The blood/lymphlike nutrient fluid of some invertebrates.
Wormlike or grublike stage, following the egg in the life cycle of insects, worms, and other metamorphosing animals.
Proteins found in any species of insect.
Any blood or formed element especially in invertebrates.
A genus of silkworm MOTHS in the family Bombycidae of the order LEPIDOPTERA. The family contains a single species, Bombyx mori from the Greek for silkworm + mulberry tree (on which it feeds). A native of Asia, it is sometimes reared in this country. It has long been raised for its SILK and after centuries of domestication it probably does not exist in nature. It is used extensively in experimental GENETICS. (From Borror et al., An Introduction to the Study of Insects, 4th ed, p519)
A large order of insects comprising the butterflies and moths.
A genus of sphinx or hawk moths of the family Sphingidae. These insects are used in molecular biology studies during all stages of their life cycle.
A nutritional reservoir of fatty tissue found mainly in insects and amphibians.
An enzyme of the oxidoreductase class that catalyzes the reaction between catechol and oxygen to yield benzoquinone and water. It is a complex of copper-containing proteins that acts also on a variety of substituted catechols. EC 1.10.3.1.
An infraorder of chiefly marine, largely carnivorous CRUSTACEA, in the order DECAPODA, including the genera Cancer, Uca, and Callinectes.
An inactive stage between the larval and adult stages in the life cycle of insects.
Compounds, either natural or synthetic, which block development of the growing insect.
Insects of the suborder Heterocera of the order LEPIDOPTERA.
Hormones produced by invertebrates, usually insects, mollusks, annelids, and helminths.
An arthropod subclass (Xiphosura) comprising the North American (Limulus) and Asiatic (Tachypleus) genera of horseshoe crabs.
Hormones secreted by insects. They influence their growth and development. Also synthetic substances that act like insect hormones.
A genus of beetles which infests grain products. Its larva is called mealworm.
A class in the phylum MOLLUSCA comprised of mussels; clams; OYSTERS; COCKLES; and SCALLOPS. They are characterized by a bilaterally symmetrical hinged shell and a muscular foot used for burrowing and anchoring.
A genus of planorbid freshwater snails, species of which are intermediate hosts of Schistosoma mansoni.
A primitive form of digestive gland found in marine ARTHROPODS, that contains cells similar to those found in the mammalian liver (HEPATOCYTES), and the PANCREAS.
Plant-eating orthopterans having hindlegs adapted for jumping. There are two main families: Acrididae and Romaleidae. Some of the more common genera are: Melanoplus, the most common grasshopper; Conocephalus, the eastern meadow grasshopper; and Pterophylla, the true katydid.
Steroids that bring about MOLTING or ecdysis in insects. Ecdysteroids include the endogenous insect hormones (ECDYSONE and ECDYSTERONE) and the insect-molting hormones found in plants, the phytoecdysteroids. Phytoecdysteroids are natural insecticides.
An order of the class Insecta. Wings, when present, number two and distinguish Diptera from other so-called flies, while the halteres, or reduced hindwings, separate Diptera from other insects with one pair of wings. The order includes the families Calliphoridae, Oestridae, Phoridae, SARCOPHAGIDAE, Scatophagidae, Sciaridae, SIMULIIDAE, Tabanidae, Therevidae, Trypetidae, CERATOPOGONIDAE; CHIRONOMIDAE; CULICIDAE; DROSOPHILIDAE; GLOSSINIDAE; MUSCIDAE; TEPHRITIDAE; and PSYCHODIDAE. The larval form of Diptera species are called maggots (see LARVA).
Phospholipoglycoproteins produced in the fat body of egg-laying animals such as non-mammalian VERTEBRATES; ARTHROPODS; and others. Vitellogenins are secreted into the HEMOLYMPH, and taken into the OOCYTES by receptor-mediated ENDOCYTOSIS to form the major yolk proteins, VITELLINS. Vitellogenin production is under the regulation of steroid hormones, such as ESTRADIOL and JUVENILE HORMONES in insects.
Insects of the order Dictyoptera comprising several families including Blaberidae, BLATTELLIDAE, Blattidae (containing the American cockroach PERIPLANETA americana), Cryptocercidae, and Polyphagidae.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
The class Insecta, in the phylum ARTHROPODA, whose members are characterized by division into three parts: head, thorax, and abdomen. They are the dominant group of animals on earth; several hundred thousand different kinds having been described. Three orders, HEMIPTERA; DIPTERA; and SIPHONAPTERA; are of medical interest in that they cause disease in humans and animals. (From Borror et al., An Introduction to the Study of Insects, 4th ed, p1)
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
INSECTS of the order Coleoptera, containing over 350,000 species in 150 families. They possess hard bodies and their mouthparts are adapted for chewing.
A genus of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic rod-shaped cells which are motile by peritrichous flagella. Late in the growth cycle, spheroplasts or coccoid bodies occur, resulting from disintegration of the cell wall. The natural habitat is the intestinal lumen of certain nematodes. (From Bergey's Manual of Determinative Bacteriology, 9th ed)
Periodic casting off FEATHERS; HAIR; or cuticle. Molting is a process of sloughing or desquamation, especially the shedding of an outer covering and the development of a new one. This phenomenon permits growth in ARTHROPODS, skin renewal in AMPHIBIANS and REPTILES, and the shedding of winter coats in BIRDS and MAMMALS.
A genus in the family Blattidae containing several species, the most common being P. americana, the American cockroach.
Family of large marine CRUSTACEA, in the order DECAPODA. These are called clawed lobsters because they bear pincers on the first three pairs of legs. The American lobster and Cape lobster in the genus Homarus are commonly used for food.
Venoms from snakes of the genus Naja (family Elapidae). They contain many specific proteins that have cytotoxic, hemolytic, neurotoxic, and other properties. Like other elapid venoms, they are rich in enzymes. They include cobramines and cobralysins.
The destruction of ERYTHROCYTES by many different causal agents such as antibodies, bacteria, chemicals, temperature, and changes in tonicity.
A family of marine CRUSTACEA, in the order DECAPODA, comprising the clawless lobsters. They are found in tropical and subtropical waters and characterized by short spines along the length of the tail and body.
Lipid-protein complexes involved in the transportation and metabolism of lipids in the body. They are spherical particles consisting of a hydrophobic core of TRIGLYCERIDES and CHOLESTEROL ESTERS surrounded by a layer of hydrophilic free CHOLESTEROL; PHOSPHOLIPIDS; and APOLIPOPROTEINS. Lipoproteins are classified by their varying buoyant density and sizes.
A common parasite of humans in the moist tropics and subtropics. These organisms attach to villi in the small intestine and suck blood causing diarrhea, anorexia, and anemia.
An infraorder of CRUSTACEA, in the order DECAPODA comprising the hermit crabs and characterized by a small fifth pair of legs.
The largest order of CRUSTACEA, comprising over 10,000 species. They are characterized by three pairs of thoracic appendages modified as maxillipeds, and five pairs of thoracic legs. The order includes the familiar shrimps, crayfish (ASTACOIDEA), true crabs (BRACHYURA), and lobsters (NEPHROPIDAE and PALINURIDAE), among others.
The hard rigid covering of animals including MOLLUSCS; TURTLES; INSECTS; and crustaceans.
A large subphylum of mostly marine ARTHROPODS containing over 42,000 species. They include familiar arthropods such as lobsters (NEPHROPIDAE), crabs (BRACHYURA), shrimp (PENAEIDAE), and barnacles (THORACICA).
A branch of the celiac artery that distributes to the stomach, pancreas, duodenum, liver, gallbladder, and greater omentum.
A group of naturally occurring N-and O-acyl derivatives of the deoxyamino sugar neuraminic acid. They are ubiquitously distributed in many tissues.
Substances, usually of biological origin, that cause cells or other organic particles to aggregate and stick to each other. They include those ANTIBODIES which cause aggregation or agglutination of particulate or insoluble ANTIGENS.
An N-acyl derivative of neuraminic acid. N-acetylneuraminic acid occurs in many polysaccharides, glycoproteins, and glycolipids in animals and bacteria. (From Dorland, 28th ed, p1518)
Arthropods of the class ARACHNIDA, order Araneae. Except for mites and ticks, spiders constitute the largest order of arachnids, with approximately 37,000 species having been described. The majority of spiders are harmless, although some species can be regarded as moderately harmful since their bites can lead to quite severe local symptoms. (From Barnes, Invertebrate Zoology, 5th ed, p508; Smith, Insects and Other Arthropods of Medical Importance, 1973, pp424-430)
A class of Arthropoda that includes SPIDERS; TICKS; MITES; and SCORPIONS.
One of the BIOLOGICAL SCIENCE DISCIPLINES concerned with the origin, structure, development, growth, function, genetics, and reproduction of animals, plants, and microorganisms.
A colorless, odorless gas that can be formed by the body and is necessary for the respiration cycle of plants and animals.
Arthropods of the order Scorpiones, of which 1500 to 2000 species have been described. The most common live in tropical or subtropical areas. They are nocturnal and feed principally on insects and other arthropods. They are large arachnids but do not attack man spontaneously. They have a venomous sting. Their medical significance varies considerably and is dependent on their habits and venom potency rather than on their size. At most, the sting is equivalent to that of a hornet but certain species possess a highly toxic venom potentially fatal to humans. (From Dorland, 27th ed; Smith, Insects and Other Arthropods of Medical Importance, 1973, p417; Barnes, Invertebrate Zoology, 5th ed, p503)
Venoms from animals of the order Scorpionida of the class Arachnida. They contain neuro- and hemotoxins, enzymes, and various other factors that may release acetylcholine and catecholamines from nerve endings. Of the several protein toxins that have been characterized, most are immunogenic.

The pro-phenoloxidase of coleopteran insect, Tenebrio molitor, larvae was activated during cell clump/cell adhesion of insect cellular defense reactions. (1/981)

To characterize the proteins involved in cell clump/cell adhesion of insect cellular defense reactions, we induced the cell clump/cell adhesion reaction in vitro with the hemolymph of larvae of the coleopteran insect, Tenebrio molitor. The 72 kDa protein was specifically enriched in the residues of cell clump/cell adhesion and was purified to homogeneity. A cDNA clone for the 72 kDa protein was isolated. We found that the 72 kDa protein was an activated phenoloxidase from Tenebrio pro-phenoloxidase. We suggest that activated phenoloxidase is involved in the cell clump/cell adhesion reaction as well as in the synthesis of melanin.  (+info)

Acidification of the phagosome in Crassostrea virginica hemocytes following engulfment of zymosan. (2/981)

Phagocytic hemocytes are responsible for engulfing and internally degrading foreign organisms within the hemolymph and tissue of the eastern oyster, Crassostrea virginica. Since rapid acidification of the phagosome lumen is typically essential for activation of hydrolytic and reactive oxygen intermediate (ROI) producing enzymes in vertebrate cells, we measured phagosomal pH in oyster hemocytes by using the emission fluorescence of two fluorescent probes, rhodamine and Oregon Green 488 (OG 488), conjugated to zymosan to determine whether oyster hemocyte phagosomes become acidified after phagocytosis of zymosan. The average pH of 1079 phagosomes within 277 hemocytes 1 h after phagocytosis of zymosan was 3.9 +/- 0.03. Observations of 141 hemocytes with internalized zymosan by light microscopy revealed that, over a 60-min time period, 51% of highly granular hemocytes became partially granular, and 29% became agranular. In addition, 83% of partially granular hemocytes containing zymosan at time = 0 became agranular within 60 min. A comparison revealed that the phagosomes of agranular hemocytes were much more acidic (pH 3.1 +/- 0.02) than those of highly granular hemocytes (4.9 +/- 0.02; P < 0.05). These values are significantly lower than most reported in the literature for blood cells from metazoan organisms.  (+info)

Respecified larval proleg and body wall muscles circulate hemolymph in developing wings of Manduca sexta pupae. (3/981)

Most larval external muscles in Manduca sexta degenerate at pupation, with the exception of the accessory planta retractor muscles (APRMs) in proleg-bearing abdominal segment 3 and their homologs in non-proleg-bearing abdominal segment 2. In pupae, these APRMs exhibit a rhythmic 'pupal motor pattern' in which all four muscles contract synchronously at approximately 4 s intervals for long bouts, without externally visible movements. On the basis of indirect evidence, it was proposed previously that APRM contractions during the pupal motor pattern circulate hemolymph in the developing wings and legs. This hypothesis was tested in the present study by making simultaneous electromyographic recordings of APRM activity and contact thermographic recordings of hemolymph flow in pupal wings. APRM contractions and hemolymph flow were strictly correlated during the pupal motor pattern. The proposed circulatory mechanism was further supported by the findings that unilateral ablation of APRMs or mechanical uncoupling of the wings from the abdomen essentially abolished wing hemolymph flow on the manipulated side of the body. Rhythmic contractions of intersegmental muscles, which sometimes accompany the pupal motor pattern, had a negligible effect on hemolymph flow. The conversion of larval proleg and body wall muscles to a circulatory function in pupae represents a particularly dramatic example of functional respecification during metamorphosis.  (+info)

