Heparin fractions with a molecular weight usually between 4000 and 6000 kD. These low-molecular-weight fractions are effective antithrombotic agents. Their administration reduces the risk of hemorrhage, they have a longer half-life, and their platelet interactions are reduced in comparison to unfractionated heparin. They also provide an effective prophylaxis against postoperative major pulmonary embolism.
Coagulant substances inhibiting the anticoagulant action of heparin.
An enzyme of the isomerase class that catalyzes the eliminative cleavage of polysaccharides containing 1,4-linked D-glucuronate or L-iduronate residues and 1,4-alpha-linked 2-sulfoamino-2-deoxy-6-sulfo-D-glucose residues to give oligosaccharides with terminal 4-deoxy-alpha-D-gluc-4-enuronosyl groups at their non-reducing ends. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 4.2.2.7.
A sulfated plasma protein with a MW of approximately 66kDa that resembles ANTITHROMBIN III. The protein is an inhibitor of thrombin in plasma and is activated by dermatan sulfate or heparin. It is a member of the serpin superfamily.
Agents that prevent clotting.
A plasma alpha 2 glycoprotein that accounts for the major antithrombin activity of normal plasma and also inhibits several other enzymes. It is a member of the serpin superfamily.
Endogenous factors and drugs that directly inhibit the action of THROMBIN, usually by blocking its enzymatic activity. They are distinguished from INDIRECT THROMBIN INHIBITORS, such as HEPARIN, which act by enhancing the inhibitory effects of antithrombins.
The time required for the appearance of FIBRIN strands following the mixing of PLASMA with phospholipid platelet substitute (e.g., crude cephalins, soybean phosphatides). It is a test of the intrinsic pathway (factors VIII, IX, XI, and XII) and the common pathway (fibrinogen, prothrombin, factors V and X) of BLOOD COAGULATION. It is used as a screening test and to monitor HEPARIN therapy.
Heteropolysaccharides which contain an N-acetylated hexosamine in a characteristic repeating disaccharide unit. The repeating structure of each disaccharide involves alternate 1,4- and 1,3-linkages consisting of either N-acetylglucosamine or N-acetylgalactosamine.
Low-molecular-weight fragment of heparin, having a 4-enopyranosuronate sodium structure at the non-reducing end of the chain. It is prepared by depolymerization of the benzylic ester of porcine mucosal heparin. Therapeutically, it is used as an antithrombotic agent. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)
The time required by whole blood to produce a visible clot.
A low-molecular-weight fragment of heparin, prepared by nitrous acid depolymerization of porcine mucosal heparin. The mean molecular weight is 4000-6000 daltons. It is used therapeutically as an antithrombotic agent. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)
A naturally occurring glycosaminoglycan found mostly in the skin and in connective tissue. It differs from CHONDROITIN SULFATE A (see CHONDROITIN SULFATES) by containing IDURONIC ACID in place of glucuronic acid, its epimer, at carbon atom 5. (from Merck, 12th ed)
A group of simple proteins that yield basic amino acids on hydrolysis and that occur combined with nucleic acid in the sperm of fish. Protamines contain very few kinds of amino acids. Protamine sulfate combines with heparin to form a stable inactive complex; it is used to neutralize the anticoagulant action of heparin in the treatment of heparin overdose. (From Merck Index, 11th ed; Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p692)
Activated form of factor X that participates in both the intrinsic and extrinsic pathways of blood coagulation. It catalyzes the conversion of prothrombin to thrombin in conjunction with other cofactors.
A CXC chemokine that is found in the alpha granules of PLATELETS. The protein has a molecular size of 7800 kDa and can occur as a monomer, a dimer or a tetramer depending upon its concentration in solution. Platelet factor 4 has a high affinity for HEPARIN and is often found complexed with GLYCOPROTEINS such as PROTEIN C.
Single-chain polypeptides of about 65 amino acids (7 kDa) from LEECHES that have a neutral hydrophobic N terminus, an acidic hydrophilic C terminus, and a compact, hydrophobic core region. Recombinant hirudins lack tyr-63 sulfation and are referred to as 'desulfato-hirudins'. They form a stable non-covalent complex with ALPHA-THROMBIN, thereby abolishing its ability to cleave FIBRINOGEN.
An enzyme formed from PROTHROMBIN that converts FIBRINOGEN to FIBRIN.
Fibrinolysin or agents that convert plasminogen to FIBRINOLYSIN.
The process of the interaction of BLOOD COAGULATION FACTORS that results in an insoluble FIBRIN clot.
A group of carbon-oxygen lyases. These enzymes catalyze the breakage of a carbon-oxygen bond in polysaccharides leading to an unsaturated product and the elimination of an alcohol. EC 4.2.2.
Bleeding or escape of blood from a vessel.
Inflammation of a vein associated with a blood clot (THROMBUS).
Laboratory tests for evaluating the individual's clotting mechanism.
A chromatographic technique that utilizes the ability of biological molecules to bind to certain ligands specifically and reversibly. It is used in protein biochemistry. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Heparin derivatives. The term has also been used more loosely to include naturally occurring and synthetic highly-sulphated polysaccharides of similar structure. Heparinoid preparations have been used for a wide range of applications including as anticoagulants and anti-inflammatories and they have been claimed to have hypolipidemic properties. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th, p232)
Use of HIRUDINS as an anticoagulant in the treatment of cardiological and hematological disorders.
Formation and development of a thrombus or blood clot in the blood vessel.
Carbohydrates consisting of between two (DISACCHARIDES) and ten MONOSACCHARIDES connected by either an alpha- or beta-glycosidic link. They are found throughout nature in both the free and bound form.
Derivatives of chondroitin which have a sulfate moiety esterified to the galactosamine moiety of chondroitin. Chondroitin sulfate A, or chondroitin 4-sulfate, and chondroitin sulfate C, or chondroitin 6-sulfate, have the sulfate esterified in the 4- and 6-positions, respectively. Chondroitin sulfate B (beta heparin; DERMATAN SULFATE) is a misnomer and this compound is not a true chondroitin sulfate.
The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.
Clotting time of PLASMA mixed with a THROMBIN solution. It is a measure of the conversion of FIBRINOGEN to FIBRIN, which is prolonged by AFIBRINOGENEMIA, abnormal fibrinogen, or the presence of inhibitory substances, e.g., fibrin-fibrinogen degradation products, or HEPARIN. BATROXOBIN, a thrombin-like enzyme unaffected by the presence of heparin, may be used in place of thrombin.
The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.
Oligosaccharides containing two monosaccharide units linked by a glycosidic bond.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
Obstruction of a blood vessel (embolism) by a blood clot (THROMBUS) in the blood stream.
A subnormal level of BLOOD PLATELETS.
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
A sulfated pentosyl polysaccharide with heparin-like properties.
A proton ionophore that is commonly used as an uncoupling agent in biochemical studies.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
Inorganic salts of sulfuric acid.
Blocking of the PULMONARY ARTERY or one of its branches by an EMBOLUS.
Forceful administration under the skin of liquid medication, nutrient, or other fluid through a hollow needle piercing the skin.
Component of dermatan sulfate. Differs in configuration from glucuronic acid only at the C-5 position.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
A 17-kDa single-chain polypeptide growth factor that plays a significant role in the process of WOUND HEALING and is a potent inducer of PHYSIOLOGIC ANGIOGENESIS. It binds to HEPARIN, which potentiates its biological activity and protects it from proteolysis. The growth factor is an extremely potent inducer of DNA synthesis in a variety of cell types from mesoderm and neuroectoderm lineages, and also has chemotactic and mitogenic activities. It was originally named acidic fibroblast growth factor based upon its chemical properties and to distinguish it from basic fibroblast growth factor (FIBROBLAST GROWTH FACTOR 2).
An endogenous family of proteins belonging to the serpin superfamily that neutralizes the action of thrombin. Six naturally occurring antithrombins have been identified and are designated by Roman numerals I to VI. Of these, Antithrombin I (see FIBRIN) and ANTITHROMBIN III appear to be of major importance.
The sequence of carbohydrates within POLYSACCHARIDES; GLYCOPROTEINS; and GLYCOLIPIDS.
Inorganic and organic derivatives of sulfuric acid (H2SO4). The salts and esters of sulfuric acid are known as SULFATES and SULFURIC ACID ESTERS respectively.
Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).
The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.
Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.
The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.
Partial proteins formed by partial hydrolysis of complete proteins or generated through PROTEIN ENGINEERING techniques.
Storage-stable glycoprotein blood coagulation factor that can be activated to factor Xa by both the intrinsic and extrinsic pathways. A deficiency of factor X, sometimes called Stuart-Prower factor deficiency, may lead to a systemic coagulation disorder.
Two small peptide chains removed from the N-terminal segment of the alpha chains of fibrinogen by the action of thrombin during the blood coagulation process. Each peptide chain contains 18 amino acid residues. In vivo, fibrinopeptide A is used as a marker to determine the rate of conversion of fibrinogen to fibrin by thrombin.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
An enzyme of the hydrolase class that catalyzes the reaction of triacylglycerol and water to yield diacylglycerol and a fatty acid anion. The enzyme hydrolyzes triacylglycerols in chylomicrons, very-low-density lipoproteins, low-density lipoproteins, and diacylglycerols. It occurs on capillary endothelial surfaces, especially in mammary, muscle, and adipose tissue. Genetic deficiency of the enzyme causes familial hyperlipoproteinemia Type I. (Dorland, 27th ed) EC 3.1.1.34.
Exogenous or endogenous compounds which inhibit SERINE ENDOPEPTIDASES.
A genus of gram-negative, aerobic, rod-shaped bacteria widely distributed in SOIL and WATER. Its organisms are also found in raw meats, MILK and other FOOD, hospital environments, and human clinical specimens. Some species are pathogenic in humans.
The presence of organisms, or any foreign material that makes a drug preparation impure.
The prototypical analgesic used in the treatment of mild to moderate pain. It has anti-inflammatory and antipyretic properties and acts as an inhibitor of cyclooxygenase which results in the inhibition of the biosynthesis of prostaglandins. Aspirin also inhibits platelet aggregation and is used in the prevention of arterial and venous thrombosis. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p5)
A single-chain polypeptide growth factor that plays a significant role in the process of WOUND HEALING and is a potent inducer of PHYSIOLOGIC ANGIOGENESIS. Several different forms of the human protein exist ranging from 18-24 kDa in size due to the use of alternative start sites within the fgf-2 gene. It has a 55 percent amino acid residue identity to FIBROBLAST GROWTH FACTOR 1 and has potent heparin-binding activity. The growth factor is an extremely potent inducer of DNA synthesis in a variety of cell types from mesoderm and neuroectoderm lineages. It was originally named basic fibroblast growth factor based upon its chemical properties and to distinguish it from acidic fibroblast growth factor (FIBROBLAST GROWTH FACTOR 1).
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
Acids derived from monosaccharides by the oxidation of the terminal (-CH2OH) group farthest removed from the carbonyl group to a (-COOH) group. (From Stedmans, 26th ed)
Drugs or agents which antagonize or impair any mechanism leading to blood platelet aggregation, whether during the phases of activation and shape change or following the dense-granule release reaction and stimulation of the prostaglandin-thromboxane system.
A protein derived from FIBRINOGEN in the presence of THROMBIN, which forms part of the blood clot.
Nitrous acid (HNO2). A weak acid that exists only in solution. It can form water-soluble nitrites and stable esters. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)
Chromatography on non-ionic gels without regard to the mechanism of solute discrimination.
The long-term (minutes to hours) administration of a fluid into the vein through venipuncture, either by letting the fluid flow by gravity or by pumping it.
An anticoagulant that acts by inhibiting the synthesis of vitamin K-dependent coagulation factors. Warfarin is indicated for the prophylaxis and/or treatment of venous thrombosis and its extension, pulmonary embolism, and atrial fibrillation with embolization. It is also used as an adjunct in the prophylaxis of systemic embolism after myocardial infarction. Warfarin is also used as a rodenticide.
A plasma protein that is the inactive precursor of thrombin. It is converted to thrombin by a prothrombin activator complex consisting of factor Xa, factor V, phospholipid, and calcium ions. Deficiency of prothrombin leads to hypoprothrombinemia.
The interaction of two or more substrates or ligands with the same binding site. The displacement of one by the other is used in quantitative and selective affinity measurements.
A biosensing technique in which biomolecules capable of binding to specific analytes or ligands are first immobilized on one side of a metallic film. Light is then focused on the opposite side of the film to excite the surface plasmons, that is, the oscillations of free electrons propagating along the film's surface. The refractive index of light reflecting off this surface is measured. When the immobilized biomolecules are bound by their ligands, an alteration in surface plasmons on the opposite side of the film is created which is directly proportional to the change in bound, or adsorbed, mass. Binding is measured by changes in the refractive index. The technique is used to study biomolecular interactions, such as antigen-antibody binding.
Enzymes which transfer sulfate groups to various acceptor molecules. They are involved in posttranslational sulfation of proteins and sulfate conjugation of exogenous chemicals and bile acids. EC 2.8.2.
A disorder characterized by procoagulant substances entering the general circulation causing a systemic thrombotic process. The activation of the clotting mechanism may arise from any of a number of disorders. A majority of the patients manifest skin lesions, sometimes leading to PURPURA FULMINANS.
Endogenous substances, usually proteins, that are involved in the blood coagulation process.
A proteolytic enzyme in the serine protease family found in many tissues which converts PLASMINOGEN to FIBRINOLYSIN. It has fibrin-binding activity and is immunologically different from UROKINASE-TYPE PLASMINOGEN ACTIVATOR. The primary sequence, composed of 527 amino acids, is identical in both the naturally occurring and synthetic proteases.
The relationship between the chemical structure of a compound and its biological or pharmacological activity. Compounds are often classed together because they have structural characteristics in common including shape, size, stereochemical arrangement, and distribution of functional groups.
Plasma glycoprotein clotted by thrombin, composed of a dimer of three non-identical pairs of polypeptide chains (alpha, beta, gamma) held together by disulfide bonds. Fibrinogen clotting is a sol-gel change involving complex molecular arrangements: whereas fibrinogen is cleaved by thrombin to form polypeptides A and B, the proteolytic action of other enzymes yields different fibrinogen degradation products.
Platelet membrane glycoprotein complex important for platelet adhesion and aggregation. It is an integrin complex containing INTEGRIN ALPHAIIB and INTEGRIN BETA3 which recognizes the arginine-glycine-aspartic acid (RGD) sequence present on several adhesive proteins. As such, it is a receptor for FIBRINOGEN; VON WILLEBRAND FACTOR; FIBRONECTIN; VITRONECTIN; and THROMBOSPONDINS. A deficiency of GPIIb-IIIa results in GLANZMANN THROMBASTHENIA.
Streptococcal fibrinolysin . An enzyme produced by hemolytic streptococci. It hydrolyzes amide linkages and serves as an activator of plasminogen. It is used in thrombolytic therapy and is used also in mixtures with streptodornase (STREPTODORNASE AND STREPTOKINASE). EC 3.4.-.
A family of neutral serine proteases with CHYMOTRYPSIN-like activity. Chymases are primarily found in the SECRETORY GRANULES of MAST CELLS and are released during mast cell degranulation.
Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a carbohydrate.
Obstruction of a vein or VEINS (embolism) by a blood clot (THROMBUS) in the blood stream.
A unifocal malignant tumor that consists of atypical pathological MAST CELLS without systemic involvement. It causes local destructive growth in organs other than in skin or bone marrow.
A synthetic polymer which agglutinates red blood cells. It is used as a heparin antagonist.
Precordial pain at rest, which may precede a MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION.
Inorganic salts of chloric acid that contain the ClO3- ion.
Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.
Non-nucleated disk-shaped cells formed in the megakaryocyte and found in the blood of all mammals. They are mainly involved in blood coagulation.
Clotting time of PLASMA recalcified in the presence of excess TISSUE THROMBOPLASTIN. Factors measured are FIBRINOGEN; PROTHROMBIN; FACTOR V; FACTOR VII; and FACTOR X. It is used for monitoring anticoagulant therapy with COUMARINS.
Single pavement layer of cells which line the luminal surface of the entire vascular system and regulate the transport of macromolecules and blood components.
Use of infusions of FIBRINOLYTIC AGENTS to destroy or dissolve thrombi in blood vessels or bypass grafts.
Therapy with two or more separate preparations given for a combined effect.
Glycoproteins found on the surfaces of cells, particularly in fibrillar structures. The proteins are lost or reduced when these cells undergo viral or chemical transformation. They are highly susceptible to proteolysis and are substrates for activated blood coagulation factor VIII. The forms present in plasma are called cold-insoluble globulins.
An absence or reduced level of Antithrombin III leading to an increased risk for thrombosis.
NECROSIS of the MYOCARDIUM caused by an obstruction of the blood supply to the heart (CORONARY CIRCULATION).
A group of glucose polymers made by certain bacteria. Dextrans are used therapeutically as plasma volume expanders and anticoagulants. They are also commonly used in biological experimentation and in industry for a wide variety of purposes.
The attachment of PLATELETS to one another. This clumping together can be induced by a number of agents (e.g., THROMBIN; COLLAGEN) and is part of the mechanism leading to the formation of a THROMBUS.
A subfamily in the family MURIDAE, comprising the hamsters. Four of the more common genera are Cricetus, CRICETULUS; MESOCRICETUS; and PHODOPUS.
Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.
The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.
Granulated cells that are found in almost all tissues, most abundantly in the skin and the gastrointestinal tract. Like the BASOPHILS, mast cells contain large amounts of HISTAMINE and HEPARIN. Unlike basophils, mast cells normally remain in the tissues and do not circulate in the blood. Mast cells, derived from the bone marrow stem cells, are regulated by the STEM CELL FACTOR.
Liquid chromatographic techniques which feature high inlet pressures, high sensitivity, and high speed.
The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.
Injections made into a vein for therapeutic or experimental purposes.
The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).
Compounds formed by the joining of smaller, usually repeating, units linked by covalent bonds. These compounds often form large macromolecules (e.g., BIOPOLYMERS; PLASTICS).
Extracellular protease inhibitors that are secreted from FIBROBLASTS. They form a covalent complex with SERINE PROTEASES and can mediate their cellular internalization and degradation.
The process which spontaneously arrests the flow of BLOOD from vessels carrying blood under pressure. It is accomplished by contraction of the vessels, adhesion and aggregation of formed blood elements (eg. ERYTHROCYTE AGGREGATION), and the process of BLOOD COAGULATION.
CELL LINE derived from the ovary of the Chinese hamster, Cricetulus griseus (CRICETULUS). The species is a favorite for cytogenetic studies because of its small chromosome number. The cell line has provided model systems for the study of genetic alterations in cultured mammalian cells.
Adherence of cells to surfaces or to other cells.
The return of a sign, symptom, or disease after a remission.
Spectroscopic method of measuring the magnetic moment of elementary particles such as atomic nuclei, protons or electrons. It is employed in clinical applications such as NMR Tomography (MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING).
A series of progressive, overlapping events, triggered by exposure of the PLATELETS to subendothelial tissue. These events include shape change, adhesiveness, aggregation, and release reactions. When carried through to completion, these events lead to the formation of a stable hemostatic plug.
Hemorrhage following any surgical procedure. It may be immediate or delayed and is not restricted to the surgical wound.
Duration of blood flow after skin puncture. This test is used as a measure of capillary and platelet function.
A key intermediate in metabolism. It is an acid compound found in citrus fruits. The salts of citric acid (citrates) can be used as anticoagulants due to their calcium chelating ability.
Activated form of factor IX. This activation can take place via the intrinsic pathway by the action of factor XIa and calcium, or via the extrinsic pathway by the action of factor VIIa, thromboplastin, and calcium. Factor IXa serves to activate factor X to Xa by cleaving the arginyl-leucine peptide bond in factor X.
Long-chain polymer of glucose containing 17-20% sulfur. It has been used as an anticoagulant and also has been shown to inhibit the binding of HIV-1 to CD4-POSITIVE T-LYMPHOCYTES. It is commonly used as both an experimental and clinical laboratory reagent and has been investigated for use as an antiviral agent, in the treatment of hypolipidemia, and for the prevention of free radical damage, among other applications.
Specific molecular sites or structures on cell membranes that react with FIBROBLAST GROWTH FACTORS (both the basic and acidic forms), their analogs, or their antagonists to elicit or to inhibit the specific response of the cell to these factors. These receptors frequently possess tyrosine kinase activity.
Constituent composed of protein and phospholipid that is widely distributed in many tissues. It serves as a cofactor with factor VIIa to activate factor X in the extrinsic pathway of blood coagulation.
Activated form of factor XI. In the intrinsic pathway, Factor XI is activated to XIa by factor XIIa in the presence of cofactor HMWK; (HIGH MOLECULAR WEIGHT KININOGEN). Factor XIa then activates factor IX to factor IXa in the presence of calcium.
Soluble protein fragments formed by the proteolytic action of plasmin on fibrin or fibrinogen. FDP and their complexes profoundly impair the hemostatic process and are a major cause of hemorrhage in intravascular coagulation and fibrinolysis.
A family of small polypeptide growth factors that share several common features including a strong affinity for HEPARIN, and a central barrel-shaped core region of 140 amino acids that is highly homologous between family members. Although originally studied as proteins that stimulate the growth of fibroblasts this distinction is no longer a requirement for membership in the fibroblast growth factor family.
A characteristic feature of enzyme activity in relation to the kind of substrate on which the enzyme or catalytic molecule reacts.
Separation of a mixture in successive stages, each stage removing from the mixture some proportion of one of the substances, for example by differential solubility in water-solvent mixtures. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
An endogenous 105-kDa plasma glycoprotein produced primarily by the LIVER and MONOCYTES. It inhibits a broad spectrum of proteases, including the COMPLEMENT C1R and the COMPLEMENT C1S proteases of the CLASSICAL COMPLEMENT PATHWAY, and the MANNOSE-BINDING PROTEIN-ASSOCIATED SERINE PROTEASES. C1-INH-deficient individuals suffer from HEREDITARY ANGIOEDEMA TYPES I AND II.
Immunoglobulin molecules having a specific amino acid sequence by virtue of which they interact only with the ANTIGEN (or a very similar shape) that induced their synthesis in cells of the lymphoid series (especially PLASMA CELLS).
The taking of a blood sample to determine its character as a whole, to identify levels of its component cells, chemicals, gases, or other constituents, to perform pathological examination, etc.
Use of a thrombelastograph, which provides a continuous graphic record of the physical shape of a clot during fibrin formation and subsequent lysis.
Conjugated protein-carbohydrate compounds including mucins, mucoid, and amyloid glycoproteins.
The number of PLATELETS per unit volume in a sample of venous BLOOD.
Organic esters of sulfuric acid.
Separation technique in which the stationary phase consists of ion exchange resins. The resins contain loosely held small ions that easily exchange places with other small ions of like charge present in solutions washed over the resins.
Large, noncollagenous glycoprotein with antigenic properties. It is localized in the basement membrane lamina lucida and functions to bind epithelial cells to the basement membrane. Evidence suggests that the protein plays a role in tumor invasion.
A method of studying a drug or procedure in which both the subjects and investigators are kept unaware of who is actually getting which specific treatment.
A mucopolysaccharide constituent of chondrin. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
A meshwork-like substance found within the extracellular space and in association with the basement membrane of the cell surface. It promotes cellular proliferation and provides a supporting structure to which cells or cell lysates in culture dishes adhere.
Coagulation of blood in any of the CORONARY VESSELS. The presence of a blood clot (THROMBUS) often leads to MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION.
Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.
A family of related, adhesive glycoproteins which are synthesized, secreted, and incorporated into the extracellular matrix of a variety of cells, including alpha granules of platelets following thrombin activation and endothelial cells. They interact with a number of BLOOD COAGULATION FACTORS and anticoagulant factors. Five distinct forms have been identified, thrombospondin 1, -2, -3, -4, and cartilage oligomeric matrix protein (COMP). They are involved in cell adhesion, platelet aggregation, cell proliferation, angiogenesis, tumor metastasis, VASCULAR SMOOTH MUSCLE growth, and tissue repair.
A family of serine proteinase inhibitors which are similar in amino acid sequence and mechanism of inhibition, but differ in their specificity toward proteolytic enzymes. This family includes alpha 1-antitrypsin, angiotensinogen, ovalbumin, antiplasmin, alpha 1-antichymotrypsin, thyroxine-binding protein, complement 1 inactivators, antithrombin III, heparin cofactor II, plasminogen inactivators, gene Y protein, placental plasminogen activator inhibitor, and barley Z protein. Some members of the serpin family may be substrates rather than inhibitors of SERINE ENDOPEPTIDASES, and some serpins occur in plants where their function is not known.
The nonstriated involuntary muscle tissue of blood vessels.
Dilation of an occluded coronary artery (or arteries) by means of a balloon catheter to restore myocardial blood supply.
Catheters designed to be left within an organ or passage for an extended period of time.
Emulsions of fats or lipids used primarily in parenteral feeding.
The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.
Diversion of the flow of blood from the entrance of the right atrium directly to the aorta (or femoral artery) via an oxygenator thus bypassing both the heart and lungs.
Any member of the group of ENDOPEPTIDASES containing at the active site a serine residue involved in catalysis.
A polypeptide substance comprising about one third of the total protein in mammalian organisms. It is the main constituent of SKIN; CONNECTIVE TISSUE; and the organic substance of bones (BONE AND BONES) and teeth (TOOTH).
A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.
An enzyme fraction from the venom of the Malayan pit viper, Agkistrodon rhodostoma. It catalyzes the hydrolysis of a number of amino acid esters and a limited proteolysis of fibrinogen. It is used clinically to produce controlled defibrination in patients requiring anticoagulant therapy. EC 3.4.21.-.
Proteins that are present in blood serum, including SERUM ALBUMIN; BLOOD COAGULATION FACTORS; and many other types of proteins.
An enzyme of the hydrolase class that catalyzes the reaction of triacylglycerol and water to yield diacylglycerol and a fatty acid anion. It is produced by glands on the tongue and by the pancreas and initiates the digestion of dietary fats. (From Dorland, 27th ed) EC 3.1.1.3.
A coumarin that is used as an anticoagulant. Its actions and uses are similar to those of WARFARIN. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p233)
Pathologic processes that affect patients after a surgical procedure. They may or may not be related to the disease for which the surgery was done, and they may or may not be direct results of the surgery.
Electrophoresis in which paper is used as the diffusion medium. This technique is confined almost entirely to separations of small molecules such as amino acids, peptides, and nucleotides, and relatively high voltages are nearly always used.
Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.
Enzymes which catalyze the elimination of glucuronate residues from chondroitin A,B, and C or which catalyze the hydrolysis of sulfate groups of the 2-acetamido-2-deoxy-D-galactose 6-sulfate units of chondroitin sulfate. EC 4.2.2.-.
Cellulose derivative used in chromatography, as ion-exchange material, and for various industrial applications.
The concentration of osmotically active particles in solution expressed in terms of osmoles of solute per liter of solution. Osmolality is expressed in terms of osmoles of solute per kilogram of solvent.
Univalent antigen-binding fragments composed of one entire IMMUNOGLOBULIN LIGHT CHAIN and the amino terminal end of one of the IMMUNOGLOBULIN HEAVY CHAINS from the hinge region, linked to each other by disulfide bonds. Fab contains the IMMUNOGLOBULIN VARIABLE REGIONS, which are part of the antigen-binding site, and the first IMMUNOGLOBULIN CONSTANT REGIONS. This fragment can be obtained by digestion of immunoglobulins with the proteolytic enzyme PAPAIN.
A strong oxidizing agent.
Biocompatible materials usually used in dental and bone implants that enhance biologic fixation, thereby increasing the bond strength between the coated material and bone, and minimize possible biological effects that may result from the implant itself.
Placement of an intravenous CATHETER in the subclavian, jugular, or other central vein.
Compounds which inhibit or antagonize biosynthesis or actions of proteases (ENDOPEPTIDASES).
Therapy for the insufficient cleansing of the BLOOD by the kidneys based on dialysis and including hemodialysis, PERITONEAL DIALYSIS, and HEMODIAFILTRATION.
The administration of liquid medication, nutrient, or other fluid through some other route than the alimentary canal, usually over minutes or hours, either by gravity flow or often by infusion pumping.
Membrane antigens associated with maturation stages of B-lymphocytes, often expressed in tumors of B-cell origin.
A chelating agent that sequesters a variety of polyvalent cations such as CALCIUM. It is used in pharmaceutical manufacturing and as a food additive.
Disease having a short and relatively severe course.
Hemorrhagic and thrombotic disorders that occur as a consequence of abnormalities in blood coagulation due to a variety of factors such as COAGULATION PROTEIN DISORDERS; BLOOD PLATELET DISORDERS; BLOOD PROTEIN DISORDERS or nutritional conditions.
A reagent used mainly to induce experimental liver cancer. According to the Fourth Annual Report on Carcinogens (NTP 85-002, p. 89) published in 1985, this compound "may reasonably be anticipated to be a carcinogen." (Merck, 11th ed)
Signal molecules that are involved in the control of cell growth and differentiation.
A ubiquitous sodium salt that is commonly used to season food.
A natural high-viscosity mucopolysaccharide with alternating beta (1-3) glucuronide and beta (1-4) glucosaminidic bonds. It is found in the UMBILICAL CORD, in VITREOUS BODY and in SYNOVIAL FLUID. A high urinary level is found in PROGERIA.
Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.
A plant family of the order Capparales, subclass Dilleniidae, class Magnoliopsida, that are mostly herbs and shrubs growing in warm arid regions. Several produce GLUCOSINOLATES.
Formation or presence of a blood clot (THROMBUS) in the SUPERIOR SAGITTAL SINUS or the inferior sagittal sinus. Sagittal sinus thrombosis can result from infections, hematological disorders, CRANIOCEREBRAL TRAUMA; and NEUROSURGICAL PROCEDURES. Clinical features are primarily related to the increased intracranial pressure causing HEADACHE; NAUSEA; and VOMITING. Severe cases can evolve to SEIZURES or COMA.
A disorder of HEMOSTASIS in which there is a tendency for the occurrence of THROMBOSIS.
Cell surface proteins that bind signalling molecules external to the cell with high affinity and convert this extracellular event into one or more intracellular signals that alter the behavior of the target cell (From Alberts, Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2nd ed, pp693-5). Cell surface receptors, unlike enzymes, do not chemically alter their ligands.
The domestic dog, Canis familiaris, comprising about 400 breeds, of the carnivore family CANIDAE. They are worldwide in distribution and live in association with people. (Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, p1065)
Cell adhesion molecule and CD antigen that mediates the adhesion of neutrophils and monocytes to activated platelets and endothelial cells.
A product of the lysis of plasminogen (profibrinolysin) by PLASMINOGEN activators. It is composed of two polypeptide chains, light (B) and heavy (A), with a molecular weight of 75,000. It is the major proteolytic enzyme involved in blood clot retraction or the lysis of fibrin and quickly inactivated by antiplasmins.
Intracellular messenger formed by the action of phospholipase C on phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate, which is one of the phospholipids that make up the cell membrane. Inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate is released into the cytoplasm where it releases calcium ions from internal stores within the cell's endoplasmic reticulum. These calcium ions stimulate the activity of B kinase or calmodulin.
Techniques used to separate mixtures of substances based on differences in the relative affinities of the substances for mobile and stationary phases. A mobile phase (fluid or gas) passes through a column containing a stationary phase of porous solid or liquid coated on a solid support. Usage is both analytical for small amounts and preparative for bulk amounts.
Time schedule for administration of a drug in order to achieve optimum effectiveness and convenience.
A vitamin-K dependent zymogen present in the blood, which, upon activation by thrombin and thrombomodulin exerts anticoagulant properties by inactivating factors Va and VIIIa at the rate-limiting steps of thrombin formation.
A group of protein-serine-threonine kinases that was originally identified as being responsible for the PHOSPHORYLATION of CASEINS. They are ubiquitous enzymes that have a preference for acidic proteins. Casein kinases play a role in SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION by phosphorylating a variety of regulatory cytoplasmic and regulatory nuclear proteins.
Peptides composed of between two and twelve amino acids.

