Proteins from BACTERIA and FUNGI that are soluble enough to be secreted to target ERYTHROCYTES and insert into the membrane to form beta-barrel pores. Biosynthesis may be regulated by HEMOLYSIN FACTORS.
The degree of pathogenicity within a group or species of microorganisms or viruses as indicated by case fatality rates and/or the ability of the organism to invade the tissues of the host. The pathogenic capacity of an organism is determined by its VIRULENCE FACTORS.
The destruction of ERYTHROCYTES by many different causal agents such as antibodies, bacteria, chemicals, temperature, and changes in tonicity.
Proteins found in any species of bacterium.
Plasmids controlling the synthesis of hemolysin by bacteria.
The functional hereditary units of BACTERIA.
Toxic substances formed in or elaborated by bacteria; they are usually proteins with high molecular weight and antigenicity; some are used as antibiotics and some to skin test for the presence of or susceptibility to certain diseases.
Any of the processes by which cytoplasmic or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in bacteria.
A genus of VIBRIONACEAE, made up of short, slightly curved, motile, gram-negative rods. Various species produce cholera and other gastrointestinal disorders as well as abortion in sheep and cattle.
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
Exotoxins produced by certain strains of streptococci, particularly those of group A (STREPTOCOCCUS PYOGENES), that cause HEMOLYSIS.
The etiologic agent of CHOLERA.
A genus of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria that occurs singly, in pairs, or in short chains. Its organisms are found in fresh water and sewage and are pathogenic to humans, frogs, and fish.
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of bacteria.
Substances that are toxic to cells; they may be involved in immunity or may be contained in venoms. These are distinguished from CYTOSTATIC AGENTS in degree of effect. Some of them are used as CYTOTOXIC ANTIBIOTICS. The mechanism of action of many of these are as ALKYLATING AGENTS or MITOSIS MODULATORS.
A genus of PASTEURELLACEAE described as gram-negative, nonsporeforming, nonmotile, facultative anaerobes. Most members are found both as pathogens and commensal organisms in the respiratory, alimentary, and genital tracts of animals.
A species of rod-shaped bacteria that is a common soil saprophyte. Its spores are widespread and multiplication has been observed chiefly in foods. Contamination may lead to food poisoning.
Infections with bacteria of the genus VIBRIO.
Proteins obtained from ESCHERICHIA COLI.
Infections with bacteria of the species ESCHERICHIA COLI.
Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
A species of halophilic bacteria in the genus VIBRIO, which lives in warm SEAWATER. It can cause infections in those who eat raw contaminated seafood or have open wounds exposed to seawater.
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria that is frequently isolated from clinical specimens. Its most common site of infection is the urinary tract.
Physicochemical property of fimbriated (FIMBRIAE, BACTERIAL) and non-fimbriated bacteria of attaching to cells, tissue, and nonbiological surfaces. It is a factor in bacterial colonization and pathogenicity.
A species of gram-positive, rod-shaped bacteria widely distributed in nature. It has been isolated from sewage, soil, silage, and from feces of healthy animals and man. Infection with this bacterium leads to encephalitis, meningitis, endocarditis, and abortion.
Process of determining and distinguishing species of bacteria or viruses based on antigens they share.
A genetic rearrangement through loss of segments of DNA or RNA, bringing sequences which are normally separated into close proximity. This deletion may be detected using cytogenetic techniques and can also be inferred from the phenotype, indicating a deletion at one specific locus.
A test used to determine whether or not complementation (compensation in the form of dominance) will occur in a cell with a given mutant phenotype when another mutant genome, encoding the same mutant phenotype, is introduced into that cell.
The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.
Proteins isolated from the outer membrane of Gram-negative bacteria.
Cell-surface components or appendages of bacteria that facilitate adhesion (BACTERIAL ADHESION) to other cells or to inanimate surfaces. Most fimbriae (FIMBRIAE, BACTERIAL) of gram-negative bacteria function as adhesins, but in many cases it is a minor subunit protein at the tip of the fimbriae that is the actual adhesin. In gram-positive bacteria, a protein or polysaccharide surface layer serves as the specific adhesin. What is sometimes called polymeric adhesin (BIOFILMS) is distinct from protein adhesin.
Red blood cells. Mature erythrocytes are non-nucleated, biconcave disks containing HEMOGLOBIN whose function is to transport OXYGEN.
Any of the ruminant mammals with curved horns in the genus Ovis, family Bovidae. They possess lachrymal grooves and interdigital glands, which are absent in GOATS.
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria found in soil, water, food, and clinical specimens. It is a prominent opportunistic pathogen for hospitalized patients.
The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic coccobacillus-shaped bacteria that has been isolated from pneumonic lesions and blood. It produces pneumonia with accompanying fibrinous pleuritis in swine.
A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.
Potentially pathogenic bacteria found in nasal membranes, skin, hair follicles, and perineum of warm-blooded animals. They may cause a wide range of infections and intoxications.
Any liquid or solid preparation made specifically for the growth, storage, or transport of microorganisms or other types of cells. The variety of media that exist allow for the culturing of specific microorganisms and cell types, such as differential media, selective media, test media, and defined media. Solid media consist of liquid media that have been solidified with an agent such as AGAR or GELATIN.
A species of gram-positive, coccoid bacteria isolated from skin lesions, blood, inflammatory exudates, and the upper respiratory tract of humans. It is a group A hemolytic Streptococcus that can cause SCARLET FEVER and RHEUMATIC FEVER.
Discrete segments of DNA which can excise and reintegrate to another site in the genome. Most are inactive, i.e., have not been found to exist outside the integrated state. DNA transposable elements include bacterial IS (insertion sequence) elements, Tn elements, the maize controlling elements Ac and Ds, Drosophila P, gypsy, and pogo elements, the human Tigger elements and the Tc and mariner elements which are found throughout the animal kingdom.
Distinct units in some bacterial, bacteriophage or plasmid GENOMES that are types of MOBILE GENETIC ELEMENTS. Encoded in them are a variety of fitness conferring genes, such as VIRULENCE FACTORS (in "pathogenicity islands or islets"), ANTIBIOTIC RESISTANCE genes, or genes required for SYMBIOSIS (in "symbiosis islands or islets"). They range in size from 10 - 500 kilobases, and their GC CONTENT and CODON usage differ from the rest of the genome. They typically contain an INTEGRASE gene, although in some cases this gene has been deleted resulting in "anchored genomic islands".
The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.
A species of gram-negative, aerobic, rod-shaped bacteria commonly isolated from clinical specimens (wound, burn, and urinary tract infections). It is also found widely distributed in soil and water. P. aeruginosa is a major agent of nosocomial infection.
Mutagenesis where the mutation is caused by the introduction of foreign DNA sequences into a gene or extragenic sequence. This may occur spontaneously in vivo or be experimentally induced in vivo or in vitro. Proviral DNA insertions into or adjacent to a cellular proto-oncogene can interrupt GENETIC TRANSLATION of the coding sequences or interfere with recognition of regulatory elements and cause unregulated expression of the proto-oncogene resulting in tumor formation.
Substances elaborated by bacteria that have antigenic activity.
A species of gram-positive, coccoid bacteria commonly isolated from clinical specimens and the human intestinal tract. Most strains are nonhemolytic.
The dose amount of poisonous or toxic substance or dose of ionizing radiation required to kill 50% of the tested population.
Agents that cause agglutination of red blood cells. They include antibodies, blood group antigens, lectins, autoimmune factors, bacterial, viral, or parasitic blood agglutinins, etc.
Diseases of plants.
Thin, hairlike appendages, 1 to 20 microns in length and often occurring in large numbers, present on the cells of gram-negative bacteria, particularly Enterobacteriaceae and Neisseria. Unlike flagella, they do not possess motility, but being protein (pilin) in nature, they possess antigenic and hemagglutinating properties. They are of medical importance because some fimbriae mediate the attachment of bacteria to cells via adhesins (ADHESINS, BACTERIAL). Bacterial fimbriae refer to common pili, to be distinguished from the preferred use of "pili", which is confined to sex pili (PILI, SEX).
A species of STREPTOCOCCUS isolated from pigs. It is a pathogen of swine but rarely occurs in humans.
A genus of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria that occurs in the intestines of humans and a wide variety of animals, as well as in manure, soil, and polluted waters. Its species are pathogenic, causing urinary tract infections and are also considered secondary invaders, causing septic lesions at other sites of the body.
The interactions between a host and a pathogen, usually resulting in disease.
The genetic complement of a BACTERIA as represented in its DNA.
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria that may be pathogenic for frogs, fish, and mammals, including man. In humans, cellulitis and diarrhea can result from infection with this organism.
A phenomenon where microorganisms communicate and coordinate their behavior by the accumulation of signaling molecules. A reaction occurs when a substance accumulates to a sufficient concentration. This is most commonly seen in bacteria.
In bacteria, a group of metabolically related genes, with a common promoter, whose transcription into a single polycistronic MESSENGER RNA is under the control of an OPERATOR REGION.
The aggregation of ERYTHROCYTES by AGGLUTININS, including antibodies, lectins, and viral proteins (HEMAGGLUTINATION, VIRAL).
Those components of an organism that determine its capacity to cause disease but are not required for its viability per se. Two classes have been characterized: TOXINS, BIOLOGICAL and surface adhesion molecules that effect the ability of the microorganism to invade and colonize a host. (From Davis et al., Microbiology, 4th ed. p486)
Inflammatory responses of the epithelium of the URINARY TRACT to microbial invasions. They are often bacterial infections with associated BACTERIURIA and PYURIA.
In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.
The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.
A class of enzymes that catalyze the hydrolysis of phosphoglycerides or glycerophosphatidates. EC 3.1.-.
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria that occurs in soil, fecal matter, and sewage. It is an opportunistic pathogen and causes cystitis and pyelonephritis.
The etiologic agent of PLAGUE in man, rats, ground squirrels, and other rodents.
Presence of warmth or heat or a temperature notably higher than an accustomed norm.
Infections with bacteria of the genus STREPTOCOCCUS.
The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.
Toxins produced, especially by bacterial or fungal cells, and released into the culture medium or environment.
Enumeration by direct count of viable, isolated bacterial, archaeal, or fungal CELLS or SPORES capable of growth on solid CULTURE MEDIA. The method is used routinely by environmental microbiologists for quantifying organisms in AIR; FOOD; and WATER; by clinicians for measuring patients' microbial load; and in antimicrobial drug testing.
An acute diarrheal disease endemic in India and Southeast Asia whose causative agent is VIBRIO CHOLERAE. This condition can lead to severe dehydration in a matter of hours unless quickly treated.
Ribonucleic acid in bacteria having regulatory and catalytic roles as well as involvement in protein synthesis.
Substances that are toxic to the intestinal tract causing vomiting, diarrhea, etc.; most common enterotoxins are produced by bacteria.
An increased liquidity or decreased consistency of FECES, such as running stool. Fecal consistency is related to the ratio of water-holding capacity of insoluble solids to total water, rather than the amount of water present. Diarrhea is not hyperdefecation or increased fecal weight.
A species of HAEMOPHILUS that appears to be the pathogen or causative agent of the sexually transmitted disease, CHANCROID.
A serotype of Salmonella enterica that is a frequent agent of Salmonella gastroenteritis in humans. It also causes PARATYPHOID FEVER.
Specific, characterizable, poisonous chemicals, often PROTEINS, with specific biological properties, including immunogenicity, produced by microbes, higher plants (PLANTS, TOXIC), or ANIMALS.
Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.
Inflammation of the KIDNEY involving the renal parenchyma (the NEPHRONS); KIDNEY PELVIS; and KIDNEY CALICES. It is characterized by ABDOMINAL PAIN; FEVER; NAUSEA; VOMITING; and occasionally DIARRHEA.
A genus of question mark-shaped bacteria spirochetes which is found in fresh water that is contaminated by animal urine. It causes LEPTOSPIROSIS.
The application of high intensity ultrasound to liquids.
Thin, filamentous protein structures, including proteinaceous capsular antigens (fimbrial antigens), that mediate adhesion of E. coli to surfaces and play a role in pathogenesis. They have a high affinity for various epithelial cells.
A species of the fungus CRYPTOCOCCUS. Its teleomorph is Filobasidiella neoformans.
Structures within the nucleus of bacterial cells consisting of or containing DNA, which carry genetic information essential to the cell.
A family of marine mollusks in the class BIVALVIA, commonly known as oysters. They have a rough irregular shell closed by a single adductor muscle.
Acute, localized autoinoculable infectious disease usually acquired through sexual contact. Caused by HAEMOPHILUS DUCREYI, it occurs endemically almost worldwide, especially in tropical and subtropical countries and more commonly in seaports and urban areas than in rural areas.
In GRAM NEGATIVE BACTERIA, multiprotein complexes that function to translocate pathogen protein effector molecules across the bacterial cell envelope, often directly into the host. These effectors are involved in producing surface structures for adhesion, bacterial motility, manipulation of host functions, modulation of host defense responses, and other functions involved in facilitating survival of the pathogen. Several of the systems have homologous components functioning similarly in GRAM POSITIVE BACTERIA.
Technique involving the diffusion of antigen or antibody through a semisolid medium, usually agar or agarose gel, with the result being a precipitin reaction.
