, contrast media can help to enhance the differences between normal and abnormal tissues, allowing for more accurate diagnosis and treatment planning.

There are several types of contrast media available, each with its own specific properties and uses. Some common examples include barium sulfate, which is used as a contrast medium in X-ray studies of the gastrointestinal tract, and iodinated contrast media, which are commonly used in CT scans to highlight blood vessels and other structures.

While contrast media are generally considered safe, they can sometimes cause adverse reactions, ranging from mild symptoms such as nausea or hives to more serious complications such as anaphylaxis or kidney damage. As a result, it is important for healthcare providers to carefully evaluate each patient's medical history and individual risk factors before administering contrast media.

In medical terms, constriction refers to the narrowing or tightening of a body part or passageway. This can occur due to various reasons such as spasms of muscles, inflammation, or abnormal growths. It can lead to symptoms like difficulty in breathing, swallowing, or blood flow, depending on where it occurs. For example, constriction of the airways in asthma, constriction of blood vessels in hypertension, or constriction of the esophagus in certain digestive disorders.

Perfusion, in medical terms, refers to the process of circulating blood through the body's organs and tissues to deliver oxygen and nutrients and remove waste products. It is a measure of the delivery of adequate blood flow to specific areas or tissues in the body. Perfusion can be assessed using various methods, including imaging techniques like computed tomography (CT) scans, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and perfusion scintigraphy.

Perfusion is critical for maintaining proper organ function and overall health. When perfusion is impaired or inadequate, it can lead to tissue hypoxia, acidosis, and cell death, which can result in organ dysfunction or failure. Conditions that can affect perfusion include cardiovascular disease, shock, trauma, and certain surgical procedures.

Fatty liver, also known as hepatic steatosis, is a medical condition characterized by the abnormal accumulation of fat in the liver. The liver's primary function is to process nutrients, filter blood, and fight infections, among other tasks. When excess fat builds up in the liver cells, it can impair liver function and lead to inflammation, scarring, and even liver failure if left untreated.

Fatty liver can be caused by various factors, including alcohol consumption, obesity, nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), viral hepatitis, and certain medications or medical conditions. NAFLD is the most common cause of fatty liver in the United States and other developed countries, affecting up to 25% of the population.

Symptoms of fatty liver may include fatigue, weakness, weight loss, loss of appetite, nausea, abdominal pain or discomfort, and jaundice (yellowing of the skin and eyes). However, many people with fatty liver do not experience any symptoms, making it essential to diagnose and manage the condition through regular check-ups and blood tests.

Treatment for fatty liver depends on the underlying cause. Lifestyle changes such as weight loss, exercise, and dietary modifications are often recommended for people with NAFLD or alcohol-related fatty liver disease. Medications may also be prescribed to manage related conditions such as diabetes, high cholesterol, or metabolic syndrome. In severe cases of liver damage, a liver transplant may be necessary.

Melena is a medical term that refers to the passage of black, tarry stools. It's not a specific disease but rather a symptom caused by the presence of digested blood in the gastrointestinal tract. The dark color results from the breakdown of hemoglobin, the protein in red blood cells, by gut bacteria and stomach acids.

Melena stools are often associated with upper gastrointestinal bleeding, which can occur due to various reasons such as gastric ulcers, esophageal varices (dilated veins in the esophagus), Mallory-Weiss tears (tears in the lining of the esophagus or stomach), or tumors.

It is essential to differentiate melena from hematochezia, which refers to the passage of bright red blood in the stool, typically indicating lower gastrointestinal bleeding. A healthcare professional should evaluate any concerns related to changes in bowel movements, including the presence of melena or hematochezia.

A dose-response relationship in the context of drugs refers to the changes in the effects or symptoms that occur as the dose of a drug is increased or decreased. Generally, as the dose of a drug is increased, the severity or intensity of its effects also increases. Conversely, as the dose is decreased, the effects of the drug become less severe or may disappear altogether.

The dose-response relationship is an important concept in pharmacology and toxicology because it helps to establish the safe and effective dosage range for a drug. By understanding how changes in the dose of a drug affect its therapeutic and adverse effects, healthcare providers can optimize treatment plans for their patients while minimizing the risk of harm.

The dose-response relationship is typically depicted as a curve that shows the relationship between the dose of a drug and its effect. The shape of the curve may vary depending on the drug and the specific effect being measured. Some drugs may have a steep dose-response curve, meaning that small changes in the dose can result in large differences in the effect. Other drugs may have a more gradual dose-response curve, where larger changes in the dose are needed to produce significant effects.

In addition to helping establish safe and effective dosages, the dose-response relationship is also used to evaluate the potential therapeutic benefits and risks of new drugs during clinical trials. By systematically testing different doses of a drug in controlled studies, researchers can identify the optimal dosage range for the drug and assess its safety and efficacy.

Prospective studies, also known as longitudinal studies, are a type of cohort study in which data is collected forward in time, following a group of individuals who share a common characteristic or exposure over a period of time. The researchers clearly define the study population and exposure of interest at the beginning of the study and follow up with the participants to determine the outcomes that develop over time. This type of study design allows for the investigation of causal relationships between exposures and outcomes, as well as the identification of risk factors and the estimation of disease incidence rates. Prospective studies are particularly useful in epidemiology and medical research when studying diseases with long latency periods or rare outcomes.

I believe there may be some confusion in your question. "Rabbits" is a common name used to refer to the Lagomorpha species, particularly members of the family Leporidae. They are small mammals known for their long ears, strong legs, and quick reproduction.

However, if you're referring to "rabbits" in a medical context, there is a term called "rabbit syndrome," which is a rare movement disorder characterized by repetitive, involuntary movements of the fingers, resembling those of a rabbit chewing. It is also known as "finger-chewing chorea." This condition is usually associated with certain medications, particularly antipsychotics, and typically resolves when the medication is stopped or adjusted.

Coronary artery disease, often simply referred to as coronary disease, is a condition in which the blood vessels that supply oxygen-rich blood to the heart become narrowed or blocked due to the buildup of fatty deposits called plaques. This can lead to chest pain (angina), shortness of breath, or in severe cases, a heart attack.

The medical definition of coronary artery disease is:

A condition characterized by the accumulation of atheromatous plaques in the walls of the coronary arteries, leading to decreased blood flow and oxygen supply to the myocardium (heart muscle). This can result in symptoms such as angina pectoris, shortness of breath, or arrhythmias, and may ultimately lead to myocardial infarction (heart attack) or heart failure.

Risk factors for coronary artery disease include age, smoking, high blood pressure, high cholesterol, diabetes, obesity, physical inactivity, and a family history of the condition. Lifestyle changes such as quitting smoking, exercising regularly, eating a healthy diet, and managing stress can help reduce the risk of developing coronary artery disease. Medical treatments may include medications to control blood pressure, cholesterol levels, or irregular heart rhythms, as well as procedures such as angioplasty or bypass surgery to improve blood flow to the heart.

Hemostatic techniques refer to various methods used in medicine to stop bleeding or hemorrhage. The goal of these techniques is to promote the body's natural clotting process and prevent excessive blood loss. Some common hemostatic techniques include:

1. Mechanical compression: Applying pressure directly to the wound to physically compress blood vessels and stop the flow of blood. This can be done manually or with the use of medical devices such as clamps, tourniquets, or compression bandages.
2. Suturing or stapling: Closing a wound with stitches or staples to bring the edges of the wound together and allow the body's natural clotting process to occur.
3. Electrocautery: Using heat generated by an electrical current to seal off blood vessels and stop bleeding.
4. Hemostatic agents: Applying topical substances that promote clotting, such as fibrin glue, collagen, or gelatin sponges, to the wound site.
5. Vascular embolization: Inserting a catheter into a blood vessel and injecting a substance that blocks the flow of blood to a specific area, such as a bleeding tumor or aneurysm.
6. Surgical ligation: Tying off a bleeding blood vessel with suture material during surgery.
7. Arterial or venous repair: Repairing damaged blood vessels through surgical intervention to restore normal blood flow and prevent further bleeding.

Necrosis is the premature death of cells or tissues due to damage or injury, such as from infection, trauma, infarction (lack of blood supply), or toxic substances. It's a pathological process that results in the uncontrolled and passive degradation of cellular components, ultimately leading to the release of intracellular contents into the extracellular space. This can cause local inflammation and may lead to further tissue damage if not treated promptly.

There are different types of necrosis, including coagulative, liquefactive, caseous, fat, fibrinoid, and gangrenous necrosis, each with distinct histological features depending on the underlying cause and the affected tissues or organs.

Norepinephrine, also known as noradrenaline, is a neurotransmitter and a hormone that is primarily produced in the adrenal glands and is released into the bloodstream in response to stress or physical activity. It plays a crucial role in the "fight-or-flight" response by preparing the body for action through increasing heart rate, blood pressure, respiratory rate, and glucose availability.

