Excision of all or part of the liver. (Dorland, 28th ed)
Repair or renewal of hepatic tissue.
A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.
Tumors or cancer of the LIVER.
A primary malignant neoplasm of epithelial liver cells. It ranges from a well-differentiated tumor with EPITHELIAL CELLS indistinguishable from normal HEPATOCYTES to a poorly differentiated neoplasm. The cells may be uniform or markedly pleomorphic, or form GIANT CELLS. Several classification schemes have been suggested.
A short thick vein formed by union of the superior mesenteric vein and the splenic vein.
A hepatic carcinogen whose mechanism of activation involves N-hydroxylation to the aryl hydroxamic acid followed by enzymatic sulfonation to sulfoxyfluorenylacetamide. It is used to study the carcinogenicity and mutagenicity of aromatic amines.
The main structural component of the LIVER. They are specialized EPITHELIAL CELLS that are organized into interconnected plates called lobules.
A condition characterized by the formation of CALCULI and concretions in the hollow organs or ducts of the body. They occur most often in the gallbladder, kidney, and lower urinary tract.
A nitrosamine derivative with alkylating, carcinogenic, and mutagenic properties.
The transference of a part of or an entire liver from one human or animal to another.
Non-cadaveric providers of organs for transplant to related or non-related recipients.
Passages within the liver for the conveyance of bile. Includes right and left hepatic ducts even though these may join outside the liver to form the common hepatic duct.
F344 rats are an inbred strain of albino laboratory rats (Rattus norvegicus) that have been widely used in biomedical research due to their consistent and reliable genetic background, which facilitates the study of disease mechanisms and therapeutic interventions.
Tumors or cancer of the BILE DUCTS.
Veins which drain the liver.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
Pathological processes of the LIVER.
Blood tests that are used to evaluate how well a patient's liver is working and also to help diagnose liver conditions.
Loss of blood during a surgical procedure.
Experimentally induced tumors of the LIVER.
A malignant tumor arising from the epithelium of the BILE DUCTS.
The measurement of an organ in volume, mass, or heaviness.
Control of bleeding during or after surgery.
A branch of the celiac artery that distributes to the stomach, pancreas, duodenum, liver, gallbladder, and greater omentum.
Predominantly extrahepatic bile duct which is formed by the junction of the right and left hepatic ducts, which are predominantly intrahepatic, and, in turn, joins the cystic duct to form the common bile duct.
Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.
Multifunctional growth factor which regulates both cell growth and cell motility. It exerts a strong mitogenic effect on hepatocytes and primary epithelial cells. Its receptor is PROTO-ONCOGENE PROTEINS C-MET.
An abnormal concretion occurring mostly in the urinary and biliary tracts, usually composed of mineral salts. Also called stones.
The circulation of BLOOD through the LIVER.
Care given during the period prior to undergoing surgery when psychological and physical preparations are made according to the special needs of the individual patient. This period spans the time between admission to the hospital to the time the surgery begins. (From Dictionary of Health Services Management, 2d ed)
Pathologic processes that affect patients after a surgical procedure. They may or may not be related to the disease for which the surgery was done, and they may or may not be direct results of the surgery.
The channels that collect and transport the bile secretion from the BILE CANALICULI, the smallest branch of the BILIARY TRACT in the LIVER, through the bile ductules, the bile ducts out the liver, and to the GALLBLADDER for storage.
An enzyme, sometimes called GGT, with a key role in the synthesis and degradation of GLUTATHIONE; (GSH, a tripeptide that protects cells from many toxins). It catalyzes the transfer of the gamma-glutamyl moiety to an acceptor amino acid.
Severe inability of the LIVER to perform its normal metabolic functions, as evidenced by severe JAUNDICE and abnormal serum levels of AMMONIA; BILIRUBIN; ALKALINE PHOSPHATASE; ASPARTATE AMINOTRANSFERASE; LACTATE DEHYDROGENASES; and albumin/globulin ratio. (Blakiston's Gould Medical Dictionary, 4th ed)
The procedure of removing TISSUES, organs, or specimens from DONORS for reuse, such as TRANSPLANTATION.
A bile pigment that is a degradation product of HEME.
Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. This also includes animals with a long history of closed colony breeding.
A group of ALKALOIDS, characterized by a nitrogen-containing necine, occurring mainly in plants of the BORAGINACEAE; COMPOSITAE; and LEGUMINOSAE plant families. They can be activated in the liver by hydrolysis of the ester and desaturation of the necine base to reactive electrophilic pyrrolic CYTOTOXINS.
Nuclear antigen with a role in DNA synthesis, DNA repair, and cell cycle progression. PCNA is required for the coordinated synthesis of both leading and lagging strands at the replication fork during DNA replication. PCNA expression correlates with the proliferation activity of several malignant and non-malignant cell types.
A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.
A plant genus of the family LAMIACEAE that contains 5-methoxydehydropodophyllotoxin (a PODOPHYLLOTOXIN) and other LIGNANS.
Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.
Accumulation of purulent EXUDATES beneath the DIAPHRAGM, also known as upper abdominal abscess. It is usually associated with PERITONITIS or postoperative infections.
An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of L-alanine and 2-oxoglutarate to pyruvate and L-glutamate. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 2.6.1.2.
A method of hemostasis utilizing various agents such as Gelfoam, silastic, metal, glass, or plastic pellets, autologous clot, fat, and muscle as emboli. It has been used in the treatment of spinal cord and INTRACRANIAL ARTERIOVENOUS MALFORMATIONS, renal arteriovenous fistulas, gastrointestinal bleeding, epistaxis, hypersplenism, certain highly vascular tumors, traumatic rupture of blood vessels, and control of operative hemorrhage.
The local recurrence of a neoplasm following treatment. It arises from microscopic cells of the original neoplasm that have escaped therapeutic intervention and later become clinically visible at the original site.
Enzymes of the transferase class that catalyze the conversion of L-aspartate and 2-ketoglutarate to oxaloacetate and L-glutamate. EC 2.6.1.1.
An expression of the number of mitoses found in a stated number of cells.
The proportion of survivors in a group, e.g., of patients, studied and followed over a period, or the proportion of persons in a specified group alive at the beginning of a time interval who survive to the end of the interval. It is often studied using life table methods.
A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).

Risk of major liver resection in patients with underlying chronic liver disease: a reappraisal. (1/2543)

OBJECTIVE: To explore the relation of patient age, status of liver parenchyma, presence of markers of active hepatitis, and blood loss to subsequent death and complications in patients undergoing a similar major hepatectomy for the same disease using a standardized technique. SUMMARY BACKGROUND DATA: Major liver resection carries a high risk of postoperative liver failure in patients with chronic liver disease. However, this underlying liver disease may comprise a wide range of pathologic changes that have, in the past, not been well defined. METHODS: The nontumorous liver of 55 patients undergoing a right hepatectomy for hepatocellular carcinoma was classified according to a semiquantitative grading of fibrosis. The authors analyzed the influence of this pathologic feature and of other preoperative variables on the risk of postoperative death and complications. RESULTS: Serum bilirubin and prothrombin time increased on postoperative day 1, and their speed of recovery was influenced by the severity of fibrosis. Incidence of death from liver failure was 32% in patients with grade 4 fibrosis (cirrhosis) and 0% in patients with grade 0 to 3 fibrosis. The preoperative serum aspartate transaminase (ASAT) level ranged from 68 to 207 IU/l in patients with cirrhosis who died, compared with 20 to 62 in patients with cirrhosis who survived. CONCLUSION: A major liver resection such as a right hepatectomy may be safely performed in patients with underlying liver disease, provided no additional risk factors are present. Patients with a preoperative increase in ASAT should undergo a liver biopsy to rule out the presence of grade 4 fibrosis, which should contraindicate this resection.  (+info)

Intrahepatic recurrence after curative resection of hepatocellular carcinoma: long-term results of treatment and prognostic factors. (2/2543)

OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to evaluate the long-term results of treatment and prognostic factors in patients with intrahepatic recurrence after curative resection of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). SUMMARY BACKGROUND DATA: Recent studies have demonstrated the usefulness of re-resection, transarterial oily chemoembolization (TOCE), or percutaneous ethanol injection therapy (PEIT) in selected patients with intrahepatic recurrent HCC. The overall results of a treatment strategy combining these modalities have not been fully evaluated, and the prognostic factors determining survival in these patients remain to be clarified. METHODS: Two hundred and forty-four patients who underwent curative resection for HCC were followed for intrahepatic recurrence, which was treated aggressively with a strategy including different modalities. Survival results after recurrence and from initial hepatectomy were analyzed, and prognostic factors were determined by univariate and multivariate analysis using 27 clinicopathologic variables. RESULTS: One hundred and five patients (43%) with intrahepatic recurrence were treated with re-resection (11), TOCE (71), PEIT (6), systemic chemotherapy (8) or conservatively (9). The overall 1-year, 3-year, and 5-year survival rates from the time of recurrence were 65.5%, 34.9%, and 19.7%, respectively, and from the time of initial hepatectomy were 78.4%, 47.2%, and 30.9%, respectively. The re-resection group had the best survival, followed by the TOCE group. Multivariate analysis revealed Child's B or C grading, serum albumin < or = 40 g/l, multiple recurrent tumors, recurrence < or = 1 year after hepatectomy, and concurrent extrahepatic recurrence to be independent adverse prognostic factors. CONCLUSIONS: Aggressive treatment with a multimodality strategy could result in prolonged survival in patients with intrahepatic recurrence after curative resection for HCC. Prognosis was determined by the liver function status, interval to recurrence, number of recurrent tumors, any concurrent extrahepatic recurrence, and type of treatment.  (+info)

Subcellullar localization, developmental expression and characterization of a liver triacylglycerol hydrolase. (3/2543)

The mechanism and enzymic activities responsible for the lipolysis of stored cytosolic triacylglycerol in liver and its re-esterification remain obscure. A candidate enzyme for lipolysis, a microsomal triacylglycerol hydrolase (TGH), was recently purified to homogeneity from pig liver and its kinetic properties were determined [Lehner and Verger (1997) Biochemistry 36, 1861-1868]. We have characterized the enzyme with regard to its species distribution, subcellular localization, developmental expression and reaction with lipase inhibitors. The hydrolase co-sediments with endoplasmic reticulum elements and is associated with isolated liver fat droplets. Immunocytochemical studies localize TGH exclusively to liver cells surrounding capillaries. Both TGH mRNA and protein are expressed in rats during weaning. The enzyme covalently binds tetrahydrolipstatin, an inhibitor of lipases and of triacylglycerol hydrolysis. The enzyme is absent from liver-derived cell lines (HepG2 and McArdle RH7777) known to be impaired in very-low-density lipoprotein (VLDL) assembly and secretion. The localization and developmental expression of TGH are consistent with a proposed role in triacylglycerol hydrolysis and with the proposal that some of the resynthesized triacylglycerol is utilized for VLDL secretion.  (+info)

Split liver transplantation. (4/2543)