Low-molecular-weight compounds produced by microorganisms that aid in the transport and sequestration of ferric iron. (The Encyclopedia of Molecular Biology, 1994)
The relatively long-lived phagocytic cell of mammalian tissues that are derived from blood MONOCYTES. Main types are PERITONEAL MACROPHAGES; ALVEOLAR MACROPHAGES; HISTIOCYTES; KUPFFER CELLS of the liver; and OSTEOCLASTS. They may further differentiate within chronic inflammatory lesions to EPITHELIOID CELLS or may fuse to form FOREIGN BODY GIANT CELLS or LANGHANS GIANT CELLS. (from The Dictionary of Cell Biology, Lackie and Dow, 3rd ed.)
A bacterium which causes mastitis in cattle and occasionally in man.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
Diseases of freshwater, marine, hatchery or aquarium fish. This term includes diseases of both teleosts (true fish) and elasmobranchs (sharks, rays and skates).
The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.
A unicellular budding fungus which is the principal pathogenic species causing CANDIDIASIS (moniliasis).
Infections with bacteria of the genus ACTINOBACILLUS.
A diazo-naphthalene sulfonate that is widely used as a stain.
Use of restriction endonucleases to analyze and generate a physical map of genomes, genes, or other segments of DNA.
The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.
A bacterium which is one of the etiologic agents of bacillary dysentery (DYSENTERY, BACILLARY) and sometimes of infantile gastroenteritis.
A metallic element with atomic symbol Fe, atomic number 26, and atomic weight 55.85. It is an essential constituent of HEMOGLOBINS; CYTOCHROMES; and IRON-BINDING PROTEINS. It plays a role in cellular redox reactions and in the transport of OXYGEN.
The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.
A genus of gram-positive, coccoid bacteria whose organisms occur in pairs or chains. No endospores are produced. Many species exist as commensals or parasites on man or animals with some being highly pathogenic. A few species are saprophytes and occur in the natural environment.
Substances that reduce the growth or reproduction of BACTERIA.
Infections with bacteria of the genus STAPHYLOCOCCUS.
A human and animal pathogen causing mesenteric lymphadenitis, diarrhea, and bacteremia.
Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).
Process of generating a genetic MUTATION. It may occur spontaneously or be induced by MUTAGENS.
A species of the genus YERSINIA, isolated from both man and animal. It is a frequent cause of bacterial gastroenteritis in children.
Proteins found in any species of fungus.
A species of EDWARDSIELLA distinguished by its hydrogen sulfide production. (From Bergey's Manual of Determinative Bacteriology, 9th ed)
Inflammation of the URINARY BLADDER, either from bacterial or non-bacterial causes. Cystitis is usually associated with painful urination (dysuria), increased frequency, urgency, and suprapubic pain.
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria normally commensal in the flora of CATTLE and SHEEP. But under conditions of physical or PHYSIOLOGICAL STRESS, it can cause MASTITIS in sheep and SHIPPING FEVER or ENZOOTIC CALF PNEUMONIA in cattle. Its former name was Pasteurella haemolytica.
The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.
An acute infectious disease caused by YERSINIA PESTIS that affects humans, wild rodents, and their ectoparasites. This condition persists due to its firm entrenchment in sylvatic rodent-flea ecosystems throughout the world. Bubonic plague is the most common form.
An envelope of loose gel surrounding a bacterial cell which is associated with the virulence of pathogenic bacteria. Some capsules have a well-defined border, whereas others form a slime layer that trails off into the medium. Most capsules consist of relatively simple polysaccharides but there are some bacteria whose capsules are made of polypeptides.
A genus of bacteria which may be found in the feces of animals and man, on vegetation, and in silage. Its species are parasitic on cold-blooded and warm-blooded animals, including man.
Substances elaborated by specific strains of bacteria that are lethal against other strains of the same or related species. They are protein or lipopolysaccharide-protein complexes used in taxonomy studies of bacteria.
A genus of microorganisms of the order SPIROCHAETALES, many of which are pathogenic and parasitic for man and animals.
Antibodies specific to STREPTOLYSINS which indicate STREPTOCOCCAL INFECTIONS.
In eukaryotes, a genetic unit consisting of a noncontiguous group of genes under the control of a single regulator gene. In bacteria, regulons are global regulatory systems involved in the interplay of pleiotropic regulatory domains and consist of several OPERONS.
Microscopic threadlike filaments in FUNGI that are filled with a layer of protoplasm. Collectively, the hyphae make up the MYCELIUM.
Aquatic invertebrates belonging to the phylum MOLLUSCA or the subphylum CRUSTACEA, and used as food.
A species of gram-negative, aerobic bacteria that is the causative agent of WHOOPING COUGH. Its cells are minute coccobacilli that are surrounded by a slime sheath.
Immunoglobulins produced in a response to BACTERIAL ANTIGENS.
Ability of a microbe to survive under given conditions. This can also be related to a colony's ability to replicate.
Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.
Serum that contains antibodies. It is obtained from an animal that has been immunized either by ANTIGEN injection or infection with microorganisms containing the antigen.
Infections in animals with bacteria of the genus SALMONELLA.
A verocytotoxin-producing serogroup belonging to the O subfamily of Escherichia coli which has been shown to cause severe food-borne disease. A strain from this serogroup, serotype H7, which produces SHIGA TOXINS, has been linked to human disease outbreaks resulting from contamination of foods by E. coli O157 from bovine origin.
A genus of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic rod-shaped cells which are motile by peritrichous flagella. Late in the growth cycle, spheroplasts or coccoid bodies occur, resulting from disintegration of the cell wall. The natural habitat is the intestinal lumen of certain nematodes. (From Bergey's Manual of Determinative Bacteriology, 9th ed)
Infections with bacteria of the species YERSINIA PSEUDOTUBERCULOSIS.
The genetic constitution of the individual, comprising the ALLELES present at each GENETIC LOCUS.
A serovar of the bacterial species LEPTOSPIRA INTERROGANS, whose natural host is DOGS where disease is characterized by GASTROENTERITIS, and INTERSTITIAL NEPHRITIS.
Excrement from the INTESTINES, containing unabsorbed solids, waste products, secretions, and BACTERIA of the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM.
The engulfing and degradation of microorganisms; other cells that are dead, dying, or pathogenic; and foreign particles by phagocytic cells (PHAGOCYTES).
Infections caused by bacteria that show up as pink (negative) when treated by the gram-staining method.
A class of toxins that inhibit protein synthesis by blocking the interaction of ribosomal RNA; (RNA, RIBOSOMAL) with PEPTIDE ELONGATION FACTORS. They include SHIGA TOXIN which is produced by SHIGELLA DYSENTERIAE and a variety of shiga-like toxins that are produced by pathologic strains of ESCHERICHIA COLI such as ESCHERICHIA COLI O157.
Large, hoofed mammals of the family EQUIDAE. Horses are active day and night with most of the day spent seeking and consuming food. Feeding peaks occur in the early morning and late afternoon, and there are several daily periods of rest.
Diseases of domestic swine and of the wild boar of the genus Sus.
Proteins that are structural components of bacterial fimbriae (FIMBRIAE, BACTERIAL) or sex pili (PILI, SEX).
The natural bactericidal property of BLOOD due to normally occurring antibacterial substances such as beta lysin, leukin, etc. This activity needs to be distinguished from the bactericidal activity contained in a patient's serum as a result of antimicrobial therapy, which is measured by a SERUM BACTERICIDAL TEST.
The chemical processes, enzymatic activities, and pathways of living things and related temporal, dimensional, qualitative, and quantitative concepts.
An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of urea and water to carbon dioxide and ammonia. EC
Widely used technique which exploits the ability of complementary sequences in single-stranded DNAs or RNAs to pair with each other to form a double helix. Hybridization can take place between two complimentary DNA sequences, between a single-stranded DNA and a complementary RNA, or between two RNA sequences. The technique is used to detect and isolate specific sequences, measure homology, or define other characteristics of one or both strands. (Kendrew, Encyclopedia of Molecular Biology, 1994, p503)
An acid dye used in testing for hydrochloric acid in gastric contents. It is also used histologically to test for AMYLOIDOSIS.
A species of anaerobic, spiral bacteria that was formerly classified as Serpulina hyodysenteriae and Treponema hyodysenteriae (and for a short while, Serpula hyodysenteriae). This organism is the agent of swine dysentery.
Techniques to alter a gene sequence that result in an inactivated gene, or one in which the expression can be inactivated at a chosen time during development to study the loss of function of a gene.
A genus of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic rod- to coccobacillus-shaped bacteria that occurs in a broad spectrum of habitats.
The semi-permeable outer structure of a red blood cell. It is known as a red cell 'ghost' after HEMOLYSIS.
The study of microorganisms living in a variety of environments (air, soil, water, etc.) and their pathogenic relationship to other organisms including man.
Infections with bacteria of the genus YERSINIA.
The most common etiologic agent of GAS GANGRENE. It is differentiable into several distinct types based on the distribution of twelve different toxins.
Critical and exhaustive investigation or experimentation, having for its aim the discovery of new facts and their correct interpretation, the revision of accepted conclusions, theories, or laws in the light of newly discovered facts, or the practical application of such new or revised conclusions, theories, or laws. (Webster, 3d ed)
Hydrolases that specifically cleave the peptide bonds found in PROTEINS and PEPTIDES. Examples of sub-subclasses for this group include EXOPEPTIDASES and ENDOPEPTIDASES.
A genus of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria that utilizes citrate as a sole carbon source. It is pathogenic for humans, causing enteric fevers, gastroenteritis, and bacteremia. Food poisoning is the most common clinical manifestation. Organisms within this genus are separated on the basis of antigenic characteristics, sugar fermentation patterns, and bacteriophage susceptibility.
A genus of gram-positive, facultatively anaerobic, coccoid bacteria. Its organisms occur singly, in pairs, and in tetrads and characteristically divide in more than one plane to form irregular clusters. Natural populations of Staphylococcus are found on the skin and mucous membranes of warm-blooded animals. Some species are opportunistic pathogens of humans and animals.
Rupture of bacterial cells due to mechanical force, chemical action, or the lytic growth of BACTERIOPHAGES.
Suspensions of attenuated or killed bacteria administered for the prevention or treatment of infectious bacterial disease.
A method (first developed by E.M. Southern) for detection of DNA that has been electrophoretically separated and immobilized by blotting on nitrocellulose or other type of paper or nylon membrane followed by hybridization with labeled NUCLEIC ACID PROBES.
A set of genes descended by duplication and variation from some ancestral gene. Such genes may be clustered together on the same chromosome or dispersed on different chromosomes. Examples of multigene families include those that encode the hemoglobins, immunoglobulins, histocompatibility antigens, actins, tubulins, keratins, collagens, heat shock proteins, salivary glue proteins, chorion proteins, cuticle proteins, yolk proteins, and phaseolins, as well as histones, ribosomal RNA, and transfer RNA genes. The latter three are examples of reiterated genes, where hundreds of identical genes are present in a tandem array. (King & Stanfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
Sensitive tests to measure certain antigens, antibodies, or viruses, using their ability to agglutinate certain erythrocytes. (From Stedman, 26th ed)
A whiplike motility appendage present on the surface cells. Prokaryote flagella are composed of a protein called FLAGELLIN. Bacteria can have a single flagellum, a tuft at one pole, or multiple flagella covering the entire surface. In eukaryotes, flagella are threadlike protoplasmic extensions used to propel flagellates and sperm. Flagella have the same basic structure as CILIA but are longer in proportion to the cell bearing them and present in much smaller numbers. (From King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
Procedures for identifying types and strains of bacteria. The most frequently employed typing systems are BACTERIOPHAGE TYPING and SEROTYPING as well as bacteriocin typing and biotyping.
The determination of the pattern of genes expressed at the level of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION, under specific circumstances or in a specific cell.
A parasexual process in BACTERIA; ALGAE; FUNGI; and ciliate EUKARYOTA for achieving exchange of chromosome material during fusion of two cells. In bacteria, this is a uni-directional transfer of genetic material; in protozoa it is a bi-directional exchange. In algae and fungi, it is a form of sexual reproduction, with the union of male and female gametes.
A sequence of successive nucleotide triplets that are read as CODONS specifying AMINO ACIDS and begin with an INITIATOR CODON and end with a stop codon (CODON, TERMINATOR).
An ENTEROTOXIN from VIBRIO CHOLERAE. It consists of two major protomers, the heavy (H) or A subunit and the B protomer which consists of 5 light (L) or B subunits. The catalytic A subunit is proteolytically cleaved into fragments A1 and A2. The A1 fragment is a MONO(ADP-RIBOSE) TRANSFERASE. The B protomer binds cholera toxin to intestinal epithelial cells, and facilitates the uptake of the A1 fragment. The A1 catalyzed transfer of ADP-RIBOSE to the alpha subunits of heterotrimeric G PROTEINS activates the production of CYCLIC AMP. Increased levels of cyclic AMP are thought to modulate release of fluid and electrolytes from intestinal crypt cells.
The sequential correspondence of nucleotides in one nucleic acid molecule with those of another nucleic acid molecule. Sequence homology is an indication of the genetic relatedness of different organisms and gene function.
Genotypic differences observed among individuals in a population.
Common name for the species Gallus gallus, the domestic fowl, in the family Phasianidae, order GALLIFORMES. It is descended from the red jungle fowl of SOUTHEAST ASIA.
Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.