Range of activity and metabolic stability of synthetic antibacterial glycopeptides from insects. (4/981)

Antibacterial glycopeptides isolated from insects are exciting bio-oligomers because they represent a family of compounds in which the structural and functional effects of incorporating short O-linked sugars to protein fragments can be studied. Additionally, their high activity in vitro warrants detailed further drug development efforts. Due to the limited availability of the isolated material, we used synthetic glycopeptides and some analogs to investigate the range of activity of drosocin and pyrrhocoricin. While addition of the Gal-GalNAc disaccharide to the natural mid-chain position generally increased the antibacterial activity of drosocin, pyrrhocoricin lacking sugar appeared to be more potent, with an IC50 against Escherichia coli D22 of 150 nM. Although glycosylated drosocin was active against E. coli in the low microM range in vitro, this peptide was completely inactive when injected into mice. The lack of in vivo activity of drosocin could be explained by the unusually high degradation rate of the peptides in mammalian sera. The early degradation products were inactive in vitro. In contrast, the peptides were considerably more stable in insect hemolymph, where their natural activity is manifested.  (+info)

Insect immunity. Isolation from the lepidopteran Heliothis virescens of a novel insect defensin with potent antifungal activity. (5/981)

Lepidoptera have been reported to produce several antibacterial peptides in response to septic injury. However, in marked contrast to other insect groups, no inducible antifungal molecules had been described so far in this insect order. Surprisingly, also cysteine-rich antimicrobial peptides, which predominate in the antimicrobial defense of other insects, had not been discovered in Lepidoptera. Here we report the isolation from the hemolymph of immune induced larvae of the lepidopteran Heliothis virescens of a cysteine-rich molecule with exclusive antifungal activity. We have fully characterized this antifungal molecule, which has significant homology with the insect defensins, a large family of antibacterial peptides directed against Gram-positive strains. Interestingly, the novel peptide shows also similarities with the antifungal peptide drosomycin from Drosophila. Thus, Lepidoptera appear to have built their humoral immune response against bacteria on cecropins and attacins. In addition, we report that Lepidoptera have conferred antifungal properties to the well conserved structure of antibacterial insect defensins through amino acid replacements.  (+info)

A novel lipoprotein from the hemolymph of the cochineal insect, Dactylopius confusus. (6/981)

A new type of insect lipoprotein was isolated from the hemolymph of the female cochineal insect Dactylopius confusus. The lipoprotein from the cochineal insect hemolymph was found to have a relative molecular mass of 450 000. It contains 48% lipid, mostly diacylglycerol, phospholipids and hydrocarbons. The protein moiety of the lipoprotein consists of two apoproteins of approximately 25 and 22 kDa, both of which are glycosylated. Both apolipoproteins are also found free in the hemolymph, unassociated with any lipid. Purified cochineal apolipoproteins can combine with Manduca sexta lipophorin, if injected together with adipokinetic hormone into M. sexta. This could indicate that the cochineal lipoprotein can function as a lipid shuttle similar to lipophorins of other insects, and that the cochineal insect apolipoproteins have an overall structure similar to insect apolipophorin-III.  (+info)

Molecular cloning and characterization of hemolymph 3-dehydroecdysone 3beta-reductase from the cotton leafworm, Spodoptera littoralis. A new member of the third superfamily of oxidoreductases. (7/981)

The primary product of the prothoracic glands of last instar larvae of Spodoptera littoralis is 3-dehydroecdysone (3DE). After secretion, 3DE is reduced to ecdysone by 3DE 3beta-reductase in the hemolymph. We have previously purified and characterized 3DE 3beta-reductase from the hemolymph of S. littoralis. In this study, cDNA clones encoding the enzyme were obtained by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction, employing primers based on the amino acid sequences, in conjunction with 5'- and 3'-rapid amplification of cDNA ends. Multiple polyadenylation signals and AT-rich elements were found in the 3'-untranslated region, suggesting that this region may have a role in regulation of expression of the gene. Conceptual translation and amino acid sequence analysis suggest that 3DE 3beta-reductase from S. littoralis is a new member of the third superfamily of oxidoreductases. Northern analysis shows that 3DE 3beta-reductase mRNA transcripts are widely distributed, but are differentially expressed, in some tissues. The developmental profile of the mRNA revealed that the gene encoding 3DE 3beta-reductase is only transcribed in the second half of the last larval instar and that this fluctuation in expression accounts for the change in the enzyme activity during the instar. Southern analysis indicates that the 3DE 3beta-reductase is encoded by a single gene, which probably contains at least one intron.  (+info)

Control of oocyte maturation in sexually mature Drosophila females. (8/981)

In many sexually mature insects egg production and oviposition are tightly coupled to copulation. Sex-Peptide is a 36-amino-acid peptide synthesized in the accessory glands of Drosophila melanogaster males and transferred to the female during copulation. Sex-Peptide stimulates vitellogenic oocyte progression through a putative control point at about stage 9 of oogenesis. Here we show that application of the juvenile hormone analogue methoprene mimics the Sex-Peptide-mediated stimulation of vitellogenic oocyte progression in sexually mature virgin females. Apoptosis is induced by 20-hydroxyecdysone in nurse cells of stage 9 egg chambers at physiological concentrations (10(-7) M). 20-Hydroxyecdysone thus acts as an antagonist of early vitellogenic oocyte development. Simultaneous application of juvenile hormone analogue, however, protects early vitellogenic oocytes from 20-hydroxyecdysone-induced resorption. These results suggest that the balance of these hormones in the hemolymph regulates whether oocytes will progress through the control point at stage 9 or undergo apoptosis. These data are further supported by a molecular analysis of the regulation of yolk protein synthesis and uptake into the ovary by the two hormones. We conclude that juvenile hormone is a downstream component in the Sex-Peptide response cascade and acts by stimulating vitellogenic oocyte progression and inhibiting apoptosis. Since juvenile hormone analogue does not elicit increased oviposition and reduced receptivity, Sex-Peptide must have an additional, separate effect on these two postmating responses.  (+info)