OBJECTIVE: This study reviews the indications, technical aspects, and experience with ex vivo and in situ split liver transplantation. BACKGROUND: The shortage of cadaveric donor livers is the most significant factor inhibiting further application of liver transplantation for patients with end-stage liver disease. Pediatric recipients, although they represent only 15% to 20% of the liver transplant registrants, suffer the greatest from the scarcity of size-matched cadaveric organs. Split liver transplantation provides an ideal means to expand the donor pool for both children and adults. METHODS: This review describes the evolution of split liver transplantation from reduced liver transplantation and living-related liver transplantation. The two types of split liver transplantation, ex vivo and in situ, are compared and contrasted, including the technique, selection of patients for each procedure, and the most current results. RESULTS: Ex vivo splitting of the liver is performed on the bench after removal from the cadaver. It is usually divided into two grafts: segments 2 and 3 for children, and segments 4 to 8 for adults. Since 1990, 349 ex vivo grafts have been reported. Until recently, graft and patient survival rates have been lower and postoperative complication rates higher in ex vivo split grafts than in whole organ cadaveric transplantation. Further, the use of ex vivo split grafts has been relegated to the elective adult patient because of the high incidence of graft dysfunction (right graft) when placed in an emergent patient. Reasons for the poor function of ex vivo splits except in elective patients have focused on graft damage due to prolonged cold ischemia times and rewarming during the long benching procedure. In situ liver splitting is accomplished in a manner identical to the living donor procurement. This technique for liver splitting results in the same graft types as in the ex vivo technique. However, graft and patient survival rates reported for in situ split livers have exceeded 85% and 90%, respectively, with a lower incidence of postoperative complications, including biliary and reoperation for bleeding. These improved results have also been observed in the urgent patient. CONCLUSION: Splitting of the cadaveric liver expands the donor pool of organs and may eliminate the need for living-related donation for children. Recent experience with the ex vivo technique, if applied to elective patients, results in patient and graft survival rates comparable to whole-organ transplantation, although postoperative complication rates are higher. In situ splitting provides two grafts of optimal quality that can be applied to the entire spectrum of transplant recipients: it is the method of choice for expanding the cadaver liver donor pool.  (+info)

Hepatectomy for hepatocellular carcinoma: toward zero hospital deaths. (5/2543)

OBJECTIVE: The authors report on the surgical techniques and protocol for perioperative care that have yielded a zero hospital mortality rate in 110 consecutive patients undergoing hepatectomy for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). The hepatectomy results are analyzed with the aim of further reducing the postoperative morbidity rate. SUMMARY BACKGROUND DATA: In recent years, hepatectomy has been performed with a mortality rate of <10% in patients with HCC, but a zero hospital mortality rate in a large patient series has never been reported. At Queen Mary Hospital, Hong Kong, the surgical techniques and perioperative management in hepatectomy for HCC have evolved yearly into a final standardized protocol that reduced the hospital mortality rate from 28% in 1989 to 0% in 1996 and 1997. METHODS: Surgical techniques were designed to reduce intraoperative blood loss, blood transfusion, and ischemic injury to the liver remnant in hepatectomy. Postoperative care was focused on preservation and promotion of liver function by providing adequate tissue oxygenation and immediate postoperative nutritional support that consisted of branched-chain amino acid-enriched solution, low-dose dextrose, medium-chain triglycerides, and phosphate. The pre-, intra-, and postoperative data were collected prospectively and analyzed each year to assess the influence of the evolving surgical techniques and perioperative care on outcome. RESULTS: Of 330 patients undergoing hepatectomy for HCC, underlying cirrhosis and chronic hepatitis were present in 161 (49%) and 108 (33%) patients, respectively. There were no significant changes in the patient characteristics throughout the 9-year period, but there were significant reductions in intraoperative blood loss and blood transfusion requirements. From 1994 to 1997, the median blood transfusion requirement was 0 ml, and 64% of the patients did not require a blood transfusion. The postoperative morbidity rate remained the same throughout the study period. Complications in the patients operated on during 1996 and 1997 were primarily wound infections; the potentially fatal complications seen in the early years, such as subphrenic sepsis, biliary leakage, and hepatic coma, were absent. By univariate analysis, the volume of blood loss, volume of blood transfusions, and operation time were correlated positively with postoperative morbidity rates in 1996 and 1997. Stepwise logistic regression analysis revealed that the operation time was the only parameter that correlated significantly with the postoperative morbidity rate. CONCLUSION: With appropriate surgical techniques and perioperative management to preserve function of the liver remnant, hepatectomy for HCC can be performed without hospital deaths. To improve surgical outcome further, strategies to reduce the operation time are being investigated.  (+info)

Continuous versus intermittent portal triad clamping for liver resection: a controlled study. (6/2543)

OBJECTIVE: The authors compared the intra- and postoperative course of patients undergoing liver resections under continuous pedicular clamping (CPC) or intermittent pedicular clamping (IPC). SUMMARY BACKGROUND DATA: Reduced blood loss during liver resection is achieved by pedicular clamping. There is controversy about the benefits of IPC over CPC in humans in terms of hepatocellular injury and blood loss control in normal and abnormal liver parenchyma. METHODS: Eighty-six patients undergoing liver resections were included in a prospective randomized study comparing the intra- and postoperative course under CPC (n = 42) or IPC (n = 44) with periods of 15 minutes of clamping and 5 minutes of unclamping. The data were further analyzed according to the presence (steatosis >20% and chronic liver disease) or absence of abnormal liver parenchyma. RESULTS: The two groups of patients were similar in terms of age, sex, nature of the liver tumors, results of preoperative assessment, proportion of patients undergoing major or minor hepatectomy, and nature of nontumorous liver parenchyma. Intraoperative blood loss during liver transsection was significantly higher in the IPC group. In the CPC group, postoperative liver enzymes and serum bilirubin levels were significantly higher in the subgroup of patients with abnormal liver parenchyma. Major postoperative deterioration of liver function occurred in four patients with abnormal liver parenchyma, with two postoperative deaths. All of them were in the CPC group. CONCLUSIONS: This clinical controlled study clearly demonstrated the better parenchymal tolerance to IPC over CPC, especially in patients with abnormal liver parenchyma.  (+info)

Prolonged continuous or intermittent vascular inflow occlusion during hemihepatectomy in pigs. (7/2543)

OBJECTIVE: To assess ischemia and reperfusion (I/R) injury in a hemihepatectomy model in pigs after prolonged continuous or intermittent vascular inflow occlusion in the liver. SUMMARY BACKGROUND DATA: Massive intraoperative blood loss during liver resections can be prevented by temporary vascular inflow occlusion, consequently leading to ischemia and reperfusion injury in the remnant liver. Previously, in a pig liver resection model in which only limited I/R injury was induced during brief (90 min) vascular inflow occlusion, the authors demonstrated reduced I/R injury after continuous (CNT) occlusion, compared to intermittent (INT). This liver resection study on pigs was undertaken to assess I/R injury after prolonged (120 min) CNT or INT occlusion. METHODS: In pigs (37.0 +/- 1.5 kg), liver ischemia during 2 hours was CNT (n = 6) or INT (n = 6) (eight subsequent periods of 12 min ischemia and 3 min recirculation), followed by 6 hours of reperfusion. A left hemihepatectomy (45.5% +/- 1.4%) was performed within the first 12 minutes of ischemia. No hepatic pedicle clamping or liver resection was performed in control experiments (n = 6). Microvascular damage was assessed by hyaluronic acid (HA) uptake capacity of the liver (parameter of early sinusoidal endothelial cell damage) and restoration of intrahepatic tissue pO2 during reperfusion. Hepatocellular damage was tested by plasma concentrations of aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase, and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH). RESULTS: Hyaluronic acid uptake after 6 hours of reperfusion, compared to preischemic uptake, was unaltered in the control group, but was significantly reduced in both resection groups. However, more HA was taken up after INT occlusion, compared to CNT (60.4% +/- 5.6% and 39.5% +/- 3.7%, respectively; ANOVA: p = 0.001). Intrahepatic tissue pO2 distribution after 6 hours of reperfusion more closely returned to preischemic configuration in the INT group than in the CNT group, indicating reduced microcirculatory disturbances after INT occlusion. Release of AST and LDH after 6 hours of reperfusion was significantly increased in both CNT and INT groups. Lower AST levels, however, were found after INT occlusion than after CNT occlusion (267.0 +/- 74.7 U/l and 603.3 +/- 132.4 U/l, respectively; p = 0.06). CONCLUSIONS: Intermittent hepatic vascular inflow occlusion during prolonged liver ischemia in pigs resulted in less microcirculatory and hepatocellular injury, compared to continuous occlusion. Intermittent clamping is preferable when prolonged periods of vascular inflow occlusion are applied during liver resections.  (+info)

Quercetin inhibited DNA synthesis and induced apoptosis associated with increase in c-fos mRNA level and the upregulation of p21WAF1CIP1 mRNA and protein expression during liver regeneration after partial hepatectomy. (8/2543)

Quercetin, a widely distributed bioflavonoid, inhibited DNA synthesis in regenerating liver after partial hepatectomy. This inhibition was accompanied by apoptosis, evidenced by in situ end-labeling and gel electrophoresis of DNA fragmentation. Characteristic DNA fragmentation was detected as early as 2 h after injection. Northern blot analysis revealed that quercetin induced the increases in c-fos and p21WAF1CIP1 mRNA levels within 2 h. The expression of p21 protein was also enhanced, while p53 mRNA and protein levels were not affected by quercetin. These results suggest that quercetin-induced apoptosis is associated with the increase in c-fos mRNA level and the upregulation of p21 mRNA and protein expression, probably in a p53-independent pathway.  (+info)

Hepatectomy is a surgical procedure that involves the removal of part or all of the liver. This procedure can be performed for various reasons, such as removing cancerous or non-cancerous tumors, treating liver trauma, or donating a portion of the liver to another person in need of a transplant (live donor hepatectomy). The extent of the hepatectomy depends on the medical condition and overall health of the patient. It is a complex procedure that requires significant expertise and experience from the surgical team due to the liver's unique anatomy, blood supply, and regenerative capabilities.

Liver regeneration is the ability of the liver to restore its original mass and function after injury or surgical resection. This complex process involves the proliferation and differentiation of mature hepatocytes, as well as the activation and transdifferentiation of various types of stem and progenitor cells located in the liver. The mechanisms that regulate liver regeneration include a variety of growth factors, hormones, and cytokines, which act in a coordinated manner to ensure the restoration of normal liver architecture and function. Liver regeneration is essential for the survival of individuals who have undergone partial hepatectomy or who have suffered liver damage due to various causes, such as viral hepatitis, alcohol abuse, or drug-induced liver injury.

The liver is a large, solid organ located in the upper right portion of the abdomen, beneath the diaphragm and above the stomach. It plays a vital role in several bodily functions, including:

1. Metabolism: The liver helps to metabolize carbohydrates, fats, and proteins from the food we eat into energy and nutrients that our bodies can use.
2. Detoxification: The liver detoxifies harmful substances in the body by breaking them down into less toxic forms or excreting them through bile.
3. Synthesis: The liver synthesizes important proteins, such as albumin and clotting factors, that are necessary for proper bodily function.
4. Storage: The liver stores glucose, vitamins, and minerals that can be released when the body needs them.
5. Bile production: The liver produces bile, a digestive juice that helps to break down fats in the small intestine.
6. Immune function: The liver plays a role in the immune system by filtering out bacteria and other harmful substances from the blood.