The presence of free HEMOGLOBIN in the URINE, indicating hemolysis of ERYTHROCYTES within the vascular system. After saturating the hemoglobin-binding proteins (HAPTOGLOBINS), free hemoglobin begins to appear in the urine.
The cause of TETANUS in humans and domestic animals. It is a common inhabitant of human and horse intestines as well as soil. Two components make up its potent exotoxin activity, a neurotoxin and a hemolytic toxin.
Infection with a fungus of the species CRYPTOCOCCUS NEOFORMANS.
The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
Infections with bacteria of the genus LISTERIA.
Techniques used in studying bacteria.
The measurement of infection-blocking titer of ANTISERA by testing a series of dilutions for a given virus-antiserum interaction end-point, which is generally the dilution at which tissue cultures inoculated with the serum-virus mixtures demonstrate cytopathology (CPE) or the dilution at which 50% of test animals injected with serum-virus mixtures show infectivity (ID50) or die (LD50).
Infections with bacteria of the genus PSEUDOMONAS.
A species of RHODOCOCCUS found in soil, herbivore dung, and in the intestinal tract of cows, horses, sheep, and pigs. It causes bronchopneumonia in foals and can be responsible for infection in humans compromised by immunosuppressive drug therapy, lymphoma, or AIDS.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in fungi.
A toxin produced by SHIGELLA DYSENTERIAE. It is the prototype of class of toxins that inhibit protein synthesis by blocking the interaction of ribosomal RNA; (RNA, RIBOSOMAL) with PEPTIDE ELONGATION FACTORS.
The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in water. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms.
Infections with bacteria of the genus PROTEUS.
Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.
The lipopolysaccharide-protein somatic antigens, usually from gram-negative bacteria, important in the serological classification of enteric bacilli. The O-specific chains determine the specificity of the O antigens of a given serotype. O antigens are the immunodominant part of the lipopolysaccharide molecule in the intact bacterial cell. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)
The relationship between an invertebrate and another organism (the host), one of which lives at the expense of the other. Traditionally excluded from definition of parasites are pathogenic BACTERIA; FUNGI; VIRUSES; and PLANTS; though they may live parasitically.
Any method used for determining the location of and relative distances between genes on a chromosome.
Diseases of birds which are raised as a source of meat or eggs for human consumption and are usually found in barnyards, hatcheries, etc. The concept is differentiated from BIRD DISEASES which is for diseases of birds not considered poultry and usually found in zoos, parks, and the wild.
The heritable modification of the properties of a competent bacterium by naked DNA from another source. The uptake of naked DNA is a naturally occuring phenomenon in some bacteria. It is often used as a GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUE.
Polysaccharides found in bacteria and in capsules thereof.
One of the FURANS with a carbonyl thereby forming a cyclic lactone. It is an endogenous compound made from gamma-aminobutyrate and is the precursor of gamma-hydroxybutyrate. It is also used as a pharmacological agent and solvent.
A species of gram-positive, aerobic bacteria that produces TUBERCULOSIS in humans, other primates, CATTLE; DOGS; and some other animals which have contact with humans. Growth tends to be in serpentine, cordlike masses in which the bacilli show a parallel orientation.
Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.
Rather, infection is a result of an animal's immune status, environment, and genetics. Numerous virulence factors such as ... The pore-forming cytotoxins, α-hemolysin and β-hemolysin, lyse erythrocytes of sheep and rabbits. Leukotoxin destroys host ... The virulence of S. pseudintermedius is an area of on going research and has many unknowns. The virulence factors carried by S ... It is transferred by animal-animal contact, and some dog-human zoonoses have also been reported. Transmission is done either ...
Alpha-hemolysin has been used extensively in academic research as a single molecule nanopore sensor. In 1996 it was first shown ... Alpha-toxin is also one of the key virulence factors in S. aureus pneumonia. The level of alpha-toxin expressed by a particular ... Also, introduction of alpha-toxin specific antibodies into an unimmunized animal protects against subsequent infection. ... As many strains of S. aureus are proving to be resistant to most available antibiotics, specific targeting of virulence factors ...
A plasmid-encoded hemolysin, called the cytolysin, is important for pathogenesis in animal models of infection, and the ... A plasmid-encoded adhesin called "aggregation substance" is also important for virulence in animal models of infection. E. ... Ike, Y; Hashimoto, H; Clewell, D B (1984). "Hemolysin of Streptococcus faecalis subspecies zymogenes contributes to virulence ... "Plasmid-associated hemolysin and aggregation substance production contribute to virulence in experimental enterococcal ...
In general, the virulence factors within genus Brachyspira are thought to be involved primarily in chemotaxis and motility, ... Diarrhea typically resolves quickly but may persist in some animals. On post-mortem, the large intestine may be enlarged and ... These include proteins involved in chemotaxis and motility, hemolysins involved in damage to enterocytes and subsequent ... Although virulence factors specific to B. pilosicoli have not been extensively characterized, various surface proteins have ...
"Streptococcus iniae beta-hemolysin streptolysin S is a virulence factor in fish infection". Dis. Aquat. Org. 76 (1): 17-26. doi ... 1998). "Streptococcus iniae, a human and animal pathogen: specific identification by the chaperonin 60 gene identification ... Journal of Aquatic Animal Health. 11 (1): 87-93. doi:10.1577/1548-8667(1999)011. 2.0.CO;2. Colorn A, Diamant A, Eldar A, Kvitt ... Journal of Aquatic Animal Health. 6 (4): 335-40. doi:10.1577/1548-8667(1994)006. 2.3.CO;2. Eldar A, Lawhon S, Frelier PF, ...
A. hydrophila was isolated from humans and animals in the 1950s. It is the most well known of the species of Aeromonas. It is ... T3SS is a specialized protein secretion machinery that exports virulence factors directly to host cells. These factors subvert ... hemolysins, and enterotoxins. However, the pathogenic mechanisms are unknown. The recently proposed type-III secretion system ( ...
The virulence factors identified in the bordetella are common to all three species. These include adhesins, such as filamentous ... Meaning it causes similar symptoms in a wide range of animals, while only occasionally affecting humans. These symptoms often ... toxin-hemolysin. Membrane translocation of AC domain polypeptide promotes calcium influx into CD11b+ monocytes independently of ... In these conditions, some, but not all of the virulence factors associated with the Bvg+ phase are expressed, suggesting this ...
There have been cases of Serratia non-human animal infections. One case of a non-nosocomial infection in animals was found in ... The virulence of Serratia strains can also be identifiable by type 4 fimbriae, small hair-like projections. The average genome ... Due to its short half-life and tendency to remain bound to cells upon secretion, hemolysin has scarcely been identified in ... They are typically 1-5 μm in length, do not produce spores, and can be found in water, soil, plants, and animals. Some members ...
Hemolysins target erythrocytes, a.k.a. red blood cells. Attacking and lysing these cells harms the host organism, and provides ... Many exoenzymes are also used as virulence factors. Pathogens, both bacterial and fungal, can use exoenzymes as a primary ... Amylases are critically important extracellular enzymes and are found in plants, animals, and microorganisms. In humans, ... Some pathogenic species also use exoenzymes as virulence factors to assist in the spread of these disease-causing ...
... as well as direct contact with farm animals, petting zoo animals, and airborne particles found in animal-rearing environments. ... Identified Virulence Factors of UPEC : Adherence, State Key Laboratory for Moleclular Virology and Genetic Engineering, Beijing ... Uropathogenic E. coli produce alpha- and beta-hemolysins, which cause lysis of urinary tract cells.[citation needed] Another ... In animals, virulent strains of E. coli are responsible of a variety of diseases, among others sepsis and diarrhea in newborn ...
Acid phosphatase AcpA has been found in other bacteria to act as a hemolysin, whereas in Francisella, its role as a virulence ... When found in nature, Francisella tularensis can survive for several weeks at low temperatures in animal carcasses, soil, and ... The virulence mechanisms for F. tularensis have not been well characterized. Like other intracellular bacteria that break out ... Several other putative virulence genes exist, but have yet to be characterized for function in F. tularensis pathogenicity. ...
... but are underrepresented in animal clinical isolates. Lineage II strains are overrepresented in animal cases and ... Three main virulence factors that allow the bacterium to escape are listeriolysin O (LLO-encoded by hly) phospholipase A ( ... It is catalase-positive and oxidase-negative, and expresses a beta hemolysin, which causes destruction of red blood cells. This ... Lineage III isolates are very rare, but significantly more common in animal than human isolates. The Anton test is used in the ...
... some of the other proteins that are considered to be contributors to the main virulence are hemolysins, more specifically ... Leptospirosis can transfer from animals to humans (zoonosis), humans to humans, or animals to animals via intake of ... Also, the virulence factors on the flagella of pathogenic leptospires have thought to be involved in the overall infection. ... The disease is normally absorbed through the mucous membranes of another animal or human and is excreted from the body in the ...
The P fimbriae island contains virulence factors such as haemolysin, pili, cytotoxic necrosing factor, and uropathogenic ... Pathogenicity islands are found in both animal and plant pathogens. Additionally, PAIs are found in both gram-positive and gram ... Rhodococcus equi virulence plasmid pathogenicity island encodes virulence factors for proliferation in macrophages. The SaPI ... PAIs, a type of mobile genetic element, may range from 10-200 kb and encode genes which contribute to the virulence of the ...
The prototypical RTX toxin, α-haemolysin (HlyA; TC# 1.C.11.1.3), is a common virulence factor in uropathogenic E. coli (UPEC), ... They are secreted from the bacteria, and after processing, they insert into the membranes of animal cells. They exert both cell ... Shiga toxins (Stx) are the primary virulence factors in enterohaemorrhagic E. coli but EHEC produces several other virulence ... EHEC haemolysin (EHEC-Hly) was discovered in the EHEC serotype O157:H7. The EHEC-Hly operon contains four E. coli hly homologs ...
L. monocytogenes, for example, encodes virulence genes that are thermoregulated. The expression of virulence factor is optimal ... Animals can be carriers. Listeria has been found in uncooked meats, uncooked vegetables, fruits including cantaloupe and apples ... Listeria, however, escapes the phagolysosome by lysing the vacuole's entire membrane with secreted hemolysin, now characterized ... In the late 1920s, two researchers independently identified L. monocytogenes from animal outbreaks. They proposed the genus ...
Several virulence factors account for the remarkable pathogenicity of A. pleuropneumoniae. The more important ones include the ... As the bacteria replicate, they release cytotoxins (in the form of Apx toxins), hemolysins and the LPS on their outer membranes ... Brownfield, B. "Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae in swine". Purdue University-Animal Disease Diagnostic Laboratory. Retrieved 20 ... The ApxII and ApxIII combination is of medium virulence and is expressed by serovars 2, 3, 4, 6, 8, and 15. The bacteria are ...
S. haemolyticus also colonizes primates and domestic animals. It is a well-known opportunistic pathogen, and is the second-most ... The ability to adhere to medical devices and subsequently form biofilms is a major virulence factor associated with S. ... Some S. haemolyticus strains produce enterotoxins (SE) and/or hemolysins. In a study of 64 S. haemolyticus strains, production ... 2007). "Persistent strains of coagulase-negative staphylococci in a neonatal intensive care unit: virulence factors and ...
In food animals such as chickens, rabbits and pigs, some harmless strains of B. cereus are used as a probiotic feed additive to ... Its virulence factors include cereolysin and phospholipase C.[citation needed] The Bacillus cereus group comprises seven ... CytK is a pore-forming protein more related to other hemolysins.[citation needed] The timing of the toxin production was ... This improves the animals' growth, as well as food safety for humans who eat them. B. cereus can parasitize codling moth larvae ...
... β-haemolysin. The GBS capsule is probably the key virulence factor because it helps GBS escape from the host defence mechanisms ... GBS has been found in many mammals and other animals such as camels, dogs, cats, seals, dolphins, and crocodiles. In cattle, ... The GBS β-haemolysin is considered almost identical to the GBS pigment (granadaene). GBS was recognized as a pathogen in cattle ... The capsular polysaccharide of GBS, which is an important virulence factor, is also an excellent candidate for the development ...
... virulence attributes, and antibiogram of Bordetella avium isolated from turkeys in Egypt". Tropical Animal Health and ... and adenylate cyclase hemolysin with antiphagocytic activity. The osteotoxin is known to be cytotoxic for osteogenic cells and ... as well as genes responsible for regulating the expression of virulence factors, such as bvgA (Bordetella virulence gene), have ... "United States Animal Health Association". Retrieved 2020-10-25. Quinn, P. J. (27 July 2015). Concise review of ...
The mechanism by which secreted proteins facilitate F. tularensis virulence is still unknown. The T6SS of Vibrio cholerae has a ... Silverman JM, Agnello DM, Zheng H, Andrews BT, Li M, Catalano CE, Gonen T, Mougous JD (September 2013). "Haemolysin coregulated ... including pathogens of animals, plants, and humans, as well as soil, environmental or marine bacteria. While most of the early ... Records AR, Gross DC (July 2010). "Sensor kinases RetS and LadS regulate Pseudomonas syringae type VI secretion and virulence ...
Although both companion animals and humans can acquire disease from this organism, its zoonotic potential is not well ... Virulence factors associated with S. schleiferi have been identified to include the production of fatty acid modifying enzyme ( ... In contrast to S. schleiferi which produces β-hemolysin and consequently exhibits a complete (β) hemolysis, strains of S. ... Small Animal Practice. 34 (2): 469-87. doi:10.1016/j.cvsm.2003.10.007. PMID 15062620. "Overview of Otitis Media and Interna - ...
