Heparin, Low-Molecular-Weight: Heparin fractions with a molecular weight usually between 4000 and 6000 kD. These low-molecular-weight fractions are effective antithrombotic agents. Their administration reduces the risk of hemorrhage, they have a longer half-life, and their platelet interactions are reduced in comparison to unfractionated heparin. They also provide an effective prophylaxis against postoperative major pulmonary embolism.Heparin Antagonists: Coagulant substances inhibiting the anticoagulant action of heparin.Heparin Lyase: An enzyme of the isomerase class that catalyzes the eliminative cleavage of polysaccharides containing 1,4-linked D-glucuronate or L-iduronate residues and 1,4-alpha-linked 2-sulfoamino-2-deoxy-6-sulfo-D-glucose residues to give oligosaccharides with terminal 4-deoxy-alpha-D-gluc-4-enuronosyl groups at their non-reducing ends. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 4.2.2.7.Heparin Cofactor II: A sulfated plasma protein with a MW of approximately 66kDa that resembles ANTITHROMBIN III. The protein is an inhibitor of thrombin in plasma and is activated by dermatan sulfate or heparin. It is a member of the serpin superfamily.Anticoagulants: Agents that prevent clotting.Antithrombin III: A plasma alpha 2 glycoprotein that accounts for the major antithrombin activity of normal plasma and also inhibits several other enzymes. It is a member of the serpin superfamily.Antithrombins: Endogenous factors and drugs that directly inhibit the action of THROMBIN, usually by blocking its enzymatic activity. They are distinguished from INDIRECT THROMBIN INHIBITORS, such as HEPARIN, which act by enhancing the inhibitory effects of antithrombins.Partial Thromboplastin Time: The time required for the appearance of FIBRIN strands following the mixing of PLASMA with phospholipid platelet substitute (e.g., crude cephalins, soybean phosphatides). It is a test of the intrinsic pathway (factors VIII, IX, XI, and XII) and the common pathway (fibrinogen, prothrombin, factors V and X) of BLOOD COAGULATION. It is used as a screening test and to monitor HEPARIN therapy.Glycosaminoglycans: Heteropolysaccharides which contain an N-acetylated hexosamine in a characteristic repeating disaccharide unit. The repeating structure of each disaccharide involves alternate 1,4- and 1,3-linkages consisting of either N-acetylglucosamine or N-acetylgalactosamine.Enoxaparin: Low-molecular-weight fragment of heparin, having a 4-enopyranosuronate sodium structure at the non-reducing end of the chain. It is prepared by depolymerization of the benzylic ester of porcine mucosal heparin. Therapeutically, it is used as an antithrombotic agent. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)Whole Blood Coagulation Time: The time required by whole blood to produce a visible clot.Dalteparin: A low-molecular-weight fragment of heparin, prepared by nitrous acid depolymerization of porcine mucosal heparin. The mean molecular weight is 4000-6000 daltons. It is used therapeutically as an antithrombotic agent. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)Dermatan Sulfate: A naturally occurring glycosaminoglycan found mostly in the skin and in connective tissue. It differs from CHONDROITIN SULFATE A (see CHONDROITIN SULFATES) by containing IDURONIC ACID in place of glucuronic acid, its epimer, at carbon atom 5. (from Merck, 12th ed)Protamines: A group of simple proteins that yield basic amino acids on hydrolysis and that occur combined with nucleic acid in the sperm of fish. Protamines contain very few kinds of amino acids. Protamine sulfate combines with heparin to form a stable inactive complex; it is used to neutralize the anticoagulant action of heparin in the treatment of heparin overdose. (From Merck Index, 11th ed; Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p692)Factor Xa: Activated form of factor X that participates in both the intrinsic and extrinsic pathways of blood coagulation. It catalyzes the conversion of prothrombin to thrombin in conjunction with other cofactors.Platelet Factor 4: A CXC chemokine that is found in the alpha granules of PLATELETS. The protein has a molecular size of 7800 kDa and can occur as a monomer, a dimer or a tetramer depending upon its concentration in solution. Platelet factor 4 has a high affinity for HEPARIN and is often found complexed with GLYCOPROTEINS such as PROTEIN C.Hirudins: Single-chain polypeptides of about 65 amino acids (7 kDa) from LEECHES that have a neutral hydrophobic N terminus, an acidic hydrophilic C terminus, and a compact, hydrophobic core region. Recombinant hirudins lack tyr-63 sulfation and are referred to as 'desulfato-hirudins'. They form a stable non-covalent complex with ALPHA-THROMBIN, thereby abolishing its ability to cleave FIBRINOGEN.Thrombin: An enzyme formed from PROTHROMBIN that converts FIBRINOGEN to FIBRIN.Fibrinolytic Agents: Fibrinolysin or agents that convert plasminogen to FIBRINOLYSIN.Blood Coagulation: The process of the interaction of BLOOD COAGULATION FACTORS that results in an insoluble FIBRIN clot.Polysaccharide-Lyases: A group of carbon-oxygen lyases. These enzymes catalyze the breakage of a carbon-oxygen bond in polysaccharides leading to an unsaturated product and the elimination of an alcohol. EC 4.2.2.Hemorrhage: Bleeding or escape of blood from a vessel.Thrombophlebitis: Inflammation of a vein associated with a blood clot (THROMBUS).Blood Coagulation Tests: Laboratory tests for evaluating the individual's clotting mechanism.Chromatography, Affinity: A chromatographic technique that utilizes the ability of biological molecules to bind to certain ligands specifically and reversibly. It is used in protein biochemistry. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Heparinoids: Heparin derivatives. The term has also been used more loosely to include naturally occurring and synthetic highly-sulphated polysaccharides of similar structure. Heparinoid preparations have been used for a wide range of applications including as anticoagulants and anti-inflammatories and they have been claimed to have hypolipidemic properties. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th, p232)Hirudin Therapy: Use of HIRUDINS as an anticoagulant in the treatment of cardiological and hematological disorders.Thrombosis: Formation and development of a thrombus or blood clot in the blood vessel.Oligosaccharides: Carbohydrates consisting of between two (DISACCHARIDES) and ten MONOSACCHARIDES connected by either an alpha- or beta-glycosidic link. They are found throughout nature in both the free and bound form.Chondroitin Sulfates: Derivatives of chondroitin which have a sulfate moiety esterified to the galactosamine moiety of chondroitin. Chondroitin sulfate A, or chondroitin 4-sulfate, and chondroitin sulfate C, or chondroitin 6-sulfate, have the sulfate esterified in the 4- and 6-positions, respectively. Chondroitin sulfate B (beta heparin; DERMATAN SULFATE) is a misnomer and this compound is not a true chondroitin sulfate.Protein Binding: The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.Thrombin Time: Clotting time of PLASMA mixed with a THROMBIN solution. It is a measure of the conversion of FIBRINOGEN to FIBRIN, which is prolonged by AFIBRINOGENEMIA, abnormal fibrinogen, or the presence of inhibitory substances, e.g., fibrin-fibrinogen degradation products, or HEPARIN. BATROXOBIN, a thrombin-like enzyme unaffected by the presence of heparin, may be used in place of thrombin.Binding Sites: The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.Disaccharides: Oligosaccharides containing two monosaccharide units linked by a glycosidic bond.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Thromboembolism: Obstruction of a blood vessel (embolism) by a blood clot (THROMBUS) in the blood stream.Thrombocytopenia: A subnormal level of BLOOD PLATELETS.Recombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.Pentosan Sulfuric Polyester: A sulfated pentosyl polysaccharide with heparin-like properties.Venous Thrombosis: The formation or presence of a blood clot (THROMBUS) within a vein.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Sulfates: Inorganic salts of sulfuric acid.PolysaccharidesPulmonary Embolism: Blocking of the PULMONARY ARTERY or one of its branches by an EMBOLUS.Pipecolic AcidsInjections, Subcutaneous: Forceful administration under the skin of liquid medication, nutrient, or other fluid through a hollow needle piercing the skin.Iduronic Acid: Component of dermatan sulfate. Differs in configuration from glucuronic acid only at the C-5 position.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Fibroblast Growth Factor 1: A 17-kDa single-chain polypeptide growth factor that plays a significant role in the process of WOUND HEALING and is a potent inducer of PHYSIOLOGIC ANGIOGENESIS. It binds to HEPARIN, which potentiates its biological activity and protects it from proteolysis. The growth factor is an extremely potent inducer of DNA synthesis in a variety of cell types from mesoderm and neuroectoderm lineages, and also has chemotactic and mitogenic activities. It was originally named acidic fibroblast growth factor based upon its chemical properties and to distinguish it from basic fibroblast growth factor (FIBROBLAST GROWTH FACTOR 2).Antithrombin Proteins: An endogenous family of proteins belonging to the serpin superfamily that neutralizes the action of thrombin. Six naturally occurring antithrombins have been identified and are designated by Roman numerals I to VI. Of these, Antithrombin I (see FIBRIN) and ANTITHROMBIN III appear to be of major importance.Carbohydrate Sequence: The sequence of carbohydrates within POLYSACCHARIDES; GLYCOPROTEINS; and GLYCOLIPIDS.Sulfuric Acids: Inorganic and organic derivatives of sulfuric acid (H2SO4). The salts and esters of sulfuric acid are known as SULFATES and SULFURIC ACID ESTERS respectively.SepharoseSwine: Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).Dose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.Cattle: Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.Molecular Weight: The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.Peptide Fragments: Partial proteins formed by partial hydrolysis of complete proteins or generated through PROTEIN ENGINEERING techniques.Factor X: Storage-stable glycoprotein blood coagulation factor that can be activated to factor Xa by both the intrinsic and extrinsic pathways. A deficiency of factor X, sometimes called Stuart-Prower factor deficiency, may lead to a systemic coagulation disorder.Fibrinopeptide A: Two small peptide chains removed from the N-terminal segment of the alpha chains of fibrinogen by the action of thrombin during the blood coagulation process. Each peptide chain contains 18 amino acid residues. In vivo, fibrinopeptide A is used as a marker to determine the rate of conversion of fibrinogen to fibrin by thrombin.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Lipoprotein Lipase: An enzyme of the hydrolase class that catalyzes the reaction of triacylglycerol and water to yield diacylglycerol and a fatty acid anion. The enzyme hydrolyzes triacylglycerols in chylomicrons, very-low-density lipoproteins, low-density lipoproteins, and diacylglycerols. It occurs on capillary endothelial surfaces, especially in mammary, muscle, and adipose tissue. Genetic deficiency of the enzyme causes familial hyperlipoproteinemia Type I. (Dorland, 27th ed) EC 3.1.1.34.Serine Proteinase Inhibitors: Exogenous or endogenous compounds which inhibit SERINE ENDOPEPTIDASES.Flavobacterium: A genus of gram-negative, aerobic, rod-shaped bacteria widely distributed in SOIL and WATER. Its organisms are also found in raw meats, MILK and other FOOD, hospital environments, and human clinical specimens. Some species are pathogenic in humans.Drug Contamination: The presence of organisms, or any foreign material that makes a drug preparation impure.Aspirin: The prototypical analgesic used in the treatment of mild to moderate pain. It has anti-inflammatory and antipyretic properties and acts as an inhibitor of cyclooxygenase which results in the inhibition of the biosynthesis of prostaglandins. Aspirin also inhibits platelet aggregation and is used in the prevention of arterial and venous thrombosis. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p5)Fibroblast Growth Factor 2: A single-chain polypeptide growth factor that plays a significant role in the process of WOUND HEALING and is a potent inducer of PHYSIOLOGIC ANGIOGENESIS. Several different forms of the human protein exist ranging from 18-24 kDa in size due to the use of alternative start sites within the fgf-2 gene. It has a 55 percent amino acid residue identity to FIBROBLAST GROWTH FACTOR 1 and has potent heparin-binding activity. The growth factor is an extremely potent inducer of DNA synthesis in a variety of cell types from mesoderm and neuroectoderm lineages. It was originally named basic fibroblast growth factor based upon its chemical properties and to distinguish it from acidic fibroblast growth factor (FIBROBLAST GROWTH FACTOR 1).Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Uronic Acids: Acids derived from monosaccharides by the oxidation of the terminal (-CH2OH) group farthest removed from the carbonyl group to a (-COOH) group. (From Stedmans, 26th ed)Platelet Aggregation Inhibitors: Drugs or agents which antagonize or impair any mechanism leading to blood platelet aggregation, whether during the phases of activation and shape change or following the dense-granule release reaction and stimulation of the prostaglandin-thromboxane system.Fibrin: A protein derived from FIBRINOGEN in the presence of THROMBIN, which forms part of the blood clot.Nitrous Acid: Nitrous acid (HNO2). A weak acid that exists only in solution. It can form water-soluble nitrites and stable esters. