A human liver tumor cell line used to study a variety of liver-specific metabolic functions.
A primary malignant neoplasm of epithelial liver cells. It ranges from a well-differentiated tumor with EPITHELIAL CELLS indistinguishable from normal HEPATOCYTES to a poorly differentiated neoplasm. The cells may be uniform or markedly pleomorphic, or form GIANT CELLS. Several classification schemes have been suggested.
Tumors or cancer of the LIVER.
A chemosterilant agent that is anticipated to be a carcinogen.
Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.
Antioxidant for foods, fats, oils, ethers, emulsions, waxes, and transformer oils.
Agents that cause vomiting. They may act directly on the gastrointestinal tract, bringing about emesis through local irritant effects, or indirectly, through their effects on the chemoreceptor trigger zone in the postremal area near the medulla.
Important modulators of the activity of plasminogen activators. The inhibitors belong to the serpin family of proteins and inhibit both the tissue-type and urokinase-type plasminogen activators.
Specific hydroxymethylglutaryl CoA reductases that utilize the cofactor NAD. In liver enzymes of this class are involved in cholesterol biosynthesis.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
A fungal metabolite isolated from cultures of Aspergillus terreus. The compound is a potent anticholesteremic agent. It inhibits 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase (HYDROXYMETHYLGLUTARYL COA REDUCTASES), which is the rate-limiting enzyme in cholesterol biosynthesis. It also stimulates the production of low-density lipoprotein receptors in the liver.
A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.
The most abundant protein component of HIGH DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS or HDL. This protein serves as an acceptor for CHOLESTEROL released from cells thus promoting efflux of cholesterol to HDL then to the LIVER for excretion from the body (reverse cholesterol transport). It also acts as a cofactor for LECITHIN CHOLESTEROL ACYLTRANSFERASE that forms CHOLESTEROL ESTERS on the HDL particles. Mutations of this gene APOA1 cause HDL deficiency, such as in FAMILIAL ALPHA LIPOPROTEIN DEFICIENCY DISEASE and in some patients with TANGIER DISEASE.
Devices intended to replace non-functioning organs. They may be temporary or permanent. Since they are intended always to function as the natural organs they are replacing, they should be differentiated from PROSTHESES AND IMPLANTS and specific types of prostheses which, though also replacements for body parts, are frequently cosmetic (EYE, ARTIFICIAL) as well as functional (ARTIFICIAL LIMBS).
A C-type lectin that is a cell surface receptor for ASIALOGLYCOPROTEINS. It is found primarily in the LIVER where it mediates the endocytosis of serum glycoproteins.
A ZINC-containing exopeptidase primarily found in SECRETORY VESICLES of endocrine and neuroendocrine cells. It catalyzes the cleavage of C-terminal ARGININE or LYSINE residues from polypeptides and is active in processing precursors of PEPTIDE HORMONES and other bioactive peptides.
Receptors on the plasma membrane of nonhepatic cells that specifically bind LDL. The receptors are localized in specialized regions called coated pits. Hypercholesteremia is caused by an allelic genetic defect of three types: 1, receptors do not bind to LDL; 2, there is reduced binding of LDL; and 3, there is normal binding but no internalization of LDL. In consequence, entry of cholesterol esters into the cell is impaired and the intracellular feedback by cholesterol on 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl CoA reductase is lacking.
A malignant neoplasm occurring in young children, primarily in the liver, composed of tissue resembling embryonal or fetal hepatic epithelium, or mixed epithelial and mesenchymal tissues. (Stedman, 25th ed)
Experimentally induced tumors of the LIVER.
Organic compounds that contain silicon as an integral part of the molecule.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
A dicarboxylic acid ketone that is an important metabolic intermediate of the CITRIC ACID CYCLE. It can be converted to ASPARTIC ACID by ASPARTATE TRANSAMINASE.
The mulberry plant family of the order Urticales, subclass Hamamelidae, class Magnoliopsida. They have milky latex and small, petalless male or female flowers.
A class of lipoproteins of small size (18-25 nm) and light (1.019-1.063 g/ml) particles with a core composed mainly of CHOLESTEROL ESTERS and smaller amounts of TRIGLYCERIDES. The surface monolayer consists mostly of PHOSPHOLIPIDS, a single copy of APOLIPOPROTEIN B-100, and free cholesterol molecules. The main LDL function is to transport cholesterol and cholesterol esters to extrahepatic tissues.
Structural proteins of the alpha-lipoproteins (HIGH DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS), including APOLIPOPROTEIN A-I and APOLIPOPROTEIN A-II. They can modulate the activity of LECITHIN CHOLESTEROL ACYLTRANSFERASE. These apolipoproteins are low in atherosclerotic patients. They are either absent or present in extremely low plasma concentration in TANGIER DISEASE.
An unsaturated fatty acid that is the most widely distributed and abundant fatty acid in nature. It is used commercially in the preparation of oleates and lotions, and as a pharmaceutical solvent. (Stedman, 26th ed)
Major structural proteins of triacylglycerol-rich LIPOPROTEINS. There are two forms, apolipoprotein B-100 and apolipoprotein B-48, both derived from a single gene. ApoB-100 expressed in the liver is found in low-density lipoproteins (LIPOPROTEINS, LDL; LIPOPROTEINS, VLDL). ApoB-48 expressed in the intestine is found in CHYLOMICRONS. They are important in the biosynthesis, transport, and metabolism of triacylglycerol-rich lipoproteins. Plasma Apo-B levels are high in atherosclerotic patients but non-detectable in ABETALIPOPROTEINEMIA.
Cholesterol which is substituted by a hydroxy group in any position.
Enzymes that catalyze the reversible reduction of alpha-carboxyl group of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A to yield MEVALONIC ACID.
The principal sterol of all higher animals, distributed in body tissues, especially the brain and spinal cord, and in animal fats and oils.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
Techniques for removal by adsorption and subsequent elution of a specific antibody or antigen using an immunosorbent containing the homologous antigen or antibody.
An aminoquinoline that is given by mouth to produce a radical cure and prevent relapse of vivax and ovale malarias following treatment with a blood schizontocide. It has also been used to prevent transmission of falciparum malaria by those returning to areas where there is a potential for re-introduction of malaria. Adverse effects include anemias and GI disturbances. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopeia, 30th ed, p404)
A class of lipoproteins of small size (4-13 nm) and dense (greater than 1.063 g/ml) particles. HDL lipoproteins, synthesized in the liver without a lipid core, accumulate cholesterol esters from peripheral tissues and transport them to the liver for re-utilization or elimination from the body (the reverse cholesterol transport). Their major protein component is APOLIPOPROTEIN A-I. HDL also shuttle APOLIPOPROTEINS C and APOLIPOPROTEINS E to and from triglyceride-rich lipoproteins during their catabolism. HDL plasma level has been inversely correlated with the risk of cardiovascular diseases.
A group of fatty acids that contain 18 carbon atoms and a double bond at the omega 9 carbon.
Endogenous glycoproteins from which SIALIC ACID has been removed by the action of sialidases. They bind tightly to the ASIALOGLYCOPROTEIN RECEPTOR which is located on hepatocyte plasma membranes. After internalization by adsorptive ENDOCYTOSIS they are delivered to LYSOSOMES for degradation. Therefore receptor-mediated clearance of asialoglycoproteins is an important aspect of the turnover of plasma glycoproteins. They are elevated in serum of patients with HEPATIC CIRRHOSIS or HEPATITIS.