The second is called the endogenous theory, which suggests that A. bovis is naturally found in the mouths of healthy animals. ... It has also been suggested that the number and virulence of bacterial particles involved in the infection contribute to whether ... and stained with hemolysin and eosin stains. The clubs could also be stained by carbol fuchsin with decolourisation by weak ... A. bovis has been isolated from tonsillar crypts, infected teeth and dental scum of normal mouths from human and animal ...
Sequencing has revealed a bundle of twelve proteins and some putative hemolysins are potential virulence factors of T. pallidum ... Šmajs D, Strouhal M, Knauf S (July 2018). "Genetics of human and animal uncultivable treponemal pathogens". Infection, Genetics ...
Lewis LA, Ram S (January 2014). "Meningococcal disease and the complement system". Virulence. 5 (1): 98-126. doi:10.4161/viru. ... Ehrlich P, Morgenroth J (29 May 1899). "Ueber Haemolysine" [On hemolysin]. Berliner klinische Wochenschrift (in German). 36 (22 ... maintained its ability to protect the animals from illness. Jules Bordet, a young Belgian scientist in Paris at the Pasteur ... a component of a hemolysin that's induced by an antigen (see p. 481)], which we will designate in the following with the more ...
As other virulent bacteria, GBS harbors an important number of virulence factors (virulence factors are molecules produced by ... β-hemolysin. Today it is considered that GBS pigment and hemolysin are identical or closely related molecules. GBS colonization ... GBS has also been found in many other animals, such as camels, dogs, cats, crocodiles, seals, elephants and dolphins. Whiley RA ... The capsular polysaccharide of GBS is not only an important GBS virulence factor but it is also an excellent candidate for the ...
Its virulence factors include pertussis toxin, adenylate cyclase toxin, filamentous hæmagglutinin, pertactin, fimbria, and ... Whether the bacteria spread naturally in wild animal populations has not been confirmed satisfactorily by laboratory diagnosis ... Sebo, Peter; Osicka, Radim; Masin, Jiri (2014-08-04). "Adenylate cyclase toxin-hemolysin relevance for pertussis vaccines". ...
... are named hemolysins, and so on. Cytolysins may be involved in immunity as well as in venoms. Hemolysin is also used by certain ... Kaper J, Hacker J (2000) Pathogenicity islands and other mobile virulence elements. ASM, Washington D.C. Rossjohn, Jamie, et al ... Cytolysin refers to the substance secreted by microorganisms, plants or animals that is specifically toxic to individual cells ... For this reason "Hemolysin" was first used to describe any MDTs. In the 1960s certain MDTs were proved to be destructive on ...
... inflammation and virulence.". Sci. Rep. 6: 29000. PMC 4935997. PMID 27383371. doi:10.1038/srep29000.. ... "Streptococcus agalactiae in elephants.A comparative study with isolates from human and zoo animal and livestock origin.". Vet ... "Group B streptococcal haemolysin and pigment, a tale of twins" (PDF). FEMS Microbiol Rev. 38 (5): 932-946. doi:10.1111/1574- ... "Understanding the regulation of Group B Streptococcal virulence factors" (PDF). Future Microbiol 4 (2): 201-221. PMC 2691590 ...
C. tetani also produces the exotoxin tetanolysin, a hemolysin, that causes destruction of tissues.[5] ... However, these tests are conducted solely on mice, which may react to the toxin differently from humans and other animals. ...
Infected animals can have no, mild, or severe symptoms; the presenting symptoms may vary by the type of animal. In some animals ... Leptospira also secretes sphingomyelinase and haemolysin that target red blood cells. Leptospira spreads rapidly to all organs ... Picardeau M (May 2017). "Virulence of the zoonotic agent of leptospirosis: still terra incognita?". Nature Reviews. ... Risk of death or disability in infected animals varies depending upon the species and age of the animals. In adult pigs and ...
Hemolysin/bacteriocin is a plasmid-encoded protein that generally is accepted as a virulence factor. Hemolysin causes lysis of ... This protein has been demonstrated to increase virulence in several animal models. ... In animal models, injection of enterococci rarely causes peritonitis or subcutaneous infection, but synergy may be observed ... The pathogenesis of enterococcal infections is poorly understood, but several possible virulence factors exist. ...
... in particular α-hemolysin, mediated by regulatory systems other than agr have the potential to fine-tune virulence in CA-MRSA. ... These data demonstrate that hyperexpression of α-hemolysin mediates enhanced virulence in ST93 CA-MRSA, and additional control ... Animals * Australia * Bacterial Toxins / biosynthesis * Bacterial Toxins / genetics * Community-Acquired Infections / ... Hyperexpression of α-hemolysin explains enhanced virulence of sequence type 93 community-associated methicillin-resistant ...
damselae hemolysins damselysin and HlyA are encoded within a new virulence plasmid. Infect Immun 79:4617-4627. doi:10.1128/IAI. ... damselae toxins exert different levels of toxicity depending on the cell type and the animal host (20, 29, 30, 35, 36). The ... Synergistic and additive effects of chromosomal and plasmid-encoded hemolysins contribute to hemolysis and virulence in ... Overall, a mutation of Dly had strong consequences in virulence for fish, and virulence tests clearly suggested that full ...
Rather, infection is a result of an animals immune status, environment, and genetics. Numerous virulence factors such as ... The pore-forming cytotoxins, α-hemolysin and β-hemolysin, lyse erythrocytes of sheep and rabbits. Leukotoxin destroys host ... The virulence of S. pseudintermedius is an area of on going research and has many unknowns. The virulence factors carried by S ... It is transferred by animal-animal contact, and some dog-human zoonoses have also been reported. Transmission is done either ...
... and virulence in pigs were examined for presence of the gene coding for suilysin by PCR amplification, and southern blot and ... Nineteen Streptococccus suis type 2 isolates that had been analyzed previously for hemolysin production, ribotype, ... Nineteen Streptococccus suis type 2 isolates that had been analyzed previously for hemolysin production, ribotype, and ... Animals * Bacterial Proteins / biosynthesis* * Bacterial Proteins / genetics * Blotting, Western / veterinary * Electrophoresis ...
virulence factors and adhesions, such as the FHA and adenylate cyclase-hemolysin. ... for vaccine development for veterinary use, primarily focused on various lab animals, swine, and domestic animals such as dogs ... virulence factors and adhesions, such as the FHA and adenylate cyclase-hemolysin. ... and domestic animals such as dogs. Genomic comparison and lab analysis of virulence factors are compared with B. avium, B. ...
LukX-LukY γ-hemolysin, enterotoxin H, and superantigen X [87, 90]. The typical strain found in animals belongs to spa type t127 ... they carry a diverse array of virulence factors, such as hemolysins, immune evasion factors, enterotoxins, and/or TSST-1 [98]. ... Other animals involved include sea mammals, pet animals, wildlife (birds and mammals), and zoo animals [97, 98, 99, 101, 102, ... Human and Animal Rights and Informed Consent. This article does not contain any studies with human or animal subjects performed ...
... aureus virulence, despite the fact that the agr system rescued the production of hemolysins (probably δ-hemolysin, since S. ... Animal studies were performed in accordance with the European Community guiding in the care and use of animals (Directive 2010/ ... The agr system was chosen because of its major role in the production of proteases, hemolysins, and other virulence factors20, ... 2h). Accordingly, the expression of virulence factors (protein A and hemolysins) was significantly reduced in ΔXV strains (Fig ...
Van den Bosch JF, Emody L, Ketyi J (1982 a) Virulence of haemolytic strains of Escherichia coli in various animal models. FEMS ... Comparison of Escherichia coli hemolysins conferring differences in hemolysin expression and virulence. In: Abstract of the ... Linggood MA, Ingram PL (1982) The role of alpha hemolysin in the virulence of Escherichia coli for mice. J Med Microbiol 15:23- ... Emody L, Pal T, Safonova NV, Kuch B, Golutva NK (1980) The alpha haemolysin as an additive virulence factor in Escherichia coli ...
Planktonic and biofilm antifungal susceptibility and its virulence arsenal. Download Prime PubMed App to iPhone, iPad, or ... In addition, biofilm-forming ability, protease, phospholipase, hemolysin and melanin production and adhesion to epithelial ... Malassezia pachydermatis from animals: Planktonic and biofilm antifungal susceptibility and its virulence arsenal.. Vet ... "Malassezia Pachydermatis From Animals: Planktonic and Biofilm Antifungal Susceptibility and Its Virulence Arsenal." Veterinary ...
... and lethal activity in experimental animals (1). SLS is the oxygen-stable and nonimmunogenic β-hemolysin. Various types of ... The expression of virulence genes was normalized to the ratio of virulence gene RNA and 16S rRNA (26). Total RNA was amplified ... The expression of virulence genes was normalized to the ratio of virulence gene RNA and 16S rRNA in three independent ... Reduced virulence of group A streptococcal Tn916 mutants that do not produce streptolysin S. Infect. Immun.66:1671-1679. ...
... coli hemolysin of E. coli O157. Bacteriophage-associated enterohemolysin (Ehly1 and Ehly2)-specific sequences were detected ... Virulence markers of Shiga-like toxin-producing Escherichia coli strains originating from healthy domestic animals of different ... Virulence markers of Shiga-like toxin-producing Escherichia coli strains originating from healthy domestic animals of different ... Virulence markers of Shiga-like toxin-producing Escherichia coli strains originating from healthy domestic animals of different ...
Mutations in vas homologs in other bacterial species have been reported to attenuate virulence in animals and cultured ... Abbreviations: Hcp, hemolysin-coregulated protein; IAHP, IcmF-associated homologous protein; LB, Luria broth; T3SS, type III ... non-O139 strain expresses virulence factors active on Dictyostelium (see below). The virulence of this isolate for humans is ... The virulence displayed by this V. cholerae O37 strain requires bacterial-amoeboid, cell-cell contact and a set of genes that ...
Control via animal. *Avoid feeding coarse feed to calves which can aid the bacterias invasion of the body. ... Multiple potential virulence factors: *Leukotoxin - including apoptosis and toxic lysis of neutrophils. ... Hemolysins - damage erythrocytes, leading to impaired oxygen transport.. *Dermonecrotic toxin - lysis of collagen. ... Nagaraja T G et al (2005) Fusobacterium necrophorum infections in animals: Pathogenesis and pathogenic mechanisms. Anaerobe 11 ...
Division of Virulence Assessment, Food and Drug Administration, Laurel, Maryland, USA. [email protected] ... Quantifications of these anatomical changes as represented by the percent of animals carrying these changes are shown in D) for ... Cholera toxin (CT) and toxin-co-regulated pili (TCP) are the major virulence factors of Vibrio cholerae O1 and O139 strains ... To determine the role of other virulence factors in V. cholerae pathogenesis, we used a CT and TCP independent infection model ...
animal. , plant hosts? Virulence factors, as well as patient symptoms.. +. Bordetella bronchiseptica has a broad mammalian ... dermonecrotic toxin and adenylate cyclase-hemolysin. The primary well-understood mechanism for dominant attachment into host ... and domestic animals such as dogs. Genomic comparison and lab analysis of virulence factors are compared with B. avium, B. ... and domestic animals such as dogs. Genomic comparison and lab analysis of virulence factors are compared with B. avium, B ...
The pPHDD1 plasmid-encoded hemolysins damselysin (Dly) and phobalysin P (PhlyP), and the chromosome-encoded hemolysin ... We also found that reduced expression of the three virulence genes correlated with a strong decrease in virulence in a sea bass ... We also found that reduced expression of the three virulence genes correlated with a strong decrease in virulence in a sea bass ... The pPHDD1 plasmid-encoded hemolysins damselysin (Dly) and phobalysin P (PhlyP), and the chromosome-encoded hemolysin ...
Plasmid-associated haemolysin and aggregation substance production contribute to virulence in experimental enterococcal ... two-component lantibiotic encoded by the conjugative plasmid pAD1 of Enterococcus faecalis that contributes to animal virulence ... Virulence of Streptococcus pneumoniae in mice: a standardized method for preparation and frozen storage of the experimental ... Cell density control of staphylococcal virulence mediated by an octapeptide pheromone.Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA92199512055 ...
"Genotyping of Antimicrobial Resistance and Virulence in Staphylococcus Isolated from Food of Animal Origin in Mexico, Indian ... staphylococcal complement inhibitor and chemotaxis inhibitory protein of Staphylococcus aureus are located on beta-hemolysin- ... Genotyping of Antimicrobial Resistance and Virulence in Staphylococcus Isolated from Food of Animal Origin in Mexico. Gaerste- ... Genotyping of Antimicrobial Resistance and Virulence in Staphylococcus Isolated from Food of Animal Origin in Mexico. ...