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)Chromatography, Gel: Chromatography on non-ionic gels without regard to the mechanism of solute discrimination.Infusions, Intravenous: The long-term (minutes to hours) administration of a fluid into the vein through venipuncture, either by letting the fluid flow by gravity or by pumping it.Warfarin: An anticoagulant that acts by inhibiting the synthesis of vitamin K-dependent coagulation factors. Warfarin is indicated for the prophylaxis and/or treatment of venous thrombosis and its extension, pulmonary embolism, and atrial fibrillation with embolization. It is also used as an adjunct in the prophylaxis of systemic embolism after myocardial infarction. Warfarin is also used as a rodenticide.Prothrombin: A plasma protein that is the inactive precursor of thrombin. It is converted to thrombin by a prothrombin activator complex consisting of factor Xa, factor V, phospholipid, and calcium ions. Deficiency of prothrombin leads to hypoprothrombinemia.Binding, Competitive: The interaction of two or more substrates or ligands with the same binding site. The displacement of one by the other is used in quantitative and selective affinity measurements.Surface Plasmon Resonance: A biosensing technique in which biomolecules capable of binding to specific analytes or ligands are first immobilized on one side of a metallic film. Light is then focused on the opposite side of the film to excite the surface plasmons, that is, the oscillations of free electrons propagating along the film's surface. The refractive index of light reflecting off this surface is measured. When the immobilized biomolecules are bound by their ligands, an alteration in surface plasmons on the opposite side of the film is created which is directly proportional to the change in bound, or adsorbed, mass. Binding is measured by changes in the refractive index. The technique is used to study biomolecular interactions, such as antigen-antibody binding.Sulfotransferases: Enzymes which transfer sulfate groups to various acceptor molecules. They are involved in posttranslational sulfation of proteins and sulfate conjugation of exogenous chemicals and bile acids. EC 2.8.2.Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation: A disorder characterized by procoagulant substances entering the general circulation causing a systemic thrombotic process. The activation of the clotting mechanism may arise from any of a number of disorders. A majority of the patients manifest skin lesions, sometimes leading to PURPURA FULMINANS.Blood Coagulation Factors: Endogenous substances, usually proteins, that are involved in the blood coagulation process.Tissue Plasminogen Activator: A proteolytic enzyme in the serine protease family found in many tissues which converts PLASMINOGEN to FIBRINOLYSIN. It has fibrin-binding activity and is immunologically different from UROKINASE-TYPE PLASMINOGEN ACTIVATOR. The primary sequence, composed of 527 amino acids, is identical in both the naturally occurring and synthetic proteases.Structure-Activity Relationship: The relationship between the chemical structure of a compound and its biological or pharmacological activity. Compounds are often classed together because they have structural characteristics in common including shape, size, stereochemical arrangement, and distribution of functional groups.Fibrinogen: Plasma glycoprotein clotted by thrombin, composed of a dimer of three non-identical pairs of polypeptide chains (alpha, beta, gamma) held together by disulfide bonds. Fibrinogen clotting is a sol-gel change involving complex molecular arrangements: whereas fibrinogen is cleaved by thrombin to form polypeptides A and B, the proteolytic action of other enzymes yields different fibrinogen degradation products.Platelet Glycoprotein GPIIb-IIIa Complex: Platelet membrane glycoprotein complex important for platelet adhesion and aggregation. It is an integrin complex containing INTEGRIN ALPHAIIB and INTEGRIN BETA3 which recognizes the arginine-glycine-aspartic acid (RGD) sequence present on several adhesive proteins. As such, it is a receptor for FIBRINOGEN; VON WILLEBRAND FACTOR; FIBRONECTIN; VITRONECTIN; and THROMBOSPONDINS. A deficiency of GPIIb-IIIa results in GLANZMANN THROMBASTHENIA.Streptokinase: Streptococcal fibrinolysin . An enzyme produced by hemolytic streptococci. It hydrolyzes amide linkages and serves as an activator of plasminogen. It is used in thrombolytic therapy and is used also in mixtures with streptodornase (STREPTODORNASE AND STREPTOKINASE). EC 3.4.-.Chymases: A family of neutral serine proteases with CHYMOTRYPSIN-like activity. Chymases are primarily found in the SECRETORY GRANULES of MAST CELLS and are released during mast cell degranulation.Treatment Outcome: Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Carbohydrate Conformation: The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a carbohydrate.Venous Thromboembolism: Obstruction of a vein or VEINS (embolism) by a blood clot (THROMBUS) in the blood stream.Mast-Cell Sarcoma: A unifocal malignant tumor that consists of atypical pathological MAST CELLS without systemic involvement. It causes local destructive growth in organs other than in skin or bone marrow.Hexadimethrine Bromide: A synthetic polymer which agglutinates red blood cells. It is used as a heparin antagonist.Angina, Unstable: Precordial pain at rest, which may precede a MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION.Chlorates: Inorganic salts of chloric acid that contain the ClO3- ion.Electrophoresis, Polyacrylamide Gel: Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.Blood Platelets: Non-nucleated disk-shaped cells formed in the megakaryocyte and found in the blood of all mammals. They are mainly involved in blood coagulation.Prothrombin Time: Clotting time of PLASMA recalcified in the presence of excess TISSUE THROMBOPLASTIN. Factors measured are FIBRINOGEN; PROTHROMBIN; FACTOR V; FACTOR VII; and FACTOR X. It is used for monitoring anticoagulant therapy with COUMARINS.Endothelium, Vascular: Single pavement layer of cells which line the luminal surface of the entire vascular system and regulate the transport of macromolecules and blood components.Thrombolytic Therapy: Use of infusions of FIBRINOLYTIC AGENTS to destroy or dissolve thrombi in blood vessels or bypass grafts.Drug Therapy, Combination: Therapy with two or more separate preparations given for a combined effect.Fibronectins: Glycoproteins found on the surfaces of cells, particularly in fibrillar structures. The proteins are lost or reduced when these cells undergo viral or chemical transformation. They are highly susceptible to proteolysis and are substrates for activated blood coagulation factor VIII. The forms present in plasma are called cold-insoluble globulins.Antithrombin III Deficiency: An absence or reduced level of Antithrombin III leading to an increased risk for thrombosis.Myocardial Infarction: NECROSIS of the MYOCARDIUM caused by an obstruction of the blood supply to the heart (CORONARY CIRCULATION).Dextrans: A group of glucose polymers made by certain bacteria. Dextrans are used therapeutically as plasma volume expanders and anticoagulants. They are also commonly used in biological experimentation and in industry for a wide variety of purposes.Platelet Aggregation: The attachment of PLATELETS to one another. This clumping together can be induced by a number of agents (e.g., THROMBIN; COLLAGEN) and is part of the mechanism leading to the formation of a THROMBUS.Cricetinae: A subfamily in the family MURIDAE, comprising the hamsters. Four of the more common genera are Cricetus, CRICETULUS; MESOCRICETUS; and PHODOPUS.Models, Molecular: Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.Cell Division: The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.Mast Cells: Granulated cells that are found in almost all tissues, most abundantly in the skin and the gastrointestinal tract. Like the BASOPHILS, mast cells contain large amounts of HISTAMINE and HEPARIN. Unlike basophils, mast cells normally remain in the tissues and do not circulate in the blood. Mast cells, derived from the bone marrow stem cells, are regulated by the STEM CELL FACTOR.Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid: Liquid chromatographic techniques which feature high inlet pressures, high sensitivity, and high speed.Rabbits: The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.Injections, Intravenous: Injections made into a vein for therapeutic or experimental purposes.Protein Conformation: The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).Polymers: Compounds formed by the joining of smaller, usually repeating, units linked by covalent bonds. These compounds often form large macromolecules (e.g., BIOPOLYMERS; PLASTICS).Protease Nexins: Extracellular protease inhibitors that are secreted from FIBROBLASTS. They form a covalent complex with SERINE PROTEASES and can mediate their cellular internalization and degradation.Hemostasis: The process which spontaneously arrests the flow of BLOOD from vessels carrying blood under pressure. It is accomplished by contraction of the vessels, adhesion and aggregation of formed blood elements (eg. ERYTHROCYTE AGGREGATION), and the process of BLOOD COAGULATION.CHO Cells: CELL LINE derived from the ovary of the Chinese hamster, Cricetulus griseus (CRICETULUS). The species is a favorite for cytogenetic studies because of its small chromosome number. The cell line has provided model systems for the study of genetic alterations in cultured mammalian cells.Cell Adhesion: Adherence of cells to surfaces or to other cells.Recurrence: The return of a sign, symptom, or disease after a remission.Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy: Spectroscopic method of measuring the magnetic moment of elementary particles such as atomic nuclei, protons or electrons. It is employed in clinical applications such as NMR Tomography (MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING).Platelet Activation: A series of progressive, overlapping events, triggered by exposure of the PLATELETS to subendothelial tissue. These events include shape change, adhesiveness, aggregation, and release reactions. When carried through to completion, these events lead to the formation of a stable hemostatic plug.Postoperative Hemorrhage: Hemorrhage following any surgical procedure. It may be immediate or delayed and is not restricted to the surgical wound.Bleeding Time: Duration of blood flow after skin puncture. This test is used as a measure of capillary and platelet function.Citric Acid: A key intermediate in metabolism. It is an acid compound found in citrus fruits. The salts of citric acid (citrates) can be used as anticoagulants due to their calcium chelating ability.Factor IXa: Activated form of factor IX. This activation can take place via the intrinsic pathway by the action of factor XIa and calcium, or via the extrinsic pathway by the action of factor VIIa, thromboplastin, and calcium. Factor IXa serves to activate factor X to Xa by cleaving the arginyl-leucine peptide bond in factor X.Dextran Sulfate: Long-chain polymer of glucose containing 17-20% sulfur. It has been used as an anticoagulant and also has been shown to inhibit the binding of HIV-1 to CD4-POSITIVE T-LYMPHOCYTES. It is commonly used as both an experimental and clinical laboratory reagent and has been investigated for use as an antiviral agent, in the treatment of hypolipidemia, and for the prevention of free radical damage, among other applications.Receptors, Fibroblast Growth Factor: Specific molecular sites or structures on cell membranes that react with FIBROBLAST GROWTH FACTORS (both the basic and acidic forms), their analogs, or their antagonists to elicit or to inhibit the specific response of the cell to these factors. These receptors frequently possess tyrosine kinase activity.Thromboplastin: Constituent composed of protein and phospholipid that is widely distributed in many tissues. It serves as a cofactor with factor VIIa to activate factor X in the extrinsic pathway of blood coagulation.Factor XIa: Activated form of factor XI. In the intrinsic pathway, Factor XI is activated to XIa by factor XIIa in the presence of cofactor HMWK; (HIGH MOLECULAR WEIGHT KININOGEN). Factor XIa then activates factor IX to factor IXa in the presence of calcium.Fibrin Fibrinogen Degradation Products: Soluble protein fragments formed by the proteolytic action of plasmin on fibrin or fibrinogen. FDP and their complexes profoundly impair the hemostatic process and are a major cause of hemorrhage in intravascular coagulation and fibrinolysis.Fibroblast Growth Factors: A family of small polypeptide growth factors that share several common features including a strong affinity for HEPARIN, and a central barrel-shaped core region of 140 amino acids that is highly homologous between family members. Although originally studied as proteins that stimulate the growth of fibroblasts this distinction is no longer a requirement for membership in the fibroblast growth factor family.Substrate Specificity: A characteristic feature of enzyme activity in relation to the kind of substrate on which the enzyme or catalytic molecule reacts.Chemical Fractionation: Separation of a mixture in successive stages, each stage removing from the mixture some proportion of one of the substances, for example by differential solubility in water-solvent mixtures. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Complement C1 Inhibitor Protein: An endogenous 105-kDa plasma glycoprotein produced primarily by the LIVER and MONOCYTES. It inhibits a broad spectrum of proteases, including the COMPLEMENT C1R and the COMPLEMENT C1S proteases of the CLASSICAL COMPLEMENT PATHWAY, and the MANNOSE-BINDING PROTEIN-ASSOCIATED SERINE PROTEASES. C1-INH-deficient individuals suffer from HEREDITARY ANGIOEDEMA TYPES I AND II.Antibodies: Immunoglobulin molecules having a specific amino acid sequence by virtue of which they interact only with the ANTIGEN (or a very similar shape) that induced their synthesis in cells of the lymphoid series (especially PLASMA CELLS).Blood Specimen Collection: The taking of a blood sample to determine its character as a whole, to identify levels of its component cells, chemicals, gases, or other constituents, to perform pathological examination, etc.Thrombelastography: Use of a thrombelastograph, which provides a continuous graphic record of the physical shape of a clot during fibrin formation and subsequent lysis.Glycoproteins: Conjugated protein-carbohydrate compounds including mucins, mucoid, and amyloid glycoproteins.Platelet Count: The number of PLATELETS per unit volume in a sample of venous BLOOD.Sulfuric Acid Esters: Organic esters of sulfuric acid.Chromatography, Ion Exchange: Separation technique in which the stationary phase consists of ion exchange resins. The resins contain loosely held small ions that easily exchange places with other small ions of like charge present in solutions washed over the resins.Laminin: Large, noncollagenous glycoprotein with antigenic properties. It is localized in the basement membrane lamina lucida and functions to bind epithelial cells to the basement membrane. Evidence suggests that the protein plays a role in tumor invasion.Double-Blind Method: A method of studying a drug or procedure in which both the subjects and investigators are kept unaware of who is actually getting which specific treatment.Chondroitin: A mucopolysaccharide constituent of chondrin. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Extracellular Matrix: A meshwork-like substance found within the extracellular space and in association with the basement membrane of the cell surface. It promotes cellular proliferation and provides a supporting structure to which cells or cell lysates in culture dishes adhere.Coronary Thrombosis: Coagulation of blood in any of the CORONARY VESSELS. The presence of a blood clot (THROMBUS) often leads to MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION.Prospective Studies: Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.Thrombospondins: A family of related, adhesive glycoproteins which are synthesized, secreted, and incorporated into the extracellular matrix of a variety of cells, including alpha granules of platelets following thrombin activation and endothelial cells. They interact with a number of BLOOD COAGULATION FACTORS and anticoagulant factors. Five distinct forms have been identified, thrombospondin 1, -2, -3, -4, and cartilage oligomeric matrix protein (COMP). They are involved in cell adhesion, platelet aggregation, cell proliferation, angiogenesis, tumor metastasis, VASCULAR SMOOTH MUSCLE growth, and tissue repair.Serpins: A family of serine proteinase inhibitors which are similar in amino acid sequence and mechanism of inhibition, but differ in their specificity toward proteolytic enzymes. This family includes alpha 1-antitrypsin, angiotensinogen, ovalbumin, antiplasmin, alpha 1-antichymotrypsin, thyroxine-binding protein, complement 1 inactivators, antithrombin III, heparin cofactor II, plasminogen inactivators, gene Y protein, placental plasminogen activator inhibitor, and barley Z protein. Some members of the serpin family may be substrates rather than inhibitors of SERINE ENDOPEPTIDASES, and some serpins occur in plants where their function is not known.Muscle, Smooth, Vascular: The nonstriated involuntary muscle tissue of blood vessels.Angioplasty, Balloon, Coronary: Dilation of an occluded coronary artery (or arteries) by means of a balloon catheter to restore myocardial blood supply.Catheters, Indwelling: Catheters designed to be left within an organ or passage for an extended period of time.Fat Emulsions, Intravenous: Emulsions of fats or lipids used primarily in parenteral feeding.Hydrogen-Ion Concentration: The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Protein Structure, Tertiary: The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.CitratesGlucuronidaseCardiopulmonary Bypass: Diversion of the flow of blood from the entrance of the right atrium directly to the aorta (or femoral artery) via an oxygenator thus bypassing both the heart and lungs.Serine Endopeptidases: Any member of the group of ENDOPEPTIDASES containing at the active site a serine residue involved in catalysis.Collagen: A polypeptide substance comprising about one third of the total protein in mammalian organisms. It is the main constituent of SKIN; CONNECTIVE TISSUE; and the organic substance of bones (BONE AND BONES) and teeth (TOOTH).Calcium: A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.Ancrod: An enzyme fraction from the venom of the Malayan pit viper, Agkistrodon rhodostoma. It catalyzes the hydrolysis of a number of amino acid esters and a limited proteolysis of fibrinogen. It is used clinically to produce controlled defibrination in patients requiring anticoagulant therapy. EC 3.4.21.-.Blood Proteins: Proteins that are present in blood serum, including SERUM ALBUMIN; BLOOD COAGULATION FACTORS; and many other types of proteins.Lipase: An enzyme of the hydrolase class that catalyzes the reaction of triacylglycerol and water to yield diacylglycerol and a fatty acid anion. It is produced by glands on the tongue and by the pancreas and initiates the digestion of dietary fats. (From Dorland, 27th ed) EC 3.1.1.3.Acenocoumarol: A coumarin that is used as an anticoagulant. Its actions and uses are similar to those of WARFARIN. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p233)Postoperative Complications: Pathologic processes that affect patients after a surgical procedure. They may or may not be related to the disease for which the surgery was done, and they may or may not be direct results of the surgery.Electrophoresis, Paper: Electrophoresis in which paper is used as the diffusion medium. This technique is confined almost entirely to separations of small molecules such as amino acids, peptides, and nucleotides, and relatively high voltages are nearly always used.Peptides: Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.Chondroitinases and Chondroitin Lyases: Enzymes which catalyze the elimination of glucuronate residues from chondroitin A,B, and C or which catalyze the hydrolysis of sulfate groups of the 2-acetamido-2-deoxy-D-galactose 6-sulfate units of chondroitin sulfate. EC 4.2.2.-.DEAE-Cellulose: Cellulose derivative used in chromatography, as ion-exchange material, and for various industrial applications.Osmolar Concentration: The concentration of osmotically active particles in solution expressed in terms of osmoles of solute per liter of solution. Osmolality is expressed in terms of osmoles of solute per kilogram of solvent.Immunoglobulin Fab Fragments: Univalent antigen-binding fragments composed of one entire IMMUNOGLOBULIN LIGHT CHAIN and the amino terminal end of one of the IMMUNOGLOBULIN HEAVY CHAINS from the hinge region, linked to each other by disulfide bonds. Fab contains the IMMUNOGLOBULIN VARIABLE REGIONS, which are part of the antigen-binding site, and the first IMMUNOGLOBULIN CONSTANT REGIONS. This fragment can be obtained by digestion of immunoglobulins with the proteolytic enzyme PAPAIN.Periodic Acid: A strong oxidizing agent.Coated Materials, Biocompatible: Biocompatible materials usually used in dental and bone implants that enhance biologic fixation, thereby increasing the bond strength between the coated material and bone, and minimize possible biological effects that may result from the implant itself.Catheterization, Central Venous: Placement of an intravenous CATHETER in the subclavian, jugular, or other central vein.Protease Inhibitors: Compounds which inhibit or antagonize biosynthesis or actions of proteases (ENDOPEPTIDASES).Renal Dialysis: Therapy for the insufficient cleansing of the BLOOD by the kidneys based on dialysis and including hemodialysis, PERITONEAL DIALYSIS, and HEMODIAFILTRATION.Infusions, Parenteral: The administration of liquid medication, nutrient, or other fluid through some other route than the alimentary canal, usually over minutes or hours, either by gravity flow or often by infusion pumping.SulfatasesEdetic Acid: A chelating agent that sequesters a variety of polyvalent cations such as CALCIUM. It is used in pharmaceutical manufacturing and as a food additive.Amino Acids, DiaminoAcute Disease: Disease having a short and relatively severe course.Blood Coagulation Disorders: Hemorrhagic and thrombotic disorders that occur as a consequence of abnormalities in blood coagulation due to a variety of factors such as COAGULATION PROTEIN DISORDERS; BLOOD PLATELET DISORDERS; BLOOD PROTEIN DISORDERS or nutritional conditions.p-Dimethylaminoazobenzene: A reagent used mainly to induce experimental liver cancer. According to the Fourth Annual Report on Carcinogens (NTP 85-002, p. 89) published in 1985, this compound "may reasonably be anticipated to be a carcinogen." (Merck, 11th ed)Growth Substances: Signal molecules that are involved in the control of cell growth and differentiation.Sodium Chloride: A ubiquitous sodium salt that is commonly used to season food.Hyaluronic Acid: A natural high-viscosity mucopolysaccharide with alternating beta (1-3) glucuronide and beta (1-4) glucosaminidic bonds. It is found in the UMBILICAL CORD, in VITREOUS BODY and in SYNOVIAL FLUID. A high urinary level is found in PROGERIA.Antibodies, Monoclonal: Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.Capparaceae: A plant family of the order Capparales, subclass Dilleniidae, class Magnoliopsida, that are mostly herbs and shrubs growing in warm arid regions. Several produce GLUCOSINOLATES.Sagittal Sinus Thrombosis: Formation or presence of a blood clot (THROMBUS) in the SUPERIOR SAGITTAL SINUS or the inferior sagittal sinus. Sagittal sinus thrombosis can result from infections, hematological disorders, CRANIOCEREBRAL TRAUMA; and NEUROSURGICAL PROCEDURES. Clinical features are primarily related to the increased intracranial pressure causing HEADACHE; NAUSEA; and VOMITING. Severe cases can evolve to SEIZURES or COMA.Thrombophilia: A disorder of HEMOSTASIS in which there is a tendency for the occurrence of THROMBOSIS.Receptors, Cell Surface: Cell surface proteins that bind signalling molecules external to the cell with high affinity and convert this extracellular event into one or more intracellular signals that alter the behavior of the target cell (From Alberts, Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2nd ed, pp693-5). Cell surface receptors, unlike enzymes, do not chemically alter their ligands.Dogs: The domestic dog, Canis familiaris, comprising about 400 breeds, of the carnivore family CANIDAE. They are worldwide in distribution and live in association with people. (Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, p1065)P-Selectin: Cell adhesion molecule and CD antigen that mediates the adhesion of neutrophils and monocytes to activated platelets and endothelial cells.Fibrinolysin: A product of the lysis of plasminogen (profibrinolysin) by PLASMINOGEN activators. It is composed of two polypeptide chains, light (B) and heavy (A), with a molecular weight of 75,000. It is the major proteolytic enzyme involved in blood clot retraction or the lysis of fibrin and quickly inactivated by antiplasmins.Inositol 1,4,5-Trisphosphate: Intracellular messenger formed by the action of phospholipase C on phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate, which is one of the phospholipids that make up the cell membrane. Inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate is released into the cytoplasm where it releases calcium ions from internal stores within the cell's endoplasmic reticulum. These calcium ions stimulate the activity of B kinase or calmodulin.Chromatography: Techniques used to separate mixtures of substances based on differences in the relative affinities of the substances for mobile and stationary phases. A mobile phase (fluid or gas) passes through a column containing a stationary phase of porous solid or liquid coated on a solid support. Usage is both analytical for small amounts and preparative for bulk amounts.Drug Administration Schedule: Time schedule for administration of a drug in order to achieve optimum effectiveness and convenience.Protein C: A vitamin-K dependent zymogen present in the blood, which, upon activation by thrombin and thrombomodulin exerts anticoagulant properties by inactivating factors Va and VIIIa at the rate-limiting steps of thrombin formation.Casein Kinases: A group of protein-serine-threonine kinases that was originally identified as being responsible for the PHOSPHORYLATION of CASEINS. They are ubiquitous enzymes that have a preference for acidic proteins. Casein kinases play a role in SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION by phosphorylating a variety of regulatory cytoplasmic and regulatory nuclear proteins.