As a neurotransmitter, norepinephrine is involved in regulating various functions of the nervous system, including attention, perception, motivation, and arousal. It also plays a role in modulating pain perception and responding to stressful or emotional situations.

In medical settings, norepinephrine is used as a vasopressor medication to treat hypotension (low blood pressure) that can occur during septic shock, anesthesia, or other critical illnesses. It works by constricting blood vessels and increasing heart rate, which helps to improve blood pressure and perfusion of vital organs.

Interventional radiography is a subspecialty of radiology that uses imaging guidance (such as X-ray fluoroscopy, ultrasound, CT, or MRI) to perform minimally invasive diagnostic and therapeutic procedures. These procedures typically involve the insertion of needles, catheters, or other small instruments through the skin or a natural body opening, allowing for targeted treatment with reduced risk, trauma, and recovery time compared to traditional open surgeries.

Examples of interventional radiography procedures include:

1. Angiography: Imaging of blood vessels to diagnose and treat conditions like blockages, narrowing, or aneurysms.
2. Biopsy: The removal of tissue samples for diagnostic purposes.
3. Drainage: The removal of fluid accumulations (e.g., abscesses, cysts) or the placement of catheters to drain fluids continuously.
4. Embolization: The blocking of blood vessels to control bleeding, tumor growth, or reduce the size of an aneurysm.
5. Stenting and angioplasty: The widening of narrowed or blocked vessels using stents (small mesh tubes) or balloon catheters.
6. Radiofrequency ablation: The use of heat to destroy tumors or abnormal tissues.
7. Cryoablation: The use of extreme cold to destroy tumors or abnormal tissues.

Interventional radiologists are medical doctors who have completed specialized training in both diagnostic imaging and interventional procedures, allowing them to provide comprehensive care for patients requiring image-guided treatments.

Medical Definition:

"Risk factors" are any attribute, characteristic or exposure of an individual that increases the likelihood of developing a disease or injury. They can be divided into modifiable and non-modifiable risk factors. Modifiable risk factors are those that can be changed through lifestyle choices or medical treatment, while non-modifiable risk factors are inherent traits such as age, gender, or genetic predisposition. Examples of modifiable risk factors include smoking, alcohol consumption, physical inactivity, and unhealthy diet, while non-modifiable risk factors include age, sex, and family history. It is important to note that having a risk factor does not guarantee that a person will develop the disease, but rather indicates an increased susceptibility.

Portography is a medical term that refers to an X-ray examination of the portal vein, which is the large blood vessel that carries blood from the digestive organs to the liver. In this procedure, a contrast dye is injected into the patient's veins, and then X-rays are taken to visualize the flow of the dye through the portal vein and its branches. This test can help diagnose various conditions that affect the liver and surrounding organs, such as cirrhosis, tumors, or blood clots in the portal vein. It is also known as a portovenogram or hepatic venography.

Vascular patency is a term used in medicine to describe the state of a blood vessel (such as an artery or vein) being open, unobstructed, and allowing for the normal flow of blood. It is an important concept in the treatment and management of various cardiovascular conditions, such as peripheral artery disease, coronary artery disease, and deep vein thrombosis.

Maintaining vascular patency can help prevent serious complications like tissue damage, organ dysfunction, or even death. This may involve medical interventions such as administering blood-thinning medications to prevent clots, performing procedures to remove blockages, or using devices like stents to keep vessels open. Regular monitoring of vascular patency is also crucial for evaluating the effectiveness of treatments and adjusting care plans accordingly.

Catheterization is a medical procedure in which a catheter (a flexible tube) is inserted into the body to treat various medical conditions or for diagnostic purposes. The specific definition can vary depending on the area of medicine and the particular procedure being discussed. Here are some common types of catheterization:

1. Urinary catheterization: This involves inserting a catheter through the urethra into the bladder to drain urine. It is often performed to manage urinary retention, monitor urine output in critically ill patients, or assist with surgical procedures.
2. Cardiac catheterization: A procedure where a catheter is inserted into a blood vessel, usually in the groin or arm, and guided to the heart. This allows for various diagnostic tests and treatments, such as measuring pressures within the heart chambers, assessing blood flow, or performing angioplasty and stenting of narrowed coronary arteries.
3. Central venous catheterization: A catheter is inserted into a large vein, typically in the neck, chest, or groin, to administer medications, fluids, or nutrition, or to monitor central venous pressure.
4. Peritoneal dialysis catheterization: A catheter is placed into the abdominal cavity for individuals undergoing peritoneal dialysis, a type of kidney replacement therapy.
5. Neurological catheterization: In some cases, a catheter may be inserted into the cerebrospinal fluid space (lumbar puncture) or the brain's ventricular system (ventriculostomy) to diagnose or treat various neurological conditions.

These are just a few examples of catheterization procedures in medicine. The specific definition and purpose will depend on the medical context and the particular organ or body system involved.

Middle Cerebral Artery (MCA) infarction is a type of ischemic stroke that occurs when there is an obstruction in the blood supply to the middle cerebral artery, which is one of the major blood vessels that supplies oxygenated blood to the brain. The MCA supplies blood to a large portion of the brain, including the motor and sensory cortex, parts of the temporal and parietal lobes, and the basal ganglia.

An infarction is the death of tissue due to the lack of blood supply, which can lead to damage or loss of function in the affected areas of the brain. Symptoms of MCA infarction may include weakness or numbness on one side of the body, difficulty speaking or understanding speech, vision problems, and altered levels of consciousness.

MCA infarctions can be caused by various factors, including embolism (a blood clot that travels to the brain from another part of the body), thrombosis (a blood clot that forms in the MCA itself), or stenosis (narrowing of the artery due to atherosclerosis or other conditions). Treatment for MCA infarction may include medications to dissolve blood clots, surgery to remove the obstruction, or rehabilitation to help regain lost function.

The axillary artery is a major blood vessel in the upper limb. It is the continuation of the subclavian artery and begins at the lateral border of the first rib, where it becomes the brachial artery. The axillary artery supplies oxygenated blood to the upper extremity, chest wall, and breast.

The axillary artery is divided into three parts based on the surrounding structures:

1. First part: From its origin at the lateral border of the first rib to the medial border of the pectoralis minor muscle. It lies deep to the clavicle and is covered by the scalene muscles, the anterior and middle scalene being the most important. The branches arising from this portion are the superior thoracic artery and the thyrocervical trunk.
2. Second part: Behind the pectoralis minor muscle. The branches arising from this portion are the lateral thoracic artery and the subscapular artery.
3. Third part: After leaving the lower border of the pectoralis minor muscle, it becomes the brachial artery. The branches arising from this portion are the anterior circumflex humeral artery and the posterior circumflex humeral artery.

The axillary artery is a common site for surgical interventions such as angioplasty and stenting to treat peripheral arterial disease, as well as for bypass grafting in cases of severe atherosclerosis or occlusion.

Reperfusion injury is a complex pathophysiological process that occurs when blood flow is restored to previously ischemic tissues, leading to further tissue damage. This phenomenon can occur in various clinical settings such as myocardial infarction (heart attack), stroke, or peripheral artery disease after an intervention aimed at restoring perfusion.

The restoration of blood flow leads to the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and inflammatory mediators, which can cause oxidative stress, cellular damage, and activation of the immune system. This results in a cascade of events that may lead to microvascular dysfunction, capillary leakage, and tissue edema, further exacerbating the injury.

Reperfusion injury is an important consideration in the management of ischemic events, as interventions aimed at restoring blood flow must be carefully balanced with potential harm from reperfusion injury. Strategies to mitigate reperfusion injury include ischemic preconditioning (exposing the tissue to short periods of ischemia before a prolonged ischemic event), ischemic postconditioning (applying brief periods of ischemia and reperfusion after restoring blood flow), remote ischemic preconditioning (ischemia applied to a distant organ or tissue to protect the target organ), and pharmacological interventions that scavenge ROS, reduce inflammation, or improve microvascular function.

A hemangioma is a benign (noncancerous) vascular tumor or growth that originates from blood vessels. It is characterized by an overgrowth of endothelial cells, which line the interior surface of blood vessels. Hemangiomas can occur in various parts of the body, but they are most commonly found on the skin and mucous membranes.

Hemangiomas can be classified into two main types:

1. Capillary hemangioma (also known as strawberry hemangioma): This type is more common and typically appears during the first few weeks of life. It grows rapidly for several months before gradually involuting (or shrinking) on its own, usually within the first 5 years of life. Capillary hemangiomas can be superficial, appearing as a bright red, raised lesion on the skin, or deep, forming a bluish, compressible mass beneath the skin.

2. Cavernous hemangioma: This type is less common and typically appears during infancy or early childhood. It consists of large, dilated blood vessels and can occur in various organs, including the skin, liver, brain, and gastrointestinal tract. Cavernous hemangiomas on the skin appear as a rubbery, bluish mass that does not typically involute like capillary hemangiomas.