Hemolysin has been known to be an important virulence factor in the pathogenic processes of many clinical microorganisms, ... has been related to increased virulence in animal models, but the role of heme utilization proteins in bacterial survival under ... Of many virulence factors produced from V. fluvialis, hemolysin was thought to be of most importance. ... Virulence Factors. In spite of a significant volume of published research efforts to elucidate virulence factors of V. ...
transmission: from urine of animals (can survive in standing water). virulence factors: persistence in host + hemolysins (some ... virulence factors: similar to TB (wax D, etc.). 2 disease types: a) Tuberculoid (delayed hypersensitivity). b) Lepromatous ( ... specific virulence factors: pili for attachment, cytolysin (RTX). also: - cystitis (bladder infection 2nd to UTI -- poly/ ... transmission: fecal-oral (human to human OR animal to human). severe consequences: septic shock, typhoid fever (48 hrs) ...
Virulence markers of Shiga-like toxin-producing Escherichia coli strains originating from healthy domestic animals of different ... Molecular analysis of the plasmid-encoded hemolysin of Escherichia coli O157:H7 strain EDL 933.Infect. Immun.63199510551061. ... Among the O157 isolates of animal origin, two porcine strains (isolated from different animals from different farms) were ... Analysis of virulence genes showed that a correlation exists among strains with the genotypestx1+stx2+eae+and pathogenic ...
A plasmid-encoded hemolysin, called the cytolysin, is important for pathogenesis in animal models of infection, and the ... A plasmid-encoded adhesin called "aggregation substance" is also important for virulence in animal models of infection. E. ... Ike, Y; Hashimoto, H; Clewell, D B (1984). "Hemolysin of Streptococcus faecalis subspecies zymogenes contributes to virulence ... "Plasmid-associated hemolysin and aggregation substance production contribute to virulence in experimental enterococcal ...
... and delta-hemolysin. These agents play a very important role in staphylococcal pathogenesis. Hemolysins are cytolytic to a ... Staphylococcus aureus is pathogenic to animals and humans and produce many virulence factors such as hemolysins which include ... Staphylococcus aureus is pathogenic to animals and humans and produce many virulence factors such as hemolysins which include ... Hemolysins are cytolytic to a variety of host cells. Toxicity to immune cells makes them a good means for staphylococci to ...
Other STEC virulence factors targeted for diagnostics include enterocyte attachment and effacing ( eae ) and EHEC haemolysin A ... The toxins are immunogenic and immunological assays to detect them in human specimens, animal and food samples have been ... B Virulence Factor-Specific Methods * NAA can be used to detect virulence genes in individual colonies, sweeps of cultures on ... EHEC - in addition to the criteria above, the demonstration of the accessory virulence factors eae and/or EHEC hlyA ...
In contrast, the severity of muscle damage and toxicity produced by the A. dhakensis hemolysin-deletion mutant is attenuated. ... In contrast, the severity of muscle damage and toxicity produced by the A. dhakensis hemolysin-deletion mutant is attenuated. ... Virulence of Hemolysin-Deletion A. dhakensis to C. elegans. The virulence of a hemolysin-deletion mutant of AAK1 (AAK1 ΔhlyA:: ... Animals were transferred to fresh plates of E. coli OP50 or A. dhakensis AAK1 and monitored daily for dead animals. Animals ...
... faecalis have shown that hemolysin contributes to the virulence of the organism in animal models, including murine peritonitis ... Plasmid-associated hemolysin and aggregation substance production contribute to virulence in experimental enterococcal ... AS+ EBS+ strain OG1SSp(pINY1801) caused clinical signs in nine of nine animals, and all of the animals died. Necropsy analyses ... The AS−EBS− strain caused small (1+) vegetations in three of four animals. The other animal, whose myocardium had been ...
... an adenylate cyclase and hemolysin double mutant, or to BP 349, a hemolysin mutant. Experimental neuropathy ... Single-site mutants of B. pertussis with single affected virulence factors were tested. A mutant that produces a defective ... AND PERTUSSIS VACCINE USED TO INDUCE ENCEPHALOPATHY IN ANIMALS Au-Jensen M, et al. Is the acute encephalopathy test in mice ... EAE was not induced in animals inoculated with it. These results suggest that MBP in vaccines may play a decisive role in the ...
Cite this article as: Ture M, Altinok I (2016) Detection of putative virulence genes of Lactococcus garvieae. Dis Aquat Org 119 ... ABSTRACT: Lactococcus garvieae is the causative agent of lactococcosis and has been isolated from a wide variety of animals. In ... hemolysins 1, 2, and 3 (hly1, -2, -3), NADH oxidase, superoxide dismutase (sod), phosphoglucomutase ( pgm), adhesin Pav (adhPav ... Single genes also might not be responsible for the virulence of L. garvieae. ...
  • Furthermore, mutation of the oppA gene not only affects speB expression but also affects the expression of other virulence genes and regulatory genes. (
  • The slt-II (Shiga-like toxin II) and slt-IIc genes were frequent in SLTEC from healthy cattle and dogs but were rarely found in SLTEC from other animals. (
  • Accordingly, we have named these genes "VAS" genes for virulence-associated secretion, and we propose that these genes encode a prototypic "type VI" secretion system. (
  • A large number of Gram-negative bacterial pathogens carry genes homologous to vas genes and potential effector proteins secreted by this pathway (i.e., hemolysin-coregulated protein and VgrG). (
  • Remarkably, we demonstrated by promoter expression analyses that the reduced hemolysis in the rstB mutant was accompanied by a strong decrease in transcription activities of the three hemolysin genes dly (damselysin), hlyA pl (phobalysin P) and hlyA ch (phobalysin C). Thus, RstB, encoded in the small chromosome, regulates plasmid and chromosomal virulence genes. (
  • We also found that reduced expression of the three virulence genes correlated with a strong decrease in virulence in a sea bass model, demonstrating that RstB constitutes a master regulator of the three P. damselae subsp. (
  • To determine clonal relationship among Chilean enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) strains from different sources (clinical infections, animal reservoirs, and food), 54 EHEC isolates (44 of E. coli O157, 5 of E. coli O111, and 5 of E. coli O26) were characterized for virulence genes by colony blot hybridization and by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). (
  • Analysis of virulence genes showed that a correlation exists among strains with the genotype stx 1 + stx 2 + eae + and pathogenic potential. (
  • Single genes also might not be responsible for the virulence of L. garvieae . (
  • Ture M, Altinok I (2016) Detection of putative virulence genes of Lactococcus garvieae . (
  • This work continues to reveal common mechanisms of immunity across animals and plants, including the identification of universal defense genes and the pathways that control their expression in response to infection ( 64 ). (
  • Additionally, we report sequence types, virulence genes, and phylogenetic analysis of the MRSA isolates. (
  • One newly emerging field is identification of the specific roles of alternative sigma factors in regulating expression of virulence genes and virulence-associated genes in bacterial pathogens. (
  • Virulence genes encode proteins whose functions are essential for the bacterium to effectively establish an infection in a host organism. (
  • In contrast, virulence-associated genes can contribute to bacterial survival in the environment and therefore may enhance the capacity of the bacterium to spread to new individuals or to survive passage through a host organism. (
  • As alternative sigma factors have been shown to regulate expression of both virulence and virulence-associated genes, these proteins can contribute both directly and indirectly to bacterial virulence. (
  • Virulence and virulence-associated genes are those that contribute to at least one aspect of bacterial disease transmission and infection processes. (
  • Examples of virulence genes are L. monocytogenes inlA , which encodes the internalin-A protein important for invasion of nonprofessional phagocytes ( 129 ), and the spv gene cluster of Salmonella enterica , which allows for bacterial growth inside macrophages ( 128 ). (
  • Background: Recently, dipeptide aureusimines were reported to activate expression of staphylococcal virulence genes, such as alpha-hemolysin, and increase S. aureus virulence. (
  • Surprisingly, most of the virulence genes affected by aureusimines form part of the regulon of the SaeRS two component system (TCS), raising the possibility that SaeRS might be directly or indirectly involved in the aureusimine-dependent signaling process. (
  • A pathogen's virulence factors are encoded by genes that can be identified using molecular Koch's postulates. (
  • When genes encoding virulence factors are inactivated, virulence in the pathogen is diminished. (
  • A cluster of virulence genes encoded on a pathogenicity island is responsible for the pathogenicity of L. monocytogenes . (
  • Considering the repertoire of virulence genes, atypical EPEC (aEPEC) is a heterogeneous group, harbouring genes that are found in other diarrheagenic E. coli pathotypes, such as those encoding haemolysins. (
  • A toxin related to HlyA, enterohaemorrhagic E. coli (EHEC-HlyA, denoted Ehx), is encoded by ehx genes that are located on a virulence plasmid belonging to EHEC (Bauer & Welch 1996, Schmidt et al. (
  • These genes might alter virulence of the host, confer metabolic benefits, or enable the bacteria to colonize new environments ( 1 ). (
  • The ability and frequency with which antimicrobial resistance genes disseminate between bacteria in humans, the environment, and animals is still debated, and the role of plasmids in this movement between ecosystems, including the food chain, is also still contested, despite mounting evidence that it occurs ( 8 , 9 ). (
  • Enterococci have the ability to transfer antibiotic resistance and virulence genes horizontally to other bacteria [ 11 ]. (
  • Comparative genomic analysis can be used to identify genes coding for virulence, antibiotic resistance and gene mobility as well as elucidate the evolutionary relationship among bacteria. (
  • Over 8 kb of the V. splendidus genome was sequenced to identify the haemolysin gene and neighbouring genes. (
  • Analysis of the secondary structure of this regulator indicated that it possesses all the domains necessary for gene regulation but with novel features not previously recorded for other regulators of virulence genes. (
  • As transposon mutagenesis of the ToxR-like gene causes loss of haemolytic activity it suggests that this gene is functional and controls expression of the haemolysin, but it is not known whether other genes are also regulated by this system. (
  • In Salmonella the majority of the virulence genes are on the chromosome, but a handful are plasmid-borne. (
  • In contrast, in Yersinia several plasmids carry the bulk of the virulence genes. (
  • Although plasmids have been investigated most intensively in enteric bacteria, it is clear that virulence in many other bacteria often depends on at least some plasmid-borne genes. (
  • The molecular pathogenesis of GAS, like many pathogens, is dependent on the coordinated expression of genes encoding different virulence factors. (
  • The stx-2 and eae genes were the most commonly encountered virulence factors. (
  • A previous study [ 24 ] has shown an increase in the pathogenicity of Escherichia coli strain 536/21 after transformation with the S. marcescens hemolysin genes. (
  • The unraveling of a pathogen's journey through its host requires the analysis of many genes and, consequently, the infection of large numbers of research animals. (
  • Although most E.coli are non-pathogenic, a small subpopulation, including but not limited to serotype O157:H7, demonstrates virulence factors such as attachment genes, hemolysin production and shiga-like toxins. (
  • It is primarily a pathogen for domestic animals, but has been known to affect humans as well.S. pseudintermedius is an opportunistic pathogen that secretes immune modulating virulence factors, has many adhesion factors, and the potential to create biofilms, all of which help to determine the pathogenicity of the bacterium. (
  • The pathogenesis of enterococcal infections is poorly understood, but several possible virulence factors exist. (
  • citation needed] CoPS strains typically express more virulence factors. (
  • Two major virulence factors are encoded within the large conjugative plasmid pPHDD1, the phospholipase D damselysin (Dly) and the pore-forming toxin phobalysin P (PhlyP). (
  • Still, among such genetic heterogeneity, it is feasible to identify conserved weak points in the biology of this bacterium: the two-component regulatory system RstAB (CarSR) was found to be necessary for the maximal production of virulence factors, and its inactivation severely impaired virulence. (
  • Cholera toxin (CT) and toxin-co-regulated pili (TCP) are the major virulence factors of Vibrio cholerae O1 and O139 strains that contribute to the pathogenesis of disease during devastating cholera pandemics. (
  • To determine the role of other virulence factors in V. cholerae pathogenesis, we used a CT and TCP independent infection model in the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans and identified the hemolysin A (hlyA) gene as a factor responsible for animal death and developmental delay. (
  • In order to understand more about the effects of Opp on GAS virulence factors, an oppA isogenic mutant was constructed by using an integrative plasmid to disrupt the opp operon and confirmed by Southern blot hybridization. (
  • This yeast species produces important virulence factors and presents high pathogenicity, corroborating its clinical importance. (
  • Staphylococcus aureus is pathogenic to animals and humans and produce many virulence factors such as hemolysins which include alpha-, beta-, gamma- and delta-hemolysin. (
  • 1 of these biology have allowed research groups to identify numerous conditions: endocarditis, meningitis, arthritis, sepsis, pneu- virulence factors and to explore their roles in the progres- monia, osteomyelitis, and toxic shock ( 7 ). (
  • The pPHDD1 plasmid-encoded hemolysins damselysin (Dly) and phobalysin P (PhlyP), and the chromosome-encoded hemolysin phobalysin C (PhlyC) constitute its main virulence factors. (
  • Alpha-toxin is also one of the key virulence factors in S. aureus pneumonia. (
  • As many strains of S. aureus are proving to be resistant to most available antibiotics, specific targeting of virulence factors with antibodies may be the next step to treating this pathogen. (
  • virulence factors: similar to TB (wax D, etc. (
  • Several virulence factors contribute to the pathogenicity of EHEC strains, including Shiga toxin 1 (Stx1) and/or Stx2, an eae locus that codes for the ability to produce an attaching-and-effacing lesion, and the EHEC hly operon that encodes an RTX (repeats in toxin) toxin designated EHEC hemolysin (Hly) and is required for expression of EHEC fimbrial antigen. (
