Proteins from BACTERIA and FUNGI that are soluble enough to be secreted to target ERYTHROCYTES and insert into the membrane to form beta-barrel pores. Biosynthesis may be regulated by HEMOLYSIN FACTORS.
The destruction of ERYTHROCYTES by many different causal agents such as antibodies, bacteria, chemicals, temperature, and changes in tonicity.
Plasmids controlling the synthesis of hemolysin by bacteria.
A genus of gram-negative, aerobic bacteria, in the family XANTHOMONADACEAE. It is found in the xylem of plant tissue.
A plant genus in the family ROSACEAE, order Rosales, subclass Rosidae. It is best known as a source of edible fruits such as apricot, plum, peach, cherry, and almond.
Diseases of plants.
A plant genus of the family RUTACEAE. They bear the familiar citrus fruits including oranges, grapefruit, lemons, and limes. There are many hybrids which makes the nomenclature confusing.
A group of the proteobacteria comprised of facultatively anaerobic and fermentative gram-negative bacteria.
A plant genus in the family VITACEAE, order Rhamnales, subclass Rosidae. It is a woody vine cultivated worldwide. It is best known for grapes, the edible fruit and used to make WINE and raisins.
Toxic substances formed in or elaborated by bacteria; they are usually proteins with high molecular weight and antigenicity; some are used as antibiotics and some to skin test for the presence of or susceptibility to certain diseases.
A bibliographic database that includes MEDLINE as its primary subset. It is produced by the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI), part of the NATIONAL LIBRARY OF MEDICINE. PubMed, which is searchable through NLM's Web site, also includes access to additional citations to selected life sciences journals not in MEDLINE, and links to other resources such as the full-text of articles at participating publishers' Web sites, NCBI's molecular biology databases, and PubMed Central.
A publication issued at stated, more or less regular, intervals.
"The business or profession of the commercial production and issuance of literature" (Webster's 3d). It includes the publisher, publication processes, editing and editors. Production may be by conventional printing methods or by electronic publishing.
The premier bibliographic database of the NATIONAL LIBRARY OF MEDICINE. MEDLINE® (MEDLARS Online) is the primary subset of PUBMED and can be searched on NLM's Web site in PubMed or the NLM Gateway. MEDLINE references are indexed with MEDICAL SUBJECT HEADINGS (MeSH).
Works containing information articles on subjects in every field of knowledge, usually arranged in alphabetical order, or a similar work limited to a special field or subject. (From The ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)
Potentially pathogenic bacteria found in nasal membranes, skin, hair follicles, and perineum of warm-blooded animals. They may cause a wide range of infections and intoxications.
Pneumonia caused by infections with bacteria of the genus STAPHYLOCOCCUS, usually with STAPHYLOCOCCUS AUREUS.
Infection of the lung often accompanied by inflammation.
Cyclic GLUCANS consisting of seven (7) glucopyranose units linked by 1,4-glycosidic bonds.
A strain of Staphylococcus aureus that is non-susceptible to the action of METHICILLIN. The mechanism of resistance usually involves modification of normal or the presence of acquired PENICILLIN BINDING PROTEINS.
Toxins produced, especially by bacterial or fungal cells, and released into the culture medium or environment.
Any infection acquired in the community, that is, contrasted with those acquired in a health care facility (CROSS INFECTION). An infection would be classified as community-acquired if the patient had not recently been in a health care facility or been in contact with someone who had been recently in a health care facility.
The degree of pathogenicity within a group or species of microorganisms or viruses as indicated by case fatality rates and/or the ability of the organism to invade the tissues of the host. The pathogenic capacity of an organism is determined by its VIRULENCE FACTORS.
Infections to the skin caused by bacteria of the genus STAPHYLOCOCCUS.
Infections with bacteria of the genus STAPHYLOCOCCUS.
Databases containing information about PROTEINS such as AMINO ACID SEQUENCE; PROTEIN CONFORMATION; and other properties.
Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.
Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.
The study of crystal structure using X-RAY DIFFRACTION techniques. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
A process that includes the determination of AMINO ACID SEQUENCE of a protein (or peptide, oligopeptide or peptide fragment) and the information analysis of the sequence.
A country spanning from central Asia to the Pacific Ocean.
A genus of gram-positive, facultatively anaerobic, coccoid bacteria. Its organisms occur singly, in pairs, and in tetrads and characteristically divide in more than one plane to form irregular clusters. Natural populations of Staphylococcus are found on the skin and mucous membranes of warm-blooded animals. Some species are opportunistic pathogens of humans and animals.
A genus of gram-negative bacteria existing symbiotically with nematodes of the family Heterorhabditidae (see RHABDITOIDEA). These nematodes infect a variety of soil-dwelling insects. Upon entering an insect host, the nematode releases Photorhabdus from its intestinal tract and the bacterium establishes a lethal septicemia in the insect.
An order of nematodes of the subclass SECERNENTEA. Its organisms are characterized by an annulated or smooth cuticle and the absence of caudal glands.
A genus of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic rod-shaped cells which are motile by peritrichous flagella. Late in the growth cycle, spheroplasts or coccoid bodies occur, resulting from disintegration of the cell wall. The natural habitat is the intestinal lumen of certain nematodes. (From Bergey's Manual of Determinative Bacteriology, 9th ed)
A class of unsegmented helminths with fundamental bilateral symmetry and secondary triradiate symmetry of the oral and esophageal structures. Many species are parasites.
A superfamily of nematodes of the order RHABDITIDA. Characteristics include an open tube stoma and an excretory system with lateral canals.
The relationship between two different species of organisms that are interdependent; each gains benefits from the other or a relationship between different species where both of the organisms in question benefit from the presence of the other.
A mitosporic fungal genus. Teleomorphs are found in the family Clavicipitaceae and include Cordyceps bassiana. The species Beauveria bassiana is a common pathogen of ARTHROPODS and is used in PEST CONTROL.
Proteins obtained from ESCHERICHIA COLI.
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
Proteins found in any species of bacterium.
A species of gram-negative, aerobic, rod-shaped bacteria commonly isolated from clinical specimens (wound, burn, and urinary tract infections). It is also found widely distributed in soil and water. P. aeruginosa is a major agent of nosocomial infection.
Infections with bacteria of the genus PSEUDOMONAS.
Those components of an organism that determine its capacity to cause disease but are not required for its viability per se. Two classes have been characterized: TOXINS, BIOLOGICAL and surface adhesion molecules that effect the ability of the microorganism to invade and colonize a host. (From Davis et al., Microbiology, 4th ed. p486)
Substances that reduce the growth or reproduction of BACTERIA.
Strains of ESCHERICHIA COLI with the ability to produce at least one or more of at least two antigenically distinct, usually bacteriophage-mediated cytotoxins: SHIGA TOXIN 1 and SHIGA TOXIN 2. These bacteria can cause severe disease in humans including bloody DIARRHEA and HEMOLYTIC UREMIC SYNDROME.
A toxin produced by SHIGELLA DYSENTERIAE. It is the prototype of class of toxins that inhibit protein synthesis by blocking the interaction of ribosomal RNA; (RNA, RIBOSOMAL) with PEPTIDE ELONGATION FACTORS.
A class of toxins that inhibit protein synthesis by blocking the interaction of ribosomal RNA; (RNA, RIBOSOMAL) with PEPTIDE ELONGATION FACTORS. They include SHIGA TOXIN which is produced by SHIGELLA DYSENTERIAE and a variety of shiga-like toxins that are produced by pathologic strains of ESCHERICHIA COLI such as ESCHERICHIA COLI O157.
Infections with bacteria of the species ESCHERICHIA COLI.
A verocytotoxin-producing serogroup belonging to the O subfamily of Escherichia coli which has been shown to cause severe food-borne disease. A strain from this serogroup, serotype H7, which produces SHIGA TOXINS, has been linked to human disease outbreaks resulting from contamination of foods by E. coli O157 from bovine origin.
A toxin produced by certain pathogenic strains of ESCHERICHIA COLI such as ESCHERICHIA COLI O157. It shares 50-60% homology with SHIGA TOXIN and SHIGA TOXIN 1.

Alpha-toxin and gamma-toxin jointly promote Staphylococcus aureus virulence in murine septic arthritis. (1/3113)

Septic arthritis is a common and feared complication of staphylococcal infections. Staphylococcus aureus produces a number of potential virulence factors including certain adhesins and enterotoxins. In this study we have assessed the roles of cytolytic toxins in the development of septic arthritis by inoculating mice with S. aureus wild-type strain 8325-4 or isogenic mutants differing in the expression of alpha-, beta-, and gamma-toxin production patterns. Mice inoculated with either an alpha- or beta-toxin mutant showed degrees of inflammation, joint damage, and weight decrease similar to wild-type-inoculated mice. In contrast, mice inoculated with either double (alpha- and gamma-toxin-deficient)- or triple (alpha-, beta-, and gamma-toxin-deficient)-mutant S. aureus strains showed lower frequency and severity of arthritis, measured both clinically and histologically, than mice inoculated with the wild-type strain. We conclude that simultaneous production of alpha- and gamma-toxin is a virulence factor in S. aureus arthritis.  (+info)

Evolutionary relationships of pathogenic clones of Vibrio cholerae by sequence analysis of four housekeeping genes. (2/3113)

Studies of the Vibrio cholerae population, using molecular typing techniques, have shown the existence of several pathogenic clones, mainly sixth-pandemic, seventh-pandemic, and U.S. Gulf Coast clones. However, the relationship of the pathogenic clones to environmental V. cholerae isolates remains unclear. A previous study to determine the phylogeny of V. cholerae by sequencing the asd (aspartate semialdehyde dehydrogenase) gene of V. cholerae showed that the sixth-pandemic, seventh-pandemic, and U.S. Gulf Coast clones had very different asd sequences which fell into separate lineages in the V. cholerae population. As gene trees drawn from a single gene may not reflect the true topology of the population, we sequenced the mdh (malate dehydrogenase) and hlyA (hemolysin A) genes from representatives of environmental and clinical isolates of V. cholerae and found that the mdh and hlyA sequences from the three pathogenic clones were identical, except for the previously reported 11-bp deletion in hlyA in the sixth-pandemic clone. Identical sequences were obtained, despite average nucleotide differences in the mdh and hlyA genes of 1.52 and 3.25%, respectively, among all the isolates, suggesting that the three pathogenic clones are closely related. To extend these observations, segments of the recA and dnaE genes were sequenced from a selection of the pathogenic isolates, where the sequences were either identical or substantially different between the clones. The results show that the three pathogenic clones are very closely related and that there has been a high level of recombination in their evolution.  (+info)

Role of Listeria monocytogenes exotoxins listeriolysin and phosphatidylinositol-specific phospholipase C in activation of human neutrophils. (3/3113)

Polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMN) are essential for resolution of infections with Listeria monocytogenes. The present study investigated the role of the listerial exotoxins listeriolysin (LLO) and phosphatidylinositol-specific phospholipase C (PlcA) in human neutrophil activation. Different Listeria strains, mutated in individual virulence genes, as well as purified LLO were used. Coincubation of human neutrophils with wild-type L. monocytogenes provoked PMN activation, occurring independently of phagocytosis events, with concomitant elastase secretion, leukotriene generation, platelet-activating factor (PAF) synthesis, respiratory burst, and enhanced phosphoinositide hydrolysis. Degranulation and leukotriene formation were noted to be solely dependent on LLO expression, as these features were absent when the LLO-defective mutant EGD- and the avirulent strain L. innocua were used. These effects were fully reproduced by a recombinant L. innocua strain expressing LLO (INN+) and by the purified LLO molecule. LLO secretion was also required for PAF synthesis. However, wild-type L. monocytogenes was more potent in eliciting PAF formation than mutants expressing LLO, suggesting the involvement of additional virulence factors. This was even more obvious for phosphoinositide hydrolysis and respiratory burst: these events were provoked not only by INN+ but also by the LLO-defective mutant EGD- and by a recombinant L. innocua strain producing listerial PlcA. We conclude that human neutrophils react to extracellularly provided listerial exotoxins by rapid cell activation. Listeriolysin is centrally involved in triggering degranulation and lipid mediator generation, and further virulence factors such as PlcA apparently contribute to trigger neutrophil phosphoinositide hydrolysis and respiratory burst. In this way, listerial exotoxins may influence the host defense against infections with L. monocytogenes.  (+info)

Vibrio parahaemolyticus thermostable direct hemolysin modulates cytoskeletal organization and calcium homeostasis in intestinal cultured cells. (4/3113)

Vibrio parahaemolyticus is a marine bacterium known to be the leading cause of seafood gastroenteritis worldwide. A 46-kDa homodimer protein secreted by this microorganism, the thermostable direct hemolysin (TDH), is considered a major virulence factor involved in bacterial pathogenesis since a high percentage of strains of clinical origin are positive for TDH production. TDH is a pore-forming toxin, and its most extensively studied effect is the ability to cause hemolysis of erythrocytes from different mammalian species. Moreover, TDH induces in a variety of cells cytotoxic effects consisting mainly of cell degeneration which often leads to loss of viability. In this work, we examined the cellular changes induced by TDH in monolayers of IEC-6 cells (derived from the rat crypt small intestine), which represent a useful cell model for studying toxins from enteric bacteria. In experimental conditions allowing cell survival, TDH induces a rapid transient increase in intracellular calcium as well as a significant though reversible decreased rate of progression through the cell cycle. The morphological changes seem to be dependent on the organization of the microtubular network, which appears to be the preferential cytoskeletal element involved in the cellular response to the toxin.  (+info)

Hyperproduction of alpha-hemolysin in a sigB mutant is associated with elevated SarA expression in Staphylococcus aureus. (5/3113)

To evaluate the role of SigB in modulating the expression of virulence determinants in Staphylococcus aureus, we constructed a sigB mutant of RN6390, a prototypic S. aureus strain. The mutation in the sigB gene was confirmed by the absence of the SigB protein in the mutant on an immunoblot as well as the failure of the mutant to activate sigmaB-dependent promoters (e.g., the sarC promoter) of S. aureus. Phenotypic analysis indicated that both alpha-hemolysin level and fibrinogen-binding capacity were up-regulated in the mutant strain compared with the parental strain. The increase in fibrinogen-binding capacity correlated with enhanced expression of clumping factor and coagulase on immunoblots. The effect of the sigB mutation on the enhanced expression of the alpha-hemolysin gene (hla) was primarily transcriptional. Upon complementation with a plasmid containing the sigB gene, hla expression returned to near parental levels in the mutant. Detailed immunoblot analysis as well as a competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay of the cell extract of the sigB mutant with anti-SarA monoclonal antibody 1D1 revealed that the expression of SarA was higher in the mutant than in the parental control. Despite an elevated SarA level, the transcription of RNAII and RNAIII of the agr locus remained unaltered in the sigB mutant. Because of a lack of perturbation in agr, we hypothesize that inactivation of sigB leads to increased expression of SarA which, in turn, modulates target genes via an agr-independent but SarA-dependent pathway.  (+info)

Probing the function of Bordetella bronchiseptica adenylate cyclase toxin by manipulating host immunity. (6/3113)

We have examined the role of adenylate cyclase-hemolysin (CyaA) by constructing an in-frame deletion in the Bordetella bronchiseptica cyaA structural gene and comparing wild-type and cyaA deletion strains in natural host infection models. Both the wild-type strain RB50 and its adenylate cyclase toxin deletion (DeltacyaA) derivative efficiently establish persistent infections in rabbits, rats, and mice following low-dose inoculation. In contrast, an inoculation protocol that seeds the lower respiratory tract revealed significant differences in bacterial numbers and in polymorphonuclear neutrophil recruitment in the lungs from days 5 to 12 postinoculation. We next explored the effects of disarming specific aspects of the immune system on the relative phenotypes of wild-type and DeltacyaA bacteria. SCID, SCID-beige, or RAG-1(-/-) mice succumbed to lethal systemic infection following high- or low-dose intranasal inoculation with the wild-type strain but not the DeltacyaA mutant. Mice rendered neutropenic by treatment with cyclophosphamide or by knockout mutation in the granulocyte colony-stimulating factor locus were highly susceptible to lethal infection by either wild-type or DeltacyaA strains. These results reveal the significant role played by neutrophils early in B. bronchiseptica infection and by acquired immunity at later time points and suggest that phagocytic cells are a primary in vivo target of the Bordetella adenylate cyclase toxin.  (+info)

Resistance of paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria cells to the glycosylphosphatidylinositol-binding toxin aerolysin. (7/3113)

Paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria (PNH) is a clonal stem cell disorder caused by a somatic mutation of the PIGA gene. The product of this gene is required for the biosynthesis of glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI) anchors; therefore, the phenotypic hallmark of PNH cells is an absence or marked deficiency of all GPI-anchored proteins. Aerolysin is a toxin secreted by the bacterial pathogen Aeromonas hydrophila and is capable of killing target cells by forming channels in their membranes after binding to GPI-anchored receptors. We found that PNH blood cells (erythrocytes, lymphocytes, and granulocytes), but not blood cells from normals or other hematologic disorders, are resistant to the cytotoxic effects of aerolysin. The percentage of lysis of PNH cells after aerolysin exposure paralleled the percentage of CD59(+) cells in the samples measured by flow cytometry. The kinetics of red blood cell lysis correlated with the type of PNH erythrocytes. PNH type III cells were completely resistant to aerolysin, whereas PNH type II cells displayed intermediate sensitivity. Importantly, the use of aerolysin allowed us to detect PNH populations that could not be detected by standard flow cytometry. Resistance of PNH cells to aerolysin allows for a simple, inexpensive assay for PNH that is sensitive and specific. Aerolysin should also be useful in studying PNH biology.  (+info)

Localization and environment of tryptophans in soluble and membrane-bound states of a pore-forming toxin from Staphylococcus aureus. (8/3113)

The location and environment of tryptophans in the soluble and membrane-bound forms of Staphylococcus aureus alpha-toxin were monitored using intrinsic tryptophan fluorescence. Fluorescence quenching of the toxin monomer in solution indicated varying degrees of tryptophan burial within the protein interior. N-Bromosuccinimide readily abolished 80% of the fluorescence in solution. The residual fluorescence of the modified toxin showed a blue-shifted emission maximum, a longer fluorescence lifetime as compared to the unmodified and membrane-bound alpha-toxin, and a 5- to 6-nm red edge excitation shift, all indicating a restricted tryptophan environment and deeply buried tryptophans. In the membrane-bound form, the fluorescence of alpha-toxin was quenched by iodide, indicating a conformational change leading to exposure of some tryptophans. A shorter average lifetime of tryptophans in the membrane-bound alpha-toxin as compared to the native toxin supported the conclusions based on iodide quenching of the membrane-bound toxin. Fluorescence quenching of membrane-bound alpha-toxin using brominated and spin-labeled fatty acids showed no quenching of fluorescence using brominated lipids. However, significant quenching was observed using 5- and 12-doxyl stearic acids. An average depth calculation using the parallax method indicated that the doxyl-quenchable tryptophans are located at an average depth of 10 A from the center of the bilayer close to the membrane interface. This was found to be in striking agreement with the recently described structure of the membrane-bound form of alpha-toxin.  (+info)