Overall, the liver is an essential organ that plays a critical role in maintaining overall health and well-being.

Liver neoplasms refer to abnormal growths in the liver that can be benign or malignant. Benign liver neoplasms are non-cancerous tumors that do not spread to other parts of the body, while malignant liver neoplasms are cancerous tumors that can invade and destroy surrounding tissue and spread to other organs.

Liver neoplasms can be primary, meaning they originate in the liver, or secondary, meaning they have metastasized (spread) to the liver from another part of the body. Primary liver neoplasms can be further classified into different types based on their cell of origin and behavior, including hepatocellular carcinoma, cholangiocarcinoma, and hepatic hemangioma.

The diagnosis of liver neoplasms typically involves a combination of imaging studies, such as ultrasound, CT scan, or MRI, and biopsy to confirm the type and stage of the tumor. Treatment options depend on the type and extent of the neoplasm and may include surgery, radiation therapy, chemotherapy, or liver transplantation.

Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the most common type of primary liver cancer in adults. It originates from the hepatocytes, which are the main functional cells of the liver. This type of cancer is often associated with chronic liver diseases such as cirrhosis caused by hepatitis B or C virus infection, alcohol abuse, non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), and aflatoxin exposure.

The symptoms of HCC can vary but may include unexplained weight loss, lack of appetite, abdominal pain or swelling, jaundice, and fatigue. The diagnosis of HCC typically involves imaging tests such as ultrasound, CT scan, or MRI, as well as blood tests to measure alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) levels. Treatment options for Hepatocellular carcinoma depend on the stage and extent of the cancer, as well as the patient's overall health and liver function. Treatment options may include surgery, radiation therapy, chemotherapy, targeted therapy, or liver transplantation.

The portal vein is the large venous trunk that carries blood from the gastrointestinal tract, spleen, pancreas, and gallbladder to the liver. It is formed by the union of the superior mesenteric vein (draining the small intestine and a portion of the large intestine) and the splenic vein (draining the spleen and pancreas). The portal vein then divides into right and left branches within the liver, where the blood flows through the sinusoids and gets enriched with oxygen and nutrients before being drained by the hepatic veins into the inferior vena cava. This unique arrangement allows the liver to process and detoxify the absorbed nutrients, remove waste products, and regulate metabolic homeostasis.

2-Acetylaminofluorene (2-AAF) is a chemical compound that has been used in research to study the mechanisms of carcinogenesis. It is an aromatic amine and a derivative of fluorene, with the chemical formula C14H11NO.

2-AAF is not naturally occurring and is synthesized in the laboratory. It has been found to be carcinogenic in animal studies, causing tumors in various organs including the liver, lung, and bladder. The compound is metabolically activated in the body to form reactive intermediates that can bind to DNA and other cellular components, leading to mutations and cancer.

2-AAF has been used as a tool in research to investigate the mechanisms of chemical carcinogenesis and the role of metabolic activation in the process. It is not used in medical treatments or therapies.

Hepatocytes are the predominant type of cells in the liver, accounting for about 80% of its cytoplasmic mass. They play a key role in protein synthesis, protein storage, transformation of carbohydrates, synthesis of cholesterol, bile salts and phospholipids, detoxification, modification, and excretion of exogenous and endogenous substances, initiation of formation and secretion of bile, and enzyme production. Hepatocytes are essential for the maintenance of homeostasis in the body.

Lithiasis is a medical term that refers to the formation of stones or calculi in various organs of the body. These stones can develop in the kidneys (nephrolithiasis), gallbladder (cholelithiasis), urinary bladder (cystolithiasis), or salivary glands (sialolithiasis). The stones are usually composed of minerals and organic substances, and their formation can be influenced by various factors such as diet, dehydration, genetic predisposition, and chronic inflammation. Lithiasis can cause a range of symptoms depending on the location and size of the stone, including pain, obstruction, infection, and damage to surrounding tissues. Treatment may involve medication, shock wave lithotripsy, or surgical removal of the stones.

Diethylnitrosamine (DEN) is a potent chemical carcinogen that belongs to the class of nitrosamines. It is known to induce tumors in various organs, including the liver, kidney, and lungs, in different animal species. Diethylnitrosamine requires metabolic activation by enzymes such as cytochrome P450 to exert its carcinogenic effects.

Diethylnitrosamine is not typically used for medical purposes but may be employed in laboratory research to study the mechanisms of chemical carcinogenesis and cancer development. It is essential to handle this compound with care, following appropriate safety protocols, due to its potential hazards.

Liver transplantation is a surgical procedure in which a diseased or failing liver is replaced with a healthy one from a deceased donor or, less commonly, a portion of a liver from a living donor. The goal of the procedure is to restore normal liver function and improve the patient's overall health and quality of life.

Liver transplantation may be recommended for individuals with end-stage liver disease, acute liver failure, certain genetic liver disorders, or liver cancers that cannot be treated effectively with other therapies. The procedure involves complex surgery to remove the diseased liver and implant the new one, followed by a period of recovery and close medical monitoring to ensure proper function and minimize the risk of complications.

The success of liver transplantation has improved significantly in recent years due to advances in surgical techniques, immunosuppressive medications, and post-transplant care. However, it remains a major operation with significant risks and challenges, including the need for lifelong immunosuppression to prevent rejection of the new liver, as well as potential complications such as infection, bleeding, and organ failure.

A living donor is a person who voluntarily donates an organ or part of an organ to another person while they are still alive. This can include donations such as a kidney, liver lobe, lung, or portion of the pancreas or intestines. The donor and recipient typically undergo medical evaluation and compatibility testing to ensure the best possible outcome for the transplantation procedure. Living donation is regulated by laws and ethical guidelines to ensure that donors are fully informed and making a voluntary decision.

Intrahepatic bile ducts are the small tubular structures inside the liver that collect bile from the liver cells (hepatocytes). Bile is a digestive fluid produced by the liver that helps in the absorption of fats and fat-soluble vitamins from food. The intrahepatic bile ducts merge to form larger ducts, which eventually exit the liver and join with the cystic duct from the gallbladder to form the common bile duct. The common bile duct then empties into the duodenum, the first part of the small intestine, where bile aids in digestion. Intrahepatic bile ducts can become obstructed or damaged due to various conditions such as gallstones, tumors, or inflammation, leading to complications like jaundice, liver damage, and infection.

F344 is a strain code used to designate an outbred stock of rats that has been inbreeded for over 100 generations. The F344 rats, also known as Fischer 344 rats, were originally developed at the National Institutes of Health (NIH) and are now widely used in biomedical research due to their consistent and reliable genetic background.

Inbred strains, like the F344, are created by mating genetically identical individuals (siblings or parents and offspring) for many generations until a state of complete homozygosity is reached, meaning that all members of the strain have identical genomes. This genetic uniformity makes inbred strains ideal for use in studies where consistent and reproducible results are important.

F344 rats are known for their longevity, with a median lifespan of around 27-31 months, making them useful for aging research. They also have a relatively low incidence of spontaneous tumors compared to other rat strains. However, they may be more susceptible to certain types of cancer and other diseases due to their inbred status.

It's important to note that while F344 rats are often used as a standard laboratory rat strain, there can still be some genetic variation between individual animals within the same strain, particularly if they come from different suppliers or breeding colonies. Therefore, it's always important to consider the source and history of any animal model when designing experiments and interpreting results.

Bile duct neoplasms, also known as cholangiocarcinomas, refer to a group of malignancies that arise from the bile ducts. These are the tubes that carry bile from the liver to the gallbladder and small intestine. Bile duct neoplasms can be further classified based on their location as intrahepatic (within the liver), perihilar (at the junction of the left and right hepatic ducts), or distal (in the common bile duct).

These tumors are relatively rare, but their incidence has been increasing in recent years. They can cause a variety of symptoms, including jaundice, abdominal pain, weight loss, and fever. The diagnosis of bile duct neoplasms typically involves imaging studies such as CT or MRI scans, as well as blood tests to assess liver function. In some cases, a biopsy may be necessary to confirm the diagnosis.

Treatment options for bile duct neoplasms depend on several factors, including the location and stage of the tumor, as well as the patient's overall health. Surgical resection is the preferred treatment for early-stage tumors, while chemotherapy and radiation therapy may be used in more advanced cases. For patients who are not candidates for surgery, palliative treatments such as stenting or bypass procedures may be recommended to relieve symptoms and improve quality of life.

The hepatic veins are blood vessels that carry oxygen-depleted blood from the liver back to the heart. There are typically three major hepatic veins - right, middle, and left - that originate from the posterior aspect of the liver and drain into the inferior vena cava just below the diaphragm. These veins are responsible for returning the majority of the blood flow from the gastrointestinal tract and spleen to the heart. It's important to note that the hepatic veins do not have valves, which can make them susceptible to a condition called Budd-Chiari syndrome, where blood clots form in the veins and obstruct the flow of blood from the liver.

In the field of medicine, "time factors" refer to the duration of symptoms or time elapsed since the onset of a medical condition, which can have significant implications for diagnosis and treatment. Understanding time factors is crucial in determining the progression of a disease, evaluating the effectiveness of treatments, and making critical decisions regarding patient care.

For example, in stroke management, "time is brain," meaning that rapid intervention within a specific time frame (usually within 4.5 hours) is essential to administering tissue plasminogen activator (tPA), a clot-busting drug that can minimize brain damage and improve patient outcomes. Similarly, in trauma care, the "golden hour" concept emphasizes the importance of providing definitive care within the first 60 minutes after injury to increase survival rates and reduce morbidity.

Time factors also play a role in monitoring the progression of chronic conditions like diabetes or heart disease, where regular follow-ups and assessments help determine appropriate treatment adjustments and prevent complications. In infectious diseases, time factors are crucial for initiating antibiotic therapy and identifying potential outbreaks to control their spread.

Overall, "time factors" encompass the significance of recognizing and acting promptly in various medical scenarios to optimize patient outcomes and provide effective care.

Liver diseases refer to a wide range of conditions that affect the normal functioning of the liver. The liver is a vital organ responsible for various critical functions such as detoxification, protein synthesis, and production of biochemicals necessary for digestion.

Liver diseases can be categorized into acute and chronic forms. Acute liver disease comes on rapidly and can be caused by factors like viral infections (hepatitis A, B, C, D, E), drug-induced liver injury, or exposure to toxic substances. Chronic liver disease develops slowly over time, often due to long-term exposure to harmful agents or inherent disorders of the liver.

Common examples of liver diseases include hepatitis, cirrhosis (scarring of the liver tissue), fatty liver disease, alcoholic liver disease, autoimmune liver diseases, genetic/hereditary liver disorders (like Wilson's disease and hemochromatosis), and liver cancers. Symptoms may vary widely depending on the type and stage of the disease but could include jaundice, abdominal pain, fatigue, loss of appetite, nausea, and weight loss.

Early diagnosis and treatment are essential to prevent progression and potential complications associated with liver diseases.