  • Therefore methods targeting virulence factors rather than serotype determinants are recommended for detecting STEC in Australia and elsewhere where non-O157 STECS are common. (
  • Other STEC virulence factors targeted for diagnostics include enterocyte attachment and effacing ( eae ) and EHEC haemolysin A ( hly A), markers for the locus of enterocyte effacement (LEE) pathogenicity island, and the STEC megaplasmid, respectively. (
  • It has various virulence factors contributing to its pathogenicity including, exotoxin (hemolysin or leukotoxin) and enzymes such as proteases, DNases, and neuraminidases. (
  • The potential virulence factors of enterococci include production of enterococcal surface protein (Esp), gelatinase, and hemolysin. (
  • ln centrast all three factors, S-fimbriae, serum resistance and hemolysin, were necessary for full virulence in a respiratory mouse infection assay. (
  • As an insect pathogen, the gamma-proteobacterium Xenorhabdus nematophila likely possesses an arsenal of virulence factors, one of which is described in this work. (
  • The Bordetellae virulence factors include toxins-such as pertussis toxin for B. pertussis only, adenylate cyclase-hemolysin, and lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-and adhesins-such as filamentous hemagglutinin, fimbriae and pertactin-, all involved in the binding to ciliated epithelial cells in the host upper respiratory tract. (
  • This study aimed to determine the virulence factors, phylogenetic groups, and the relationships between pathovars and phylogenetic groups of E. coli strains isolated from feces of buffalo calves. (
  • A total of 217 E. coli strains were obtained from feces after culture and were screened by PCR for detection of virulence factors EAST-1, enterohemolysin, Saa, CNF2, F41, F5, STa, intimin, Stx1 and Stx2. (
  • One hundred and thirty-four isolates were positive for one or more virulence factors: eighty-four from diarrheic animals, and fifty from non-diarrheic calves. (
  • The pathogenic strains of E. coli show different virulence factors, such as endotoxins, adhesins, enterotoxins, necrotizing citotoxic factors (cnf) and hemolysins. (
  • The Rajagopal laboratory is studying the molecular mechanisms and virulence factors utilized by GBS to adapt to various environmental niches, with the goal of developing additional strategies to prevent GBS infections. (
  • The study was conducted to characterize pheno-genotypically the virulence factors and resistance pattern of Staphylococcus aureus isolates from milk samples of cows with subclinical mastitis. (
  • Staphylococcus aureus, antimicrobial resistance, virulence factors. (
  • Staphylococcus aureus secretes numerous virulence factors that facilitate evasion of the host immune system. (
  • The success of S. aureus as a pathogen is facilitated by production of a litany of virulence factors that promote evasion of the host innate immune system. (
  • Several virulence factors are described for B. hyodysenteriae . (
  • Streptolysin S (SLS)-like virulence factors from clinically relevant Gram-positive pathogens have been proposed to behave as potent cytotoxins, playing key roles in tissue infection. (
  • We present several examples of alternative sigma factors that have been shown to contribute to virulence in at least one organism. (
  • This organism produces a number of virulence factors including hemolysin, sphingomylelinase, and phospholipase. (
  • Although in some of the Vibrio species a siderophore or heme-mediated mechanism of iron uptake could play an important role in virulence, additional virulence factors such as toxins, pili and flagella, hemolysins and cytolysins, lipopolysaccharide, and capsules are also required for the development of the disease. (
  • Very few studies regarding production of virulence factors in different predominant serotypes of uropathogenic Pseudomonas aeruginosa are available and they have not been correlated to in vivo pathogenicity in the urinary tract . (
  • Quantitative bacterial count and histopathological evaluation of mouse renal tissue was done which were then assessed for a possible association with elaboration of virulence factors . (
  • However, renal counts varied amongst different isolates producing different virulence factors . (
  • Isolates producing high levels of haemolysin along with other virulence factors were able to colonize and multiply more in mouse renal tissue as compared to those producing low levels of haemolysin. (
  • In this section, we examine various types and specific examples of virulence factors and how they contribute to each step of pathogenesis. (
  • What kind of pathogen causes listeriosis, and what virulence factors contribute to the signs and symptoms Pankaj is experiencing? (
  • The majority of these cytolytic toxins are pore-forming proteins and several of them are important virulence factors for their parent bacteria (Alouf 2001). (
  • Nevertheless, the presence of potentially pathogenic bacteria expressing virulence factors may threat both sea turtles' and humans' health. (
  • The translational GTPase BipA regulates the expression of virulence and pathogenicity factors in several eubacteria. (
  • BipA-dependent expression of virulence factors occurs under starvation conditions, such as encountered during infection of a host. (
  • article{osti_1212947, title = {Structural and Functional Analysis of BipA, a Regulator of Virulence in Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli}, author = {Fan, Haitian and Hahm, Joseph and Diggs, Stephen and Perry, J. Jefferson P. and Blaha, Gregor}, abstractNote = {The translational GTPase BipA regulates the expression of virulence and pathogenicity factors in several eubacteria. (
  • The analysis revealed E. faecium and E. faecalis from bovine feces share features with human clinical isolates, including virulence factors. (
  • A protein of c. 40 kDa with an N-terminal amino acid sequence showing homology with the OmpU outer membrane protein from V. vulnificus, but other potential virulence factors secreted by this organism were investigated. (
  • Some virulence factors are toxins that damage or kill animal cells, others help bacteria to attach to and invade animal cells (Fig. 16.20), whereas yet others protect bacteria against retaliation by the immune system . (
  • These pathogenic E. coli generally rely on plasmid-borne virulence factors. (
  • There is a similar variety of adhesins or 'colonization factors', adhesin Protein that enables bacteria to attach themselves to the surface of animal cells. (
  • Same as adhesin enterotoxins Types of toxin made by enteric bacteria including some pathogenic strains of E. coli hemolysin Type of toxin that lyses red blood cells virulence factors Proteins that promote virulence in infectious bacteria. (
  • In addition to toxins and adhesins, these 'professional' pathogens possess more sophisticated virulence factors that protect against host defenses. (
  • We identified other pathogenic factors and described a fibronectin binding protein (FBP) homolog of S. intermedius (FbpI) that mediated bacterial adhesion to epithelial cells and virulence for mice. (
  • Using genome sequencing of plasmidless strains and transposon-based mutagenesis, we are currently deciphering additional virulence factors that allow P. damselae subsp. (
  • damselae major virulence factors Dly, HlyA pl and HlyA ch are secreted via the type II secretion system. (
  • In the human pathogen, Staphylococcus aureus , the agr quorum sensing system controls expression of a multitude of virulence factors and yet, agr negative cells frequently arise both in the laboratory and in some infections. (
  • The expression of virulence factors is to a large extent controlled by the agr quorum sensing (QS) system composed of the response regulator, AgrA and the sensor histidine kinase, AgrC that in response to auto-inducing peptides expresses a regulatory RNA, RNAIII. (
  • However, in terms of virulence factors, E. faecium appears to lack certain important determinants, such as hemolysin, gelatinase, and the fsr locus, previously shown to play a role in Enterococcus faecalis infections ( 7 ). (
  • Virulence factors in Escherichia coli urinary tract infection. (
  • Uropathogenic strains of Escherichia coli are characterized by the expression of distinctive bacterial properties, products, or structures referred to as virulence factors because they help the organism overcome host defenses and colonize or invade the urinary tract. (
  • Virulence factors of recognized importance in the pathogenesis of urinary tract infection (UTI) include adhesins (P fimbriae, certain other mannose-resistant adhesins, and type 1 fimbriae), the aerobactin system, hemolysin, K capsule, and resistance to serum killing. (
  • In general, the more virulence factors a strain expresses, the more severe an infection it is able to cause. (
  • Certain virulence factors specifically favor the development of pyelonephritis, others favor cystitis, and others favor asymptomatic bacteriuria. (
  • The currently defined virulence factors clearly contribute to the virulence of wild-type strains but are usually insufficient in themselves to transform an avirulent organism into a pathogen, demonstrating that other as-yet-undefined virulence properties await discovery. (
  • Further studies will be needed to decipher the virulence factors and to determine their contribution to the observed phenotype of the 444ST95E. (
  • Potential virulence factors involved in this pathogenicity are proteases, a nuclease, a lecitinase, and the hemolysin, all of which are secreted by the bacterium. (
  • This bacteria revealed a large number of virulence factors such as hemolysin D and CD4+ T-cell-stimulating antigen that caused significat mortality among experimental animals due to pneumonia. (
  • [6] [7] Several virulence factors are thought to contribute to E. faecalis infections. (
  • These virulence factors can make extensive infection and severe damage (7, 12, 15, 16). (
  • All pulsotypes were then tested for presence of colicin, phage, and virulence factors. (
  • Genome sequencing and comparative genomics of strains with divergent exotoxin profiles demonstrated that, like other S. aureus clones, the quorum sensing agr system is the master regulator of toxin expression and virulence in ST93 CA-MRSA. (
  • The objective of this study was to determine the antifungal susceptibility, and evaluate virulence and pathogenicity of 25 M. pachydermatis strains from animals. (
  • Virulence markers of Shiga-like toxin-producing Escherichia coli strains originating from healthy domestic animals of different species. (
  • Shiga-like toxin (verotoxin)-producing strains of Escherichia coli (SLTEC) originating from healthy cattle, sheep, goats, pigs, cats, and dogs were investigated for properties which are related to virulence of E. coli for humans. (
  • The SLTEC from healthy animals constitute a very heterogeneous group of E. coli, and many of these strains appeared to be specific for their hosts. (
  • The absence of eae sequences in most animal SLTEC could indicate that these strains are less virulent for humans than the classical eae-positive enterohemorrhagic E. coli types. (
  • Plasmid-free strains of Enterococcus faecalis secrete a peptide sex pheromone, cAD1, which specifically induces a mating response by donors carrying the hemolysin plasmid pAD1 or related elements. (
  • Delta-hemolysin, a heat-stabile, small protein produced by most Staphylococcus aureus strains acts as a cytolysin but also turned out to be a potent polyclonal activator of lymphocytes. (
  • The fi rst human infections problems because S. iniae is not listed in commercial or were reported in 1996 ( 1 ), and S. iniae was noted as an clinical databases, and many atypical strains are assigned emerging zoonotic disease transmitted by food animals at low matches ( 1 , 4 ). (
  • Alpha-toxin has been shown to play a role in pathogenesis of disease, as hly knockout strains show reductions in invasiveness and virulence. (
  • Nearly a century ago, epidemiological studies revealed that UPEC strains were more likely than commensal E. coli to express a hemolytic factor, now known as hemolysin (HlyA) ( 3 ). (
  • The objective of this study was to determine the distribution of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) virulence markers ( stx1 , stx2 , eae , ehxA ) in E. coli strains isolated from young calves aged fewer than 7 days (bobby calves). (
  • We show that GBS invades hAECs and strains lacking the hemolysin repressor CovR/S accelerate amniotic barrier failure and penetrate chorioamniotic membranes in a hemolysin-dependent manner. (
  • We found a predominance of non-ExPEC strains (95% and 93% among water and animal isolates, respectively), which were mainly from phylogroups A and B1, plus a minority of ExPEC strains (5% and 7% among water isolates and animal isolates, respectively), predominantly from phylogroup B2. (
  • The ExPEC strains, although significantly associated with cats, dogs, and turkeys, occurred in several additional animal species (goat, horse, chicken, pig) and were distributed broadly across all surface water sites. (
  • Although cats, dogs, and turkeys were especially high-prevalence sources, the presence of such strains in other animal species and at all sampled water sites suggests that this potential risk may be widespread. (
  • Gelatinase- and hemolysin-producing strains of Enterococcus faecalis have been shown to be virulent in animal models of enterococcal infections. (
  • Salmonella typhimurium strains carrying hemolysin plasmids and cloned hemolysin. (
  • Nevertheless, two haemolysin (Hly) plasmids of E. coli belonging to the inc groups incFllI,lv (pSU316) and incIz (pHly152) were able to be introduced into these strains by conjugation and stably maintained. (
  • Additionally, the Rajagopal lab has shown that this hemolysin promotes GBS invasion of placental cells and that hyper-hemolytic strains are more proficient in disrupting the amniotic barrier and penetrating placental membranes and can be associated with preterm birth. (
  • We show that the level of Hla expression by independent S. aureus strains directly correlates with their virulence. (
  • haemolysin (HlyA), which is produced by many uropathogenic E. coli strains. (
  • Extraintestinal pathogenic Escherichia coli (ExPEC), the specialized E. coli strains that possess the ability to overcome or subvert host defenses and cause extraintestinal disease, are important pathogens in humans and certain animals. (
  • Wide ranges of toxins are found in different pathogenic E. coli strains, including heat-labile enterotoxin (resembles choleratoxin), heat-stable enterotoxin, hemolysin (lyses red blood cells) and Shiga-like toxin (similar to the toxin of dysentery-causing Shigella). (
  • What is known is that some strains produce hemolysins that can cause some toxicity. (
  • in fact, it was (and some strains still are) used in the food industry as cheese or fermentation starter cultures and as probiotics and was known to colonize many animal species ( 26 ). (
  • Isogenic hemolysin-negative mutant strains were still adhesive, but were no longer cytotoxic, did not disrupt the cell culture monolayer, and were no longer internalized by HEp-2 and RT112 bladder epithelial cells under the conditions used for the wild-type strain. (