Binding of the G domains of laminin alpha1 and alpha2 chains and perlecan to heparin, sulfatides, alpha-dystroglycan and several extracellular matrix proteins. (1/6896)

The C-terminal G domain of the mouse laminin alpha2 chain consists of five lamin-type G domain (LG) modules (alpha2LG1 to alpha2LG5) and was obtained as several recombinant fragments, corresponding to either individual modules or the tandem arrays alpha2LG1-3 and alpha2LG4-5. These fragments were compared with similar modules from the laminin alpha1 chain and from the C-terminal region of perlecan (PGV) in several binding studies. Major heparin-binding sites were located on the two tandem fragments and the individual alpha2LG1, alpha2LG3 and alpha2LG5 modules. The binding epitope on alpha2LG5 could be localized to a cluster of lysines by site-directed mutagenesis. In the alpha1 chain, however, strong heparin binding was found on alpha1LG4 and not on alpha1LG5. Binding to sulfatides correlated to heparin binding in most but not all cases. Fragments alpha2LG1-3 and alpha2LG4-5 also bound to fibulin-1, fibulin-2 and nidogen-2 with Kd = 13-150 nM. Both tandem fragments, but not the individual modules, bound strongly to alpha-dystroglycan and this interaction was abolished by EDTA but not by high concentrations of heparin and NaCl. The binding of perlecan fragment PGV to alpha-dystroglycan was even stronger and was also not sensitive to heparin. This demonstrated similar binding repertoires for the LG modules of three basement membrane proteins involved in cell-matrix interactions and supramolecular assembly.  (+info)