Antibiotic substance isolated from streptomycin-producing strains of Streptomyces griseus. It acts by inhibiting elongation during protein synthesis.
Immunoelectrophoresis in which a second electrophoretic transport is performed on the initially separated antigen fragments into an antibody-containing medium in a direction perpendicular to the first electrophoresis.
An N-acetylglycosamine containing antiviral antibiotic obtained from Streptomyces lysosuperificus. It is also active against some bacteria and fungi, because it inhibits the glucosylation of proteins. Tunicamycin is used as tool in the study of microbial biosynthetic mechanisms.
The second most abundant protein component of HIGH DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS or HDL. It has a high lipid affinity and is known to displace APOLIPOPROTEIN A-I from HDL particles and generates a stable HDL complex. ApoA-II can modulate the activation of LECITHIN CHOLESTEROL ACYLTRANSFERASE in the presence of APOLIPOPROTEIN A-I, thus affecting HDL metabolism.
Detection of RNA that has been electrophoretically separated and immobilized by blotting on nitrocellulose or other type of paper or nylon membrane followed by hybridization with labeled NUCLEIC ACID PROBES.
The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.
Water-soluble proteins found in egg whites, blood, lymph, and other tissues and fluids. They coagulate upon heating.
A bile acid, usually conjugated with either glycine or taurine. It acts as a detergent to solubilize fats for intestinal absorption and is reabsorbed by the small intestine. It is used as cholagogue, a choleretic laxative, and to prevent or dissolve gallstones.
The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.
A lipid cofactor that is required for normal blood clotting. Several forms of vitamin K have been identified: VITAMIN K 1 (phytomenadione) derived from plants, VITAMIN K 2 (menaquinone) from bacteria, and synthetic naphthoquinone provitamins, VITAMIN K 3 (menadione). Vitamin K 3 provitamins, after being alkylated in vivo, exhibit the antifibrinolytic activity of vitamin K. Green leafy vegetables, liver, cheese, butter, and egg yolk are good sources of vitamin K.
An ethanol-inducible cytochrome P450 enzyme that metabolizes several precarcinogens, drugs, and solvents to reactive metabolites. Substrates include ETHANOL; INHALATION ANESTHETICS; BENZENE; ACETAMINOPHEN and other low molecular weight compounds. CYP2E1 has been used as an enzyme marker in the study of alcohol abuse.
A 513-kDa protein synthesized in the LIVER. It serves as the major structural protein of low-density lipoproteins (LIPOPROTEINS, LDL; LIPOPROTEINS, VLDL). It is the ligand for the LDL receptor (RECEPTORS, LDL) that promotes cellular binding and internalization of LDL particles.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
An enzyme that catalyzes the formation of cholesterol esters by the direct transfer of the fatty acid group from a fatty acyl CoA derivative. This enzyme has been found in the adrenal gland, gonads, liver, intestinal mucosa, and aorta of many mammalian species. EC
The movement of materials (including biochemical substances and drugs) through a biological system at the cellular level. The transport can be across cell membranes and epithelial layers. It also can occur within intracellular compartments and extracellular compartments.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.
Conjugated protein-carbohydrate compounds including mucins, mucoid, and amyloid glycoproteins.
DNA sequences which are recognized (directly or indirectly) and bound by a DNA-dependent RNA polymerase during the initiation of transcription. Highly conserved sequences within the promoter include the Pribnow box in bacteria and the TATA BOX in eukaryotes.
The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.
Substances used to lower plasma CHOLESTEROL levels.
Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.
Enzymes that act at a free C-terminus of a polypeptide to liberate a single amino acid residue.
Lipid-protein complexes involved in the transportation and metabolism of lipids in the body. They are spherical particles consisting of a hydrophobic core of TRIGLYCERIDES and CHOLESTEROL ESTERS surrounded by a layer of hydrophilic free CHOLESTEROL; PHOSPHOLIPIDS; and APOLIPOPROTEINS. Lipoproteins are classified by their varying buoyant density and sizes.
A tetrameric protein, molecular weight between 50,000 and 70,000, consisting of 4 equal chains, and migrating on electrophoresis in 3 fractions more mobile than serum albumin. Its concentration ranges from 7 to 33 per cent in the serum, but levels decrease in liver disease.
Fatty acid esters of cholesterol which constitute about two-thirds of the cholesterol in the plasma. The accumulation of cholesterol esters in the arterial intima is a characteristic feature of atherosclerosis.
Steroid acids and salts. The primary bile acids are derived from cholesterol in the liver and usually conjugated with glycine or taurine. The secondary bile acids are further modified by bacteria in the intestine. They play an important role in the digestion and absorption of fat. They have also been used pharmacologically, especially in the treatment of gallstones.
An enzyme that catalyzes the acetylation of chloramphenicol to yield chloramphenicol 3-acetate. Since chloramphenicol 3-acetate does not bind to bacterial ribosomes and is not an inhibitor of peptidyltransferase, the enzyme is responsible for the naturally occurring chloramphenicol resistance in bacteria. The enzyme, for which variants are known, is found in both gram-negative and gram-positive bacteria. EC
A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).
Agents obtained from higher plants that have demonstrable cytostatic or antineoplastic activity.
Enzymes which catalyze the hydrolysis of carboxylic acid esters with the formation of an alcohol and a carboxylic acid anion.
The fluid inside CELLS.
A chromatographic technique that utilizes the ability of biological molecules to bind to certain ligands specifically and reversibly. It is used in protein biochemistry. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
A sulfur-containing essential L-amino acid that is important in many body functions.
Plasma glycoprotein clotted by thrombin, composed of a dimer of three non-identical pairs of polypeptide chains (alpha, beta, gamma) held together by disulfide bonds. Fibrinogen clotting is a sol-gel change involving complex molecular arrangements: whereas fibrinogen is cleaved by thrombin to form polypeptides A and B, the proteolytic action of other enzymes yields different fibrinogen degradation products.
A tetrameric enzyme that, along with the coenzyme NAD+, catalyzes the interconversion of LACTATE and PYRUVATE. In vertebrates, genes for three different subunits (LDH-A, LDH-B and LDH-C) exist.
Compounds which inhibit the synthesis of proteins. They are usually ANTI-BACTERIAL AGENTS or toxins. Mechanism of the action of inhibition includes the interruption of peptide-chain elongation, the blocking the A site of ribosomes, the misreading of the genetic code or the prevention of the attachment of oligosaccharide side chains to glycoproteins.
A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.
Cellular uptake of extracellular materials within membrane-limited vacuoles or microvesicles. ENDOSOMES play a central role in endocytosis.
Protein components on the surface of LIPOPROTEINS. They form a layer surrounding the hydrophobic lipid core. There are several classes of apolipoproteins with each playing a different role in lipid transport and LIPID METABOLISM. These proteins are synthesized mainly in the LIVER and the INTESTINES.
A class of lipoproteins of very light (0.93-1.006 g/ml) large size (30-80 nm) particles with a core composed mainly of TRIGLYCERIDES and a surface monolayer of PHOSPHOLIPIDS and CHOLESTEROL into which are imbedded the apolipoproteins B, E, and C. VLDL facilitates the transport of endogenously made triglycerides to extrahepatic tissues. As triglycerides and Apo C are removed, VLDL is converted to INTERMEDIATE-DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS, then to LOW-DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS from which cholesterol is delivered to the extrahepatic tissues.
Unstable isotopes of iodine that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. I atoms with atomic weights 117-139, except I 127, are radioactive iodine isotopes.