Binding of the G domains of laminin alpha1 and alpha2 chains and perlecan to heparin, sulfatides, alpha-dystroglycan and several extracellular matrix proteins. (1/6896)

The C-terminal G domain of the mouse laminin alpha2 chain consists of five lamin-type G domain (LG) modules (alpha2LG1 to alpha2LG5) and was obtained as several recombinant fragments, corresponding to either individual modules or the tandem arrays alpha2LG1-3 and alpha2LG4-5. These fragments were compared with similar modules from the laminin alpha1 chain and from the C-terminal region of perlecan (PGV) in several binding studies. Major heparin-binding sites were located on the two tandem fragments and the individual alpha2LG1, alpha2LG3 and alpha2LG5 modules. The binding epitope on alpha2LG5 could be localized to a cluster of lysines by site-directed mutagenesis. In the alpha1 chain, however, strong heparin binding was found on alpha1LG4 and not on alpha1LG5. Binding to sulfatides correlated to heparin binding in most but not all cases. Fragments alpha2LG1-3 and alpha2LG4-5 also bound to fibulin-1, fibulin-2 and nidogen-2 with Kd = 13-150 nM. Both tandem fragments, but not the individual modules, bound strongly to alpha-dystroglycan and this interaction was abolished by EDTA but not by high concentrations of heparin and NaCl. The binding of perlecan fragment PGV to alpha-dystroglycan was even stronger and was also not sensitive to heparin. This demonstrated similar binding repertoires for the LG modules of three basement membrane proteins involved in cell-matrix interactions and supramolecular assembly.  (+info)

The L1 major capsid protein of human papillomavirus type 11 recombinant virus-like particles interacts with heparin and cell-surface glycosaminoglycans on human keratinocytes. (2/6896)

The L1 major capsid protein of human papillomavirus (HPV) type 11, a 55-kDa polypeptide, forms particulate structures resembling native virus with an average particle diameter of 50-60 nm when expressed in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. We show in this report that these virus-like particles (VLPs) interact with heparin and with cell-surface glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) resembling heparin on keratinocytes and Chinese hamster ovary cells. The binding of VLPs to heparin is shown to exhibit an affinity comparable to that of other identified heparin-binding proteins. Immobilized heparin chromatography and surface plasmon resonance were used to show that this interaction can be specifically inhibited by free heparin and dextran sulfate and that the effectiveness of the inhibitor is related to its molecular weight and charge density. Sequence comparison of nine human L1 types revealed a conserved region of the carboxyl terminus containing clustered basic amino acids that bear resemblance to proposed heparin-binding motifs in unrelated proteins. Specific enzymatic cleavage of this region eliminated binding to both immobilized heparin and human keratinocyte (HaCaT) cells. Removal of heparan sulfate GAGs on keratinocytes by treatment with heparinase or heparitinase resulted in an 80-90% reduction of VLP binding, whereas treatment of cells with laminin, a substrate for alpha6 integrin receptors, provided minimal inhibition. Cells treated with chlorate or substituted beta-D-xylosides, resulting in undersulfation or secretion of GAG chains, also showed a reduced affinity for VLPs. Similarly, binding of VLPs to a Chinese hamster ovary cell mutant deficient in GAG synthesis was shown to be only 10% that observed for wild type cells. This report establishes for the first time that the carboxyl-terminal portion of HPV L1 interacts with heparin, and that this region appears to be crucial for interaction with the cell surface.  (+info)

Exosites 1 and 2 are essential for protection of fibrin-bound thrombin from heparin-catalyzed inhibition by antithrombin and heparin cofactor II. (3/6896)

Assembly of ternary thrombin-heparin-fibrin complexes, formed when fibrin binds to exosite 1 on thrombin and fibrin-bound heparin binds to exosite 2, produces a 58- and 247-fold reduction in the heparin-catalyzed rate of thrombin inhibition by antithrombin and heparin cofactor II, respectively. The greater reduction for heparin cofactor II reflects its requirement for access to exosite 1 during the inhibitory process. Protection from inhibition by antithrombin and heparin cofactor II requires ligation of both exosites 1 and 2 because minimal protection is seen when exosite 1 variants (gamma-thrombin and thrombin Quick 1) or an exosite 2 variant (Arg93 --> Ala, Arg97 --> Ala, and Arg101 --> Ala thrombin) is substituted for thrombin. Likewise, the rate of thrombin inhibition by the heparin-independent inhibitor, alpha1-antitrypsin Met358 --> Arg, is decreased less than 2-fold in the presence of soluble fibrin and heparin. In contrast, thrombin is protected from inhibition by a covalent antithrombin-heparin complex, suggesting that access of heparin to exosite 2 of thrombin is hampered when ternary complex formation occurs. These results reveal the importance of exosites 1 and 2 of thrombin in assembly of the ternary complex and the subsequent protection of thrombin from inhibition by heparin-catalyzed inhibitors.  (+info)

Orientation of heparin-binding sites in native vitronectin. Analyses of ligand binding to the primary glycosaminoglycan-binding site indicate that putative secondary sites are not functional. (4/6896)

A primary heparin-binding site in vitronectin has been localized to a cluster of cationic residues near the C terminus of the protein. More recently, secondary binding sites have been proposed. In order to investigate whether the binding site originally identified on vitronectin functions as an exclusive and independent heparin-binding domain, solution binding methods have been used in combination with NMR and recombinant approaches to evaluate ligand binding to the primary site. Evaluation of the ionic strength dependence of heparin binding to vitronectin according to classical linkage theory indicates that a single ionic bond is prominent. It had been previously shown that chemical modification of vitronectin using an arginine-reactive probe results in a significant reduction in heparin binding (Gibson, A., Baburaj, K., Day, D. E., Verhamme, I. , Shore, J. D., and Peterson, C. B. (1997) J. Biol. Chem. 272, 5112-5121). The label has now been localized to arginine residues within the cyanogen bromide fragment-(341-380) that contains the primary heparin-binding site on vitronectin. One- and two-dimensional NMR on model peptides based on this primary heparin-binding site indicate that an arginine residue participates in the ionic interaction and that other nonionic interactions may be involved in forming a complex with heparin. A recombinant polypeptide corresponding to the C-terminal 129 amino acids of vitronectin exhibits heparin-binding affinity that is comparable to that of full-length vitronectin and is equally effective at neutralizing heparin anticoagulant activity. Results from this broad experimental approach argue that the behavior of the primary site is sufficient to account for the heparin binding activity of vitronectin and support an exposed orientation for the site in the structure of the native protein.  (+info)

Depolarization-evoked Ca2+ release in a non-excitable cell, the rat megakaryocyte. (5/6896)

1. The effect of membrane potential on [Ca2+]i in rat megakaryocytes was studied using simultaneous whole-cell patch clamp and fura-2 fluorescence recordings. 2. Depolarization from -75 to 0 mV had no effect on [Ca2+]i in unstimulated cells, but evoked one or more spikes of Ca2+ increase (peak increase: 714 +/- 95 nM) during activation of metabotropic purinoceptors by 1 microM ADP. 3. The depolarization-evoked Ca2+ increase was present in Ca2+-free medium and also following removal of Na+. Thus depolarization mobilizes Ca2+ from an intracellular store without a requirement for altered Na+-Ca2+ exchange activity. 4. Intracellular dialysis with heparin blocked the depolarization-evoked Ca2+ increase, indicating a role for functional IP3 receptors. 5. Under current clamp, ADP caused the membrane potential to fluctuate between -43 +/- 1 and -76 +/- 1 mV. Under voltage clamp, depolarization from -75 to -45 mV evoked a transient [Ca2+]i increase (398 +/- 91 nM) during exposure to ADP. 6. We conclude that during stimulation of metabotropic purinoceptors, membrane depolarization over the physiological range can stimulate Ca2+ release from intracellular stores in the rat megakaryocyte, a non-excitable cell type. This may represent an important mechanism by which electrogenic influences can control patterns of [Ca2+]i increase.  (+info)

Fructose 1,6-bisphosphate aldolase is a heparin-binding protein. (6/6896)

Proteins with affinity to heparin under physiological conditions were isolated from bovine cerebral cortex. First, the extract of cerebral cortex was applied to a chondroitin polysulfate column under physiological conditions. Then, the pass-through fraction was applied to a heparin column. Among the bands on SDS polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of the fraction bound to the heparin column, the major one was identified as fructose 1,6-bisphosphate aldolase (FPA), a cytosolic enzyme involved in the glycolytic pathway. The results indicated that FPA is a heparin-binding protein which exhibits no affinity to chondroitin polysulfate. The results of affinity chromatographies revealed that FPA binds to intact heparin and modified heparins desulfated at C2 OH of the iduronic acid residue or at C6 OH or C2 NH2 of the glucosamine residue. When 6-O-desulfated heparin was employed as the affinity ligand, a single peak having FPA activity was isolated from the extract of bovine cerebral cortex. By further Mono Q chromatography and Superdex gel-filtration, five isoenzymes were purified with more than 50% recovery. These isoenzymes were identified as FPA A4, A3C1, A2C2, A1C3, and C4 by native electrophoresis with and without 4 M urea and subsequent amino acid sequence analysis. The use of 6-O-desulfated heparin affinity chromatography thus facilitated the purification of FPA.  (+info)

Characterisation of the conformational and quaternary structure-dependent heparin-binding region of bovine seminal plasma protein PDC-109. (7/6896)

PDC-109, the major heparin-binding protein of bull seminal plasma, binds to sperm choline lipids at ejaculation and modulates capacitation mediated by heparin. Affinity chromatography on heparin-Sepharose showed that polydisperse, but not monomeric, PDC-109 displayed heparin-binding capability. We sought to characterise the surface topology of the quaternary structure-dependent heparin-binding region of PDC-109 by comparing the arginine- and lysine-selective chemical modification patterns of the free and the heparin-bound protein. A combination of reversed-phase peptide mapping of endoproteinase Lys-C-digested PDC-109 derivatives and mass spectrometry was employed to identify modified and heparin-protected residues. PDC-109 contains two tandemly arranged fibronectin type II domains (a, Cys24-Cys61; b, Cys69-Cys109). The results show that six basic residues (Lys34, Arg57, Lys59, Arg64, Lys68, and Arg104) were shielded from reaction with acetic anhydride and 1,2-cyclohexanedione in heparin-bound PDC-109 oligomers. In the 1H-NMR solution structures of single fibronectin type II domains, residues topologically equivalent to PDC-109 Arg57 (Arg104) and Lys59 lay around beta-strand D on the same face of the domain. In full-length PDC-109, Arg64 and Lys68 are both located in the intervening polypeptide between domains a and b. Our data suggest possible quaternary structure arrangements of PDC-109 molecules to form a heparin-binding oligomer.  (+info)