The L1 major capsid protein of human papillomavirus type 11 recombinant virus-like particles interacts with heparin and cell-surface glycosaminoglycans on human keratinocytes. (2/6896)

The L1 major capsid protein of human papillomavirus (HPV) type 11, a 55-kDa polypeptide, forms particulate structures resembling native virus with an average particle diameter of 50-60 nm when expressed in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. We show in this report that these virus-like particles (VLPs) interact with heparin and with cell-surface glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) resembling heparin on keratinocytes and Chinese hamster ovary cells. The binding of VLPs to heparin is shown to exhibit an affinity comparable to that of other identified heparin-binding proteins. Immobilized heparin chromatography and surface plasmon resonance were used to show that this interaction can be specifically inhibited by free heparin and dextran sulfate and that the effectiveness of the inhibitor is related to its molecular weight and charge density. Sequence comparison of nine human L1 types revealed a conserved region of the carboxyl terminus containing clustered basic amino acids that bear resemblance to proposed heparin-binding motifs in unrelated proteins. Specific enzymatic cleavage of this region eliminated binding to both immobilized heparin and human keratinocyte (HaCaT) cells. Removal of heparan sulfate GAGs on keratinocytes by treatment with heparinase or heparitinase resulted in an 80-90% reduction of VLP binding, whereas treatment of cells with laminin, a substrate for alpha6 integrin receptors, provided minimal inhibition. Cells treated with chlorate or substituted beta-D-xylosides, resulting in undersulfation or secretion of GAG chains, also showed a reduced affinity for VLPs. Similarly, binding of VLPs to a Chinese hamster ovary cell mutant deficient in GAG synthesis was shown to be only 10% that observed for wild type cells. This report establishes for the first time that the carboxyl-terminal portion of HPV L1 interacts with heparin, and that this region appears to be crucial for interaction with the cell surface.  (+info)