Any liquid or solid preparation made specifically for the growth, storage, or transport of microorganisms or other types of cells. The variety of media that exist allow for the culturing of specific microorganisms and cell types, such as differential media, selective media, test media, and defined media. Solid media consist of liquid media that have been solidified with an agent such as AGAR or GELATIN.
Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.
Naturally occurring or synthetic substances that inhibit or retard the oxidation of a substance to which it is added. They counteract the harmful and damaging effects of oxidation in animal tissues.
Cell surface proteins that bind signalling molecules external to the cell with high affinity and convert this extracellular event into one or more intracellular signals that alter the behavior of the target cell (From Alberts, Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2nd ed, pp693-5). Cell surface receptors, unlike enzymes, do not chemically alter their ligands.
Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
A tripeptide with many roles in cells. It conjugates to drugs to make them more soluble for excretion, is a cofactor for some enzymes, is involved in protein disulfide bond rearrangement and reduces peroxides.
The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.
Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.
RNA present in neoplastic tissue.
The chemical or biochemical addition of carbohydrate or glycosyl groups to other chemicals, especially peptides or proteins. Glycosyl transferases are used in this biochemical reaction.
The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.
A superfamily of hundreds of closely related HEMEPROTEINS found throughout the phylogenetic spectrum, from animals, plants, fungi, to bacteria. They include numerous complex monooxygenases (MIXED FUNCTION OXYGENASES). In animals, these P-450 enzymes serve two major functions: (1) biosynthesis of steroids, fatty acids, and bile acids; (2) metabolism of endogenous and a wide variety of exogenous substrates, such as toxins and drugs (BIOTRANSFORMATION). They are classified, according to their sequence similarities rather than functions, into CYP gene families (>40% homology) and subfamilies (>59% homology). For example, enzymes from the CYP1, CYP2, and CYP3 gene families are responsible for most drug metabolism.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
Any of various enzymatically catalyzed post-translational modifications of PEPTIDES or PROTEINS in the cell of origin. These modifications include carboxylation; HYDROXYLATION; ACETYLATION; PHOSPHORYLATION; METHYLATION; GLYCOSYLATION; ubiquitination; oxidation; proteolysis; and crosslinking and result in changes in molecular weight and electrophoretic motility.
A class of protein components which can be found in several lipoproteins including HIGH-DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS; VERY-LOW-DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS; and CHYLOMICRONS. Synthesized in most organs, Apo E is important in the global transport of lipids and cholesterol throughout the body. Apo E is also a ligand for LDL receptors (RECEPTORS, LDL) that mediates the binding, internalization, and catabolism of lipoprotein particles in cells. There are several allelic isoforms (such as E2, E3, and E4). Deficiency or defects in Apo E are causes of HYPERLIPOPROTEINEMIA TYPE III.
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
The span of viability of a cell characterized by the capacity to perform certain functions such as metabolism, growth, reproduction, some form of responsiveness, and adaptability.
A six carbon compound related to glucose. It is found naturally in citrus fruits and many vegetables. Ascorbic acid is an essential nutrient in human diets, and necessary to maintain connective tissue and bone. Its biologically active form, vitamin C, functions as a reducing agent and coenzyme in several metabolic pathways. Vitamin C is considered an antioxidant.
A 51-amino acid pancreatic hormone that plays a major role in the regulation of glucose metabolism, directly by suppressing endogenous glucose production (GLYCOGENOLYSIS; GLUCONEOGENESIS) and indirectly by suppressing GLUCAGON secretion and LIPOLYSIS. Native insulin is a globular protein comprised of a zinc-coordinated hexamer. Each insulin monomer containing two chains, A (21 residues) and B (30 residues), linked by two disulfide bonds. Insulin is used as a drug to control insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (DIABETES MELLITUS, TYPE 1).
The biosynthesis of PEPTIDES and PROTEINS on RIBOSOMES, directed by MESSENGER RNA, via TRANSFER RNA that is charged with standard proteinogenic AMINO ACIDS.
The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.
A phorbol ester found in CROTON OIL with very effective tumor promoting activity. It stimulates the synthesis of both DNA and RNA.
Peroxidase catalyzed oxidation of lipids using hydrogen peroxide as an electron acceptor.
A primary source of energy for living organisms. It is naturally occurring and is found in fruits and other parts of plants in its free state. It is used therapeutically in fluid and nutrient replacement.
The interaction of two or more substrates or ligands with the same binding site. The displacement of one by the other is used in quantitative and selective affinity measurements.
Semiautonomous, self-reproducing organelles that occur in the cytoplasm of all cells of most, but not all, eukaryotes. Each mitochondrion is surrounded by a double limiting membrane. The inner membrane is highly invaginated, and its projections are called cristae. Mitochondria are the sites of the reactions of oxidative phosphorylation, which result in the formation of ATP. They contain distinctive RIBOSOMES, transfer RNAs (RNA, TRANSFER); AMINO ACYL T RNA SYNTHETASES; and elongation and termination factors. Mitochondria depend upon genes within the nucleus of the cells in which they reside for many essential messenger RNAs (RNA, MESSENGER). Mitochondria are believed to have arisen from aerobic bacteria that established a symbiotic relationship with primitive protoeukaryotes. (King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.
One of the mechanisms by which CELL DEATH occurs (compare with NECROSIS and AUTOPHAGOCYTOSIS). Apoptosis is the mechanism responsible for the physiological deletion of cells and appears to be intrinsically programmed. It is characterized by distinctive morphologic changes in the nucleus and cytoplasm, chromatin cleavage at regularly spaced sites, and the endonucleolytic cleavage of genomic DNA; (DNA FRAGMENTATION); at internucleosomal sites. This mode of cell death serves as a balance to mitosis in regulating the size of animal tissues and in mediating pathologic processes associated with tumor growth.
The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.
The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.
A selective increase in the number of copies of a gene coding for a specific protein without a proportional increase in other genes. It occurs naturally via the excision of a copy of the repeating sequence from the chromosome and its extrachromosomal replication in a plasmid, or via the production of an RNA transcript of the entire repeating sequence of ribosomal RNA followed by the reverse transcription of the molecule to produce an additional copy of the original DNA sequence. Laboratory techniques have been introduced for inducing disproportional replication by unequal crossing over, uptake of DNA from lysed cells, or generation of extrachromosomal sequences from rolling circle replication.
Within a eukaryotic cell, a membrane-limited body which contains chromosomes and one or more nucleoli (CELL NUCLEOLUS). The nuclear membrane consists of a double unit-type membrane which is perforated by a number of pores; the outermost membrane is continuous with the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM. A cell may contain more than one nucleus. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)
Proteins which bind to DNA. The family includes proteins which bind to both double- and single-stranded DNA and also includes specific DNA binding proteins in serum which can be used as markers for malignant diseases.
Microscopy using an electron beam, instead of light, to visualize the sample, thereby allowing much greater magnification. The interactions of ELECTRONS with specimens are used to provide information about the fine structure of that specimen. In TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen are imaged. In SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY an electron beam falls at a non-normal angle on the specimen and the image is derived from the reactions occurring above the plane of the specimen.
Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.
Molecules or ions formed by the incomplete one-electron reduction of oxygen. These reactive oxygen intermediates include SINGLET OXYGEN; SUPEROXIDES; PEROXIDES; HYDROXYL RADICAL; and HYPOCHLOROUS ACID. They contribute to the microbicidal activity of PHAGOCYTES, regulation of signal transduction and gene expression, and the oxidative damage to NUCLEIC ACIDS; PROTEINS; and LIPIDS.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.