Sperm chemotaxis. (8/6896)

Communication between spermatozoa and egg before contact by chemotaxis appears to be prevalent throughout the animal kingdom. In non-mammalian species, sperm chemotaxis to factors secreted from the egg is well documented. In mammals, sperm chemotaxis to follicular factors in vitro has been established in humans and mice. The attractants of female origin in non-mammalian species are heat-stable peptides or proteins of various sizes, or other small molecules, depending on the species. Species specificity of the attractants in non-mammalian species may vary from high species specificity, through specificity to families with no specificity within a family, to absence of specificity. The mammalian sperm attractants have not been identified but they appear to be heat-stable peptides. The claim that progesterone is the attractant for human spermatozoa has failed to be substantiated, neither have claims for other mammalian sperm attractants been verified. The molecular mechanism of sperm chemotaxis is not known. Models involving modulation of the intracellular Ca2+ concentration have been proposed for both mammalian and non-mammalian sperm chemotaxis. The physiological role of sperm chemotaxis in non-mammalian species appears to differ from that in mammals. In non-mammalian species, sperm chemotaxis strives to bring as many spermatozoa as possible to the egg. However, in mammals, the role appears to be recruitment of a selective population of capacitated ('ripe') spermatozoa to fertilize the egg.  (+info)

Synonyms for anticoagulant heparin solution in Free Thesaurus. Antonyms for anticoagulant heparin solution. 26 synonyms for solution: answer, resolution, key, result, solving, explanation, unfolding, unravelling, clarification, explication, elucidation, mixture, mix. What are synonyms for anticoagulant heparin solution?
TY - JOUR. T1 - Adhesion of committed human hematopoietic progenitors to synthetic peptides from the C-terminal heparin-binding domain of fibronectin. T2 - Cooperation between the integrin α4β1 and the CD44 adhesion receptor. AU - Verfaillie, C. M.. AU - Benis, A.. AU - Iida, J.. AU - McGlave, P. B.. AU - McCarthy, J. B.. PY - 1994. Y1 - 1994. N2 - Close interaction of human hematopoietic progenitors with the bone marrow microenvironment is important for the ordered progression of human hematopoiesis. Progenitor cell adhesion to stroma has a complex molecular basis, involving various cell-extracellular matrix and cell-cell interactions. We have previously shown that adhesion of colony-forming cells (CFC) to fibronectin, present in stromal extracellular matrix, involves multiple sites, including two heparin-binding synthetic peptides (FN-C/H I and FN-C/H II) and the α4β1 integrin-binding peptide CS1. These synthetic peptides are located in close proximity in the type III repeat 14 and the ...
Abstract The present study was designed to investigate whether medium-term, low-dose heparin treatment is able to affect the fibrinolytic system. In a randomized cross-over study 10 asymptomatic patients with previous (1-6 years) myocardial infarction underwent two sequential 15-day treatments, respectively, on heparin and on placebo (saline solution), preceded and separated by 10-day wash-out periods. Heparin (as calcium heparin, 12,500 IU in 0.5 ml) and saline (0.5 ml) were subcutaneously administered once a day at 8 a.m. Blood samples for fibrinolysis studies were withdrawn on the first and 15th day of each period immediately before and 4 h after heparin or saline administration before and after 10 min venous occlusion (VO) respectively. Four hours after the first heparin administration tissue plasminogen activator antigen (t-PA ag) levels significantly increased with respect to saline administration (p , 0.01 and p , 0.05, respectively). After 15-day heparin treatment a decrease in ...
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Cerebral and myocardial infarctions share common aspects of pathobiochemistry. The central problem is the oxygen supply of the infarcted region. To maintain this supply, H.E.L.P.-apheresis (Heparin-mediated Extracorporeal LDL/Fibrinogen Precipitation) has already proven beneficial in the prevention and therapy of myocardial infarction. Since H.E.L.P.-apheresis can lower significantly plasma viscosity and erythrocyte aggregation without reducing the oxygen transport capacity, patients with cerebral infarction (stroke) may also benefit from our experiences in myocardial ischemia. The system is designed to remove selectively plasma fibrinogen, LDL-cholesterol and lipoprotein(a) from blood circulation, simultaneously. The removal of the plasma compounds is achieved by extracorporeal precipitation with heparin at low pH. Excess heparin is completely removed by an adsorber before the plasma is given back to the patient. H.E.L.P.-apheresis has proved to be safe in patients with coronary heart disease and
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Heparin treatment of decellularized xenografts has been reported to reduce graft thrombogenicity. However, little is known about the in vivo comparison of heparin-treated with non-heparin-treated xenografts, especially for small-caliber vascular impl
The goals of therapy are 1) stabilization with supportive treatment of the patient, 2) prevention of thrombus expansion and the formation of additional clots, and 3) reduction in size of the existing clots and restoration of perfusion. Stabilization may involve oxygen therapy, fluid therapy, and analgesia. Management should be provided based on the individual patients needs.. Anticoagulant therapy in veterinary patients consists primarily of various types of heparin. Coumarin derivatives can also be used, but will not be discussed here. Heparins enhance the inhibitory activity of AT by binding to AT, which then inactivates thrombin and factor Xa. Short molecules of heparin are better at catalyzing AT to inhibit factor Xa than to inhibit thrombin. Heparins can also cause the release of TFPI from the endothelial surface. Sodium heparin is an unfractionated heparin, and contains heparin molecules of varying sizes. It is widely available and inexpensive. Unfractionated heparin has the highest ...
Abstract. Abstract 386Thrombocytopenia is a significant complication of myelosuppressive chemotherapy treatments, which are a mainstay in cancer therapy. We an
TY - JOUR. T1 - Biochemical and pharmacological properties of SANORG 34006, a potent and long-acting synthetic pentasaccharide. AU - Herbert, J.M.. AU - Herault, J.P.. AU - Bernat, A.. AU - Amsterdam, van, R.G.M.. AU - Lormeau, J.C.. AU - Petitou, M.. AU - Boeckel, van, C.A.A.. AU - Hoffmann, P.. AU - Meuleman, D.. PY - 1998. Y1 - 1998. N2 - SANORG 34006 is a new sulfated pentasaccharide obtained by chemical synthesis. It is an analog of the synthetic pentasaccharide (SR 90107/ ORG 31540) which represents the antithrombin (AT) binding site of heparin. SANORG 34006 showed a higher affinity to human AT than SR 90107/ORG 31540 (kd = 1.4 +/- 0.3 v 48 +/- 11 nmol/L), and it is a potent and selective catalyst of the inhibitory effect of AT on factor Xa (1,240 +/- 15 anti-factor Xa U/mg v 850 +/- 27 anti-factor Xa U/mg for SR 90107/ORG 31540). In vitro, SANORG 34006 inhibited thrombin generation occurring via both the extrinsic and intrinsic pathway. After intravenous (IV) or subcutaneous (SC) ...
The median aPTT values in the acute phase of the FRIC trial were as follows (Table 1⇑ ):. Therefore the median aPTT was ≈60 seconds for days 1 to 3 and maintained to around 45 seconds for days 4 to 7. The median length of the heparin infusion was 51 hours and the median total length of heparin treatment (intravenous only or intravenous plus subcutaneous) was 6 days. From a clinical perspective this must be considered sufficient heparin treatment with aPTT levels as a tool for monitoring. This is also reflected in a rather low number of ischemic events after 48 hours in the heparin arm of the FRIC trial.. In addition, we have calculated how many patients were within (1.5 to 2.0 times the local reference value), below, or above these limits. The results are shown in Table 2⇑ :. Approximately 50% of the patients achieved the desired target range during days 1 to 7. However, during days 1 to 3, 20% were below the desired range and levels were maintained below an average of 40% for days 4 to ...
Recent studies have suggested a possible association between heparin treatment at the time of cell-free DNA (cfDNA) testing and a non-reportable result. However, these studies lack of proper methodology and had a low level of proof to firmly incriminate heparin. Our objective was to investigate further the relationship between heparin treatment and cfDNA test results. Two complementary approaches were used for the demonstration. First, we conducted a retrospective analysis of a cohort of patients with a singleton pregnancy, screened for aneuploidies by using cfDNA, but with a non-reportable cfDNA result. We included patients between 2013 and 2016 including the patients from the DEPOSA study as controls. CfDNA testing was performed by massive parallel sequencing by using a whole-genome approach. A multiple logistic regression was used to account for the influence of the variables included. Second, we performed in vitro experiments on mimic samples containing increased concentrations of heparin. Of 9867
degree of selectivity in the structure-activity relationship. The relationship between this apparent redundancy, the multi-dentate nature of heparin and HS polysaccharide chains, their involvement in protein networks and the multiple binding sites on proteins, each possessing different properties, will also be considered. Finally, the role of cations in modulating HS/heparin activity will be reviewed and some of the implications for structure-activity relationships and regulation will be discussed.. ...
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VEGF is a homodimeric heavily glycosylated protein.The human factor occurs in several molecular variants of 121, 162, 145, 148, 165, 183, 189 , 206 amino acids, arising by alternative splicing of the mRNA.The splice forms of VEGF differ in biological properties such as the receptor types, which they recognize and their interaction with heparan sulfate proteoglycans. The 165 amino acid form of the factor is the most common form in most tissues. Kaposi sarcomas express VEGF121 and VEGF165. VEGF121 and VEGF165 are soluble secreted forms of the factor while VEGF189 and VEGF206 are mostly bound to heparin-containing proteoglycans in the cell surface or in the basement membrane. A high-affinity glycoprotein receptor of 170-235 kDa is expressed on vascular endothelial cells. The interaction of VEGF with heparin-like molecules of the extracellular matrix is required for efficient receptor binding. Protamine sulfate and suramin are
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Cosmetic Analysis has rated the ingredient Sodium Heparin. Origin: Animal; Different | Definition: Heparin, sodium salt | INCI function: Skin conditioning
1 The TSH response to TRH is suppressed 24 h after the commencement of i.v. heparin infusion in euthyroid subjects, as compared to repeat testing, both after 7 days of continuous i.v. heparin and after 7 days without heparin but while on warfarin. 2 This suggests that the rise in serum free thyroid hormones, which heparin produces, has a metabolic effect. Possible clinical effects of this action must be considered. 3 Heparin has no effect on the radio-immunoassay of TSH.
Binds to endothelial cell surfaces and plasma proteins and its activity depends on antithrombin. Heparin binds to antithrombin, causes a conformational change in the inhibitor, exposing its active site for more rapid interaction with proteases. Heparin acts as a co factor for the antithrombin-proteases reaction Antithrombin inhibits proteases espec thrombin 2a, 9a, 10a by forming stable complexes with them and the presence of heparin accelerates this reaction 1000x. The binding of AT Ill and unfractionated heparin t degradation of both factor Xa and thrombin. Pass: Binds to AT III. ...
Heparin is an anticoagulant (blood thinner) that prevents the formation of blood clots. Heparin is used to treat and prevent blood clots in the veins, arteries, or lung. Heparin is also used before surgery to reduce the risk of blood clots. Heparin injection should not be used to flush (clean out) an intravenous (IV)...
Page 2 - Looking for ways to make the daily heparin injections easier on my patients. Some are pretty bruised and one cried the other day. I do everything the way I should but it hurts them so much; I dont
This little video clip that I put together shows how a growth factor binds to its receptor. Heparin mediates the process. The growth factors bind to receptors in pairs with the heparin threaded through all four proteins and holding the complex together. The receptors would be embedded in the membrane at the bottom. This clip starts with a single receptor to which the heparin binds first, followed by the first growth factor. The basic amino acids, arginine and lysine are shown in blue. In the first image, the amino acid backbone is shown as a ribbon with blue bars. In the second, the atoms of the amino acid side chains are filled in and the blue bars become blue atomic balls that reveal the surface of the protein. The blue areas are positively charged and groups on the surface are heparin-binding domains. The heparin is shown as a polysaccharide with atoms colored by element, O-red, S-orange, N-blue. The proteins bind to the heparin like beads on a string. Pairing of the receptors in a particular ...
Heparin is a potent inhibitor of the proliferation and migration of vascular smooth muscle cells. This agent selectively inhibits the transcription of tissue-type plasminogen activator and interstitial collagenase, probably by decreasing the binding of activator protein-1 (AP-1) to phorbol ester-responsive elements in the promoters of these genes. Decreased AP-1 binding is not due to a direct inhibition by heparin, since heparinase digestion of nuclear extracts prepared from heparin-treated smooth muscle cells does not restore AP-1 binding activity. Treatment of cells with heparin suppresses the expression of Jun B, one of the components of AP-1. The major effect of heparin is at the level of posttranslational modification of Jun B. Results from pulse-chase labeling experiments show that the newly synthesized Jun B is rapidly converted to a higher-molecular-weight form and that conversion is suppressed by heparin. Evidence is presented suggesting that the heparin-inhibited event is ...
Heparin functions as an anticoagulant primarily through activation of AT-mediated inhibition of blood coagulation factors such as thrombin and factor Xa. Several steps are involved in the interaction of heparin with AT and serine proteases. First, a low-affinity interaction between GAG and AT takes place, mediated by a well-defined unique pentasaccharide sequence within heparin (Figure 1B). This binding generates a conformational change in the structure of AT, which enables additional interactions between AT and heparin, resulting in stronger binding. The conformational change also expels a protease reactive loop in AT.54,55 A ternary complex is formed, after which the AT interaction reverts to low-affinity binding, resulting in the release of heparin from the covalent AT-protease complex.. The structure of the heparin-binding site in AT was mapped initially through the chemical modification of specific residues, resulting in decreased heparin affinity and by studying natural recombinant ...
The investigator, Eric Topol of the Cleveland Clinic in Ohio, says he has heaps of doubt about the small study since results werent confirmed by a larger main study conducted later. More over, Topol believes high dose heparin is likely to cause significant bleeding complications when used with angioplasty or stents (devices used to open up arteries ...
This little video clip that I put together shows how a growth factor binds to its receptor. Heparin mediates the process. The growth factors bind to receptors in pairs with the heparin threaded through all four proteins and holding the complex together. The receptors would be embedded in the membrane at the bottom. This clip starts with a single receptor to which the heparin binds first, followed by the first growth factor. The basic amino acids, arginine and lysine are shown in blue. In the first image, the amino acid backbone is shown as a ribbon with blue bars. In the second, the atoms of the amino acid side chains are filled in and the blue bars become blue atomic balls that reveal the surface of the protein. The blue areas are positively charged and groups on the surface are heparin-binding domains. The heparin is shown as a polysaccharide with atoms colored by element, O-red, S-orange, N-blue. The proteins bind to the heparin like beads on a string. Pairing of the receptors in a particular ...
Neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) are part of the innate immune response to infections. NETs are a meshwork of DNA fibers comprising histones and antimicrobial proteins. Microbes are immobilized in NETs and encounter a locally high and lethal concentration of effector proteins. Recent studies show that NETs are formed inside the vasculature in infections and noninfectious diseases. Here we report that NETs provide a heretofore unrecognized scaffold and stimulus for thrombus formation. NETs perfused with blood caused platelet adhesion, activation, and aggregation. DNase or the anticoagulant heparin dismantled the NET scaffold and prevented thrombus formation. Stimulation of platelets with purified histones was sufficient for aggregation. NETs recruited red blood cells, promoted fibrin deposition, and induced a red thrombus, such as that found in veins. Markers of extracellular DNA traps were detected in a thrombus and plasma of baboons subjected to deep vein thrombosis, an example of ...
Cell culture and experimental reagents. Human PC cell lines AsPC-1, BxPC-3, COLO-357, HPAC, L3.6pl, MIAPaCa, and PANC-1 were used in this study. BxPC-3, HPAC, and PANC-1 [American Type Culture Collection (ATCC)] were cultured in RPMI 1640 (Invitrogen) supplemented with 10% fetal bovine serum and 1% penicillin and streptomycin. AsPC-1, COLO-357, L3.6pl, and MIAPaCa cells were generously provided by Dr. Paul Chiao (M.D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX) and grown as a monolayer cell culture in DMEM containing 4.5 mg/mL d-glucose and l-glutamine supplemented with 10% fetal bovine serum. HUVECs (ATCC) were cultured in F12K medium (ATCC) supplemented with 10% fetal bovine serum, 0.1 mg/mL heparin sulfate, 0.05 mg/mL endothelial cell growth factor supplement (BD Bioscience), 100 units/mL penicillin, and 100 μg/mL streptomycin. All cells were cultured in a 5% CO2-humidified atmosphere at 37°C. Primary antibodies for FoxM1, cyclin D1, cyclin B, p21, p27, MMP-9, MMP-2, survivin, Cdk2, and cdc25A ...
The objective of this study is verify, through a randomized, single-blind, multicentre, parallel and comparative study, the effectiveness of heparin sodium of porcine origin in patients undergoing heart surgery at that require the aid of cardiopulmonary bypass, through the control of hemostasis during and after surgery, based on the strengths of markers of coagulation TCA, TTPA, Anti-Xa, heparin bioavailable and loss of excessive blood (bleeding) at the end of the surgery ...
NDC Code 25021-400-30 is assigned to a package of 25 vial in 1 carton > 30 ml in 1 vial of Heparin Sodium, a human prescription drug labeled by Sagent Pharmaceuticals.
Molecular Cloning, also known as Maniatis, has served as the foundation of technical expertise in labs worldwide for 30 years. No other manual has been so popular, or so influential.
Volume: 1 ml serum or heparinized plasma Centrifuge within 4 hours of colleciton Stability: 8 months at room temp, refrigerated or frozen ...
See [https://depts.washington.edu/anticoag/home/content/heparin-infusion-guidelines University of Washington pharmacy heparin infusion guidelines ...
See [https://depts.washington.edu/anticoag/home/content/heparin-infusion-guidelines University of Washington pharmacy heparin infusion guidelines ...
Drug doses are expressed in conventional metric mass units (eg, milligrams or milligrams per kilogram), rather than in molar SI units. Moreover, certain drugs (such as insulin or heparin) may be prepared as mixtures and have no specific molecular weight, thereby precluding their expression in mass units. Although other drug dose units such as drops (for ophthalmologic preparations), grains (for aspirin), and various apothecary system measurements (eg, teaspoonfuls, ounces, and drams) may be encountered clinically, these units generally are not used. Also, the units for drug doses are often different from the units used to measure drug concentrations, such as
DCS Visitors Seminar] Dr. Supriya Dey (Harvard University) -- Computer-Planned Organic Synthesis: One-pot Synthesis of Heparin Sulfate, Heparin-Based Anticoagulant and N- ...
1. An extreme and rapid degeneration which occurred in tissue cultures of leucocytes from the blood of cats, guinea pigs, and rabbits, is described in detail.. 2. This degeneration was found to appear in the culture when the cells were planted in any of the culture media tried, some of which were autogenous heparin plasma, autogenous plasma, autogenous serum, Tyrode solution, and mixtures of these with embryo juice.. 3. The specific cellular changes which occurred are described for the different leucocytes. In general, there was first a latent period during which no change could be observed in the cell. Following this there was a period of stimulation during which the motion of the cell was greatly accelerated. This second stage has been observed in all cells except the lymphocyte, in which it may possibly occur to a slight degree. Finally there was the terminal stage, the stage of degeneration, in which the cell rounded up, lost its motility, and either became badly swollen or else underwent a ...
Heparin injection is used to treat and prevent blood clots in the veins, arteries, or lungs. Learn about side effects, interactions and indications.Print coupons and compare prices.
Well, testing at 11 dpo may be the charm for me. I got a faint + on a First Response Early last night, replicated twice this morning. Three faint positives equals one BFP? Its so faint that I almost think I should wait a couple of days to confirm. I am supposed to start heparin injections immediately upon finding out, though. Should I call the perinatologist today or wait? Thanks! [:D ...
Well, testing at 11 dpo may be the charm for me. I got a faint + on a First Response Early last night, replicated twice this morning. Three faint positives equals one BFP? Its so faint that I almost think I should wait a couple of days to confirm. I am supposed to start heparin injections immediately upon finding out, though. Should I call the perinatologist today or wait? Thanks! [:D ...
Heparin Injection Medically reviewed by Kaci Durbin, MD Last updated on Jan 6, 2020. Overview Side Effects Dosage Professional Tips Interactions More What is
Explain what to monitor during heparin infusion and how to reverse therapy emergently and when/how to hold for procedures and review the differences between protocols. ...
Great price on Heparin sodium 25,000units/5ml solution for injection vials. FREE delivery options available. Trusted service, convenient and safe shopping online