Liver function tests (LFTs) are a group of blood tests that are used to assess the functioning and health of the liver. These tests measure the levels of various enzymes, proteins, and waste products that are produced or metabolized by the liver. Some common LFTs include:

1. Alanine aminotransferase (ALT): An enzyme found primarily in the liver, ALT is released into the bloodstream in response to liver cell damage. Elevated levels of ALT may indicate liver injury or disease.
2. Aspartate aminotransferase (AST): Another enzyme found in various tissues, including the liver, heart, and muscles. Like ALT, AST is released into the bloodstream following tissue damage. High AST levels can be a sign of liver damage or other medical conditions.
3. Alkaline phosphatase (ALP): An enzyme found in several organs, including the liver, bile ducts, and bones. Elevated ALP levels may indicate a blockage in the bile ducts, liver disease, or bone disorders.
4. Gamma-glutamyl transferase (GGT): An enzyme found mainly in the liver, pancreas, and biliary system. Increased GGT levels can suggest liver disease, alcohol consumption, or the use of certain medications.
5. Bilirubin: A yellowish pigment produced when hemoglobin from red blood cells is broken down. Bilirubin is processed by the liver and excreted through bile. High bilirubin levels can indicate liver dysfunction, bile duct obstruction, or certain types of anemia.
6. Albumin: A protein produced by the liver that helps maintain fluid balance in the body and transports various substances in the blood. Low albumin levels may suggest liver damage, malnutrition, or kidney disease.
7. Total protein: A measure of all proteins present in the blood, including albumin and other types of proteins produced by the liver. Decreased total protein levels can indicate liver dysfunction or other medical conditions.

These tests are often ordered together as part of a routine health checkup or when evaluating symptoms related to liver function or disease. The results should be interpreted in conjunction with clinical findings, medical history, and other diagnostic tests.

Surgical blood loss is the amount of blood that is lost during a surgical procedure. It can occur through various routes such as incisions, punctures or during the removal of organs or tissues. The amount of blood loss can vary widely depending on the type and complexity of the surgery being performed.

Surgical blood loss can be classified into three categories:

1. Insensible losses: These are small amounts of blood that are lost through the skin, respiratory tract, or gastrointestinal tract during surgery. They are not usually significant enough to cause any clinical effects.
2. Visible losses: These are larger amounts of blood that can be seen and measured directly during surgery. They may require transfusion or other interventions to prevent hypovolemia (low blood volume) and its complications.
3. Hidden losses: These are internal bleeding that cannot be easily seen or measured during surgery. They can occur in the abdominal cavity, retroperitoneal space, or other areas of the body. They may require further exploration or imaging studies to diagnose and manage.

Surgical blood loss can lead to several complications such as hypovolemia, anemia, coagulopathy (disorders of blood clotting), and organ dysfunction. Therefore, it is essential to monitor and manage surgical blood loss effectively to ensure optimal patient outcomes.

Experimental liver neoplasms refer to abnormal growths or tumors in the liver that are intentionally created or manipulated in a laboratory setting for the purpose of studying their development, progression, and potential treatment options. These experimental models can be established using various methods such as chemical induction, genetic modification, or transplantation of cancerous cells or tissues. The goal of this research is to advance our understanding of liver cancer biology and develop novel therapies for liver neoplasms in humans. It's important to note that these experiments are conducted under strict ethical guidelines and regulations to minimize harm and ensure the humane treatment of animals involved in such studies.

Cholangiocarcinoma is a type of cancer that arises from the cells that line the bile ducts, which are small tubes that carry digestive enzymes from the liver to the small intestine. It can occur in different parts of the bile duct system, including the bile ducts inside the liver (intrahepatic), the bile ducts outside the liver (extrahepatic), and the area where the bile ducts join the pancreas and small intestine (ampulla of Vater).

Cholangiocarcinoma is a relatively rare cancer, but its incidence has been increasing in recent years. It can be difficult to diagnose because its symptoms are often nonspecific and similar to those of other conditions, such as gallstones or pancreatitis. Treatment options depend on the location and stage of the cancer, and may include surgery, radiation therapy, chemotherapy, or a combination of these approaches.

Organ size refers to the volume or physical measurement of an organ in the body of an individual. It can be described in terms of length, width, and height or by using specialized techniques such as imaging studies (like CT scans or MRIs) to determine the volume. The size of an organ can vary depending on factors such as age, sex, body size, and overall health status. Changes in organ size may indicate various medical conditions, including growths, inflammation, or atrophy.

Surgical hemostasis refers to the methods and techniques used during surgical procedures to stop bleeding or prevent hemorrhage. This can be achieved through various means, including the use of surgical instruments such as clamps, ligatures, or staples to physically compress blood vessels and stop the flow of blood. Electrosurgical tools like cautery may also be used to coagulate and seal off bleeding vessels using heat. Additionally, topical hemostatic agents can be applied to promote clotting and control bleeding in wounded tissues. Effective surgical hemostasis is crucial for ensuring a successful surgical outcome and minimizing the risk of complications such as excessive blood loss, infection, or delayed healing.

The hepatic artery is a branch of the celiac trunk or abdominal aorta that supplies oxygenated blood to the liver. It typically divides into two main branches, the right and left hepatic arteries, which further divide into smaller vessels to supply different regions of the liver. The hepatic artery also gives off branches to supply other organs such as the gallbladder, pancreas, and duodenum.

It's worth noting that there is significant variability in the anatomy of the hepatic artery, with some individuals having additional branches or variations in the origin of the vessel. This variability can have implications for surgical procedures involving the liver and surrounding organs.

The common hepatic duct is a medical term that refers to the duct in the liver responsible for carrying bile from the liver. More specifically, it is the duct that results from the convergence of the right and left hepatic ducts, which themselves carry bile from the right and left lobes of the liver, respectively. The common hepatic duct then joins with the cystic duct from the gallbladder to form the common bile duct, which ultimately drains into the duodenum, a part of the small intestine.

The primary function of the common hepatic duct is to transport bile, a digestive juice produced by the liver, to the small intestine. Bile helps break down fats during the digestion process, making it possible for the body to absorb them properly. Any issues or abnormalities in the common hepatic duct can lead to problems with bile flow and potentially cause health complications such as jaundice, gallstones, or liver damage.

Treatment outcome is a term used to describe the result or effect of medical treatment on a patient's health status. It can be measured in various ways, such as through symptoms improvement, disease remission, reduced disability, improved quality of life, or survival rates. The treatment outcome helps healthcare providers evaluate the effectiveness of a particular treatment plan and make informed decisions about future care. It is also used in clinical research to compare the efficacy of different treatments and improve patient care.

Hepatocyte Growth Factor (HGF) is a paracrine growth factor that plays a crucial role in various biological processes, including embryonic development, tissue repair, and organ regeneration. It is primarily produced by mesenchymal cells and exerts its effects on epithelial cells, endothelial cells, and hepatocytes (liver parenchymal cells).

HGF has mitogenic, motogenic, and morphogenic properties, promoting cell proliferation, migration, and differentiation. It is particularly important in liver biology, where it stimulates the growth and regeneration of hepatocytes following injury or disease. HGF also exhibits anti-apoptotic effects, protecting cells from programmed cell death.

The receptor for HGF is a transmembrane tyrosine kinase called c-Met, which is expressed on the surface of various cell types, including hepatocytes and epithelial cells. Upon binding to its receptor, HGF activates several intracellular signaling pathways, such as the Ras/MAPK, PI3K/Akt, and JAK/STAT pathways, which ultimately regulate gene expression, cell survival, and cell cycle progression.

Dysregulation of HGF and c-Met signaling has been implicated in various pathological conditions, including cancer, fibrosis, and inflammatory diseases. Therefore, targeting this signaling axis represents a potential therapeutic strategy for these disorders.

"Calculi" is a medical term that refers to abnormal concretions or hard masses formed within the body, usually in hollow organs or cavities. These masses are typically composed of minerals such as calcium oxalate, calcium phosphate, or magnesium ammonium phosphate, and can vary in size from tiny granules to large stones. The plural form of the Latin word "calculus" (meaning "pebble"), calculi are commonly known as "stones." They can occur in various locations within the body, including the kidneys, gallbladder, urinary bladder, and prostate gland. The presence of calculi can cause a range of symptoms, such as pain, obstruction, infection, or inflammation, depending on their size, location, and composition.

Liver circulation, also known as hepatic circulation, refers to the blood flow through the liver. The liver receives blood from two sources: the hepatic artery and the portal vein.

The hepatic artery delivers oxygenated blood from the heart to the liver, accounting for about 25% of the liver's blood supply. The remaining 75% comes from the portal vein, which carries nutrient-rich, deoxygenated blood from the gastrointestinal tract, spleen, pancreas, and gallbladder to the liver.

In the liver, these two sources of blood mix in the sinusoids, small vessels with large spaces between the endothelial cells that line them. This allows for efficient exchange of substances between the blood and the hepatocytes (liver cells). The blood then leaves the liver through the hepatic veins, which merge into the inferior vena cava and return the blood to the heart.

The unique dual blood supply and extensive sinusoidal network in the liver enable it to perform various critical functions, such as detoxification, metabolism, synthesis, storage, and secretion of numerous substances, maintaining body homeostasis.

Preoperative care refers to the series of procedures, interventions, and preparations that are conducted before a surgical operation. The primary goal of preoperative care is to ensure the patient's well-being, optimize their physical condition, reduce potential risks, and prepare them mentally and emotionally for the upcoming surgery.

Preoperative care typically includes:

1. Preoperative assessment: A thorough evaluation of the patient's overall health status, including medical history, physical examination, laboratory tests, and diagnostic imaging, to identify any potential risk factors or comorbidities that may impact the surgical procedure and postoperative recovery.
2. Informed consent: The process of ensuring the patient understands the nature of the surgery, its purpose, associated risks, benefits, and alternative treatment options. The patient signs a consent form indicating they have been informed and voluntarily agree to undergo the surgery.
3. Preoperative instructions: Guidelines provided to the patient regarding their diet, medication use, and other activities in the days leading up to the surgery. These instructions may include fasting guidelines, discontinuing certain medications, or arranging for transportation after the procedure.
4. Anesthesia consultation: A meeting with the anesthesiologist to discuss the type of anesthesia that will be used during the surgery and address any concerns related to anesthesia risks, side effects, or postoperative pain management.
5. Preparation of the surgical site: Cleaning and shaving the area where the incision will be made, as well as administering appropriate antimicrobial agents to minimize the risk of infection.
6. Medical optimization: Addressing any underlying medical conditions or correcting abnormalities that may negatively impact the surgical outcome. This may involve adjusting medications, treating infections, or managing chronic diseases such as diabetes.
7. Emotional and psychological support: Providing counseling, reassurance, and education to help alleviate anxiety, fear, or emotional distress related to the surgery.
8. Preoperative holding area: The patient is transferred to a designated area near the operating room where they are prepared for surgery by changing into a gown, having intravenous (IV) lines inserted, and receiving monitoring equipment.

By following these preoperative care guidelines, healthcare professionals aim to ensure that patients undergo safe and successful surgical procedures with optimal outcomes.