Recent molecular studies have revealed an overwhelming role of hemolymph proteins and functional peptides in invertebrate physiology. This is mainly due to the large assortment of biomolecular factors each with a different structure and function. In addition there is a multitude of genes encoding for hemolymph proteins and functional peptides. Hemolymph proteins and functional peptides: Recent Advances in Insects and other Arthropods elucidates the physiological role, both at biochemical and molecular levels, of hemolymph proteins and functional peptides in reproduction, development, homeostasis, hibernation, migration, immune system, and in abiotic stress tolerance of insects and other arthropods. Readers gain an opportunity to find out how insects or other arthropods benefit from these biomolecular instruments for physiological processes, and how they endure and respond to the environmental stress. Recent research developments from a wider range of recognized authors and laboratories actively ...
Hemagglutinating and cobra venom factor (CVF)-activated hemolytic activities were found in the hemolymph of the lobster, Homarus americanus. The substances in hemolymph responsible for these two activities were separated and shown to be mutually independent. Hemolytic activity was due to the action of a low level of phospholipase A in the CVF preparation on lobster hemolymph lipoprotein. Lecithin was converted to lysolecithin. Phospholipase A activity was also demonstrated in a commercial preparation of CVF. Lecithin and human lipoproteins as well as lobster lipoproteins were suitable substrates for both CVF preparations.. ...
Results: The comparison of antimicrobial effects of the induced and non-induced hemolymph strains showed that about 43% of bacteria were sensitive to induced hemolymph (P , 0.001), whereas non-induced hemolymph showed no inhibitory effect on the bacteria. Also, evaluation of induced hemolymph effect on the types of strains showed that induced hemolymph affected about 75% of the susceptible bacterial strains (P , 0.001); whereas, it did not affect the resistant strains. Among the tested bacteria, ceftazidime-sensitive E. coli and methicillin-sensitive Staphylococcus aureus showed sensitivity to the induced hemolymph (P , 0.001). ...
Hemocyte trafficking assay Juvenile squid were collected within minutes of hatching and placed in cheap microzide online filter-sterilized ocean water (FSOW). Nevertheless, we anticipate that host recognition of SsrA expression by WT V. LBS) or LBS with the appropriate strains, squid were transferred into new vials with 4 ml of culture was placed in the hemolymph samples, SsrA was one of the light organ colonized by planktonic V. As a result, colonization by a 1-way ANOVA with TMC indicated that the absence of SsrA. S3 Fig), suggesting that the absence of SsrA activity in the hemolymph samples, SsrA was observed not only inside the sinus of the host shapes its responses according to not only. SsrA transcript is within the light organ, the light cheap microzide online.. The data were collected at 16 and 18 h post colonization (i. Halide peroxidase in tissues that interact with bacteria in the host and modulate its responses. SsrA was observed not only to control its own activities but also the ...
Insects have an efficient defense system against infections. Their antibacterial immune proteins have been well characterized. However, the molecular mechanisms by which insects recognize foreignness are not yet known. Data are presented showing that hemolin (previously named P4), a bacteria-inducible hemolymph protein of the giant silk moth Hyalophora cecropia, belongs to the immunoglobulin superfamily. Functional analyses indicate that hemolin is one of the first hemolymph components to bind to the bacterial surface, taking part in a protein complex formation that is likely to initiate the immune response. ...
However, both natural and chemical inhibitors reported up to now has difficulties associated to toxicity, bioavailability, and solubility, which necessitate in identifying some alternatives. Potential peptides for α-hemolysin inhibition was developed using in silico based mostly strategy. The peptide IYGSKANRQTDK was found to be binding effectively with Chain A of α-hemolysin with the highest binding energy and also revealed that the designed peptide disturbed the dimer formation . Totarol, a plant extract, has been revealed to inhibit the production of α-hemolysin . A silkworm hemolymph protein, apolipophorin , binds to the cell floor of Staphylococcus aureus and inhibits expression of the saePQRS operon encoding a two-element system, SaeRS, and hemolysin genes.. Detailed research have been performed in numerous bacterial species and we will give attention to illustrative examples. For the fungi, well describe iron acquisition techniques within the three finest-studied opportunistic ...
After infection with Trichoplusia ni nuclear polyhedrosis viruses, the esterases in the hemolymph of the fifth instar larvae of the Argyrogramma agnata were examined by the polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE) and thin - layer scanning. The results showed that TnNPV can inhibite the metabolism of the esterases at the early stages and the effects of heterologous NPV were different from those of homlogous NPV.
The mosquito has multiple lines of defense against invading pathogens, but the most potent is found in its blood, called hemolymph. Parasites migrate through the gut epithelium in order to escape the harsh digestive conditions of the gut lumen. Here they come into contact with the hemolymph. Two leucine-rich repeat (LRR) containing proteins, LRIM1 and APL1C, are essential for mosquito immune defense in this compartment. We recently found that these proteins circulate in the mosquito hemolymph in a disulfide-bonded multimeric complex [1]. If either LRIM1 or APL1C is knocked-down by RNAi, the entire complex is lost and parasite survival is increased. Before parasites are killed, the complement-like protein TEP1 is localized on their surface, marking them for destruction. The LRIM1/APL1C complex interacts with TEP1 and is required for its localization to parasites during midgut invasion. When the LRIM1/APL1C complex is knocked-down, TEP1 fails to localize and the invading parasites are not killed. ...
open systems) or blood (closed systems). It consists of plasma, a fluid containing water, ions and organic molecules, and various blood cells. These cells can be involved in transport of 02 (erythrocytes), defense (leukocytes), or hemostasis (thromobcytes).. Blood and hemolymph flow is maintained by positive pressure created by the contraction of muscles in the body wall, or by the pumping of one or more hearts. Animal hearts are classified as neurogenic if they require innervation for contraction (e.g., arthropods), or myo-genic if the contraction is spontaneous (e.g., mollusks and vertebrates). The complexity of animal hearts varies from the simple tubular hearts of insects that push blood by peristaltic contractions of the muscular wall, to the multichambered hearts of mollusks and vertebrates. Chambered hearts have a varying number of muscular-walled compartments, which contract in a coordinated manner to circulate blood. Generally circulatory systems transport oxygenated blood from the ...
abstract = {A hallmark of the systemic antimicrobial response of Drosophila is the synthesis by the fat body of several antimicrobial peptides which are released into the hemolymph in response to a septic injury. One of these peptides, drosomycin, is active primarily against fungi. Using a drosomycin-green fluorescent protein (GFP) reporter gene, we now show that in addition to the fat body, a variety of epithelial tissues that are in direct contact with the external environment, including those of the respiratory, digestive and reproductive tracts, can express the antifungal peptide, suggesting a local response to infections affecting these barrier tissues. As is the case for vertebrate epithelia, insect epithelia appear to be more than passive physical barriers and are likely to constitute an active component of innate immunity. We also show that, in contrast to the systemic antifungal response, this local immune response is independent of the Toll pathway ...
Drosophila responds to a septic injury by the rapid synthesis of antimicrobial peptides. These molecules are predominantly produced by the fat body, a functional equivalent of mammalian liver, and are secreted into the hemolymph where their concentrations can reach up to 100 microM. Six distinct ant …
Apanteles kariyai growth blocking peptide: a 25-mer peptide from parasitized insect hemolymph; amino acid sequence has been determined
Scientists determine an immune protein, CD52, suppresses the autoimmune response against pancreatic beta cells.... New research has identified an important role of a circulating immune protein on the surface of lymphocytes with implications for treating type 1 diabetes as well as other autoimmune diseases.
A Brigham and Womens Hospital-led team has identified a long sought-after partner for a key immune protein, called TIM-3, that helps explain its two-faced role in the immune system.
The tiny droplets in which our cells store fats are swarming with immune system proteins, which can be used to wipe out dangerous bacteria
Background: Helicobacter pylori is the first bacterium formally recognized as a carcinogen and is one of the most successful human pathogens, as over half of the worlds population is colonized by the bacterium. H. pylori-induced gastroduodenal disease depends on the inflammatory response of the host and on the production of specific bacterial virulence factors. The study of Helicobacter pylori pathogenic action would greatly benefit by easy-to-use models of infection. Results: In the present study, we examined the effectiveness of the larvae of the wax moth Galleria mellonella as a new model for H. pylori infection. G. mellonella larvae were inoculated with bacterial suspensions or broth culture filtrates from either different wild-type H. pylori strains or their mutants defective in specific virulence determinants, such as VacA, CagA, CagE, the whole pathogenicity island (PAI) cag, urease, and gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase (GGT). We also tested purified VacA cytotoxin. Survival curves were ...
Blue crabs Callinectes sapidus Rathbun, 1896 support large commercial and recreational fisheries along the Atlantic coast and in the Gulf of Mexico (GOM). Female blue crabs are traditionally believed to produce one to six broods in their lifetime. However, recent evidence has shown that females have the ability to spawn up to eight broods in a single spawning season, with as many as 18 broods over their lifespan. In this study, fecundity and egg diameter were examined by brood class (primiparous, multiparous) in the spring and summer/fall. Mean carapace width of females was significantly different between brood class and season, with the largest females in the spring. There was a positive relationship between fecundity and carapace width. Although primiparous spring females were the most fecund (3.2 ± 1.5 million eggs), no statistically significant differences in fecundity by brood class and season were found. Loss of eggs occurred during embryonic development; primiparous females lost ~0.9 million
General aspects of the life history of the blue crab (Callinectes sapidus Rathbun) were described in the early part of the 20th century, but the larval biology of the species has remained enigmatic until recently. In the waters off the Mid-Atlantic States (MAB), spawning occurs throughout the summer with a peak in late July and early August. Gravid females migrate to the mouths of estuaries, and newly hatched larvae are quickly exported to the adjacent shelf. Development through seven zoea stages takes place in the open waters of the continental shelf and requires 4 to 5 weeks. Zoea larvae remain in surface waters, but not necessarily in the neuston, throughout development. Retention in the MAB is controlled by wind-driven, northward-flowing water located between 20 and 60 km off the coast. This northward current is between a strong, southward coastal current that hugs the immediate shoreline and a more diffuse southward flow along the outer continental shelf. Re-invasion of the estuaries of the ...
Shop Juvenile hormone-binding protein ELISA Kit, Recombinant Protein and Juvenile hormone-binding protein Antibody at MyBioSource. Custom ELISA Kit, Recombinant Protein and Antibody are available.
Goblet cells in the midgut epithelium of the tobacco hornworm (Manduca sexta larva, 5th instar) actively secrete K+. This can be measured as short-circuit
Microbial diseases cause considerable economic losses in aquaculture and new infection control measures often rely on a better understanding of pathogenicity. However, disease studies performed in fish hosts often require specialist infrastructure (e.g., aquaria), adherence to strict legislation and do not permit high-throughput approaches; these reasons justify the development of alternative hosts. This study aimed to validate the use of larvae of the greater wax moth (Galleria mellonella) to investigate virulence of the important fish pathogen, Vibrio anguillarum. Using 11 wild-type isolates of V. anguillarum, these bacteria killed larvae in a dose-dependent manner and replicated inside the haemolymph, but infected larvae were rescued by antibiotic therapy. Crucially, virulence correlated significantly and positively in larva and Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) infection models. Challenge studies with mutants knocked out for single virulence determinants confirmed conserved roles in larva and fish
This study was designed to determine the presence and distribution of the carbohydrate binding proteins in Callinectes sapidus serum and hemocytes, describe them by biochemical and serological characteristics, and attempt to obtain insight into their biological role. C. sapidus serum and the microsomal preparation isolated from disrupted hemocytes agglutinated a panel of untreated and enzyme-treated vertebrate erythrocytes and cultured lymphoid cell lines. Crossed absorption experiments suggested the presence of multiple specific lectins in serum. The microsomal preparation showed a 3S-fold increase in specific activity when compared to the hemocyte lysate suggesting that hemocyte lectins are membrane-associated. Agglutination by serum and hemocyte lectins was inhibited by low concentrations of N-acylamino compounds including sialic acid (NeuAc), N-acetylmuramic acid, GlcNAc, and ManNAc. Hemagglutination by lectins of both serum and hemocyte microsomal preparation required divalent cations as ...
This study was designed to determine the presence and distribution of the carbohydrate binding proteins in Callinectes sapidus serum and hemocytes, describe them by biochemical and serological characteristics, and attempt to obtain insight into their biological role. C. sapidus serum and the microsomal preparation isolated from disrupted hemocytes agglutinated a panel of untreated and enzyme-treated vertebrate erythrocytes and cultured lymphoid cell lines. Crossed absorption experiments suggested the presence of multiple specific lectins in serum. The microsomal preparation showed a 3S-fold increase in specific activity when compared to the hemocyte lysate suggesting that hemocyte lectins are membrane-associated. Agglutination by serum and hemocyte lectins was inhibited by low concentrations of N-acylamino compounds including sialic acid (NeuAc), N-acetylmuramic acid, GlcNAc, and ManNAc. Hemagglutination by lectins of both serum and hemocyte microsomal preparation required divalent cations as ...