Most hemangiomas do not require treatment, especially if they are small and not causing any significant problems. However, in cases where hemangiomas interfere with vital functions, impair vision or hearing, or become infected, various treatments may be considered, such as medication (e.g., corticosteroids, propranolol), laser therapy, surgical excision, or embolization.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Polyvinyl Alcohol" is not a medical term. It is a chemical compound used in various industrial and commercial applications, including the production of adhesives, paints, and medical devices. Polyvinyl Alcohol is a type of synthetic polymer made from the polymerization of vinyl acetate monomer, followed by alcoholysis to replace the acetate groups with hydroxyl groups.

In a medical context, Polyvinyl Alcohol might be used in certain medical devices or applications, such as contact lenses, eye drops, and drug delivery systems, due to its biocompatibility and resistance to protein absorption. However, it is not a term commonly used to describe a medical condition or treatment.

"Inbred strains of rats" are genetically identical rodents that have been produced through many generations of brother-sister mating. This results in a high degree of homozygosity, where the genes at any particular locus in the genome are identical in all members of the strain.

Inbred strains of rats are widely used in biomedical research because they provide a consistent and reproducible genetic background for studying various biological phenomena, including the effects of drugs, environmental factors, and genetic mutations on health and disease. Additionally, inbred strains can be used to create genetically modified models of human diseases by introducing specific mutations into their genomes.

Some commonly used inbred strains of rats include the Wistar Kyoto (WKY), Sprague-Dawley (SD), and Fischer 344 (F344) rat strains. Each strain has its own unique genetic characteristics, making them suitable for different types of research.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Rats, Inbred BUF" is not a standard medical term or abbreviation in human or animal medicine that I'm aware of. It's possible that you may be referring to a specific strain of inbred rats used in scientific research. "BUF" could potentially stand for "Buehler University of Florida," which is a strain of inbred rats developed at the University of Florida. These rats are often used in studies related to cardiovascular and renal physiology. However, I would recommend consulting the original source or contacting a professional in the field to confirm the specific context and accurate definition.

Spiral Computed Tomography (CT), also known as Helical CT, is a type of computed tomography scan in which the X-ray tube and detector rotate around the patient in a spiral path, capturing data as the table moves the patient through the scanner. This continuous spiral motion allows for faster and more detailed volumetric imaging of internal organs and structures, reducing the need for multiple slices and providing improved image reconstruction. It is commonly used to diagnose and monitor various medical conditions, including cancer, heart disease, and trauma injuries.

Cholangiography is a medical procedure that involves taking X-ray images of the bile ducts (the tubes that carry bile from the liver to the small intestine). This is typically done by injecting a contrast dye into the bile ducts through an endoscope or a catheter that has been inserted into the body.

There are several types of cholangiography, including:

* Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP): This procedure involves inserting an endoscope through the mouth and down the throat into the small intestine. A dye is then injected into the bile ducts through a small tube that is passed through the endoscope.
* Percutaneous transhepatic cholangiography (PTC): This procedure involves inserting a needle through the skin and into the liver to inject the contrast dye directly into the bile ducts.
* Operative cholangiography: This procedure is performed during surgery to examine the bile ducts for any abnormalities or blockages.

Cholangiography can help diagnose a variety of conditions that affect the bile ducts, such as gallstones, tumors, or inflammation. It can also be used to guide treatment decisions, such as whether surgery is necessary to remove a blockage.

The inferior vena cava (IVC) is the largest vein in the human body that carries deoxygenated blood from the lower extremities, pelvis, and abdomen to the right atrium of the heart. It is formed by the union of the left and right common iliac veins at the level of the fifth lumbar vertebra. The inferior vena cava is a retroperitoneal structure, meaning it lies behind the peritoneum, the lining that covers the abdominal cavity. It ascends through the posterior abdominal wall and passes through the central tendon of the diaphragm to enter the thoracic cavity.

The inferior vena cava is composed of three parts:

1. The infrarenal portion, which lies below the renal veins
2. The renal portion, which receives blood from the renal veins
3. The suprahepatic portion, which lies above the liver and receives blood from the hepatic veins before draining into the right atrium of the heart.

The inferior vena cava plays a crucial role in maintaining venous return to the heart and contributing to cardiovascular function.

Retinal artery occlusion (RAO) is a medical condition characterized by the blockage or obstruction of the retinal artery, which supplies oxygenated blood to the retina. This blockage typically occurs due to embolism (a small clot or debris that travels to the retinal artery), thrombosis (blood clot formation in the artery), or vasculitis (inflammation of the blood vessels).

There are two types of retinal artery occlusions:

1. Central Retinal Artery Occlusion (CRAO): This type occurs when the main retinal artery is obstructed, affecting the entire inner layer of the retina. It can lead to severe and sudden vision loss in the affected eye.
2. Branch Retinal Artery Occlusion (BRAO): This type affects a branch of the retinal artery, causing visual field loss in the corresponding area. Although it is less severe than CRAO, it can still result in noticeable vision impairment.

Immediate medical attention is crucial for both types of RAO to improve the chances of recovery and minimize potential damage to the eye and vision. Treatment options may include medications, laser therapy, or surgery, depending on the underlying cause and the severity of the condition.

Vasodilator agents are pharmacological substances that cause the relaxation or widening of blood vessels by relaxing the smooth muscle in the vessel walls. This results in an increase in the diameter of the blood vessels, which decreases vascular resistance and ultimately reduces blood pressure. Vasodilators can be further classified based on their site of action:

1. Systemic vasodilators: These agents cause a generalized relaxation of the smooth muscle in the walls of both arteries and veins, resulting in a decrease in peripheral vascular resistance and preload (the volume of blood returning to the heart). Examples include nitroglycerin, hydralazine, and calcium channel blockers.
2. Arterial vasodilators: These agents primarily affect the smooth muscle in arterial vessel walls, leading to a reduction in afterload (the pressure against which the heart pumps blood). Examples include angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors, angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs), and direct vasodilators like sodium nitroprusside.
3. Venous vasodilators: These agents primarily affect the smooth muscle in venous vessel walls, increasing venous capacitance and reducing preload. Examples include nitroglycerin and other organic nitrates.

Vasodilator agents are used to treat various cardiovascular conditions such as hypertension, heart failure, angina, and pulmonary arterial hypertension. It is essential to monitor their use carefully, as excessive vasodilation can lead to orthostatic hypotension, reflex tachycardia, or fluid retention.