Postoperative complications refer to any unfavorable condition or event that occurs during the recovery period after a surgical procedure. These complications can vary in severity and may include, but are not limited to:

1. Infection: This can occur at the site of the incision or inside the body, such as pneumonia or urinary tract infection.
2. Bleeding: Excessive bleeding (hemorrhage) can lead to a drop in blood pressure and may require further surgical intervention.
3. Blood clots: These can form in the deep veins of the legs (deep vein thrombosis) and can potentially travel to the lungs (pulmonary embolism).
4. Wound dehiscence: This is when the surgical wound opens up, which can lead to infection and further complications.
5. Pulmonary issues: These include atelectasis (collapsed lung), pneumonia, or respiratory failure.
6. Cardiovascular problems: These include abnormal heart rhythms (arrhythmias), heart attack, or stroke.
7. Renal failure: This can occur due to various reasons such as dehydration, blood loss, or the use of certain medications.
8. Pain management issues: Inadequate pain control can lead to increased stress, anxiety, and decreased mobility.
9. Nausea and vomiting: These can be caused by anesthesia, opioid pain medication, or other factors.
10. Delirium: This is a state of confusion and disorientation that can occur in the elderly or those with certain medical conditions.

Prompt identification and management of these complications are crucial to ensure the best possible outcome for the patient.

Bile ducts are tubular structures that carry bile from the liver to the gallbladder for storage or directly to the small intestine to aid in digestion. There are two types of bile ducts: intrahepatic and extrahepatic. Intrahepatic bile ducts are located within the liver and drain bile from liver cells, while extrahepatic bile ducts are outside the liver and include the common hepatic duct, cystic duct, and common bile duct. These ducts can become obstructed or inflamed, leading to various medical conditions such as cholestasis, cholecystitis, and gallstones.

Gamma-glutamyltransferase (GGT), also known as gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase, is an enzyme found in many tissues, including the liver, bile ducts, and pancreas. GGT is involved in the metabolism of certain amino acids and plays a role in the detoxification of various substances in the body.

GGT is often measured as a part of a panel of tests used to evaluate liver function. Elevated levels of GGT in the blood may indicate liver disease or injury, bile duct obstruction, or alcohol consumption. However, it's important to note that several other factors can also affect GGT levels, so abnormal results should be interpreted in conjunction with other clinical findings and diagnostic tests.

Liver failure is a serious condition in which the liver is no longer able to perform its normal functions, such as removing toxins and waste products from the blood, producing bile to help digest food, and regulating blood clotting. This can lead to a buildup of toxins in the body, jaundice (yellowing of the skin and eyes), fluid accumulation in the abdomen, and an increased risk of bleeding. Liver failure can be acute (sudden) or chronic (developing over time). Acute liver failure is often caused by medication toxicity, viral hepatitis, or other sudden illnesses. Chronic liver failure is most commonly caused by long-term damage from conditions such as cirrhosis, hepatitis, alcohol abuse, and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease.

It's important to note that Liver Failure is a life threatening condition and need immediate medical attention.

Tissue and organ harvesting is the surgical removal of healthy tissues or organs from a living or deceased donor for the purpose of transplantation into another person in need of a transplant. This procedure is performed with great care, adhering to strict medical standards and ethical guidelines, to ensure the safety and well-being of both the donor and the recipient.

In the case of living donors, the harvested tissue or organ is typically removed from a site that can be safely spared, such as a kidney, a portion of the liver, or a segment of the lung. The donor must undergo extensive medical evaluation to ensure they are physically and psychologically suitable for the procedure.

For deceased donors, tissue and organ harvesting is performed in a manner that respects their wishes and those of their family, as well as adheres to legal and ethical requirements. Organs and tissues must be recovered promptly after death to maintain their viability for transplantation.

Tissue and organ harvesting is an essential component of the transplant process, allowing individuals with terminal illnesses or severe injuries to receive life-saving or life-enhancing treatments. It is a complex and highly regulated medical practice that requires specialized training, expertise, and coordination among healthcare professionals, donor families, and recipients.

Bilirubin is a yellowish pigment that is produced by the liver when it breaks down old red blood cells. It is a normal byproduct of hemoglobin metabolism and is usually conjugated (made water-soluble) in the liver before being excreted through the bile into the digestive system. Elevated levels of bilirubin can cause jaundice, a yellowing of the skin and eyes. Increased bilirubin levels may indicate liver disease or other medical conditions such as gallstones or hemolysis. It is also measured to assess liver function and to help diagnose various liver disorders.

"Inbred strains of rats" are genetically identical rodents that have been produced through many generations of brother-sister mating. This results in a high degree of homozygosity, where the genes at any particular locus in the genome are identical in all members of the strain.

Inbred strains of rats are widely used in biomedical research because they provide a consistent and reproducible genetic background for studying various biological phenomena, including the effects of drugs, environmental factors, and genetic mutations on health and disease. Additionally, inbred strains can be used to create genetically modified models of human diseases by introducing specific mutations into their genomes.

Some commonly used inbred strains of rats include the Wistar Kyoto (WKY), Sprague-Dawley (SD), and Fischer 344 (F344) rat strains. Each strain has its own unique genetic characteristics, making them suitable for different types of research.

Pyrrolizidine alkaloids (PAs) are a group of naturally occurring chemical compounds found in various plants, particularly in the families Boraginaceae, Asteraceae, and Fabaceae. These compounds have a pyrrolizidine ring structure and can be toxic or carcinogenic to humans and animals. They can contaminate food and feed sources, leading to poisoning and health issues. Chronic exposure to PAs has been linked to liver damage, veno-occlusive disease, and cancer. It is important to avoid consumption of plants containing high levels of PAs and to monitor food and feed sources for PA contamination.

Proliferating Cell Nuclear Antigen (PCNA) is a protein that plays an essential role in the process of DNA replication and repair in eukaryotic cells. It functions as a cofactor for DNA polymerase delta, enhancing its activity during DNA synthesis. PCNA forms a sliding clamp around DNA, allowing it to move along the template and coordinate the actions of various enzymes involved in DNA metabolism.

PCNA is often used as a marker for cell proliferation because its levels increase in cells that are actively dividing or have been stimulated to enter the cell cycle. Immunostaining techniques can be used to detect PCNA and determine the proliferative status of tissues or cultures. In this context, 'proliferating' refers to the rapid multiplication of cells through cell division.

"Wistar rats" are a strain of albino rats that are widely used in laboratory research. They were developed at the Wistar Institute in Philadelphia, USA, and were first introduced in 1906. Wistar rats are outbred, which means that they are genetically diverse and do not have a fixed set of genetic characteristics like inbred strains.

Wistar rats are commonly used as animal models in biomedical research because of their size, ease of handling, and relatively low cost. They are used in a wide range of research areas, including toxicology, pharmacology, nutrition, cancer, cardiovascular disease, and behavioral studies. Wistar rats are also used in safety testing of drugs, medical devices, and other products.

Wistar rats are typically larger than many other rat strains, with males weighing between 500-700 grams and females weighing between 250-350 grams. They have a lifespan of approximately 2-3 years. Wistar rats are also known for their docile and friendly nature, making them easy to handle and work with in the laboratory setting.

I apologize for any confusion, but "Hyptis" is not a medical term. It is a genus of plants in the mint family, also known as "Brazilian mint" or " bushmint." Some Hyptis species have been used in traditional medicine, but there is limited scientific evidence supporting their effectiveness. If you have any questions about specific medical terms or concepts, I would be happy to help if I can!

Retrospective studies, also known as retrospective research or looking back studies, are a type of observational study that examines data from the past to draw conclusions about possible causal relationships between risk factors and outcomes. In these studies, researchers analyze existing records, medical charts, or previously collected data to test a hypothesis or answer a specific research question.

Retrospective studies can be useful for generating hypotheses and identifying trends, but they have limitations compared to prospective studies, which follow participants forward in time from exposure to outcome. Retrospective studies are subject to biases such as recall bias, selection bias, and information bias, which can affect the validity of the results. Therefore, retrospective studies should be interpreted with caution and used primarily to generate hypotheses for further testing in prospective studies.

A subphrenic abscess is a localized collection of pus (purulent material) that forms in the area below the diaphragm and above the upper part of the stomach, known as the subphrenic space. This condition often results from a complication of abdominal or pelvic surgery, perforated ulcers, or severe intra-abdominal infections. The abscess can cause symptoms such as abdominal pain, fever, and decreased appetite, and it may require medical intervention, including antibiotics, drainage, or surgical management.

Alanine transaminase (ALT) is a type of enzyme found primarily in the cells of the liver and, to a lesser extent, in the cells of other tissues such as the heart, muscles, and kidneys. Its primary function is to catalyze the reversible transfer of an amino group from alanine to another alpha-keto acid, usually pyruvate, to form pyruvate and another amino acid, usually glutamate. This process is known as the transamination reaction.

When liver cells are damaged or destroyed due to various reasons such as hepatitis, alcohol abuse, nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, or drug-induced liver injury, ALT is released into the bloodstream. Therefore, measuring the level of ALT in the blood is a useful diagnostic tool for evaluating liver function and detecting liver damage. Normal ALT levels vary depending on the laboratory, but typically range from 7 to 56 units per liter (U/L) for men and 6 to 45 U/L for women. Elevated ALT levels may indicate liver injury or disease, although other factors such as muscle damage or heart disease can also cause elevations in ALT.

Therapeutic embolization is a medical procedure that involves intentionally blocking or obstructing blood vessels to stop excessive bleeding or block the flow of blood to a tumor or abnormal tissue. This is typically accomplished by injecting small particles, such as microspheres or coils, into the targeted blood vessel through a catheter, which is inserted into a larger blood vessel and guided to the desired location using imaging techniques like X-ray or CT scanning. The goal of therapeutic embolization is to reduce the size of a tumor, control bleeding, or block off abnormal blood vessels that are causing problems.

Local neoplasm recurrence is the return or regrowth of a tumor in the same location where it was originally removed or treated. This means that cancer cells have survived the initial treatment and started to grow again in the same area. It's essential to monitor and detect any local recurrence as early as possible, as it can affect the prognosis and may require additional treatment.

Aspartate aminotransferases (ASTs) are a group of enzymes found in various tissues throughout the body, including the heart, liver, and muscles. They play a crucial role in the metabolic process of transferring amino groups between different molecules.

In medical terms, AST is often used as a blood test to measure the level of this enzyme in the serum. Elevated levels of AST can indicate damage or injury to tissues that contain this enzyme, such as the liver or heart. For example, liver disease, including hepatitis and cirrhosis, can cause elevated AST levels due to damage to liver cells. Similarly, heart attacks can also result in increased AST levels due to damage to heart muscle tissue.

It is important to note that an AST test alone cannot diagnose a specific medical condition, but it can provide valuable information when used in conjunction with other diagnostic tests and clinical evaluation.

The Mitotic Index (MI) is a measure of cell proliferation that reflects the percentage of cells in a population or sample that are undergoing mitosis, which is the process of cell division. It is often expressed as the number of mitotic figures (dividing cells) per 100 or 1,000 cells counted in a microscopic field. The Mitotic Index is used in various fields, including pathology and research, to assess the growth fraction of cells in tissues or cultures, and to monitor the effects of treatments that affect cell division, such as chemotherapy or radiation therapy.