The pore-forming toxin listeriolysin O (LLO), an important virulence factor thats secreted by (infection. attacks all around the globe, and specifically the antibiotic-resistant strains which have been isolated from human beings and the surroundings, this bacterium can be a significant concern for open public health (2C4). can be an invasive bacterium, and it expresses many virulence elements that are extremely connected with cell invasion, intracellular bacterial success, and cell-to-cell growing. Pursuing their internalization into focus on cells, including both phagocytic cells and different non-phagocytic cells, bacterias either are wiped out or turn out escaping from the principal internalization vesicle in to the cytoplasm (5). Once inside the cytosol, the bacterias grow rapidly, plus they utilize the web host actin cytoskeleton by expressing a surface area protein known as ActA to create F-actin, which gives for bacterial motility buy 38226-84-5 and dissemination into neighboring cells. ...
Escherichia coli α-hemolysin (HlyA) is a pore-forming protein of 110 kDa belonging to the family of RTX toxins. A hydrophobic region between the amino acid residues 238 and 410 in the N-terminal half of HlyA has previously been suggested to form hydrophobic and/or amphipathic α-helices and has been shown to be important for hemolytic activity and pore formation in biological and artificial membranes. The structure of the HlyA transmembrane channel is, however, largely unknown. For further investigation of the channel structure, we deleted in HlyA different stretches of amino acids that could form amphipathic β-strands according to secondary structure predictions (residues 71-110, 158-167, 180-203, and 264-286). These deletions resulted in HlyA mutants with strongly reduced hemolytic activity. Lipid bilayer measurements demonstrated that HlyAΔ71-110 and HlyAΔ264-286 formed channels with much smaller single-channel conductance than wildtype HlyA, whereas their channel-forming activity was virtually
Read Influence of Cys-130 S. aureus Alpha-toxin on Planar Lipid Bilayer and Erythrocyte Membranes, The Journal of Membrane Biology on DeepDyve, the largest online rental service for scholarly research with thousands of academic publications available at your fingertips.
TY - JOUR. T1 - Are amyloid diseases caused by protein aggregates that mimic bacterial pore-forming toxins?. AU - Lashuel, Hilal A.. AU - Lansbury, Peter T.. PY - 2006/5/1. Y1 - 2006/5/1. N2 - Protein fibrillization is implicated in the pathogenesis of most, if not all, age-associated neurodegenerative diseases, but the mechanism(s) by which it triggers neuronal death is unknown. Reductionist in vitro studies suggest that the amyloid protofibril may be the toxic species and that it may amplify itself by inhibiting proteasome-dependent protein degradation. Although its pathogenic target has not been identified, the properties of the protofibril suggest that neurons could be killed by unregulated membrane permeabilization, possibly by a type of protofibril referred to here as the amyloid pore. The purpose of this review is to summarize the existing supportive circumstantial evidence and to stimulate further studies designed to test the validity of this hypothesis.. AB - Protein fibrillization is ...
We have cloned the chromosomal hemolysin determinants from Escherichia coli strains belonging to the four O-serotypes 04, 06, 018, and 075, The hemolysin-producing clones were isolated from gene banks of these strains which were constructed by inserting partial Sau3A fragments of chromosomal DNA into the cosmid pJC74. The hemolytic cosmid clones were relatively stable. The inserts were further sub cloned either as Sail fragments in pACYC184 or as BamHI-SaLI fragments in a recombinant plasmid (pANN202) containing cistron C (hlye) of the plasmid-encoded hemolysin determinant. Detailed restriction maps of each of these determinants were constructed, and it was found that, despite sharing overall homology, the determinants exhibited minor specific differences in their structure, These appeared to be restricted to cistron A (hlyA), which is the structural gene for hemolysin. In the gene banks of two of these hemolytic strains, we could also identify clones which carried the genetic determinants for ...
Saunders, G C., Maturation of hemolysin-producing cell clones. I. The kinetics of the induction period of an in vitro hemolysin response to erythrocyte antigen. (1969). Subject Strain Bibliography 1969. 634 ...
Cytolytic pore-forming toxins are important for the virulence of many disease-causing bacteria. How target cells molecularly respond to these toxins and whether or not they can mount a defense are poorly understood. By using microarrays, we demonstrate that the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans responds robustly to Cry5B, a member of the pore-forming Crystal toxin family made by Bacillus thuringiensis. This genomic response is distinct from that seen with a different stressor, the heavy metal cadmium. A p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) kinase and a c-Jun N-terminal-like MAPK are both transcriptionally up-regulated by Cry5B. Moreover, both MAPK pathways are functionally important because elimination of either leads to animals that are (i) hypersensitive to a low, chronic dose of toxin and (ii) hypersensitive to a high, brief dose of toxin such that the animal might naturally encounter in the wild. These results extend to mammalian cells because inhibition of p38 results in the hypersensitivity
PubMed comprises more than 30 million citations for biomedical literature from MEDLINE, life science journals, and online books. Citations may include links to full-text content from PubMed Central and publisher web sites.
Looking for hemolysin unit? Find out information about hemolysin unit. A unit for the standardization of blood serum Explanation of hemolysin unit
Statins are widely used to prevent cardiovascular disease. In addition to their inhibitory effects on cholesterol synthesis, statins have beneficial effects in patients with sepsis and pneumonia, although molecular mechanisms have mostly remained unclear. Using human airway epithelial cells as a proper in vitro model, we show that prior exposure to physiological nanomolar serum concentrations of simvastatin (ranging from 10-1,000 nM) confers significant cellular resistance to the cytotoxicity of pneumolysin, a pore-forming toxin and the main virulence factor of Streptococcus pneumoniae. This protection could be demonstrated with a different statin, pravastatin, or on a different toxin, a-hemolysin. Furthermore, through the use of gene silencing, pharmacological inhibitors, immunofluorescence microscopy, and biochemical and metabolic rescue approaches, we demonstrate that the mechanism of protection conferred by simvastatin at physiological nanomolar concentrations could be different from the ...
Principal Investigator:TOMITA Toshio, Project Period (FY):1993 - 1994, Research Category:Grant-in-Aid for General Scientific Research (C), Research Field:Bacteriology (including Mycology)
Stature epilepticus induces a particular microglial activation state characterized by means of enhanced purinergic signaling. As a result, all workers are connected to the IMDB to count on pre-eminence information there currently executed tasks. Simvastatin inhibits inflammatory properties of staphylococci aureus alpha-toxin [url=http://andrewstark.com/intellectual/lesson3/document1/]purchase 160 mg super avana free shipping[/url] impotence caused by medication. Acquaint with parents to keep an eye on iron-containing supplements out-moded of the reach of young children in disposition to prevent accidental ingestion paramount to overdose or poisoning. Nurses obligated to educate parents and adolescents on jalopy, gun, and spa water safe keeping to preclude unintentional injuries. Ikeda, U, and Shimada, K (1999) [url=http://andrewstark.com/intellectual/lesson3/document9/]discount 100 mg nizagara fast delivery[/url] erectile dysfunction treatment exercises. DT provides maturing teams with a open ...
These data demonstrate that hyperexpression of α-hemolysin mediates enhanced virulence in ST93 CA-MRSA, and additional control of exotoxin production, in particular α-hemolysin, mediated by regulatory systems other than agr have the potential to fine-tune virulence in CA-MRSA.
Hemolysin formation was studied in normal rats. It was found that a single intraperitoneal injection of 1 cc. of a 10 per cent suspension of red blood cells results in an optimum high hemolysin titer 5 days after injection. The titer gradually falls, the hemolysin disappearing from 14 to 18 days after the injection. Larger amounts are less effective in the production of amboceptor. Much smaller amounts produce correspondingly lower hemolysin titers, although the ratio is not mathematically proportional. Repeated injections of 1 cc. of a 10 per cent suspension of red blood cells at daily intervals or at intervals of 3 or 5 days for three injections do not increase the hemolysin titer over that resulting from a single injection. Furthermore, the curve of antibody formation following a single small intraperitoneal injec tion of red blood cells is not altered by subsequent injections of similar amounts.. ...
If you have a question about this talk, please contact ma505.. When polymers move from one cellular compartment to another, they pass through protein pores. Nucleic acids, polypeptides and polysaccharides are all transported in this way, stimulating questions about the nature of the transported polymer (diameter, stiffness, branching, charge, charge distribution), the driving force (DV, DpH, refolding, binding) and how that driving force is coupled (direct coupling v diffusion/ ratchet). We have been investigating all three classes of biopolymer by current recording through individual transmembrane pores. We have not only made interesting fundamental discoveries about the translocation processes, but also found useful applications of our work, for example in nucleic acid sequencing and the discovery of antibacterial agents.. This talk is part of the Biophysical Seminars series.. ...
In the work were used the clinical strains of E.coli, St. aureus, Ps.aeruginosa, P.vulgaris, Candida albicans, which have been the most typical agents of hospital infection. The suspended in the physiological solution daily cultures of microorganisms in the concentration to 106 units/ml on 1 standard loop (0,005 ml) sowed to dense nutrient medium - medium of Ploskirev, yolk- salt agar with the mannitol, blood agar, Endos medium. The sowing cultures processed by NO -CGF of apparatus PLASON during 1, 3 and 5 min from the distance of 6 cm by circular pendular motions. The processed cups incubated in aerothermostat with 37°C for 24 hours, after which was evaluated an increase in the microorganisms. In the check studies the sowings of cultures at the same dose processed in no way.. For checking the assumption about the possibility of NO influence on the factors of the aggression of the microorganisms, which are frequently determined by plasmids, was used the clinical hemolytic strain of E.coli ...
Agents that deplete cells of K+ without grossly disrupting the plasma membrane were found to stimulate the cleavage of pro-interleukin (IL)-1 beta to mature IL-1 beta. Agents examined in this study included staphylococcal alpha-toxin and gramicidin, both of which selectively permeabilize plasma memb …
Please date us via our download O gene database for more technology and re-download the care life formerly. malignancies work woken by this Heart. For more hand, are the exposures game.
The hfq gene is conserved in a wide variety of bacteria and Hfq is involved in many cellular functions such as stress responses and the regulation of gene expression. It has also been reported that Hfq is involved in bacterial pathogenicity. However, it is not clear whether Hfq regulates virulence in Vibrio parahaemolyticus. To evaluate this, we investigated the effect of Hfq on the expression of virulence-associated genes including thermostable direct hemolysin (TDH), which is considered to be an important virulence factor in V. parahaemolyticus, using an hfq deletion mutant. The production of TDH in the hfq deletion mutant was much higher than in the parental strain. Quantification of tdh promoter activity and mRNA demonstrated that transcription of the tdh gene was up-regulated in the mutant strain. The hfq-complemented strain had a normal (parental) amount of tdh expression. The transcriptional activity of tdhA was particularly increased in the mutant strain. These results indicate that Hfq is
TY - JOUR. T1 - Carboxy terminal region of haemolysin of Aeromonas sobria triggers dimerization. AU - Nomura, Tomohiko. AU - Hamashima, Hajime. AU - Okamoto, Keinosuke. PY - 2000/1. Y1 - 2000/1. N2 - Haemolysin of Aeromonas sobria is released into the culture supernatant in the form of prohaemolysin. Removal of a 42 amino acid peptide at the carboxy-terminal end converts prohaemolysin into mature haemolysin. As the role of the peptide removed from the mature haemolysin has not been studied, we mutated the haemolysin genes to delete several amino acid residues from the carboxy terminus, expressed the mutant genes in A. sobria and analysed the haemolysins produced. Deletion of more than three amino acid residues significantly reduced the efficiency of secretion of haemolysin into the culture supernatant. Mutant haemolysins with deletion of 10 amino acids were easily degraded in cells. Furthermore, cross-linking experiments indicated that the haemolysins dimerize in cells, and thus dimerized ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - ABCC2 is associated with Bacillus thuringiensis Cry1Ac toxin oligomerization and membrane insertion in diamondback moth. AU - Ocelotl,Josue. AU - Sánchez,Jorge. AU - Gómez,Isabel. AU - Tabashnik,Bruce E.. AU - Bravo,Alejandra. AU - Soberón,Mario. PY - 2017/12/1. Y1 - 2017/12/1. N2 - Cry1A insecticidal toxins bind sequentially to different larval gut proteins facilitating oligomerization, membrane insertion and pore formation. Cry1Ac interaction with cadherin triggers oligomerization. However, a mutation in an ABC transporter gene (ABCC2) is linked to Cry1Ac resistance in Plutella xylostella. Cry1AcMod, engineered to lack helix α-1, was able to form oligomers without cadherinbinding and effectively countered Cry1Ac resistance linked to ABCC2. Here we analyzed Cry1Ac and Cry1AcMod binding and oligomerization by western blots using brush border membrane vesicles (BBMV) from a strain of P. xylostella susceptible to Cry1Ac (Geneva 88) and a strain with resistance to Cry1Ac ...
Bacterial pathogens can interfere during infection with host cell organelles, such as mitochondria, the endoplasmic reticulum-Golgi system or nuclei. As important cellular functions are often compartmentalized in these organelles, their targeting allows pathogens to manipulate key host functions during infection. Here, we identify lysosomes as a new class of organelles targeted by the pathogenic bacterium Listeria monocytogenes. We demonstrate that extracellular Listeria, via secretion of the pore-forming toxin listeriolysin O, alters lysosomal integrity in epithelial cells but not in macrophages. Listeriolysin O induces lysosomal membrane permeabilization and release of lysosomal content, such as cathepsins proteases, which remain transiently active in the host cytosol. We furthermore show that other bacterial pore-forming toxins, such as perfringolysin O and pneumolysin, also induce lysosomes alteration. Together, our data unveil a novel activity of bacterial cholesterol-dependent cytolysins.
Structural stability of Bacillus thuringiensis delta-endotoxin homolog-scanning mutants determined by susceptibility to proteases
TY - JOUR. T1 - Bacillus thuringiensis Cry1Ac protoxin is a potent systemic and mucosal adjuvant. AU - Vazquez-Padron, Roberto I. AU - Moreno-Fierros, L.. AU - Neri-Bazán, L.. AU - De La Riva, G. A.. AU - López-Revilla, Rubén. PY - 1999/7/5. Y1 - 1999/7/5. N2 - Recently we demonstrated that recombinant Cry1Ac protoxin from Bacillus thuringiensis is a potent systemic and mucosal immunogen. In this study we compared the adjuvant effects of Cry1Ac and cholera toxin (CT) for the hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) and bovine serum albumin (BSA). The antibody responses of intestinal secretions and serum were determined by ELISA in Balb/c mice immunized through the intragastric (IG) or intraperitoneal (IP) routes. When HBsAg was administered via IG, the anti- HBsAg intestinal response was not enhanced by either Cry1Ac or CT, whereas via IP Cry1Ac increased the anti-HBsAg intestinal immunoglobulin (Ig)G response and CT increased the intestinal IgA and IgM responses. Serum anti- BSA antibodies ...
Cholesterol-dependent cytolysins (CDCs) are protein toxins that originate from Gram-positive bacteria and contribute substantially to their pathogenicity. CDCs bind membrane cholesterol and build prepores and lytic pores. Some effects of the toxins are observed in non-lytic concentrations. Two pathogens, Streptococcus pneumoniae and Listeria monocytogenes, cause fatal bacterial meningitis, and both produce toxins of the CDC family-pneumolysin and listeriolysin O, respectively. It has been demonstrated that pneumolysin produces dendritic varicosities (dendrite swellings) and dendritic spine collapse in the mouse neocortex, followed by synaptic loss and astrocyte cell shape remodeling without elevated cell death. We utilized primary glial cultures and acute mouse brain slices to examine the neuropathological effects of listeriolysin O and to compare it to pneumolysin with identical hemolytic activity. In cultures, listeriolysin O permeabilized cells slower than pneumolysin did but still initiated non
Interaction analyses of Bacillus thuringiensis Cry1A toxins with two aminopeptidases purified from Gypsy moth midgut brush border membranes
A gene encoding a 125-kilodalton (kDa) mosquitocidal delta-endotoxin was cloned from the 72-MDa resident plasmid of Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. israelensis.
Institut Pertanian Bogor (IPB) (2001) Komposisi media dan teknologi sederhana produksi bioinsektisida dari bacillus thuringiensis subsp kurstaki. S00200100120. ...
Listeriolysin O (LLO) is a hemolysin produced by the bacterium Listeria monocytogenes, the pathogen responsible for causing listeriosis. The toxin may be considered a virulence factor, since it is crucial for the virulence of L. monocytogenes. Listeriolysin O is a non-enzymatic, cytolytic, thiol-activated, cholesterol-dependent, pore-forming toxin protein; hence, it is activated by reducing agents and inhibited by oxidizing agents. However, LLO differs from other thiol-activated toxins, since its cytolytic activity is maximized at a pH of 5.5. By maximizing activity at a pH of 5.5, LLO is selectively activated within the acidic phagosomes (average pH ~ 5.9) of cells that have phagocytosed L. monocytogenes. After LLO lyses the phagosome, the bacterium escapes into the cytosol, where it can grow intracellularly. Upon release from the phagosome, the toxin has reduced activity in the more basic cytosol. Hence, LLO permits L. monocytogenes to escape from phagosomes into the cytosol without damaging ...
Thirty-seven nonhemolytic/nonbacteriocinogenic mutations in Enterococcus (Streptococcus) faecalis plasmid pAD1 were generated by Tn917 insertion. All were found to belong to one of two complementation classes. Each class of mutants secreted either hemolysin/bacteriocin (Hly/Bac) component A or L into the culture medium. DNA encoding Hly/Bac was cloned in Escherichia coli in which both components of the hemolysin were expressed individually and collectively. The region encoding components A and L was further defined by deletion analysis and physically mapped. A total of approximately 8.4 kilobases of pAD1 DNA were observed to be required for hemolysin expression. Hly/Bac activity of the wild-type and the inactive L substance was observed to be heat stable. Active Hly/Bac resulting from incubating separately secreted components A and L was also found to be heat stable. The results indicate that component A activates component L and that activated component L possesses the Hly/Bac activity. ...