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Liver metastases get most of their blood supply primarily from the hepatic artery, whereas the normal liver cells get their ... This allows for chemotherapeutic drugs to be delivered directly to the cancer cells if infused into the hepatic artery. ... The catheter is placed at the junction of the proper and common hepatic arteries, and threaded through the gastroduodenal ( ... Barnett KT, Malafa MP (1 December 2001). "Complications of hepatic artery infusion". International Journal of Gastrointestinal ...
Palliation by hepatic artery embolization". American Journal of Roentgenology. 147 (1): 149-154. doi:10.2214/ajr.147.1.149. ...
"Histometrical investigation of the pulmonary artery in severe hepatic disease". The Journal of Pathology. 143 (1): 31-7. doi: ... The muscular pulmonary arteries become fibrotic and hypertrophy while the smaller arteries lose smooth muscle cells and their ... Echocardiogram estimated pulmonary artery systolic pressures of 40 to 50 mm Hg are used as a screening cutoff for PPH diagnosis ... Rat models have shown decreased ET-B receptor expression in pulmonary arteries of cirrhotic and portal hypertensive animals, ...
"Changes in Coagulation Factors after Hepatic Artery Ligation in Dogs." Acta Hepato-splenologica 17(6). Slagle, R. C. Loughridge ... "Early Coronary Artery Bypass after Non-intramural Myocardial Infarction." Presented at OSIM-ACP Annual Meeting, 1977. ... Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting." Presented Oklahoma State Medical Association. Loughridge, B.P. 1988. "Treatment of Thoracic ... "Serum Enzyme Changes after Hepatic Dearterialization in Man." Annals of Surgery 167(1). Loughridge, B. P., Amersjo, O., ...
... the left branch of the hepatic artery (15%), the gastroduodenal artery (8%), and - most rarely - the common hepatic artery ... the RGA arises from the proper hepatic artery. It can also arise from the region of division of the common hepatic artery (20 ... The right gastric artery usually arises from the proper hepatic artery. It descends to the pyloric end of the stomach before ... Right gastric artery This article incorporates text in the public domain from page 604 of the 20th edition of Gray's Anatomy ( ...
... or right hepatic artery. The cystic artery lies within the hepatobiliary triangle, which is used to locate it during a ... cystic artery, and (sometimes) an accessory cystic duct. The right hepatic artery may also pass through the hepatobiliary ... It may also contain an accessory right hepatic artery or an anomalous sectoral bile ducts. As a result, dissection in the ... Calot's original description of the triangle in 1891 included the cystic duct, the common hepatic duct, and the cystic artery ( ...
Ahrar K, Gupta S (January 2003). "Hepatic artery embolization for hepatocellular carcinoma: technique, patient selection, and ...
TACE and TAE are both generally performed on the hepatic artery. Liver angiosarcomas are generally reported to be ... "Fulminant Hepatic Failure Secondary to Primary Hepatic Angiosarcoma". Case Reports in Gastrointestinal Medicine. 2015: 869746. ... Liver angiosarcoma also known as angiosarcoma of the liver or hepatic angiosarcoma is a rare and rapidly fatal cancer arising ... Liver angiosarcoma can be primary (referred to in literature as PHA or primary hepatic angiosarcoma), meaning it arose in the ...
In selected cases, chemotherapy may be given systemically or via hepatic artery. In some tumors, notably those arising from the ... the liver receives blood via the hepatic artery and portal vein). Metastatic tumors in the liver are 20 times more common than ...
Once the branch of the hepatic artery supplying the tumor is identified and the tip of the catheter is selectively placed ... Hepatic artery technetium (99mTc) macro aggregated albumin (MAA) scan is performed to evaluate hepatopulmonary shunting ( ... it receives blood from both the hepatic artery and the portal vein. The healthy liver tissue is mainly perfused by the portal ... while most liver malignancies derive their blood supply from the hepatic artery. Therefore, locoregional therapies such as ...
... and hepatic artery embolization may also be used. Palliative care is medical care which focuses on treatment of symptoms from ... where surgery is technically feasible because the celiac axis and superior mesenteric artery are still free) and those that are ...
Once a tumor nodule reaches a diameter of 2 cm or more, most of the blood supply is derived from the hepatic artery. Therefore ... The catheter is placed selectively into the right or left hepatic artery and arteriography is performed. The target vessel is ... February 2011). "Pyogenic abscess after hepatic artery embolization: a rare but potentially lethal complication". Journal of ... June 2016). "Randomized Trial of Hepatic Artery Embolization for Hepatocellular Carcinoma Using Doxorubicin-Eluting ...
... hepatic artery, hepatic vein and portal vein. Usually, the retrohepatic portion of the inferior vena cava is removed along with ... Implantation involves anastomoses (connections) of the inferior vena cava, portal vein, and hepatic artery. After blood flow is ... and rupture of the hepatic artery. Venous complications occur less often compared with arterial complications, and include ... Liver transplantation or hepatic transplantation is the replacement of a diseased liver with the healthy liver from another ...
In their study, no hepatic artery thrombosis or wound infection was noted. Also, a possible role of everolimus in reducing the ... due to possible early hepatic artery thrombosis and graft loss, use of everolimus in the setting of liver transplantation is ...
TAE involves the selective catheterization of a hepatic artery followed by embolic occlusion. Surgery is indicated when TAE has ... which is achieved either by surgical ligation of hepatic artery or by endovascular embolisation. Endovasculartrans-arterial ...
These hemangiomas get their blood supply from the hepatic artery and its branches. These tumors are most common in women. The ... In terms of complications of hepatic hemangiomas, it is very rare for a hepatic hemangioma to rupture or bleed. Focal nodular ... Liver cell adenomatosis differs from hepatic adenomas by its definition of more than 10 hepatic adenomas that are in both liver ... Currently, if the hepatic adenoma is >5 cm, increasing in size, symptomatic lesions, has molecular markers associated with HCC ...
The hepatic lymph nodes consist of the following groups: (a) hepatic, on the stem of the hepatic artery, and extending upward ... A particularly large hepatic artery lymph node, positioned on the anterior aspect of the common hepatic artery, is thought to ... Hepatic artery lymph nodes are commonly resected during a Whipple procedure. In a Whipple procedure, outcomes favored those who ... When metastatic disease is identified in the hepatic artery lymph node during pancreatic cancer surgery, longterm outcomes are ...
Kemeny MM, Alava G, Oliver JM (November 1992). "Improving responses in hepatomas with circadian-patterned hepatic artery ...
... middle hepatic artery, left hepatic artery, superior mesenteric artery, gastroduodenal artery or retroduodenal artery. ... The cystic artery usually has a diameter of less than 3mm. The cystic artery arises from the right hepatic artery in about 80% ... The cystic artery (also known as bachelor artery) is (usually) a branch of the right hepatic artery that provides arterial ... The cystic artery can arise from the left hepatic artery, in which case it usually travels through a passage of liver ...
... where the CBD lies anterior to the portal vein and hepatic artery). The absence of Doppler signal distinguishes it from the ... portal vein and hepatic artery. Borderline of a dilated perihilar bile duct, measuring 8 mm. Dilatation of CBD due to Ampullary ... It is formed by the union of the common hepatic duct and cystic duct. It ends by uniting with the pancreatic duct to form the ...
Kemeny MM, Alava G, Oliver JM (November 1992). "Improving responses in hepatomas with circadian-patterned hepatic artery ...
Approximately 75% of hepatic blood flow is derived from the portal vein, while the remainder is from the hepatic arteries. ... with the remainder coming from the hepatic artery proper. The blood leaves the liver to the heart in the hepatic veins. The ... Accessory hepatic portal veins are those veins that drain directly into the liver without joining the hepatic portal vein. ... The portal vein and hepatic arteries form the liver's dual blood supply. ...
... the splenic artery. It may also arise from the common hepatic artery, superior mesenteric artery, or coeliac trunck. It ... The dorsal pancreatic artery is a branch of the splenic artery. It anastomoses with the superior pancreaticoduodenal artery and ... The dorsal pancreatic artery is a short artery that issues numerous branches. Its course and length depends upon its (variable ... v t e (CS1 maint: location missing publisher, Articles with TA98 identifiers, Arteries of the abdomen, All stub articles, ...
Palliative treatment of angiosarcoma of the liver using roentgeno-endovascular occlusion of the hepatic artery]". Voprosy ...
The quality of life and survival rates of individuals that receive continuous hepatic artery infusion of floxuridine for ... "Quality of life and survival with continuous hepatic-artery floxuridine infusion for colorectal liver metastases". Lancet. 344 ... For colorectal cancer and hepatic metastases, an average adult should be given an intra-arterial dosage of 0.1-0.6 mg/kg/day as ... The drug is usually administered via an artery, and most often used in the treatment of colorectal cancer. ...
Hepatic artery thrombosis occurs when a blood clot forms in the artery that provides blood flow to the liver. Hepatic artery ... Hepatic artery thrombosis may also occur after other surgeries. Hepatic artery thrombosis and primary non-function are the two ... which shows a lack of blood flow through the hepatic artery. Hepatic artery thrombosis may also be diagnosed using CT or MR ... which would show evidence of a blood clot within the hepatic artery. Treatment for acute hepatic artery thrombosis include ...