Apoptosis of human hepatoma cell lines induced by transforming growth factor beta 1 (TGF-beta1) correlates with p53 and Smad4 activation. (1/2073)

OBJECTIVE: To determine the relationships between apoptosis induced by transforming growth factor beta 1(TGF-beta1) and Smad in human hepatoma cell lines. METHODS: Three human hepatic carcinoma cell lines, involving different status of the p53 gene respectively, were used in this study. TGF-beta1-induced apoptosis in hepatic carcinoma cell lines was quantitated using the terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) assay. For identification of the mechanism of apoptosis induced by TGF-beta1, these cell lines were transfected with a TGF-beta1-inducible luciferase reporter plasmid containing Smad binding elements (SBE) and luciferase gene using LF2000, then were treated with TGF-beta1. Relative luciferase activity was assayed respectively. RESULTS: Among three cell lines studied with TUNEL assay, addition of TGF-beta1 induced apoptosis only in HepG2 cells (wild type p53). In contrast, Huh-7 (mutant p53) and Hep3B (deleted p53) cell lines lacked apoptosis. The detection of luciferase activity indicated that HepG2 cells dramatically increased the response to TGF-beta1 induction, Huh-7 and Hep3B cell lines significantly lowered luciferase expression. CONCLUSION: HepG2 cells were highly susceptible to TGF-beta1-induced apoptosis compared with Hep3B and Huh-7 cell lines. Smad4 may be a central mediator of the TGF-beta1 signaling transduction pathway.  (+info)

Effect of the venom of the spider Macrothele raveni on the expression of p21 gene in HepG2 cells. (2/2073)

This paper focuses on the effect of the venom of the spider Macrothele raveni on the proliferation of human hepatocelluar carcinoma cell line HepG2 and the related molecular mechanism. XTT test showed that the proliferation of HepG2 cells in vitro was inhibited by the spider venom (P<0.05) in a concentration-dependent manner. By using flow cytometry, it was found that the spider venom caused selective G(2)/M cell cycle arrest in HepG2 cells. RT-PCR and Western blot indicated the expressions of p21 mRNA and protein in HepG2 cells were obviously up-regulated by the spider venom. The venom of the spider Macrothele raveni inhibited the proliferation of HepG2 cells. These results suggest that the possible mechanism of the spider venom is to activate the expressions of p21 gene and protein and to cause selective cell cycle arrest at G(2)/M phase, leading to HepG2 cell apoptosis.  (+info)

Host gene expression profiling of dengue virus infection in cell lines and patients. (3/2073)

BACKGROUND: Despite the seriousness of dengue-related disease, with an estimated 50-100 million cases of dengue fever and 250,000-500,000 cases of dengue hemorrhagic fever/dengue shock syndrome each year, a clear understanding of dengue pathogenesis remains elusive. Because of the lack of a disease model in animals and the complex immune interaction in dengue infection, the study of host response and immunopathogenesis is difficult. The development of genomics technology, microarray and high throughput quantitative PCR have allowed researchers to study gene expression changes on a much broader scale. We therefore used this approach to investigate the host response in dengue virus-infected cell lines and in patients developing dengue fever. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Using microarray and high throughput quantitative PCR method to monitor the host response to dengue viral replication in cell line infection models and in dengue patient blood samples, we identified differentially expressed genes along three major pathways; NF-kappaB initiated immune responses, type I interferon (IFN) and the ubiquitin proteasome pathway. Among the most highly upregulated genes were the chemokines IP-10 and I-TAC, both ligands of the CXCR3 receptor. Increased expression of IP-10 and I-TAC in the peripheral blood of ten patients at the early onset of fever was confirmed by ELISA. A highly upregulated gene in the IFN pathway, viperin, was overexpressed in A549 cells resulting in a significant reduction in viral replication. The upregulation of genes in the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway prompted the testing of proteasome inhibitors MG-132 and ALLN, both of which reduced viral replication. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: Unbiased gene expression analysis has identified new host genes associated with dengue infection, which we have validated in functional studies. We showed that some parts of the host response can be used as potential biomarkers for the disease while others can be used to control dengue viral replication, thus representing viable targets for drug therapy.  (+info)

Structural antitumoral activity relationships of synthetic chalcones. (4/2073)


Malathion-induced oxidative stress, cytotoxicity, and genotoxicity in human liver carcinoma (HepG2) cells. (5/2073)


The antitumoral effect of Paris Saponin I associated with the induction of apoptosis through the mitochondrial pathway. (6/2073)


Activation of PXR induces hypercholesterolemia in wild-type and accelerates atherosclerosis in apoE deficient mice. (7/2073)


Vitamin K2 suppresses proliferation and motility of hepatocellular carcinoma cells by activating steroid and xenobiotic receptor. (8/2073)

Vitamin K2, known as a cofactor for gamma-carboxylase, also serves as a ligand of a nuclear receptor, Steroid and Xenobiotic Receptor (SXR). Several clinical trials revealed that vitamin K2 reduced de novo formation and recurrence of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). To examine the role of SXR in HCC as a receptor activated by vitamin K2, the cells stably overexpressing SXR were established using a HCC cell line, HuH7. Overexpression of SXR resulted in reduced proliferation and motility of the cells. Further suppression of proliferation and motility was observed when SXR overexpressing clones were treated with vitamin K2. These results suggest that the activation of SXR could contribute to tumor suppressive effects of vitamin K2 on HCC cells.  (+info)

Buy our human hepatocellular liver carcinoma cell line nuclear lysate, acetaldehyde treated. ab14661 has been validated in electrophoretic mobility shift…
Rezulin (Troglitazone or Tro or T), a glitazone PPAR-gamma agonist, was approved for treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus, but was withdrawn from the market due to idiosyncratic liver toxicity. Two similar drugs, Avandia (Rosiglitazone or Rosi or R) and Actos (Pioglitazone or Pio or P), are considered to be safe treatments for the same condition. The expression profile of key drug metabolism genes should be different in cells treated with Rezulin versus those treated with Avandia and Actos.. Hepatocellular carcinoma HepG2 cells were treated at 80% cell confluence with these three drugs (100 µM, Cayman Chemical) or a DMSO vehicle control for 24 h. RNA isolated using the ArrayGrade™ Total RNA Isolation Kit was used to characterize gene expression with the Human Drug Metabolism and Stress & Toxicity PathwayFinder™ RT² Profiler™ PCR Arrays and RT² SYBR Green / Fluorescein PCR master mix on the Bio-Rad iCycler®.. ...
COX15 antibody - N-terminal region (ARP46442_T100) | Application: IHC, WB | COX15 is strongly supported by BioGPS gene expression data to be expressed in Human HepG2 cells | Alias:
PubMed journal article: S100A4 regulates migration and invasion in hepatocellular carcinoma HepG2 cells via NF-κB-dependent MMP-9 signal. Download Prime PubMed App to iPhone, iPad, or Android
Infliximab-induced hepatotoxicity is reported in several case studies involving patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) and a direct hepatotoxic effect has been proposed. The aim of this study was to determine the direct in vitro toxicit
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BioAssay record AID 1077579 submitted by ChEMBL: Inhibition of JAk2 activation in human HepG2 cells assessed as inhibition of phosphorylation at 10 uM by Western blot analysis.