Heparin-induced thrombocytopenia is a potentially life-threatening complication of heparin or low-molecular-weight heparin administration. We describe the case of a patient with heparin-induced thrombocytopenia complicated by pulmonary embolism, successfully treated with fondaparinux, a factor Xa inhibitor. We also review the literature regarding the use of this anticoagulant in heparin-induced thrombocytopenia complicated by thrombosis. Few treatment options are available in Belgium, and there is little evidence regarding newer anticoagulants. ...
Project: Biophysical investigation of purified HTT protein samples Experiment: Large-scale stringent purification of Q23 HTT and HTT-HAP40 using heparin affinity chromatography Date completed:- 2019/05/22 Rationale: Previous attempts to generate a much purer and homogenous HTT-HAP40 sample showed that the complex can bind heparin resin. In small-scale experiment, I also incorporated helpful suggestions from scientists at the CHDI Palm Springs meeting full-length HTT research breakout group i.e. ATP wash to remove HSP proteins. The experiment included 3 affinity chromatography steps with FLAG, heparin and NiNTA resin and finally a gel filtration step and yielded a highly pure HTT-HAP40 sample: https://zenodo.org/record/3234174.I now want to try this purification with apo HTT.
TY - JOUR. T1 - The Pathophysiology of Immune-mediated Heparin-induced Thrombocytopenia. AU - Reilly, Robert F.. PY - 2003/1/1. Y1 - 2003/1/1. N2 - Heparin-induced thrombocytopenia (HIT) is an important side effect of heparin therapy associated with significant morbidity and mortality if unrecognized. The platelet count typically falls below 150,000/μl 15-14 days after heparin is started. Thrombosis is the major clinical complication. The diagnosis is confirmed with a variety of functional and antigenic assays. Heparin binds to PF4, resulting in a conformational change in the molecule that exposes neo-epitopes that act as immunogens. Antibodies form against the heparin-PF4 complex, the major target antigen. The IgG-heparin-PF4 immune complex binds either via its Fab domain to the platelet surface or via its Fc domain to the FcγIIA receptor on the surface of the platelet, resulting in further platelet activation. Continued release of PF4 from activated platelets leads to increasing PF4-heparin ...
Heparin-induced thrombocytopenia (HIT) is the development of thrombocytopenia (a low platelet count), due to the administration of various forms of heparin, an anticoagulant. HIT predisposes to thrombosis (the abnormal formation of blood clots inside a blood vessel) because platelets release microparticles that activate thrombin, thereby leading to thrombosis. When thrombosis is identified the condition is called heparin-induced thrombocytopenia and thrombosis (HITT). HIT is caused by the formation of abnormal antibodies that activate platelets. If someone receiving heparin develops new or worsening thrombosis, or if the platelet count falls, HIT can be confirmed with specific blood tests. The treatment of HIT requires stopping heparin treatment, and both protection from thrombosis and choice of an agent that will not reduce the platelet count any further. Several alternatives are available for this purpose and mainly used are danaparoid, fondaparinux, argatroban and bivalirudin. While heparin ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Lepirudin anticoagulation for heparin-induced thrombocytopenia after cardiac surgery in a pediatric patient. AU - Knoderer, Chad A.. AU - Knoderer, Holly M.. AU - Turrentine, Mark. AU - Kumar, Manjusha. PY - 2006/5. Y1 - 2006/5. N2 - A 21-month-old boy received anticoagulation with lepirudin for heparin-induced thrombocytopenia (HIT) after undergoing cardiac surgery and receiving extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO). This report illustrates the significance of HIT in pediatric patients after cardiac surgery and the successful administration of lepirudin in this setting. To our knowledge, this is the first published report of lepirudin administered to treat HIT in a child after cardiac surgery and ECMO. Although guidelines exist that suggest the potential administration of lepirudin as treatment for children with HIT, further studies are needed to determine the safest yet most effective dosage for this population.. AB - A 21-month-old boy received anticoagulation with ...
Prandoni and colleagues (1) suggest that subcutaneous unfractionated heparin is an attractive approach to treating deep venous thrombosis compared with the use of low-molecular-weight-heparin (LMWH) because of the lower cost of unfractionated heparin. The main problems associated with the use of unfractionated heparin are the high variability of the anticoagulant response and the lack of an accepted method of standardization in the activated partial thromboplastin time, which is used to monitor treatment. Because unfractionated heparin treatment must be monitored (2), each hospital must establish its own therapeutic range based on a calibration curve of activated partial thromboplastin time against heparin levels assessed by anti-Xa activity. This procedure is difficult to perform, and it does not guarantee a full comparison of the anticoagulation regimens in different hospitals ...
article{e1ea31f7-ded7-4c2d-b186-c463a49831f9, abstract = {A previous study reported the ability of staphylococci to bind heparin and heparin-dependent host growth factors. The present study isolated and identified heparin- and basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF)-binding surface components of S. epidermidis strain RP12 and S. haemolyticus strain SM 131. The staphylococcal heparin-binding component(s) were purified by affinity chromatography on heparin-Sepharose and a major heparin-binding protein, here designated HBP, was identified by immunoblot in these two coagulase-negative staphylococcal (CNS) species. The HBP was shown to be acidic with an approximate pI of 4.6 and a molecular mass around 17 kDa. The binding of heparin to HBP was inhibited by heparin, fucoidan, pentosan polysulphate and various other sulphated polysaccharides, but not by non-sulphated compounds. However, the purified HBP from both S. epidermidis and S. haemolyticus revealed broad specificity, and also bound bFGF, ...
License: Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher. Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug. Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data ...
Surface modification with an antithrombin-heparin complex for anticoagulation: Studies on a model surface with gold as substrate Academic Article ...
Heparin-induced thrombocytopenia (HIT) is a drug induced immune mediated thrombocytopenia that affects up to 3% of patients treated with unfractionated heparin (UFH). It is less frequent when low molecular weight heparins (LMWH) are used. Fondaparinux does not seem to induce HIT. A functional and an antigen assay should be performed to confirm the clinical diagnosis of HIT. Immediate cessation of heparin and start of compatible anticoagulant is mandatory when HIT is suspected clinically. Danaparoid (a heparinoid)and the direct thrombin inhibitors lepirudin and argatroban are available for this purpose. Short-term reexposure with heparin, for example during cardiopulmonary bypass, is possible in patients with history of HIT, provided HIT antiodies are no longer detectable. In children systematic data on treatment of HIT are lacking.. ...
Coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) is associated with severe inflammation in mainly the lung, and kidney. Reports suggest a beneficial effect of the use of heparin/low molecular weight heparin (LMWH) on mortality in COVID-19. In part, this beneficial effect could be explained by the anticoagulant properties of heparin/ LMWH. Here, we summarise potential beneficial, non-anticoagulant mechanisms underlying treatment of COVID-19 patients with heparin/LMWH, which include: (i) Inhibition of heparanase activity, responsible for endothelial leakage; (ii) Neutralisation of chemokines, and cytokines; (iii) Interference with leukocyte trafficking; (iv) Reducing viral cellular entry, and (v) Neutralisation of extracellular cytotoxic histones. Considering the multiple inflammatory and pathogenic mechanisms targeted by heparin/LMWH, it is warranted to conduct clinical studies that evaluate therapeutic doses of heparin/LMWH in COVID-19 patients. In addition, identification of specific heparin-derived ...
We initially examined whether heparin binds to OPN. The binding of biotinylated heparin to the full-length form (OPN full/glutathione S-transferase [GST]), the amino-terminal half of thrombin-cleaved form (OPN N half/GST), and the carboxy-terminal half of thrombin-cleaved form (OPN C half/GST) of human OPN was tested. Heparin bound to Escherichia coli-derived OPN full/GST (Fig. 1 A). In contrast, the same heparin preparation failed to bind to both OPN N half/GST and OPN C half/GST. OPN is heavily glycosylated in vivo (17) and E. coli-derived OPN lacks glycosylation. To exclude that the lack of sugar moiety on OPN affects binding of OPN to heparin, we prepared the glycosylated form of recombinant OPN from Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells. Again, heparin bound only to the full-length form of OPN in a dose-dependent manner (Fig. S2, available at http://www.jem.org/cgi/content/full/jem.20071324/DC1). Note that the amino acid sequences that correspond to two putative HBDs are 165YGLRSKSKKF174, which ...
The goal of this work was to develop a growth factor delivery system for use in nerve regeneration that would provide localized release of beta-nerve growth factor (b-NGF) and other members of the neurotrophin family in a controlled manner. Although b-NGF does not bind heparin with high affinity, we postulated that a basic domain found at the surface of native b-NGF could interact with heparin and slow its diffusion from a heparin-contg. delivery system. To test this hypothesis, we used a heparin-contg. fibrin-based cell ingrowth matrix consisting of three components, namely an immobilized heparin-binding peptide, heparin and a neurotrophin with low heparin-binding affinity. The heparin-binding peptide contained a factor XIIIa substrate and was covalently cross-linked to fibrin matrixes during polymn. This cross-linked heparin-binding peptide served to immobilize heparin within the matrix, and this immobilized heparin interacted with the neurotrophin and slowed the passive release of the growth ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Unfractionated Heparin for Hemodialysis. T2 - Still the Best Option. AU - Cronin, Robert E.. AU - Reilly, Robert F.. PY - 2010/9/1. Y1 - 2010/9/1. N2 - Unfractionated heparin (UFH) is the anticoagulant of choice for most maintenance hemodialysis units in the United States. Low molecular weight heparin (LMWH) is the norm in Western Europe, but is not approved for this indication in the United States. UFH is likely to remain the agent of choice in the United States because of its relative ease of use, safety, and low cost. Coating tubing and dialyzers with heparin is now possible, but systemic anticoagulation with heparin is usually still required. The additional cost of this innovation does not yet justify its use. Side effects of both UFH and LMWH include heparin-induced thrombocytopenia, hypertriglyceridemia, and hyperkalemia. It is uncertain whether osteoporosis is an important side effect, as vitamin D deficiency, secondary hyperparathyroidism, age, and debility are ...
The findings of this study indicate an interplay of additional heparin treatment with the repopulation processes, leading to an earlier onset of this adaptive radiation response in oral mucosa. Importantly, we could demonstrate that the protective potential of heparin did not rely on stimulation of …
Protein Z dependent protease inhibitor (ZPI) is a human plasma serpin that inhibits factors Xa and XIa in the coagulation pathway. Kinetic studies have shown that ZPI is an efficient inhibitor of factor Xa. This interaction is accelerated by protein Z in the presence of calcium and phospholipid. The inhibition of factor XIa is by an alternative mechanism that does not require phospholipid but is influenced by both heparin and protein Z; heparin increases inhibition whereas protein Z /calcium delays inhibition. The latter maybe physiologically relevant to XIa inhibitory activity as ZPI and protein Z circulate in complex in plasma, with ZPI in slight excess. The kinetics of ZPI/XIa/heparin interactions have not been fully characterised. In this study we report the kinetic analysis of the interaction between factor XIa and recombinant ZPI expressed in Escherichia coli, in the presence of unfractionated heparin, pentasaccharide and protein Z. Results: Recombinant ZPI (rZPI) had characteristics ...
anticoagulant heparin solution - Chinese - English Dictionary with Pinyin & Handwriting Recognition. View stroke orders for each character too!
This current prospective, randomized study demonstrates for the first time that the local delivery of enoxaparin during predilation and before coronary stent implantation reduces late lumen loss and restenosis compared with a conventional stent implantation strategy and systemic heparinization. The study involved ,3.0-mm vessels treated with the first generation of the NIR stent. The late luminal loss and restenosis rates in the control arm correspond well with the findings from other studies, in which ,3.00-mm vessel stenting was performed with the early-generation stents.42 43 On the other hand, observed luminal loss and the restenosis rate in the local drug delivery group compare favorably to the results of small vessel stenting.42 43 The incidence of subacute closure in this vessel category ranges from 2.5% to 3.6% with full systemic heparinization.42 43 In the local drug delivery group, there were no subacute closure events, despite the lack of systemic heparinization. This may suggest a ...
Incidence of Thrombocytopenia Induced by Two Methods of Intravenous Heparin injection in Patients with Acute Coronary Syndrome. H. Nough MD1* , A. Khodadadi Zadeh MSc2, M. Aref 3, A. Esmaieli ‌ Nadimi MD1 1- Assisstant Professor of Cardiology, University of Medical Sciences, Rafsanjan, Iran 2- Academic Member, Dept. of Nursing, ...
This study shows that LPL mass and activity in preheparin plasma and the increase of LPL after the administration of heparin are separate parameters. All four showed significant correlations with plasma lipoprotein lipid concentrations, but the relations were different for the four parameters. This is in line with available evidence from molecular biology, biochemistry, and cell biology that suggests that the LPL mass and activity in preheparin and postheparin plasma reflect different aspects of the function, turnover, and transport of LPL.2 The classical parameter is LPL activity in postheparin plasma, which is assumed to reflect the pool of functional LPL at endothelial surfaces.1 In the present study as well as others5 7 9 10 postheparin LPL activity showed a fairly strong positive relation to the HDL-C level and weak negative correlations with VLDL lipid concentrations. This accords with the idea that postheparin LPL activity would be expected to be related to the efficiency of lipolysis of ...
The invention provides synthetic heparin-binding growth factor analogs having two peptide chains each branched from a branch moiety, such as trifunctional amino acid residues, the branch moieties separated by a first linker of from 3 to about 20 backbone atoms, which peptide chains bind a heparin-binding growth factor receptor and are covalently bound to a non-signaling peptide that includes a heparin-binding domain, preferably by a second linker, which may be a hydrophobic second linker. The synthetic heparin-binding growth factor analogs are useful as pharmaceutical agents, soluble biologics or as surface coatings for medical devices.
Unsaturated Heparin Disaccharides, uronate, bacterial heparinase, porcine heparin, depolymerise heparin, N-unsubstituted disaccharides
In order to do any biochemical studies of the huntingtin protein, I must first purify the protein in large amounts. The current protocol for protein purification is adapted from other published protocols and requires a long incubation of clarified cell lysate with FLAG resin which means my protein is sitting around with proteases and other contaminants for a long period of time.. To potentially improve yields and sample quality, it would perhaps be beneficial to have an additional quick enrichment step, such as a heparin resin purification step prior to FLAG binding. This may have the added benefit of removing contaminating nucleic acid material. To test this hypothesis, I conducted small-scale purification of Q23 HTT-HAP40 samples in different buffer systems using heparin and FLAG affinity chromatography.. ...
OBJECTIVE--To determine whether concomitant treatment with intravenous heparin affects coronary patency and outcome in patients treated with alteplase thrombolysis for acute myocardial infarction. DESIGN--Double blind randomised trial. TREATMENT REGIMENS--Alteplase 100 mg (not weight adjusted) plus aspirin (250 mg intravenously followed by 75-125 mg on alternate days) plus heparin (5000 units intravenously followed by 1000 units hourly without dose adjustment) was compared with alteplase plus aspirin plus placebo for heparin. SETTING--19 cardiac centres in six European countries. SUBJECTS--652 patients aged 21-70 years with clinical and electrocardiographic features of infarcting myocardium in whom thrombolytic therapy could be started within six hours of the onset of major symptoms. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE--Angiographic coronary patency 48-120 hours after randomisation. RESULTS--Coronary patency (TIMI grades 2 or 3) was 83.4% in the heparin group and 74.7% in the group given placebo for heparin. ...
Can you explain why I.V. heparin may be used in a patient with aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH)? -J.E., N.H.Wendi Rank, MSN, RN, C...
Data Synthesis:. In medical patients, heparin prophylaxis did not reduce total mortality but did result in fewer pulmonary embolisms (PEs) (odds ratio [OR], 0.69 [95% CI, 0.52 to 0.90], but with evidence of publication bias) and an increase in all bleeding events (risk ratio [RR], 1.34 [CI, 1.08 to 1.66]). Heparin prophylaxis had no statistically significant effect on any outcome in patients with acute stroke except for an increase in major bleeding events (OR, 1.66 [CI, 1.20 to 2.28]). When trials of medical patients and those with stroke were considered together (18 studies; 36 122 patients), heparin prophylaxis reduced the incidence of PE (OR, 0.70 [CI, 0.56 to 0.87]; absolute reduction, 3 events per 1000 patients treated [CI, 1 to 5 events]) but increased the incidence of all bleeding (RR, 1.28 [CI, 1.05 to 1.56]) and major bleeding events (OR, 1.61 [CI, 1.23 to 2.10]), with an absolute increase of 9 bleeding events per 1000 patients treated (CI, 2 to 18 events), 4 of which were major (CI, 1 ...
Methods. One hundred and nineteen -patients -were divid-ed -into 3 -groups: -group A (n=39) -had a stan-dard uncoat-ed extra-cor-po-real cir-cu-la-tion (-ECC)--set -and system-ic hep-ar-in -was giv-en in an -initial -dose of 400 IE/kg -body -weight. During -ECC acti-vat-ed clot-ting -time (-ACT) -was -kept at ≥480 sec. Group B (n=42) -had -the -same -ECC--set com-plete-ly coat-ed -with -low molec-u-lar -weight hep-ar-in, i.v. hep-ar-in -was admin-is-tered in -the -same -dose as in -group A, -ACT -was -again -kept at ≥480 -sec. Group C (n=38) -had -the -same coat-ed -ECC -set -as -group B, -but i.v. hep-ar-in -was -reduced to 150 IE/kg -and dur-ing -ECC -ACT -was maintained of ≥240 -sec ...
Fondaparinux (Arixtra) is a synthetic pentasaccharide anticoagulant. Apart from the O-methyl group at the reducing end of the molecule, the identity and sequence of the five monomeric sugar units contained in fondaparinux is identical to a sequence of five monomeric sugar units that can be isolated after either chemical or enzymatic cleavage of the polymeric glycosaminoglycan heparin and heparan sulfate (HS). This monomeric sequence in heparin and HS is thought to form the high affinity binding site for the natural anti-coagulant factor, antithrombin III (ATIII). Binding of heparin/HS to ATIII has been shown to increase the anti-coagulant activity of antithrombin III 1000-fold. Fondaparinux potentiates the neutralizing action of ATIII on activated Factor X 300-fold. Fondaparinux may be used: to prevent venous thromboembolism in patients who have undergone orthopedic surgery of the lower limbs (e.g. hip fracture, hip replacement and knee surgery); to prevent VTE in patients undergoing abdominal ...
The extracellular-matrix glycoprotein, tenascin, consists of disulfide-linked subunits of 190, 200 and 230 kDa (the three splicing variants reported in chicken) and usually exists as a six-armed structure under the electron microscope. We used monoclonal antibodies to isolate and characterize different splicing variants and proteolytic fragments obtained from the native protein. Purified monomeric tenascin has a native molecular mass of 216 kDa and is structured as single arms. Tenascin fragments obtained by pepsin digestion bind to monoclonal antibody (mAb) TnM1 which is directed against epidermal-growth-factor-like repeats in the N-terminal half of all subunits. These fragments represent the thin proximal part of the tenascin arms and they are still partially linked to dimers and trimers via disulfide bridges. Using mAb Tn68, that reacts with a fibronectin-type-III repeat towards the C-terminus, a tenascin fragment, generated by treatment with pronase, can be isolated. Ultrastructurally, this ...
Predicted to have Roundabout binding activity and heparin binding activity. Predicted to be involved in axon guidance and negative chemotaxis. Predicted to localize to the integral component of ... Predicted to have Roundabout binding activity and heparin binding activity. Predicted to be involved in axon guidance and negative chemotaxis. Predicted to localize to the integral component of membrane. Is expressed in cardiovascular system; hematopoietic system; ventral mesoderm; and yolk syncytial layer. Orthologous to human LRRC15 (leucine rich repeat containing 15). ...
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Test your knowledge of sodium heparin and lithium heparin with this helpful quiz and worksheet combination. You can access the quiz 24/7 and you...
Heparin Test Results. To ensure safety of heparin products in the United States, FDA asked manufacturers of heparin-containing products to test the heparin active pharmaceutical ingredient (API) used in these products with the two screening methods posted to FDAs website, capillary electrophoresis (CE) and proton nuclear magnetic resonance (H-NMR). FDA wants to extend its appreciation to all companies who expeditiously adopted these methods and provided monthly updates. These methods have been included in the United States Pharmacopeia monograph since June 2008, and are to be used for all products intended for the U.S. market. Adherence to an appropriate testing regimen will be monitored by our inspection program and enforced by FDA. Beginning with the month of March 2009, monthly updates on heparin test results are no longer required. However, please continue to notify FDA of any positive results within 3 days of the testing. Provide your positive results, with the associated H-NMR spectra and ...