The common hepatic artery is one of the final branches of the celiac artery. It supplies oxygen-rich blood to the liver, ... The common hepatic artery splits into the proper hepatic artery and the gastroduodenal artery. The proper hepatic artery enters ... The right hepatic artery usually branches off the proper hepatic artery or the left hepatic artery but this varies in different ... Hepatic artery proper. Medically reviewed by the Healthline Medical Network. The hepatic artery proper splits off the common ...
Annular pancreas coexisting with replaced common hepatic artery which is also a rare anatomical variation has not been reported ... i,Discussion,/i,. Both annular pancreas and common hepatic artery anomaly are rare. High-quality preoperative imaging and ... i,Conclusion,/i,. The “artery-first” approach may be a useful method for pancreaticoduodenectomy in patients who ... We performed pancreaticoduodenectomy using the “artery-first” approach. , ...
... intimal dissection of graft or recipient hepatic artery (HA), size difference (≥2 to 1), numerous hepatic arteries, inferior ... The total hepatic artery thrombosis (HAT) rate in the study was 3.04%. The average HAT rate in the previous four years (2017- ... Hepatic artery restoration (HAR) is critical for optimal liver transplant outcomes. For a study, researchers assessed ... Hepatic Artery Restoration (HAR) is Essential for Successful Liver Transplantation. Aug 18, 2022 ...
During all the decades intimal thickness was decreased in the hepatic artery in comparison to the coronary artery. Initial ... On the contrary, hepatic artery intimal thickening was incidental during the first 4 decades of life and regular later on. ... The thickness of the hepatic artery intima, which surpasses 200 µm indicates that the subject is at least 40 years of age, ... was noted during the 4th decade of life in the coronary artery and during the 8th and 9th decades in the hepatic artery. ...
Hepatic Artery Aneurysms - Etiology, pathophysiology, symptoms, signs, diagnosis & prognosis from the MSD Manuals - Medical ... Aneurysms of the hepatic artery are uncommon. They tend to be saccular and multiple. Causes include infection, arteriosclerosis ... Vasculitis can affect any blood vessel-arteries, arterioles, veins, venules, or capillaries... read more . (See also Overview ... that encroach on the lumen of medium-sized and large arteries. The plaques contain lipids, inflammatory cells, smooth muscle ...
Complications involving the hepatic artery include hepatic artery thrombosis (HAT), hepatic artery stenosis (HAS), ... Complications involving the hepatic artery. After OLTX, the biliary tree of the allograft is solely dependent on hepatic artery ... B-3: Hepatic artery graft stenosis: arrows indicate hepatic artery tapering and disappearance. The low attenuation area shows ... B-3: Hepatic artery graft stenosis: arrows indicate hepatic artery tapering and disappearance. The low attenuation area shows ...
Complications involving the hepatic artery include hepatic artery thrombosis (HAT), hepatic artery stenosis (HAS), ... Complications involving the hepatic artery. After OLTX, the biliary tree of the allograft is solely dependent on hepatic artery ... B-3: Hepatic artery graft stenosis: arrows indicate hepatic artery tapering and disappearance. The low attenuation area shows ... B-3: Hepatic artery graft stenosis: arrows indicate hepatic artery tapering and disappearance. The low attenuation area shows ...
... and this blood is finally mixed with received hepatic artery blood. The hepatic artery, reaches all parts of the liver through ... Artery Hepatic. Posted by Toni - October 21st, 2022. Hepatica is a term that describes a relationship or similarity to the ... The hepatic artery, therefore, is a blood vessel that carries oxygenated blood to the liver to maintain this vital organ, ... Hepatic artery anomalies include narrowing or blockage which reduces the supply of oxygenated blood to the organs. The ...
Case report. The common hepatic artery was absent. In its place, the left hepatic artery originated from the celiac trunk, ... Keywords: arterial branching variations, aberrant hepatic arteries, common hepatic artery, liver transplantation, abdominal ... Common hepatic artery is one of the three branches of Haller tripod and gives rise to the left and right hepatic arteries. We ... Replaced right hepatic artery arising from abdominal aorta: a case report 658 views ...
Lesions were classified into three groups based on the balloon-occluded CT hepatic arteriography (BO-CTHA) results: Group A, ... To clarify the hemodynamic changes under balloon occlusion of the hepatic artery and to identify predictors of the short-term ... In Group C, collateral arteries including the isolated artery, peribiliary artery and communicating arcade feed the tumor ... was advanced into the hepatic artery that supplied the entire target tumor. CT hepatic arteriography was performed before and ...
The common hepatic artery (Latin: arteria hepatica communis) is a short vessel arising from the celiac trunk that provides ... Hepatic artery proper. The hepatic artery proper (also called proper hepatic artery) is a branch of the common hepatic artery ... The common hepatic artery gives rise to the following branches: hepatic artery proper, gastroduodenal artery, and, occasionally ... Common hepatic artery. The common hepatic artery (Latin: arteria hepatica communis) is a short vessel arising from the celiac ...
Hepatic artery rupture; Pan-peritonitis; Remote vascular catastrophe; Sigmoid colon perforation; Vascular type of Ehlers-Danlos ... A case of vascular Ehlers-Danlos syndrome with a ruptured hepatic artery after surgical treatment of peritonitis caused by the ... A case of vascular Ehlers-Danlos syndrome with a ruptured hepatic artery after surgical tr ... and contrast-enhanced CT showed an aneurysm in the common hepatic artery that had ruptured; this aneurysm was not present ...
SIDS HOSPITAL, Opp: Gandhi Engineering College, Ring road, Majura Gate, ...
In this case we will discuss the frequency of liver failure resulting from embolization or ligation of the hepatic artery, as ... On POD3 she experienced massive intra-abdominal hemorrhage requiring IR coil embolization of the entire hepatic artery. She was ... then listed for liver transplant in anticipation of fulminant liver failure resulting from ligation of the hepatic artery. ... The patient is a 58 year old female admitted for liver failure secondary to liver ischemia caused by a hepatic artery ...
Combined percutaneous and angiographic thrombosis of a traumatic hepatic artery pseudoaneurysm in a child. In: Journal of ... Combined percutaneous and angiographic thrombosis of a traumatic hepatic artery pseudoaneurysm in a child. Journal of Trauma - ... Combined percutaneous and angiographic thrombosis of a traumatic hepatic artery pseudoaneurysm in a child. / Malaisrie, S. ... title = "Combined percutaneous and angiographic thrombosis of a traumatic hepatic artery pseudoaneurysm in a child", ...
Dive into the research topics of A case of rheumatoid vasculitis involving hepatic artery in early rheumatoid arthritis. ... A case of rheumatoid vasculitis involving hepatic artery in early rheumatoid arthritis. ...
Aberrant Left Hepatic Artery in Laparoscopic Esophageal or Gastric Surgery. Authors: Natsuya Katada, MD; Ronald A. Hinder, MD, ...
Arterial conduits for hepatic artery revascularization in adult liver transplantation. Transpl Int 2004;17:163--8. ... Use of preserved vascular homografts in liver transplantation: hepatic artery aneurysms and other complications. Am J ...
The proper hepatic artery supplies blood to the liver. ... The proper hepatic artery supplies blood to the liver.. Review ...
Portal vein injection was superior to other MSC transplantation methods, including the hepatic artery, peripheral vein, and ... The principal methods involved in MSC transplantation include the peripheral, portal, and splenic veins; hepatic artery; ... namely the hepatic artery, portal vein, and peripheral vein, but no significant difference was observed among the three groups ... 106 UC-MSCs through the hepatic artery to treat 11 patients with HBV-related ACLF. In the treatment group, serum ALB, ALT, AST ...
Reduction of portal flow and increase in hepatic artery flow in fatty liver correlates with disease severity and can help as a ... This study aimed to study portal vein and hepatic artery hemodynamic variation in non-alcoholic fatty liver and to correlate it ... and hepatic artery resistivity index were significantly lower in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease patients than in healthy ... Studies on hepatic vasculature can be informative about parenchymal injury and disease severity through the study of changes ...
After transplantation, clinicians noted decreased hepatic artery flow. The patient subsequently underwent transplant ... Three days later, the patient had worsening hepatic and renal function. Emergency laparotomy revealed liver necrosis with ... Histopathologic examination revealed thrombosis of multiple vessels, extensive hepatic necrosis, and angioinvasive fungal ... Centrilobular hepatic necrosis without substantial inflammation; fungal hyphae are in a central vein... ...
Alternating Systemic and Hepatic Artery Infusion Therapy for Resected Liver Metastases From Colorectal Cancer: A North Central ... Purpose; Prior trials have shown that surgery followed by hepatic artery infusion (HAI) of floxuridine (FUDR) alternating with ...
Puncture from the hepatic vein to the portal vein to create a shunt is the most challenging step in transjugular intrahepatic ... Hepatic artery guiding technique. A, Pre-procedural CT scan showing a large amount of ascites. The right hepatic artery (arrow ... Hepatic artery guiding technique. A, Pre-procedural CT scan showing a large amount of ascites. The right hepatic artery (arrow ... introduced a hepatic artery targeting wire technique, having a high technical success rate (10). As the hepatic artery ...
Efficacy and safety of endovascular therapy for delayed hepatic artery post-pancreatectomy hemorrhage: development of ...
We present two patients who developed this complication after placement of a catheter system into the gastroduodenal artery and ... Pseudoaneurysms of the hepatic artery are a rare complication in patients with primary or secondary liver tumors treated with ... Completion hepatic arteriogram. Coils in the segmental artery III (arrowheads) after embolisation. Due to hepatic ... Pseudoaneurysms of the hepatic artery due to placement of a catheter into the gastroduodenal artery and treatment with ...