Melanization is regulated by the prophenoloxidase cascade and functions as a response to intruding microorganisms in invertebrates. When injecting dsRNA of the lepidopteran immune protein hemolin in pupae of Hyalophora cecropia (Lepidoptera: Saturniidae), we observed a significant reduction in phenoloxidase activity after 24 h, but not after 72 h. The link between hemolin and the prophenoloxidase system suggests that hemolin is a pattern recognition protein important for the triggering of the prophenoloxidase cascade in the defence against bacterial infections. ...
The superior hearing of the greater wax moth [Galleria mellonella] is helping researchers advance sound technology. How did a moth get such abilities?
Invertebrates do not possess an adaptive immune system, but rely on several mechanisms similar to the innate immune system of mammals. The synthesis and release of a host of potent antimicrobial proteins is an important component of this immune response. The antibacterial activity in the hemolymph of Ornithodoros savignyi is specific for Gram-positive bacteria, and the synthesis and release of the antibacterial factors need to be induced by challenging the ticks with heat-killed Gram-negative bacterial suspensions. The induction of the factors is very rapid, leading to a maximal response within one hour following bacterial challenge. The factors are stable at high temperatures, and were found to be protein in nature. By using reverse phase high performance liquid chromatography, four fractions exhibiting antibacterial activity were identified in the hemolymph of immune challenged ticks. Four antibacterial peptides were isolated from these fractions, and the mass analyses of the peptides indicate ...
The Greater wax moth Galleria mellonella belongs to the family of Pyralidae which cause great damage to the honey bee yield worldwide, a major insect model. The honey bee cultivation places are most habitat of this insect. Most the organisms of insects rely on their olfactory system to detect and analyse the sensible nature in the environment and it is mostly useful in the concept of behavioural emotions includes mating, host defence and other sensory related molecular functions. This organism is the only member of the genus Galleria and also it is found in most the places in the world. The larvae of Galleria mellonella is used as commercial product as proving the food for predatory insects. The pathogenicity and toxicology testing were making the researchers easy by replacing the use of small mammals for in-vivo and in-vitro studies. The neurological mechanism of this insect is still unclear.. The ecdysone induced protein is unique protein with various functions, types, diversity in different ...
All metazoans possess an epithelial barrier that protects them from their environment and prevents loss off body fluid. Insects, which have an open circulatory system, depend on fast mechanism to seal wounds to avoid excessive loss of body fluids. As in vertebrates, and non-insect arthropods such as horseshoe crab and crustaceans, insects form a clot as the first response to tissue damage. Insect hemolymph coagulation has not been characterized extensively at the molecular level before, and the aim of my studies was to gain more knowledge on this topic. Morphological characterization of the Drosophila hemolymph clot showed that it resembles the clots previously described in other larger bodied insects, such as Galleria mellonella. The Drosophila clot is a fibrous network of cross-linked proteins and incorporated blood cells. The proteins building up the clot are soluble in the hemolymph or released from hemocytes upon activation. Since bacteria are caught in the clot matrix and thereby prevented ...
The morphological transformation of hermit crabs into crab-like king crabs in the evolution of decapod crustaceans represents a remarkable case of carcinization or evolutionary shaping into a crab-like form. In this study, we focus on internal organs such as the hemolymph vascular system and adjacent anatomical structures of several Recent hermit crab (Paguridae) and king crab (Lithodidae) species. There are various correspondences in the morphology of the arterial systems in the dorsal cephalothorax of the two taxa, especially with regard to the anterior aorta, anterior lateral arteries, and hepatic arteries. In the pleon, the posterior aorta in both taxa displays a proximal bifurcation and follows an asymmetrical course. The ventral vessel system, on the other hand, which mainly supplies the limbs, differs significantly between the taxa, with pagurids displaying the plesiomorphic condition. The pattern of the ventral vessel system in Lithodidae is influenced by morphological transformations of ...
Activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), glutathione reductase (GR), glutathione-S-transferase (GST), as well as total glutathione (tGSH) concentration were analyzed in the hemolymph and fat body of the European corn borer Ostrinia nubilalis Hubn. and the Mediterranean borer Sesamia cretica Led. (Lepidoptera, Noctuidae). Controls were maintained at 8°C while experimental groups of larvae were exposed to -3°C for ten days and then to -12°C for 23 days (only for Ostrinia). Cold exposure significantly increased fat body SOD, GR, and GST activities of Ostrinia larvae. Only GST activity and tGSH levels increased significantly in Ostrinia larval hemolymph on cold exposure. In Sesamia larvae after cold exposure, hemolymph CAT activity was significantly lower, while fat body tGSH increased. The antioxidant defense systems of these two species show differences, probably influenced by their respective cold-hardiness metabolism. According to its ...
Activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), glutathione reductase (GR), glutathione-S-transferase (GST), as well as total glutathione (tGSH) concentration were analyzed in the hemolymph and fat body of the European corn borer Ostrinia nubilalis Hubn. and the Mediterranean borer Sesamia cretica Led. (Lepidoptera, Noctuidae). Controls were maintained at 8°C while experimental groups of larvae were exposed to -3°C for ten days and then to -12°C for 23 days (only for Ostrinia). Cold exposure significantly increased fat body SOD, GR, and GST activities of Ostrinia larvae. Only GST activity and tGSH levels increased significantly in Ostrinia larval hemolymph on cold exposure. In Sesamia larvae after cold exposure, hemolymph CAT activity was significantly lower, while fat body tGSH increased. The antioxidant defense systems of these two species show differences, probably influenced by their respective cold-hardiness metabolism. According to its ...
In an effort to better understand the life cycle of the blue crab and aid with species restoration, this young naturalist studied the effect of cell area and depth on their growth.
The mosquito complement pathway plays a pivotal role in infections with Plasmodium parasites. In this study we biochemically dissect the structural features of the LRIM1/APL1C complex that contribute to its formation and interaction with the complement C3-like protein TEP1. LRIM1 and APL1C circulate in the adult A. gambiae hemolymph exclusively as a heterodimer [6]. Similarly, LRIM1 and APL1C primarily form a heterodimer when over-expressed in Sf9 or cultured mosquito cell lines. However, they can also form monomers and homodimers suggesting that these alternative forms are either highly unstable in the hemolymph or retained intracellularly due to stricter quality control mechanisms.. Numerous disulfide-bonded heterocomplexes, similar to LRIM1/APL1C, have been discovered with key roles in immunity, hemostasis and complement activation. Notable examples include the IgG heavy and light chain peptides, platelet glycoproteins Ibα and Ibβ [22] and importantly, the extensive repertoires of secreted ...
Video articles in JoVE about analysis of variance include Induction and Assessment of Exertional Skeletal Muscle Damage in Humans, Development of an Insert Co-culture System of Two Cellular Types in the Absence of Cell-Cell Contact, Measuring and Mapping Patterns of Soil Erosion and Deposition Related to Soil Carbonate Concentrations Under Agricultural Management, A Novel Surgical Approach for Intratracheal Administration of Bioactive Agents in a Fetal Mouse Model, A Prediction Error-driven Retrieval Procedure for Destabilizing and Rewriting Maladaptive Reward Memories in Hazardous Drinkers, Resurrection of Dormant Daphnia magna: Protocol and Applications, Method to Produce Durable Pellets at Lower Energy Consumption Using High Moisture Corn Stover and a Corn Starch Binder in a Flat Die Pellet Mill, Assessing Activity-Based Anorexia in Mice, Methods for Comparing Nutrients in Beebread Made by Africanized and European Honey Bees and the Effects on Hemolymph Protein Titers, Removal of
A nuclear juvenile hormone-binding protein from larvae of Manduca sexta: A putative receptor for the metamorphic action of juvenile hormone.. ...
Results and discussion. Hormones are an organisms chemical messengers and a specific class, peptides (compounds consisting of two or more amino acid residues, the building blocks of proteins), regulate most every physiological function. Neuropeptides are peptides produced by cells in the brain and are released into the hemolymph (insect blood), sending signals to different tissues in the body. Because the hemolymph bathes virtually every cell in the insect body, circulating neuropeptides have the potential to come into contact with all tissues. Specific receptor sites form the connection between a circulating neuropeptide and particular target cell. When the neuropeptide interacts (binds) with its specific cell surface receptor, a signal is initiated causing the cell to perform a specific function. They work slowly, over time, and affect many different processes, including growth and development, metabolism, sexual function, and reproduction. Neuropeptides and hormones in general, are powerful. ...
Honeybees fly at ambient temperatures up to forty-five degrees Celsius when other bee-sized insects cannot. Bees employ an efficient counter-current heat exchanger that apposes two oppositely directed flows of hemolymph in close proximity to control heat loss and heat gain to maintain heat balance. If one flow is of a higher temperature, heat passively flows downhill from higher to lower temperature across the wall separating the flows. At warm-up, hemolymph flowing aft conveying heat from.... ...
keyhole-limpet hemocyanin: large MW protein antigen from hemolymph of the keyhole limpet; used extensively to evaluate primary cellular & humoral immune responses in humans
Define vitellogenin: a precursor protein of egg yolk normally in the blood or hemolymph only of females that is used as a biomarker in vertebrates of…
Egg Laying Hormone of Aplysia, 5 mg. The aplysia egg-laying-hormone a 36 amino acid peptide acts as a neurotransmitter on cells of the abdominal ganglion and at the same time diffuses into the hemolymph where it is dispersed through the organism and acts
The systemic immune response of Drosophila is known to be induced both by septic injury and by oral infection with certain bacteria, and is characterized by ...
Our lab studies how proteins of the immune system contribute to the formation, function, and modification of neuronal connectivity. We are particularly
Herein, we describe the development and application of a set of novel N,N-dimethyl leucine (DiLeu) 4-plex isobaric tandem mass… Expand ...
Can anyone recommend some immunoprecipitation kits? - posted in Protein and Proteomics: Hello, I will try to immunoprecipitate (IP) some small peptide from the insect blood (haemolymph). I have no IP experience. Can anyone recommend some immunoprecipitation kits to me? Thanks!
Small, H. J., Huchin-Mian, J. P., Reece, K. S., Pagenkopp Lohan, K. M., Butler, M. J., and Shields, J. D. 2019. Parasitic dinoflagellate Hematodinium perezi prevalence in larval and juvenile blue crabs Callinectes sapidus from coastal bays of Virginia. Diseases of aquatic organisms. 134 (3):215-222. https://doi.org/10.3354/dao03371 ...
This research examined effects of hypoxic environments on blue crabs, Callinectes sapidus in an estuarine environment. Hypoxic conditions were treated as a multiple stressor involving low dissolved oxygen (D.O.), increased carbon dioxide (hypercapnia), and low pH concurrently. The objectives were to: 1) identify hypoxiahypercapnia by monitoring D.O. and pH as an indicator of hypercapnia in shallow regions of the York River, 2) measure blue crab abundance, and 3) describe blue crab responses to hypoxiahypercapnia via field work at Taskinas Creek and lab measurements of respiration. Ambient D.O. and pH were positively correlated in the Taskinas Creek and York River sites (r= .73). Crab abundance (CPUE) was not significantly different among D.O. and pH ranges. It was concluded that hemolymph blood lactate concentration was not considered a good in situ biomarker for exposure to hypoxickypercapnic conditions. Oxygen uptake was not significantly different between normoxic and hypoxic conditions but was
We measured concentrations of Ca2+ in tissues (hemolymph, hepatopancreas, cuticle, and muscle) of the whiteleg shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei (Boone, 1931) and recorded changes in tissue calcium levels at molting stages and different salinities. Calcium in tissues varied significantly with molting stage ( p | 0 . 05 ). Salinity also affected Ca2+ concentrations in tissues ( p | 0 . 05 ). The highest Ca2+ concentrations were found in the cuticle, followed by the hepatopancreas. Ratios of Ca2+/Na+ in tissues (except for muscle) varied with the molting stage and were higher in 4 g L-1 than in other salinities. Calcium entering the shrimp may initially be mineralized in the cuticle or stored in the hemolymph and hepatopancreas, after which it is released to support mineralization in the post-molt period. Muscles may take part in the growth of L. vannamei by storing calcium during the molting cycle.
Hemolymph coagulation stops bleeding and protects against infection. Clotting factors include both proteins that are conserved during evolution as well as more divergent proteins in different species. Here we show that several silk proteins also appear in the clot of the greater wax moth Galleria mellonella. RT-PCR analysis reveals that silk proteins are expressed in immune tissues and induced upon wounding in both Galleria and Ephestia kuehniella, a second pyralid moth. Our results support the idea that silk proteins were co-opted for immunity and coagulation during evolution.. ...
Manduca sexta is a large insect species well-suited for biochemical analysis of proteins in the hemolymph (blood) that respond to infection. Insects lack adaptive immunity and rely entirely on innate immunity to prevent and manage infection. Immune response proteins include proteins that bind pathogens and activate serine proteases, which function in proteolytic cascades that trigger effector responses, such as antimicrobial peptide production and prophenoloxidase activation. Phenoloxidase catalyzes melanin synthesis, which leads to microbial killing. I used MALDI-TOF/TOF mass spectrometry and immunoblotting to identify M. sexta proteins present in putative immune complexes. From analyses of high molecular weight gel filtration fractions of plasma activated by microbial polysaccharides, I detected hemocytin, prophenoloxidase, and cleaved serine protease homologs, suggesting prophenoloxidase and serine protease homologs form large complexes in plasma. I used in vitro bacterial binding assays to ...
A novel agglutinin with specificity for sialic acid sequence of sugars in thyroglobulin is identified in the hemolymph of Scylla serrata. The physico-chemical characteristics of its binding affinity,...