Applied to HD ,HF-ONLINE, HDF-ONLINE,IUF, HP ,Plasma adsorption Double-stage endotoxin filtration(HDF-ONLINE) Dimensions(mm): 1450*550*460 Net weight: Aprox.60kg Power supply: AC 220V -20%~+10%,50-60Hz VP :-700~+800mmhg,Accuracy ±5mmhg AP :-700~+800mmhg,Accuracy ±5mmhg TMP :-700~+800mmhg,Accuracy ±5mmhg Substituion fluid flow:0~39L/H(HDF-ONLINE) Blood flow :0~700ml/Min Dialysate flow:0~300~500~1000ml/Min(adjustable) Water supply:pressure range:0~35℃ Water supply: temperature range:0~35℃ Water supply: water flow:≥0.3L/min Dialysate temperature : 30~41℃,Accuracy±0.5℃ Dialysate Conductivity: 0~25 ms/cm,Accuracy ±0.1ms/cm UF control :UF rate :0~6000ml/h UF control : Accruacy:±30ml/h or ±1% Heparin injection :0~10ml/H,Accuracy ±0.1ml/H Heparin injection :Bolus :0~10 ml/time Heparin injection : Syringe size: 20ml,30ml,50ml Air detector :Detecting≥0.02 ML
Our product range includes Fraxiparine and Mono-embolex (low molecular weight he-drains) and Arixtra ( a Xa inhibitor). Organ is a heparin derivative (heparinoid) indicated for the treatment of heparin-induced thrombocytopenia (HIT). HIT is an adverse reaction occurring in a limited number of patients undergoing heparin-related therapy.. ...
It is well known that exercise training prompts angiogenesis of the capillary network within active muscle.23 The basis for this response is unclear but may be related to factors such as wall shear established by blood flow, ischemia, metabolic factors, and/or release of angiogenic factors.23 Accepting that contractions establish a low vascular resistance in the distal musculature, our study adds support to previous work indicating that physical activity can prompt enrichment of the upstream vessels of the collateral network in the presence of peripheral arterial insufficiency.15 19 20 21 22 30 We now demonstrate that heparin serves to expand this exercise-induced response. This action of heparin is similar to that observed by the augmented collateral function in the heart in models with experimental ischemia8 and in patients with coronary insufficiency.12 Similar to the present study, heparin was effective in expanding collateral-dependent blood flow in patients with coronary insufficiency only ...
It has been reported that patients on heparin may develop new thrombus formation in association with thrombocytopaenia resulting from irreversible aggregation of platelets induced by heparin, the so-called white clot syndrome. The process may lead to severe thromboembolic complications like skin necrosis, gangrene of the extremities that may lead to amputation, myocardial infarction, pulmonary embolism, stroke, and possibly death. Therefore, heparin administration should be promptly discontinued if a patient develops new thrombosis in association with a reduction in platelet count ...
The invention provides synthetic heparin-binding growth factor analogs having at least one peptide chain, and preferably two peptide chains branched from a dipeptide branch moiety composed of two trifunctional amino acid residues, which peptide chain or chains bind a heparin-binding growth factor receptor and are covalently bound to a non-signaling peptide that includes a heparin-binding domain, preferably by a linker, which may be a hydrophobic linker. The synthetic heparin-binding growth factor analogs are useful as pharmaceutical agents, soluble biologics or as surface coatings for medical devices.
International guidelines support the use of a full-dose heparin (anticoagulants) during coronary intervention. However, a lower dose of heparin may be adequate, thanks to advances in angioplasty techniques and the widespread use of pretreatment with two antiplatelet agents.. Thus the investigators designed a study comparing safety and efficacy of standard dose heparin (100 UI/Kg) versus low-dose (50 UI/Kg) in patients undergoing coronary angioplasty who are on aspirin and clopidogrel at the time of the procedure. ...
Submit only 1 of the following specimens:   Plasma Draw blood in a green-top (sodium heparin) tube(s), plasma gel tube is not acceptable. Spin down and send 2 mL sodium heparin plasma refrigerated in a plastic vial.   Serum Draw blood in a plain red-top tube(s), serum gel tube is not acceptable. Spin down and send 2 mL of serum refrigerated in a plastic vial.
Submit only 1 of the following specimens   Plasma Draw blood in a green-top (sodium heparin) tube(s). Plasma gel tube is not acceptable. Spin down and send 3 mL sodium heparin plasma refrigerated in amber vial (T192) to protect from light.   Serum Draw blood in a plain, red-top tube(s). Serum gel tube is not acceptable. Spin down and send 3 mL of serum refrigerated in amber vial (T192) to protect from light.
Submit only 1 of the following specimens:   Plasma Draw blood in a green-top (sodium heparin) tube(s), plasma gel tube is not acceptable. Spin down and send 2 mL sodium heparin plasma refrigerated in a plastic vial.   Serum Draw blood in a plain red-top tube(s), serum gel tube is not acceptable. Spin down and send 2 mL of serum refrigerated in a plastic vial.
Dendritic polyglycerol sulfate (dPGS) has originally been investigated as an anticoagulant to potentially substitute for the natural glycosaminoglycan heparin. Compared to unfractionated heparin, dPGS possesses lower anticoagulant activity but a much higher anticomplementary effect. Since coagulation, complement activation, and inflammation are often present in the pathophysiology of numerous diseases, dPGS polymers with both anticoagulant and anticomplementary activities represent promising candidates for the development of polymeric drugs of nanosized architecture. In this review, we describe the nanomedical applications of dPGS based on its anti-inflammatory activity. Furthermore, the application of dPGS as a carrier molecule for diagnostic molecules and therapeutic drugs is reviewed, based on the ability to target tumors and localize in tumor cells. Finally, the application of dPGS for inhibition of virus infections is described.
STUDY OBJECTIVE: To determine whether patient factors other than body weight would better predict patients initial antifactor Xa heparin activity (HA) after start of unfractionated heparin (UFH) therapy. DESIGN: Case series. SETTING: A 625-bed, adul
When compared to bivalirudin, higher bleeding complications and all-cause mortality were seen with unfractionated heparin among patients undergoing PCI.
Background: Heparin-Induced Thrombocytopenia (HIT) is a rare (0.1-1% of heparinized medical patients) but devastating (up to 10% mortality) side-effect of heparin administration[1]. In thrombocytopenic patients, the pre-test probability of HIT is estimated by the validated [...]. ...
Several polyanionic compounds antagonize the interaction between receptors and the G-proteins that regulate adenylate cyclase or K+ channels, possibly by binding to a basic stretch of the receptor that is proposed to mediate its interaction with the G-proteins. We have studied the effects of polyanions on the interaction between the liver alpha 1-adrenoceptor and the G-protein through which it stimulates polyphosphoinositide turnover. Heparin [concn. causing 50% of maximal effect (EC50) = 0.5 microM], Trypan Blue (EC50 7.1 microM) or suramin (EC50 2.1 microM) prevented formation of the high-affinity adrenaline-receptor-G-protein complex without affecting antagonist binding. After alkaline treatment of the membranes, previously reported to cause G-protein removal, binding of agonists was insensitive to both guanine nucleotides and heparin. We conclude that these polyanions uncouple the alpha 1-adrenoceptor from its G-protein, suggesting that similar coupling mechanisms may underlie receptor ...
B01AB Heparin group[edit]. B01AB01 Heparin. B01AB02 Antithrombin III. B01AB04 Dalteparin. B01AB05 Enoxaparin. B01AB06 ... B01AB51 Heparin, combinations. B01AC Platelet aggregation inhibitors excluding heparin[edit]. B01AC01 Ditazole. B01AC02 ...
Heparin, heparan sulfate and other glycosaminoglycans and plant glycans. Polysaccharides such as cellulose, amylose, chitin and ... Peterson, Sherket; Frick, Amber; Liu, Jian (2009). "Design of biologically active heparan sulfate and heparin using an enzyme- ... Linhardt, Robert J; Liu, Jian (April 2012). "Synthetic heparin". Current Opinion in Pharmacology. 12 (2): 217-219. doi:10.1016/ ...
Interference by heparin can be detected by absorbing the heparin with a resin ("Heparsorb") or by using an enzyme to digest the ... Another consideration is heparin. It is possible that the blood sample was mistakenly drawn though a running line. ... "Heparin Neutralization". www.clinlabnavigator.com. Retrieved 2018-05-13. "Making Sense of Mixing Studies". George King Bio- ... heparin ("Hepzyme"). Also, the patient's history should be checked, especially with regard to anticoagulant use or liver ...
Discontinuation of heparin is critical in a case of heparin-induced thrombocytopenia (HIT). Beyond that, however, clinicians ... Ahmed, I; Majeed, A; Powell, R (2007). "Heparin induced thrombocytopenia: diagnosis and management update". Postgraduate ... Warkentin, Theodore E.; Greinacher, Andreas (2007-07-23). Heparin-Induced Thrombocytopenia. CRC Press. ISBN 9781439826423. ...
Other names in common use include heparin-glucosamine 3-O-sulfotransferase, 3'-phosphoadenylyl-sulfate:heparin-glucosamine 3-O- ... Kusche M, Backstrom G, Riesenfeld J, Petitou M, Choay J, Lindahl U (1988). "Biosynthesis of heparin. O-sulfation of the ...
He is most notable for his major contribution to the discovery of heparin. Born in San Francisco in 1890, he was the son of a ... Howell also coined 'heparin' as the name of this compound despite being different from the compound previously discovered by ... This anti-coagulant was first isolated from the liver tissue of canines, which is how Heparin got its name(hepar or "ήπαρ" is ... PMID 8281678.CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link) Couch NP (1989). "About heparin, or ... whatever happened to Jay ...
Helting T (1972). "Biosynthesis of heparin. Solubilization and partial purification of uridine diphosphate glucuronic acid: ...
"Biosynthesis of heparin. Assay and properties of the microsomal uronosyl C-5 epimerase". The Journal of Biological Chemistry. ... sulfate L-iduronate This enzyme acts on D-glucuronosyl residues adjacent to sulfated D-glucosamine units in the heparin ...
It is also used as a heparin substitute in heparin-induced thrombocytopenia (HIT) which may otherwise cause paradoxical ... "Heparin Induced Thrombocytopenia" Uptodate www.uptodate.com retrieved on 2/6/2009 danaparoid at the US National Library of ... Low platelets, due to a low level of structural similarity between danaparoid and heparin, i.e.only in some patients sensitive ... It is chemically distinct from heparin, has different protein-binding properties because of its low degree of sulphation and ...
To avoid the blood monitoring required with warfarin and the injections required by heparin and heparin-like medicines, a new ... Critically ill hospitalized patients are recommended to either receive unfractionated heparin or low-molecular weight heparin ... These parenteral (non-oral) medicines include low-molecular-weight heparin, fondaparinux, and unfractionated heparin. Some oral ... low-molecular-weight heparin and low-dose-unfractionated heparin) depending upon the risk of VTE, risk of major bleeding, and ...
Dietrich CP (January 1969). "Enzymic degradation of heparin. A sulphamidase and a sulphoesterase from Flavobacterium heparinum ...
Examples: No heparin bridging; subtherapeutic INR. 3. Low pump flow due to low speed setting to manage AI, GIB or assess/induce ... 2010). "Post-operative heparin may not be required for transitioning patients with a HeartMate II left ventricular assist ... Warkentin, TE; Greinacher, A; Koster, A (2009). "Heparin-induced thrombocytopenia in patients with ventricular assist devices: ... 2012). "Argatroban anticoagulation for heparin induced thrombocytopenia in patients with ventricular assist devices". Minerva ...
... as nontoxic heparin/low molecular weight heparin antidote (I): preparation and characterization". AAPS PharmSci. 3 (3): 7-14. ... A chain shortened version of protamine also acts as a potent heparin antagonist, but with markedly reduced antigenicity. It was ... Carr JA, Silverman N (Oct 1999). "The heparin-protamine interaction. A review". The Journal of Cardiovascular Surgery. 40 (5): ... Protamine sulfate is an antidote for heparin overdose, but severe allergy may occur. ...
Crafoord later confirmed the usefulness of heparin in treating thrombosis. Jorpes' classic study on the use of heparin in the ... In 1994, the Aland Islands released a set of stamps, one of which honored Erik Jorpes and his contribution to heparin. Erik ... In the early 1930s, Jorpes started his pioneering work on the isolation and structure of heparin. In 1936, he successfully ... He identified the chemical structure of heparin and developed its clinical applications. Jorpes was the professor of medical ...
China and supplies the crude heparin to Baxter Travenol and other pharmaceutical companies throughout the world. "Heparin's ... The company harvests heparin from pig's intestines in the United States and Canada and Changzhou City, ... Reinberg, Steven (5 March 2008). "FDA Finds Contaminant in Baxter's Recalled Heparin Products". ABC News. Retrieved 30 March ... The company was a victim, along with other pharmaceutical companies, of the 2008 Chinese heparin adulteration. ...
"Heparin use is described". The Globe and Mail. 21 Oct 1941. p. 18. ISSN 0319-0714. "Success With Heparin in Toronto Is Welcomed ... "in which heparin played an essential and often dramatic life-saving role". The advances that made heparin a safe, easily ... Heparin is a blood thinner (anticoagulant), originally discovered in 1916 by Jay McLean and William Henry Howell at Johns ... By 1936, Charles and Scott managed to crystallise the heparin extract into a dry form that could be administered in a salt ...
... a phenomenon called heparin-induced thrombocytopenia if heparin is involved. Thrombocytopenia is generally a common symptom ... leading to a condition similar to one seen sometimes in patients treated with heparin", that is heparin induced ... This phenomenon is mostly encountered in some people who have been administered heparin, but none of the reported causes had ... The advisory panel for the government of Ontario, Canada has recommended against the use of heparin for management of ...
"Heparin's Deadly Side Effects". Time magazine. 13 November 2008. Archived from the original on 21 November 2008. Retrieved 2008 ... During the 2008 Chinese export recalls, heparin was recalled by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) due to ... for a drug called heparin, a blood thinner that is widely used by kidney-dialysis and postsurgical patients to prevent blood ... contamination of the raw heparin stock imported from China. Lenovo has admitted in a public statement that it had pre-installed ...
Dietrich CP (May 1969). "Enzymic degradation of heparin. A glucosaminidase and a glycuronidase from Flavobacterium heparinum". ...
Heparin. GlcUA or IdoUA(2S). GlcNAc or GlcNS or GlcNAc(6S) or GlcNS(6S). -IdoUA(2S)α1-4GlcNS(6S)α1-4. Highest negative charge ... Based on core disaccharide structures, GAGs are classified into four groups.[5] Heparin/heparan sulfate (HSGAGs) and ... Endogenous heparin is localized and stored in secretory granules of mast cells. Histamine that is present within the granules ... Heparin: Chemical and Biological Properties, Clinical Applications. CRC Press, Inc. p. 1.. ...
Until the late 1970s, hyaluronic acid was described as a "goo" molecule, a ubiquitous carbohydrate polymer that is part of the extracellular matrix.[11] For example, hyaluronic acid is a major component of the synovial fluid, and was found to increase the viscosity of the fluid. Along with lubricin, it is one of the fluid's main lubricating components. Hyaluronic acid is an important component of articular cartilage, where it is present as a coat around each cell (chondrocyte). When aggrecan monomers bind to hyaluronan in the presence of HAPLN1 (hyaluronanic acid and proteoglycan link protein 1), large, highly negatively charged aggregates form. These aggregates imbibe water and are responsible for the resilience of cartilage (its resistance to compression). The molecular weight (size) of hyaluronan in cartilage decreases with age, but the amount increases.[12] A lubricating role of hyaluronan in muscular connective tissues to enhance the sliding between adjacent tissue layers has been ...
Nebulized heparin and acetylcysteineEdit. Inhalation therapy with nebulized heparin and acetylcysteine is usually started and ... "Reduction in mortality in pediatric patients with inhalation injury with aerosolized heparin/N-acetylcystine [correction of ...
Low molecular weight heparinEdit. Low molecular weight heparin, a more highly processed product, is useful as it does not ... Heparin and derivative substancesEdit. Heparin is a biological substance, usually made from pig intestines. It works by ... Heparin can be used in vivo (by injection), and also in vitro to prevent blood or plasma clotting in or on medical devices. In ... Apart from heparin, most of these chemicals work by binding calcium ions, preventing the coagulation proteins from using them. ...
"Heparin Sodium Monograph for Professionals". Drugs.com. Retrieved 2020-04-21. Davies, John A. (December 1995). "Mechanisms of ... Examples of anticoagulants used are heparin and aspirin. Some common side effects of anticoagulants are low platelet counts, ...
Razi N, Lindahl U (May 1995). "Biosynthesis of heparin/heparan sulfate. The D-glucosaminyl 3-O-sulfotransferase reaction: ...
Heparin treatment is not justified. Overall prognosis is good in most patients, with one study showing recovery occurring in 94 ... Other regimens include steroids/azathioprine, and steroids/cyclophosphamide (with or without heparin and warfarin). Intravenous ...
"Biosynthesis of heparin/heparan sulfate. The D-glucosaminyl 3-O-sulfotransferase reaction: target and inhibitor saccharides". J ...
"Cefoxitin and heparin Drug Interactions". Drugs.com. Retrieved 2017-05-29. "Cefoxitin and cholecalciferol / genistein / zinc ... Two such minor interactions occur between cefoxitin and heparin as well as genistein. Pharmocokinetic and pharmacodynamic data ...
Burgess WH, Maciag T (1989). "The heparin-binding (fibroblast) growth factor family of proteins". Annual Review of Biochemistry ... Heparin-binding growth factor-2; and Endothelial cell growth factor-2. Gene sequencing revealed that this group is the same ... "Characterization and molecular cloning of a putative binding protein for heparin-binding growth factors". The Journal of ...
Drugs.com: Normiflo "Heparin sodium". Drug Information Portal. U.S. National Library of Medicine. Medicine portal v t e. ...
... states that may be linked to heparin and saline syringes made by Becton Dickinson and Co, the agencies told Reuters. The U.S. ... Last month, the company recalled 949 lots of its BD PosiFlush Pre-Filled Heparin Lock Flush Syringes and Pre-Filled Normal ... The recalled products make up about 10 percent of the companys supply of heparin and flush syringes in the countries involved ... Becton Dickinson also sells the heparin flush and saline syringe products in Canada, Bermuda, and Brazil. The company said it ...
Yafi RZ, et al. Lower extremity thrombosis and myocarditis due to Human PVB19 infection. Journal of Pediatric Surgery Case Reports 32: 30-31, May 2018. Available from: URL: http://doi.org/10.1016/j.epsc.2018.01.014 -SyriaCrossRefGoogle Scholar ...
... has role anticoagulant (CHEBI:50249) heparin (CHEBI:28304) is a heparins (CHEBI:24505) ...
Heparin/nitric oxide. Lack of efficacy, bleeding around chest tube site and intracranial bleeding: case report ... which included large intraventricular and right frontal parenchymal haemorrhage following anticoagulation with heparin for ...
Heparin Test Results. To ensure safety of heparin products in the United States, FDA asked manufacturers of heparin-containing ... For past Heparin information, please see the FDA Archive. *FDA Drug Safety Communication: Important change to heparin container ... 2008 Heparin Contamination. Serious injuries and deaths have been associated with the use of heparin, a blood-thinning drug ... Heparin Analytical Result Report. Please complete both tabs in Excel worksheet (Company Information and Heparin). ...
Schematic-drawing-of-the-interaction-of-heparin-with-the-double-positive-charged-osmium-complexes.jpg 600 × 389;40 KB. ... Heparin 5000 IU-1ml vial yellow background.jpg 1,282 × 2,024;1.2 MB. ... Heparin 5000 IU-1ml vial white background.jpg 1,270 × 1,996;797 KB. ... "Heparin"中的媒体文件. 以下33个文件属于本分类,共33个文件。 ...
Heparin does not itself break down existing clots, but enhances the bodys natural mechanisms involved in dissolving clots. ... Heparin is a naturally occurring anticoagulant that prevents the formation of blood clots. ... Heparin is a naturally occurring anticoagulant that prevents the formation of blood clots. Heparin does not itself break down ... In May 1935, the first human trials of heparin were conducted and Connaughts heparin was confirmed as a safe, easily-available ...
3 (HealthDay News) -- A final report on the deadly contamination of the blood thinner heparin confirms that the problem was ... Raw heparin is derived from pig intestines. It is given intravenously to prevent blood clots during certain kinds of surgery, ... In China, heparin often is made by small, unregulated companies. Chondroitin sulfate is a natural substance extracted from ... The Chinese heparin, contaminated with the chemical oversulfated chondroitin sulfate, was found in at least 10 countries, ...
Heparin Injection: learn about side effects, dosage, special precautions, and more on MedlinePlus ... Heparin should not be injected into a muscle. Heparin is sometimes injected one to six times a day and sometimes given as a ... Before using heparin,. *tell your doctor and pharmacist if you are allergic to heparin, any other medications, beef products, ... Before giving an injection of heparin, check the package label to make sure it is the strength of heparin solution that your ...
heparin-induced thrombocytopenia is a blood disorder marked by a low platelet count caused by an adverse reaction to heparin, a ... What is heparin-induced thrombocytopenia?. ANSWER Heparin-induced thrombocytopenia is a blood disorder marked by a low platelet ... count caused by an adverse reaction to heparin, a blood thinner given to many hospitalized people to prevent blood clots. ...
Heparin News and Research. RSS Heparin, a highly-sulfated glycosaminoglycan, is widely used as an injectable anticoagulant, and ... Pharmaceutical grade heparin is derived from mucosal tissues of slaughtered meat animals such as porcine (pig) intestine or ... has found that the common anticoagulant drug heparin inhibits the SARS-Cov2virus spike protein, by reducing the virus ability ...
Heparin is a polysaccharide which blocks the formation of blood clots (it acts as an anticoagulant) by attaching to and ... Heparin is composed of D-glucosamine-2,6-disulfate and D-glucuronic acid-2-sulfate. It is used to treat thrombosis, embolisms, ... Heparin is a polysaccharide which blocks the formation of blood clots (it acts as an anticoagulant) by attaching to and ... Heparin is an anticoagulant found naturally in the human (and other mammal) bodies. It was first isolated from dog liver (hence ...