Medical survival rate is a statistical measure used to determine the percentage of patients who are still alive for a specific period of time after their diagnosis or treatment for a certain condition or disease. It is often expressed as a five-year survival rate, which refers to the proportion of people who are alive five years after their diagnosis. Survival rates can be affected by many factors, including the stage of the disease at diagnosis, the patient's age and overall health, the effectiveness of treatment, and other health conditions that the patient may have. It is important to note that survival rates are statistical estimates and do not necessarily predict an individual patient's prognosis.

Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) is the genetic material present in the cells of organisms where it is responsible for the storage and transmission of hereditary information. DNA is a long molecule that consists of two strands coiled together to form a double helix. Each strand is made up of a series of four nucleotide bases - adenine (A), guanine (G), cytosine (C), and thymine (T) - that are linked together by phosphate and sugar groups. The sequence of these bases along the length of the molecule encodes genetic information, with A always pairing with T and C always pairing with G. This base-pairing allows for the replication and transcription of DNA, which are essential processes in the functioning and reproduction of all living organisms.

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Li H, Zheng J, Cai JY, Li SH, Zhang JB, Wang XM, Chen GH, Yang Y, Wang GS (November 2017). "VS open hepatectomy for ...
"A Novel Mitochondrial Carnitine-acylcarnitine Translocase Induced by Partial Hepatectomy and Fasting". Journal of Biological ...
... has also been suggested as a biomarker for hepatectomy-induced liver injury in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma. ... "Correlation between plasma miR-122 expression and liver injury induced by hepatectomy". The Journal of International Medical ...
Right Hepatectomy", Surgical Pitfalls, Philadelphia: W.B. Saunders, pp. 329-338, ISBN 978-1-4160-2951-9, retrieved 2021-01-25 ( ... "Prospective evaluation of Pringle maneuver in hepatectomy for liver tumors by a randomized study". Annals of Surgery. 226 (6): ... "Tolerance of the liver to intermittent pringle maneuver in hepatectomy for liver tumors". Archives of Surgery. 134 (5): 533-9. ... "Tolerance of the Liver to Intermittent Pringle Maneuver in Hepatectomy for Liver Tumors". Archives of Surgery. 134 (5): 533-539 ...
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"Effect of the aqueous extract of Sida cordifolia on liver regeneration after partial hepatectomy". Acta Cirurgica Brasileira. ...
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"Comparison of Right Lobe Donor Hepatectomy with Elective Right Hepatectomy for Other Causes in New York". Dig Dis Sci. 56 (6): ... "Comparison of Right Lobe Donor Hepatectomy with Elective Right Hepatectomy for Other Casuses in New york". Dig Dis Sci. 56 (6 ...
Prediction of postoperative outcome after hepatectomy with a new bedside test for maximal liver function capacity. Annals of ... Function and volume recovery after partial hepatectomy: influence of preoperative liver function, residual liver volume, and ...
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Alican, Fikri; Çayırlı, Mukadder; Keith, Virginia (March 1971). "One-Stage Hepatectomy in the Dog with Restoration of the Vena ... Replantation of the Liver in Dogs Following Total Hepatectomy]". Türk Tıp Cemiyeti Mecmuası. 33 (4): 209-226. ISSN 0494-2736. ...
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2002). "ATA2-mediated amino acid uptake following partial hepatectomy is regulated by redistribution to the plasma membrane". ...
Hepatectomies may be anatomic, i.e. the lines of resection match the limits of one or more functional segments of the liver as ... Hepatectomy is the surgical resection (removal of all or part) of the liver. While the term is often employed for the removal ... The first hepatectomies were reported by Dr. Ichio Honjo (1913-1987) of (Kyoto University) in 1949, and Dr. Jean-Louis Lortat- ... Hepatectomy may also be the procedure of choice to treat intrahepatic gallstones or parasitic cysts of the liver. Partial ...
encoded search term (Living Donor Hepatectomy) and Living Donor Hepatectomy What to Read Next on Medscape ... Living Donor Hepatectomy. Updated: Mar 04, 2022 * Author: Antonios Arvelakis, MD, MPH; Chief Editor: Stuart M Greenstein, MD ... Robotic Donor Hepatectomy: A Major Breakthrough in Living Donor Liver Transplantation * Report of First US Living Donor Liver ... 4] and the fact that a child needs only a small allograft, so an adult donor would not need to undergo major hepatectomy. [5] ...
... J Surg Res. 2017 Feb;208 ... after extended hepatectomy (EH) or living-donor liver transplantation is still controversial. We have designed an experimental ...
Herein we present the case of a post-SIRT full-laparoscopic right hepatectomy:. CASE DESCRIPTION: This is the case of a 71 year ... Laparoscopic Right Hepatectomy after Right Hemiliver Radiation Lobectomy with Y90 SIRTspheres. Fernando Rotellar1, Fernando ... Conclusion: Laparoscopic liver resection after SIRT is feasible and safe, even in major hepatectomies. ... Three patients underwent laparoscopic right hepatectomy after previous right hemiliver radiation lobectomy: two cirrhotic ...
Keywords : adolescent, adult, Age Factors, Body Mass Index, child, Cohort Studies, female, Hepatectomy, Humans, length of stay ... Quality of life of liver donors following donor hepatectomy.. Publication Type : Journal Article ... "Quality of life of liver donors following donor hepatectomy.", Indian J Gastroenterol, vol. 36, no. 2, pp. 92-98, 2017. ...
Xu LN, Xu YY, Li GP, Yang B. Individualized risk estimation for postoperative pulmonary complications after hepatectomy based ... Table 3 Multivariate analysis to screen and assign independent influencing factors of post-hepatectomy pulmonary complications ... Table 2 Univariate analysis of preoperative clinical risk factors related to pulmonary complications of hepatectomy ... Individualized risk estimation for postoperative pulmonary complications after hepatectomy based on perioperative variables. ...
Major hepatectomies are routinely performed because they are often the only curative treatment for metastatic liver disease. ... Clinical outcomes after major hepatectomy are acceptable in low-volume centers in the Caribbean. World J Hepatol 2019; 11(2): ... There has been a trend to concentrate major hepatectomies in referral hospitals that perform these operations at high volumes. ... Clinical outcomes after major hepatectomy are acceptable in low-volume centers in the Caribbean ...
Gastrectomy and Hepatectomy by Multi Piercing Surgery Using 3-mm Diameter Electronic Control Forceps. Previous Image ...
i,Materials and Methods,/i,. 88 patients with 90 HCCs who underwent right hepatectomy were retrospectively included. The future ... with clinical features can be helpful in predicting the liver regeneration rate in patients with HCCs after right hepatectomy. ... i,Objectives,/i,. To predict the regenerative rate of liver in patients with HCCs after right hepatectomy using texture ... A 51-year-old male patient with HCC underwent CT scan of the portal venous phase before and after regular right hepatectomy. (a ...
... to learn whether Pengs test for intraoperative BL detection is effective and safe in reducing bile leakage after hepatectomy. ... Then, in partial hepatectomy for HCC, comparison research was done between a prospective cohort of patients using Pengs test ... A frequent side effect of partial hepatectomy for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is bile leakage (BL). However, because of the ... BL Reduction Using a Novel Pengs Test After Partial Hepatectomy for HCC. Aug 17, 2022 ...
Inducing rapid liver hypertrophy using Associating Liver Partition and Portal vein ligation for a Staged hepatectomy (ALPPS) ... Rat Model Associating Liver Partition And Portal Vein Ligation For Staged Hepatectomy ALPPS Procedure Hypertrophy Portal Vein ... Nadalin, S., et al. Volumetric and functional recovery of the liver after right hepatectomy for living donation. Liver Transpl ... Wei, W., et al. Establishment of a rat model: Associating liver partition with portal vein ligation for staged hepatectomy. ...
... and ICG fluorescence-guided surgery has been used for intraoperative navigation in irregular hepatectomy, but insufficient ... Irregular hepatectomy plays a prominent role in the treatment of small hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) patients with severe ... Irregular hepatectomy plays a prominent role in the treatment of small hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) patients with severe ... Contrast-Enhanced Multispectral Photoacoustic Imaging for Irregular Hepatectomy Navigation: A Pilot Study. Yueming, Zhang, Jing ...
Clavien, Pierre A; Lillemoe, Keith D (2016). Associating liver partition and portal vein ligation for staged hepatectomy. ...
Scientific publication from 2020 on Hepatectomy in the Journal of Surgical Oncology. Clínica Universidad de Navarra ... This concept is demonstrated in two examples: an extended (to MHV) left and a right hepatectomy, both difficult due to giant ... This approach is particularly useful in difficult major hepatectomies: an early identification of the MHV above the hilum at ...
A Randomized Controlled Trial Comparing Stapler Hepatectomy and CUSA Resection - Table 2 ... stapler hepatectomyrandomized controlled trialCUSA resectioncmsurgery durationStaplermortality.ResultsMean transection speed ... A Randomized Controlled Trial Comparing Stapler Hepatectomy and CUSA Resection - Table 2. ... A Randomized Controlled Trial Comparing Stapler Hepatectomy and CUSA Resection - Table 2 ...
Dive into the research topics of DNA synthesis in exocrine and endocrine pancreas after partial hepatectomy in Syrian golden ... DNA synthesis in exocrine and endocrine pancreas after partial hepatectomy in Syrian golden hamsters. ...
Hepatectomy is the surgical resection (removal of all or part) of the liver. ... Hepatectomy. Hepatectomy is the surgical resection (removal of all or part) of the liver. While the term is often employed for ... Right Lobe Donor Hepatectomy using upper midline incision - AS Soin, Amit Rastogi, Rohan Chaudhary. Source: Rohan Chaudhary ... Right Lobe Donor Hepatectomy using upper midline incision - AS Soin, Amit Rastogi, Rohan Chaudhary. View More ...
Partial hepatectomy is commonly performed to remove benign or malignant liver tumors. This is especially true for liver cancer ... Partial hepatectomy is commonly performed to remove benign or malignant liver tumors. This is especially true for liver cancer ... Not all liver cancers can be treated using a partial hepatectomy. Advanced imaging such as CT or MRI can tell us if the tumor ... Some of these diseases may require the partial or complete removal of the liver, known as a hepatectomy or liver resection. Of ...
Hepatectomy For Left Lateral Lobe Hcc Jhc. Опубликовано в рубрике Uncategorized От cindyclarissa748Опубликовано 24 июня, 2023. ...
Evaluation of postoperative nutritional state after hepatectomy for hepatocellular carcinoma. Hepato-gastroenterology 50.53 ( ... The unreliability of continuous postoperative lactate monitoring after extended hepatectomies: single center experience. ... one cannot make any useful comments about analgesia and sedation in post-hepatectomy setting. Drugs like hydromorphone and ... Question 1a from the first paper of 2004 asked the candidate to list the problems encountered by a partial hepatectomy patient ...
Galectin-1 is essential for efficient liver regeneration following hepatectomy. Tamara Potikha, Ezra Ella, Juan P. Cerliani, ... Here, we explored the role of Gal1 in liver regeneration using 70% partial hepatectomy (PHx) of C57BL/6 wild type and Gal1- ... Keywords: galectin-1, liver regeneration, hepatectomy, lipid metabolism, Pathology Section. Received: January 19, 2016 Accepted ...