Exosites 1 and 2 are essential for protection of fibrin-bound thrombin from heparin-catalyzed inhibition by antithrombin and heparin cofactor II. (3/6896)

Assembly of ternary thrombin-heparin-fibrin complexes, formed when fibrin binds to exosite 1 on thrombin and fibrin-bound heparin binds to exosite 2, produces a 58- and 247-fold reduction in the heparin-catalyzed rate of thrombin inhibition by antithrombin and heparin cofactor II, respectively. The greater reduction for heparin cofactor II reflects its requirement for access to exosite 1 during the inhibitory process. Protection from inhibition by antithrombin and heparin cofactor II requires ligation of both exosites 1 and 2 because minimal protection is seen when exosite 1 variants (gamma-thrombin and thrombin Quick 1) or an exosite 2 variant (Arg93 --> Ala, Arg97 --> Ala, and Arg101 --> Ala thrombin) is substituted for thrombin. Likewise, the rate of thrombin inhibition by the heparin-independent inhibitor, alpha1-antitrypsin Met358 --> Arg, is decreased less than 2-fold in the presence of soluble fibrin and heparin. In contrast, thrombin is protected from inhibition by a covalent antithrombin-heparin complex, suggesting that access of heparin to exosite 2 of thrombin is hampered when ternary complex formation occurs. These results reveal the importance of exosites 1 and 2 of thrombin in assembly of the ternary complex and the subsequent protection of thrombin from inhibition by heparin-catalyzed inhibitors.  (+info)

Orientation of heparin-binding sites in native vitronectin. Analyses of ligand binding to the primary glycosaminoglycan-binding site indicate that putative secondary sites are not functional. (4/6896)

A primary heparin-binding site in vitronectin has been localized to a cluster of cationic residues near the C terminus of the protein. More recently, secondary binding sites have been proposed. In order to investigate whether the binding site originally identified on vitronectin functions as an exclusive and independent heparin-binding domain, solution binding methods have been used in combination with NMR and recombinant approaches to evaluate ligand binding to the primary site. Evaluation of the ionic strength dependence of heparin binding to vitronectin according to classical linkage theory indicates that a single ionic bond is prominent. It had been previously shown that chemical modification of vitronectin using an arginine-reactive probe results in a significant reduction in heparin binding (Gibson, A., Baburaj, K., Day, D. E., Verhamme, I. , Shore, J. D., and Peterson, C. B. (1997) J. Biol. Chem. 272, 5112-5121). The label has now been localized to arginine residues within the cyanogen bromide fragment-(341-380) that contains the primary heparin-binding site on vitronectin. One- and two-dimensional NMR on model peptides based on this primary heparin-binding site indicate that an arginine residue participates in the ionic interaction and that other nonionic interactions may be involved in forming a complex with heparin. A recombinant polypeptide corresponding to the C-terminal 129 amino acids of vitronectin exhibits heparin-binding affinity that is comparable to that of full-length vitronectin and is equally effective at neutralizing heparin anticoagulant activity. Results from this broad experimental approach argue that the behavior of the primary site is sufficient to account for the heparin binding activity of vitronectin and support an exposed orientation for the site in the structure of the native protein.  (+info)

Depolarization-evoked Ca2+ release in a non-excitable cell, the rat megakaryocyte. (5/6896)

1. The effect of membrane potential on [Ca2+]i in rat megakaryocytes was studied using simultaneous whole-cell patch clamp and fura-2 fluorescence recordings. 2. Depolarization from -75 to 0 mV had no effect on [Ca2+]i in unstimulated cells, but evoked one or more spikes of Ca2+ increase (peak increase: 714 +/- 95 nM) during activation of metabotropic purinoceptors by 1 microM ADP. 3. The depolarization-evoked Ca2+ increase was present in Ca2+-free medium and also following removal of Na+. Thus depolarization mobilizes Ca2+ from an intracellular store without a requirement for altered Na+-Ca2+ exchange activity. 4. Intracellular dialysis with heparin blocked the depolarization-evoked Ca2+ increase, indicating a role for functional IP3 receptors. 5. Under current clamp, ADP caused the membrane potential to fluctuate between -43 +/- 1 and -76 +/- 1 mV. Under voltage clamp, depolarization from -75 to -45 mV evoked a transient [Ca2+]i increase (398 +/- 91 nM) during exposure to ADP. 6. We conclude that during stimulation of metabotropic purinoceptors, membrane depolarization over the physiological range can stimulate Ca2+ release from intracellular stores in the rat megakaryocyte, a non-excitable cell type. This may represent an important mechanism by which electrogenic influences can control patterns of [Ca2+]i increase.  (+info)

Fructose 1,6-bisphosphate aldolase is a heparin-binding protein. (6/6896)

Proteins with affinity to heparin under physiological conditions were isolated from bovine cerebral cortex. First, the extract of cerebral cortex was applied to a chondroitin polysulfate column under physiological conditions. Then, the pass-through fraction was applied to a heparin column. Among the bands on SDS polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of the fraction bound to the heparin column, the major one was identified as fructose 1,6-bisphosphate aldolase (FPA), a cytosolic enzyme involved in the glycolytic pathway. The results indicated that FPA is a heparin-binding protein which exhibits no affinity to chondroitin polysulfate. The results of affinity chromatographies revealed that FPA binds to intact heparin and modified heparins desulfated at C2 OH of the iduronic acid residue or at C6 OH or C2 NH2 of the glucosamine residue. When 6-O-desulfated heparin was employed as the affinity ligand, a single peak having FPA activity was isolated from the extract of bovine cerebral cortex. By further Mono Q chromatography and Superdex gel-filtration, five isoenzymes were purified with more than 50% recovery. These isoenzymes were identified as FPA A4, A3C1, A2C2, A1C3, and C4 by native electrophoresis with and without 4 M urea and subsequent amino acid sequence analysis. The use of 6-O-desulfated heparin affinity chromatography thus facilitated the purification of FPA.  (+info)

Characterisation of the conformational and quaternary structure-dependent heparin-binding region of bovine seminal plasma protein PDC-109. (7/6896)

PDC-109, the major heparin-binding protein of bull seminal plasma, binds to sperm choline lipids at ejaculation and modulates capacitation mediated by heparin. Affinity chromatography on heparin-Sepharose showed that polydisperse, but not monomeric, PDC-109 displayed heparin-binding capability. We sought to characterise the surface topology of the quaternary structure-dependent heparin-binding region of PDC-109 by comparing the arginine- and lysine-selective chemical modification patterns of the free and the heparin-bound protein. A combination of reversed-phase peptide mapping of endoproteinase Lys-C-digested PDC-109 derivatives and mass spectrometry was employed to identify modified and heparin-protected residues. PDC-109 contains two tandemly arranged fibronectin type II domains (a, Cys24-Cys61; b, Cys69-Cys109). The results show that six basic residues (Lys34, Arg57, Lys59, Arg64, Lys68, and Arg104) were shielded from reaction with acetic anhydride and 1,2-cyclohexanedione in heparin-bound PDC-109 oligomers. In the 1H-NMR solution structures of single fibronectin type II domains, residues topologically equivalent to PDC-109 Arg57 (Arg104) and Lys59 lay around beta-strand D on the same face of the domain. In full-length PDC-109, Arg64 and Lys68 are both located in the intervening polypeptide between domains a and b. Our data suggest possible quaternary structure arrangements of PDC-109 molecules to form a heparin-binding oligomer.  (+info)

Sperm chemotaxis. (8/6896)

Communication between spermatozoa and egg before contact by chemotaxis appears to be prevalent throughout the animal kingdom. In non-mammalian species, sperm chemotaxis to factors secreted from the egg is well documented. In mammals, sperm chemotaxis to follicular factors in vitro has been established in humans and mice. The attractants of female origin in non-mammalian species are heat-stable peptides or proteins of various sizes, or other small molecules, depending on the species. Species specificity of the attractants in non-mammalian species may vary from high species specificity, through specificity to families with no specificity within a family, to absence of specificity. The mammalian sperm attractants have not been identified but they appear to be heat-stable peptides. The claim that progesterone is the attractant for human spermatozoa has failed to be substantiated, neither have claims for other mammalian sperm attractants been verified. The molecular mechanism of sperm chemotaxis is not known. Models involving modulation of the intracellular Ca2+ concentration have been proposed for both mammalian and non-mammalian sperm chemotaxis. The physiological role of sperm chemotaxis in non-mammalian species appears to differ from that in mammals. In non-mammalian species, sperm chemotaxis strives to bring as many spermatozoa as possible to the egg. However, in mammals, the role appears to be recruitment of a selective population of capacitated ('ripe') spermatozoa to fertilize the egg.  (+info)