Definition of tobacco hornworm in the Definitions.net dictionary. Meaning of tobacco hornworm. What does tobacco hornworm mean? Information and translations of tobacco hornworm in the most comprehensive dictionary definitions resource on the web.
TY - JOUR. T1 - Proteolytic activity of 26S proteasomes isolated from muscles of the tobacco hornworm, Manduca sexta. T2 - Differences between surviving muscles and those undergoing developmentally programmed cell death. AU - Löw, P.. AU - Reynolds, S. E.. AU - Sass, M.. PY - 2001/10/22. Y1 - 2001/10/22. N2 - The intersegmental muscles (ISMs) of tobacco hornworm, Manduca sexta are a well-characterised model system for examining the biochemical changes that accompany programmed cell death during development. When the ISMs become committed to die, there are dramatic increases in both the ubiquitin-expression, and ubiquitin-dependent proteolysis. Since the 26S proteasome is responsible for ATP/ubiquitin-dependent proteolysis in cells, we examined its enzymatic properties. Specific chymotrypsin-like proteolytic activity of 26S proteasomes isolated from ISM is four times higher than that of surviving flight muscle (FM). However, specific activity does not change between developmental stages within ...
Fröbius, A., Kanost, M.R., Götz, P. and Vilcinskas, A. (2000) Isolation and characterization of novel inducible serine protease inhibitors from larval hemolymph of the greater wax mothGalleria mellonella. Eur. J. Biochem. 267: 2046-2053.. Ma, C. and Kanost, M.R. (2000) A β,1-3-glucan-recognition protein from an insect, Manduca sexta, agglutinates microorganisms and activates the phenoloxidase cascade. J. Biol. Chem. 275: 7505-7514.. Yu, X.-Q. And Kanost, M.R. (2000) Immulectin-2, a lipopolysaccharide-specific lectin from an insect, Manduca sexta, is induced in response to Gram-negative bacteria. J. Biol. Chem.275:37373-37381.. Wiegand, C., Levin, D., Gillespie, J.P., Willott, W., Kanost, M.R. and Trenczek, T. (2000) Monoclonal antibody MS13 identifies a plasmatocyte membrane protein and inhibits encapsulation and spreading reactions of Manduca sexta hemocytes. Arch. Insect Biochem. Physiol. 45: 95-108.. Jiang, H. and Kanost, M.R. (2000) The clip-domain family of serine proteinases in ...
Population dynamics of 3 Callinectes species: C. arcuatus, C. bellicosus, and C. toxotes are reported for the first time as incidental shrimp bycatch samplings captured in the eastern Gulf of California in a range from 10 to 77 m in depth from September 2004 to March 2005. Growth, longevity, recruitment pattern, mortality (natural, total, and by fishing), and exploitation rate were analyzed. Also, size comparison among the organisms captured by the shrimp and artisanal fishing fleets was calculated. Callinectes arcuatus (n = 737) was more abundant than the other two (C. bellicosus, n = 291 and C. toxotes, n = 344). Significant differences were shown between size distribution of C. arcuatus and C. bellicosus captured by the 2 fleets; the shrimp fleet extracted mainly organisms in sizes ranging from 50 to 120 mm in carapace width (CW), while the artisanal fleet extracted sizes from 75 to 155 mm in CW from both species. Growth parameters were moderate (L¥= 160, 173, and 168 mm; K= 1.1., 1.3 and ...
Xenorhabdus bovienii (strain SS-2004) is an insect pathogenic, facultatively anaerobic, non-spore forming Gram-negative bacterium isolated from the hemolymph of Galleria mellonella infected with Steinernema spp. X. bovienii possesses numerous peritrichous flagella mutualistically associated with the nematode Steinernema spp and is only found inside infected hosts. The symbiotic association is essential for the survival of both nematode and its symbiotic bacteria. Free-living, juvenile Steinernema spp enter insect larvae through the digestive tract. They penetrate the larvae body cavity and release X. bovienii into the hemolymph (blood). The bacteria multiply rapidly, killing the larvae, and providing suitable nutrient conditions for the growth and reproduction of Steinernema spp. The nematode matures and reproduces. The new juveniles reassociate with X. bovienii and are released into the soil. This bacterium has great potential as a biological control agent for noxious insects in cryptic ...
Hemolin is the most abundant bacteria-induced proteins in Hyalophora cecropia hemolymph. Its structural features, both at the protein and gene level, ascribe this molecule to the immunoglobulin gene superfamily (IgSF) with particular homology to neural cell adhesion molecules. An increasing number of evidence suggest a role in immune recognition and in cell adhesion events. Hemolin is also developmentally regulated as suggested by changes in its concentration during larval and pupal ecdysis (Trenczek, T., 1998. Endogenous defense mechanisms of insects. Zoology 101, 298-315; Lanz-Mendoza, H., Faye, I., 1999. Physiological aspects of the immunoglobulin superfamily in invertebrates. Dev. Comp. Immunol. 23, 359-374). In the present study the expression of hemolin was investigated in oogenesis and in early embryogenesis. Our results reveal that hemolin is expressed in follicles and in epidermal and neural tissues of embryos.. ...
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Brief blurbs about recent arthropod news and research: The blue crab, Callinectes sapidus, has been found in England for the second time ever. These ill-tempered, but delicious, swimming crabs are native to North America; where they represent a major marine fishery despite serious conservation concerns. Previously, blue crabs have turned up in Japan and the…
The parasitic dinoflagellate Hematodinium perezi is highly prevalent in juvenile blue crabs, Callinectes sapidus, along the eastern seaboard of the USA. Although the parasite is known to kill adult crabs, the mortality rate of naturally infected juvenile crabs remains unknown. We analyzed the influence of temperature and salinity on the mortality of recently recruited blue crab that were naturally infected with H. perezi. Over 492 juvenile crabs (infected, n=282; uninfected controls, n=210) were held individually in six-well plates and held at six temperatures (4, 10, 15, 20, 25, and 30 °C) or three salinities (5, 15, and 30 psu) for a maximum of 90 days ...
The researchers watched to see how the herbivorous insect, the cabbage semilooper Trichoplusia ni (Lepidoptera), detected and responded to a diet laced with nonpathogenic, non-infectious bacteria. In most studies to date, lab reared insects have been injected with bacterial strains, whereas in nature the insects main exposure would be from eating plants.. The larvae were reared on diets with or without an added helping of Escherichia coli and Micrococcus luteus bacteria. In the bacteria-fed larvae, general antibacterial activity was enhanced, although the activity of one key enzyme related to immune response - phenoloxidase - was inhibited. Among the eight proteins highly expressed in the hemolymph of the bacteria-fed larvae were the immune-response-related proteins arylphorin, apolipophorin III and gloverin. Significantly, the pupation time and pupal mass of bacteria-fed larvae was negatively affected by their unhealthy diet.. ...
abstract = {BACKGROUND: Two NF-kappaB signaling pathways, Toll and immune deficiency (imd), are required for survival to bacterial infections in Drosophila. In response to septic injury, these pathways mediate rapid transcriptional activation of distinct sets of effector molecules, including antimicrobial peptides, which are important components of a humoral defense response. However, it is less clear to what extent macrophage-like hemocytes contribute to host defense. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In order to dissect the relative importance of humoral and cellular defenses after septic injury with three different gram-positive bacteria (Micrococcus luteus, Enterococcus faecalis, Staphylococcus aureus), we used latex bead pre-injection to ablate macrophage function in flies wildtype or mutant for various Toll and imd pathway components. We found that in all three infection models a compromised phagocytic system impaired fly survival--independently of concomitant Toll or imd pathway activation. ...
absorption. Unabsorbed food particles pass through the proctodeal valve into the hindgut. At the junction of the midgut and hindgut are a group of long, thread-like tubules that flex about in the hemolymph. These tubules are called Malpighian tubules, and they are the insect excretory system. Malpighian tubules filter the hemolymph and form a urine containing water, salts ...
Many pathogen infections in nature are accompanied by injury and subsequent coagulation. Despite the contribution of hemolymph coagulation to wound sealing, little is known about its immune function. Based on the molecular knowledge of Drosophila innate immunity, this thesis investigated the immune function of clot both in vitro and in vivo, the immune relevant genes involved in a natural infection model, involving entomopathgenic nematodes (EPN) and the factors leading to crystal cell activation. Transglutaminase (TG) and its substrate Fondue (Fon) have been identified as bona fide clot components in Drosophila larvae. By knocking down TG or Fon via RNAi, we observed an increased susceptibility to EPN in larvae. In addition, this increased susceptibility was associated with an impaired ability of hemolymph clots to entrap bacteria. Immunostaining revealed that both clot components (Fon and TG) were able to target microbial surfaces. All these data suggest an immune function for the Drosophila ...
The hemolymph of Drosophila contains hemocytes that either circulate freely through the body cavities or are sessile, being associated with various tissues and organs. Hemocytes are responsible for the phagocytosis of apoptotic cells and thus are important for embryonic tissue formation as well as organ remodelling during metamorphosis (Abrams et al., 1993; Franc et al., 1996; Franc, 1999; Hartenstein and Jan, 1992; Tepass et al., 1994). Furthermore, hemocytes play a crucial role in immunological processes (reviewed by Hoffmann and Reichhart, 2002; Lavine and Strand, 2002). In response to an infection, they engulf and melanize foreign material and synthesize and secrete antimicrobial peptides (Braun et al., 1998; Ramet et al., 2002; Sorrentino et al., 2002).. Recent analyses have revealed both genetic and functional similarities between several aspects of insect and mammalian hematopoiesis (reviewed by Franc, 2002; Hoffmann et al., 1999; Traver and Zon, 2002). In both systems, the family of GATA ...
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Free Online Library: Extensive heteroplasmy and evidence for fragmentation in the Callinectes sapidus mitochondrial genome.(Report) by Journal of Shellfish Research; Zoology and wildlife conservation Biological sciences Blue crab Genetic aspects Natural history Blue crabs Genomes Analysis Genomics Mitochondria
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This modified MsrA1 peptide is a synthetic molecule designed through molecular modelling. It includes the eight N-terminal amino acids of cecropin A from Hyalophora cecropia (Northern Silkworm) caterpillars and the eighteen C-terminal amino acids of melittin from Apis mellifera (Western Honey Bee), as well as two additional positively-charged amino acid residues at the C-terminus of the molecule, and an additional Met-Ala-Leu-Glu-His sequence at the N-terminus of the molecule ...
Constitutes the major component of lipophorin, which mediates transport for various types of lipids in hemolymph. Acts by forming lipoprotein particles that bind lipoproteins and lipids. Also involved in the transport of hydrophobic ligands like juvenile hormones, pheromone hydrocarbons and carotenoids. Required for morphogens wingless (wg) and hedgehog (hh) function, probably by acting as vehicles for the movement of wg and hh, explaining how covalently lipidated wg and hh can spread over long distances. May also be involved in transport and/or metabolism of heme.
Interpretive Summary: Technical Abstract: Insects express innate, but not adaptive, immune reactions to infection and invasion. These innate responses are for convenience seen as humoral or cellular reactions. Humoral reactions involve regulated expression of genes encoding a wide range of anti-bacterial and anti-fungal proteins which appear in hemolymph 6 to 12 h post-infection (PI). Cellular immunity entails direct interactions between circulating hemocytes and invaders. These interactions, launched immediately when an infection is detected, include phagocytosis, nodulation, and for organisms too large to be internalized, encapsulation. Nodulation is a multi-step process of attaching invading cells or spores to hemocytes. The hemocytes attach to one another, forming microaggregates, which grow into nodules. The nodules are finally melanized and attached to internal surfaces, where the invaders are secondarily killed by oxygen-dependent mechanisms. Nodulation is responsible for clearing from ...
abstract = {Drosophila melanogaster is a useful model to investigate mucosal immunity. The immune response to intestinal infections is mediated partly by the Immune deficiency (IMD) pathway, which only gets activated by a type of peptidoglycan lacking in several medically important Gram-positive bacterial species such as Staphylococcus. Thus, the intestinal host defense against such bacterial strains remains poorly known. Here, we have used Staphylococcus xylosus to develop a model of intestinal infections by Gram-positive bacteria. S. xylosus behaves as an opportunistic pathogen in a septic injury model, being able to kill only flies immunodeficient either for the Toll pathway or the cellular response. When ingested, it is controlled by IMD-independent host intestinal defenses, yet flies eventually die. Having excluded an overreaction of the immune response and the action of toxins, we find that flies actually succumb to starvation, likely as a result of a competition for sucrose between the ...
Lisa Boulanger, who collaborated with Shatz at Harvard and now runs her own lab at the University of California at San Diego, is also beginning to explore the disease implications of immune signaling in the brain. Her initial focus is on autism and schizophrenia.. The discovery that immune proteins are moonlighting in the brain raises the possibility that changes in the function of these proteins could affect both the immune system and brain development, which is exactly the combination we see in autism and schizophrenia, Boulanger said.. In both conditions, immune abnormalities are common. In addition, population studies indicate that viral infections during the second trimester of pregnancy can increase the risk of having a baby with either autism or schizophrenia (genetic factors also play a role). Animal studies have added another key piece to the puzzle: When pregnant mice are infected with a virus, or even when their immune systems are activated chemically in the absence of a virus, ...
Hemocyanin is found in the blood of arthropods and molluscs possessing hemolymph. Hemocyanin performs the oxygen carrying duty hemoglobin does for verte...
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I was feeding my G. roseas this morning and Im pretty sure that I got bitten by one of the super mealworms (zoophobas) as I was taking it out of the...
Burgdorfer, W. Hemolymph test. A technique for detection of rickettsiae in ticks, Amer. J. Trop. Med. 19:1010-1014, 1970. ...
The hemolymph was found to repel Myrmica rubra ants, however many vertebrate and invertebrate predators feed on the larvae. " ... The integument of the larvae is easily damaged and oozes hemolymph when it is injured. It is hypothesized that this contains ... The harmful hemolymph hypothesis". Oecologia. 134 (1): 104-111. doi:10.1007/s00442-002-1092-4.. ...