Catheterization of the hepatic artery could not be realized due to severe tortuosity and angulation of the celiac artery and ... Access to the hepatic artery was obtained directly via percutaneous transhepatic route and fistula site was embolized with ... hepatic arterioportal fistula treated successfuly with Amplatzer Vascular Plug II via percutaneous transhepatic hepatic artery ... direct communications between hepatic artery and portal venous system. Treatment options shifted from surgery to endovascular ...
Restriction of Hepatic Artery, Percutaneous Endoscopic Approach)) - 04VA3ZZ (Restriction of Left Renal Artery, Percutaneous ... ICD-10 Central Data Repository.. ICD10 Codes 04V34ZZ (Restriction of Hepatic Artery, Perc Endo Approach ( ... Restriction of Hepatic Artery, Perc Endo Approach (Restriction of Hepatic Artery, Percutaneous Endoscopic Approach) HTML , TXT ... Showing codes 04V34ZZ (Restriction of Hepatic Artery, Perc Endo Approach (Restriction of Hepatic Artery, Percutaneous ...
J:339855 Gannoun L, et al., Axon guidance genes control hepatic artery development. Development. 2023 Aug 15;150(16):dev201642 ...
  • The right hepatic artery usually branches off the proper hepatic artery or the left hepatic artery but this varies in different people. (healthline.com)
  • The cystic artery originates from the right hepatic artery and supplies blood to the gallbladder. (healthline.com)
  • Spectral Doppler ultrasonographic waveform of the right hepatic artery in a 60-year-old man, 8 years after orthotopic liver transplantation. (medscape.com)
  • We describe the case of a 62-year-old woman with the right hepatic artery rising from abdominal aorta, diagnosed incidentally during an abdominal computed tomography angiography. (umbalk.org)
  • Tsoucalas G, Panagouli E, Vasilopoulos A, Karayiannakis A, Thomaidis V, Fiska A. Replaced right hepatic artery arising from abdominal aorta: a case report. (umbalk.org)
  • As the right hepatic artery approaches the liver, it gives rise to the cystic artery that supplies the gallbladder. (anatomy.app)
  • The right hepatic artery is missing after hemihepatectomy. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Right hepatic artery. (vesalius.com)
  • Circulation to the gallbladder is supplied primarily by the cystic artery, a branch of the right hepatic artery, and the cystic veins, which drain directly into the portal vein. (cdc.gov)
  • A right liver radiation lobectomy was performed with a single dose Y90 microspheres treatment administered through the right hepatic artery. (sages.org)
  • Usually the cystic artery arises from the right hepatic artery, passing behind the common hepatic and cystic duct in the Calot triangle, to reach the upper surface of the neck of the gall bladder, where it divides into superficial and deep branches [6,7]. (who.int)
  • Common variations include a replaced right hepatic artery, which originates from the superior mesenteric artery, a replaced left hepatic artery, which is derived from the left gastric artery, or a completely replaced common hepatic artery, which can originate from the superior mesenteric artery or the aorta. (medscape.com)
  • accessory pancreatic or splenic arteries.Objective: To present three cases of accessory right hepatic artery originating from the superior mesenteric artery in black African cadavers as found during routine cadaveric dissections.Materials and Method: The abdomens of 8 adult male black African cadavers were dissected according to the description and guidance by Romanes (1996). (bvsalud.org)
  • The origin of the cystic artery was from the of the cystic artery in Africans is not well right hepatic artery in 125 cases (78%), from documented. (who.int)
  • Hepatic artery thrombosis occurs when a blood clot forms in the artery that provides blood flow to the liver. (wikipedia.org)
  • Hepatic artery thrombosis may occur as a complication after liver transplantation, and represents the most common complication of liver transplantation. (wikipedia.org)
  • Smoking tobacco increases the risk of hepatic artery thrombosis in people who have undergone liver transplantation. (wikipedia.org)
  • Hepatic artery thrombosis may cause severe elevations in serum aminotransferases, alanine transaminase (ALT) and aspartate transaminase (AST). (wikipedia.org)
  • Hepatic artery thrombosis is usually diagnosed with ultrasound with doppler, although it may be diagnosed using computed tomography (CT) or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). (wikipedia.org)
  • The treatment for recently developed or acute hepatic artery thrombosis include anticoagulant medications, fibrinolytic therapy to break up the blood clot, or surgical revascularization. (wikipedia.org)
  • If acute hepatic artery thrombosis occurs after liver transplantation, then retransplantation with a new liver may be necessary. (wikipedia.org)
  • Hepatic artery thrombosis can cause severe elevations in serum liver enzymes, AST and ALT. (wikipedia.org)
  • Hepatic artery thrombosis is diagnosed with ultrasound with doppler, which shows a lack of blood flow through the hepatic artery. (wikipedia.org)
  • Hepatic artery thrombosis may also be diagnosed using CT or MR imaging, which would show evidence of a blood clot within the hepatic artery. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, chronic hepatic artery thrombosis may not require therapy, as the gradual development of additional blood vessels (collateral circulation) may be adequate for the metabolic needs of the liver. (wikipedia.org)
  • The development of hepatic artery thrombosis soon after liver transplantation is associated with higher risk of death (mortality) and transplanted liver failure (graft loss). (wikipedia.org)
  • Hepatic artery thrombosis is the most common complication that occurs after liver transplantation. (wikipedia.org)
  • Hepatic artery thrombosis may also occur after other surgeries. (wikipedia.org)
  • Hepatic artery thrombosis and primary non-function are the two most common reason that a transplanted liver fails to work (graft failure). (wikipedia.org)
  • Among people who receive liver transplants, smoking tobacco increases the risk of hepatic artery thrombosis. (wikipedia.org)
  • A-1: Magnetic resonance angiogram in a transplantation patient with hepatic artery thrombosis. (medscape.com)
  • C-1: Gortex hepatic artery graft thrombosis in a 59-year-old man (shown by arrow). (medscape.com)
  • Histopathologic examination revealed thrombosis of multiple vessels, extensive hepatic necrosis, and angioinvasive fungal elements suggestive of mucormycosis. (cdc.gov)
  • Celiac angiogram and US images ( a - b ) showing immediate thrombosis formation in the portal vein and aneurysm sac while preserving hepatic artery circulation. (springeropen.com)
  • Hepatic artery thrombosis after orthotopic liver transplantation: a review of nonsurgical causes. (nih.gov)
  • Eleven patients (24.4%) required retransplantation because of a primary nonfunctioning graft (n = 6), chronic rejection (n = 4), and hepatic artery thrombosis (n = 1). (rti.org)
  • The gastroduodenal branch of the common hepatic artery passes behind the duodenum and divides into the right gastroepiploic artery and the superior pancreaticoduodenal artery. (healthline.com)
  • The superior pancreaticoduodenal artery divides into anterior and posterior branches that circle the head of the pancreas and connect with the inferior pancreaticoduodenal artery. (healthline.com)
  • The gastroduodenal artery gives rise to the posterior superior pancreaticoduodenal artery and may also give off the supraduodenal artery near the upper border of the superior part of the duodenum. (anatomy.app)
  • When it reaches the lower border of the superior part of the duodenum, it divides into two terminal branches: right gastro-omental artery and anterior superior pancreaticoduodenal artery. (anatomy.app)
  • The anterior superior pancreaticoduodenal artery descends and supplies the head of the pancreas and the duodenum (along with the posterior superior pancreaticoduodenal artery). (anatomy.app)
  • The common hepatic artery splits into the proper hepatic artery and the gastroduodenal artery. (healthline.com)
  • The common hepatic artery gives rise to the following branches: hepatic artery proper, gastroduodenal artery, and, occasionally, right gastric artery. (anatomy.app)
  • The gastroduodenal artery is a small blood vessel that most commonly arises from the common hepatic artery but may have variations in its origin. (anatomy.app)
  • The gastroduodenal artery itself continues to descend posterior to the superior part of the duodenum. (anatomy.app)
  • We present two patients who developed this complication after placement of a catheter system into the gastroduodenal artery and initiation of regional chemotherapy with floxuridine. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Surgical or percutaneous placement of a subcutaneous device allows chemotherapy to be delivered continuously into the gastroduodenal artery via a catheter. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The celiac angiogram shows a pseudoaneurysm (arrow) of the proper hepatic artery located next to the origin of the gastroduodenal artery, which is occluded by the chemotherapy infusion catheter (arrowheads) . (biomedcentral.com)
  • Occasionally the cystic artery arises from the hepatic artery and sometimes from the gastroduodenal artery. (who.int)
  • portal veins and gastroduodenal arteries were exposed.Results: Three cadaveric cases of the accessory right hepatic arteries arising from the superior mesenteric arteries were observed. (bvsalud.org)
  • Variations in the origin and from the gastroduodenal artery. (who.int)
  • Magnetic resonance angiogram of the recipient celiac axis depicts complete occlusion of the hepatic artery. (medscape.com)
  • To clarify the hemodynamic changes under balloon occlusion of the hepatic artery and to identify predictors of the short-term therapeutic effect (TE) after balloon-occluded transcatheter arterial chemoembolization using miriplatin (B-TACE) for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). (springeropen.com)
  • tery, passing behind the common hepatic and The anatomy of the cystic artery and the cystic duct in the Calot triangle, to reach the extrabiliary ducts were examined. (who.int)