CALR antibody - C-terminal region (ARP30114_P050) | Application: WB | CALR is strongly supported by BioGPS gene expression data to be expressed in Human HepG2 cells | Alias: RO; CRT; SSA; cC1qR
Whether your yard serves as an impromptu recreational park or is just for personal enjoyment, its appearance and vigor are important. Keeping it healthy is more a matter of sticking to basic management practices than of looking to chemical solutions. The importance of paying attention to mowing height of the lawn, aeration, drainage, irrigation, and fertilization really cant be stressed enough. Coupling these practices with use of suitable plant and grass cultivars and healthy soil will give your landscape an advantage over the harmful microorganisms normally found in most landscapes. ...
Treatment of patients with cyclosporin A (CsA) increases low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol levels. We investigated whether an elevated hepatic secretion of apolipoprotein (apo) B-100-containing lipoproteins is responsible for the increase of LDL by using the human hepatoma cell line HepG2. Addition of CsA to the culture medium of HepG2 cells resulted in a dose- and time-dependent decrease in the secretion of apoB-100. Maximal inhibition (-50%), which was obtained at 5 mumol/L CsA, was achieved within 8 hours. The secretion of apoA-I, albumin, and [35S]methionine-labeled proteins was not affected by CsA. The reduced accumulation of apoB-100 in the culture medium could not be explained by changes in the uptake and degradation of LDL by HepG2 cells treated with CsA. In addition, [35S]methionine incorporation studies indicated that synthesis and/or secretion of newly synthesized apoB-100 decreased in the presence of CsA. CsA did not affect the apoB-100 mRNA level, indicating that CsA ...
AIMS AND BACKGROUND: Previous studies showed that dihydroartemisinin (DHA) possessed antitumor activity in many human tumor cells through the induction of apoptosis. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of DHA on apoptosis in the human hepatocellular carcinoma cell line HepG2 and the possible molecular mechanisms involved. METHODS: The inhibitory effect of DHA on HepG2 cells was measured by MTT assay. The percentage of apoptotic cells was detected by flow cytometry with double staining of fluorescein isothiocyanate-annexin V/propidium iodide ...
HepG2 cells ended up uncovered to 750 mmol/L uric acid for forty eight several hours prior three hour hunger (stv) and AMPK phosphorylation, intracellular TG
CD80 transfected human hepatocellular carcinoma cells activate cytotoxic T lymphocytes to target HCC cells with shared tumor antigens
Pyrazoles, thiazoles and fused thiazoles have been reported to possess many biological activities. 3-Methyl-5-oxo-4-(2-arylhydrazono)-4,5-dihydro-1H-pyrazole-1-carbothioamides 3a,b (obtained from the reaction of ethyl 3-oxo-2-(2-arylhydrazono)butanoates 1a,b with thiosemicarbazide) could be transformed into a variety of thiazolyl-pyrazole derivatives 6a-h, 10a-c, 15a-c, 17, 19 and 21 via their reaction with a diversity hydrazonoyl chlorides as well as bromoacetyl derivatives. Moreover, the computational studies were carried out for all new compounds. The results indicated that five compounds showed promising binding affinities (10a: − 3.4 kcal/mol, 6d: − 3.0 kcal/mol, 15a: − 2.2 kcal/mol, 3a: − 1.6 kcal/mol, and 21: − 1.3 kcal/mol) against the active site of the epidermal growth factor receptor kinase (EGFR). The cytotoxicity of the potent products 3a, 6d, 10a, 15a, and 21 was examined against human liver carcinoma cell line (HepG-2) and revealed activities close to Doxorubicin standard drug.
Fibronectin (Fn) plays a major role in the attachment of Staphylococcus aureus to host cells by bridging staphylococcal fibronectin-binding proteins (FnBPs) and cell-surface integrins. A previous study demonstrated that the phagocytosis of S. aureus by macrophages is enhanced in the presence of exogenous Fn. We recently found that FnBPs overexpression also enhances phagocytic activity. The effect of S. aureus infection on the expression of macrophage Fn was investigated. The level of Fn secreted by monocytes (THP-1), macrophages, human lung adenocarcinoma (A549) cells, and hepatocellular carcinoma (HepG2) cells in response to S. aureus infection was determined by Western blotting and it was significantly suppressed only in macrophages. The activation of signaling pathways associated with Fn regulation in macrophages and HepG2 cells was also investigated by Western blotting. Erk was activated in both macrophages and HepG2 cells, whereas Src-JNK-c-Jun signaling was only activated in macrophages. A
TY - JOUR. T1 - Teroxirone suppresses growth and motility of human hepatocellular carcinoma cells. AU - Kim, Seung Hun. AU - Wang, Wen Hsing. AU - Wang, Jing Ping. AU - Hsieh, Chang Heng. AU - Fang, Kang. PY - 2018/3. Y1 - 2018/3. N2 - Aims: The prevalent human hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a leading cause of global cancer-related mortality. The small molecular weight triepoxide derivative, 1,3,5-triazine-2,4,6(1H,3H,5H)-tri-one-1,3,5-tri-(oxiranylmethyl) (teroxirone), has been proved effective against the proliferation of lung cancer cells. The purpose is to further examine if teroxirone regulate growth and metastatic potential of HCC cells with aims at disclosing more of the reaction mechanisms. Main methods: Measurements of cell viability and flow cytometry were conducted to test sensitivities of teroxirone against HCC cells. The signaling pathway leading to apoptotic death was unraveled by Western blotting analysis. The metastatic progression was evaluated by cell-based phenotype assay ...
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Energy metabolism determines the sensitivity of human hepatocellular carcinoma cells to mitochondrial inhibitors and biguanide drugs. by Chia-Chi Hsu, Ling-Chia Wu, Cheng-Yuan Hsia, Pen-Hui Yin, Chin-Wen Chi, Tien-Shun Yeh, Hsin-Chen Lee. Oncology reports. Read more related scholarly scientific articles and abstracts.
Chemoresistance is a major problem in the treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma. Certain p53 mutants may enhance drug resistance in cancer cells. To determine whether two frequently occurring p53 muta
Liver carcinoma and normal tissue array, including TNM, clinical stage and pathology grade, 100 cases 200 cores related publications, related pathways and related gentaur products
Natural borneol (NB) has been used as a promoter of drug absorption and widely used in candies, beverages, baked goods, chewing gum and other foods. Thus, we investigated whether NB could potentiate the cellular uptake of BDCur, and elucidated the molecular mechanisms of their combined inhibitory effects on HepG2 cells. Our results demonstrate that NB significantly enhanced the cellular uptake of BDCur. Induction of cell cycle arrest in HepG2 cells by NB and BDCur in combination was evidenced by accumulation of the G2/M cell population. Further investigation on the molecular mechanism showed that NB and BDCur in combination resulted in a significant decrease in the expression level of Cdc2 and cyclin B ...
GLP-1 exerts its metabolic functions in both pancreatic islets and extrapancreatic organs, including the liver (79, 96). GLP-1R is expressed abundantly in pancreatic islets, brain, lung, heart, kidney, and the gastrointestinal tract, whereas its expression in the liver has been a controversial topic. A few studies have supported the notion that GLP-1R is also expressed in hepatocytes (26, 36, 77, 84), whereas a number of other studies have indicated the opposite (3, 12, 30, 35, 76, 90). Gupta et al. (36) have reported the detection of both GLP-1R mRNA and protein in human primary hepatocytes. They have demonstrated the role of exendin-4 in decreasing hepatic steatosis. Utilizing the two human hepatic cell lines HepG2 and Huh7, they claimed that GLP-1R activation leads to the activation of 3-phosphoinositide dependent protein kinase-1 (PDK-1), protein kinase B (PKB/Akt), and protein kinase Cζ (36). In 1996, however, Bullock et al. (12) conducted a systematic investigation of GLP-1R expression in ...