Listeriolysin O (LLO) is a major virulence factor secreted by the pathogenic Listeria monocytogenes and acts as pore-forming cytolysin. Based on sequence similarities between LLO and perfringolysin (PFO), the cytolysin from Clostridium perfringens of known crystallographic structure, two truncated LLO proteins were produced: LLO-d123, comprising the first three predicted domains, and LLO-d4, the last C-terminal domain. The two proteins were efficiently secreted into the culture supernatant of L. monocytogenes and were able to bind to cell membranes. Strikingly, when expressed simultaneously, the two secreted domains LLO-d123 and LLO-d4 reassembled into a haemolytically active form. Two in-frame linker insertions were generated in the hinge region between the d123 and d4 domains. In both cases, the insertion created a major cleavage site for proteolytic degradation and abolished cytolytic activity, which might suggest that the region connecting d123 and d4 participates in the interaction between the two
Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) genellikle biyolojik pestisit olarak kullanılan, Gram-pozitif, toprakta yaşayan bir bakteridir.[1] B. thuringiensis çeşitli güve ve kelebek türlerinin tırtıllarının bağırsaklarında, yaprak yüzeylerinda, sucul ortamlarda, hayvan dışkısında, böcek popülasyonunun yoğun olduğu ortamlarda, un değirmenleri ve tahıl depolama tesislerinde doğal olarak bulunmaktadır. Sporlanma sırasında, birçok Bacillus thuringiensis suşunun δ-endotoksinleri denilen kristal proteinleri (proteinli inklüzyonlar) üreterek böcekleri öldürdüğü görülmüş bu da böcek öldürücü maddeler olarak kullanımına yol açmıştır. Birçok kristal üreten Bacillus thuringiensis suşu olsa da hepsinin böcek öldürücü özellikleri yoktur. ...
Labels related to ingredient - Bacillus thuringiensis subspecies kurstaki strain EG7841 solids, spores and Lepidopteran active toxins.
Bacillus thuringiensis, which is a Gram-positive bacteria. It can produce insecticidal crystal proteins(ICP) which are proteolytically processed by gut proteases into the activated δ-endotoxins. The toxins activated by gut proteases bind to specific binding sites on the brush border membranes of insect midgut epithelial cells. The conformational change in the toxin molecules triggers the insertion of their pore-forming domain into the membrane. Finally, colloid-osmotic swelling and lysis of the cell result in the death of the larvae. Cry11Aa protein is one of the crystal protein coded in Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. Israelensis and it is highly toxic to certain dipteran larvae, such as Aedes, and Anopheles larvae. The length of Cry11Aa sequence is about 1.9Kb. In our project, the cry weapon system produce crystal protein, targetting the wrigglers, larvae of mosquitoes. It is controlled by the tetR-repressible promoter PtetR(BBa_R0040), which in turn is regulated by a temperature control ...
Bacillus thuringiensis, which is a Gram-positive bacteria. It can produce insecticidal crystal proteins(ICP) which are proteolytically processed by gut proteases into the activated δ-endotoxins. The toxins activated by gut proteases bind to specific binding sites on the brush border membranes of insect midgut epithelial cells. The conformational change in the toxin molecules triggers the insertion of their pore-forming domain into the membrane. Finally, colloid-osmotic swelling and lysis of the cell result in the death of the larvae. Cry11Aa protein is one of the crystal protein coded in Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. Israelensis and it is highly toxic to certain dipteran larvae, such as Aedes, and Anopheles larvae. The length of Cry11Aa sequence is about 1.9Kb. In our project, the cry weapon system produce crystal protein, targetting the wrigglers, larvae of mosquitoes. It is controlled by the tetR-repressible promoter PtetR(BBa_R0040), which in turn is regulated by a temperature control ...
The present invention provides an isolated and purified protein derived from Bacillus thuringiensis subspecies thuringiensis, having a molecular weight of approximately 20 kDa of SDS-PAGE, said protei
Listeria monocytogenes is a facultative intracellular bacterial pathogen responsible for severe opportunistic infections in humans and animals. The secreted cholesterol-dependent cytolysin, listeriolysin O (LLO), mediates phagosomal escape and allows bacterial growth in the cytosol of infected cells. In order to identify new LLO determinants participating in bacterial pathogenesis, this study focused on a major target of LLO proteolytic cleavage in vitro, the CTL epitope region (residues 91-99). Mutations were generated by site-directed mutagenesis in the epitope or in the two clusters of positive charges flanking the epitope. Two LLO mutants (a single mutation K103A and a double mutation R89G, K90G) were normally and stably secreted by L. monocytogenes. In contrast, a mutant carrying four amino acid substitutions in the epitope itself (Y92K, D94A, E97K, Y98F) was highly susceptible to proteolytic degradation. While these three LLO mutant proteins showed a reduced haemolytic activity, they all promoted
Cry proteins are crucial virulence factors of Bt strains. They have been subdivided into several groups, such as three-domain, ETX/MTX-like, and Bin-like toxins (12). Here, we report two ETX/MTX type Cry proteins from Bt strain 1012. The Cry64Ba and Cry64Ca proteins presented here were successfully expressed in Bt HD73− only when they were cloned simultaneously as one operon. The coexpression protein product (Cry64Ba/Cry64Ca) showed efficient and high insecticidal activity against important sap-sucking pests (Table 1). It is unclear why the two components are essential for their high expression. One possibility is that the cotranscription of these two genes may promote the stability of the mRNA. Another possibility is that the interaction of the two proteins may stabilize their physical and chemical properties or confer resistance to endogenous protease digestion. Gel filtration chromatography showed that both Cry64Ba and Cry64Ca proteins form a complex with a molecular size higher than 66 kDa ...
Pore-forming toxin with nematicidal activity (PubMed:26795495, PubMed:27576487). In infected C.elegans, induces an increase in intracellular Ca(2+) resulting in necrosis of host intestinal cells (PubMed:26795495). Also, induces the expression of aspartic protease asp-1 (PubMed:26795495).
Bacillus thuringiensis ATCC ® 35646D-5™ Designation: Genomic DNA from Bacillus thuringiensis Strain USDA H522 TypeStrain=False Application:
AN ABSTRACT OF THE THESIS OF Katherine E. Strain, for the Masters degree in Zoology, presented on October 21, 2014, at Southern Illinois University Carbondale. TITLE: FATE AND TRANSPORT OF CRY1AB FROM TRANSGENIC BACILLUS THURINGIENSIS CORN IN AN AGRICULTURAL FIELD AND AQUATIC MICROCOSMS MAJOR PROFESSOR: Dr. Michael Lydy, Ph.D. Genetically-modified crops expressing insecticidal crystalline proteins derived from a soil bacterium, Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt), were commercialized almost two decades ago as a means to combat agricultural pests. The Bt proteins are highly specific and only lethal upon ingestion, limiting the scope of toxicity to target insects. However, evidence for risk to non-target organisms and negative public perceptions on the use of Bt crops has caused controversy surrounding their use. The objective of this research was to monitor the fate and transport of a Bt protein, Cry1Ab, in a large-scale agricultural field and in aquatic microcosms. Quantitative methods were validated
Latest research report on Bacillus thuringiensis Market in Brazil now available at high quality database of ReportsnReports.com with market size, share, trends, competitive and statistical analysis. An exclusive data offered in this report is collected by research and industry experts team.. Get Free Sample Research Report @ https://www.reportsnreports.com/contacts/requestsample.aspx?name=3520783. Bacillus thuringiensis (or Bt) is a Gram-positive, soil-dwelling bacterium, commonly used as a biological pesticide. B. thuringiensis also occurs naturally in the gut of caterpillars of various types of moths and butterflies, as well on leaf surfaces, aquatic environments, animal feces, insect-rich environments, and flour mills and grain-storage facilities ...
Vibrio cholerae produces a cytolytic toxin named El Tor cytolysin/hemolysin which is encoded by the hlyA gene. This cytolysin is produced as a 79-kDa precursor form (pro-HlyA) into the culture supernatant after cleavage of the signal peptide of the hlyA product (prepro-HlyA). The pro-HlyA is then processed to a 65-kDa mature cytolysin (mature HlyA) after cleavage of the 15-kDa N-terminal peptide (pro region) of the 79-kDa precursor, usually at the bond between Ala-157 and Asn-158. We investigated whether proteases could process the recombinant 79-kDa pro-HlyA to the 65-kDa mature HlyA. We observed that the soluble hemagglutinin/ protease (HA/protease; a major protease of V. cholerae), trypsin, alpha-chymotrypsin, subtilisin BPN, papain, and thermolysin all processed the pro-HlyA to the 65-kDa mature form of the protein. Along with this, the protease-processed HlyA showed drastically increased hemolytic activity. The N-terminal amino acid of the mature form of cytolysin generated by HA/protease ...
First Announcement THE PACIFIC RIM CONFERENCE ON BIOTECHNOLOGY OF BACILLUS THURINGIENSIS AND ITS IMPACT TO THE ENVIRONMENT October 17 - 21, 1994 In order to promote the use of BACILLUS THURINGIENSIS (B.t.)-based insecticides in the Pacific rim region, the conference is being organized by a group of scientists from the universities, government institutions, and B.t. industries from Taiwan, Japan, and the U.S.A. The conference will be held in the Academic Activity Center, Academia Sinica, Taipei, Taiwan, which can accommodate around 200 participants. In addition to the speakers from the U.S.A. and Canada, the conference organizers plan to invite as many speakers as possible from the Asia- Pacific area. The goals of the conference are: * To promote the biotechnolgy of B.t. for the agricultural industry; to exchange the latest information on strain isolation and identification; to review the current topics on the molecular biology of the insecticidal proteins, transgenic plants, resistance ...
The Vip3 proteins produced during vegetative growth by strains of the bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis show insecticidal activity against lepidopteran insects with a mechanism of action that may involve pore formation and apoptosis. These proteins are promising supplements to our arsenal of insecticidal proteins, but the molecular details of their activity are not understood. As a first step in the structural characterisation of these proteins, we have analysed their secondary structure and resolved the surface topology of a tetrameric complex of the Vip3Ag4 protein by transmission electron microscopy. Sites sensitive to proteolysis by trypsin are identified and the trypsin-cleaved protein appears to retain a similar structure as an octomeric complex comprising four copies each of the ~65 kDa and ~21 kDa products of proteolysis. This processed form of the toxin may represent the active toxin. The quality and monodispersity of the protein produced in this study make Vip3Ag4 a candidate for more detailed
Bacillus Thuringiensis Bt Definition - Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) is a type of spore-forming bacterium. Bt occurs naturally in the soil of all types of...
The Vip3 proteins produced during vegetative growth by strains of the bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis show insecticidal activity against lepidopteran insects with a mechanism of action that may involve pore formation and apoptosis. These proteins are promising supplements to our arsenal of insecticidal proteins, but the molecular details of their activity are not understood. As a first step in the structural characterisation of these proteins, we have analysed their secondary structure and resolved the surface topology of a tetrameric complex of the Vip3Ag4 protein by transmission electron microscopy. Sites sensitive to proteolysis by trypsin are identified and the trypsin-cleaved protein appears to retain a similar structure as an octomeric complex comprising four copies each of the ~65 kDa and ~21 kDa products of proteolysis. This processed form of the toxin may represent the active toxin. The quality and monodispersity of the protein produced in this study make Vip3Ag4 a candidate for more ...
TY - RPRT. T1 - Mikrobiologiske plantebeskyttelsesmidlers skæbne i mave-tarm kanalen - Studier af Bacillus thuringiensis. AU - Wilcks, Andrea. AU - Hansen, B. M.. AU - Hendriksen, N. B.. AU - Ørum-Smidt, Lasse. AU - Andrup, L.. AU - Licht, Tine Rask. PY - 2006. Y1 - 2006. M3 - Rapport. BT - Mikrobiologiske plantebeskyttelsesmidlers skæbne i mave-tarm kanalen - Studier af Bacillus thuringiensis. PB - Miljøstyrelsen. ER - ...
Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) crops are plants genetically engineered (modified) to contain the endospore (or crystal) toxins of the bacterium, Bt to be resistant to certain insect pests. In 1995, the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) in USA approved the commercial production and distribution of the Bt crops: corn, cotton, potato, and tobacco. Currently, the most common Bt crops are corn and cotton. The crystal, referred to as Cry toxins, is proteins formed during sporulation of some Bt strains and aggregate to form crystals. Such Cry toxins are toxic to specific species of insects belongs to orders: Lepidoptera, Coleoptera, Hymenoptera, Diptera, and Nematoda. In 2016, the total world area cultivated with genetically modified crops (GM crops) reached about 185 million ha. This review shows that there is a worldwide controversy about the safety of Bt crops to the environment and mammals. Some researchers support the cultivation of Bt crops depending upon the results of their laboratory and field
Ionic current blockade signal processing, for use in nanopore detection, offers a promising new way to analyze single molecule properties, with potential implications for DNA sequencing. The alpha-Hemolysin transmembrane channel interacts with a translocating molecule in a nontrivial way, frequently evidenced by a complex ionic flow blockade pattern. Typically, recorded current blockade signals have several levels of blockade, with various durations, all obeying a fixed statistical profile for a given molecule. Hidden Markov Model (HMM) based duration learning experiments on artificial two-level Gaussian blockade signals helped us to identify proper modeling framework. We then apply our framework to the real multi-level DNA hairpin blockade signal. The identified upper level blockade state is observed with durations that are geometrically distributed (consistent with an a physical decay process for remaining in any given state). We show that mixture of convolution chains of geometrically distributed
Three groups of three pigs were vaccinated either with vaccine VAC-SLY, containing purified suilysin derived from Streptococcus suis strain P1/7 (serotype 2), or with vaccine VAC-SCF, containing most of the other extracellular antigens produced by strain P1/7 (but essentially free from suilysin), or with a placebo vaccine. The pigs were vaccinated twice at four weeks and six weeks of age and were challenged intravenously with S suis strain P1/7 at eight weeks of age. On the day of challenge, only the VAC-SLY vaccinated pigs showed an increase in haemolysin neutralisation titre. After challenge the placebo vaccinated pigs developed severe clinical signs characterised by lameness involving several joints, a depressed appearance, high temperatures and/or neurological signs. The VAC-SCF vaccinated pigs showed the same clinical signs but less severely. The VAC-SLY vaccinated pigs were the least affected and showed only mild signs which subsided more quickly than those of the other groups. A post ...
اولین قدم به عنوان پایه و اساس تحقیق روی باکتریBacillus thuringiensis ، جداسازی جدایه‌های بومی ‌و نگهداری آن‌ها به عنوان بانک ژن این باکتری است. برای این کار در سال‌های 1380-1378 تعداد 2234 نمونه خاک زراعی از کلیه استان‌های ایران جمع‌آوری شد. با استفاده از روش انور حسین و همکاران با اندکی تغییر تعداد 445,28 جدایه باکتری تشکیل‌دهنده اسپور و در نهایت 128 جدایه باکتری B. thuringiensis جداسازی شد. بیشترین تعداد جدایه‌های این باکتری نسبت به تعداد نمونه جمع‌آوری شده از خاک مزارع پنبه، چغندرقند، برنج و دانه‌های روغنی (آفتابگردان و کلزا) بدست آمد و کمترین تعداد از مزارع صیفی و سبزی
Cytolysin refers to the substance secreted by microorganisms, plants or animals that is specifically toxic to individual cells, in many cases causing their dissolution through lysis. Cytolysins that have a specific action for certain cells are named accordingly. For instance, the cytolysins responsible for the destruction of red blood cells, thereby liberating hemoglobins, are named hemolysins, and so on. Cytolysins may be involved in immunity as well as in venoms. Hemolysin is also used by certain bacteria, such as Listeria monocytogenes, to disrupt the phagosome membrane of macrophages and escape into the cytoplasm of the cell. The term Cytolysin or Cytolytic toxin was first introduced by Alan Bernheimer to describe membrane damaging toxins (MDTs) that have cytolytic effects to cells. The first kind of cytolytic toxin discovered have hemolytic effects on erythrocytes of certain sensitive species, such as Human. For this reason Hemolysin was first used to describe any MDTs. In the 1960s ...
Data on 6,500 pesticides, insecticides and herbicides including toxicity, water pollution, ecological toxicity, uses and regulatory status.
ID Q3Z4T9_SHISS Unreviewed; 72 AA. AC Q3Z4T9; DT 27-SEP-2005, integrated into UniProtKB/TrEMBL. DT 27-SEP-2005, sequence version 1. DT 08-MAY-2019, entry version 65. DE SubName: Full=Haemolysin expression modulating protein {ECO:0000313,EMBL:AAZ87223.1}; GN Name=hha {ECO:0000313,EMBL:AAZ87223.1}; GN OrderedLocusNames=SSON_0447 {ECO:0000313,EMBL:AAZ87223.1}; OS Shigella sonnei (strain Ss046). OC Bacteria; Proteobacteria; Gammaproteobacteria; Enterobacterales; OC Enterobacteriaceae; Shigella. OX NCBI_TaxID=300269 {ECO:0000313,EMBL:AAZ87223.1, ECO:0000313,Proteomes:UP000002529}; RN [1] {ECO:0000313,EMBL:AAZ87223.1, ECO:0000313,Proteomes:UP000002529} RP NUCLEOTIDE SEQUENCE [LARGE SCALE GENOMIC DNA]. RC STRAIN=Ss046 {ECO:0000313,EMBL:AAZ87223.1, RC ECO:0000313,Proteomes:UP000002529}; RX PubMed=16275786; DOI=10.1093/nar/gki954; RA Yang F., Yang J., Zhang X., Chen L., Jiang Y., Yan Y., Tang X., RA Wang J., Xiong Z., Dong J., Xue Y., Zhu Y., Xu X., Sun L., Chen S., RA Nie H., Peng J., Xu J., Wang Y., ...
ID Q3Z4T9_SHISS Unreviewed; 72 AA. AC Q3Z4T9; DT 27-SEP-2005, integrated into UniProtKB/TrEMBL. DT 27-SEP-2005, sequence version 1. DT 08-MAY-2019, entry version 65. DE SubName: Full=Haemolysin expression modulating protein {ECO:0000313,EMBL:AAZ87223.1}; GN Name=hha {ECO:0000313,EMBL:AAZ87223.1}; GN OrderedLocusNames=SSON_0447 {ECO:0000313,EMBL:AAZ87223.1}; OS Shigella sonnei (strain Ss046). OC Bacteria; Proteobacteria; Gammaproteobacteria; Enterobacterales; OC Enterobacteriaceae; Shigella. OX NCBI_TaxID=300269 {ECO:0000313,EMBL:AAZ87223.1, ECO:0000313,Proteomes:UP000002529}; RN [1] {ECO:0000313,EMBL:AAZ87223.1, ECO:0000313,Proteomes:UP000002529} RP NUCLEOTIDE SEQUENCE [LARGE SCALE GENOMIC DNA]. RC STRAIN=Ss046 {ECO:0000313,EMBL:AAZ87223.1, RC ECO:0000313,Proteomes:UP000002529}; RX PubMed=16275786; DOI=10.1093/nar/gki954; RA Yang F., Yang J., Zhang X., Chen L., Jiang Y., Yan Y., Tang X., RA Wang J., Xiong Z., Dong J., Xue Y., Zhu Y., Xu X., Sun L., Chen S., RA Nie H., Peng J., Xu J., Wang Y., ...