Heparin definition, a polysaccharide, occurring in various tissues, especially the liver, and having anticoagulent properties. ... heparin. in Science. heparin. [hĕp′ər-ĭn]. *An acidic glycosaminoglycan found especially in lung and liver tissue that prevents ... heparin. in Medicine. heparin. [hĕp′ər-ĭn]. n.. *A complex organic acid that is found especially in lung and liver tissue, has ... heparin. heparin. noun. *a polysaccharide, containing sulphate groups, present in most body tissues: an anticoagulant used in ...
... is caused by antibodies that bind to complexes of heparin and platelet factor 4 (PF4), activating the platelets and promoting a ... Unfractionated heparin versus low molecular weight heparin for avoiding heparin-induced thrombocytopenia in postoperative ... Heparin-induced thrombocytopenia (HIT) due to heparin flushes: a report of three cases. J Intern Med. 1999 Sep. 246(3):325-9. [ ... Drugs & Diseases , Hematology , Heparin-Induced Thrombocytopenia Q&A What causes heparin-induced thrombocytopenia (HIT)?. ...
... and the head of drug maker Baxter were grilled by lawmakers over their handling of problems with the blood-thinner heparin that ... Lawmakers Fault FDA on Heparin. Agency and Baxter Accused of Failing Public in 81 Deaths. ... effective policies and will at the highest level in its regulation of heparin. Our citizens can no longer trust that their ...
Heparin-induced thrombocytopenia. Stefan D. Jevtic, Andrew M. Morris, Theodore E. Warkentin and Menaka Pai ...
The FDA said the contaminant found in recalled batches of the blood-thinner heparin was deliberately altered in a way that ... A contaminant found in recalled batches of the blood-thinner heparin was deliberately altered in a way that mimicked the real ... Yesterday, the FDA said the contaminant, which has surfaced in batches of heparin made from active ingredient sourced in China ...
Heparin and acute renal failure.. Br Med J 1975; 4 doi: https://doi.org/10.1136/bmj.4.5989.166 (Published 18 October 1975) Cite ...
Baxter recalled heparin about two months ago.. Heparin is made from ingredients imported from China. Chinese officials say the ... The chief executive officer of U.S. drugmaker Baxter International says its blood thinner, heparin, which has been linked to ... Eighty one deaths have been associated with allergic reactions to tainted doses of heparin. ... Parkinson also said it was difficult to detect the introduction of the contaminant because of how closely it mimicked heparin. ...
China Real Time Report is a vital resource for an expanding global community trying to keep up with a country changing minute by minute. The site offers quick insight and sharp analysis from the wide network of Dow Jones reporters across Greater China, including Dow Jones Newswires specialists and The Wall Street Journals award-winning team. It also draws on the insights of commentators close to the hot topic of the day in law, policy, economics and culture. Its editors can be reached at [email protected] ...
Heparin cofactor II. Purification and properties of a heparin-dependent inhibitor of thrombin in human plasma.. J. Biol. Chem. ... Heparin cofactor II (HCII) inhibits thrombin, the final protease of the coagulation cascade [PMID: 6895893, PMID: 17194895, ... Heparin cofactor II modulates the response to vascular injury.. Arterioscler. Thromb. Vasc. Biol. 27 454-60 2007 ... The N-terminal acidic domain of heparin cofactor II mediates the inhibition of alpha-thrombin in the presence of ...
A non thrombogenic quaternary ammonium-heparin complex coating for a medical article comprising an amount of at least 50% by ... heparin n = 2Stearyl dipentyl 238 308benzyl heparin n = 2 (100% retention) n = 2Stearyl dibutyl 363 360benzyl heparin n = 2 ( ... Heparin coatings. US9364498. 22 Jun 2009. 14 Jun 2016. Abbott Cardiovascular Systems Inc.. Heparin prodrugs and drug delivery ... Turning to Tables 1 and 2, it is evident that the Stearylkonium Heparin coating is more stable than the Benzalkonium Heparin ...
A list of US medications equivalent to Heparin Sodium Panpharma is available on the Drugs.com website. ... Heparin Sodium Panpharma is a medicine available in a number of countries worldwide. ... Ingredient matches for Heparin Sodium Panpharma. Heparin. Heparin sodium (a derivative of Heparin) is reported as an ingredient ... Heparin Sodium Panpharma. Heparin Sodium Panpharma may be available in the countries listed below. ...
Heparin Dose Manager 1.3 is clinicianonline has lots of features:weight based dosages of heparin. ... For Heparin Dose Manager 1.3 Tags. WMV to Youtube , psd manager , far manager help , mozilla sunbird themes , manager 3.2 , ... Please be aware that Brothersoft do not supply any crack, patches, serial numbers or keygen for Heparin Dose Manager,and please ... consult directly with program authors for any problem with Heparin Dose Manager. ...
Get an overview of HEPARIN SODIUM (injection), including warnings and precautions, directions, and the names of other drugs and ...
What do you do if you have to give a pt a heparin injection and they have absolutely no fat on their abd. Think of an 80 y/o pt ... What do you mean by other heparins? Heparin is heparin. Do you mean other anticoagulants? (i.e. Lovenox) Levaquin is an ... What do you mean by other heparins? Heparin is heparin. Do you mean other anticoagulants? (i.e. Lovenox) Levaquin is an ... Ive also had nurses tell me you can only give heparin in the abd. But heparin is suppose to be given subq, and if fat isnt ...
A fractionated version of heparin, known as low molecular weight heparin, is also available. Heparin acts as an anticoagulant, ... Because danaparoid does not contain heparin or heparin fragments, cross-reactivity of danaparoid with heparin-induced ... heparin is a polymer of varying chain size. Unfractionated heparin (UFH) as a pharmaceutical is heparin that has not been ... It may be used in those who overdose on heparin or to reverse heparins effect when it is no longer needed. Heparins normal ...
b Comparison of the carbonyl (i), sugar (ii) and N-acetyl (iii) regions of the 13C NMR spectra of standard heparin, heparin ... NMR spectra of contaminated heparin. a Comparison of anomeric and acetyl regions of the 1H NMR spectra of standard heparin, ... This review provides an overview of methods of heparin isolation and digestion, discusses known heparin contaminants, including ... heparin and DS, respectively, according to their decreasing mobility. b CE-UV of OSCS-contaminated heparin (10 mg/ml) using the ...
... is a complication of heparin therapy. There are two types of HIT. ... Heparin-induced thrombocytopenia (HIT) due to heparin flushes: ... Treatment of heparin-induced thrombocytopenia involves discontinuing heparin and starting a non-heparin anticoagulant. American ... Unfractionated heparin versus low molecular weight heparin for avoiding heparin-induced thrombocytopenia in postoperative ... encoded search term (Heparin-Induced Thrombocytopenia) and Heparin-Induced Thrombocytopenia What to Read Next on Medscape. ...
Heprin is a common misspelling of heparin. Heprin is an anticoagulant used to treat and prevent blood clots in the veins, ... Heprin is a common misspelling of heparin.. What is heparin (heprin)?. Heparin (heprin) is an anticoagulant. It works by ... Heparin (heprin) is also used before surgery to reduce the risk of blood clots. Heparin (heprin) may also be used for purposes ... Heparin (heprin) is sometimes called a blood thinner, although it does not actually thin the blood. Heparin (heprin) will not ...
  • What is heparin-induced thrombocytopenia? (webmd.com)
  • Heparin-induced thrombocytopenia is a blood disorder marked by a low platelet count caused by an adverse reaction to heparin, a blood thinner given to many hospitalized people to prevent blood clots. (webmd.com)
  • What causes heparin-induced thrombocytopenia (HIT)? (medscape.com)
  • Heparin-induced thrombocytopenia (HIT) is caused by antibodies that bind to complexes of heparin and platelet factor 4 (PF4), activating the platelets and promoting a prothrombotic state. (medscape.com)
  • Heparin-Induced Thrombocytopenia: A Comprehensive Clinical Review. (medscape.com)
  • Guideline] Warkentin TE, Greinacher A. Heparin-induced thrombocytopenia: recognition, treatment, and prevention: the Seventh ACCP Conference on Antithrombotic and Thrombolytic Therapy. (medscape.com)
  • An improved definition of immune heparin-induced thrombocytopenia in postoperative orthopedic patients. (medscape.com)
  • Antibodies from patients with heparin-induced thrombocytopenia/thrombosis are specific for platelet factor 4 complexed with heparin or bound to endothelial cells. (medscape.com)
  • Ultralarge complexes of PF4 and heparin are central to the pathogenesis of heparin-induced thrombocytopenia. (medscape.com)
  • B-cell tolerance regulates production of antibodies causing heparin-induced thrombocytopenia. (medscape.com)
  • Heparin-induced thrombocytopenia: mechanism of interaction of the heparin-dependent antibody with platelets. (medscape.com)
  • Heparin-induced thrombocytopenia: laboratory studies. (medscape.com)
  • Heparin-induced thrombocytopenia: new evidence for the dynamic binding of purified anti-PF4-heparin antibodies to platelets and the resultant platelet activation. (medscape.com)
  • Clinical picture of heparin-induced thrombocytopenia (HIT) and its differentiation from non-HIT thrombocytopenia. (medscape.com)
  • Heparin-induced thrombocytopenia in medical surgical critical illness. (medscape.com)
  • Heparin-induced thrombocytopenia (HIT) due to heparin flushes: a report of three cases. (medscape.com)
  • Heparin flushes and thrombocytopenia. (medscape.com)
  • Heparin-associated thrombocytopenia in the neurosurgical patient. (medscape.com)
  • Rizzoni WE, Miller K, Rick M, Lotze MT. Heparin-induced thrombocytopenia and thromboembolism in the postoperative period. (medscape.com)
  • Intraoperative heparin flushes and subsequent acute heparin-induced thrombocytopenia. (medscape.com)
  • The incidence of recognized heparin-induced thrombocytopenia in a large, tertiary care teaching hospital. (medscape.com)
  • Schmitt BP, Adelman B. Heparin-associated thrombocytopenia: a critical review and pooled analysis. (medscape.com)
  • Heparin-induced thrombocytopenia and thrombosis. (medscape.com)
  • Management of heparin induced thrombocytopenia. (bmj.com)
  • Magnani H N . Management of heparin induced thrombocytopenia. (bmj.com)
  • Question for the forum: I recently had a patient with myasthenia who developed heparin induced thrombocytopenia with type 2 thrombosis (TIA). (bio.net)
  • Treatment of heparin-induced thrombocytopenia involves discontinuing heparin and starting a non-heparin anticoagulant. (medscape.com)
  • Serious side effects include heparin-induced thrombocytopenia. (wikipedia.org)
  • Heparin is contraindicated for suspected cases of vaccine-induced pro-thrombotic immune thrombocytopenia (VIPIT) secondary to SARS-CoV-2 vaccination, as heparin may further increase the risk of bleeding in an anti-PF4/heparin complex autoimmune manner, in favor of alternative anticoagulant medications (such as argatroban or danaparoid). (wikipedia.org)
  • A serious side-effect of heparin is heparin-induced thrombocytopenia (HIT), caused by an immunological reaction that makes platelets a target of immunological response, resulting in the degradation of platelets, which causes thrombocytopenia. (wikipedia.org)
  • Also, a benign form of thrombocytopenia is associated with early heparin use, which resolves without stopping heparin. (wikipedia.org)
  • A test for heparin-induced thrombocytopenia (HIT) antibody, also called heparin-PF4 antibody, is performed to detect antibodies that develop in some people who have been treated with heparin. (labtestsonline.org)
  • It is used to help establish a diagnosis of immune-mediated heparin-induced thrombocytopenia (HIT type II) in someone who has a low platelet count ( thrombocytopenia ) and excessive clotting ( thrombosis ). (labtestsonline.org)
  • Therefore, this test is most useful in those with a moderate to high likelihood of having HIT II, based upon the timing of heparin use, significant thrombocytopenia, and thrombosis. (labtestsonline.org)
  • The presence of HIT antibodies in someone who has received heparin within the last 3 months and is experiencing significant thrombocytopenia within a day or two of re-starting heparin therapy may also indicate HIT II. (labtestsonline.org)
  • In addition to heparin, there are several other medications that can cause drug-induced thrombocytopenia and antiplatelet antibodies. (labtestsonline.org)
  • Heparin-induced thrombocytopenia type I (HIT type I) may be seen in people who are receiving heparin, but HIT I tends to be a more mild condition that is not associated with an immune reaction and is typically of no clinical significance. (labtestsonline.org)
  • Heparin-induced thrombocytopenia (HIT) is an immune complication of heparin therapy caused by antibodies to complexes of platelet factor 4 (PF4) and heparin. (bloodjournal.org)
  • It is now recognized that anti-PF4/heparin antibodies develop commonly after heparin exposure, but only a subset of sensitized patients progress to life-threatening complications of thrombocytopenia and thrombosis. (bloodjournal.org)
  • Heparin-induced thrombocytopenia (HIT) is heparin's most clinically relevant nonhemorrhagic complication. (bloodjournal.org)
  • Acute thrombocytopenia occurring within minutes of heparin therapy was first described in animals in 1942 7 and later observed in humans 8 as a transient, nonimmune complication of heparin therapy. (bloodjournal.org)
  • Patients receiving heparin are potentially at risk to develop heparin-induced thrombocytopenia (HIT). (nih.gov)
  • Heparin-induced thrombocytopenia ( HIT ) is the development of thrombocytopenia (a low platelet count), due to the administration of various forms of heparin , an anticoagulant . (wikipedia.org)
  • When thrombosis is identified the condition is called heparin-induced thrombocytopenia and thrombosis ( HITT ). (wikipedia.org)
  • [1] [7] HIT antibodies have been found in individuals with thrombocytopenia and thrombosis who had no prior exposure to heparin, but the majority are found in people who are receiving heparin. (wikipedia.org)
  • Formation of PF4-heparin antibodies is common in people receiving heparin, but only a proportion of these develop thrombocytopenia or thrombosis. (wikipedia.org)
  • Heparin-induced thrombocytopenia is less common in neonates but the platelet count should be checked 24-hours after starting the heparin and every 2-3 days whilst on treatment. (starship.org.nz)
  • 2 days before he was released a blood doctor came into his room & said 'william you have HIT (HEPARIN INDUCED THROMBOCYTOPENIA) he told us that the hospital contacted him to late cause if they would have contacted blood doctor a few days before the blood doctor could of saved his leg. (lawyersandsettlements.com)
  • Some patients can have certain bad reactions to heparin (heparin-induced thrombocytopenia -HIT or heparin-induced thrombocytopenia and thrombosis-HITT). (webmd.com)
  • Complications may include bleeding, and sometimes a serious complication called "HIT" (Heparin Induced Thrombocytopenia) causing a low platelet count and thrombosis at the same time. (labtestsonline.org.uk)
  • The Chinese heparin, contaminated with the chemical oversulfated chondroitin sulfate, was found in at least 10 countries, according to federal officials. (washingtonpost.com)
  • Meanwhile, a letter in the same issue of the journal described a much easier way of identifying oversulfated chondroitin sulfate (OSCS) contamination in heparin -- should it occur again. (washingtonpost.com)
  • Robert Parkinson said Tuesday that a contaminant known as 'oversulfated chondroitin sulfate' was found in certain lots of Baxter's Heparin product. (voanews.com)
  • The adulteration of raw heparin with oversulfated chondroitin sulfate (OSCS) in 2007-2008 spawned a global crisis resulting in extensive revisions to the pharmacopeia monographs on heparin and prompting the FDA to recommend the development of additional physicochemical methods for the analysis of heparin purity. (nih.gov)
  • The FDA is concerned about the safety and effectiveness of medical devices and IVD reagents that may be affected by Heparin with Oversulfated Chondroitin Sulfate (OSCS) and the effect these contaminants may have on the accuracy of In-Vitro Diagnostic (IVD) assays. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • In 2008, numerous consignments of heparin imported to the U.S. from China were contaminated with oversulfated chondroitin sulfate. (mynewsdesk.com)
  • A Congressional investigator said the contaminant, oversulfated chondroitin sulfate, cost $9 a pound compared with $900 a pound for heparin. (nytimes.com)
  • the only other suggestion i have, and this is not related to anything the op said, is that you should never call anticoagulants (heparin, warfarin, etc) 'blood thinners. (allnurses.com)
  • Doctors treat blood clots with medication: anticoagulants, heparin, warfarin, Xarelto and Pradaxa rank among the most common treatments for blood clots. (reference.com)
  • However, increasing use of anticoagulants in dialysis as an alternative has decreased the usage of unfractionated heparin, which is likely to restraint the growth of the market for unfractionated heparin drug during the forecast period. (mynewsdesk.com)
  • Heparin and CPD are both anticoagulants to prevent blood clots from forming. (cordblood.com)
  • Heparin preparations are important anticoagulants and have been successfully used for the prevention and treatment of thromboembolic disorders for many years in most surgical units. (hindawi.com)
  • Although there are no specific studies demonstrating interactions with anticoagulants, the following herbs contain coumarin-like substances that may interact with heparin and could conceivably cause bleeding. (adventisthealthcare.com)
  • In February 2008, Baxter Healthcare Corporation recalled multi-dose and single-dose vials of heparin sodium for injection, as well as HEP-LOCK heparin flush products. (fda.gov)
  • The United States Pharmacopeia (USP) has recently published updated compendial test methods for heparin sodium USP to include the two screening tests previously posted on FDA's website. (fda.gov)
  • As a patient safety measure, USP has changed the labeling standard for Heparin Sodium Injection USP and Heparin Lock Flush Solution USP. (associationdatabase.com)
  • BD Vacutainer® Heparin Tubes are spray-coated with either lithium heparin or sodium heparin and are used for plasma determinations in chemistry. (bio-medicine.org)
  • HIT is more frequently encountered with unfractionated heparin (UFH) than with low molecular weight heparin (LMWH). (medscape.com)
  • Thus, as a drug class, the heparin family (UFH and LMWH) is likely to remain in clinical use for the foreseeable future. (bloodjournal.org)
  • New low molecular weight heparins (LMWH) have more predictable pharmacokinetic profiles and longer duration of action than unfractionated heparin (UFH), but are much more expensive. (cornell.edu)
  • The shorter chains also reduce the formation of a ternary complex among heparin chains, AT, and thrombin, so that LMWH primarily inactivate Factor Xa. (cornell.edu)
  • Heparin anti-Xa assays gauge anticoagulant intensity of UFH and LMWH. (cornell.edu)
  • Efficacy of low dose aspirin (LDA) versus LDA plus low-molecular-weight-heparin (LMWH) in patients with a history of recurrent miscarriages. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Heparin-induced skin necrosis at the injection site is a rare adverse effect, more commonly associated with unfractionated heparin (UFH) rather than with LMWH, while its mechanism remains unclear. (hindawi.com)
  • This test measures the effect of low molecular weight heparin (LMWH) or unfractionated heparin (UFH) in the blood by measuring anti-Xa activity. (labtestsonline.org.uk)
  • UFH includes a broad range of sizes, while LMWH consists of a narrower range of smaller heparin molecules. (labtestsonline.org.uk)
  • Receiving unfractionated heparin (UFH) or low molecular weight heparin (LMWH). (dukehealth.org)
  • After launching a far-ranging investigation, FDA scientists identified a previously unknown contaminant in the heparin. (fda.gov)
  • A contaminant found in recalled batches of the blood-thinner heparin was deliberately altered in a way that mimicked the real drug, the Food and Drug Administration said, a finding that will add to pressure on U.S. regulators and pharmaceutical companies to step up oversight of burgeoning Chinese drug production. (wsj.com)
  • Yesterday, the FDA said the contaminant, which has surfaced in batches of heparin made from active ingredient sourced in China, appears to be a chemically altered material derived from a cheap and widely available. (wsj.com)
  • In prepared remarks before a congressional subcommittee, Parkinson also said it was difficult to detect the introduction of the contaminant because of how closely it mimicked heparin. (voanews.com)
  • contained a "heparin-like contaminant. (medpagetoday.com)
  • The contaminant was found in 2% to 50% of the lots of heparin active pharmaceutical ingredient tested at a processing plant in Changzhou, China, operated as a joint venture by SPL, the FDA said. (medpagetoday.com)
  • Sophisticated analytical techniques enabled complete characterization of the contaminant present in heparin. (eurekalert.org)
  • These results provide a potential link between the presence of chemical contaminant in heparin and the clinical symptoms observed in affected patients. (eurekalert.org)
  • The contaminant, which is derived from animal cartilage, has a structure very similar to that of heparin and thus cannot be identified with the tests normally used to inspect batches of heparin. (eurekalert.org)
  • It is unclear whether the contaminant got into the heparin during the manufacturing process, or how and where contamination could have occurred during the process. (eurekalert.org)
  • But a Chinese official disputed the assertion that the contaminant found in the drug, heparin, caused any deaths and insisted that his country's inspectors be allowed to inspect the American plant where the finished heparin vials were made. (nytimes.com)
  • We don't have a strong evidence to show that it is heparin or its contaminant that caused the problem," said the official, Ning Chen, second secretary at the Chinese Embassy. (nytimes.com)
  • She said Chinese officials had conceded that heparin produced in their country contained a contaminant, though they say it was not connected to the illnesses. (nytimes.com)
  • One American chemist, who asked not to be identified because he had signed a confidentiality agreement, said he and the F.D.A. had looked at chondroitin sulfate, a substance derived from animal cartilage, as a possible contaminant because of its structural similarities with heparin. (hughhewitt.com)
  • The F.D.A. has said it has the world's top heparin chemists working on the contaminant at two F.D.A. laboratories, three American universities and several European academic institutions. (hughhewitt.com)
  • Heparin is commonly given either subcutaneous ly as prophylaxis against deep venous thrombosis for bedbound hospital inpatients and also intravenous ly for full anticoagulation for whatever reason. (everything2.com)