The major findings of the present study are that water-soluble fullerene directly affects vascular ECs to cause cytotoxic injury or cell death and inhibition of cell growth. To the best of our knowledge, this study provides the first demonstration of the direct effects of water-soluble fullerene on vascular endothelium. In other human cells, including dermal fibroblasts, liver carcinoma cells (HepG2), neuronal astrocytes, and T-lymphocytes (Jurkat cells), recent reports have noted that water-soluble fullerene shows cytotoxic effects, presumably via production of reactive oxygen species (22, 24). Notably, several types of water-soluble fullerene derivatives are available [e.g., hydroxyl fullerene used herein, dendritic C60 monoadduct (22), malonic acid C60 (22) and nano-C60 (24) (basically pristine C60)], and cytotoxicity to cells varies depending on the fullerene subtype used, presumably because of surfactant chemistry, including a balance between hydrophobicity and hydrophilicity (3).. Some ...
Cell Culture, Drug Treatment, and Cytotoxicity Assay. Human hepatoma HepG2 cells were purchased from American Type Culture Collection (Manassas, VA) and cultured according to a method described previously (Chen et al., 2000). Ketamine was dissolved in phosphate-buffered saline (0.14 M NaCl, 2.6 mM KCl, 8 mM Na2HPO4, and 1.5 mM KH2PO4). Concentrations of ketamine (≤100 μM), which correspond to clinical plasma concentrations (Domino et al., 1982; Grant et al., 1983), were chosen as the treated dosages in this study. To avoid drug interaction, when HepG2 cells were exposed to ketamine, the culture medium did not contain serum and antibiotics. Levels of γ-glutamyltranspeptidase and lactate dehydrogenase in the culture medium were measured to evaluate the cytotoxicity of ketamine to HepG2 cells as described previously (Wu et al., 2007).. Confocal Microscopic Analyses of F-Actin and Microtubular Cytoskeletons. The F-actin and microtubular cytoskeletons in HepG2 cells were visualized as described ...
BioAssay record AID 618683 submitted by ChEMBL: Induction of apoptosis in human HepG2 cells assessed as non-viable cells at 6 uL after 18 hrs by annexinV propidium iodide staining based flow cytometric analysis (Rvb = 14.32%).
Read independent reviews on Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) Serum frozen (1 ml) from AMS Biotechnology (Archived Products) on SelectScience
talk , contribs)‎ . . (4,324 bytes) (+4,324)‎ . . (Created page with {{f5samples ,id=FF:10706-109H4 ,name=pleomorphic hepatocellular carcinoma cell line:SNU-387, biol_rep1 ,sample_id=10706 ,rna_tube_id=109H4 ,rna_box=109 ,rna_position=H4 ...) ...
Sigma-Aldrich offers abstracts and full-text articles by [Bing-Hao Wu, Hui Chen, Chun-Miao Cai, Jia-Zhu Fang, Chong-Chao Wu, Li-Yu Huang, Lan Wang, Ze-Guang Han].
article{CCO3014, author = {Ghassan K. Abou-Alfa}, title = {Hepatocellular carcinoma: what is happening everywhere?}, journal = {Chinese Clinical Oncology}, volume = {2}, number = {4}, year = {2013}, keywords = {}, abstract = {Welcome to this special issue of CCO on hepatocellular carcinoma. It is a great honor and privilege to guest-edit this special issue of CCO. I am very grateful to all my colleagues worldwide who participated in this effort (Video 1).}, issn = {2304-3873}, url = {http://cco.amegroups.com/article/view/3014 ...
1st post! I have been trolling this site for information and my own therapy for several months now, so I thought it was time to join in. My father is a 63 years old and I am his primary care giver ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Lipocalin-2 Induces Apoptosis in Human Hepatocellular Carcinoma Cells Through Activation of Mitochondria Pathways. AU - Chien, Ming Hsien. AU - Ying, Tsung Ho. AU - Yang, Shun Fa. AU - Yu, Ji Kuen. AU - Hsu, Chih Wei. AU - Hsieh, Shu Ching. AU - Hsieh, Yi Hsien. PY - 2012. Y1 - 2012. N2 - Lipocalin 2 (LCN2) is a secreted, iron-binding glycoprotein that is abnormally expressed in some malignant human cancers. However, the roles of LCN2 in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cells are unknown. In this study, we suggested the LCN2 and LCN2R were weak detected in the HCC cell lines, LCN2 and LCN2R were found to be down-regulated in tumor tissues in 16 HCC patients. MTT, DAPI, TUNEL, and flow cytometry analyses revealed that LCN2 overexpression dramatically inhibited cell viability, induced apoptosis features of cell-cycle arrest in sub-G1 phase, in DNA fragmentation, and in condensation of chromatin in Huh-7 and SK-Hep-1 cells. Western blots were used to detect the activation of caspase, ...
Cell culture. Human hepatocellular carcinoma cell line (Hep3B), human colorectal carcinoma cell line (SW620), and human normal lung fibroblast cell lines (NHLF and MRC5) were obtained from the American Type Culture Collection. Human hepatocellular carcinoma cell lines (BEL7404 and SMMC7721) and human normal liver cell lines (QSG7701 and L-02) were purchased from the Shanghai Cell Collection. HEK293 was obtained from Microbix Biosystems, Inc. Cells were maintained in humidified 37°C atmosphere containing 5% CO2 and cultured in DMEM (Life Technologies) supplemented with 10% heat-inactivated fetal bovine serum (Life Technologies), 4 mmol/L glutamine, 50 units/mL penicillin, and 50 μg/mL streptomycin.. Virus construction and production. The constructs including pCN205-EGFP and pCN205-IL-24 were generated according to the standard molecular cloning protocol. The homologous recombination between pCN205-EGFP and pCN205-IL-24 plasmids and pCN103 plasmid carrying oncolytic adenoviral backbone was done ...
Human hepatoma HepG2 cell line was cultivated in monolayer culture and on two 3D carrier systems macroporous ceramic carrier Sponceram (Zellwerk, Germany) and Fibracel composed of polyester non-woven fiber on a polypropylene scaffold (New Brunswick Scientific, USA). 3D-carrier cultivation was performed in 24-well-plates, in a multi-well flow-chamber bioreactor or a fixed bed (Fig. 1) [1]. Cells were seeded at cell densities of 1*105/ml. Medium was DMEM/Ham´s F-12 mixture supplemented with 10% FBS. Growth of cultures was determined using DNA measurement with H33528 after digesting the cells with Papain.An average DNA content of 14.8 pg DNA per cell was previously obtained using defined cell concentrations. Functional assays were carried out according to the method described in [2] using 7-ethoxyresorufin as a substrate. Induction of EROD activitiy was done using 3-methyl-cholanthrene or Ketoconazole. Cellular viability was monitored using Resazurin and live/dead staining (AO/PI ...