  • Explain what to monitor during heparin infusion and how to reverse therapy emergently and when/how to hold for procedures and review the differences between protocols. (duke.edu)
  • Abstract The present study was designed to investigate whether medium-term, low-dose heparin treatment is able to affect the fibrinolytic system. (unifi.it)
  • Doubt has been cast over a recent study which suggests that heparin in high doses can aid coronary arteries and make angioplasty unnecessary in some patients with heart attacks. (healthy.net)
  • More over, Topol believes high dose heparin is likely to cause significant bleeding complications when used with angioplasty or stents (devices used to open up arteries). (healthy.net)
  • The pilot study monitored 108 patients with acute heart attacks who were eligible for angioplasty and given a high dose of heparin in the emergency room. (healthy.net)
  • The prefilled syringe contains more than a child's dose of heparin. (clique2click.com)
  • These results indicate that medium-term low-dose heparin treatment increases t-PA ag formation and/or release with consequent t-PA act increase. (unifi.it)
  • Contrary to standard heparin, SANORG 34006 did not enhance bleeding in a rabbit ear incision model at a dose that equals 10 times the antithrombotic ED50 in this species and, therefore, exhibited a favorable therapeutic index. (tue.nl)
  • In a randomized cross-over study 10 asymptomatic patients with previous (1-6 years) myocardial infarction underwent two sequential 15-day treatments, respectively, on heparin and on placebo (saline solution), preceded and separated by 10-day wash-out periods. (unifi.it)
  • Blood samples for fibrinolysis studies were withdrawn on the first and 15th day of each period immediately before and 4 h after heparin or saline administration before and after 10 min venous occlusion (VO) respectively. (unifi.it)
  • Describe how to manage different patient populations and describe pharmacokinetic parameters of heparin and how that impacts dosing. (duke.edu)
  • The Chinese heparin, contaminated with the chemical oversulfated chondroitin sulfate, was found in at least 10 countries, according to federal officials. (washingtonpost.com)
  • Meanwhile, a letter in the same issue of the journal described a much easier way of identifying oversulfated chondroitin sulfate (OSCS) contamination in heparin -- should it occur again. (washingtonpost.com)
  • Robert Parkinson said Tuesday that a contaminant known as 'oversulfated chondroitin sulfate' was found in certain lots of Baxter's Heparin product. (voanews.com)
  • The adulteration of raw heparin with oversulfated chondroitin sulfate (OSCS) in 2007-2008 spawned a global crisis resulting in extensive revisions to the pharmacopeia monographs on heparin and prompting the FDA to recommend the development of additional physicochemical methods for the analysis of heparin purity. (nih.gov)
  • The FDA is concerned about the safety and effectiveness of medical devices and IVD reagents that may be affected by Heparin with Oversulfated Chondroitin Sulfate (OSCS) and the effect these contaminants may have on the accuracy of In-Vitro Diagnostic (IVD) assays. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • In 2008, numerous consignments of heparin imported to the U.S. from China were contaminated with oversulfated chondroitin sulfate. (mynewsdesk.com)
  • A Congressional investigator said the contaminant, oversulfated chondroitin sulfate, cost $9 a pound compared with $900 a pound for heparin. (nytimes.com)
  • NSTEMI Atrial fibrillation Deep-vein thrombosis and pulmonary embolism Cardiopulmonary bypass for heart surgery ECMO circuit for extracorporeal life support Hemofiltration Indwelling central or peripheral venous catheters Heparin and its low-molecular-weight derivatives (e.g., enoxaparin, dalteparin, tinzaparin) are effective in preventing deep vein thromboses and pulmonary emboli in people at risk, but no evidence indicates any one is more effective than the other in preventing mortality. (wikipedia.org)
  • Heparin is commonly given either subcutaneous ly as prophylaxis against deep venous thrombosis for bedbound hospital inpatients and also intravenous ly for full anticoagulation for whatever reason. (everything2.com)
  • Pathogenic antibodies to PF4/heparin bind and activate cellular FcγRIIA on platelets and monocytes to propagate a hypercoagulable state culminating in life-threatening thrombosis. (bloodjournal.org)
  • 10 The more serious, immune complication of HIT (type II) was first reported in 1958 by 2 surgeons, Weismann and Tobin, who summarized a case series of 10 patients at their institution who developed paradoxical thrombosis while receiving heparin therapy. (bloodjournal.org)
  • China's huge pig population is the reason why the country is a superpower when it comes to making heparin, an anticoagulant used around the globe during heart surgery and dialysis as well as for the treatment of deep vein thrombosis. (acs.org)
  • Heparins are used at high dose to treat systemic thrombosis and at lower doses for thromboprophylaxis. (cornell.edu)
  • Unfractionated heparin is the most primitive form of heparin and has major applications in kidney dialysis and heart, and lung oxygenation that includes the treatment and prevention of pulmonary embolism, deep vein thrombosis, post-operative thrombosis, certain types of coronary artery syndrome, particularly unstable angina, in thrombotic stroke, and hemodialysis. (mynewsdesk.com)
  • Unfractionated heparin is primarily utilized in hospitals for the prevention and treatment of thrombosis. (mynewsdesk.com)
  • If someone receiving heparin develops new or worsening thrombosis, or if the platelet count falls, HIT can be confirmed with specific blood tests . (wikipedia.org)
  • The treatment of HIT requires stopping heparin treatment, and both protection from thrombosis and choice of an agent that will not reduce the platelet count any further. (wikipedia.org)
  • Heparin may be used for both prevention and the treatment of thrombosis. (wikipedia.org)
  • HIT type II represents a potentially dangerous complication of heparin therapy in pediatric patients and should be taken into consideration whenever heparin is given for prophylactic or therapeutic use in newborns, children, or adolescents. (nih.gov)
  • All patients receiving heparin should be closely examined to detect disease progression, or signs of bleeding and bruising, the major complication of heparin therapy. (cornell.edu)
  • Serious injuries and deaths have been associated with the use of heparin, a blood-thinning drug that contained active pharmaceutical ingredient (API) from China. (fda.gov)
  • To ensure safety of heparin products in the United States, FDA asked manufacturers of heparin-containing products to test the heparin active pharmaceutical ingredient (API) used in these products with the two screening methods posted to FDA's website, capillary electrophoresis (CE) and proton nuclear magnetic resonance (H-NMR). (fda.gov)
  • The contaminant was found in 2% to 50% of the lots of heparin active pharmaceutical ingredient tested at a processing plant in Changzhou, China, operated as a joint venture by SPL, the FDA said. (medpagetoday.com)
  • The Changzhou plant also supplied the active pharmaceutical ingredient that was sold to Baxter Healthcare, which has recalled almost all of its heparin products sold in the U.S. (medpagetoday.com)
  • The FDA said it is clear that the substance was not derived from pigs and that its chemical structure had been altered, but stopped short of saying that it had been deliberately added to the heparin active pharmaceutical ingredient. (medpagetoday.com)
  • The Wall Street Journal reported the drug in this latest round of recalls came from China's Shenzhen Hepalink Pharmaceutical Co., which supplied heparin active pharmaceutical ingredient to Opocrin SpA, an Italian company. (medpagetoday.com)
  • Anti-platelet factor 4/heparin antibodies in orthopedic surgery patients receiving antithrombotic prophylaxis with fondaparinux or enoxaparin. (medscape.com)
  • DURHAM, N.C. - Three studies led by Duke Clinical Research Institute (DCRI) cardiologists have shown that the ease and convenience of a newer formulation of the blood-thinner heparin, called enoxaparin, appear to make it the drug of choice for treating patients with suspected heart attacks. (emaxhealth.com)
  • The DCRI researchers led two multi-national clinical trials and conducted one meta-analysis comparing unfractionated heparin to enoxaparin, the newer low molecular weight heparin. (emaxhealth.com)
  • Much has changed in the treatment of patients with acute coronary syndromes since the first studies comparing enoxaparin with unfractionated heparin, according to DCRI cardiologist John Petersen, M.D., first author of the meta-analysis published in JAMA. (emaxhealth.com)
  • But a Chinese official disputed the assertion that the contaminant found in the drug, heparin, caused any deaths and insisted that his country's inspectors be allowed to inspect the American plant where the finished heparin vials were made. (nytimes.com)
  • Do not keep insulin and heparin vials alongside one another on top of counters or drug carts, or under the laminar flow IV admixture hood in the pharmacy. (ismp.org)
  • To avoid similar vials, heparin bags of 100 unit/mL are available from IV solution vendors. (ismp.org)
  • In February 2007, the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and Baxter International issued a two-page safety alert warning of the fatal dangers of mistaking high 10,000 unit and low 10 unit dose vials of Heparin. (newsinferno.com)
  • Heparin is used to prevent blood clots from forming in people who have certain medical conditions or who are undergoing certain medical procedures that increase the chance that clots will form. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Heparin is also used in small amounts to prevent blood clots from forming in catheters (small plastic tubes through which medication can be administered or blood drawn) that are left in veins over a period of time. (medlineplus.gov)
  • When heparin is used to prevent blood clots from forming in intravenous catheters, it is usually used when the catheter is first put in place, and every time that blood is drawn out of the catheter or medication is given through the catheter. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Heparin is used to treat and prevent blood clots caused by certain medical conditions or medical procedures. (cigna.com)
  • Heparin is a blood thinner, and the vital drug is used in surgery, dialysis, and to prevent blood clots in the bedridden. (newsinferno.com)
  • WEDNESDAY, Dec. 3 (HealthDay News) -- A final report on the deadly contamination of the blood thinner heparin confirms that the problem was caused by a man-made chemical that was added to batches of the drug imported from China, U.S. investigators report. (washingtonpost.com)
  • That letter reported successful identification of OSCS contamination in heparin by use of one of the most common tests in medical practice --measuring prothrombin time, the time required for blood to clot, or coagulate. (washingtonpost.com)
  • To minimize the risk, the FDA is proposing a PCR based test to detect contamination of Heparin with OSCS. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • It is unclear whether the contaminant got into the heparin during the manufacturing process, or how and where contamination could have occurred during the process. (eurekalert.org)
  • Heparin should not be contaminated, regardless of whether or not that contamination caused acute adverse events," Dr. Woodcock said. (nytimes.com)
  • However, she has suffered from side effects that have been linked to Heparin contamination in other people. (lawyersandsettlements.com)
  • Everyone was trying to ignore the fact that she was given Heparin and I am very angry that nobody takes responsibility for this error-someone has to do something about heparin reactions-I can't help but think that Lisa suffered because of heparin contamination. (lawyersandsettlements.com)
  • Dr. Woodcock's statement on Tuesday was part of growing chorus that has labeled the heparin contamination as perhaps the most brazen poisoning episode since 1982, when seven people in the Chicago area died after taking Tylenol that had been laced with cyanide. (nytimes.com)
  • The Tylenol case led to substantial changes in product packaging, and the heparin contamination has led both Democratic and Republican committee members to call for major changes in the way the F.D.A. functions and is financed. (nytimes.com)
  • David G. Strunce, chief executive of Scientific Protein Laboratories, the company that supplied contaminated heparin material to Baxter International, which manufactured and distributed the finished drug, described the contamination as "an insidious act" that "seems to us an intentional act upstream in the supply chain. (nytimes.com)
  • During the solution-mixing process, staff might easily select an incorrect amount of heparin or an incorrect type or amount of solvent, without realizing they've done so. (ihi.org)
  • Yesterday, the FDA said the contaminant, which has surfaced in batches of heparin made from active ingredient sourced in China, appears to be a chemically altered material derived from a cheap and widely available. (wsj.com)
  • The contaminant, which is derived from animal cartilage, has a structure very similar to that of heparin and thus cannot be identified with the tests normally used to inspect batches of heparin. (eurekalert.org)
  • A child could tell you it's counterfeiting," said Dr. Jawed Fareed, a professor of pathology and pharmacology at Loyola University Chicago, who has been studying batches of heparin since the problems with the drug were discovered. (hughhewitt.com)
  • The presence of HIT antibodies in someone who has been treated with heparin for 5 to 10 days, has a platelet count that has decreased by 50% or more, and has new blood clots means that it is likely the person has HIT II. (labtestsonline.org)
  • if someone has received heparin in the previous three months, the fall in platelet count may occur sooner, sometimes within a day. (wikipedia.org)
  • HIT may be suspected if blood tests show a falling platelet count in someone receiving heparin, even if the heparin has already been discontinued. (wikipedia.org)
  • Recent scientific developments have clarified mechanisms underlying PF4/heparin immunogenicity, disease susceptibility, and clinical manifestations of disease. (bloodjournal.org)
  • These results provide a potential link between the presence of chemical contaminant in heparin and the clinical symptoms observed in affected patients. (eurekalert.org)
  • If you wanted the latest trusted evidence on heparin or other clinical topics then use Trip today. (tripdatabase.com)
  • This suggests that heparin, particularly unfractionated forms, could be considered to reduce clinical manifestations of COVID-19 by inhibiting continuing viral infection," write Monk and team. (news-medical.net)
  • It is unclear whether peri-implantation heparin in assisted reproduction treatment (ART) cycles improves live birth and clinical pregnancy rates in subfertile women. (cochrane.org)
  • The evidence does not justify the use of heparin except in well-designed clinical research trials. (cochrane.org)
  • It is unclear whether peri-implantation heparin in assisted reproduction treatment (ART) cycles improves live birth and clinical pregnancy rates in subfertile women, as the evidence was sensitive to choice of statistical model and no benefit was apparent when a random effects model was used. (cochrane.org)
  • Heparin has been advocated to improve embryo implantation and clinical outcomes. (cochrane.org)
  • To investigate whether the administration of heparin around the time of implantation (peri-implantation heparin) improves clinical outcomes in subfertile women undergoing assisted reproduction. (cochrane.org)
  • From a clinical perspective this must be considered sufficient heparin treatment with aPTT levels as a tool for monitoring. (ahajournals.org)
  • Clinical studies on the effectiveness of heparin are limited. (ichelp.org)
  • Some people treated with heparin produce antibodies directed against this complex (HIT antibodies). (labtestsonline.org)
  • It is an immune complication caused by antibodies directed to complexes containing heparin and an endogenous platelet protein, platelet factor 4 (PF4). (bloodjournal.org)
  • Heparin occurs naturally in the human body, but the development of HIT antibodies suggests heparin may act as a hapten , and thus be targeted by the immune system . (wikipedia.org)
  • In HIT, the immune system forms antibodies against heparin when it is bound to a protein called platelet factor 4 (PF4). (wikipedia.org)
  • However, those who have been exposed to heparin in the last few months may still have circulating IgG, as IgG-type antibodies generally continue to be produced even when their precipitant has been removed. (wikipedia.org)
  • The IgG antibodies form a complex with heparin and PF4 in the bloodstream. (wikipedia.org)
  • The Wake Forest University Baptist Medical Center's professor of anesthesiology Thomas Slaughter said that the study aimed at finding out if an independent risk is posed by the development of heparin antibodies prior to the surgery. (medindia.net)