  • NSTEMI Atrial fibrillation Deep-vein thrombosis and pulmonary embolism Cardiopulmonary bypass for heart surgery ECMO circuit for extracorporeal life support Hemofiltration Indwelling central or peripheral venous catheters Heparin and its low-molecular-weight derivatives (e.g., enoxaparin, dalteparin, tinzaparin) are effective in preventing deep vein thromboses and pulmonary emboli in people at risk, but no evidence indicates any one is more effective than the other in preventing mortality. (wikipedia.org)
  • Pathogenic antibodies to PF4/heparin bind and activate cellular FcγRIIA on platelets and monocytes to propagate a hypercoagulable state culminating in life-threatening thrombosis. (bloodjournal.org)
  • Such favorable properties will continue to keep UFH and its derivatives, the low-molecular-weight heparins (LMWHs), at the therapeutic forefront for a number of indications where alternative therapies are currently lacking (cardiac surgery), unsuitable (mechanical valves), or untested (cancer associated thrombosis and antiphospholipid antibody syndrome). (bloodjournal.org)
  • 10 The more serious, immune complication of HIT (type II) was first reported in 1958 by 2 surgeons, Weismann and Tobin, who summarized a case series of 10 patients at their institution who developed paradoxical thrombosis while receiving heparin therapy. (bloodjournal.org)
  • China's huge pig population is the reason why the country is a superpower when it comes to making heparin, an anticoagulant used around the globe during heart surgery and dialysis as well as for the treatment of deep vein thrombosis. (acs.org)
  • Heparins are used at high dose to treat systemic thrombosis and at lower doses for thromboprophylaxis. (cornell.edu)
  • Unfractionated heparin is the most primitive form of heparin and has major applications in kidney dialysis and heart, and lung oxygenation that includes the treatment and prevention of pulmonary embolism, deep vein thrombosis, post-operative thrombosis, certain types of coronary artery syndrome, particularly unstable angina, in thrombotic stroke, and hemodialysis. (mynewsdesk.com)
  • Unfractionated heparin is primarily utilized in hospitals for the prevention and treatment of thrombosis. (mynewsdesk.com)
  • If someone receiving heparin develops new or worsening thrombosis, or if the platelet count falls, HIT can be confirmed with specific blood tests . (wikipedia.org)
  • The treatment of HIT requires stopping heparin treatment, and both protection from thrombosis and choice of an agent that will not reduce the platelet count any further. (wikipedia.org)
  • Heparin may be used for both prevention and the treatment of thrombosis. (wikipedia.org)
  • HIT type II represents a potentially dangerous complication of heparin therapy in pediatric patients and should be taken into consideration whenever heparin is given for prophylactic or therapeutic use in newborns, children, or adolescents. (nih.gov)
  • All patients receiving heparin should be closely examined to detect disease progression, or signs of bleeding and bruising, the major complication of heparin therapy. (cornell.edu)
  • Anti-platelet factor 4/heparin antibodies in orthopedic surgery patients receiving antithrombotic prophylaxis with fondaparinux or enoxaparin. (medscape.com)
  • Commonly used low molecular weight heparins are enoxaparin , dalteparin , nadroparin and tinzaparin . (wikipedia.org)
  • DURHAM, N.C. - Three studies led by Duke Clinical Research Institute (DCRI) cardiologists have shown that the ease and convenience of a newer formulation of the blood-thinner heparin, called enoxaparin, appear to make it the drug of choice for treating patients with suspected heart attacks. (emaxhealth.com)
  • The DCRI researchers led two multi-national clinical trials and conducted one meta-analysis comparing unfractionated heparin to enoxaparin, the newer low molecular weight heparin. (emaxhealth.com)
  • Much has changed in the treatment of patients with acute coronary syndromes since the first studies comparing enoxaparin with unfractionated heparin, according to DCRI cardiologist John Petersen, M.D., first author of the meta-analysis published in JAMA. (emaxhealth.com)
  • Most of the reactions reported in the United States occurred in dialysis centers among people given high initial doses of heparin, the report found. (washingtonpost.com)
  • Eighty one deaths have been associated with allergic reactions to tainted doses of heparin. (voanews.com)
  • One wonders whether the bleeding effect is related to the heparin arm getting too high a dose, but I would point out, these are the exact guideline-recommended doses," said Dr Gabriel Steg (Institut National de la Santé et de la Recherche Médicale, Paris, France), who led another recent bivalirudin-vs-heparin trial, EuroMAX . (medscape.com)
  • Maybe the guidelines need to be revised, but the data to support lower doses of heparin are not there, it's [based] purely [on] practice, but not data. (medscape.com)
  • Prepare all heparin doses and solutions in the hospital pharmacy rather than on patient care units to decrease the risk of error. (ihi.org)
  • The variety of models used and doses of heparin/penetration enhancers applied, however, made it difficult to compare the results between studies. (ingentaconnect.com)
  • Require an independent double-check of IV insulin and IV heparin doses/infusions before dispensing. (ismp.org)
  • Doubt has been cast over a recent study which suggests that heparin in high doses can aid coronary arteries and make angioplasty unnecessary in some patients with heart attacks. (healthy.net)
  • The FDA has ordered that heparin from APP and other makers of heparin used in the United States be screened for contaminants, especially contaminants that may mimic true heparin molecules, which was the case with the hypersulfated chondroitin sulfate. (medpagetoday.com)
  • Heparin consists of a long, complex chain of repeating sugar molecules. (eurekalert.org)
  • Substances comprised of fragmented heparin molecules derived from unfractionated heparin that bind to antithrombin III with a molecular weight ranging from 1000 to 10,000 daltons, which causes changes in property from unfractionated heparin, including decreased protein binding, enhanced bioavailability, decreased platelet interaction, and decreased binding to thrombin. (fpnotebook.com)
  • Heparin-induced oligomerization of FGF molecules is responsible for FGF receptor dimerization, activation, and cell proliferation. (nature.com)
  • Heparin molecules vary in size and activity. (labtestsonline.org.uk)
  • 23 As the most negatively charged biological molecule known, heparin has a strong ability to interfere with the functioning of positively charged molecules. (thejns.org)
  • WEDNESDAY, Dec. 3 (HealthDay News) -- A final report on the deadly contamination of the blood thinner heparin confirms that the problem was caused by a man-made chemical that was added to batches of the drug imported from China, U.S. investigators report. (washingtonpost.com)
  • That letter reported successful identification of OSCS contamination in heparin by use of one of the most common tests in medical practice --measuring prothrombin time, the time required for blood to clot, or coagulate. (washingtonpost.com)
  • To minimize the risk, the FDA is proposing a PCR based test to detect contamination of Heparin with OSCS. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Heparin should not be contaminated, regardless of whether or not that contamination caused acute adverse events," Dr. Woodcock said. (nytimes.com)
  • However, she has suffered from side effects that have been linked to Heparin contamination in other people. (lawyersandsettlements.com)
  • Everyone was trying to ignore the fact that she was given Heparin and I am very angry that nobody takes responsibility for this error-someone has to do something about heparin reactions-I can't help but think that Lisa suffered because of heparin contamination. (lawyersandsettlements.com)
  • Dr. Woodcock's statement on Tuesday was part of growing chorus that has labeled the heparin contamination as perhaps the most brazen poisoning episode since 1982, when seven people in the Chicago area died after taking Tylenol that had been laced with cyanide. (nytimes.com)
  • The Tylenol case led to substantial changes in product packaging, and the heparin contamination has led both Democratic and Republican committee members to call for major changes in the way the F.D.A. functions and is financed. (nytimes.com)
  • David G. Strunce, chief executive of Scientific Protein Laboratories, the company that supplied contaminated heparin material to Baxter International, which manufactured and distributed the finished drug, described the contamination as "an insidious act" that "seems to us an intentional act upstream in the supply chain. (nytimes.com)
  • Pharmaceutical grade heparin is derived from mucosal tissues of slaughtered meat animals such as porcine (pig) intestine or bovine (cow) lung. (news-medical.net)
  • In addition to the bovine and porcine tissue from which pharmaceutical-grade heparin is commonly extracted, it has also been extracted and characterized from: Turkey Whale Dromedary camel Mouse Humans Lobster Fresh water mussel Clam Shrimp Mangrove crab Sand dollar Atlantic salmon Zebra fish The biological activity of heparin within species 6-11 is unclear and further supports the idea that the main physiological role of heparin is not anticoagulation. (wikipedia.org)
  • This highly purified hexasaccharide with seven sulfates is prepared from a digest of porcine mucosal heparin using Bacteroides Heparinase I. (neb.com)
  • List Heparin, Porcine (PF) 100 Unit/Ml (1 Ml) Intravenous Solution side effects by likelihood and severity. (webmd.com)
  • Serious injuries and deaths have been associated with the use of heparin, a blood-thinning drug that contained active pharmaceutical ingredient (API) from China. (fda.gov)
  • To ensure safety of heparin products in the United States, FDA asked manufacturers of heparin-containing products to test the heparin active pharmaceutical ingredient (API) used in these products with the two screening methods posted to FDA's website, capillary electrophoresis (CE) and proton nuclear magnetic resonance (H-NMR). (fda.gov)
  • The Changzhou plant also supplied the active pharmaceutical ingredient that was sold to Baxter Healthcare, which has recalled almost all of its heparin products sold in the U.S. (medpagetoday.com)
  • The FDA said it is clear that the substance was not derived from pigs and that its chemical structure had been altered, but stopped short of saying that it had been deliberately added to the heparin active pharmaceutical ingredient. (medpagetoday.com)
  • The Wall Street Journal reported the drug in this latest round of recalls came from China's Shenzhen Hepalink Pharmaceutical Co., which supplied heparin active pharmaceutical ingredient to Opocrin SpA, an Italian company. (medpagetoday.com)
  • Last month, the company recalled 949 lots of its BD PosiFlush Pre-Filled Heparin Lock Flush Syringes and Pre-Filled Normal Saline saline flush syringes sold between February and December 2017 out of "an abundance of caution. (reuters.com)
  • Becton Dickinson also sells the heparin flush and saline syringe products in Canada, Bermuda, and Brazil. (reuters.com)
  • The recalled products make up about 10 percent of the company's supply of heparin and flush syringes in the countries involved in the recall. (reuters.com)
  • Baxter recalled its single and multidose heparin vials as well as its heparin flush products following reports of severe allergic reactions associated with the single and multi-dose heparin. (medpagetoday.com)
  • Do not use heparin injection to flush (clean out) an intravenous (IV) catheter, or fatal bleeding could result. (cigna.com)
  • A separate heparin product is available to use as catheter lock flush. (cigna.com)
  • Using the wrong type of heparin to flush a catheter can result in fatal bleeding. (cigna.com)
  • In January 2008, the FDA announced a recall of all lots of heparin and saline pre-filled flush syringes manufactured by AM2 PAT Inc. because 2 lots were found contaminated with Serratia marcescens, which is a bacterium that can be deadly if untreated. (lawyersandsettlements.com)
  • To use heparin locks, care providers will wipe off the plug, insert a needle, and flush the lock with heparin or saline, depending on hospital protocol. (wisegeek.com)
  • There are no evaluations for Heparin flush. (patientslikeme.com)
  • What is the most important information I should know about heparin flush? (cardiosmart.org)
  • Heparin flush should not be used to treat or prevent blood clots in the body. (cardiosmart.org)
  • Before using heparin flush, tell your doctor if you have any type of allergy, high blood pressure, an infection involving your heart, hemophilia or other bleeding disorder, a stomach or intestinal disorder, kidney or liver disease, or if you are on your period. (cardiosmart.org)
  • Heparin flush can cause bleeding. (cardiosmart.org)
  • Women over 60 years of age may be more likely to have bleeding episodes while using heparin flush. (cardiosmart.org)
  • What is heparin flush? (cardiosmart.org)
  • Heparin flush is used to flush (clean out) an intravenous (IV) catheter, which helps prevent blockage in the tube after you have received an IV infusion. (cardiosmart.org)
  • What should I discuss with my healthcare provider before taking heparin flush? (cardiosmart.org)
  • Do not use heparin flush in a newborn baby (less than 1 month old). (cardiosmart.org)
  • How should I use heparin flush? (cardiosmart.org)
  • Heparin flush is injected directly into the catheter lock of your IV line. (cardiosmart.org)
  • You may be shown how to use heparin flush at home. (cardiosmart.org)
  • Do not self-inject heparin flush if you do not fully understand how to give the medication and properly dispose of used needles, IV tubing, and other items used to inject the medicine. (cardiosmart.org)
  • What should I avoid while taking heparin flush? (cardiosmart.org)
  • After insertion, flush with 0.5ml of 10U/ml Heparin. (starship.org.nz)
  • For intermittent flushing of longlines and CVLs that are luered, use 0.7ml of 10U Heparin per ml flush after each medication. (starship.org.nz)
  • Flush the catheter/line with normal saline before and after infusing drugs that interact with heparin such as doxorubicin , droperidol, ciprofloxacin , and mitoxantrone . (webmd.com)
  • Two patients, neither of whom was diabetic, died after being injected with insulin instead of heparin during a vascular catheter flush procedure. (ismp.org)
  • The chief executive officer of U.S. drugmaker Baxter International says its blood thinner, heparin, which has been linked to dozens of deaths, appears to have been deliberately contaminated. (voanews.com)
  • FDA officials say the contaminated heparin came from factories in China that manufacture the drug for Baxter International. (eurekalert.org)
  • The F.D.A. sent a warning letter on Monday to Changzhou SPL, the Chinese plant identified as the source of contaminated heparin made by Baxter International in the United States. (nytimes.com)
  • Scientists who have examined batches of the contaminated heparin distributed by Baxter International in the United States said in interviews that they suspected that the heparin-like molecule was intentionally mixed into the drug. (hughhewitt.com)
  • The U.S. Food and Drug Administration, for the first time, has conclusively linked deaths of patients infused with the blood thinner heparin to a foreign substance found in specific lots of the drug made by Deerfield-based Baxter International Inc. (fdanews.com)
  • Baxter International, heparin’s manufacturer, announced it is expanding the recall to include most heparin products. (yourlawyer.com)
  • Low molecular weight heparins (LMWHs) are the standard agents used for antithrombotic therapy and prophylaxis. (hindawi.com)
  • Do not keep insulin and heparin vials alongside one another on top of counters or drug carts, or under the laminar flow IV admixture hood in the pharmacy. (ismp.org)
  • To avoid similar vials, heparin bags of 100 unit/mL are available from IV solution vendors. (ismp.org)
  • Heparin is used to prevent blood clots from forming in people who have certain medical conditions or who are undergoing certain medical procedures that increase the chance that clots will form. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Heparin is also used in small amounts to prevent blood clots from forming in catheters (small plastic tubes through which medication can be administered or blood drawn) that are left in veins over a period of time. (medlineplus.gov)
  • When heparin is used to prevent blood clots from forming in intravenous catheters, it is usually used when the catheter is first put in place, and every time that blood is drawn out of the catheter or medication is given through the catheter. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Heparin is used to treat and prevent blood clots caused by certain medical conditions or medical procedures. (cigna.com)
  • Heparin cofactor II (HCII) inhibits thrombin, the final protease of the coagulation cascade [ PMID: 6895893 , PMID: 17194895 , PMID: 16176258 ]. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • Purification and properties of a heparin-dependent inhibitor of thrombin in human plasma. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • The N-terminal acidic domain of heparin cofactor II mediates the inhibition of alpha-thrombin in the presence of glycosaminoglycans. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • Heparin interacts with antithrombin (AT) to increase its affinity for its target serine protease coagulation factors, particularly thrombin (Factor IIa) and Factor Xa. (cornell.edu)
  • Unfractionated heparin binds reversibly with anti-thrombin III (ATIII). (mynewsdesk.com)
  • Heparin activates antithrombin III, which progressively inactivates both thrombin and factor Xa, key proteolytic enzymes in the formation of fibrinogen and the activation of prothrombin. (starship.org.nz)
  • Heparin, through its action on a protein called Antithrombin, interferes with the clotting process by accelerating the inhibition of coagulation factors, particularly factors Xa and IIa (thrombin). (labtestsonline.org.uk)
  • Heparin reduces clotting by blocking the action of thrombin, an enzyme important in the process of blood platelet clumping. (emaxhealth.com)
  • Know the dose of heparin you want. (medlineplus.gov)
  • With the tip of the needle in the liquid, pull back on the plunger to get the right dose of heparin into the syringe. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Call your doctor for instructions if you miss a dose of heparin. (cigna.com)
  • As a result, people taking Heparin need to monitor their intake of Vitamin K. According to the American Dietetic Association, Vitamin K needs to be taken in consistent amounts daily so that the doctor can prescribe the correct dose of Heparin. (livestrong.com)
  • The pilot study monitored 108 patients with acute heart attacks who were eligible for angioplasty and given a high dose of heparin in the emergency room. (healthy.net)
  • The unique antithrombin III binding pentasaccharide sequence and repeating disaccharide units of heparin. (nih.gov)
  • Protamine sulfate has been given to counteract the anticoagulant effect of heparin (1 mg per 100 units of heparin that had been given over the past four hours). (wikipedia.org)
  • A nurse transcribed a telephone order for "10 units of regular insulin IVP [push] now for a blood sugar of 324" as "10 units of heparin IVP [push] now. (ismp.org)
  • This pharmacologic effect of heparin, referred to as type I HIT 9 is caused by the agglutinating effects of heparin on platelets. (bloodjournal.org)
  • Researchers in the Cochrane Collaboration reviewed the evidence about the effect of heparin administered around the time of implantation on clinical outcomes in subfertile women undergoing assisted reproduction. (cochrane.org)
  • Since vitamin K helps the blood to clot, it essentially has the opposite effect of Heparin. (livestrong.com)
  • A child could tell you it's counterfeiting," said Dr. Jawed Fareed, a professor of pathology and pharmacology at Loyola University Chicago, who has been studying batches of heparin since the problems with the drug were discovered. (hughhewitt.com)
  • tell your doctor and pharmacist if you are allergic to heparin, any other medications, beef products,pork products, or any of the ingredients in heparin injection. (medlineplus.gov)
  • The presence of HIT antibodies in someone who has been treated with heparin for 5 to 10 days, has a platelet count that has decreased by 50% or more, and has new blood clots means that it is likely the person has HIT II. (labtestsonline.org)
  • if someone has received heparin in the previous three months, the fall in platelet count may occur sooner, sometimes within a day. (wikipedia.org)
  • HIT may be suspected if blood tests show a falling platelet count in someone receiving heparin, even if the heparin has already been discontinued. (wikipedia.org)
  • Han also presented one year outcomes showing that for major adverse cardiac and cerebrovascular events (MACCE), there were no difference between groups, but for NACE, the highest rate of events at one year was in the heparin-monotherapy arm at 20.5%, followed by heparin/tirofiban at 16.5%, and bivalirudin at 12.8%, with the bivalirudin results being statistically superior to the other strategies. (medscape.com)
  • The FDA said there have been hundreds of reports of adverse events and at least 19 deaths linked to the recalled heparin. (medpagetoday.com)
  • Heparin is a potent anticoagulant, and one incorrect dose can lead to significant risk of an adverse drug event. (ihi.org)
  • Heparin-induced thrombocytopaenia (HIT) is a severe and potentially life-threatening adverse drug reaction. (nih.gov)
  • More than 100 patients have experienced adverse reactions after receiving the tainted heparin. (eurekalert.org)
  • adverse reaction to Heparin? (healingwell.com)
  • Some people treated with heparin produce antibodies directed against this complex (HIT antibodies). (labtestsonline.org)
  • It is an immune complication caused by antibodies directed to complexes containing heparin and an endogenous platelet protein, platelet factor 4 (PF4). (bloodjournal.org)
  • Heparin occurs naturally in the human body, but the development of HIT antibodies suggests heparin may act as a hapten , and thus be targeted by the immune system . (wikipedia.org)
  • In HIT, the immune system forms antibodies against heparin when it is bound to a protein called platelet factor 4 (PF4). (wikipedia.org)
  • However, those who have been exposed to heparin in the last few months may still have circulating IgG, as IgG-type antibodies generally continue to be produced even when their precipitant has been removed. (wikipedia.org)
  • The IgG antibodies form a complex with heparin and PF4 in the bloodstream. (wikipedia.org)
  • The Wake Forest University Baptist Medical Center's professor of anesthesiology Thomas Slaughter said that the study aimed at finding out if an independent risk is posed by the development of heparin antibodies prior to the surgery. (medindia.net)
  • Antibodies are developed in as many as 50% of the patients who are treated with heparin, the effect of which may even last for several months. (medindia.net)