  • However, replaced common hepatic artery (CHA) arising from the superior mesenteric artery (SMA) was reportedly seen in 1.13% of 19,013 cases [ 4 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • a) Three-dimensional computed tomography scan of the abdomen reveals the replaced common hepatic artery arising from the superior mesenteric artery. (hindawi.com)
  • The hepatic veins carry oxygen-depleted blood from the liver to the inferior vena cava. (healthline.com)
  • The hepatic artery, reaches all parts of the liver through diversification in an extensive network of small vessels that are next to the veins. (antonialive.com)
  • In some cases, portal flow completely reverses (so called hepatofugal flow) and hepatic blood exits the liver both via hepatic and portal veins. (wjgnet.com)
  • The primary venous drainage of the liver is through three large hepatic veins that enter the inferior vena cava adjacent to the diaphragm. (medscape.com)
  • The middle and left hepatic veins enter the inferior vena cava through a single orifice in about 60% of individuals. (medscape.com)
  • In addition, there are 10-50 small hepatic veins that drain directly into the vena cava. (medscape.com)
  • The common hepatic artery is one of the final branches of the celiac artery. (healthline.com)
  • In its place, the left hepatic artery originated from the celiac trunk, while the right replaced hepatic artery was observed arising directly from the abdominal aorta. (umbalk.org)
  • In the completion celiac angiogram the common hepatic artery is occluded by the microcoils (arrows) . (biomedcentral.com)
  • The findings of selective celiac and/or hepatic arteriography in total 69 cases of confirmed hepatocellular carcinoma, with clinical and laboratory findings, were analyzed. (osti.gov)
  • 4. The selective celiac and/or hepatic angiograms are excellent diagnostic tools as well as therapeutic management for intraarterial infusion of anticancerous drugs. (osti.gov)
  • Patients with confirmed metastasis to N2 nodal stations (para-aortic, celiac, or superior mesenteric artery) do not benefit from radical resection and should receive systemic and/or palliative treatment. (medscape.com)
  • The hepatic artery is generally derived from the celiac axis, which originates on the ventral aorta at the level of the diaphragm. (medscape.com)
  • To determine the predictability of an aberrant hepatic artery by detection of a vessel in the portocaval space or fissure for the ligamentum venosum, as seen on arterial-phase spiral CT images. (koreamed.org)
  • The detection on arterial-phase spiral CT images of a vessel in the portocaval space or fissure for the ligamentum venosum can reliably predict the existence of an aberrant hepatic artery. (koreamed.org)
  • The hepatic portal vein is a vessel that moves blood from the spleen and gastrointestinal tract to the liver. (healthline.com)
  • The liver is divided into two lobes by the middle hepatic vein: the right lobe of liver and the left lobe of liver. (healthline.com)
  • The artery travels on the left side of the bile duct and anterior to the portal vein . (anatomy.app)
  • The patient is a 58 year old female admitted for liver failure secondary to liver ischemia caused by a hepatic artery pseudoaneurysm compressing the portal vein. (beaumont.org)
  • This study aimed to study portal vein and hepatic artery hemodynamic variation in non-alcoholic fatty liver and to correlate it with disease severity. (springeropen.com)
  • Doppler findings showed that peak maximum velocity, peak minimum velocity, mean flow velocity, portal vein pulsatility index of portal vein, and hepatic artery resistivity index were significantly lower in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease patients than in healthy people. (springeropen.com)
  • Duplex Doppler ultrasonography (US) is an important non-invasive method in evaluating hepatic vasculature and diagnosing some liver parenchymal diseases [ 7 ] as diffuse fatty infiltration in the liver alters hemodynamics in the portal vein as well as hepatic artery resistance [ 8 ]. (springeropen.com)
  • Hepatic artery guiding technique could increase the feasibility of portal vein puncture in TIPS without a significant increase in radiation dose. (brieflands.com)
  • Furthermore, it is agreed upon that puncture from the hepatic vein to the portal vein to create a shunt is the most challenging step in the procedure ( 2 , 8 - 10 ). (brieflands.com)
  • For instance, procedures such as wedge hepatic portography with CO 2 injection, intravenous ultrasound (IVUS), direct portography via portal vein puncture and ultrasound (US), computed tomography (CT), and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-guided puncture have been introduced. (brieflands.com)
  • introduced hepatic artery targeting wire with fluoroscopy to facilitate portal vein puncture ( 10 ). (brieflands.com)
  • The middle hepatic vein can be used as an anatomical landmark to identify the left medial segment separate from the right anterior segment of the liver. (proprofs.com)
  • The left medial segment is located on the left lobe of the liver, and the middle hepatic vein serves as a boundary between this segment and the right anterior segment. (proprofs.com)
  • The middle hepatic vein courses with the main lobar fissure. (proprofs.com)
  • The liver receives oxygenated blood from both the portal vein and the hepatic artery. (proprofs.com)
  • The portal vein carries nutrient-rich blood from the intestines to the liver, while the hepatic artery supplies oxygenated blood from the heart to the liver. (proprofs.com)
  • Encasement of hepatic artery and portal vein regurgitation was respectively 4 cases. (osti.gov)
  • Criteria for resectability include absence of all of the following: retropancreatic and paraceliac nodal metastases or distant liver metastases, invasion of the portal vein or main hepatic artery (although some centers can offer vascular reconstruction), extrahepatic adjacent organ invasion, and disseminated disease. (medscape.com)
  • Hepatic infarction is an extremely rare situation because the liver has a dual blood supply from the hepatic artery and portal vein . (radiopaedia.org)
  • Hepatic infarction can occur when there is both hepatic arterial and portal vein flow compromise but most cases are due to acute portal venous flow compromise 11 . (radiopaedia.org)
  • The portal triad is composed of a branch of the hepatic artery, portal vein, and bile duct. (histology-world.com)
  • The blood in the hepatic portal vein is the 'first stop' directly from the intestines, giving the liver the prime opportunity to detoxify substances. (histology-world.com)
  • The right hepatic vein is generally oval in shape, with its long axis in the line of the vena cava. (medscape.com)
  • Aetna considers intra-hepatic microspheres (e.g. (aetna.com)
  • Intra-hepatic microspheres for metastases from esophageal cancer, gallbladder cancer, uveal melanom a, liver metastases of pancreatic adenocarcinoma, and other indications not listed above. (aetna.com)
  • These microspheres are injected in the hepatic artery and are carried along by the blood flow. (bronkhorst.com)
  • Computed tomography during hepatic arteriography (CTHA) is a sophisticated method for estimating the hepatic arterial flow. (springeropen.com)
  • Fatal arterial hemorrhage after pancreaticoduodenectomy: How do we simultaneously accomplish complete hemostasis and hepatic arterial flow? (wjgnet.com)
  • Cirrhosis causes an increased vascular resistance, collateral formation and increased hepatic arterial flow to maintain hepatic perfusion. (wjgnet.com)
  • Elevated hepatic arterial flow can be observed already before the onset of fibrosis. (wjgnet.com)
  • This led only to a partial exclusion of the aneurysm and was complicated by a dissection of the hepatic artery, reflecting its friability. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The aorta is the large artery that carries oxygen-rich blood from the left ventricle of the heart to other parts of the body. (onteenstoday.com)
  • The Aorta is the main artery which carries oxygenated blood from the heart, under extremely high pressure to other parts of the body. (onteenstoday.com)
  • To conclude, although type I classification which describes the textbook pattern of hepatic artery distribution was significantly detected among the Sudanese population, other variants were to be considered since they are related to major arteries like aorta and superior mesenteric. (bvsalud.org)
  • Pre-operative hepatic artery chemoembolization followed by orthotopic liver transplantation for HCC. (aetna.com)
  • Prior trials have shown that surgery followed by hepatic artery infusion (HAI) of floxuridine (FUDR) alternating with systemic fluorouracil improves survival rates. (ochsner.org)
  • Aetna considers intra-hepatic chemotherapy (infusion) medically necessary for members with liver metastases from colorectal cancer. (aetna.com)
  • Jiangsu Hengrui Medicine conducted a Phase 2 trial on 26 patients with advanced liver cancer, using hepatic artery infusion chemotherapy combined with Rivoceranib. (koreatimes.co.kr)
  • Computed tomography revealed a large retroperitoneal hematoma and a ruptured pseudoaneurysm of the hepatic artery at the site of the catheter tip. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The indications for OLT included chronic hepatic failure in 15 patients (33.3%) and fulminant (FHF) or subfulminant hepatic failure in 30 patients (66. (rti.org)
  • The connection between the left and right hepatic ducts forms the common hepatic duct, whose function is to drain bile from the liver. (healthline.com)
  • The biliary tree also includes the cystic duct, the right and left hepatic ducts, and the common hepatic and common bile ducts, as well as a series of microscopic biliary vessels. (cdc.gov)
  • This study documents variations in the origin of the cystic artery and its location in relation to the biliary ducts among 106 Sudanese people and compared the variations between the sexes and races. (who.int)
  • Anatomical study of the cystic artery is important because its origin from the nearby vessels and because its relation to the biliary ducts is very variable, creating potential difficulties during surgery [1-5]. (who.int)
  • The aim of this study was to record the variations in origin of the cystic artery from different sources and its location in relation to the biliary ducts among Sudanese people and to compare the variations between the sexes and different races. (who.int)