There he did important research on the biochemistry of insect hemolymph and sugars and polysaccharides in insects. From 1973 ... Wyatt, G. R. (1961). "The Biochemistry of Insect Hemolymph". Annual Review of Entomology. 6: 75-102. doi:10.1146/annurev.en. ...
Hemolymph pressure may be increased by muscle contractions or by swallowing air into the digestive system to aid in molting. ... Hemolymph is also a major part of the open circulatory system of other arthropods, such as spiders and crustaceans. The ... Hemolymph is composed of plasma in which hemocytes are suspended. Nutrients, hormones, wastes, and other substances are ... The dorsal blood vessel circulates the hemolymph, arthropods' fluid analog of blood, from the rear of the body cavity forward. ...
Embryonic hemocytes are derived from head mesoderm and enter the hemolymph as circulating cells. Larval hemocytes, on the other ... It is found within the hemolymph. Hemocytes are phagocytes of invertebrates. Hemocytes in Drosophila melanogaster can be ... Secretory cells are never released into the hemolymph and instead send out signalling molecules responsible for cell ...
Hemolymph contains molecules, ions and cells. Regulating chemical exchanges between tissues, hemolymph is encased in the insect ... Pumping of the hemolymph occurs by waves of peristaltic contraction, originating at the body's posterior end, pumping forwards ... The hemolymph is circulated to the appendages unidirectionally with the aid of muscular pumps or accessory pulsatile organs ... The main function of insect blood, hemolymph, is that of transport and it bathes the insect's body organs. Making up usually ...
The fungus grows in the aphid's hemolymph. After about three days, the aphid dies and the fungus releases more spores into the ... High osmotic pressure in the stomach, caused by high sucrose concentration, can lead to water transfer from the hemolymph to ...
Iwanaga, Sadaaki; Morita, Takashi; Miyata, Toshiyuki; Nakamura, Takanori; Aketagawa, Jun (1986-08-01). "The hemolymph ...
Hemolymph is the arthropod equivalent of blood. Foelix, Rainer F. (1996). Biology of Spiders. Oxford University Press US. pp. ... The unfolded "pages" (plates) of the book lung are filled with hemolymph. The folds maximize the surface exposed to air, and ... Stacks of alternating air pockets and tissue filled with hemolymph give them an appearance similar to a "folded" book. Their ...
... this combined fluid is called hemolymph or haemolymph. Muscular movements by the animal during locomotion can facilitate ... When the heart relaxes, blood is drawn back toward the heart through open-ended pores (ostia). Hemolymph fills all of the ... Hemolymph is composed of water, inorganic salts (mostly sodium, chloride, potassium, magnesium, and calcium), and organic ... There are free-floating cells, the hemocytes, within the hemolymph. They play a role in the arthropod immune system. The ...
The hemolymph of the insect crystallizes and thickens. The fungus usually produces toxins, as well. After it kills the host, ...
Sinuses return deoxygenated blood or hemolymph to the heart; the hemolymph is re-oxygenated by cardiac pores. The mesosoma also ...
Hemolymph smears showed the ciliates of the parasite. This was surprising, because ochitophrya stellarum was previously only ...
Influence of Hemolymph-Binding Protein on Juvenile-Hormone Stability and Distribution in Manduca-Sexta Fat-Body and Imaginal ... Origin of Hemolymph Carboxylesterases Induced by Insect Juvenile-Hormone. Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology 1, 37-54. ... Thus this laboratory undertook an investigation of the hemolymph JHE regulation during the last larval instar of the cabbage ... Juvenile hormone-specific esterases in the haemolymph of the tobacco hornworm, Manduca sexta. J. Insect Physiol. 21, 873-887. ...
But it is only activated when in mosquito hemolymph. Malicious research was done to show the fungi would not affect other ...
The dye originates in the hemolymph of the insect; the fluid analogous to blood. While K. lacca is the most commonly cultivated ...
Haemolymph contains molecules, ions and cells; regulating chemical exchanges between tissues, haemolymph is encased in the ... Insect blood or haemolymph's main function is that of transport and it bathes the insect's body organs. Making up usually less ... In lepidopteran species, hemolymph is circulated through the veins in the wings by some form of pulsating organ, either by the ... The haemolymph is circulated to the appendages unidirectionally with the aid of muscular pumps or accessory pulsatile organs ...
Body movements and hemolymph circulation cannot account for these cycles; therefore, our observations demonstrate a previously ... of tracheal tubes by using either diffusion or changes in internal pressure that are produced through body motion or hemolymph ...
... and a heterodimeric serine protease inhibitor was isolated from the haemolymph of Pacifastacus leniusculus (Signal crayfish), ... two proteinase inhibitors from hemolymph of Locusta migratoria". Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 189 (2): 790-3. doi:10.1016/ ...
... and mix to form a substance called hemolymph. All organs of the insect are bathed in hemolymph, which provides oxygen and ... Once in the hemolymph, the sperm and ejaculatory fluids may act as antigens, triggering an immune reaction. There is a tendency ... The sperm and ejaculatory fluids diffuse through the female's hemolymph. The insemination is successful if the sperm reach the ... In some species, the ectospermalege directly connects to the ovaries - thus, sperm and ejaculate never enters the hemolymph and ...
Gastropods have open circulatory system and the transport fluid is hemolymph. Hemocyanin is present in the hemolymph as the ...
Scherfer C, Tang H, Kambris Z, Lhocine N, Hashimoto C, Lemaitre B (November 2008). "Drosophila Serpin-28D regulates hemolymph ...
They produce glycerol in their hemolymph, preventing them from freezing.[1] Up to 200 eggs have been found in female snow flies ... The antifreeze agent found in Chionea hemolymph has been determined to be sugar trehalose. Mating is indiscriminate (probably ...
The alkaloid compounds are transformed after ingestion in the hemolymph. The stimulatory effects of the alkaloid derived ... eversible structures that bear the hair-pencils and can be voluntarily inflated with hemolymph or air. Male moths are attracted ...
Hemolymph is the fluid used in some arthropod circulatory systems, including insects, to fill the interior hemocoel. Hemolymph ... The overall concentration of amino acids is roughly 265 mg/100 ml of hemolymph. The presence of alanine, cysteine, glutamic ...
M. sexta hemolymph (blood) contains the blue-colored protein insecticyanin. When the larva feeds on plants, it ingests ... About 0.65% of nicotine metabolites are transported from the gut to the hemolymph, where they are reconverted to nicotine and ...
Beetles may lose up to 13% of their net body weight as a consequence of expelling haemolymph. Autohaemorrhaging may result in ... Beetles Meloidae (blister beetles) - their haemolymph contains cantharidin that they sequester from plants on which they feed. ... Timarcha species Chrysomelidae - their haemolymph contains anthraquinones. Coccinellidae (ladybird, ladybug or lady beetles) - ... their haemolymph contains cardiac glycosides, sequestered from milkweed on which they feed. Katydids, including Eugaster ...
The female wasp feeds on the hemolymph after biting the integument. This behaviour is probably necessary for egg laying. ...
The larva will develop using the nutrients from the spider's hemolymph. When the larva moves out of the abdomen, it remains ... percontatoria connects to the hemolymph not directly associated with the nervous system. The more likely of the hypotheses is ... connected to the hemolymph for nutrients as an ectoparasitoid. How large the larva gets ultimately depends on the size and ...
A tarantula's blood is not true blood, but rather a liquid called haemolymph, or hemolymph. At least four types of hemocytes, ... If the exoskeleton is breached, loss of hemolymph will kill the tarantula unless the wound is small enough that the hemolymph ... The heart pumps hemolymph to all parts of the body through open passages often referred to as sinuses, and not through a ... or hemolymph cells, are known. The tarantula's heart is a long, slender tube located along the top of the opisthosoma. The ...
In some species, hemolymph has other uses than just being a blood analogue. As the insect or arachnid grows, the hemolymph ... Hemolymph, or haemolymph, is a fluid, analogous to the blood in vertebrates, that circulates in the interior of the arthropod ( ... The hearts pump hemolymph into the sinuses of the hemocoel where exchanges of materials take place. The volume of hemolymph ... When not oxygenated, hemolymph quickly loses its color and appears grey. The hemolymph of lower arthropods, including most ...
In colonies of the Amblyopone silvestrii the queens feed on the hemolymph (or insect blood, also spelt haemolymph) of their ... Larval hemolymph feeding is a behaviour trait found in the queens of some species of ant. This is found mainly in the ants of ... are exclusively dependent on the hemolymph of their own larvae as a nutrient, even when prey feeding is possible. On the other ... Masuko K (1989). "Larval hemolymph feeding in the ant Leptanilla japonica by use of a specialized duct organ, the "larval ...
... our knowledge of the predominant hemolymph proteins in ticks is minimal. The hemolymph protein most studied in ticks has been ... This protein is found in the hemolymph of both male and females adults, in adult tissues outside of the hemolymph in some tick ... In comparison to insects and Crustacea, our knowledge of the predominant hemolymph proteins in ticks is minimal. The hemolymph ... Hemolymph proteins in ticks J Insect Physiol. 2002 Mar;48(3):269-278. doi: 10.1016/s0022-1910(02)00050-1. ...
Zhiwei Huang, Ping Shi, Guichen Chen, and Jiawei Du "Effects of Azadirachtin on Hemolymph Protein Expression in Ostrinia ... Variation of Calcium Levels in the Tissues and Hemolymph of... Effect of Neem Seed Extract on Feeding, Growth, Survival, and... ... By use of proteomic techniques, we analyzed changes in hemolymph protein expression of 48-h-old pupae in O. furnacalis induced ... Zhiwei Huang, Ping Shi, Guichen Chen, Jiawei Du "Effects of Azadirachtin on Hemolymph Protein Expression in Ostrinia furnacalis ...
... rPomIL-18 was produced and secreted into the haemolymph. Polyethylene glycol (PEG) 6000 was added to the haemolymph at 8% (v/w ... Method for purifying porcine mature interleukin-18 from silkworm haemolymph.. Nagaya H1, Muneta Y, Enomoto C, Matsumoto S, ... Recombinant porcine mature interleukin-18 (rPomIL-18) has been purified from the haemolymph of silkworms. After co-infection of ... Approximately 5.3 mg purified rPomIL-18 was obtained from 22 ml haemolymph. It could induce interferon-gamma formation from ...
Complement-Unlike Hemolytic Activity in Lobster Hemolymph. James L. Hall, David T. Rowlands Jr. and Ulf R. Nilsson ... Complement-Unlike Hemolytic Activity in Lobster Hemolymph Message Subject (Your Name) has forwarded a page to you from The ... The substances in hemolymph responsible for these two activities were separated and shown to be mutually independent. Hemolytic ... Hemagglutinating and cobra venom factor (CVF)-activated hemolytic activities were found in the hemolymph of the lobster, ...
Accordingly haemolymph-like solutions, based upon ion measurements of major cations, were developed and tested. Haemolymph-like ... Improved stability of Drosophila larval neuromuscular preparations in haemolymph-like physiological solutions.. Stewart BA1, ... Calcium dependence of transmitter release was steep in both standard and haemolymph-like solutions, but higher external calcium ... Synaptic transmission was well-maintained in haemolymph-like solutions, but the excitatory synaptic potentials had a slower ...
Antifungal Effect of Haemolymph from Paratelphusa hydrodromous. The effect of haemolymph from Paratelphusa hydrodromous against ... Antibacterial Effect of Haemolymph from Paratelphusa hydrodromous. The screening of the haemolymph from Paratelphusa ... To remove the haemocytes from haemolymph, the haemolymph was centrifuged at 2000 g for 15 min at 4°C. Supernatant was collected ... The haemolymph of crab had more zone of inhibition in E. coli and Rhizopus sp. So only for these two the significance was ...
... J Chem Ecol. 2002 Jul;28(7): ...
Hemolymph Proteins and Functional Peptides. Recent molecular studies have revealed an overwhelming role of hemolymph proteins ... In addition there is a multitude of genes encoding for hemolymph proteins and functional peptides. Hemolymph proteins and ... This e-book is a unique compilation of research on the biological role of numerous and diversified hemolymph protein molecules ... Recent molecular studies have revealed an overwhelming role of hemolymph proteins and functional peptides in invertebrate ...
In this study, we focus on internal organs such as the hemolymph vascular system and adjacent anatomical structures of several ... B.-J. Klußmann-Fricke, C.S. Wirkner, Comparative morphology of the hemolymph vascular system in Uropygi and Amblypygi ( ... Evolutionary morphology of the hemolymph vascular system in hermit and king crabs (Crustacea: Decapoda: Anomala). Authors. *. ... Katarina Huckstorf, Peter Michalik, Martín Ramírez, Christian S. Wirkner, Evolutionary morphology of the hemolymph vascular ...
Effects of emersion and elevated haemolymph ammonia on haemocyanin-oxygen affinity of Cancer pagurus. ... Emersion induced significant acidosis and elevated circulating levels of haemolymph TA, lactate and urate, but all had returned ...
A novel agglutinin with specificity for sialic acid sequence of sugars in thyroglobulin is identified in the hemolymph of ... Hemolymph agglutinin sialic acids N-acetyl neuraminic acid (NeuAc) N-glycolyl neuraminic acid (NeuGc) thyroglobulin glycosidic ... An agglutinin with unique specificity for N-glycolyl sialic acid residues of thyroglobulin in the hemolymph of a marine crab ... A novel agglutinin with specificity for sialic acid sequence of sugars in thyroglobulin is identified in the hemolymph ofScylla ...
The hemolymph was allowed to bleed out on a dimple glass plate by tearing off the cuticle; 2 μl of hemolymph was rapidly with- ... Hemolymph trehalose levels in AKH-CD larvae were a mere 7-26% of normal, whereas the glucose levels were unaffected (Figure 5, ... C) Hemolymph trehalose concentrations were unchanged by overexpression of dAkh in AKHergic neurons (UAS-dAkh/+; dAkh-gal4/+), ... To assess glycerol levels, larval hemolymph was diluted 1:5 in PBS, heated at 70° for 5 min, and centrifuged at 13,000 × g for ...
The hemolymph TCO2 of the pre- and early-final instar nymphs was found to be significantly lower than that of the air-breathing ... TCO2 and PCO2 were also significantly higher in the hemolymph of early-final aeshnid nymphs compared with values for the water- ... This study measured total CO2 (TCO2) in hemolymph collected from aquatic nymphs and air-breathing adults of Anax junius, Aeshna ... Changes in hemolymph total CO2 content during the water-to-air respiratory transition of amphibiotic dragonflies ...
Hemolymph from field-collected ticks can be screened for ASFV and a variety of other tick-borne pathogens using this test. ... antigens in the hemolymph from soft ticks (Ornithodoros coriaceus) fed on ASFV-infected pigs. The immunodot blot test was ... Hemolymph from field-collected ticks can be screened for ASFV and a variety of other tick-borne pathogens using this test. ... The immunodot blot test was used to identify African swine fever virus (ASFV) antigens in the hemolymph from soft ticks ( ...