  • However, V. anguillarum strains with mutations in plp or in plp and vah1 exhibited no significant reduction in virulence compared to the wild type strain when used to infect rainbow trout. (
  • The aim of this study was to show varied shares of virulence genetic markers among strains isolated from dogs with diarrhea. (
  • Such observations led to the characterization of two ubiquitous chromosome-encoded toxins with lesser cytolytic activity, the pore forming-toxin phobalysin C (PhlyC) and the phospholipase-hemolysin PlpV. (
  • Beta-hemolysin known as an inflammatory inducer is an enzyme with a specific, other than for most of staphylococcal toxins mode of action and its effects depend on sphingomyelinase content in a target cell. (
  • Gamma-hemolysins are very unique bicomponent pore-forming toxins consisting of S and F class proteins, released as monomers and forming heterooligomers leading to a cation-selective channel formation. (
  • The toxins are immunogenic and immunological assays to detect them in human specimens, animal and food samples have been developed. (
  • Although progress has been made toward elucidating the role of these toxins in S. aureus virulence, our understanding of the mechanisms that underlie the proinflammatory capacity of these toxins, as well as the associated host response toward them, is incomplete. (
  • In addition, the pathogen is able to produce two toxins: a hemolysin which is cytotoxic and is responsible for damaging the intestinal wall and a lipo-oligosaccharide that possesses endotoxin activity. (
  • Cytolytic pore-forming toxins are important for the virulence of many disease-causing bacteria. (
  • The pores formed by these toxins can vary in effective diameter from 1-2 nm [e.g., α-toxin, hemolysin, aerolysin, and Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) Crystal (Cry) toxins (see below)] to 25-30 nm (e.g., streptolysin O). (
  • Although PFTs are important to the virulence of many pathogenic bacteria, there is little understanding, apart from physiological data, as to how cells respond to these toxins and whether they mount a defense. (
  • The staphylococcal bicomponent pore-forming toxins Panton-Valentine leukocidin LukSF-PV (PVL) and γ-hemolysin CB (HlgCB) target human phagocytes through interaction with the complement receptors C5aR1 and C5aR2. (
  • The molecular basis for species specificity of the two toxins in animal models is not completely understood. (
  • Bacteria are able to attack animal cells by attaching to the cellular membrane and releasing toxins. (
  • One attached, the bacteria secrete toxins, which can penetrate the animal cell membrane and kill the cell. (
  • Virulence is deter-mined not only by the ability of the microorganism to penetrate into the organism of a susceptible animal and reproduce and spread within it, but also by whether the microbe (or virus) produces toxic products, or toxins. (
  • The 444ST95 clone strongly affected mosquito survival and parasite development and this could be associated to the Hemolysin F or other toxins released by the bacteria. (
  • To date, several S. aureus virulence determinants have been identified, including cell-bound and secreted toxins, hemolysins, proteases, and extracellular-matrix-binding proteins, but the mechanisms behind this organism's virulence and its broad repertoire of tissue tropisms remains obscure. (
  • Using Dictyostelium discoideum as a model host, we have identified a virulence mechanism in a non-O1/non-O139 V. cholerae strain that involves extracellular translocation of proteins that lack N-terminal hydrophobic leader sequences. (
  • In the purest fraction, sphingomyelinase, synergistic hemolysis, and staphylococcal β-hemolysin inhibition activities were associated with the presence of 31 and 21 kDa proteins. (
  • proteins that enable bacteria to stick to the surface of animal cells. (
  • Several extracellular proteins secreted by V. anguillarum have been shown to contribute to virulence. (
  • Type I, exemplified by the hemolysin secretion system of Escherichia coli , is a rather simple exporter that is based on only three proteins, one of which belongs to the ABC transporters. (
  • In bacteria that are pathogenic for animals, type III secretion systems allow extracellular bacteria adhering to the surface of a host cell to inject specialized proteins across the plasma membrane. (
  • Here, using a geographically and temporally dispersed collection of ST93 isolates we demonstrate that the ST93 population hyperexpresses key CA-MRSA exotoxins, in particular α-hemolysin, in comparison to other global clones. (
  • Nineteen Streptococccus suis type 2 isolates that had been analyzed previously for hemolysin production, ribotype, and virulence in pigs were examined for presence of the gene coding for suilysin by PCR amplification, and southern blot and hybridization techniques. (
  • A significant percentage of clinical isolates are hemolytic, a trait commonly encoded on plasmids resembling the hemolysin/bacteriocin (cytolysin)-encoding element pAD1 ( 28 , 31 ). (
  • Virulence gene content among the animal source ExPEC isolates segregated significantly in relation to host species, following established patterns. (
  • These findings imply what probably is a low but non-zero risk to humans from environmental and animal source E. coli isolates, especially those from specific human-associated animal species. (
  • We determined the presence of the esp gene and production of gelatinase and hemolysin in 219 E. faecalis isolates from a larger prospective study of 398 patients with enterococcal bacteremia. (
  • Thirty-two percent of isolates carried the esp gene, 64% produced gelatinase, and 11% produced hemolysin. (
  • All hemolytic isolates presented beta-hemolysin, and 38% of the non-hemolytic isolates were able to express hemolysins in the presence of a beta-hemolytic strain. (
  • In addition, it has been previously reported that EPEC O26:H - isolates are associated with a type of haemolysin, termed enterohaemolysin (Ehly) because of its association with enteric diseases, that is phenotypically, genetically and serologically unrelated to the previously described haemolysins (Beutin et al. (
  • From this information, PCRs identifying novel features of pCT were designed and applied to isolates from several countries, showing that the plasmid has disseminated worldwide in bacteria from humans and animals. (
  • Whereas in other models 107_108 bacteria have to be injected into an animal to induce toxic effects resulting in death within 24 hours, now, only 103_104 bacteria of an appropriate strain are required to produce a genuine infection characterized by an increase in the bacterial load over several days. (
  • These results confirm that PLD is a virulence determinant of C. pseudotuberculosis which allows the persistence and spread of the bacteria within the host. (
  • Gram-negative marine bacteria that belong to the genus Vibrio are commonly found as etiological agents of disease in humans and animals. (
  • This chapter discusses siderophore and heme-mediated iron uptake systems in the vibrios and describes their roles as components of the virulence of these bacteria. (
  • What virulence factor is necessary for Brachyspira and allows the bacteria to move through intestinal mucosa? (
  • Cloacal, oral and egg content swab samples from 33 nesting loggerheads (n = 99) of the Island of Maio were analysed regarding the presence of Gram-negative bacteria and their antibiotic resistance and virulence profiles. (
  • Complete DNA sequences can be used as a platform to develop rapid epidemiologic tools to identify and trace the spread of plasmids in clinically relevant pathogens, thus facilitating a better understanding of their distribution and ability to transfer between bacteria of humans and animals. (
  • CTX-M-14 is the second most frequently identified CTX-M enzyme worldwide ( 10 ), detected in bacteria isolated from humans, animals, and the environment. (
  • Virulence plasmids help bacteria infect humans, animals or even plants, by a variety of mechanisms. (
  • Same as colonization factor choleratoxin Type of toxin made by Vibrio cholerae the cholera bacterium colonization factor Protein that enables bacteria to attach themselves to the surface of animal cells. (
  • The bacteria contain plasmids that encode adhesins, which are protein filaments able to recognize and attach to cell-surface receptors found on animal cells. (
  • Plasmids may provide bacteria with additional virulence-related capabilities (such as pilus formation, iron transport systems, toxin production, and antibiotic resistance). (
  • In some bacteria, several virulence determinants are regulated by a single genetic locus. (
  • The novel germ has some virulence abilities of a class of pathogenic E. coli bacteria called entero-aggregative E. coli (#EAEC). (
  • The European Food Safety Administration (EFSA) and the European Centre for Disease Control (ECDC) published the second joint report concerning antibiotic resistance of pathogenic bacteria infecting people, animals and food articles. (
  • Ruminants constitute the primary reservoir of the O157:H7 serotype, and unlike humans, these animals are not negatively affected by the bacteria. (
  • Up to 30% of the animals within some beef herds have been shown to shed these bacteria at any given time, but not all ruminants are carriers and much lies undiscovered regarding the ecology of these human pathogens. (
  • damselae behaves as a generalist pathogen, capable of living as a free-swimming bacterium and as a pathogen, and with the ability to cause disease in a wide range of animal phyla. (
  • Burkholderia cepacia is an opportunistic pathogen that causes severe systemic infections in patients with chronic granulomatous disease (CGD) or with cystic fibrosis (CF), but its mechanisms of virulence are poorly understood. (
  • A clearer understanding of the pathogenicity of this evolving pathogen would be greatly aided by a suitable animal model of infection. (
  • This work has uncovered mechanisms of host immunity and pathogen virulence that are analogous to those involved during pathogenesis in humans or other animal hosts, as well as novel immunity mechanisms which appear to be unique to the worm. (
  • Phenotypes such as animal survival, motility, pathogen burden, and so forth can subsequently be easily and noninvasively examined. (
  • General Information: Listeria ivanovii is an animal pathogen that causes abortions and stillbirths in ruminants, primarily sheep. (
  • A toxic phospholipase D (PLD), is thought to be an essential virulence determinant of Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis, an animal pathogen which causes chronic, suppurative infections. (
  • Single amino acid replacements along the entire length of RocA disrupt RocA-RocA and RocA-CovS interactions to significantly alter the GAS virulence phenotype as defined by secreted virulence factor activity in vitro and tissue destruction and mortality in vivo In summary, we show that single amino acid replacements in a regulatory accessory protein can affect protein-protein interactions to significantly alter the virulence of a major human pathogen. (
  • We study how variations in salinity and temperature affect virulence gene regulation in this pathogen. (
  • damselae outbreaks to occur, but to date there is no information about how temperature modulates virulence and fitness in this pathogen. (
  • damselae as a pathogen for both poikilotherm and homeotherm animals makes this bacterium a valuable biological model to study the genome adaptations that lead to the rise of novel pathogenic strategies. (
  • damselae hemolysins and plays critical roles in the pathogenicity of this bacterium. (
  • Virulence and pathogenicity are often used interchangeably, but virulence may also be used to indicate the degree of pathogenicity. (
  • Berger H, Hacker J, Juarez A, Hughes C, Goebel W (1982) Cloning of the chromosomal determinants encoding hemolysin production and mannose resistant hemagglutination in Escherichia coli . (
  • While the determinants of virulence have been studied in other clones of CA-MRSA, the basis for hypervirulence in ST93 CA-MRSA has not been defined. (
  • Cloned hemolysin (h/y) determinants from the Chromosomes of 06,018 and 075 E. colistrains and from the plasmid pHiy152 were introduced into the spontaneaus Sfa-, Sre-, Hly- mutant 536-21 and its Sfa+, Sre+, Hly- variant 536-31. (
  • Requires maternal exposure to the virulence determinants of the particular strain. (
  • However, we also identified a previously uncharacterized AraC/XylS family regulator (AryK) that potentiates toxin expression and virulence in S. aureus. (
  • Alpha-hemolysin is a protein toxin released to host environment as a monomer. (
  • Alpha-toxin, also known as alpha-hemolysin (Hla), is the major cytotoxic agent released by bacterium Staphylococcus aureus and the first identified member of the pore forming beta-barrel toxin family. (
  • The level of alpha-toxin expressed by a particular strain of S. aureus directly correlates with the virulence of the strain. (
  • Also, introduction of alpha-toxin specific antibodies into an unimmunized animal protects against subsequent infection. (
  • Although we have known for nearly a century that severe infections stemming from urinary tract infections, including kidney or bloodstream infections are associated with expression of a toxin, hemolysin, from uropathogenic Escherichia coli , how hemolysin functions to enhance virulence is unknown. (
  • The E. coli hemolysin is the prototype for a toxin family (RTX family) produced by a wide array of human and animal pathogens. (
  • Diarrhea is an important health concern in young animals, and frequently E. coli pathovars such as enterotoxigenic E. coli (ETEC), Shiga-toxin producing E. coli (STEC), enterohemorrhagic E. coli (EHEC), and entero-pathogenic E. coli (EPEC), are associated with its etiology ( CROXEN & FINLAY 2010 ). (
  • PVL is a potent proinflammatory toxin and elicits a pronounced inflammatory response following injection of purified toxin into the skin in experimental animal models. (
  • α-Hemolysin (Hla), a secreted pore-forming toxin, is an essential virulence factor of MRSA in a mouse model of S. aureus pneumonia. (
  • Further supporting the role of Hla in virulence, passive immunization of mice with anti-Hla antisera affords protection from challenge both with purified toxin as well as live staphylococci in the i.p. infection model ( 14 ). (
  • Moreover, both MAPK pathways are functionally important because elimination of either leads to animals that are ( i ) hypersensitive to a low, chronic dose of toxin and ( ii ) hypersensitive to a high, brief dose of toxin such that the animal might naturally encounter in the wild. (
  • Escherichia coli α-hemolysin), Aeromonas hydrophila aerolysin, Staphylococcus aureus α-toxin, and Vibrio cholerae hemolysin. (
  • The haemolysin had a broad spectrum of cell-damaging activity and was partially purified and shown to be a heat-labile pore-forming protein toxin, producing membrane channels of approximately 1.8 nm diameter. (
  • The toxin was secreted into the culture medium during logarithmic growth with production being subject to catabolite repression, with medium composition governing the level of haemolysin produced. (