  • The hepatic duct then divides into two or three additional ducts draining the liver. (medscape.com)
  • 3%). No cases arising from other arteries to the biliary ducts among Sudanese people were noted. (who.int)
  • Axial spiral CT scans (10mm section thickness, 10mm table feed) were obtained in 100 patients with hepatic mass and were examined by two radiologists. (koreamed.org)
  • Ten of the 13 surviving patients with hepatic insufficiency and neurological abnormalities at OLT showed significant neurological improvement. (rti.org)
  • Early vessel injury recognition, precise HA dissection, the use of clips to ligate branches, an oblique cut for all HARs, a modified funneling method for size discrepancy, liberal use of an alternative artery to replace a pathologic HA, and reconstruction of a second HA for grafts with dual hepatic arteries in the graft are just a few of the technique refinements. (physiciansweekly.com)
  • The hepatic artery, therefore, is a blood vessel that carries oxygenated blood to the liver to maintain this vital organ, literally, and give you the oxygen you need to continue to function correctly. (antonialive.com)
  • Bile duct cysts secondary to liver infarcts: report of a case and experimental production by small vessel hepatic artery occlusion. (radiopaedia.org)
  • In each case, each determined whether a vessel was located in the portocaval space or fissure for the ligamentum venosum, and the type of aberrant artery. (koreamed.org)
  • Twelve-one cases with a vessel within the portocaval space and 14 with a vessel within the fissure for the ligamentum venosum showed variation of the hepatic artery. (koreamed.org)
  • The biliary anatomy of the liver generally follows hepatic arterial divisions. (medscape.com)
  • There is significant variation in the biliary anatomy, and thus, careful preoperative imaging is vital before any major hepatic resection. (medscape.com)
  • The organs supplied by this artery and its branches include the liver , gallbladder, pylorus of the stomach , duodenum , and pancreas . (anatomy.app)
  • The hepatic artery proper (also called proper hepatic artery) is a branch of the common hepatic artery that provides blood supply to the liver and gallbladder. (anatomy.app)
  • Difficult HARs have been described as graft or recipient hepatic artery ≤2 mm, intimal dissection of graft or recipient hepatic artery (HA), size difference (≥2 to 1), numerous hepatic arteries, inferior quality, and prompt redo during transplantation. (physiciansweekly.com)
  • In this case we will discuss the frequency of liver failure resulting from embolization or ligation of the hepatic artery, as well as how to determine which of these patients eventually require liver transplantation compared to those that remain clinically compensated. (beaumont.org)
  • Although liver failure can be treated via hepatocyte transplantation, it also faces multiple problems comprising the shortage of high-quality hepatocytes sources, rejection of allogeneic transplants, difficulty to expand, and losing hepatic characteristics in vitro [ 7 , 8 ]. (springer.com)
  • After transplantation, clinicians noted decreased hepatic artery flow. (cdc.gov)
  • The hepatic artery proper splits off the common hepatic artery. (healthline.com)
  • Annular pancreas coexisting with replaced common hepatic artery which is also a rare anatomical variation has not been reported previously. (hindawi.com)
  • Both annular pancreas and common hepatic artery anomaly are rare. (hindawi.com)
  • Ultrasonography (US), CT, MRI, cholangiography, angiography and scintigraphy are the most common radiological modalities used to evaluate the hepatic graft. (medscape.com)
  • Common hepatic artery is one of the three branches of Haller tripod and gives rise to the left and right hepatic arteries. (umbalk.org)
  • The common hepatic artery was absent. (umbalk.org)
  • However, sometimes it originates directly from the common hepatic artery or the region where the common hepatic artery divides into its branches. (anatomy.app)
  • It passes in front of or behind the bile duct or the common hepatic duct to reach the neck of the gall bladder. (who.int)
  • The common bile duct gives off the cystic duct and becomes the hepatic duct. (medscape.com)
  • Hepatic infarction caused by arterial insufficiency: spectrum and evolution of CT findings. (radiopaedia.org)
  • Variations upper surface of the neck of the gall bladder, in the origin and position of the cystic artery where it divides into superficial and deep from the nearby vessels were noted and the branches [ 6,7 ]. (who.int)
  • The right gastroepiploic artery is often used as a graft for coronary artery bypasses. (healthline.com)
  • Comparative morphology of the hepatic and coronary artery walls. (medscimonit.com)
  • The incidence of variations in the origin of the cystic artery has been documented in Caucasians, e.g. in studies by Anson [1] and Daseler et al. (who.int)
  • These arteries eventually anastomose with the anterior and posterior branches of the inferior pancreaticoduodenal artery. (anatomy.app)
  • ABSTRACT The anatomy of the cystic artery is very variable, creating potential problems during surgery. (who.int)
  • 2]. However, the anatomy of the cystic artery in Africans is not well documented. (who.int)
  • ABSTRACT The anatomy of the cystic artery is very variable, creating potential problems during sur- gery. (who.int)
  • Total procedure times, puncture times, and total procedure radiation doses as radiation quantity (mGy) and dose area product (μGym2) from each procedure were compared using the Mann-Whitney U test between those in the simple blind puncture group and those who underwent hepatic artery guiding technique. (brieflands.com)
  • The mean puncture time among those who underwent hepatic artery guiding technique (26.67 ± 11.46 min) was significantly shorter than the mean puncture time in the simple blind puncture group (38.50 ± 29.69 min) (P = 0.045). (brieflands.com)
  • The right gastro-omental artery (also known as right gastroepiploic artery) runs to the left, along the greater curvature of the stomach and anastomoses with the left gastro-omental artery from the splenic artery . (anatomy.app)
  • Pseudoaneurysms of the hepatic artery are a rare complication in patients with primary or secondary liver tumors treated with intra-arterial chemotherapy. (biomedcentral.com)
  • In this article we describe two patients who developed aneurysmatic cavities of the hepatic artery after regional chemotherapy with FUDR and presented with hemorrhage. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Intra-hepatic chemotherapy for other indications not listed above, including treatment of liver primaries or metastases from other primaries (e.g., breast) besides colorectal cancer. (aetna.com)
  • These arteries supply blood to the pancreas and duodenum. (healthline.com)
  • Surgical resection includes cholecystectomy, en bloc hepatic resection (typically of segments IVb and V), and lymphadenectomy with or without bile duct excision, depending on the location of the tumor. (medscape.com)
  • It passes in location between different races were also front of or behind the bile duct or the com- noted and compared with data from other mon hepatic duct to reach the neck of the gall studies. (who.int)
  • Subsequent angiography confirmed occlusion at the hepatic arterial anastomosis. (medscape.com)
  • In a subsequent angiography via a transfemoral access a stent-graft was placed into the hepatic artery in order to preserve arterial hepatic perfusion. (biomedcentral.com)
  • CT angiography of a patient with liver cirrhosis showing a prominent hepatic artery in 31 years old female patient with cryptogenic liver cirrhosis Child A (courtesy of Dr. B. Radeleff, University of Heidelberg). (wjgnet.com)
  • Small HA (21.35%), size discrepancy (12.57%), many hepatic arteries (11.28%), suboptimal quality (31.1%), intimal dissection (20.5%), and urgent redo (5.18%) were the most difficult HARs. (physiciansweekly.com)
  • However, the application of floxuridine-deoxy-ribose (FUDR), a prodrug of 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) with a high liver extraction fraction, into the hepatic artery can cause several complications. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Colchicine (anti-gout medicine) - patients with renal or hepatic impairment. (who.int)
  • The proper hepatic artery enters the porta hepatis where it splits into the left and right hepatic arteries that supply the liver. (healthline.com)
  • Statistically significant variations in the origin and position of the cystic artery were found comparing these data with previous studies in Caucasians and Asians. (who.int)
  • Cette étude a mis en évidence les variations au niveau de la naissance de l'artère cystique et de sa localisation par rapport aux voies biliaires chez 106 sujets soudanais et a comparé ces variations entre les sexes et les races. (who.int)
  • The cystic artery might be doubled, and variations in the position and drainage of the artery have been noted [3-5]. (who.int)
  • Reduction of portal flow and increase in hepatic artery flow in fatty liver correlates with disease severity and can help as a non-invasive measure in diagnosis and grading of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. (springeropen.com)
  • A case of vascular Ehlers-Danlos syndrome with a ruptured hepatic artery after surgical treatment of peritonitis caused by the perforation of the colon. (bvsalud.org)
  • There is inadequate information to document the effectiveness of PEI as an alternative to surgical resection for the treatment of hepatic metastases. (aetna.com)
  • Often the proper hepatic artery gives rise to the right gastric artery . (anatomy.app)
  • In most cases, it arises from the proper hepatic artery, as mentioned before. (anatomy.app)
  • Liver Failure Following Proper Hepatic Artery Embolization" by Morgan Laney, Ryan W. Nowatzke et al. (beaumont.org)
  • Laney M, Nowatzke RW, Kado J. Liver failure following proper hepatic artery embolization. (beaumont.org)
  • The proper hepatic artery supplies blood to the liver. (medlineplus.gov)
  • On POD3 she experienced massive intra-abdominal hemorrhage requiring IR coil embolization of the entire hepatic artery. (beaumont.org)