Pore-forming toxins (PFTs) are a class of proteins implicated in a wide range of virulent bacterial infections and diseases. These toxins bind to target membranes and subsequently oligomerize to form functional pores that eventually lead to cell lysis. While the protein undergoes large conformational changes on the bilayer, the connection between intermediate oligomeric states and lipid reorganization during pore formation is largely unexplored. Cholesterol-dependent cytolysins (CDCs) are a subclass of PFTs widely implicated in food poisoning and other related infections. Using a prototypical CDC, listeriolysin O (LLO), we provide a microscopic connection between pore formation, lipid dynamics, and leakage kinetics by using a combination of Forster resonance energy transfer (FRET) and fluorescence correlation spectroscopy (FCS) measurements on single giant unilamellar vesicles (GUVs). Upon exposure to LLO, two distinct populations of GUVs with widely different leakage kinetics emerge. We ...
I have been interested in using Bacillus thuringiensis in an outdoor amphibian setup to kill mosquito larvae. Mosquitoes have become more than a nuisance...
Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) eggplant or bt talong in Philippine dialect was genetically redesigned to be resistant to the fruit and shoot borer larva that affects crop yielding from 50-70 percent.. Read moreScientist Warns About Risk Of Bt Eggplant. ...
Negative staining image of Bacillus thuringiensis, which produces spores and crystals in times of stress. The image was taken using transmission elec...
Negative staining image of Bacillus thuringiensis, which produces spores and crystals in times of stress. The image was taken using transmission elec...
This report from the Academy describes the use of Bacillus thuringiensis proteins in agriculture and addresses positive outcomes, potential risks and recommendations for future research.
Fingerprint Dive into the research topics of Bacillus thuringiensis HD-73 spores have surface-localized Cry1Ac toxin: Physiological and pathogenic consequences. Together they form a unique fingerprint. ...
The cry1Ac gene produces the insect control protein Cry1Ac, a delta-endotoxin, in the plant tissues. Cry proteins, of which Cry1Ac is only one, act by selectively binding to specific sites localized on the lining of the midgut of susceptible insect species. Following binding, pores are formed that disrupt midgut ion flow, causing gut paralysis and eventual death due to bacterial sepsis. Cry1Ac is insecticidal only when eaten by the larvae of lepidopteran insects (moths and butterflies), and its specificity of action is directly attributable to the presence of specific binding sites in the target insects. There are no binding sites for delta-endotoxins of B. thuringiensis on the surface of mammalian intestinal cells, therefore, livestock animals and humans are not susceptible to these proteins ...
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However, both natural and chemical inhibitors reported up to now has difficulties associated to toxicity, bioavailability, and solubility, which necessitate in identifying some alternatives. Potential peptides for α-hemolysin inhibition was developed using in silico based mostly strategy. The peptide IYGSKANRQTDK was found to be binding effectively with Chain A of α-hemolysin with the highest binding energy and also revealed that the designed peptide disturbed the dimer formation . Totarol, a plant extract, has been revealed to inhibit the production of α-hemolysin . A silkworm hemolymph protein, apolipophorin , binds to the cell floor of Staphylococcus aureus and inhibits expression of the saePQRS operon encoding a two-element system, SaeRS, and hemolysin genes.. Detailed research have been performed in numerous bacterial species and we will give attention to illustrative examples. For the fungi, well describe iron acquisition techniques within the three finest-studied opportunistic ...
Universal protein resource accession number P0C1V1 for "Delta-hemolysin" at UniProt. Dinges MM, Orwin PM, Schlievert PM ( ... Delta toxin molecules activate a G-protein-coupled receptor expressed in leukocytes called formyl-peptide receptor 2 (FPR2), ... Thelestam M, Möllby R, Wadström T (December 1973). "Effects of staphylococcal alpha-, beta-, delta-, and gamma-hemolysins on ...
Examples of pore-forming proteins are alpha hemolysin, aerolysin, and MspA porin. In typical laboratory nanopore experiments, a ... Nanopores may be formed by pore-forming proteins, typically a hollow core passing through a mushroom-shaped protein molecule. ... Newer pore-forming proteins have been extracted from bacteriophages for study into their use as nanopores. These pores are ... It may, for example, be created by a pore-forming protein or as a hole in synthetic materials such as silicon or graphene. When ...
... s comprise more than 1/3 of all bacterial protein toxins. Bacterial protein toxins can be highly poisonous to human. ... are named hemolysins, and so on. Cytolysins may be involved in immunity as well as in venoms. Hemolysin is also used by certain ... For this reason "Hemolysin" was first used to describe any MDTs. In the 1960s certain MDTs were proved to be destructive on ... Most receptors are proteins, but they can be other molecules as well, such as lipids or sugars. With the help of receptors, ...
Berne S, Krizaj I, Pohleven F, Turk T, Macek P, Sepcić K (April 2002). "Pleurotus and Agrocybe hemolysins, new proteins ... Representative proteins include pleurotolysin B, which has a MACPF domain, the aegerolysin-like protein pleurotolysin A, and ... Another two-component hemolysin, erylysin A and B (EryA and EryB; TC# 1.C.97.1.2), was isolated from an edible mushroom, ... Proteins with membrane-attack complex/perforin (MACPF) domains have a variety of biological roles, including defense and attack ...
CytK is a pore-forming protein more related to other hemolysins.[citation needed] The timing of the toxin production was ... The proteins exhibit a conformation known as a "beta-barrel" that can insert into cellular membranes due to a hydrophobic ... 2006). "A new protein superfamily includes two novel 3-methyladenine DNA glycosylases Bacillus cereus, AlkC and AlkD". ... He presented with chills, tachypnea, and high-grade fever, his white blood cell count and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein ( ...
It can also recruit complement regulators such as Factor H, C4b-binding protein, factor H-like binding protein, and vitronectin ... Leptospira also secretes sphingomyelinase and haemolysin that target red blood cells. Leptospira spreads rapidly to all organs ... ERU is an autoimmune disease involving antibodies against Leptospira proteins LruA and LruB cross-reacting with eye proteins. ... They also bind to several human proteins such as complement proteins, thrombin, fibrinogen, and plasminogen using surface ...
The hemolysin portion of the protein then binds to the target membrane and inserts itself into the bilayer. The adenylate ... Conjugating each subdomain to a different protein allows protein-protein interactions to be studied, because cAMP production ... Adenylate cyclase toxin from Bordetella pertussis is a 1706 amino acid residue long protein. The protein consists of three ... are a characteristic feature of this family of proteins, and are able to bind calcium ions. A feature of the RTX proteins is ...
Protein A, an immunoglobulin binding protein, has been found on the surface of S. pseudintermedius. Protein A attaches to the ... The pore-forming cytotoxins, α-hemolysin and β-hemolysin, lyse erythrocytes of sheep and rabbits. Leukotoxin destroys host ... The previously mentioned protein A as well as clumping factor are surface proteins that allow the bacteria to bind to host ... S. pseudintermedius has been found to produce biofilms, an extracellular matrix of protein, DNA, and polysaccharide, which aids ...
"Haemolysin coregulated protein is an exported receptor and chaperone of type VI secretion substrates". Molecular Cell. 51 (5): ... The first protein encoded in the operon, CdiB, is an outer membrane beta-barrel protein that exports CdiA, presenting it on the ... This effector kills targets that do not have the cognate immunity protein similar to other CDI systems. The first CDI system to ... CdiI is an immunity protein to prevent auto-inhibition by the C-terminal toxin. This also prevents the bacteria from killing or ...
... arranged as a sheath around a tube built from stacked hexameric rings of the haemolysin co-regulated protein (Hcp). At the tip ... The immunity proteins function by binding to the toxin proteins, often at their active site, thereby blocking their activity. ... "Haemolysin coregulated protein is an exported receptor and chaperone of type VI secretion substrates". Molecular Cell. 51 (5): ... Upon the GacS/Rsm pathway stimulation, an increase in Rsm molecules leads to inhibition of mRNA-binding protein RsmA. RsmA is a ...
The cyaA operon encodes the five proteins CyaA (RTX toxin), CyaC (CyaA activation protein), and the three T1SS proteins: CyaB ( ... EHEC haemolysin (EHEC-Hly) was discovered in the EHEC serotype O157:H7. The EHEC-Hly operon contains four E. coli hly homologs ... an ABC transporter) CyaD (a membrane fusion protein), and CyaE (an outer membrane protein). The CyaA protein contains an ... The general rtx gene cluster encodes three protein types: the RTX toxin, an RTX activating acyltransferase, and T1SS proteins. ...
This protein in turn is cleaved into a calmodulin-sensitive adenylate cyclase (cyaA-ACD) and hemolysin. Both are virulence ... Bifunctional hemolysin/adenylate cyclase is a protein that in B. pertussis (the bacteria that causes whooping cough) is encoded ... CyaA binds to calcium ions selectively and non-covalently, along with other proteins and protein complexes. It has also been ...
The protein has structural similarities to other toxins, including haemolysin E and B. cereus toxins HlbB and NheA. No other ... Since Cry6Aa proteins function differently than other Cry proteins, they are combined with other proteins to decrease the ... Cry6Aa proteins are unrelated to other insecticidal crystal proteins in primary amino acid structure; it is a member of the ... Most Cry proteins have 3 main domains with functional homology across proteins, domain I contains an alpha helix bundle, domain ...
Several virulence factors contribute to the pathogenesis of GAS, such as M protein, hemolysins, and extracellular enzymes. ... The 30-valent N-terminal M-protein-based vaccine as well as the M-protein vaccine (minimal epitope J8 vaccine) are two vaccines ... The M-protein generates antibodies that cross-react with autoantigens on interstitial connective tissue, in particular of the ... A 2019 study shows that GAS's evasion of immune detection is facilitated by protein S, an extracellular and cell wall- ...
The tetanus toxin protein has a molecular weight of 150 kDa. It is translated from the tetX gene as one protein which is ... C. tetani also produces the exotoxin tetanolysin, a hemolysin, that causes destruction of tissues. Tetanus toxin spreads ... Both the ganglioside and the GPI-anchored protein are located in lipid microdomains and both are requisite for specific TeNT ... The A-chain, an M27-family zinc endopeptidase, attacks the vesicle-associated membrane protein (VAMP). The TetX gene encoding ...
... is a mixture of either two or three proteins of similar structure, each with a molecular weight of 34 kDa. It has ... Phallolysin is a toxic hemolysin that has been isolated from the death cap mushroom Amanita phalloides. ...
... conformation as seen in α-Haemolysin. (PDB: 7AHL, 1T5R) β-PFTs are dimorphic proteins that exist as soluble monomers and then ... Figure 1 shows the pore-form of α-Hemolysin, the first crystal structure of a β-PFT in its pore-form. 7 α-Hemolysin monomers ... Figure 1 shows the pore-form of α-Hemolysin, the first crystal structure of a β-PFT in its pore-form. 7 α-Hemolysin monomers ... As discussed above, the majority of the Toxin_10 family proteins act as part of binary toxins with partner proteins that may ...
1990). "Deletions of chro- mosomal regions coding for fimbriae and hemolysins occur in vivo and in vitro in various ... Regulation genes typically encoded on PAIs include AraC-like proteins and two-component response regulators. PAIs can be ... The P fimbriae island contains virulence factors such as haemolysin, pili, cytotoxic necrosing factor, and uropathogenic ... specific protein (USP). Yersinia pestis high pathogenicity island I has genes regulating iron uptake and storage. Salmonella ...
One example of a bacterial virulence factor acting like a eukaryotic protein is Salmonella protein SopE it acts as a GEF, ... The factors, including toxins, hemolysins and proteases, bring damage to the host. Bacteria produce various adhesins including ... YopT (Yersinia outer protein T) from Yersinia is an example of modification of the host. It modifies the proteolytic cleavage ... One is by acting as a GEF or GAP, and proceeding to look like a normally eukaryotic cellular protein. The other is covalently ...
Sequencing has revealed a bundle of twelve proteins and some putative hemolysins are potential virulence factors of T. pallidum ... They are composed of the intermediate filament-like protein CfpA (cytoplasmic filament protein A). Although the filaments may ... The outer membrane of T. pallidum has too few surface proteins for an antibody to be effective. Efforts to develop a safe and ... In order to avoid antibodies attacking, the cell has few proteins exposed on the outer membrane sheath. Its chromosome of about ...
The capsular proteins the bacteria express however, are capable of producing an immune response contributing to shock syndrome ... Exotoxin: V. vulnificus produces a number of extracellular toxins such as metalloprotease VvpE, cytolysin/hemolysin VvhA, and ...
Science 266:1992-1996 [8] Thanabalu et al (2000) Substrate-induced assembly of a contiguous channel for protein export from E. ... Fatty acylation of two internal lysine residues required for the toxic activity of Escherichia coli hemolysin. ... Nature 504:287-290 [13] Koronakis et al (2000) Crystal structure of ToIC central to multidrug efflux and protein export. Nature ... Docking of chaperone-substrate complexes at the membrane ATPase during flagellar type III protein export. Proc Natl Acad Sci ( ...
The proteins account for 5% of the serum globulin fraction. Most of these proteins circulate as zymogens, which are inactive ... Hemolysins. Serum substances that work with complement. to lyse red blood cells. Belfanti and Carbone (1898)[8] Jules Bordet ( ... complement proteins to induce bacterial lysis. Richard Pfeiffer (1895)[5] Bacterial agglutinins and precipitins. Serum ... These membrane-bound protein complexes have antibodies which are specific for antigen detection. Each B cell has a unique ...
Alpha hemolysin (αHL), a nanopore from bacteria that causes lysis of red blood cells, has been studied for over 15 years. To ... Protein mutation of αHL has improved the detection abilities of the pore. The next proposed step is to bind an exonuclease onto ... Imagine now a nano-sized polymer such as DNA or protein placed in one of the chambers. This molecule also has a net charge that ... In 1989 he sketched out a plan to drive a single-strand of DNA through a protein nanopore embedded into a thin membrane as part ...
Hemolysins target erythrocytes, a.k.a. red blood cells. Attacking and lysing these cells harms the host organism, and provides ... Once active, pepsin works to break down proteins in foods such as dairy, meat, and eggs. Pepsin works best at the pH of gastric ... This enzyme is responsible for the breakdown of large globular proteins and its activity is specific to cleaving the C-terminal ... Bacteria such as Clostridium do so by using the enzyme to dissolve collagen and hyaluronic acid, the protein and saccharides, ...
The toxin is a large 250-kDa protein the active part of which is the NH2-terminal 551 amino acid fragment. Alpha-toxins are ... The zeta-toxin is characterised as haemolysin. The type and severity of the disease caused depends on penetration of the ... Just I, Selzer J, Wilm M, von Eichel-Streiber C, Mann M, Aktories K (June 1995). "Glucosylation of Rho proteins by Clostridium ... The delta-toxin is characterised as oxygen labile haemolysin. The epsilon-toxin is characterised as lecithino-vitelin[check ...
Haemolysin BL and non-haemolytic enterotoxin production are both influenced by pH and micro. Phelps RJ, McKillip JL (June 2002 ... In molecular biology, the Bacillus haemolytic enterotoxin family of proteins consists of several Bacillus haemolytic ... Haemolysin BL (encoded by HBL) and non-haemolytic enterotoxin (encoded by NHE), represent the major enterotoxins produced by ...
To examine the extent of damage in G-quadruplexes of telomeres, Burrows used a protein α-hemolysin, which contains a nanoscale ... Xu, Xiaoyun; Muller, James G.; Ye, Yu; Burrows, Cynthia J. (2008-01-16). "DNA-protein cross-links between guanine and lysine ... In the context of DNA-protein cross linking, 8-oxoguanine is susceptible to forming adducts with amino acids containing ... Nanopores can range from solid-state constructs to small proteins. ...
... for bacterial hemolysins that cooperate with proteases for tissue destruction and thiol-activated cytolysins like proteins that ... Most of the degradation products of host proteins and lipids by the F. psychrophilum are available as citric acid cycle ... which is predicted to contain 2,432 protein-coding genes. Compared to environmental members of the family, it has a small ...
... a membrane fusion protein (MFP), and an outer membrane factor (OMF). An example is the secretion of hemolysin (HlyA) from E. ... roles of membrane structure and electrostatics in lipid-protein and protein-protein interactions". Biochimica et Biophysica ... a "2 TMS" protein has 2 transmembrane segments) to give 6 TMS proteins. ABC2 exporters evolved by intragenic duplication of a 3 ... The genome of the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana is capable of encoding 120 ABC proteins compared to 50-70 ABC proteins that ...
Mark Akeson joined the research effort in 1997, and in 1999 published a paper showing that the hemolysin channel, now referred ... Deamer and Branton demonstrated that the freeze-etch method split the lipid bilayer of membranes to reveal integral proteins ... and Dan Branton initiated a research collaboration with John Kasianowitz at NIST to explore this possibility with the hemolysin ...
Protein nanopore sequencing utilizes membrane protein complexes such as α-hemolysin, MspA (Mycobacterium smegmatis Porin A) or ... a small protein secreted by the pancreas. This provided the first conclusive evidence that proteins were chemical entities with ... Sanger is one of the few scientists who was awarded two Nobel prizes, one for the sequencing of proteins, and the other for the ... DNA sequencing is also the most efficient way to sequence RNA or proteins (via their open reading frames). In fact, DNA ...
Hemolysins or haemolysins are lipids and proteins that cause lysis of red blood cells by disrupting the cell membrane. Although ... Staphylococcus aureus hemolysins[edit]. α-hemolysin[edit]. Alpha(α)-hemolysin of Staphylococcus aureus: macromolecular ... γ-Hemolysin[edit]. γ-Hemolysins are pore-forming toxins in the same family as α-Hemolysin. They are unique in that they come in ... β-hemolysin[edit]. β-hemolysin (hlb; Q2FWP1) is a Phospholipase C toxin secreted by S. aureus. Upon investigating sheep ...
S. Hunt, J. Green, P. J. Artymiuk: Hemolysin E (HlyE, ClyA, SheA) and related toxins. In: Advances in experimental medicine and ... Ein porenbildendes Toxin (englisch pore-forming toxin, PFT) ist ein Protein, das eine Pore in bestimmten Biomembranen bildet ... T. J. Wiles, M. A. Mulvey: The RTX pore-forming toxin α-hemolysin of uropathogenic Escherichia coli: progress and perspectives. ... α-PFT wie das Cytolysin A (synonym Hämolysin E, silent hemolysin locus A) kommen in manchen Stämmen von Escherichia coli (v. a ...