  • The researchers are of the opinion that blood components are activated which cause inflammation and clotting in the case of subsequent treatment on patients who already carry heparin antibodies. (medindia.net)
  • The heparin antibody levels in the patients were studied by the researchers, before surgery, who came to the conclusion that the risk of hospitalization or death was twofold in the case of patients with the antibodies. (medindia.net)
  • The heparin antibodies were found in 13% of the patients who were to undergo surgery in the US. (medindia.net)
  • Heparin is a polysaccharide which blocks the formation of blood clot s (it acts as an anticoagulant ) by attaching to and interfering with the action of the protein antiprothrombin III, which plays a crucial role in clotting. (everything2.com)
  • Unfractionated heparin (UFH) is a heterogeneous mixture of glycosaminoglycans consisting of polysaccharide chains of highly variable length. (cornell.edu)
  • The unfractionated heparin drug is a heterogeneous mixture of linear polysaccharide chains with variable biological activity and molecular weight, and a pentasaccharide that has minimal active fragment. (mynewsdesk.com)
  • Recent scientific developments have clarified mechanisms underlying PF4/heparin immunogenicity, disease susceptibility, and clinical manifestations of disease. (bloodjournal.org)
  • If you wanted the latest trusted evidence on heparin or other clinical topics then use Trip today. (tripdatabase.com)
  • It is unclear whether peri-implantation heparin in assisted reproduction treatment (ART) cycles improves live birth and clinical pregnancy rates in subfertile women. (cochrane.org)
  • The evidence does not justify the use of heparin except in well-designed clinical research trials. (cochrane.org)
  • It is unclear whether peri-implantation heparin in assisted reproduction treatment (ART) cycles improves live birth and clinical pregnancy rates in subfertile women, as the evidence was sensitive to choice of statistical model and no benefit was apparent when a random effects model was used. (cochrane.org)
  • Heparin has been advocated to improve embryo implantation and clinical outcomes. (cochrane.org)
  • To investigate whether the administration of heparin around the time of implantation (peri-implantation heparin) improves clinical outcomes in subfertile women undergoing assisted reproduction. (cochrane.org)
  • From a clinical perspective this must be considered sufficient heparin treatment with aPTT levels as a tool for monitoring. (ahajournals.org)
  • Clinical studies on the effectiveness of heparin are limited. (ichelp.org)
  • Heparin is an anticoagulant that binds with proteins and platelets to stop blood clots from being made and traveling to the brain, heart, and lungs. (propublica.org)
  • You should not use heparin if you have uncontrolled bleeding or a severe lack of platelets in your blood. (cigna.com)
  • Drugs.com further mentions that patients should not use Heparin when suffering from uncontrolled bleeding or a very low level of blood platelets. (reference.com)
  • Heparin platelet factor-4 (HPF-4) antibody testing was negative by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). (hindawi.com)
  • SHANGHAI/CHICAGO (Reuters) - Health agencies are investigating an outbreak of bloodstream infections in children from four U.S. states that may be linked to heparin and saline syringes made by Becton Dickinson and Co, the agencies told Reuters. (reuters.com)
  • Ask your doctor, nurse, or pharmacist if you do not understand these directions or have any questions about where on your body you should inject heparin, how to give the injection, or how to dispose of used needles and syringes after you inject the medication. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Heparin prefilled syringes could also be made available for admixture use. (ismp.org)
  • What should I avoid while using heparin injection? (cigna.com)
  • Two non-hemorrhagic side-effects of heparin treatment are known. (wikipedia.org)
  • What are the possible side effects of heparin injection? (cigna.com)
  • Heparin may be given to you by a nurse or other healthcare provider, or you may be told to inject the medication by yourself at home. (medlineplus.gov)
  • If you will be injecting heparin yourself, a healthcare provider will show you how to inject the medication. (medlineplus.gov)
  • If you will be injecting heparin yourself, be sure you know how much medication you should use. (medlineplus.gov)
  • For more information, go to www.usp.org and search "heparin label changes," or to http://www.usp.org/usp-healthcare-professionals/medication-safety-labeling/heparin-labeling-changes . (associationdatabase.com)
  • March 24 -- The tainted heparin problem continues to widen as Braun Medical recalled 23 lots of the medication in what the company called a "precautionary measure. (medpagetoday.com)
  • Heparin, also known as unfractionated heparin (UFH), is a medication and naturally occurring glycosaminoglycan. (wikipedia.org)
  • Heparin may also be used for purposes not listed in this medication guide. (cigna.com)
  • Heparin is a medication used as a blood thinner to prevent blood from clotting inside blood veins, arteries and the lungs, according to Drugs.com. (reference.com)
  • When a care provider needs to inject medication, she can use the heparin lock for this purpose, instead of having to stick the patient with a needle again. (wisegeek.com)
  • Heparin is an anticoagulant medication. (livestrong.com)
  • Unfractionated heparin (UFH) celebrated its centennial from discovery in 2016. (bloodjournal.org)
  • Europe Disposable Heparin Cap Industry 2016 ​ is a new market research publication announced by Reportstack. (pitchengine.com)
  • Patients suspected of having HIT must not receive any further heparin or low-molecular weight heparin and must be started on an alternative anticoagulant such as argatroban or danaparoid. (nih.gov)
  • Our findings also suggest that a simple bioassay could help protect the global supply chain of heparin, by screening heparin lots for the presence of polysulfated contaminants that may have unintended pharmacological consequences," said Sasisekharan. (eurekalert.org)
  • In all cases a daily injection of low molecular weight heparin was given to women from the time of egg collection or embryo transfer during assisted reproduction. (cochrane.org)
  • All other measures used to prevent contaminated heparin products from entering the US should remain in place, and we request that all heparin suppliers and manufacturers continue reporting results to FDA as outlined in the section " Heparin Test Results " until further notice. (fda.gov)
  • APTT is used to monitor unfractionated heparin treatment and is reagent/instrument specific. (starship.org.nz)
  • Heparin is also used to stop the growth of clots that have already formed in the blood vessels, but it cannot be used to decrease the size of clots that have already formed. (medlineplus.gov)
  • While heparin itself does not break down clots that have already formed (unlike tissue plasminogen activator), it allows the body's natural clot lysis mechanisms to work normally to break down clots that have formed. (wikipedia.org)
  • Heparin will not dissolve blood clots that have already formed, but it may prevent the clots from becoming larger and causing more serious problems. (mayoclinic.org)
  • The adjustment of infusion rate and monitoring is required for the immediate onset of the intravenous unfractionated heparin. (mynewsdesk.com)
  • Finally, it should be mentioned that the use of low-molecular-weight heparin by the subcutaneous route provides the potential of simple, effective delivery of anticoagulation with enhanced convenience without the costs of staff, infusion equipment, and aPTT monitoring associated with intravenous unfractionated heparin. (ahajournals.org)
  • Unlike nucleic acids and proteins that are biosynthesized through template-driven assembly processes, heparin and the related glycosaminoglycan heparan sulfate are actively remodeled during biosynthesis through a series of enzymatic reactions that lead to variable levels of O- and N-sulfonation and uronic acid epimers. (nih.gov)
  • [4] Heparin je član glikozaminoglikanske familije ugljenih hidrata (koja obuhvata blisko srodni molekul heparan sulfat ) i sastoji se od varijabilno sulfatisane ponavljajuće disaharidne jedinice. (wikipedia.org)
  • 1999). „Heparan sulfates and heparins: similar compounds performing the same functions in vertebrates and invertebrates? (wikipedia.org)
  • Heparin and heparan sulfate (HS) glycosaminoglycans are linear sulfated polysaccharides located on cell-surface membranes and in extracellular matrices in virtually all animal tissues. (neb.com)
  • An 8-year old girl developed severe bleeding around a chest tube site and intracranial haemorrhage (ICH), which included large intraventricular and right frontal parenchymal haemorrhage following anticoagulation with heparin for extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO). (springer.com)
  • Still in use today, heparin continues to play an important role in anticoagulation for various conditions including pulmonary embolus , myocardial infarction and others. (everything2.com)
  • Heparin is generally used for anticoagulation for the following conditions: Acute coronary syndrome, e.g. (wikipedia.org)
  • It has been proposed that, rather than anticoagulation, the main purpose of heparin is defense at such sites against invading bacteria and other foreign materials. (wikipedia.org)
  • According to the University of Wisconsin Hospitals and Clinics Authority, unfractionated heparin is a better option as compared to low molecular weight heparin as the former is used intravenously for the treatment of anticoagulation. (mynewsdesk.com)
  • Review the need for continuing heparin treatment in 5-7 days and consider other forms of anticoagulation as appropriate. (starship.org.nz)
  • Because one of the measures of performance of unfractionated heparin (UFH) dosing is the aPTT achieved, the reader cannot interpret the degree of anticoagulation achieved with UFH if no aPTT values are provided. (ahajournals.org)
  • High anti-Xa activity indicates high heparin anticoagulant effect. (cornell.edu)
  • Central lines are often flushed with saline or heparin, a blood thinner, to keep them clear. (reuters.com)
  • Heparin is a naturally occurring anticoagulant that prevents the formation of blood clots. (news-medical.net)
  • In May 1935, the first human trials of heparin were conducted and Connaught's heparin was confirmed as a safe, easily-available and effective blood anticoagulant. (news-medical.net)
  • The reactions included a drastic drop in blood pressure, nausea and shortness of breath, starting within 30 minutes after the administration of the heparin. (washingtonpost.com)
  • Hypersulfated chondroitin sulfate has a molecular weight similar to that of heparin and is like the blood thinner in other ways, so that standard testing did not detect it, Baxter officials said. (medpagetoday.com)
  • Heparin acts as an anticoagulant, preventing the formation of clots and extension of existing clots within the blood. (wikipedia.org)
  • Heparin is contraindicated in those with risk of bleeding (especially in people with uncontrolled blood pressure, liver disease, and stroke), severe liver disease, or severe hypertension. (wikipedia.org)
  • Heparin is an anticoagulant used to treat blood clots. (labtestsonline.org)
  • is there rat poison in heparin or any blood thinners? (wisegeek.com)
  • Heparin is an anticoagulant (blood thinner) that prevents the formation of blood clots. (cigna.com)
  • Heparin is also used before surgery to reduce the risk of blood clots. (cigna.com)
  • You may be switched from injectable heparin to an oral (taken by mouth) blood thinner. (cigna.com)
  • CAMBRIDGE, Mass.--An international team of researchers led by MIT has explained how contaminated batches of the blood-thinner heparin were able to slip past traditional safety screens and kill dozens of patients recently in the United States and Germany. (eurekalert.org)
  • Heparin, a blood thinner often used during kidney dialysis or heart surgery, is normally produced from pig intestines. (eurekalert.org)
  • The researchers found that the contaminated heparin activates two inflammatory pathways, causing severe allergic reactions and low blood pressure. (eurekalert.org)
  • Heparin is used to prevent or treat certain blood vessel, heart, and lung conditions. (mayoclinic.org)
  • Heparin is also used to prevent blood clotting during open-heart surgery, bypass surgery, kidney dialysis, and blood transfusions. (mayoclinic.org)
  • Heparin may also be used to diagnose and treat a serious blood condition called disseminated intravascular coagulation. (mayoclinic.org)
  • Right away she was given Heparin IV and she started bleeding outwards-there was blood everywhere," says Cathy. (lawyersandsettlements.com)
  • To make this short, he had a blood clot in his calf due to having heparin back in august 2011. (lawyersandsettlements.com)
  • Heparin is a class of blood thinning drug that is used in the prevention and treatment of blood clots. (cochrane.org)
  • Why CBR believes heparin is important in stem cell processing, collecting, and transporting your baby's cord blood. (cordblood.com)
  • In addition, dry heparin helps physicians collect a larger volume of cord blood and allows for greater cell recovery during processing. (cordblood.com)
  • Bone marrow stem cells are routinely collected in heparin, while whole blood donations are routinely collected in CPD. (cordblood.com)
  • Dry heparin allows cord blood to be collected without dilution, preventing acidification and other dilution-related issues. (cordblood.com)
  • 76 Compared to CPD, lyophilized heparin does not dilute the cord blood and increases cell recovery up to 73%, over the wide range of cord blood sample volumes collected by family banks. (cordblood.com)
  • Longer cell viability preservation: Heparin maintains greater cord blood cell viability than CPD at 24 and 48 hours. (cordblood.com)
  • Higher cell concentration: Heparin maintains higher concentration of cord blood cells than CPD at 48 hours. (cordblood.com)
  • Heparin helps to keep blood flowing smoothly and from clotting in the catheter by making a certain natural substance in your body (anti-clotting protein) work better. (webmd.com)
  • Professor Erik Jorpes Jorpes showed that heparin is produced in a specific blood-born cell population, called mast cells. (thaindian.com)
  • Notably, mast cell-released heparin generates the inflammatory mediator bradykinin via activation of factor XII (the so-called Hageman Factor) that belongs to the blood coagulation system. (thaindian.com)
  • an additional warning for dialysis patients was also issued. "We urgently suspect that they (the drugs) may be contaminated," said Axel Thiele from the German regulator on Friday. Thiele also said Germany experienced about 80 cases of allergic reactions linked to heparin that included breathing problems, accelerated heart beat, and low blood pressure. (yourlawyer.com)
  • Heparin is an anticoagulant , a drug that inhibits blood clotting. (labtestsonline.org.uk)
  • Heparin can also inhibit blood clot formation in diseased arteries, which sometimes cause heart attacks or strokes. (labtestsonline.org.uk)
  • Unfractionated heparin is given intravenously and requires continuous monitoring to ensure proper blood levels of the drug. (emaxhealth.com)
  • I actually have an allergy to heparin, so when I was exposed to it a few years ago I had to get blood and plasma transfusions. (healingwell.com)
  • I attempt to isolate human mast cell heparin proteoglycan from human lungs. (bio.net)
  • Is there another source of heparin than mast cells in humans? (bio.net)
  • His group deals a lot with Heparin, Mast cells, and the associated proteins. (bio.net)
  • [2] Heparin se obično skladišti unutar sekretornih granula mast ćelija i oslobađa se samo u vaskulaturu na mestima povrede tkiva. (wikipedia.org)
  • Heparin is produced by basophils and mast cells in all mammals. (wikipedia.org)
  • Heparin is usually stored within the secretory granules of mast cells and released only into the vasculature at sites of tissue injury. (wikipedia.org)
  • Heparin is distinct from HS in that it is produced primarily by mast cells, whereas, HS is produced by all cell types1. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Heparin is only produced by mast cells. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Washington, Feb 26 (ANI): Scientists have found that heparin plays a key role in allergic and inflammatory reactions driven by mast cells. (thaindian.com)
  • The authors show that heparin initiates the production of a hormone - bradykinin - that contributes to swelling, anaphylactic and inflammatory symptoms, which are commonly known to be associated with aberrant mast cell activity. (thaindian.com)
  • Connaught Medical Research Laboratories then refined the production of heparin to give a safe, nontoxic version that could be administered in saline solution. (news-medical.net)
  • A heparin solution of 10,000 units diluted with saline solution is instilled intravesically daily, and held in the bladder for 20 to 30 minutes. (ichelp.org)
  • An international team of researchers led by the Universities of Keele and Liverpool, working with Public Health England, has found that the common anticoagulant drug heparin inhibits the SARS-Cov2virus spike protein, by reducing the virus' ability to attach to human cells and infect them. (news-medical.net)
  • Heparin has been widely used as an anticoagulant drug (3,4), and it has been shown to regulate cellular process by binding, stabilizing and activating various growth factors (5). (neb.com)
  • Unfractionated heparin drug is an anticoagulant drug. (mynewsdesk.com)
  • The first reports of such reactions among hospital patients given heparin came in November 2007. (washingtonpost.com)
  • Argatroban is the ideal alternative to heparin for patients receiving dialysis, because it is not excreted by the kidneys and does not require dose adjustment in those patients. (medscape.com)
  • The first is elevation of serum aminotransferase levels, which has been reported in as many as 80% of patients receiving heparin. (wikipedia.org)
  • The other complication is hyperkalemia, which occurs in 5 to 10% of patients receiving heparin, and is the result of heparin-induced aldosterone suppression. (wikipedia.org)
  • A similar pattern was seen for all bleeding events, with 50% to 60% reductions in the bivalirudin-treated patients vs the heparin-monotherapy and heparin/GP-IIb/IIIa-inhibitor groups (p=0.041 and 0.001, respectively). (medscape.com)
  • As in adult patients, heparin is used for prophylaxis and treatment of thromboembolism in newborns, children, and adolescents. (nih.gov)
  • In three patients, an increasing heparin demand was found. (nih.gov)
  • Dr. Janet Woodcock, director of the Food and Drug Administration's drug center, said that German regulators uncovered a cluster of illnesses among dialysis patients who took contaminated heparin. (nytimes.com)
  • However, elderly patients are more likely to develop bleeding problems, which may require an adjustment in the dose for patients receiving heparin injection. (mayoclinic.org)
  • Osteoporosis (thinning of the bone) has been reported in patients who received high amounts of heparin for several months. (adventisthealthcare.com)
  • The simplicity of dosing and lack of toxicity of subcutaneous low-molecular-weight heparin allow unstable patients to be treated in a low-cost environment while infarction is ruled out, such as in accident or emergency holding wards or general medical wards rather than in a coronary care unit setting only. (ahajournals.org)
  • Even with the use of pneumatic compression devices, the incidence of DVT has been reported to be 32% in these patients, making prophylactic heparin therapy desirable. (thejns.org)
  • Both unfractionated and low-molecular-weight heparin have been shown to reduce the incidence of DVT consistently by 40 to 50% in neurosurgical patients. (thejns.org)
  • In one uncontrolled investigation, intravesical heparin resulted in some improvement of symptoms in about 50 percent of patients. (ichelp.org)
  • Another study of patients undergoing DMSO treatments indicated that heparin might help reduce their relapse rate. (ichelp.org)
  • Patients treated with DMSO alone had a relapse rate of 52 percent, while those maintained with monthly instillations of heparin and followed for 12 months had a relapse rate of 20 percent. (ichelp.org)
  • The type of heparin, unfractionated or specified brand of low molecular weight heparin (i.e. (legacyhealth.org)
  • Further well-designed randomised controlled trials with larger sample sizes are needed to clarify the possible role of heparin in assisted reproduction. (cochrane.org)
  • During the solution-mixing process, staff might easily select an incorrect amount of heparin or an incorrect type or amount of solvent, without realizing they've done so. (ihi.org)
  • The A domain of heparin, a specific pentasaccharide sequence, binds to AT. (cornell.edu)
  • MS Analysis of Heparin Hexasaccharide MS Standard 7: The hexasaccharide MS Standard 7 was diluted to 100 pmol/μl in a solution of Methanol:Water (30:70;v:v). The 100pmol/µl solution was analyzed by direct injection with a flow rate of 5 µl/min on an Velos LTQ Ion Trap mass spectrometer equipped with a heated electrospray standard source (HESI-II probe) using the suggested usage parameters. (neb.com)
  • Herbal supplements have been shown to interact with Heparin and should not be taken unless approved by a doctor. (livestrong.com)
  • It is not known whether heparin will harm an unborn baby. (cigna.com)
  • The Braun recall also came as the Chinese government's drug safety agency told its local bureaus to increase supervision over the production of heparin. (medpagetoday.com)
  • Much of the Chinese production of heparin starts in small facilities -- and sometimes even home labs -- where pig intestines are processed into a form that is sold to pharmaceutical companies. (medpagetoday.com)
  • Further investigations could also focus on the effects of the local (uterine) and non- systemic application of heparin during ART. (cochrane.org)
  • The 2007-08 heparin scandal caused more than 80 deaths in the U.S. and shook the public's faith in the safety of drugs, particularly drugs that come from China. (acs.org)
  • Baxter recalled its heparin in February after dozens of deaths were reported, dating back to November. (eurekalert.org)
  • The tainted heparin has been blamed for 81 U.S. deaths so far, and earlier this week, the FDA announced that contaminated batches were also found in 10 other countries. (eurekalert.org)
  • He did not know for weeks after their deaths that his wife, Bonnie, and son, Randy, had been given contaminated heparin. (nytimes.com)
  • Preliminary Therapeutic Guidelines for LMW Heparin Levels: Twice-a-Day Subcutaneous: 0.5-1.1 Units/mL Once-a-Day Subcutaneous: 1.0-2.0 Units/mL Optimum sampling time is 4hrs post-injection. (legacyhealth.org)
  • do not aspirate when giving heparin by subcutaneous injection. (allnurses.com)
  • The median length of the heparin infusion was 51 hours and the median total length of heparin treatment (intravenous only or intravenous plus subcutaneous) was 6 days. (ahajournals.org)