Purification and Characterization of Hemolymph Juvenile Hormone Esterase from the Cricket, Gryllus assimilis ...
During cold-acclimation (to 10 °C), there is a metabolic acidosis in the tarantulas haemolymph that is linked to the ... The concentration of bicarbonate in the haemolymph of resting individuals is quite different in the three species and is ... The relationships between PCO2 and pH were determined in cell-free undiluted haemolymph of the arachnids Eurypelma californicum ... During early recovery, buffering in the haemolymph strongly depends upon CO2 release. Potassium and magnesium concentrations in ...
... Bidla, Gawa Stockolms universitet.. Lindgren, Malin Södertörn ... 1. Molecular and functional characterization of the insect hemolymph clot. Open this publication in new window or tab ,, ... Hemolymph coagulation is a first response to wounding in insects. Although studies have been performed in large-bodied insects ... Insect hemolymph coagulation has not been characterized extensively at the molecular level before, and the aim of my studies ...
... are present in the hemolymph of Baikalian endemic amphipods. In the hemolymph of Eulimnogammarus verrucosus, we detected SSU ... In the hemolymph of Pallasea cancellous, we found the DNA of Microsporidium sp. similar to that in other Baikalian endemic ... In this study, we used molecular genetic analyses to detect microsporidia in the hemolymph of several endemic species of ... was found in the hemolymph of Eulimnogammarus marituji and Acanthogammarus lappaceus longispinus. ...
Drug uptake in haemolymph of wild-type Chilo suppressalis (rice stem borer) fifth-instar larvae assessed per mg protein by ...
1. Hemolymph coagulation and phenoloxidase in Drosophila larvae. Open this publication in new window or tab ,,Hemolymph ... Insect hemolymph coagulation has not been characterized extensively at the molecular level before, and the aim of my studies ... Hemolymph coagulation is a first response to wounding in insects. Although studies have been performed in large-bodied insects ... Hemolymph coagulation is vital for larval hemostasis and important in immunity, yet the molecular basis of coagulation is not ...
... so they primarily rely on hemolymph and other carbohydrates to carry out life activities. However, how gustatory responsiveness ... Our findings suggest that the particularly dynamic levels of hemolymph sugar levels may serve as a monitor of the forager ... Mayack C, Naug D (2010) Parasitic infection leads to decline in hemolymph sugar levels in honeybee foragers. J Insect Physiol ... Simpson SJ, Raubenheimer D (1993) The central role of the haemolymph in the regulation of nutrient intake in insects. Physiol ...
... to explore the relationship between levels of hemolymph ecdysteroids and female reproductive behavior in Schizocosa wolf ... No evidence for a relationship between hemolymph ecdysteroid levels and female reproductive behavior in Schizocosa wolf spiders ... This study used radioimmunoassay (RIA) to explore the relationship between levels of hemolymph ecdysteroids and female ...
Hemolymph ice nucleating proteins from the New Zealand alpine weta Hemideina maori (Orthoptera: Stenopelmatidae). I: ... Hemolymph ice nucleating proteins from the New Zealand alpine weta Hemideina maori (Orthoptera: Stenopelmatidae). Comparative ... Hemolymph ice nucleating proteins from the New Zealand alpine weta Hemideina maori (Orthoptera: Stenopelmatidae). / Wilson, ... Wilson, P., & Ramløv, H. (1995). Hemolymph ice nucleating proteins from the New Zealand alpine weta Hemideina maori (Orthoptera ...
Nineteen amino acids and two amides were detected in the haemolymph of last-instar Scolytus multistriatus larvae by thin-layer ... Amino Acids in the Haemolymph of Smaller European Elm Bark Beetle Larvae, Scolytus Multistriatus (Marsham) (Coleoptera: ... and at times were apparently absent in the haemolymph extract. Cysteine, cystine, and cysteic acid were not adequately ...
keywords = "Antifreeze protein, hemolymph, insect, beetle, Rhagium inquisitor",. author = "E. Kristiansen and Hans Raml{\o}v ... Isolation and Characterization of hemolymph antifreeze proteins from larvae of the long horn beetle Rhagium inquisitor. ... Isolation and Characterization of hemolymph antifreeze proteins from larvae of the long horn beetle Rhagium inquisitor. / ... title = "Isolation and Characterization of hemolymph antifreeze proteins from larvae of the long horn beetle Rhagium inquisitor ...
Silkworm / Hemolymph / Bactericide / Lysozyme-like Enzyme / Complex Bactericide / Bombyx / カイコ体液 / 抗菌物質 / リゾチ-ム / 大腸菌 / 溶菌物質 / ... Hemolymph from 3, 000 fifth-instar silkworms was pooled, frozen and stored at -80゚C. Escherichia coli B/SM, a spontaneously ... These facts indicate the presence of very complex mechanisms of selfdefense in the normal, cell-free hemolymph of silkworms. ... By affinity chromatography using crab shell chitin powder, the hemolymph afforded a path through fraction (fraction A : eluted ...
Changes in haemolymph parameters and insect ability to respond to immune challenge during overwintering. by Lucie Nesvadbová on ... but females had a significantly higher total protein concentration in their hemolymph compared to males. ...
Puparium Formation in the Fleshfly, Sarcophaga Bullata (P.). I. Effectsof Proteinaceous Factors Present in the Hemolymph and ... Puparium Formation in the Fleshfly, Sarcophaga Bullata (P.). I. Effectsof Proteinaceous Factors Present in the Hemolymph and ... Puparium Formation in the Fleshfly, Sarcophaga Bullata (P.). I. Effectsof Proteinaceous Factors Present in the Hemolymph and ...
  • Oxygen-transport systems were long thought unnecessary in insects, but ancestral and functional hemocyanin has been found in the hemolymph. (wikipedia.org)
  • Such nucleating agents have been found in the hemolymph of insects of several orders, i.e. (wikipedia.org)
  • This protein is found in the hemolymph of both male and females adults, in adult tissues outside of the hemolymph in some tick species, in coxal fluid of soft ticks and in whole body homogenates from eggs, larvae and nymphs. (nih.gov)
  • Hemagglutinating and cobra venom factor (CVF)-activated hemolytic activities were found in the hemolymph of the lobster, Homarus americanus. (jimmunol.org)
  • The hemolymph of lower arthropods, including most insects, is not used for oxygen transport because these animals respirate through other means, such as tracheas, but it does contain nutrients such as proteins and sugars. (wikipedia.org)
  • Proteins present in the hemolymph vary in quantity during the course of development. (wikipedia.org)
  • In comparison to insects and Crustacea, our knowledge of the predominant hemolymph proteins in ticks is minimal. (nih.gov)
  • These two proteins may function on lipid metabolism in insect hemolymph. (bioone.org)
  • Furthermore, fat body is the center of synthesis and secretion of hemolymph proteins. (bioone.org)
  • Polyethylene glycol (PEG) 6000 was added to the haemolymph at 8% (v/w) to precipitate storage proteins which would otherwise bind non-specifically to the metal chelating column and the supernatant then was applied to Sepharose bonded with Ni2+. (nih.gov)
  • Recent molecular studies have revealed an overwhelming role of hemolymph proteins and functional peptides in invertebrate physiology. (eurekaselect.com)
  • In addition there is a multitude of genes encoding for hemolymph proteins and functional peptides. (eurekaselect.com)
  • Hemolymph proteins and functional peptides: Recent Advances in Insects and other Arthropods elucidates the physiological role, both at biochemical and molecular levels, of hemolymph proteins and functional peptides in reproduction, development, homeostasis, hibernation, migration, immune system, and in abiotic stress tolerance of insects and other arthropods. (eurekaselect.com)
  • The proteins building up the clot are soluble in the hemolymph or released from hemocytes upon activation. (diva-portal.org)
  • Wilson, P & Ramløv, H 1995, ' Hemolymph ice nucleating proteins from the New Zealand alpine weta Hemideina maori (Orthoptera: Stenopelmatidae) ', Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology - Part B: Biochemistry & Molecular Biology , bind 112, nr. 3, s. 535-542. (ruc.dk)
  • At least two types of insect immune responses require activation of plasma proteins by proteases in hemolymph. (grantome.com)
  • 2. Use a systems approach for proteomics experiments to identify pathway components and the substrate repertoire of selected hemolymph proteases, followed by experiments to validate and characterize interactions using purified proteins. (grantome.com)
  • Each pathogen was recognized by a specific but overlapping set of circulating proteins in mollusk's hemolymph. (frontiersin.org)
  • However, a significant decrease of lysozyme activity in naive and immune haemolymph exposed to the action of P. aeruginosa proteins determined by using diffusion well assay was observed. (qxmd.com)
  • Effect of Pseudomonas aeruginosa elastase B on level and activity of immune proteins/peptides of Galleria mellonella hemolymph. (qxmd.com)
  • In colonies of the Amblyopone silvestrii the queens feed on the hemolymph (or insect blood, also spelt haemolymph) of their larvae when food is not available. (wikipedia.org)
  • This behaviour is also seen in Proceratium and in Leptanilla the larvae have special organs that exude the haemolymph. (wikipedia.org)
  • are exclusively dependent on the hemolymph of their own larvae as a nutrient, even when prey feeding is possible. (wikipedia.org)
  • Loss of Hml had strong effects on larval hemolymph clotting ex vivo, but only minor effects, such as larges scabs, in vivo when larvae were wounded. (diva-portal.org)
  • Nineteen amino acids and two amides were detected in the haemolymph of last-instar Scolytus multistriatus larvae by thin-layer chromatography. (osu.edu)
  • We have been investigating lysozyme activity in bacterial challenged haemolymph of Achaea janata larvae. (ijsr.net)
  • The effects of GA 3 on the hemolymph content of these larvae were tested through a diet incorporation assay. (researcherslinks.com)
  • The hemolymph protein level of the larvae increased significantly at 5, 10, 50 and 200 mg/L with respect to the control group. (researcherslinks.com)
  • After infection with Trichoplusia ni nuclear polyhedrosis viruses, the esterases in the hemolymph of the fifth instar larvae of the Argyrogramma agnata were examined by the polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE) and thin - layer scanning. (virosin.org)
  • Nitrogen metabolism end products are present in the hemolymph in low concentrations. (wikipedia.org)
  • IDEALS @ Illinois: Puparium Formation in the Fleshfly, Sarcophaga Bullata (P.). I. Effectsof Proteinaceous Factors Present in the Hemolymph and the Cns (Central Nervous System) of the Larva. (illinois.edu)
  • Four antibacterial peptides were isolated from these fractions, and the mass analyses of the peptides indicate that there are at least two different antibacterial peptides present in the hemolymph. (up.ac.za)
  • Purification and Characterization of Hemolymph Juvenile Hormone Estera" by Anthony J. Zera, Travis Sanger et al. (unl.edu)
  • Morphological characterization of the Drosophila hemolymph clot showed that it resembles the clots previously described in other larger bodied insects, such as Galleria mellonella . (diva-portal.org)
  • However no clear characterization of the phenoloxidase (PO) activity of the Biomphalaria snail hemolymph was attempted. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The present study reveals purification and characterization of immune molecule lectin from the haemolymph of blue swimmer crab Portunus pelagicus (Pp-Lec). (ovid.com)
  • Kanost, M.R. (1990) Isolation and characterization of four serine proteinase inhibitors (serpins) from hemolymph of Manduca sexta . (k-state.edu)
  • Ladendorff, N.E. and Kanost, M.R. (1990) Isolation and characterization of bacteria-induced protein P4 from hemolymph of Manduca sexta . (k-state.edu)
  • This e-book is a unique compilation of research on the biological role of numerous and diversified hemolymph protein molecules and peptides. (eurekaselect.com)
  • Injection of the peptides into cockroaches elevates levels of hemolymph trehalose, a non-reducing disaccharide that is one of the major blood sugar molecules in insects ( B edford 1977 ). (genetics.org)
  • By analyzing the Triatoma infestans hemolymph by reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography, biological assays, and mass spectrometry, two antimicrobial molecules were isolated and identified as TKRPs, which we named as TRP1-TINF and TRP2-TINF (tachykinin-related peptides I and II from T. infestans). (butantan.gov.br)
  • Calcium dependence of transmitter release was steep in both standard and haemolymph-like solutions, but higher external calcium concentrations were required for a given level of release in haemolymph-like solutions. (nih.gov)
  • Potassium and magnesium concentrations in the haemolymph increase after exercise. (biologists.org)
  • We measured concentrations of Ca2+ in tissues (hemolymph, hepatopancreas, cuticle, and muscle) of the whiteleg shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei (Boone, 1931) and recorded changes in tissue calcium levels at molting stages and different salinities. (brillonline.com)
  • The hemolymph osmotic, Na + K + , Ca ++ and Mg ++ concentrations were determined for both sexes in crabs from mangrove Ucides cordatus and Goniopsis cruentata and supralittoral Ocypode quadrala after aerial desiccation, for 10 hr. 2. (elsevier.com)
  • Hemolymph osmotic Na + , Ca ++ and Mg ++ concentrations increased significantly in desiccated ghost crabs, while K + concentration was not significantly changed. (elsevier.com)
  • Lobo, Eliana S. / Hemolymph osmo-ionic concentrations in terrestrial crabs following desiccation . (elsevier.com)
  • Different concentrations (2, 5, 10, 50, 100, 200, 500 and 1000 mg/L) of GA 3 were added to the synthetic diet and protein, lipid, carbohydrate and glycogen levels in the hemolymph were evaluated for the GA 3 concentrations. (researcherslinks.com)
  • The lipid level of hemolymph fluctuated among the tested GA 3 concentrations. (researcherslinks.com)
  • The potential role of biogenic amines and neuropeptides in the connection between the regulation of appetite and fluctuating sugar levels in the hemolymph, due to starvation, as the bee ages, was investigated. (springer.com)
  • We used spectrophotometric assays with 3 specific substrates (L-tyrosine for tyrosinase, L-DOPA for catecholase, and PPD for laccase) and diethylthiocarbarmate (DETC) as specific PO inhibitor to characterize PO activity in the hemolymph of uninfected snails from two Biomphalaria species, and to determine the impact of the parasite Schistosoma mansoni on the PO activity of its B. glabrata vector. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The antibacterial activity in the hemolymph of Ornithodoros savignyi is specific for Gram-positive bacteria, and the synthesis and release of the antibacterial factors need to be induced by challenging the ticks with heat-killed Gram-negative bacterial suspensions. (up.ac.za)
  • 3. Investigate the regulation of protease pathways in hemolymph by serpins, using in vitro, ex vivo, and in vivo experimental approaches. (grantome.com)
  • Ultrastructural examination of the haemolymph-derived cells revealed the presence of a highly ordered outermost brush-like structure not present on any of the in vitro cells. (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • Antibacterial activity in vivo and in vitro in the hemolymph of Galleria mellonella infected with Pseudomonas aeruginosa. (qxmd.com)
  • The hemolymph protein most studied in ticks has been vitellogenin (Vg). (nih.gov)