The proteins account for 5% of the serum globulin fraction. Most of these proteins circulate as zymogens, which are inactive ... Hemolysins. Serum substances that work with complement. to lyse red blood cells. Belfanti and Carbone (1898)[8] Jules Bordet ( ... complement proteins to induce bacterial lysis. Richard Pfeiffer (1895)[5]. Bacterial agglutinins and precipitins. Serum ... These membrane-bound protein complexes have antibodies which are specific for antigen detection. Each B cell has a unique ...
Recombinant activated protein C (drotrecogin alpha) in a 2011 Cochrane review was found not to decrease mortality and to ... Type II, membrane-damaging toxins, destroy cell membranes in order to enter and include hemolysins and phospholipases. Type III ... In gram-negative sepsis, free LPS attaches to a circulating LPS-binding protein, and the complex then binds to the CD14 ... Martí-Carvajal, AJ; Solà, I; Gluud, C; Lathyris, D; Cardona, AF (12 December 2012). "Human recombinant protein C for severe ...
MspA porin (octamer, n=S=16) and α-hemolysin (heptamer n=S=14) . These proteins are secreted. ... In humans, 27% of all proteins have been estimated to be alpha-helical membrane proteins.[5] Beta-barrel proteins are so far ... bitopic membrane protein). 2) a polytopic transmembrane α-helical protein. 3) a polytopic transmembrane β-sheet protein. The ... Membrane Proteins of known 3D Structure *^ Elofsson, A.; Heijne, G. V. (2007). "Membrane Protein Structure: Prediction versus ...
Polypeptide toxins and many antibacterial peptides, such as colicins or hemolysins, and certain proteins involved in apoptosis ... Membrane proteins are a common type of proteins along with soluble globular proteins, fibrous proteins, and disordered proteins ... Purification of membrane proteinsEdit. The activity of membrane proteins decrease very fast in contrast to other proteins. ... A large fraction of all proteins are thought to be membrane proteins. For instance, about 1000 of the ~4200 proteins of E. coli ...
Binding of this protein to the consensus sequence represents gene expression by reducing transcription. It is not known what ... toxin-hemolysin. Membrane translocation of AC domain polypeptide promotes calcium influx into CD11b+ monocytes independently of ... the so-called Bvg-activated repressor protein, BvgR. BvgR binds to a consensus sequence present within the coding sequences of ... and this interaction with epithelial cells is mediated by a series of protein adhesins. These include filamentous haemaglutinin ...
Penicillin-binding protein 2'. ΨSCCmec(h1435) Cephalosporins. Ceftizoxime. ,512. SH0091. mecA. Penicillin-binding protein 2'. ... Some S. haemolyticus strains produce enterotoxins (SE) and/or hemolysins.[9][17] In a study of 64 S. haemolyticus strains, ... Biofilm formation is influenced by a variety of factors including carbohydrates, proteins, and extracellular DNA. Detachment ... and protein. Peptidoglycan of group A3 (with L-lysine as the diamino acid in position 3 of the peptide subunit and a glycine- ...
... roles of membrane structure and electrostatics in lipid-protein and protein-protein interactions". Biochim. Biophys. Acta. 1666 ... Crystal structure of the nucleotide-binding domain of the ABC-transporter haemolysin B: identification of a variable region ... Najbolje izučeni član ABCG familije je ABCG2, takođe poznat kao BCRP (енгл. breast cancer resistance protein - protein ... Sugars induce the Agrobacterium virulence genes through a periplasmic binding protein and a transmembrane signal protein". Proc ...
... β-hemolysin [13]. Today it is considered that GBS pigment and hemolysin are identical or closely related molecules.[14][15][16] ... Protein-based vaccines are also in development.[36] ... "Group B streptococcal haemolysin and pigment, a tale of twins" ... The CAMP factor produced by GBS acts synergistically with the staphylococcal β-hemolysin inducing enhanced hemolysis of sheep ... "Pathogenesis of Streptococcus urinary tract infection depends on bacterial strain and β-hemolysin/cytolysin that mediates ...
The E. faecalis genome consists of 3.22 million base pairs with 3,113 protein-coding genes.[26] ... A plasmid-encoded hemolysin, called the cytolysin, is important for pathogenesis in animal models of infection, and the ... "In search of novel protein drug targets for treatment ofEnterococcus faecalisinfections". Chemical biology & drug design. Wiley ... acyl carrier protein, 3‐Dehydroquinate dehydratase and Deoxynucleotide triphosphate triphosphohydrolase are all potential ...
This species of Rickettsia uses an abundant cell surface protein called OmpB to attach to a host cell membrane protein called ... To escape from the phagosome, the bacteria secrete phospholipase D and hemolysin C. This causes disruption of the phagosomal ... CDC42, protein tyrosine kinase, phosphoinositide 3-kinase, and Src-family kinases then activate Arp2/3. This causes the ... Both rOmpA and rOmpB are members of a family of surface cell antigens (Sca) which are autotransporter proteins; they act as ...
Hemolysins damage the red blood cell's cytoplasmic membrane, causing lysis and eventually cell death. Hemolysis inside the body ... The release of heme leads to the production of bilirubin and depletion of plasma proteins, such as albumin, haptoglobin, and ... Hemolysin Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency Wells, John C. (2008). Longman Pronunciation Dictionary (3rd ed.). ... One cause of hemolysis is the action of hemolysins, toxins that are produced by certain pathogenic bacteria or fungi. Another ...
Antibodies can then bind to these viral proteins. Next, the NK cells which have reciprocal Fcγ receptors will bind to that ... described as hemolysins. These bacteria target the CD18 portion of leukocytes, which has historically been shown to impact ADCC ... During replication of a virus, some of the viral proteins are expressed on the cell surface membrane of the infected cell. ... more recent studies have produced success in regulating metastatic tumors using interleukin proteins to activate the NK cell. ...
β-propeller phytases (BPPs) are a group of enzymes (i.e. protein superfamily) with a round beta-propeller structure. BPPs are ... "The effects of calcium and other polyvalent cations on channel formation by Escherichia coli alpha-hemolysin in red blood cells ... Gifre L, Arís A, Bach À, Garcia-Fruitós E (March 2017). "Trends in recombinant protein use in animal production". Microbial ... Chen C, Cheng K, Ko T, Guo R (2015-04-01). "Current Progresses in Phytase Research: Three-Dimensional Structure and Protein ...
... protein kinase inhibitors MeSH D27.505.519.389.760 - protein synthesis inhibitors MeSH D27.505.519.389.936 - uncoupling agents ... hemolysins MeSH D27.888.569.213.545 - leukocidins MeSH D27.888.569.242 - dermotoxins MeSH D27.888.569.271 - immunotoxins MeSH ...
He is known for his studies on the Pore-forming protein toxins and T-cell costimulatory molecules. The Department of ... "Disulphide bond restrains the C-terminal region of thermostable direct hemolysin during folding to promote oligomerization". ...
Recombinant activated protein C (drotrecogin alpha) in a 2011 Cochrane review was found not to decrease mortality and to ... Type II, membrane-damaging toxins, destroy cell membranes in order to enter and includeF hemolysins and phospholipases. Type ... Martí-Carvajal AJ, Solà I, Gluud C, Lathyris D, Cardona AF (December 2012). "Human recombinant protein C for severe sepsis and ... This is manifested by increased cellular respiration, protein catabolism, and metabolic acidosis with a compensatory ...
... groel protein MeSH D12.776.602.500.500.100 - fusion proteins, bcr-abl MeSH D12.776.602.500.500.320 - fusion proteins, gag-onc ... hemolysins MeSH D12.776.377.715.548.114.573 - immune sera MeSH D12.776.377.715.548.114.573.203 - antilymphocyte serum MeSH ... oncogene protein v-maf MeSH D12.776.964.700.750.875 - oncogene proteins v-abl MeSH D12.776.964.700.750.882 - oncogene proteins ... fusion proteins, gag-pol MeSH D12.776.964.775.350.400 - hiv core protein p24 MeSH D12.776.964.775.375.325 - fusion proteins, ...
Alpha-hemolysin has been used extensively in academic research as a single molecule nanopore sensor. In 1996 it was first shown ... The structure of the protein has been solved by x-ray crystallography and is deposited in the PDB as id code 7ahl. Seven ... The hly gene on the S. aureus chromosome encodes the 293 residue protein monomer, which forms heptameric units on the cellular ... Song L, Hobaugh MR, Shustak C, Cheley S, Bayley H, Gouaux JE (December 1996). "Structure of staphylococcal alpha-hemolysin, a ...
The bacterium contains a surface protein, filamentous haemagglutinin adhesin, which binds to the sulfatides found on cilia of ... Sebo, Peter; Osicka, Radim; Masin, Jiri (2014-08-04). "Adenylate cyclase toxin-hemolysin relevance for pertussis vaccines". ... The toxin, known as pertussis toxin (or PTx), inhibits G protein coupling that regulates an adenylate cyclase-mediated ...
... the haemolysin expression modulating protein family is a family of proteins. This family consists of haemolysin expression ... "Evidence for direct protein-protein interaction between members of the enterobacterial Hha/YmoA and H-NS families of proteins ... The HHA family of proteins display striking similarity to the oligomerisation domain of the H-NS proteins. Madrid C, Nieto JM, ... These proteins act as modulators of bacterial gene expression. Members of this family act in conjunction with members of the H- ...
While modification of large protein channels using mutagenesis are generally considered out of the scope of synthetic channels ... the demarcation is not sharp, as supramolecular or covalent bonding of cyclodextrins to alpha-hemolysin demonstrates. An ion ... Nanotechnology Supramolecular chemistry Macrocycles Amphiphile Ionophore Membrane biophysics Membrane protein Voltage-gated ion ... "Molecular bases of cyclodextrin adapter interactions with engineered protein nanopores". PNAS. 107 (18): 8165-8170. Bibcode: ...
... the thermostable direct hemolysin gene (tdh) and/or the tdh-related hemolysin gene (trh). Strains possessing one or both of ... Aside from the T3SS, two genes encoding well-characterized virulence proteins are typically found on the PAI, ... which is capable of injecting virulence proteins into host cells to disrupt host cell functions or cause cell death by ... these hemolysins exhibit beta-hemolysis on blood agar plates. A distinct correlation seems to exist between presence of tdh, ...
... the haemolysin expression modulating protein family is a family of proteins. This family consists of haemolysin expression ... "Evidence for direct protein-protein interaction between members of the enterobacterial Hha/YmoA and H-NS families of proteins ... The HHA family of proteins display striking similarity to the oligomerisation domain of the H-NS proteins. Madrid C, Nieto JM, ... These proteins act as modulators of bacterial gene expression. Members of this family act in conjunction with members of the H- ...
... on Shapeways. Learn more before you buy, or discover other cool products in ... Bacteria Biological Models Biology Enzyme Hemolysin Protein Molecular Biology Molecular Models Protein Science Toxin ... Staphylococcal hemolysin is expressed as a water-soluble monomeric protein and assembles on membranes to form a heptameric pore ... The heptameric pore structure of hemolysin can be prepared from monomer in vitro only in the presence of deoxycholate detergent ...
... to allow unambiguous identification of a protein.,p>,a href=/help/protein_names target=_top>More...,/a>,/p>Protein namesi. ... Pfam protein domain database. More...Pfami. View protein in Pfam. PF00571 CBS, 2 hits. PF03471 CorC_HlyC, 1 hit. PF01595 ... PROSITE; a protein domain and family database. More...PROSITEi. View protein in PROSITE. PS51371 CBS, 2 hits. PS51846 CNNM, 1 ... Integrated resource of protein families, domains and functional sites. More...InterProi. View protein in InterPro. IPR000644 ...
alpha-Haemolysin is a protein toxin (107 kDa) secreted by some pathogenic strains of E. coli. It binds to mammalian cell ... Release of lipid vesicle contents by the bacterial protein toxin alpha-haemolysin.. Ostolaza H1, Bartolomé B, Ortiz de Zárate I ... Small pores formed by monomeric alpha-haemolysin, as described by other authors, do not appear to be related to the process of ... This paper describes the mechanism of alpha-haemolysin-induced membrane leakage, from experiments in which extrusion large ...
... to allow unambiguous identification of a protein.,p>,a href=/help/protein_names target=_top>More...,/a>,/p>Protein namesi. ... Integrated resource of protein families, domains and functional sites. More...InterProi. View protein in InterPro. IPR001087 ... Protein-protein interaction databases. STRINGi. 223926.VPA0226. Protocols and materials databases. Structural Biology ... p>This section provides information on sequence similarities with other proteins and the domain(s) present in a protein.,p>,a ...
The UPEC pore-forming toxin α-hemolysin triggers proteolysis of host proteins to disrupt cell adhesion, inflammatory, and ... The UPEC Pore Forming Toxin α-Hemolysin Triggers Proteolysis of Host Proteins to Disrupt Cell Adhesion, Inflammatory and ... The UPEC Pore Forming Toxin α-Hemolysin Triggers Proteolysis of Host Proteins to Disrupt Cell Adhesion, Inflammatory and ... The UPEC Pore Forming Toxin α-Hemolysin Triggers Proteolysis of Host Proteins to Disrupt Cell Adhesion, Inflammatory and ...
Staphylococcal Complement Inhibitor and Chemotaxis Inhibitory Protein of Staphylococcus aureus Are Located on β-Hemolysin- ... Staphylococcal Complement Inhibitor and Chemotaxis Inhibitory Protein of Staphylococcus aureus Are Located on β-Hemolysin- ... Staphylococcal Complement Inhibitor and Chemotaxis Inhibitory Protein of Staphylococcus aureus Are Located on β-Hemolysin- ... Staphylococcal Complement Inhibitor and Chemotaxis Inhibitory Protein of Staphylococcus aureus Are Located on β-Hemolysin- ...
Comparison of O-polysaccharide and hemolysin co-regulated protein as target antigens for serodiagnosis of melioidosis ... Comparison of O-polysaccharide and hemolysin co-regulated protein as target antigens for serodiagnosis of melioidosis ... Comparison of O-polysaccharide and hemolysin co-regulated protein as target antigens for serodiagnosis of melioidosis ... Prevalence of group A Streptococcus in primary care patients and the utility of C-reactive protein and clinical scores for its ...
Two insertion mutants contained no ShlB(M2) protein in the outer membrane. The ShlB derivatives activated and/or secreted ShlA ... The ShlB protein in the outer membrane of Serratia marcescens is the only protein known to be involved in secretion of the ShlA ... protein across the outer membrane. At the same time, ShlB converts ShlA into a haemolytic and a cytolytic toxin. Surface- ... The haemolysin-secreting ShlB protein of the outer membrane of Serratia marcescens: determination of surface-exposed residues ...
... and hemolysin. Gelatinase- and hemolysin-producing strains of Enterococcus faecalis have been shown to be virulent in animal ... and hemolysin. Gelatinase- and hemolysin-producing strains of Enterococcus faecalis have been shown to be virulent in animal ... We determined the presence of the esp gene and production of gelatinase and hemolysin in 219 E. faecalis isolates from a larger ... We determined the presence of the esp gene and production of gelatinase and hemolysin in 219 E. faecalis isolates from a larger ...
The aim of this study was to investigate at the proteome level, the effect of triclosan by examining the role of the proteins ... Adhesion to host tissue is achieved by a large family of staphylococcal surface proteins that bind with varying degrees of ... Mass spectrometric analysis of the secretome of the MRSA strain showed the presence of delta haemolysin when compared to the ... Mass Spectrometric Characterization of Bioactive Peptides and Proteins. Mass spectrometry based proteomic characterization of ...
Hemolysins or haemolysins are lipids and proteins that cause lysis of red blood cells by disrupting the cell membrane. Although ... Staphylococcus aureus hemolysins[edit]. α-hemolysin[edit]. Alpha(α)-hemolysin of Staphylococcus aureus: macromolecular ... γ-Hemolysin[edit]. γ-Hemolysins are pore-forming toxins in the same family as α-Hemolysin. They are unique in that they come in ... β-hemolysin[edit]. β-hemolysin (hlb; Q2FWP1) is a Phospholipase C toxin secreted by S. aureus. Upon investigating sheep ...
Find proteins for P77335 (Escherichia coli (strain K12)). Explore P77335 Go to UniProtKB: P77335 ... HEMOLYSIN E. A. 318. Escherichia coli K-12. Mutation(s): 1 Gene Names: hlyE, clyA, hpr, sheA, ycgD, b1182, JW5181. ... E. Coli Hemolysin E (Hlye, Clya, Shea): X-Ray Crystal Structure of the Toxin and Observation of Membrane Pores by Electron ... Hemolysin E (HlyE) is a novel pore-forming toxin of Escherichia coli, Salmonella typhi, and Shigella flexneri. Here we report ...
Hybridization experiments indicated that a single copy of the alpha-haemolysin gene (hla) resides in the chromosome. Site- ... Hemolysin Proteins / genetics* * Mutation * Sequence Homology, Nucleic Acid * Staphylococcus aureus / genetics* * ... Expression of alpha-haemolysin from a plasmid-located hla gene was very low. In contrast, hla-erm mutants were deficient only ... A previously isolated Tn551 insertion defective in alpha-haemolysin was not located in hla. It had pleiotropic defects in ...
Haemolysin BL is an important virulence factor regarding the diarrheal type of food poisoning caused by Bacillus cereus. ... Proteins were eluted in buffer containing 100 mM Tris, 500 mM NaCl, 1 mM EDTA and 2.5 mM D-desthiobiotin, pH 8. Protein ... Amino acid sequences and predicted molecular weight of the new recombinant proteins are shown in Figure 1A. The proteins were ... haemolysin BL; [10]) and Nhe (non-haemolytic enterotoxin; [11]), and the single protein CytK (cytotoxin K; [4]). CytK has been ...
Crystal structure of the nucleotide binding domain of the ABC-transporter hemolysin B: identification of a variable region ... Description: Hemolysin secretion ATP-binding protein protein , Length: 241 No structure alignment results are available for ... Pre-calculated protein structure alignments at the RCSB PDB website. Bioinformatics 26: 2983-2985 ...
... in particular α-hemolysin, mediated by regulatory systems other than agr have the potential to fine-tune virulence in CA-MRSA. ... These data demonstrate that hyperexpression of α-hemolysin mediates enhanced virulence in ST93 CA-MRSA, and additional control ... Hemolysin Proteins / biosynthesis* * Hemolysin Proteins / genetics * Humans * Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus / ... Hyperexpression of α-hemolysin explains enhanced virulence of sequence type 93 community-associated methicillin-resistant ...
Crystal structure of the octameric pore of staphylococcal γ-hemolysin reveals the β-barrel pore formation mechanism by two ... Gamma-hemolysin component A. > Bi-component toxin, staphylococci * Occurring in:. *Gamma-hemolysin component B. *Gamma- ... hemolysin component A. > Leukocidin/porin MspA superfamily * Occurring in:. *Gamma-hemolysin component B. *Gamma-hemolysin ... Gamma-hemolysin component A Chains: B, D, F, H Molecule details › Chains: B, D, F, H. Length: 290 amino acids. Theoretical ...
Recent studies have suggested that O-polysaccharide (OPS) and hemolysin co-regulated protein 1 (Hcp1) are promising target ... Comparison of O-polysaccharide and hemolysin co-regulated protein as target antigens for serodiagnosis of melioidosis. ... Comparison of O-polysaccharide and hemolysin co-regulated protein as target antigens for serodiagnosis of melioidosis. ... Recent studies have suggested that O-polysaccharide (OPS) and hemolysin co-regulated protein 1 (Hcp1) are promising target ...