For a left lateral hepatectomy, the parenchymal transection line is less defined compared to a right hepatectomy, which is ... Tutorial: Utilizing 3D models for surgical pre-planning - Left lateral lobe donor hepatectomy. June 28, 2021Process, Tutorial ... To continue the series, we will be moving on to our next case example - a left lateral segment living donor hepatectomy for use ... Tutorial: Utilizing 3D models for surgical pre-planning - Left lateral lobe donor hepatectomyAlbert Fung2021-06-28T14:12:30-04: ...
METHODS: From January 2022 to January 2023, a total of 98 patients undergoing laparoscopic hepatectomy in our hospital were ... Efficacy of Standardized Process Management of Early Postoperative Enteral Nutrition After Laparoscopic Hepatectomy: A ... as well as reducing the incidence of related complications among patients undergoing laparoscopic hepatectomy, which supports a ... of standardized process management of early postoperative enteral nutrition in patients undergoing laparoscopic hepatectomy.. ...
Hepatectomy For Left Lateral Lobe Hcc Jhc. Uncategorized / By Vinyl Flooring Singapore ...
Local treatment for recurrent colorectal hepatic metastases after partial hepatectomy. Anne E.M. Van Der Pool, Z. S. Lalmahomed ... Local treatment for recurrent colorectal hepatic metastases after partial hepatectomy. / Van Der Pool, Anne E.M.; Lalmahomed, Z ... Patients with a disease-free interval between first hepatectomy and hepatic recurrence less than 6 months did not survive 3 ... Patients with a disease-free interval between first hepatectomy and hepatic recurrence less than 6 months did not survive 3 ...
... Che Lu1, Lu Xin2, Pei Li-jian1, * ... Schumann R, Zabala L, Angelis M, Bonney I, Tighiouart H, Carr DB.Altered hematologic profiles following donor right hepatectomy ... Efficacy and Safety of a Continuous Wound Catheter in Open Abdominal Partial Hepatectomy[J].Chinese Medical Sciences Journal, ... Patients undergoing open abdominal partial hepatectomy, according to their willingness, accepted one of the following ...
Development of Support System for Hepatectomy Considering Liver Regeneration」の研究トピックを掘り下げます。これらがまとまってユニークなフィンガープリントを構成します。 ... Takahashi, S, Uchiyama, A & Suzuki, N 1996, Development of Support System for Hepatectomy Considering Liver Regeneration, ... Takahashi, S., Uchiyama, A., & Suzuki, N. (1996). Development of Support System for Hepatectomy Considering Liver Regeneration ... Development of Support System for Hepatectomy
We report our experience in a two-stage hepatectomy done for a JW patient who underwent live donor liver transplant from his ... We report our experience in a two-stage hepatectomy done for a JW patient who underwent live donor liver transplant from his ... We report our experience in a two-stage hepatectomy done for a JW patient who underwent live donor liver transplant from his ... We report our experience in a two-stage hepatectomy done for a JW patient who underwent live donor liver transplant from his ...
Finally, hepatectomy was completed with a laparoscopic approach.. Results:. All animals have survived the procedures, with no ... 157) Emergency right hepatectomy for porta hepatis injury during laparoscopic cholecystectomy (146) BAROS PROTOCOL IN A ... PERCUTANEOUS RADIOFREQUENCY ASSISTED LIVER PARTITION WITH PORTAL VEIN EMBOLIZATION FOR STAGED HEPATECTOMY (PRALPPS). Mariano E ... for stage hepatectomy in pigs is feasible. ...
Methods A total of 126 adult patients undergoing partial hepatectomy under general anesthesia were randomly assigned to receive ... μg reduced the incidence of moderate to severe pain and pain scores during movement within 24 hours after partial hepatectomy. ... hydromorphone to a multimodal strategy could safely improve analgesic efficacy for patients undergoing partial hepatectomy. ...
  • Partial hepatectomies are also performed to remove a portion of a liver from a living donor for transplantation. (wikipedia.org)
  • A frequent side effect of partial hepatectomy for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is bile leakage (BL). (physiciansweekly.com)
  • Then, in partial hepatectomy for HCC, comparison research was done between a prospective cohort of patients using Peng's test and a retrospective historical cohort patient group using the White Gauze test. (physiciansweekly.com)
  • 4 The increase in volume and function of the liver is reliable, but the growth rate of the liver after portal occlusion is only about one fifth compared to the growth of the remnant liver after partial hepatectomy. (jove.com)
  • Some of these diseases may require the partial or complete removal of the liver, known as a hepatectomy or liver resection. (minimallyinvasivesurgeryfl.com)
  • Partial hepatectomy is commonly performed to remove benign or malignant liver tumors. (minimallyinvasivesurgeryfl.com)
  • Not all liver cancers can be treated using a partial hepatectomy. (minimallyinvasivesurgeryfl.com)
  • Both Question 1 from the second paper of 2006 and the near-identical Question 1a from the first paper of 2004 asked the candidate to list the problems encountered by a partial hepatectomy patient in the first 48 hours. (derangedphysiology.com)
  • Here, we explored the role of Gal1 in liver regeneration using 70% partial hepatectomy (PHx) of C57BL/6 wild type and Gal1-knockout (Gal1-KO, Lgals1-/- ) mice. (oncotarget.com)
  • To investigate the efficacy and safety of continuous local anesthetic wound infiltration following open abdominal partial hepatectomy. (cams.cn)
  • Patients undergoing open abdominal partial hepatectomy, according to their willingness, accepted one of the following managements for the postoperative pain: continuous wound catheter (CWC) infiltration, patient-controlled epidural analgesia (PCEA), patient-controlled intravenous analgesia of morphine (PCIAM), and patient-controlled intravenous analgesia of sufentanil (PCIAS). (cams.cn)
  • Efficacy and Safety of a Continuous Wound Catheter in Open Abdominal Partial Hepatectomy[J].Chinese Medical Sciences Journal, 2017, 32(3): 171-176. (cams.cn)
  • We conducted a randomized controlled trial to examine whether adding intrathecal hydromorphone to a multimodal strategy could safely improve analgesic efficacy for patients undergoing partial hepatectomy. (bmj.com)
  • Methods A total of 126 adult patients undergoing partial hepatectomy under general anesthesia were randomly assigned to receive intrathecal hydromorphone (100 μg) or no block. (bmj.com)
  • Discussion Intrathecal hydromorphone 100 μg reduced the incidence of moderate to severe pain and pain scores during movement within 24 hours after partial hepatectomy. (bmj.com)
  • Effects of Pringle Maneuver and Partial Hepatectomy on the Pharmacokin" by Mohammad K. Miah, Imam H. Shaik et al. (chapman.edu)
  • The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of Pringle maneuver, which results in hepatic ischemia-reperfusion (IR) injury, and partial hepatectomy (Hx) on the pharmacokinetics and brain distribution of sodium fluorescein (FL), which is a widely used marker of blood-brain barrier (BBB) permeability. (chapman.edu)
  • It is concluded that Pringle maneuver and/or partial hepatectomy substantially alters the hepatobiliary disposition, plasma AUC, plasma free fraction, and brain accumulation of FL without altering the BBB permeability to the marker. (chapman.edu)
  • Effect of partial hepatectomy on tumor incidence in balb/c mice treate" by M Lane, A Liebelt et al. (jax.org)
  • Effect of partial hepatectomy on tumor incidence in balb/c mice treated with urethan. (jax.org)
  • Platelets play a pivotal role in stimulating liver regeneration after partial hepatectomy in rodents and humans. (ashpublications.org)
  • Thrombin-dependent intrahepatic fibrin(ogen) deposition was recently reported after partial hepatectomy (PHx) in mice, but the role of fibrin(ogen) deposits in liver regeneration has not been investigated. (ashpublications.org)
  • During partial hepatectomy, ischemiaCreperfusion (I/R) is often used in clinical practice to lessen blood circulation. (cancerhugs.com)
  • One week after PCB126 dosing, a 2/3rd partial hepatectomy was con-ducted. (cdc.gov)
  • rarely, partial hepatectomy is necessary. (msdmanuals.com)
  • Hepatectomy is the surgical resection (removal of all or part) of the liver. (wikipedia.org)
  • Laparoscopic liver resection after SIRT is feasible and safe, even in major hepatectomies. (sages.org)
  • This initial attempt allows one to preoperatively detect tumor lesions, intraoperatively delineate tumor boundaries and guide tumor resection, and postoperatively evaluate tumor margin status during irregular hepatectomy. (visualsonics.com)
  • Inducing rapid liver hypertrophy using Associating Liver Partition and Portal vein ligation for a Staged hepatectomy (ALPPS) has been proposed for resection of borderline resectable liver tumors. (jove.com)
  • Recently, it was shown that liver regeneration is more extensive and rapid, when the parenchymal transection is added to portal vein ligation in a first stage and then, after only one week of waiting, resection performed in a second stage (Associating Liver Partition and Portal vein ligation for Staged hepatectomy = ALPPS). (jove.com)
  • 2 This post-hepatectomy liver failure is the most devastating complication after liver resection. (jove.com)
  • We developed support System for hepatectomy considering regeneration of the liver after resection. (elsevierpure.com)
  • 1 , 2 Despite improvements in operative techniques, perioperative management and understanding of liver regeneration have improved the safety of liver resection over years, PHLF remains a challenge for patients undergoing hepatectomy and a concern of hepatic surgeons. (xiahepublishing.com)
  • Extended right hepatectomy with caudate lobectomy, extrahepatic bile duct resection and biliary reconstruction were performed 3 weeks after chemotherapy . (bvsalud.org)
  • Extended left hepatectomy with caudate lobectomy, extrahepatic bile duct resection and reconstruction of bile duct were performed. (bvsalud.org)
  • The authors hypothesized that compared with open liver resection, laparoscopic hepatectomy would result in a decreased local angiogenic response in residual tumor cells. (elsevierpure.com)
  • Current treatments for hepatocellular carcinoma include surgical resection, chemotherapy, radiofrequency ablation, transcatheter arterial chemoembolization, and liver transplantation, among which radical hepatectomy is still the main treatment for HCC [ 3 , 4 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Methods: From 2000 to 2010, 57 patients who underwent at least a major hepatectomy for CRLM resection were selected from a prospective database. (biu.ac.il)
  • Surgical resection includes cholecystectomy, en bloc hepatic resection (typically of segments IVb and V), and lymphadenectomy with or without bile duct excision, depending on the location of the tumor. (medscape.com)
  • Re-resection should include complete portal lymphadenectomy and segmental/non-anatomic hepatectomy of segments IVb/V. Bile duct resection should be attempted only to achieve negative margin (R0) resection. (medscape.com)
  • A minimal amount of functional tissue is required to avoid the severe complication of post-hepatectomy liver failure, which has high morbidity and mortality. (jove.com)
  • Post-hepatectomy liver failure (PHLF) is a severe complication and main cause of death in patients undergoing hepatectomy. (xiahepublishing.com)
  • Among these, post-hepatectomy liver failure (PHLF), defined as the impaired ability of the liver to maintain its synthetic, excretory and detoxifying functions, is one of the worst complications after hepatectomy and one of the major causes of perioperative mortality. (xiahepublishing.com)
  • Irregular hepatectomy plays a prominent role in the treatment of small hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) patients with severe cirrhosis and localized liver metastasis. (visualsonics.com)