The monoclonal antibody AF-20 was raised against the human hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cell line FOCUS and binds with high affinity to a rapidly internalized 180-kd homodimeric glycoprotein that is abundantly expressed on the surface of human HCC and other human cancer cell lines. Immunoliposomes were produced by covalently coupling AF-20 to liposomes containing carboxyfluorescein. Interaction of immunoliposomes with various HCC cell lines in vitro was quantitatively assessed by flow cytometry and qualitatively analyzed by fluorescence microscopy. Liposomes bearing an isotype-matched nonrelevant monoclonal antibody (MAb) and cell lines not expressing AF-20 antigen served as controls. AF-20-immunoliposomes specifically bound to HCC and other human cancer cell lines expressing the AF-20 antigen and were rapidly internalized at 37 degrees C. Interaction of AF-20-conjugated liposomes with these cell lines was between 5 and 200 times greater than that of unconjugated liposomes, whereas no difference was
The herbal extract Benja‑ummarit (BU) is a traditional Thai medicine with a putative cancer‑suppressing effect. However, this effect has only been tested in vitro in human hepatocarcinoma cell lines. The present study determined the efficacy of a BU extract to treat hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in rats in vivo and established its anti‑angiogenic and anti‑proliferative properties. The BU extract was prepared in 95% ethanol and its composition determined using liquid chromatography‑mass spectrometry. HCC was induced in Wistar rats by an injection of diethylnitrosamine (DEN), followed 2 weeks later by injections of thioacetamide (TAA) thrice weekly for 4 weeks. Following 2 months, the DEN‑TAA‑treated rats were divided into 6 groups that were treated orally for another 2 months with: i) No treatment; ii) vehicle; iii) 30 mg/kg sorafenib (SF); iv) 1 mg/kg BU; v) 10 mg/kg BU; or vi) 50 mg/kg BU. Liver samples were collected for gross morphological, histological, reverse ...
What Are Elevated Liver Enzymes? Hypertransaminasemia is a chronic condition of elevated blood liver transaminase enzymes, commonly called liver enzymes, that signifies hepatocellular (liver) injury. Q: What are serum transaminases? A: Transaminases are the liver enzymes ALT and AST. ALT is the .... Read More » ...
Open peer review is a system where authors know who the reviewers are, and the reviewers know who the authors are. If the manuscript is accepted, the named reviewer reports are published alongside the article. Pre-publication versions of the article and author comments to reviewers are available by contacting [email protected] All previous versions of the manuscript and all author responses to the reviewers are also available.. You can find further information about the peer review system here.. ...
CAR-mediated induction of CYP2B6 mRNA was strongly potentiated by the activation of p38 MAPK in HepG2 cells as effectively as that in human primary hepatocytes. In addition, p38 MAPK is constitutively activated in human primary hepatocytes but not in human hepatoma cell lines including HepG2 cells. Thus, p38 MAPK may play a role in the CAR-mediated CYP2B6 induction in human primary hepatocytes. Only one set of CAR-regulated genes requires p38 MAPK for their activation: this set includes genes such as CYP2A7 and CYP2C9, in addition to CYP2B6. In contrast, p38 MAPK plays no role in CAR activation of the CYP3A4 or UGT1A1 genes. Various cell signaling has been shown to regulate activation of CAR and CAR-mediated transcription of a target gene. Growth factor-activated extracellular signal-related kinase 1/2 signaling represses CAR activation and nuclear translocation (Koike et al., 2007). cAMP and early growth response 1 synergize CAR-mediated transcription of CYP2B6 genes in HepG2 cells (Ding et ...
Biochim Biophys Acta. 2013 Oct;1830(10):4743-51. doi: 10.1016/j.bbagen.2013.06.004. Epub 2013 Jun 18. Research Support, Non-U.S. Govt
A study released in the July 2016 issue of the American Journal of Roentgenology found that biphenotypic primary liver carcinoma may be misclassified as hepatocellular carcinoma.
All information about the latest scientific publications of the Clínica Universidad de Navarra. Identification of replication-competent HSV-1 Cgal+ strain targets in a mouse model of human hepatocarcinoma xenograft
Although alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) is a golden diagnostic marker for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), its value is debatable. Differentiation between primary and secondary hepatocarcinomas (HC) relying...
Hi, Has anybody transfected HepG2 cells with SV40-CAT or CMV enhanced tk-CAT? I have done several transfections and Ive used the CAT ELISA kit by Boehringer-Mannheim to detect CAT activity, my readings are very low for CAT, but are good for beta-gal, any ideas? thanks for any advice, kathy ...
HepG3 cell line origin - posted in Tissue and Cell Culture: Hi everybody, my question seems to be quite simple, but still. Does anybody know the exact origin of HepG3 cell line and its difference from HepG2 cells? Thank you in advance! Dinar
TY - JOUR. T1 - Histone deacetylase inhibitors induce in human hepatoma HepG2 cells acetylation of p53 and histones in correlation with apoptotic effects.. AU - Tesoriere, Giovanni. AU - Emanuele, Sonia. AU - DAnneo, Antonella. AU - Vento, Renza. AU - Lauricella, Marianna. AU - Carlisi, Daniela. AU - Di Fazio, Pietro. AU - Vassallo, Barbara. AU - Di Leonardo, Elvira Rosalia. PY - 2008. Y1 - 2008. N2 - This report shows that histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDACIs) induced apoptosis in human hepatoma HepG2 cells in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Trichostatin A (TSA), ITF2357 and suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid (SAHA), which were very effective agents, caused apoptotic effects after a lag phase of 12-16 h. In order to elucidate the mechanism of HDACIs action in HepG2 cells we have studied the effects of TSA, ITF2357 and SAHA on acetylation of p53 and histones H2A, H2B, H3 and H4. It was observed that HDACIs rapidly induced acetylation of these proteins, being the effects clearly visible ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Cytotoxic clerodane diterpenoids from the leaves of Casearia kurzii. AU - Ma, Jun. AU - Yang, Xueyuan. AU - Zhang, Qi. AU - Zhang, Xuke. AU - Xie, Chunfeng. AU - Tuerhong, Muhetaer. AU - Zhang, Jie. AU - Jin, Da Qing. AU - Lee, Dongho. AU - Xu, Jing. AU - Ohizumi, Yasushi. AU - Guo, Yuanqiang. PY - 2019/4/1. Y1 - 2019/4/1. N2 - A phytochemical investigation to obtain bioactive substances as lead compounds or agents for cancer led to the obtainment of six new clerodane diterpenoids, designated as kurzipenes A-F (1-6), from the leaves of Casearia kurzii. Their structures were elucidated on the basis of NMR spectroscopic data analysis and the absolute configurations were confirmed by the time-dependent density functional theory (TDDFT) electronic circular dichroism (ECD) calculations. The cytotoxic activities of compounds 1-6 were evaluated against human lung cancer A549 cell line, human cervical cancer Hela cell line, and human hepatocellular carcinoma HepG2 cell line. Most ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Effect of the molar ratio of branched-chain to aromatic amino acids on growth and albumin mRNA expression of human liver cancer cell lines in a serum-free medium. AU - Saito, Y.. AU - Saito, H.. AU - Nakamura, M.. AU - Wakabayashi, K.. AU - Takagi, T.. AU - Ebinuma, H.. AU - Ishii, H.. PY - 2001/1/1. Y1 - 2001/1/1. N2 - Supplementation of branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs) is often used for the treatment of hepatic encephalopathy and low albuminemia in Japan. In this scenario, although many cases are complicated with hepatocellular carcinoma in chronic viral infection, the effect of BCAA levels on hepatocellular carcinoma cells remains unclear. We investigated the effect of the molar ratios of BCAAs to aromatic amino acids (AAAs) on the growth and albumin mRNA expression of cultured human liver cancer cell lines, HCC-M, HCC-T, PLC/PRF/5, and Hep G2. To exclude the effect of fetal serum in culture media on modification of the growth and albumin transcription of cell lines, we used ...