... significantly diminished hemolysis and heptamer formation when compared with the wild-type Hla protein. This suggests that the ... Alpha-hemolysin (Hla) is a pore-forming virulence factor produced by S. aureus that can self-assemble into heptameric mushroom- ... Keywords: α-hemolysin, hemolysis, heptamer oligomers, cysteine mutants, assembly ... the oligomerization of Hla by creating nine mutants with single amino acid changes in different positions of the Hla protein: ...
This protein has an unusually broad substrate specificity and is capable of transporting not only a wide... ... Escherichia coli hemolysin transporter. MalK. ATP-hydrolyzing subunit of the Escherichia coli maltose transporter ... multidrug resistance protein 1 (P-glycoprotein, ABCB1), ABCB-type protein. MDR3. multidrug resistance protein 3 (ABCB4), ABCB- ... multidrug resistance-associated protein 2 (cMOAT, ABCC2), ABCC-type protein. sPgp. sister-P-glycoprotein (BSEP, ABCB11), ABCB- ...
Flow cytometry to measure certain proteins. *Ham (acid hemolysin) test. *Serum hemoglobin and haptoglobin ... Without PIG-A, important proteins cannot connect to the cell surface and protect the cell from substances in the blood called ... to help certain proteins stick to cells. ...
Protein (lb); protein (nb); Protéin (su); Protein (hif); 朊 (lzh); بروتين (ar); Protein (br); ပရိုတိန်း (my); 蛋白質 (yue); Белок ( ... प्रोटिन (dty); Prótín (is); Protein (ms); protein (tr); لحمیات (ur); Bielkovina (sk); білок (uk); 蛋白质 (zh-cn); Protein (gsw); ... protein (sco); Уураг (mn); protein (nn); ಪ್ರೋಟೀನ್ (kn); پرۆتین (ckb); protein (en); fehérje (hu); પ્રોટિન (gu); प्रोटिन (new); ... protein (hr); протеин, белки, протеины (ru); протеин (tt-cyrl); protein, Bílkoviny ve výživě člověka (cs); Protein (nutrien) ( ...
... fibronectin-binding protein A, collagen-binding protein), gamma-hemolysin and coagulase. The Ps. aeruginosa strains possess ... protein A, the fibronectin-binding proteins (Fnbps), collagen-binding protein (Cna), elastin-binding protein, clumping factors ... bone sialoprotein binding protein, collagen-binding protein, Panton-Valentine leukocidin, gamma-hemolysin and SEA, SEB, SEC, ... elastin-binding protein, clumping factors A and B, fibronectin-binding protein A, fibrinogen-binding protein and collagen- ...
... protein B) and the hemolysin (protein A), PhlB and PhlA should belong to the TpsB and TpsA protein families, respectively. ... Hemolysins are extracellular toxic proteins produced by many gram-negative (e.g., Escherichia coli, Vibrio spp.) and gram- ... In view of the strong similarities with the hemolysins (Fig. 2) and the secretion or activation proteins of these bacteria, the ... Because of the strong amino acid sequence conservation of these hemolysins, including both secretion/activation protein ( ...
Abbreviations: Hcp, hemolysin-coregulated protein; IAHP, IcmF-associated homologous protein; LB, Luria broth; T3SS, type III ... hcp-1 and hcp-2 both encode an identical protein corresponding to hemolysin-coregulated protein (Hcp), a secreted V. cholerae ... and HlyA hemolysin (see Fig. 5, which is published as supporting information on the PNAS web site). These proteins are known to ... hemolysin-coregulated protein and VgrG). Mutations in vas homologs in other bacterial species have been reported to attenuate ...
View protein in InterPro. IPR004538 Haemolysin_A/TlyA. IPR002877 rRNA_MeTrfase_FtsJ_dom. IPR002942 S4_RNA-bd. IPR036986 S4_RNA- ... Protein. Similar proteins. Species. Score. Length. Source. P9WJ63. 16S/23S rRNA (cytidine-2-O)-methyltransferase TlyA. ). ... Protein. Similar proteins. Species. Score. Length. Source. P9WJ63. 16S/23S rRNA (cytidine-2-O)-methyltransferase TlyA. ). ... Protein. Similar proteins. Species. Score. Length. Source. P9WJ63. 16S/23S rRNA (cytidine-2-O)-methyltransferase TlyA. ). ...
Protein preparation and immunoblot analysis.All GST- and His-tagged fusion proteins were prepared and purified using standard ... Alpha-hemolysin, gamma-hemolysin, and leukocidin from Staphylococcus aureus: distant in sequence but similar in structure. ... Anti-Alpha-Hemolysin Monoclonal Antibodies Mediate Protection against Staphylococcus aureus Pneumonia. Brook E. Ragle, Juliane ... Anti-Alpha-Hemolysin Monoclonal Antibodies Mediate Protection against Staphylococcus aureus Pneumonia. Brook E. Ragle, Juliane ...
... is a pore-forming protein of 110 kDa belonging to the family of RTX toxins. A hydrophobic region between the amino acid ... Escherichia coli α-hemolysin (HlyA) is a pore-forming protein of 110 kDa belonging to the family of RTX toxins. A hydrophobic ... For further investigation of the channel structure, we deleted inEscherichia coli α-hemolysin (HlyA) is a pore-forming protein ... The Deletion of Several Amino Acid Stretches of Escherichia coli Alpha-Hemolysin (HlyA) Suggests That the Channel-Forming ...
Cytolytic protein , Hemolysin , Haemolysin , Transmembrane pore , Topic Page ... The α-hemolysin oligomer. α-hemolysin (7ahl) is from Staphylococcus aureus. Each chain in the oligomeric complex is ; the other ... α-hemolysin interaction with the membrane. , α-hemolysins stalk is perfectly designed to span the plasma membrane of ... Structure of staphylococcal alpha-hemolysin, a heptameric transmembrane pore., Song L, Hobaugh MR, Shustak C, Cheley S, Bayley ...
  • This family consists of haemolysin expression modulating protein (Hha) from Escherichia coli and its enterobacterial homologues, such as YmoA from Yersinia enterocolitica, and RmoA encoded on the R100 plasmid. (wikipedia.org)
  • Uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC), which are the leading cause of both acute and chronic urinary tract infections, often secrete a labile pore-forming toxin known as α-hemolysin (HlyA). (nih.gov)
  • Escherichia coli hemolysin is potentially cytotoxic to monocytes, lymphocytes and macrophages , leading them to autolysis and death. (wikipedia.org)
  • Hemolysins can be secreted by many different kinds of bacteria such as Staphylococcus aureus , Escherichia coli or Vibrio parahemolyticus among other pathogens. (wikipedia.org)
  • Hemolysin E (HlyE) is a novel pore-forming toxin of Escherichia coli, Salmonella typhi, and Shigella flexneri. (rcsb.org)
  • The pT7-Hla and mutant plasmids were individually transformed into Escherichia coli BL21 (DE3) pLysS cells for protein expression. (dovepress.com)
  • Escherichia coli α-hemolysin (HlyA) is a pore-forming protein of 110 kDa belonging to the family of RTX toxins. (uni-wuerzburg.de)
  • For further investigation of the channel structure, we deleted in Escherichia coli α-hemolysin (HlyA) is a pore-forming protein of 110 kDa belonging to the family of RTX toxins. (uni-wuerzburg.de)
  • The presence of a hemolysin-encoding gene, elyA or hlyA , from Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) was detected by PCR in each of 95 strains tested. (asm.org)
  • Berger H, Hacker J, Juarez A, Hughes C, Goebel W (1982) Cloning of the chromosomal determinants encoding hemolysin production and mannose resistant hemagglutination in Escherichia coli . (springer.com)
  • Cavalieri SJ, Snyder IS (1982 a) Effect of Escherichia coli alpha-hemolysin on human peripheral leukocyte viability in vitro. (springer.com)
  • TolC, an Escherichia coli outer membrane protein required for hemolysin secretion. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • Escherichia coli expressing a functional T1SS was able to secrete chimeric hemolysin proteins bearing the C-termini of 19 of 20 O. tsutsugamushi Anks in an HlyBD-dependent manner. (frontiersin.org)
  • Escherichia coli α-hemolysin), Aeromonas hydrophila aerolysin, Staphylococcus aureus α-toxin, and Vibrio cholerae hemolysin. (pnas.org)
  • Structure and function of periplasmic chaperone-like proteins involved in the biosynthesis of K88 and K99 fimbriae in enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli. (nii.ac.jp)
  • The secreted hemolysins of Proteus mirabilis, Proteus vulgaris, and Morganella morganii are genetically related to each other and to the alpha-hemolysin of Escherichia coli. (google.co.uk)
  • Isolation and analysis of the C‐terminal signal directing export of Escherichia coli hemolysin protein across both bacterial membranes. (google.co.uk)
  • Many hemolysins are pore-forming toxins (PFT), which are able to cause the lysis of erythrocytes , leukocytes , and platelets by producing pores on the cytoplasmic membrane . (wikipedia.org)
  • γ-Hemolysins are pore-forming toxins in the same family as α-Hemolysin. (wikipedia.org)
  • The ability of S. aureus to cause disease has been attributed to an impressive spectrum of cell-wall-associated (protein A, clumping factors, fibronectin binding proteins, and other adhesive matrix molecules) factors, and extracellular toxins (coagulase, hemolysins, enterotoxins, toxic-shock syndrome toxin 1, exfoliative toxins, and Panton-Valentine leukocidin) as virulence determinants. (mdpi.com)
  • The structure proves the heptameric subunit stoichiometry of the alpha-hemolysin oligomer, shows that a glycine-rich and solvent-exposed region of a water-soluble protein can self-assemble to form a transmembrane pore of defined structure, and provides insight into the principles of membrane interaction and transport activity of beta barrel pore-forming toxins. (proteopedia.org)
  • Menestrina G, Dalla Serra M, Comai M, Coraiola M, Viero G, Werner S, Colin DA, Monteil H, Prevost G. Ion channels and bacterial infection: the case of beta-barrel pore-forming protein toxins of Staphylococcus aureus. (proteopedia.org)
  • [5] Beta-barrel proteins are so far found only in outer membranes of gram-negative bacteria , cell walls of gram-positive bacteria , outer membranes of mitochondria and chloroplasts , or can be secreted as pore-forming toxins . (wikipedia.org)
  • The combined effect of the pore-forming, cholesterol-dependent hemolysin, cereolysin O (CLO), and metabolic product(s) such as succinate produced in microaerobic conditions provided substantial contribution to the toxicity of BC1 but not BC2 which relied mainly on other toxins. (frontiersin.org)
  • The pores formed by these toxins can vary in effective diameter from 1-2 nm [e.g., α-toxin, hemolysin, aerolysin, and Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) Crystal (Cry) toxins (see below)] to 25-30 nm (e.g., streptolysin O). (pnas.org)
  • utilizes various toxins and effector proteins in order to evade the immune system and disrupt cell signaling. (kenyon.edu)
  • Beta-hemolysin known as an inflammatory inducer is an enzyme with a specific, other than for most of staphylococcal toxins mode of action and its effects depend on sphingomyelinase content in a target cell. (termedia.pl)
  • Gamma-hemolysins are very unique bicomponent pore-forming toxins consisting of S and F class proteins, released as monomers and forming heterooligomers leading to a cation-selective channel formation. (termedia.pl)
  • The Comprehensive Sourcebook of Bacterial Protein Toxins, Fourth Edition, contains chapters written by internationally known and well-respected specialists. (elsevier.com)
  • Given the multifaceted aspects of toxin research and the multidisciplinary approaches adopted, toxins are of great interest in many scientific areas from microbiology, virology, cell biology to biochemistry and protein structure. (elsevier.com)
  • Protein toxins are important virulence factors contributing to neonatal sepsis. (hindawi.com)
  • Verotoxin or Shiga-like toxins - inhibit protein synthesis in host cells. (vetstream.com)
  • Mass spectrometric analysis of the secretome of the MRSA strain showed the presence of delta haemolysin when compared to the Methicillin-sensitive Staphylococcus aureus (MSSA) strain. (amrita.edu)
  • We can take a look at the bacterium Staphylococcus aureus as a specific example of pore-forming hemolysin production. (wikipedia.org)
  • In nature, Staphylococcus aureus secretes alpha-hemolysin monomers that bind to the outer membrane of susceptible cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • The structure of the Staphylococcus aureus alpha-hemolysin pore has been determined to 1.9 A resolution. (proteopedia.org)
  • Surface proteins and exotoxins are required for the pathogenesis of Staphylococcus aureus pneumonia. (semanticscholar.org)
  • For example, α-hemolysin of Staphylococcus aureus forms a homo-heptameric β-barrel in biological membranes. (wikipedia.org)
  • The Vibrio cholerae cytolysin also forms a heptameric pore, however Staphylococcus aureus γ-hemolysin forms a pore that is octameric. (wikipedia.org)
  • Staphylococcus aureus is pathogenic to animals and humans and produce many virulence factors such as hemolysins which include alpha-, beta-, gamma- and delta-hemolysin. (termedia.pl)
  • Delta-hemolysin, a heat-stabile, small protein produced by most Staphylococcus aureus strains acts as a cytolysin but also turned out to be a potent polyclonal activator of lymphocytes. (termedia.pl)
  • These proteins act as modulators of bacterial gene expression. (wikipedia.org)
  • p>This section provides information about the protein and gene name(s) and synonym(s) and about the organism that is the source of the protein sequence. (uniprot.org)
  • We determined the presence of the esp gene and production of gelatinase and hemolysin in 219 E. faecalis isolates from a larger prospective study of 398 patients with enterococcal bacteremia. (oup.com)
  • Thirty-two percent of isolates carried the esp gene, 64% produced gelatinase, and 11% produced hemolysin. (oup.com)
  • Hybridization experiments indicated that a single copy of the alpha-haemolysin gene (hla) resides in the chromosome. (nih.gov)
  • Expression of alpha-haemolysin from a plasmid-located hla gene was very low. (nih.gov)
  • In contrast, hla-erm mutants were deficient only in alpha-haemolysin and allowed high level expression of the plasmid-borne hla gene. (nih.gov)
  • Gene deletion and complementation studies, and virulence comparisons in a murine skin infection model, showed unequivocally that increased expression of α-hemolysin is the key staphylococcal virulence determinant for this clone. (nih.gov)
  • The MRP1 gene maps to chromosome 16p13.1 and encodes for a protein of 1,531 amino acids. (springer.com)
  • People with this disease have blood cells that are missing a gene called PIG-A. This gene allows a substance called glycosyl-phosphatidylinositol (GPI) to help certain proteins stick to cells. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Using the gene encoding green fluorescent protein as a reporter, phlBA transcription was observed in hemolymph before insect death. (asm.org)
  • The ndvA gene product of Rhizobium meliloti is required for beta-(1----2)glucan production and has homology to the ATP-binding export protein HlyB. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • Internal duplication and homology with bacterial transport proteins in the mdr1 (P-glycoprotein) gene from multidrug-resistant human cells. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • The phosphorylation of the RR activates an output domain, which can then effect changes in cellular physiology often by regulating gene expression, protein interactions, or enzymatic activities. (nature.com)
  • While two hemolysin gene clusters, vah1-plp and rtxACHBDE, have been previously identified and described, the activities of the protein encoded by the plp gene were not known. (harvard.edu)
  • Results: The plp gene, one of the components in vah1 cluster, encodes a 416-amino-acid protein (Plp), which has homology to lipolytic enzymes containing the catalytic site amino acid signature SGNH. (harvard.edu)
  • To identify genes that are induced in response to the intracellular environment, we screened a library containing fragments of the S. flexneri chromosome fused to a promoterless green fluorescent protein gene ( gfp ). (asm.org)
  • Identification of a gene for Cyt1A-like hemolysin from Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. (asm.org)
  • A gene designated cyt1Ab1, encoding a 27,490-Da protein, was isolated from Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. (asm.org)
  • The sequence of the Cyt1Ab1 protein, as deduced from the sequence of the cyt1Ab1 gene, was 86% identical to that of the Cyt1Aa1 protein and 32% identical to that of the Cyt2Aa1 protein from B. thuringiensis subsp. (asm.org)
  • The cyt1Ab1 gene was flanked upstream by a p21 gene, in the same orientation, encoding a 21,370-Da protein that showed 84% similarity to the putative chaperone P20 protein from B. thuringiensis subsp. (asm.org)
  • [ 4 ] The emm gene encodes the M protein. (medscape.com)
  • Particular attention was placed on the analysis of genes involved in biofilm formation and quorum sensing, type IV secretion, flagellum synthesis and motility, lipopolysacharide synthesis, and on the gene xacPNP, which codes for a natriuretic protein. (ufl.edu)
  • Vibrio harveyi VIB 645, which is very pathogenic towards salmonids and produces extracellular product with a high titer of hemolytic activity towards fish erythrocytes, was found to contain two closely related hemolysin genes (designated vhhA and vhhB), whereas the majority of strains examined (11 of 13) carried only a single hemolysin gene. (stir.ac.uk)
  • Staphylococcal hemolysin is expressed as a water-soluble monomeric protein and assembles on membranes to form a heptameric pore structure. (shapeways.com)
  • Adhesion to host tissue is achieved by a large family of staphylococcal surface proteins that bind with varying degrees of specificity to host matrix proteins. (amrita.edu)
  • It produces a ring-shaped complex called a staphylococcal alpha-hemolysin pore. (wikipedia.org)
  • Structure of staphylococcal alpha-hemolysin, a heptameric transmembrane pore. (proteopedia.org)
  • Currently, staphylococcal hemolysins are being introduced to many fields of biotechnology. (termedia.pl)
  • Chloride secretion indnced by thermo stable direct hemolysin of Vibrio parahaemolyticus depends on colinic cell maturation'J. (nii.ac.jp)
  • Mechanisma of Cl^-secretion induced by thermostable direct hemolysin of Vibrio parahaemolyticus in human intestinal cells'J. (nii.ac.jp)
  • Publications] Takahashi,A: 'Chloride secretion caused by thermostable direct hemolysin of Vibrio parahaemolyticus. (nii.ac.jp)
  • Zhang X, Meaden P & Austin B (2001) Duplication of hemolysin genes in a virulent isolate of Vibrio harveyi, Applied and Environmental Microbiology, 67 (7), pp. 3161-3167. (stir.ac.uk)
  • Alpha-hemolysin (Hla) is a pore-forming virulence factor produced by S. aureus that can self-assemble into heptameric mushroom-structured pores in target cell membranes, leading to cell lysis and death. (dovepress.com)
  • α-hemolysin (Hla), a pore-forming toxin secreted by S. aureus, is very important for pathogenesis. (dovepress.com)
  • S. aureus alpha-hemolysin, a pore-forming cytotoxin, is an essential virulence factor in the pathogenesis of pneumonia. (asm.org)
  • We report the generation of two distinct anti-alpha-hemolysin monoclonal antibodies that antagonize toxin activity, preventing human lung cell injury in vitro and protecting experimental animals against lethal S. aureus pneumonia. (asm.org)
  • We have defined an essential role of alpha-hemolysin (Hla) in S. aureus pneumonia, as strains lacking this pore-forming cytotoxin are avirulent in a murine model of disease ( 4 ). (asm.org)
  • α-Hemolysin from Staphlococcus aureus is a pore-forming toxin made of seven repeats of an identical monomer arranged in a ring. (proteopedia.org)
  • 10 ), has been used for microbiological identification of Streptococcus agalactiae (group B streptococci [GBS]) since it characteristically synergizes with the secreted β-hemolysin of S. aureus to lyse erythrocytes on blood agar plates ( 11 ). (asm.org)
  • β -Hemolysin from S. aureus , for instance, is a sphingomyelin-specific phospholipase, which cleaves sphingomyelin to ceramide and phosphorylcholine. (hindawi.com)