  • The immunodot blot test was used to identify African swine fever virus (ASFV) antigens in the hemolymph from soft ticks ( Ornithodoros coriaceus ) fed on ASFV-infected pigs. (ajtmh.org)
  • Hemolymph from field-collected ticks can be screened for ASFV and a variety of other tick-borne pathogens using this test. (ajtmh.org)
  • By using reverse phase high performance liquid chromatography, four fractions exhibiting antibacterial activity were identified in the hemolymph of immune challenged ticks. (up.ac.za)
  • Then they tended to decrease in number, disappearing almost completely from the haemolymph 44 days after the engorgement of ticks. (naver.com)
  • Hemolymph collected from 5 ticks was pooled as 1 sample. (cdc.gov)
  • It contains hemocyanin, a copper-based protein that turns blue when oxygenated, instead of the iron-based hemoglobin in red blood cells found in vertebrates, giving hemolymph a blue-green color rather than the red color of vertebrate blood. (wikipedia.org)
  • Another predominant hemolymph protein, apparently a carrier protein (CP), has recently been studied in two tick species. (nih.gov)
  • By use of proteomic techniques, we analyzed changes in hemolymph protein expression of 48-h-old pupae in O. furnacalis induced by azadirachtin treatment. (bioone.org)
  • After feeding by third instars on an artificial diet containing 10 ppm azadirachtin until pupation, 48-h-old pupae were collected, and hemolymph protein samples were prepared. (bioone.org)
  • In both sexes, total protein concentration increased in the course of overwintering, but females had a significantly higher total protein concentration in their hemolymph compared to males. (muni.cz)
  • IMSEAR at SEARO: C-reactive protein (CRP) in haemolymph of a mollusc, Achatina fulica Bowdich. (who.int)
  • C-reactive protein (CRP) was found to be one of the major components of the haemolymph of A. fulica with a normal level of approximately 2 mg CRP/ml haemolymph. (who.int)
  • Developmental Changes in the Concentration of the Juvenile Hormone Binding Protein in the Hemolymph of the Silkworm, Bombyx mori L. (ndsl.kr)
  • Method for purifying porcine mature interleukin-18 from silkworm haemolymph. (nih.gov)
  • After co-infection of two recombinant baculoviruses (BmAcpVL1392-IL-18-His and BmAcpVL1392-casp-1) into the silkworm, rPomIL-18 was produced and secreted into the haemolymph. (nih.gov)
  • Yoshida, H & Ashida, M 1986, ' Microbial activation of two serine enzymes and prophenoloxidase in the plasma fraction of hemolymph of the silkworm, Bombyx mori ', Insect Biochemistry , vol. 16, no. 3, pp. 539-545. (elsevier.com)
  • Analysis of correlation between haemolymph and midgut tissue amylase with commercial characters of silkworm Bombyx mori L. (uni-mysore.ac.in)
  • Kasmaei, F. G. and Mahesha, H. B. (2012) Analysis of correlation between haemolymph and midgut tissue amylase with commercial characters of silkworm Bombyx mori L. Annals of Biological Research, 3 (7). (uni-mysore.ac.in)
  • Previous work from our laboratory and others has established the lepidopteran insect, Manduca sexta, as a model system well suited for biochemical investigation of hemolymph proteases. (grantome.com)
  • Fungal cells isolated from the haemolymph of the infected insect hosts Manduca sexta and Heliothis virescens appeared to shed most carbohydrate epitopes, displaying binding only to the GNL, PNA and WGA lectins. (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • To avoid haemocytes degranulation and coagulation, the haemolymph was collected in the presence of sodium citrate buffer pH 4.6 (2.1 v/v). Equal volume of physiological saline (0.85% Nacl, w/v) was also added to it. (hindawi.com)
  • Hemolymph coagulation is a first response to wounding in insects. (diva-portal.org)
  • The stage is now set for rapid advances in our understanding of insect hemolymph coagulation, its roles in immune defense and wound healing, and for a more comprehensive grasp of the insect immune system in general. (diva-portal.org)
  • Insect hemolymph coagulation has not been characterized extensively at the molecular level before, and the aim of my studies was to gain more knowledge on this topic. (diva-portal.org)
  • The immune system resides in the hemolymph. (wikipedia.org)
  • The result shows a strong response of haemolymph against the clinical pathogens which confirms the immune mechanism of the freshwater crab. (hindawi.com)
  • Lysozyme was the first humoral antibacterial factor to be studied in insects and it was considered the main immune factor in the haemolymph. (ijsr.net)
  • Confocal microscopy and specific fluorescent labeling revealed that extracellular actin present in snail hemolymph was able to bind to yeasts and induce their clotting, a preliminary step for their elimination by the snail immune system. (frontiersin.org)
  • The antibacterial activity of immune haemolymph Galleria mellonella directed against Escherichia coli D31 was destroyed by Pseudomonas aeruginosa crude proteolytic fraction. (qxmd.com)
  • Larval hemolymph feeding is a behaviour trait found in the queens of some species of ant. (wikipedia.org)
  • On the other hand, the foundresses suppress larval hemolymph feeding (LHF) when prey is available, allowing them to rear the first workers more swiftly. (wikipedia.org)
  • Publications] T.Murae: 'Bactericidal Activity Induced by Formation of Complex between Lysozyme-like Enzymes and Cofactors of the Normal,Cell-Free Hemolymph of Silkworms (Bombyx mori)' Infection and Immunity. (nii.ac.jp)
  • Hemolymph, or haemolymph, is a fluid, analogous to the blood in vertebrates, that circulates in the interior of the arthropod (invertebrate) body remaining in direct contact with the animal's tissues. (wikipedia.org)
  • Horseshoe crab hemolymph , specific for sialic acid , was used cytochemically as a peroxidase-conjugate to compare the localization of binding sites of this lectin with that of Concanavalin A (Con A) , which binds mannose and glucose , on various tissues and isolated organelles . (musc.edu)
  • Bounias M, Kruk I (1983) Adrenochrome as competitive inhibitor of epinephrine effects: a comparative study on trehalose and glucose levels in the honey-bee hemolymph. (springer.com)
  • Insects have rapidly changing energy demands, so they primarily rely on hemolymph and other carbohydrates to carry out life activities. (springer.com)
  • However, how gustatory responsiveness and hemolymph sugar levels coordinate with one another to maintain energetic homeostasis in insects remains largely unknown for the highly social honeybee that goes through large physiological and behavioral changes. (springer.com)
  • The concentration of bicarbonate in the haemolymph of resting individuals is quite different in the three species and is related to the extent of post-exercise bicarbonate depletion. (biologists.org)
  • Using real-time RT-PCR to detect virion RNA, no significant differences in the concentration or stability of WT and RNA1Delta virions were detected in the aphid hemolymph at much longer times than are necessary for virus transmission. (iastate.edu)
  • In the two mangrove crabs, only hemolymph Ca ++ concentration increased significantly, after desiccation. (elsevier.com)
  • Concentration of Vg in hemolymph , ovary and hepatopancreas of Cherax quadricarinatus adult females was measured by means of ELISA , specifically developed after purifying the native Vg. (bvsalud.org)
  • The coming availability of a M. sexta genome sequence and new developments in proteomics technology make possible the investigation of serine protease webs in M. sexta hemolymph, using biochemical systems approaches. (grantome.com)
  • Improved stability of Drosophila larval neuromuscular preparations in haemolymph-like physiological solutions. (nih.gov)
  • Synaptic transmission was well-maintained in haemolymph-like solutions, but the excitatory synaptic potentials had a slower time course and summated more effectively with repetitive stimulation, than in standard Drosophila solutions. (nih.gov)
  • However, no in-vivo data were published showing changes in the postprandial profile of Met in the hemolymph - a fluid analogous to the blood in vertebrates - of shrimp fed different Met sources. (aquafeed.co.uk)
  • B. bassiana produces a number of distinct cell types that include aerial conidia, submerged conidia, blastospores and haemolymph-derived cells termed in vivo blastospores or hyphal bodies. (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • Three agglutinins (lectins), designated BDL1, BDL2 and BDL3, were identified in the haemolymph of the cockroach Blaberus discoidalis by erythrocyte cross-adsorption and sugar inhibition tests. (biochemj.org)
  • TCO 2 and P CO 2 were also significantly higher in the hemolymph of early-final aeshnid nymphs compared with values for the water-breathing crayfish. (biologists.org)
  • In order to determine the titer of molt-inhibiting hormone (Prc-MIH) in the hemolymph of the American crayfish Procambarus clarkii , a time-resolved fluoroimmunoassay (TR-FIA) was established using specific antibodies against N-terminal and C-terminal segments of Prc-MIH. (bioone.org)
  • Vitellogenin (Vg), a lipoprotein precursor of the vitellum accumulated in spawned eggs , can be synthesized in the ovary and/or hepatopancreas of most crustaceans, being the hemolymph the way for transporting Vg throughout the reproductive cycle. (bvsalud.org)
  • How do dietary methionine sources and feeding frequency impact the post feed hemolymph methionine levels in whiteleg shrimp? (aquafeed.co.uk)
  • We therefore instigated a study to investigate and compare postprandial Met levels in relation to other amino acids in the hemolymph of whiteleg shrimp fed diets supplemented with AQUAVI® Met-Met or DL-Met. (aquafeed.co.uk)
  • Hemolymph in invertebrates is analogous to blood in vertebrates. (org.in)
  • Recombinant porcine mature interleukin-18 (rPomIL-18) has been purified from the haemolymph of silkworms. (nih.gov)
  • Hemolymph from 3, 000 fifth-instar silkworms was pooled, frozen and stored at -80゚C. Escherichia coli B/SM, a spontaneously occurring mutant strain resistant to streptomycin, was used for the estimation of bactericidal activity. (nii.ac.jp)
  • These facts indicate the presence of very complex mechanisms of selfdefense in the normal, cell-free hemolymph of silkworms. (nii.ac.jp)
  • A novel agglutinin with specificity for sialic acid sequence of sugars in thyroglobulin is identified in the hemolymph of Scylla serrata . (springer.com)
  • Emersion induced significant acidosis and elevated circulating levels of haemolymph TA, lactate and urate, but all had returned to normal levels within 24 h of re-immersion. (springer.com)
  • Blood gas analyses corroborate these results: after locomotor activity, there is a metabolic acidosis linked to the accumulation of lactate in the haemolymph. (biologists.org)
  • The pH and d-lactate of the haemolymph from the scorpion, Opistophthalmus latimanus , were measured at different ambient temperatures. (journals.co.za)
  • Calcium entering the shrimp may initially be mineralized in the cuticle or stored in the hemolymph and hepatopancreas, after which it is released to support mineralization in the post-molt period. (brillonline.com)
  • Significant variations in Vg levels were detected in both hemolymph and hepatopancreas , being the highest values observed during the mid- reproductive period . (bvsalud.org)
  • These results support previous evidences about the central role of the hepatopancreas as a site of Vg synthesis in the studied species, together with the relevancy of hemolymph for transporting Vg from the hepatopancreas to the ovary . (bvsalud.org)
  • In the present study, effort has been made to find the antimicrobial activity of haemolymph collected from freshwater crab, Paratelphusa hydrodromous . (hindawi.com)
  • Hence, the present study was aimed to investigate the antimicrobial potency of haemolymph collected from freshwater crab, Paratelphusa hydrodromous . (hindawi.com)
  • In this study, we focus on internal organs such as the hemolymph vascular system and adjacent anatomical structures of several Recent hermit crab (Paguridae) and king crab (Lithodidae) species. (wiley.com)
  • By affinity chromatography using crab shell chitin powder, the hemolymph afforded a path through fraction (fraction A : eluted with a neutral buffer solution) and a lysozyme-like fraction (eluted with 0.1N acetic acid). (nii.ac.jp)
  • The largest appetite increase due to the starvation treatment was within the forager age class and this corresponded with an increase in octopamine levels in the brain along with a decline in hemolymph sugar levels. (springer.com)
  • The influence of the plant growth regulator gibberellic acid (GA 3 ) on the hemolymph contents of Galleria mellonella (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) was examined. (researcherslinks.com)
  • The effects of GA 3 on the hemolymph contents of G. mellonella were tested through diet incorporation assays. (researcherslinks.com)
  • No evidence for a relationship between hemolymph ecdysteroid levels an" by Reed M. Stubbendieck, Anthony J. Zera et al. (unl.edu)
  • The central aim of this work is to characterize the specific PO activity present in Biomphalaria hemolymph: this is an essential prerequisite for studies aiming to understand the role of PO activity in snail biology. (biomedcentral.com)
  • and metazoan parasites, Echinostoma caproni or Schistosoma mansoni ) were exposed to hemocyte-free hemolymph from the gastropod Biomphalaria glabrata . (frontiersin.org)
  • The hemolymph TCO 2 of the pre- and early-final instar nymphs was found to be significantly lower than that of the air-breathing adults. (biologists.org)
  • The haemolymph collected was tested for antimicrobial assay by disc diffusion method against clinical pathogens. (hindawi.com)
  • Results showed that the initially no activity after 5 min lysozyme activity was gradually increase and it reached maximum at 15 min post bacterial challenge haemolymph. (ijsr.net)
  • on physicochemical properties of hemolymph (volume, hemoglobin availability per unit of the total body mass and soft body mass, and active reaction) of Planorbarius purpura were studied. (begellhouse.com)
  • To verify this hypothesis, we subjected an acidic extract of Calliphora hemolymph to HPLC purification and used mouse spleen lymphocyte cytotoxicity to monitor biological activity. (pnas.org)
  • The specific activity of amylase in the haemolymph as well as midgut tissue was estimated. (uni-mysore.ac.in)
  • It is composed of a fluid plasma in which hemolymph cells called hemocytes are suspended. (wikipedia.org)
  • There are free-floating cells, the hemocytes, within the hemolymph. (wikipedia.org)
  • Pc-astakine mRNA levels decrease after both LPS injection and hemolymph withdrawals in the gastropod pest Pomacea canaliculata. (unimore.it)
  • Contraction of one or more hearts pumps the hemolymph through the circulatory vessels into the interconnected sinuses, Within the sinuses chemical exchange occurs between the hemolymph and the body cells. (prezi.com)
  • Instead, they have an open circulatory system, with body cavities full of hemolymph (the insect version of blood). (backyardbrains.com)
  • Hemolytic activity was due to the action of a low level of phospholipase A in the CVF preparation on lobster hemolymph lipoprotein. (jimmunol.org)
  • Haemolymph-derived hyphal bodies placed into rich broth medium showed expression of several surface carbohydrate epitopes, most notably showing increased PNA binding and strong binding by the RCA lectin. (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • The hearts pump hemolymph into the sinuses of the hemocoel where exchanges of materials take place. (wikipedia.org)