Many chemotherapeutic agents have been successfully used to treat hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC);however, the development of chemoresistance in liver cancer cells usually results in a relapse and worseningof prognosis. It has been demonstrated that DNA methylation and histone modification play crucial roles inchemotherapy resistance. Currently, extensive research has shown that there is another potential mechanismof gene expression control, which is mediated through the function of short noncoding RNAs, especially formicroRNAs (miRNAs), but little is known about their roles in cancer cell drug resistance. In present study, bytaking advantage of miRNA effects on the resistance of human hepatocellular carcinoma cells line to cisplatin, ithas been demonstrated that miR-340 were significantly downregulated whereas Nrf2 was upregulated in HepG2/CDDP (cisplatin) cells, compared with parental HepG2 cells. Bioinformatics analysis and luciferase assays ofNrf2-3-untranslated region-based reporter constructor
TY - JOUR. T1 - Effects of MACC1 polymorphisms on hepatocellular carcinoma development and clinical characteristics. AU - Lin, Chien Hua. AU - Hsieh, Ming Ju. AU - Lee, Hsiang Lin. AU - Yang, Shun Fa. AU - Su, Shih Chi. AU - Lee, Wei Jiunn. AU - Chou, Ying Erh. PY - 2020/1/1. Y1 - 2020/1/1. N2 - Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a major malignancy of cancer-related mortality worldwide. Metastasis-associated in colon cancer-1 (MACC1) was suggested as a marker for vascular invasive HCC. This study investigated the MACC1 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) to evaluate HCC susceptibility and clinicopathological characteristics. In this study, real-time polymerase chain reaction was applied to analyze five SNPs of MACC1 rs1990172, rs975263, rs3095007, rs4721888, and rs3735615 in 378 patients with HCC and 1199 cancer-free controls. The results showed that in 151 HCC patients among smokers who carried MACC1 rs1990172 CA + AA variants had a lower risk of developing a large tumor (odds ratio [OR] = ...
HCC is not only the sixth most common neoplasm, but is also the third leading cause of cancer-related deaths worldwide (16). Hepatocarcinogenesis is a complex multistep process in which many genes and signaling pathways are involved. In our previous research, we found that CENP-H expression is not only upregulated in HCC tissues at both the mRNA and protein levels but is also closely related to tumor size, histological grade, and clinical stage. Additionally, CENP-H expression based on immunohistochemistry was negatively associated with patient prognosis (15). In the present study we further confirmed that the expression levels of CENP-H were higher in the HCC cell lines than that in the L02 immortalized human liver cells. CENP-H knockdown inhibited the proliferation of Hep3B cells and induced their apoptosis in vitro. Furthermore, tumor growth in the Hep3B xenograft model was inhibited after CENP-H knockdown. The role of CENP-H in HCC growth may be mediated through the mitochondrial apoptotic ...
DNA repair capacity varies greatly between individuals, and evidence has begun to link this variation to cancer risk, obesity and related chronic diseases. There is also emerging evidence that dietary components can affect DNA repair, but research to date has been restricted by methods for measuring DNA repair. This study made use of newly developed microplate-based assays for the direct determination of DNA repair enzyme activities. Lipid loading of the HepG2 human hepatocellular carcinoma cell line was employed as a model to test the hypothesis that hepatic steatosis affects DNA repair activity via induction of oxidative stress.. ...
To extend the search for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) associated antigens with immunogenicity for clinical applications. we constructed a cDNA expression library using resected human HCC tissue sample and screened it by serological analysis of recombinant cDNA expression library (SEREX) with autologous and allogeneic sera. A total of 24 distinct antigens were isolated and kinectin was the antigen most frequently identified. We found that kinectin was alternatively spliced at four sites and obtained all eight theoretical forms of variant, six by SEREX and two by RT-PCR, from the different splicing combinations of the last three sites. In addition, the splicing patterns of four sites were analyzed. Variant containing D2 was overexpressed in cancerous tissues and this alteration may be tumor associated. The four splicing sites. the variants generated by alternative splicing, and the humoral immune response in HCC patients, may help to analyze the role of kinectin in human HCC cell biology. ...
PubMed journal article: miR-143-3p inhibits proliferation and invasion of hepatocellular carcinoma cells by regulating its target gene FGF1. Download Prime PubMed App to iPhone, iPad, or Android
Molecular mechanisms of apoptosis in hepatocellular carcinoma cells induced by ethanol extracts of Solanum lyratum Thumb through the mitochondrial pathway
Malignant cells in culture express elevated levels of transforming growth factor β1 (TGF-β1) mRNA and secrete an abundant amount of TGF-β protein, but little is known about the production of TGF-β in human malignant tissues in vivo. We estimated the levels of TGF-β1 mRNA expression by Northern hybridization and measured TGF-β protein using a radioreceptor assay in tumor tissues surgically obtained from six patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). TGF-β1 mRNA was expressed at much higher levels in HCC tissues from all the cases compared with normal human liver, suggesting an association of the activated TGF-β1 gene transcription with hepatocarcinogenesis. The content of TGF-β was 207 ± 121 ng/g wet tissue in the HCC tissue, and it showed correlation with the level of TGF-β1 mRNA in the tissue (r = 0.69; P , 0.05). An immunohistochemical study demonstrated that TGF-β1 staining could be observed in HCC cells. These observations suggest that human HCC strongly expresses TGF-β1 mRNA ...
Granulin-Epithelin Precursor and ATP-Dependent Binding Cassette (ABC)B5 Regulate Liver Cancer Cell Chemoresistance by Siu Tim Cheung, Phyllis F.Y. Cheung, Christine K.C. Cheng et al. Chemotherapy is one of the standard methods of treatment in many cancers. While chemotherapy is often capable of inducing cell death in tumors and reducing the tumor bulk, many cancer patients experience recurrence and ultimately death because of treatment failure. In recent years, cancer stem cells (CSCs)
臺大位居世界頂尖大學之列,為永久珍藏及向國際展現本校豐碩的研究成果及學術能量,圖書館整合機構典藏(NTUR)與學術庫(AH)不同功能平台,成為臺大學術典藏NTU scholars。期能整合研究能量、促進交流合作、保存學術產出、推廣研究成果。. To permanently archive and promote researcher profiles and scholarly works, Library integrates the services of NTU Repository with Academic Hub to form NTU Scholars.. ...
臺大位居世界頂尖大學之列,為永久珍藏及向國際展現本校豐碩的研究成果及學術能量,圖書館整合機構典藏(NTUR)與學術庫(AH)不同功能平台,成為臺大學術典藏NTU scholars。期能整合研究能量、促進交流合作、保存學術產出、推廣研究成果。. To permanently archive and promote researcher profiles and scholarly works, Library integrates the services of NTU Repository with Academic Hub to form NTU Scholars.. ...
JTB USA provides many travel services. Apply for Ghibli Museum Tickets, View the Japan Tour (Sunrise Tour) by digital pamphlet, and the others.
Cholera is an infectious disease caused by bacteria. You can get cholera if you eat food or drink water that is contaminated with the bacteria.
Programmed Cell Death. *Protein-A, A/G & G. *RAS Oncogene. *Ras-Related C3 Botulinum Tox... ... UniProt ID G2. *UniProt ID G3. *UniProt ID G4. *UniProt ID G5 ... Hepatitis B. *Hepatitis C. *Hepatitis D. *Hepatitis E. *Herpes ...

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