  • A large number of Gram-negative bacterial pathogens carry genes homologous to vas genes and potential effector proteins secreted by this pathway (i.e., hemolysin-coregulated protein and VgrG). (pnas.org)
  • The elyA genes in human STEC isolates of serovars O157:H7 and O111:H− are 62 to 64% identical to hlyA , encoding alpha-hemolysin, from E. coli ( 18 , 29 ). (asm.org)
  • Furthermore, the RTX hemolysin- or leucotoxin-encoding genes apxIA and apxIIIA of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae and aaltA of A. actinomycetemcomitans show similarities in the range of 56 to 60% with elyA and hlyA , respectively ( 18 ). (asm.org)
  • Two of the intracellularly induced genes ( pstS and phoA ) encode proteins involved in phosphate acquisition and were induced by phosphate limitation in vitro. (asm.org)
  • These genes include fhuA , cirA , and entF , which encode proteins that are components of siderophore-mediated iron uptake systems ( 13 , 20 ). (asm.org)
  • Genes encoding a high-affinity phosphate transport protein (PhoA), a phospholipid-recycling protein (Aas), and a type III secretion system component (SsaH) were also identified ( 47 ). (asm.org)
  • Distinctive SNPs in genes of cellular adhesion proteins such as type IV pili and flagella biosynthesis were also observed in this strain. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Bacillus cereus , a food poisoning bacterium closely related to Bacillus anthracis , secretes a multitude of virulence factors including enterotoxins, hemolysins, and phospholipases. (frontiersin.org)
  • The diarrheal syndrome is attributed to enterotoxins: hemolysin BL (Hbl), non-hemolytic enterotoxin (Nhe), and cytotoxin K (CytK). (frontiersin.org)
  • In molecular biology, the haemolysin expression modulating protein family is a family of proteins. (wikipedia.org)
  • We describe here the nucleotide sequence and the molecular characterization of the Photorhabdus luminescens phlBA operon, a locus encoding a hemolysin which shows similarities to the Serratia type of hemolysins. (asm.org)
  • The fact that the data have in some cases indicated similarities and in other cases differences among the hemolysins raises the question of whether these are different molecular species, or a single hemolysin synthesized by the streptococci via different pathways of metabolism, or complexes of a single hemolytic moiety with various molecular carriers. (rupress.org)
  • This thesis explores how two molecular dynamics methodologies can simulate the translocation of nucleotides through the nanopore α-hemolysin. (bl.uk)
  • Together, the simulations highlight the role of molecular interactions between the nucleic acid molecules and the protein pore. (bl.uk)
  • However, this present study shows that whereas the isolated NBDs exhibit adenylate kinase activity, the full-length purified and reconstituted CFTR protein functions as an ATPase, arguing that the enzymatic activity of the NBDs is dependent on their molecular context and appropriate domain-domain assembly. (biochemj.org)
  • The molecular basis for the ATPase activity of the CFTR remains unknown, but is likely to be conferred by the heterodimerization of its two NBDs (CF-NBDs) in a head-to-tail orientation, as revealed in crystal structures of prokaryotic ABC proteins [ 13 - 22 ]. (biochemj.org)
  • Learn about the cellular, molecular, and biochemical pathways of CRISPR-associated proteins, DNA repair pathways, and applications in diverse organisms, including for human health and disease biology. (nyas.org)
  • We show that stable insertion of HlyA into epithelial cell and macrophage membranes triggers degradation of the cytoskeletal scaffolding protein paxillin and other host regulatory proteins, as well as components of the proinflammatory NFκB signaling cascade. (nih.gov)
  • HlyA-induced proteolysis of host proteins likely allows UPEC to not only modulate epithelial cell functions, but also disable macrophages and suppress inflammatory responses. (nih.gov)
  • However, the nucleotide sequence of an amplicon derived from a porcine O138:K81:H− STEC strain was identical to the corresponding region of hlyA , encoding alpha-hemolysin, from E. coli . (asm.org)
  • Many intracellular bacterial pathogens utilize the Type 1 (T1SS) or Type 4 secretion system (T4SS) to translocate ankyrin repeat-containing proteins (Anks) that traffic to distinct subcellular locations and modulate host cell processes. (frontiersin.org)
  • The mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) are conserved signal transduction pathways and broadly responsible for bacterial infection from yeast to mammals, and virus, fungi, and bacteria, specifically Bacillus thuringiensis, to insects. (bireme.br)
  • T3SS itself is a needle-like structure, which is able to directly inject or translocate specific bacterial proteins (effectors) into the cytoplasm of host cells. (kenyon.edu)
  • These bacterial proteins target signaling pathways, which ultimately inhibits overall cell function. (kenyon.edu)
  • Members of this family are bacterial proteins that act as sphingomyelin phosphodiesterase (EC 3.1.4.12), also called sphingomyelinase. (jcvi.org)
  • Each of these two monoclonal antibodies recognized an epitope within the first 50 amino acid residues of the mature toxin and blocked the formation of a stable alpha-hemolysin oligomer on the target cell surface. (asm.org)
  • is termed thermostable direct hemolysin (TDH). (kenyon.edu)
  • Recent studies have suggested that O-polysaccharide (OPS) and hemolysin co-regulated protein 1 (Hcp1) are promising target antigens for serodiagnosis of melioidosis. (ox.ac.uk)
  • In this study, we analyse these relationships in an mRNA-seq time series of infected with Our results suggest that many extracellular immunological components with known roles in immunity, like antimicrobial peptides and recognition proteins, are highly correlated to microbe load. (bireme.br)
  • His research is focused on understanding the role of electrostatics in the structure-function properties of mnultiionic ion channels like several bacterial porins, the mitochondrial voltage dependent anion channel, coronavirus E protein channels and other channel forming peptides. (uji.es)
  • Moreover the addition of Mass Spectrometry, HPLC, uHPLC and nanoLC along with an online Mascot server database enables in the identification and characterization of peptides and proteins. (amrita.edu)
  • Schematic representation of transmembrane proteins: 1) a single transmembrane α-helix (bitopic membrane protein). (wikipedia.org)
  • A transmembrane protein ( TP ) is a type of integral membrane protein that spans the entirety of the cell membrane . (wikipedia.org)
  • Membrane protein structures can be determined by X-ray crystallography, electron microscopy or NMR spectroscopy. (wikipedia.org)
  • Contact-dependent growth inhibition requires the essential outer membrane protein BamA (YaeT) as the. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Phospholipids as determinants of membrane protein topology. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Furthermore, STEC secretes pore-forming hemolysins. (asm.org)
  • Release of lipid vesicle contents by the bacterial protein toxin alpha-haemolysin. (nih.gov)
  • The haemolysin-secreting ShlB protein of the outer membrane of Serratia marcescens: determination of surface-exposed residues and formation of ion-permeable pores by ShlB mutants in artificial lipid bilayer membranes. (semanticscholar.org)
  • While most hemolysins are protein compounds, some are lipid biosurfactants . (wikipedia.org)
  • This classification refers to the position of the protein N- and C-termini on the different sides of the lipid bilayer . (wikipedia.org)
  • Type I transmembrane proteins are anchored to the lipid membrane with a stop-transfer anchor sequence and have their N-terminal domains targeted to the ER lumen during synthesis (and the extracellular space, if mature forms are located on plasmalemma ). (wikipedia.org)
  • The portion of the membrane proteins that are attached to the lipid bilayer (see annular lipid shell ) consist mostly of hydrophobic amino acids. (wikipedia.org)
  • The role of the host lipid membrane on those channels as well as the mechanisms of channel selectivity are some of the explored topics for several protein channels. (uji.es)
  • The heptameric pore structure of hemolysin can be prepared from monomer in vitro only in the presence of deoxycholate detergent micelles, artificially constructed phospholipid bilayers, or erythrocytes. (shapeways.com)
  • Access resistance in protein nanopores. (uji.es)
  • The movement of long chain polymers through nanopores is a key part of many biological processes, including the transport of RNA, DNA, and proteins. (redorbit.com)
  • Using Dictyostelium discoideum as a model host, we have identified a virulence mechanism in a non-O1/non-O139 V. cholerae strain that involves extracellular translocation of proteins that lack N-terminal hydrophobic leader sequences. (pnas.org)
  • [6] The implications for the division in the four types are especially manifest at the time of translocation and ER-bound translation, when the protein has to be passed through the ER membrane in a direction dependent on the type. (wikipedia.org)
  • The translocation of polynucleotides through transmembrane protein pores is a fundamental biological process with important medical and biotechnological relevance. (bl.uk)
  • The complex translocation process is influenced by a range of factors including the diameter and inner surface of the pore, the secondary structure of the polymer, and the interactions between the polymer and protein. (bl.uk)
  • In particular, we find that specific residues of the protein pore dominate the translocation. (bl.uk)
  • Search proteins in UniProtKB for this molecule. (uniprot.org)
  • Weight for weight, the cell-surface bound hemolysin, streptolysin S, is one of the most toxic proteins known ( 10 ). (ispub.com)
  • Many hemolysins, such as the oxygen-labile hemolysins (e.g., streptolysin O, pneumolysin O, perfringolysin O, and listeriolysin O) are cholesterol dependent and require the presence of a reducing agent, such as cysteine, in order to obtain hemolytic activity ( 9 ). (asm.org)
  • We specialize in creating beautiful 3D-printed biological models of molecules, proteins, and vi ruses with the highest scientific accuracy and quality. (shapeways.com)
  • Mutations in several members of the NLR protein family have been linked to inflammatory diseases, suggesting these molecules play important roles in maintaining host-pathogen interactions and inflammatory responses. (wikipathways.org)
  • alpha-Haemolysin is a protein toxin (107 kDa) secreted by some pathogenic strains of E. coli. (nih.gov)
  • Gelatinase- and hemolysin-producing strains of Enterococcus faecalis have been shown to be virulent in animal models of enterococcal infections. (oup.com)
  • It differed from the elyA PCR product in restriction fragments generated by Alu I, Eco RI, and Mlu I. Of the 95 representative STEC strains, 88 produced hemolysin on blood agar supplemented with vancomycin (30 mg/liter), cefixime (20 μg/liter), and cefsulodin (3 mg/liter) (BVCC). (asm.org)
  • Alpha-hemolysin is formed by porcine edema disease-causing STEC strains of serovars O138:K81, O139:K82, and O141:K85, which produce Stx variant 2e ( 14 ), and by E. coli causing urinary tract infections and septicemia ( 17 , 22 ). (asm.org)
  • The second hemolysin, secreted exclusively by human STEC strains, produces a narrow, turbid, hemolytic halo after overnight incubation on enterohemolysin agar ( 4 ). (asm.org)
  • Strains deficient in both the surface M protein and hyaluronate capsule are killed by phagocytes. (ispub.com)
  • Because capsular hyaluronate is virtually non-antigenic whereas M protein is exquisitely type-specific, immunologic protection against virulent strains is primarily dependent upon the action of homologous type anti-M antibodies ( 5 ). (ispub.com)
  • M protein also contains moieties that similarly behave as such superantigens, thus further boosting immune responses to virulent strains ( 12 , 13 ) (see "vaccines" below). (ispub.com)
  • [2] Hemolysins can be identified by their ability to lyse red blood cells in vitro . (wikipedia.org)
  • Bacterial hemolysins can lyse red blood cells (RBCs) and a variety of other cell types, such as mast cells, neutrophils, and polymorphonuclear cells ( 6 ). (asm.org)
  • Compared to beta-hemolysin, it has a higher affinity for phosphocholines with short saturated acyl chains, especially if they have a conical form, whereas cylindrical lipids (e.g., sphingomyelin) hinder its activity. (wikipedia.org)
  • An hla-erm mutant was less virulent than the otherwise isogenic 8325-4 hla+ strain in a mouse peritonitis model, confirming that alpha-haemolysin is an important virulence factor. (nih.gov)
  • Note that the 'protein existence' evidence does not give information on the accuracy or correctness of the sequence(s) displayed. (uniprot.org)
  • Based on its small size, basic nature, cellular abundance, and sequence-independent DNA-binding capacity, the nucleoid-associated protein HU has long been characterized as the bacterial counterpart of eukaryotic histones ( 5 ). (pnas.org)
  • The complete genome sequence of P. aeruginosa ATCC 27853 reveals the comprehensive genetic background of the strain, and provides genetic basis for several interesting findings about the functions of surface associated proteins, prophages, and genomic islands. (biomedcentral.com)
  • V. The appellant, arguing in view of lack of inventive step under Article 56 EPC, submitted that document (3), the closest prior art, identified the hemolysin of H. pleuropneumoniae serotype 1 as a major immunogen which may be used in a subunit vaccine. (epo.org)
  • The protein phosphatase-2A (PP-2A), one of the major phosphatases in eukaryotes, is a heterotrimer, consisting of a scaffold A subunit, a catalytic C subunit and a regulatory B subunit. (biomedsearch.com)
  • The UPEC pore-forming toxin α-hemolysin triggers proteolysis of host proteins to disrupt cell adhesion, inflammatory, and survival pathways. (nih.gov)
  • We show that two mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathways [p38 and c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK)-like] are transcriptionally up-regulated by the toxin, that both of these MAPK pathways provide a significant cellular defense against the toxin, and that this defense is conserved in mammalian cells attacked by a PFT. (pnas.org)
  • Two different plasmid-encoded hemolysins, both members of the RTX toxin family ( 9 , 28 ), have been described for STEC. (asm.org)
  • Leucocidin/Hemolysin toxin family member. (tcdb.org)
  • Although the lytic activity of some microbe-derived hemolysins on red blood cells may be of great importance for nutrient acquisition, many hemolysins produced by pathogens do not cause significant destruction of red blood cells during infection. (wikipedia.org)
  • Escape from the PV, and therefore from the infected cell, for subsequent rounds of infection has been shown to be dependent on the perforin-like protein Tg PLP1 ( T. gondii PLP) ( 7 - 9 ). (sciencemag.org)
  • Hemolysins or haemolysins are lipids and proteins that cause lysis of red blood cells by disrupting the cell membrane . (wikipedia.org)
  • Iron acquisition by lysis of erythrocytes and impairment of the immune response due to cytotoxicity for leukocytes are assumed to be the main pathogenic functions of the hemolysins ( 9 ). (asm.org)
  • Hemolysin causes lysis of human erythrocytes, functions as a bacteriocin, and is active against other gram-positive cocci. (medscape.com)
  • and alpha-hemolysin-producing E. coli . (asm.org)
  • His6-tagged recombinant Plp protein (rPlp) was over-expressed in E. coli. (harvard.edu)
  • Here we describe the biochemical activities of the plp-encoded protein and its role in pathogenesis. (harvard.edu)
  • as calculated by the Orientations of Proteins in Membranes database (University of Michigan, USA) is shown as a cylinder with the red patch indicating the boundary closet to the outside of the cell and the blue patch indicating the boundary closest to the inside of the cell. (proteopedia.org)
  • Alpha-helical proteins are present in the inner membranes of bacterial cells or the plasma membrane of eukaryotes, and sometimes in the outer membranes . (wikipedia.org)
  • Transmembrane α-helical proteins are unusually stable judging from thermal denaturation studies, because they do not unfold completely within the membranes (the complete unfolding would require breaking down too many α-helical H-bonds in the nonpolar media). (wikipedia.org)
  • On the other hand, these proteins easily misfold , due to non-native aggregation in membranes, transition to the molten globule states, formation of non-native disulfide bonds , or unfolding of peripheral regions and nonregular loops that are locally less stable. (wikipedia.org)
  • Hemolysins are extracellular toxic proteins produced by many gram-negative (e.g. (asm.org)
  • The analysis of snake venom has shown that it is a mixture of many toxic proteins and enzymes with diverse and complex pharmacological effects. (scielo.br)
  • The ShlB protein in the outer membrane of Serratia marcescens is the only protein known to be involved in secretion of the ShlA protein across the outer membrane. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Hemolysin is normally secreted by the bacteria in a water-soluble way. (wikipedia.org)
  • Hemolysin/bacteriocin is a plasmid-encoded protein that generally is accepted as a virulence factor. (medscape.com)
  • Aggregation substance is a plasmid-encoded surface protein that causes clumping or aggregation of enterococci. (medscape.com)
  • However, hemolysins are often capable of lysing red blood cells in vitro . (wikipedia.org)
  • A novel cell surface protein, IseA, inhibits the cell wall lytic activities of these d,l-endopeptidases in vitro, and IseA negatively regulates the cell separation enzymes at the post-translational level. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Small pores formed by monomeric alpha-haemolysin, as described by other authors, do not appear to be related to the process of membrane disruption. (nih.gov)
  • Several extracellular proteins secreted by V. anguillarum have been shown to contribute to virulence. (harvard.edu)
  • These data demonstrate that hyperexpression of α-hemolysin mediates enhanced virulence in ST93 CA-MRSA, and additional control of exotoxin production, in particular α-hemolysin, mediated by regulatory systems other than agr have the potential to fine-tune virulence in CA-MRSA. (nih.gov)
  • Paramyxovirus because the protein mediates hemagglutination and neuraminidase activity. (powershow.com)
  • Iron-sulfur clusters transporter ATM1, a yeast mitochondrial protein that exports Fe/S cluster-containing protein precursors and other mitochondrially synthesized proteins to the cytoplasm [ PMID: 10406803 ]. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • The phlA mutant constructed by allelic exchange remained highly pathogenic after injection in the lepidopteran Spodoptera littoralis , indicating that PhlA hemolysin is not a major virulence determinant. (asm.org)
  • Within T. gondii genome sequences, the ratio of nonsynonymous/synonymous single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) for Tg PLP1 is 0.1 (24 of 233 SNPs, 64 genomes), indicating that it is one of the better-conserved Toxoplasma proteins ( http://toxodb.org/toxo/ ). (sciencemag.org)
  • The production of oxygen-stable hemolysin in growing and resting Group A streptococci has been induced by RNA, by detergents, and by mammalian blood serum proteins, in the presence of glucose, Mg ++ , and cysteine. (rupress.org)
  • Here we demonstrate that lmo0135 encodes a multifunctional protein that is associated with cysteine transport, acid resistance, bacterial membrane integrity, and adherence to host cells. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)