  • Antibodies are developed in as many as 50% of the patients who are treated with heparin, the effect of which may even last for several months. (medindia.net)
  • The researchers are of the opinion that blood components are activated which cause inflammation and clotting in the case of subsequent treatment on patients who already carry heparin antibodies. (medindia.net)
  • The heparin antibody levels in the patients were studied by the researchers, before surgery, who came to the conclusion that the risk of hospitalization or death was twofold in the case of patients with the antibodies. (medindia.net)
  • The heparin antibodies were found in 13% of the patients who were to undergo surgery in the US. (medindia.net)
  • The F.D.A. sent a warning letter on Monday to Changzhou SPL, the Chinese plant identified as the source of contaminated heparin made by Baxter International in the United States. (nytimes.com)
  • Han also presented one year outcomes showing that for major adverse cardiac and cerebrovascular events (MACCE), there were no difference between groups, but for NACE, the highest rate of events at one year was in the heparin-monotherapy arm at 20.5%, followed by heparin/tirofiban at 16.5%, and bivalirudin at 12.8%, with the bivalirudin results being statistically superior to the other strategies. (medscape.com)
  • The FDA said there have been hundreds of reports of adverse events and at least 19 deaths linked to the recalled heparin. (medpagetoday.com)
  • Heparin-induced thrombocytopaenia (HIT) is a severe and potentially life-threatening adverse drug reaction. (nih.gov)
  • More than 100 patients have experienced adverse reactions after receiving the tainted heparin. (eurekalert.org)
  • adverse reaction to Heparin? (healingwell.com)
  • A class action claims Baxter Healthcare's anticoagulant Heparin is intentionally contaminated in China with a molecule that looks like Heparin but is 100 times cheaper, in Cook County Court. (courthousenews.com)
  • Investigators found a common thread in those cases: heparin marketed by Baxter Healthcare, of Deerfield, Ill., which got its supplies from China. (washingtonpost.com)
  • The chief executive officer of U.S. drugmaker Baxter International says its blood thinner, heparin, which has been linked to dozens of deaths, appears to have been deliberately contaminated. (voanews.com)
  • Baxter recalled heparin about two months ago. (voanews.com)
  • Hypersulfated chondroitin sulfate has a molecular weight similar to that of heparin and is like the blood thinner in other ways, so that standard testing did not detect it, Baxter officials said. (medpagetoday.com)
  • But the latest European recall was worrisome because the Shenzhen Hepalink Pharmaceutical Co., also supplies active ingredient to APP Pharmaceuticals Inc., the Schaumburg, Ill., company that has become the main heparin supplier in the United States in the wake of the massive heparin recalls by Baxter. (medpagetoday.com)
  • The heparin recalls started in the United States with Baxter products, but had already expanded to Germany and Japan. (medpagetoday.com)
  • FDA officials say the contaminated heparin came from factories in China that manufacture the drug for Baxter International. (eurekalert.org)
  • Baxter recalled its heparin in February after dozens of deaths were reported, dating back to November. (eurekalert.org)
  • Scientists who have examined batches of the contaminated heparin distributed by Baxter International in the United States said in interviews that they suspected that the heparin-like molecule was intentionally mixed into the drug. (hughhewitt.com)
  • The Baxter heparin recalls came after the blood thinner was linked to hundreds of extreme - and in some cases fatal -Â allergic reactions, including difficulty breathing, nausea, vomiting, excessive sweating, and rapidly falling blood pressure that was life threatening after being administered the products. (newsinferno.com)
  • In March, the FDA confirmed that it had found chondroitin sulfate in samples of the active ingredient used in Baxter heparin. (newsinferno.com)
  • Since Baxter recalled virtually all its heparin products on reports of severe reactions and deaths, the price for the blood thinner has doubled. (fiercepharma.com)
  • SHANGHAI/CHICAGO (Reuters) - Health agencies are investigating an outbreak of bloodstream infections in children from four U.S. states that may be linked to heparin and saline syringes made by Becton Dickinson and Co, the agencies told Reuters. (reuters.com)
  • Ask your doctor, nurse, or pharmacist if you do not understand these directions or have any questions about where on your body you should inject heparin, how to give the injection, or how to dispose of used needles and syringes after you inject the medication. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Heparin prefilled syringes could also be made available for admixture use. (ismp.org)
  • Unfractionated heparin (UFH) celebrated its centennial from discovery in 2016. (bloodjournal.org)
  • Europe Disposable Heparin Cap Industry 2016 ​ is a new market research publication announced by Reportstack. (pitchengine.com)
  • Our findings also suggest that a simple bioassay could help protect the global supply chain of heparin, by screening heparin lots for the presence of polysulfated contaminants that may have unintended pharmacological consequences," said Sasisekharan. (eurekalert.org)
  • APTT is used to monitor unfractionated heparin treatment and is reagent/instrument specific. (starship.org.nz)
  • Unlike nucleic acids and proteins that are biosynthesized through template-driven assembly processes, heparin and the related glycosaminoglycan heparan sulfate are actively remodeled during biosynthesis through a series of enzymatic reactions that lead to variable levels of O- and N-sulfonation and uronic acid epimers. (nih.gov)
  • Heparin je član glikozaminoglikanske familije ugljenih hidrata (koja obuhvata blisko srodni molekul heparan sulfat ) i sastoji se od varijabilno sulfatisane ponavljajuće disaharidne jedinice. (wikipedia.org)
  • 1999). „Heparan sulfates and heparins: similar compounds performing the same functions in vertebrates and invertebrates? (wikipedia.org)
  • Heparin and heparan sulfate (HS) glycosaminoglycans are linear sulfated polysaccharides located on cell-surface membranes and in extracellular matrices in virtually all animal tissues. (neb.com)
  • These authors also showed that heparin could interact with recombinant S1 RBD and cause conformational changes, leading to the suggestion that SARS-CoV-2 might use host heparan sulfates as an additional attachment site during infection," write the researchers. (news-medical.net)
  • The authors say the interaction they observed between heparin and the spike protein suggests that it might also bind to host cell heparan sulfate. (news-medical.net)
  • Central lines are often flushed with saline or heparin, a blood thinner, to keep them clear. (reuters.com)
  • Heparin is contraindicated in those with risk of bleeding (especially in people with uncontrolled blood pressure, liver disease, and stroke), severe liver disease, or severe hypertension. (wikipedia.org)
  • Heparin is a naturally occurring anticoagulant that prevents the formation of blood clots. (news-medical.net)
  • In May 1935, the first human trials of heparin were conducted and Connaught's heparin was confirmed as a safe, easily-available and effective blood anticoagulant. (news-medical.net)
  • The reactions included a drastic drop in blood pressure, nausea and shortness of breath, starting within 30 minutes after the administration of the heparin. (washingtonpost.com)
  • A contaminant found in recalled batches of the blood-thinner heparin was deliberately altered in a way that mimicked the real drug, the Food and Drug Administration said, a finding that will add to pressure on U.S. regulators and pharmaceutical companies to step up oversight of burgeoning Chinese drug production. (wsj.com)
  • Heparin is an anticoagulant used to treat blood clots. (labtestsonline.org)
  • is there rat poison in heparin or any blood thinners? (wisegeek.com)
  • Heparin is an anticoagulant (blood thinner) that prevents the formation of blood clots. (cigna.com)
  • Heparin is also used before surgery to reduce the risk of blood clots. (cigna.com)
  • You may be switched from injectable heparin to an oral (taken by mouth) blood thinner. (cigna.com)
  • CAMBRIDGE, Mass.--An international team of researchers led by MIT has explained how contaminated batches of the blood-thinner heparin were able to slip past traditional safety screens and kill dozens of patients recently in the United States and Germany. (eurekalert.org)
  • Heparin, a blood thinner often used during kidney dialysis or heart surgery, is normally produced from pig intestines. (eurekalert.org)
  • The researchers found that the contaminated heparin activates two inflammatory pathways, causing severe allergic reactions and low blood pressure. (eurekalert.org)
  • Heparin is used to prevent or treat certain blood vessel, heart, and lung conditions. (mayoclinic.org)
  • Heparin is also used to prevent blood clotting during open-heart surgery, bypass surgery, kidney dialysis, and blood transfusions. (mayoclinic.org)
  • Heparin may also be used to diagnose and treat a serious blood condition called disseminated intravascular coagulation. (mayoclinic.org)
  • Right away she was given Heparin IV and she started bleeding outwards-there was blood everywhere," says Cathy. (lawyersandsettlements.com)
  • To make this short, he had a blood clot in his calf due to having heparin back in august 2011. (lawyersandsettlements.com)
  • Heparin is a class of blood thinning drug that is used in the prevention and treatment of blood clots. (cochrane.org)
  • Why CBR believes heparin is important in stem cell processing, collecting, and transporting your baby's cord blood. (cordblood.com)
  • In addition, dry heparin helps physicians collect a larger volume of cord blood and allows for greater cell recovery during processing. (cordblood.com)
  • Bone marrow stem cells are routinely collected in heparin, while whole blood donations are routinely collected in CPD. (cordblood.com)
  • Dry heparin allows cord blood to be collected without dilution, preventing acidification and other dilution-related issues. (cordblood.com)
  • 76 Compared to CPD, lyophilized heparin does not dilute the cord blood and increases cell recovery up to 73%, over the wide range of cord blood sample volumes collected by family banks. (cordblood.com)
  • Longer cell viability preservation: Heparin maintains greater cord blood cell viability than CPD at 24 and 48 hours. (cordblood.com)
  • Higher cell concentration: Heparin maintains higher concentration of cord blood cells than CPD at 48 hours. (cordblood.com)
  • Heparin helps to keep blood flowing smoothly and from clotting in the catheter by making a certain natural substance in your body (anti-clotting protein) work better. (webmd.com)
  • Professor Erik Jorpes Jorpes showed that heparin is produced in a specific blood-born cell population, called mast cells. (thaindian.com)
  • Notably, mast cell-released heparin generates the inflammatory mediator bradykinin via activation of factor XII (the so-called Hageman Factor) that belongs to the blood coagulation system. (thaindian.com)
  • Heparin is an anticoagulant , a drug that inhibits blood clotting. (labtestsonline.org.uk)
  • Heparin can also inhibit blood clot formation in diseased arteries, which sometimes cause heart attacks or strokes. (labtestsonline.org.uk)
  • Unfractionated heparin is given intravenously and requires continuous monitoring to ensure proper blood levels of the drug. (emaxhealth.com)
  • I actually have an allergy to heparin, so when I was exposed to it a few years ago I had to get blood and plasma transfusions. (healingwell.com)
  • Heparin is a very strong blood-thinning drug that is delivered by injection. (medicalcityhospital.com)
  • Because garlic has a blood-thinning effect itself, it might be dangerous to combine garlic with heparin. (medicalcityhospital.com)
  • 3 Though warfarin thins the blood in a different way than heparin, there are concerns that garlic might interact similarly with heparin. (medicalcityhospital.com)
  • A statement from the hospital said that it appeared an overdose of the blood thinner heparin may have contributed to the toddler's death. (newsinferno.com)
  • Heparin is a naturally occurring anticoagulant produced by basophils and mast cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Heparin is usually stored within the secretory granules of mast cells and released only into the vasculature at sites of tissue injury. (wikipedia.org)
  • I attempt to isolate human mast cell heparin proteoglycan from human lungs. (bio.net)
  • Is there another source of heparin than mast cells in humans? (bio.net)
  • His group deals a lot with Heparin, Mast cells, and the associated proteins. (bio.net)
  • Heparin se obično skladišti unutar sekretornih granula mast ćelija i oslobađa se samo u vaskulaturu na mestima povrede tkiva. (wikipedia.org)
  • Heparin is distinct from HS in that it is produced primarily by mast cells, whereas, HS is produced by all cell types1. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Heparin is only produced by mast cells. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Washington, Feb 26 (ANI): Scientists have found that heparin plays a key role in allergic and inflammatory reactions driven by mast cells. (thaindian.com)
  • The authors show that heparin initiates the production of a hormone - bradykinin - that contributes to swelling, anaphylactic and inflammatory symptoms, which are commonly known to be associated with aberrant mast cell activity. (thaindian.com)
  • why when we use heparin, we have to check a PTT, and check INR when using warfarin? (wisegeek.com)
  • The A domain of heparin, a specific pentasaccharide sequence, binds to AT. (cornell.edu)
  • Herbal supplements have been shown to interact with Heparin and should not be taken unless approved by a doctor. (livestrong.com)
  • It is not known whether heparin will harm an unborn baby. (cigna.com)
  • The Braun recall also came as the Chinese government's drug safety agency told its local bureaus to increase supervision over the production of heparin. (medpagetoday.com)
  • Much of the Chinese production of heparin starts in small facilities -- and sometimes even home labs -- where pig intestines are processed into a form that is sold to pharmaceutical companies. (medpagetoday.com)
  • Further investigations could also focus on the effects of the local (uterine) and non- systemic application of heparin during ART. (cochrane.org)
  • The first is elevation of serum aminotransferase levels, which has been reported in as many as 80% of patients receiving heparin. (wikipedia.org)
  • The other complication is hyperkalemia, which occurs in 5 to 10% of patients receiving heparin, and is the result of heparin-induced aldosterone suppression. (wikipedia.org)
  • The first reports of such reactions among hospital patients given heparin came in November 2007. (washingtonpost.com)
  • A similar pattern was seen for all bleeding events, with 50% to 60% reductions in the bivalirudin-treated patients vs the heparin-monotherapy and heparin/GP-IIb/IIIa-inhibitor groups (p=0.041 and 0.001, respectively). (medscape.com)
  • As in adult patients, heparin is used for prophylaxis and treatment of thromboembolism in newborns, children, and adolescents. (nih.gov)
  • In three patients, an increasing heparin demand was found. (nih.gov)
  • Patients suspected of having HIT must not receive any further heparin or low-molecular weight heparin and must be started on an alternative anticoagulant such as argatroban or danaparoid. (nih.gov)
  • Dr. Janet Woodcock, director of the Food and Drug Administration's drug center, said that German regulators uncovered a cluster of illnesses among dialysis patients who took contaminated heparin. (nytimes.com)
  • Osteoporosis (thinning of the bone) has been reported in patients who received high amounts of heparin for several months. (adventisthealthcare.com)
  • The simplicity of dosing and lack of toxicity of subcutaneous low-molecular-weight heparin allow unstable patients to be treated in a low-cost environment while infarction is ruled out, such as in accident or emergency holding wards or general medical wards rather than in a coronary care unit setting only. (ahajournals.org)
  • Even with the use of pneumatic compression devices, the incidence of DVT has been reported to be 32% in these patients, making prophylactic heparin therapy desirable. (thejns.org)
  • Both unfractionated and low-molecular-weight heparin have been shown to reduce the incidence of DVT consistently by 40 to 50% in neurosurgical patients. (thejns.org)
  • In one uncontrolled investigation, intravesical heparin resulted in some improvement of symptoms in about 50 percent of patients. (ichelp.org)
  • Another study of patients undergoing DMSO treatments indicated that heparin might help reduce their relapse rate. (ichelp.org)
  • Patients treated with DMSO alone had a relapse rate of 52 percent, while those maintained with monthly instillations of heparin and followed for 12 months had a relapse rate of 20 percent. (ichelp.org)