  • The presence of this toxin could explain the enteritis found in the larval turbot gut as the haemolysin-negative transposon mutant lacked the ability to cause cell damage in vitro and in vivo. (
  • Regarding horizontal gene transfer, the acquisition of the virulence plasmid pPHDD1 that encodes the phospholipase-D damselysin (Dly) and the pore-forming toxin HlyApl, is at the basis of the emergence of a highly-virulent P. damselae subsp. (
  • Leucocidin/Hemolysin toxin family member. (
  • In animal models, injection of enterococci rarely causes peritonitis or subcutaneous infection, but synergy may be observed between enterococci and other organisms (especially anaerobes). (
  • Gene deletion and complementation studies, and virulence comparisons in a murine skin infection model, showed unequivocally that increased expression of α-hemolysin is the key staphylococcal virulence determinant for this clone. (
  • Our data strongly suggest that HlyA is a virulence factor in C. elegans infection leading to lethality and developmental delay presumably through intestinal cytopathic changes. (
  • The importance of HlyA as a virulence factor is clear, as it enhances lethal sepsis following intravenous inoculation, but an animal model of progression to urosepsis from a urinary tract infection does not exist ( 8 ). (
  • Leukotoxin is the major virulence factor involved in fusobacterial infection, being toxic to polymorphonucelar cells and hepatocytes. (
  • The presence of concomitant bacterial infection may lead to pyemic spread in other classes of animals. (
  • Taken together, the need for xhlA for full virulence and XhlA activity towards insect immune cells suggest this haemolysin functions in X. nematophila immune evasion during infection. (
  • molecular approaches are complemented by animal studies, which examine the infection at the whole-organism level. (
  • Moreover, transfer of Hla-specific antibodies protects naive animals against S. aureus challenge and prevents the injury of human lung epithelial cells during infection. (
  • Moreover, in contrast to the original report, the ausA transposon mutant did not exhibit attenuated virulence in an animal infection model. (
  • Leptospirosis is a contagious disease of swine and many other animals (including humans) and is caused by infection with any one of a large group of Leptospira spp. (
  • This study was carriedout with the objective to analyze the phenotypic characters of uroisolates of P. aeruginosa in vitro and to study the association of these virulence traits with their ability to cause nephropathogenicity in mouse model of ascending urinary tract infection (UTI). (
  • Because the worm lethality assay measures the longevity of non-reproducing worm populations and allows observations only for adult animals, we wanted to evaluate other possible outcomes in relation to C. elegans infection that could be attributed to hlyA. (
  • We identify streptococcal virulence mechanisms important for bacterial lymphatic dissemination and show that metastatic streptococci within infected lymph nodes resist and subvert clearance by phagocytes, enabling replication that can seed intense bloodstream infection. (
  • LLO is a member of a large family of pore-forming cytolysins that is largely responsible for mediating escape of L. monocytogenes from a phagosome and for virulence;LLO-minus mutants are 5-logs less virulent in animal models of infection. (
  • It contributes to a number of totally different animal diseases with a variety of symptoms and severities, from fatal septicemia to mild diarrhea and from fulgurant diarrhea to chronic infection of the lung. (
  • A plasmid -encoded hemolysin , called the cytolysin , is important for pathogenesis in animal models of infection, and the cytolysin in combination with high-level gentamicin resistance is associated with a five-fold increase in risk of death in human bacteremia patients. (
  • Traditional methods for identifying microbial functions important for virulence have relied on the characterization of a defined mutant either in vivo or in surrogate tissue culture models of infection. (
  • Campylobacteriosis is the most frequently recorded animal-born infection in humans. (
  • Enterococci are normal flora of the gastrointestinal tract of humans and animals. (
  • damselae causes septicemia in marine animals and in humans. (
  • The Bordetella genus contains at the moment a dozen species, of which at least five are responsible for respiratory diseases in humans and/or animals. (
  • The attribute of virulence is present in only a small portion of the total population of microorganisms, most of which are harmless or even beneficial to humans and other animals. (
  • Diseases caused by members of the family Vibrionaceae remain a significant cause of mortality and morbidity for marine animals worldwide, and some species are also of special concern for humans. (
  • damselae has acquired the ability to cause infections in a wide range of marine animals and also in humans. (
  • damselae , a bacterium pathogenic for marine animals and humans. (
  • Enterococcus faecalis, as the name implies, is found normally in the intestines of humans, animals and birds. (
  • For the most part, clostridia are soil organisms, but they also colonize or contaminate the enteric tracts of animals and humans. (
  • Immunological and biochemical anti-virulence factor interventions are effective in animal models of UTI and hold promise for the prevention of UTI in humans. (
  • Since livestock-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (LA-MRSA) was detected in pigs in the Netherlands [ 1 ], research on MRSA in animals has increased enormously and is far from being complete. (
  • Rocha-Gracia, Rosa 2018-05-30 00:00:00 Ninety-six methicillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus (MSSA) and 11 methicillin-resistant coagulase-negative staphylococci (MRCNS) were recovered from food of animal origin. (
  • Beta and alpha hemolysins are the most important in pathogenesis of the intramamarian infections (Park et al. (
  • Hla is known to play a role in the pathogenesis of staphylococcal disease, as S. aureus mutants lacking hla display reduced virulence in invasive disease models. (
  • Cavalieri SJ, Snyder IS (1982 a) Effect of Escherichia coli alpha-hemolysin on human peripheral leukocyte viability in vitro. (
  • Alpha-hemolysin has been used extensively in academic research as a single molecule nanopore sensor. (
  • In 1996 it was first shown that single-stranded nucleic acids can be detected by electrophysiology measurements as they translocate through an alpha-hemolysin pore embedded in a lipid bilayer. (
  • However, the transposon mutant showed normal hemolysis activity and alpha-hemolysin/SaeP production. (
  • Animals are infected after an oral intake of Brachyspira pathogens from a contaminated environment or infected vectors. (
  • This is due to the unique virulence factor s produced by individual pathogens, which determine the extent and severity of disease they may cause. (
  • Type III systems in animal pathogens. (
  • Vibrio cholerae hemolysin is required for lethality, developmental delay, and intestinal vacuolation in Caenorhabditis elegans. (
  • Shewanella putrefaciens (27.78%), Morganella morganii (22.22%) and Vibrio alginolyticus (22.22%) were the most prevalent species isolated from the animals under study. (
  • The present study concentrated on determining the virulence mechanisms of Vibrio splendidus DMC-1 (biovar 1), which was isolated from a batch of turbot larvae suffering very high mortality at a turbot hatchery. (
  • Vibrio splendidus DMC-1 grown in Marine Broth produced high titres of haemolysin and haemagglutinin against turbot blood. (
  • Hemolysin/bacteriocin is a plasmid-encoded protein that generally is accepted as a virulence factor. (
  • This protein has been demonstrated to increase virulence in several animal models. (
  • Analysis of a gene located immediately upstream of the xhlA locus, hcp (haemolysin co-regulated protein) revealed that its transcript levels were elevated during iron (III) limitation and its expression was Lrp-dependent. (
  • Protein manifestation data in nodose neurons was quantified by Scion Image version 4.02 (Scion, Frederick, MD) using collection fluorescence threshold values (average LY 2874455 of 8C10 analyzed images used as the mean value per animal) and compared by College students t-test. (
  • however, the experiments have been mostly carried out with the purified hemolysin protein. (
  • While two hemolysin gene clusters, vah1-plp and rtxACHBDE , have been previously identified and described, the activities of the protein encoded by the plp gene were not known. (
  • The Escherichia coli hemolysin (HlyA) is a pore-forming exotoxin associated with severe complications of human urinary tract infections. (
  • damselae hemolysins damselysin and HlyA are encoded within a new virulence plasmid. (
  • NetF, related to the β-sheet pore-forming Leukocidin/Hemolysin superfamily, is considered a major virulence factor for this disease. (
  • thus setting a relation between hemolysis and virulence. (
  • 2013). Synergistic and additive effects of chromosomal and plasmid-encoded hemolysins contribute to hemolysis and virulence in Photobacterium damselae subsp. (
  • is serum-resistant (Sre+) and hemolytic (Hiy+) and its derivatives were assessed in five different animal models. (
  • The hemolytic E. coli strain ATCC 25922 is intermediate in virulence. (
  • Via site directed mutagenesis, an hemolytic negative isogenic Serratia strain was generated to point out the importance of hemolysin production. (
  • In addition, biofilm-forming ability, protease, phospholipase, hemolysin and melanin production and adhesion to epithelial cells by this yeast species were assessed. (
  • Our research defines the interaction of hemolysin with the β 2 integrin, a human white cell adhesion molecule, as a potential therapeutic target during urinary tract infections. (
  • These results indicate that several different EHEC clones circulate in Chile and suggest that pigs are an important animal reservoir for human infections by EHEC. (
  • Truperella pyogenes is a commensal of the mucus membranes of the respiratory and digestive tracts in animals and is frequently isolated as a single or mixed culture from various pyogenic infections, including mastitis, abortion, pyometra, arthritis, and foot abscesses in domestic animals. (
  • Because of the tremendous human health importance of ExPEC infections, we assessed surface waters and domesticated and wild animals in Minnesota and Wisconsin as potential reservoirs of ExPEC of human health relevance. (
  • Moreover, higher virulence indices were obtained for turtles with high parasite intensities compared with apparently healthy animals, and a positive correlation between antibiotic resistance and virulence was observed. (
  • Detection, Virulence Gene Assessment and Antibiotic Resistance Pattern of O157 Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli in Tabriz, Iran, Jundishapur J Microbiol. (
  • ln a subcutaneously-induced sepsis model in the mouse restoration of S-fimbriae and serum resistance and separately chromosomally-encoded hemolysis increased virulence to a Ievel comparable to that of the parental 536 strain. (
  • A hyl Efm -positive transconjugant resulting from a mating between a well-characterized endocarditis strain [TX0016 (DO)] and a derivative of a fecal strain of E. faecium from a healthy human volunteer (TX1330RF) exhibited increased virulence in a mouse peritonitis model. (
  • Expression and activity of a Xenorhabdus nematophila haemolysin required for full virulence towards Manduca sexta insects. (
  • We present evidence that the X . nematophilahaemolysin XhlA is required for full virulence towards Manduca sexta larvae. (
  • Thus, there is no evidence indicating that the dipeptide aureusimines play a role in sae-mediated virulence factor production or contribute to staphylococcal virulence. (
  • Scientific understanding of the underlying mechanisms of virulence has increased rapidly due to the application of the techniques of biochemistry, genetics, molecular biology, and immunology. (
  • In this study, PLD was purified from C. pseudotuberculosis biovar equi isolate 155 and the gene encoding PLD (pld) was cloned, pld from 155 and C. pseudotuberculosis biovar ovis isolate Whetten 1 were sequenced, Pld⁻ mutants of Whetten 1 were constructed, and one mutant was tested for reduced virulence for goats. (
  • Over 10,000 mutants were screened, resulting in isolation of 3 fully haemolysin-negative (hly-) mutants and several with reduced expression of haemolysin. (
  • In contrast, the severity of muscle damage and toxicity produced by the A. dhakensis hemolysin-deletion mutant is attenuated. (
  • Conclusions/Significance: Our results show that the previously reported roles of aureusimines in staphylococcal gene regulation and virulence were due to an unintended mutation in saeS, which was likely selected due to elevated resistance of the mutant to environmental stresses. (
  • In the second haemolysin-negative mutant the transposon insertion site was in a gene adjacent to that for the cytotoxin. (
  • The control of virulence regulator/sensor (CovRS) two-component system is a major virulence regulator of GAS that has been extensively studied. (
  • damselae causes vibriosis in a variety of marine animals, including fish species of importance in aquaculture. (
  • However, very few data are available from those species in animals, and the data that do exist are not detailed enough to determine the origin. (
  • Mutations in vas homologs in other bacterial species have been reported to attenuate virulence in animals and cultured macrophages. (
  • 280 from seven surface water sites, 315 from feces of 13 wild and domesticated animal species) for phylogroup and virulence genotype, including inferred ExPEC status, by using multiplex PCR-based methods. (
  • High level of haemolysin production in vitro could be used as surrogate information for assessing pyelonephritic potential of P. aeruginosa. (
  • Pathovars identified in non-diarrheic animals were NTEC (21/50), STEC (17/50), EHEC (1/50) and EAEC (7/50). (
  • Gelatinase production as a virulence factor in causing endocarditis has been studied using animal models. (
  • Virulence factor expression is more common among certain genetically related groups of E. coli which constitute virulent clones within the larger E. coli population. (
  • Virulence factor testing is a useful epidemiological and research tool but as yet has no defined clinical role. (
  • The findings of this study indicated an association between haemolysin production and renal colonization. (
  • These data demonstrate that hyperexpression of α-hemolysin mediates enhanced virulence in ST93 CA-MRSA, and additional control of exotoxin production, in particular α-hemolysin, mediated by regulatory systems other than agr have the potential to fine-tune virulence in CA-MRSA. (
  • also known as LukAB), leukotoxin DE, and γ-hemolysin. (
  • S. aureus expresses at least four two-component leukotoxins: Panton-Valentine leukocidin (PVL), leukotoxin GH (LukGH), leukotoxin DE, and γ-hemolysin. (