  • This concept is demonstrated in two examples: an extended (to MHV) left and a right hepatectomy, both difficult due to giant hepatocellular carcinomas occupying the left and the right hemiliver respectively. (cun.es)
  • Between January 2008 and December 2012, a total of 597 patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) who underwent curative hepatectomy were identified. (biosciencetrends.com)
  • Antiviral therapy has been shown to benefit long-term survival after curative hepatectomy in patients with hepatitis B virus (HBV)-associated hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) with high levels of HBV-DNA, but the impact of antiviral therapy on patient recurrence in patients with low levels of HBV-DNA remains less clear. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Recurrence of the hepatocellular carcinoma after hepatectomy [Time Frame: The time period between hepatectomy and the initial examination revealing a recurrence of hepatocellular carcinoma, or until the end of follow-up on December 31, 2020.whichever came first, assessed up to 60 months. (who.int)
  • We aimed to develop prognostic nomograms based on inflammation-related markers for HCC patients underwent hepatectomy. (e-crt.org)
  • 2000 IU/mL who underwent hepatectomy at Zhongnan Hospital of Wuhan University between March 2013 and December 2017, of whom 157 patients received antiviral therapy (antiviral group) and 139 patients did not receive antiviral therapy (non-antiviral group), propensity score matching was used for survival analysis of patients in both groups, and subgroup analysis of major risk factors was performed. (biomedcentral.com)
  • TSC2 Mutations Were Associated with the Early Recurrence of Patients with HCC Underwent Hepatectomy. (cdc.gov)
  • [ 4 ] and the fact that a child needs only a small allograft, so an adult donor would not need to undergo major hepatectomy. (medscape.com)
  • The role of hepatic hemodynamic modulation in the development of "small-for-size" syndrome (SFSS) after extended hepatectomy (EH) or living-donor liver transplantation is still controversial. (nih.gov)
  • Quality of life of liver donors following donor hepatectomy. (amrita.edu)
  • Home Publications Quality of life of liver donors following donor hepatectomy. (amrita.edu)
  • We report our experience in a two-stage hepatectomy done for a JW patient who underwent live donor liver transplant from his mother, also a JW, without blood transfusion. (usuhs.edu)
  • Hepatobiliary surgery: lessons learned from live donor hepatectomy. (medscape.com)
  • citation needed] Most hepatectomies are performed for the treatment of hepatic neoplasms, both benign or malign. (wikipedia.org)
  • For a left lateral hepatectomy, the parenchymal transection line is less defined compared to a right hepatectomy, which is carried out along the plane of the middle hepatic vein. (utoronto.ca)
  • Patients with a disease-free interval between first hepatectomy and hepatic recurrence less than 6 months did not survive 3 years. (prinsesmaximacentrum.nl)
  • Rats were subjected to Pringle maneuver (total hepatic ischemia) for 20 min with (HxIR) or without (IR) 70% hepatectomy. (chapman.edu)
  • Placement of an arterial hepatic catheter after a major hepatectomy for colorectal liver metastases: Is this safe? (biu.ac.il)
  • Dive into the research topics of 'Placement of an arterial hepatic catheter after a major hepatectomy for colorectal liver metastases: Is this safe? (biu.ac.il)
  • Overall, there are relatively few data regarding the effectiveness of antiviral therapy after curative hepatectomy for HCC, especially in patients with HBV-associated HCC with low levels of HBV-DNA, and it is still not well known whether antiviral therapy is effective in preventing recurrence of metastasis after curative hepatectomy in patients. (biomedcentral.com)
  • After 1 week, the animals were randomized to laparoscopic or open left lateral hepatectomy. (elsevierpure.com)
  • It is also a problem, to a lesser degree, in patients with previous hepatectomies (e.g. repeat resections for reincident colorectal cancer metastases). (wikipedia.org)
  • Three patients underwent laparoscopic right hepatectomy after previous right hemiliver radiation lobectomy: two cirrhotic patients with HCC and one with CCR liver metastasis. (sages.org)
  • To predict the regenerative rate of liver in patients with HCCs after right hepatectomy using texture analysis on preoperative CT combined with clinical features. (hindawi.com)
  • 88 patients with 90 HCCs who underwent right hepatectomy were retrospectively included. (hindawi.com)
  • The use of texture analysis on preoperative CT combined with clinical features can be helpful in predicting the liver regeneration rate in patients with HCCs after right hepatectomy. (hindawi.com)
  • To our knowledge, few studies have investigated the relationship between the results of CT texture analysis and rate of liver regeneration after right hepatectomy in patients with HCCs. (hindawi.com)
  • We sought to investigate the efficacy of standardized process management of early postoperative enteral nutrition in patients undergoing laparoscopic hepatectomy. (qxmd.com)
  • From January 2022 to January 2023, a total of 98 patients undergoing laparoscopic hepatectomy in our hospital were enrolled in this prospective study. (qxmd.com)
  • The standardized process management of early postoperative enteral nutrition showed promising results in effectively improving the nutritional status, rehabilitation, and quality of life, as well as reducing the incidence of related complications among patients undergoing laparoscopic hepatectomy, which supports a wide application in clinical practice. (qxmd.com)
  • Patients with a small liver remnant after major hepatectomy were treated with radiofrequency ablation (RFA) or stereotactic body radiation therapy (SRx). (prinsesmaximacentrum.nl)
  • The nomograms based on inflammation-related markers are of high efficacy in predicting survival of HCC patients after hepatectomy, which will be valuable in guiding postoperative interventions and follow-ups. (e-crt.org)
  • The aim of this study was to build a predictive model of PHLF in patients undergoing hepatectomy. (xiahepublishing.com)
  • We retrospectively analyzed patients undergoing hepatectomy at Zhongshan Hospital, Fudan University from July 2015 to June 2018, and randomly divided them into development and internal validation cohorts. (xiahepublishing.com)
  • PHLF can be accurately predicted by this model in patients undergoing hepatectomy, which may significantly contribute to the postoperative care of these patients. (xiahepublishing.com)
  • Hepatectomy is the main treatment for patients with benign or malignant liver lesions. (xiahepublishing.com)
  • Stratification of the lymphatic invasion pathway by lymphatic invasion, including intrahepatic lymphatic duct invasion and lymph node metastasis, is a good predictor for prognosis in patients after hepatectomy for massforming type IHC. (elsevierpure.com)
  • Antiviral therapy reduces early tumor recurrence after hepatectomy in patients with low levels of HBV-DNA. (biomedcentral.com)
  • To this end, we conducted a retrospective study to assess the effect of antiviral drug therapy on recurrence and survival after hepatectomy in patients with HBV-associated HCC with low levels of HBV-DNA. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The aim of this study was to compare post-operative outcomes in patients who underwent at least a major hepatectomy (≥3 segments) for CRLM with or without catheter placement. (biu.ac.il)
  • Conclusion: Although the placement of an arterial catheter during a major hepatectomy does not significantly increase the rate of postoperative complications two patients died post-operatively in this study from vascular thrombosis. (biu.ac.il)
  • Methods: The National Surgical Quality Improvement Program database was used to identify patients undergoing hepatectomy between January 1 and December 31, 2014. (wustl.edu)
  • Les concentrations sériques de sCD40L circulant et d'interleukine 10 circulante ont été analysées à l'aide de la méthode immuno-enzymatique chez 30 patients positifs pour le VHC avec un CHC, chez 30 patients patients positifs pour le VHC avec une cirrhose du foie, et chez 30 volontaires d'âge correspondant en bonne santé avec des anticorps anti-VHC négatifs servant de groupe témoin. (who.int)
  • In case of extended and complex hepatectomy, with a higher risk of post-operative complications, delaying the catheter placement could be recommended. (biu.ac.il)
  • Multispectral PA imaging, the optimal imaging time point and contrast, multispectral PA imaging-guided irregular hepatectomy, pharmacokinetics, and safety profile were evaluated in subcutaneous and orthotopic HCC tumor models. (visualsonics.com)
  • Preoperative tumor localization, intraoperative tumor boundaries delineation, and tumor excision, and postoperative negative margin assessment were successfully achieved during irregular hepatectomy. (visualsonics.com)
  • Hepatectomy may also be the procedure of choice to treat intrahepatic gallstones or parasitic cysts of the liver. (wikipedia.org)
  • citation needed] A hepatectomy is considered a major surgical procedure performed under general anesthesia. (wikipedia.org)
  • This approach is particularly useful in difficult major hepatectomies: an early identification of the MHV above the hilum at the beginning of the transection ensures a safe and reliable pathway. (cun.es)
  • This may be explained by the fact that the remnant liver volume is inadequate after hepatectomy and cannot meet the body's normal metabolic needs and may directly lead to liver dysfunction, liver failure, and even death [ 7 - 9 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • both had undergone catheter insertion after a major hepatectomy associated with contralateral procedures resulting in a small remnant liver volume with low outflow capacity. (biu.ac.il)
  • Short- and long-term outcomes of hepatectomy with or without radiofrequency-assist for the treatment. (biosciencetrends.com)
  • Inspired by the high resolution of photoacoustic (PA) imaging and established clinical efficacy of 18F-Alfatide that is specific for integrin αvβ3-overexpressed tumors, we herein developed a fluorescent analogue IR820-E[c(RGDfK)]2, and a proof-of-concept intraoperative multispectral PA imaging navigation for precise irregular hepatectomy using hand-held PA/US imaging system. (visualsonics.com)
  • IR820-E[c(RGDfK)]2 has the potential to be an investigational new drug for clinical use in multispectral photoacoustic imaging-guided irregular hepatectomy. (visualsonics.com)
  • Beyond saying predictable things about the decreased clearance of benzodiazepines and opiates, one cannot make any useful comments about analgesia and sedation in post-hepatectomy setting. (derangedphysiology.com)
  • Probiotic-related bacteremia after major hepatectomy for biliary cancer: a report of two cases. (bvsalud.org)
  • or they may be non-anatomic, irregular or "wedge" hepatectomies. (wikipedia.org)
  • Currently, ultrasound (US) and ICG fluorescence-guided surgery has been used for intraoperative navigation in irregular hepatectomy, but insufficient specificity results in a limited prevalence. (visualsonics.com)
  • Post-operative survival time [Time Frame: Time from the end of hepatectomy to the patient's death, or the end of follow-up by December 31, 2020. (who.int)
  • To test the hypothesis that performing a percutaneous radiofrecuency liver partition plus percutaneous portal vein embolization (PRALPPS) for stage hepatectomy in pigs is feasible. (revistaabcd.org.br)
  • The Pringle manoeuvre is usually performed during a hepatectomy to minimize blood loss - however this can lead to reperfusion injury in the liver due to Ischemia. (wikipedia.org)
  • Efficacy of Standardized Process Management of Early Postoperative Enteral Nutrition After Laparoscopic Hepatectomy: A Randomized Controlled Trial. (qxmd.com)