Hemoglobins: The oxygen-carrying proteins of ERYTHROCYTES. They are found in all vertebrates and some invertebrates. The number of globin subunits in the hemoglobin quaternary structure differs between species. Structures range from monomeric to a variety of multimeric arrangements.Anemia: A reduction in the number of circulating ERYTHROCYTES or in the quantity of HEMOGLOBIN.Hemoglobin A: Normal adult human hemoglobin. The globin moiety consists of two alpha and two beta chains.Hemoglobins, Abnormal: Hemoglobins characterized by structural alterations within the molecule. The alteration can be either absence, addition or substitution of one or more amino acids in the globin part of the molecule at selected positions in the polypeptide chains.Fetal Hemoglobin: The major component of hemoglobin in the fetus. This HEMOGLOBIN has two alpha and two gamma polypeptide subunits in comparison to normal adult hemoglobin, which has two alpha and two beta polypeptide subunits. Fetal hemoglobin concentrations can be elevated (usually above 0.5%) in children and adults affected by LEUKEMIA and several types of ANEMIA.Hemoglobinometry: Measurement of hemoglobin concentration in blood.Hematinics: Agents which improve the quality of the blood, increasing the hemoglobin level and the number of erythrocytes. They are used in the treatment of anemias.Erythropoietin: Glycoprotein hormone, secreted chiefly by the KIDNEY in the adult and the LIVER in the FETUS, that acts on erythroid stem cells of the BONE MARROW to stimulate proliferation and differentiation.Hemoglobin, Sickle: An abnormal hemoglobin resulting from the substitution of valine for glutamic acid at position 6 of the beta chain of the globin moiety. The heterozygous state results in sickle cell trait, the homozygous in sickle cell anemia.Hemoglobin A, Glycosylated: Minor hemoglobin components of human erythrocytes designated A1a, A1b, and A1c. Hemoglobin A1c is most important since its sugar moiety is glucose covalently bound to the terminal amino acid of the beta chain. Since normal glycohemoglobin concentrations exclude marked blood glucose fluctuations over the preceding three to four weeks, the concentration of glycosylated hemoglobin A is a more reliable index of the blood sugar average over a long period of time.Hemoglobin C: A commonly occurring abnormal hemoglobin in which lysine replaces a glutamic acid residue at the sixth position of the beta chains. It results in reduced plasticity of erythrocytes.Hemoglobin E: An abnormal hemoglobin that results from the substitution of lysine for glutamic acid at position 26 of the beta chain. It is most frequently observed in southeast Asian populations.Oxyhemoglobins: A compound formed by the combination of hemoglobin and oxygen. It is a complex in which the oxygen is bound directly to the iron without causing a change from the ferrous to the ferric state.Anemia, Sickle Cell: A disease characterized by chronic hemolytic anemia, episodic painful crises, and pathologic involvement of many organs. It is the clinical expression of homozygosity for hemoglobin S.Hemoglobin A2: An adult hemoglobin component normally present in hemolysates from human erythrocytes in concentrations of about 3%. The hemoglobin is composed of two alpha chains and two delta chains. The percentage of HbA2 varies in some hematologic disorders, but is about double in beta-thalassemia.Hematocrit: The volume of packed RED BLOOD CELLS in a blood specimen. The volume is measured by centrifugation in a tube with graduated markings, or with automated blood cell counters. It is an indicator of erythrocyte status in disease. For example, ANEMIA shows a low value; POLYCYTHEMIA, a high value.Blood Transfusion: The introduction of whole blood or blood component directly into the blood stream. (Dorland, 27th ed)Iron: A metallic element with atomic symbol Fe, atomic number 26, and atomic weight 55.85. It is an essential constituent of HEMOGLOBINS; CYTOCHROMES; and IRON-BINDING PROTEINS. It plays a role in cellular redox reactions and in the transport of OXYGEN.Anemia, Iron-Deficiency: Anemia characterized by decreased or absent iron stores, low serum iron concentration, low transferrin saturation, and low hemoglobin concentration or hematocrit value. The erythrocytes are hypochromic and microcytic and the iron binding capacity is increased.Anemia, Hypochromic: Anemia characterized by a decrease in the ratio of the weight of hemoglobin to the volume of the erythrocyte, i.e., the mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration is less than normal. The individual cells contain less hemoglobin than they could have under optimal conditions. Hypochromic anemia may be caused by iron deficiency from a low iron intake, diminished iron absorption, or excessive iron loss. It can also be caused by infections or other diseases, therapeutic drugs, lead poisoning, and other conditions. (Stedman, 25th ed; from Miale, Laboratory Medicine: Hematology, 6th ed, p393)Hemoglobinopathies: A group of inherited disorders characterized by structural alterations within the hemoglobin molecule.Erythrocyte Count: The number of RED BLOOD CELLS per unit volume in a sample of venous BLOOD.Erythrocyte Indices: ERYTHROCYTE size and HEMOGLOBIN content or concentration, usually derived from ERYTHROCYTE COUNT; BLOOD hemoglobin concentration; and HEMATOCRIT. The indices include the mean corpuscular volume (MCV), the mean corpuscular hemoglobin (MCH), and the mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration (MCHC).MethemoglobinRenal Dialysis: Therapy for the insufficient cleansing of the BLOOD by the kidneys based on dialysis and including hemodialysis, PERITONEAL DIALYSIS, and HEMODIAFILTRATION.Erythrocyte Transfusion: The transfer of erythrocytes from a donor to a recipient or reinfusion to the donor.Truncated Hemoglobins: A family of hemoglobin-like proteins found in BACTERIA; PLANTS; and unicellular eukaryotes. Truncated hemoglobins are distantly related to vertebrate hemoglobins and are typically shorter than vertebrate hemoglobins by 20-40 residues.Thalassemia: A group of hereditary hemolytic anemias in which there is decreased synthesis of one or more hemoglobin polypeptide chains. There are several genetic types with clinical pictures ranging from barely detectable hematologic abnormality to severe and fatal anemia.Ferritins: Iron-containing proteins that are widely distributed in animals, plants, and microorganisms. Their major function is to store IRON in a nontoxic bioavailable form. Each ferritin molecule consists of ferric iron in a hollow protein shell (APOFERRITINS) made of 24 subunits of various sequences depending on the species and tissue types.Erythrocytes: Red blood cells. Mature erythrocytes are non-nucleated, biconcave disks containing HEMOGLOBIN whose function is to transport OXYGEN.Pregnancy Complications, Hematologic: The co-occurrence of pregnancy and a blood disease (HEMATOLOGIC DISEASES) which involves BLOOD CELLS or COAGULATION FACTORS. The hematologic disease may precede or follow FERTILIZATION and it may or may not have a deleterious effect on the pregnant woman or FETUS.Reticulocyte Count: The number of RETICULOCYTES per unit volume of BLOOD. The values are expressed as a percentage of the ERYTHROCYTE COUNT or in the form of an index ("corrected reticulocyte index"), which attempts to account for the number of circulating erythrocytes.Kidney Failure, Chronic: The end-stage of CHRONIC RENAL INSUFFICIENCY. It is characterized by the severe irreversible kidney damage (as measured by the level of PROTEINURIA) and the reduction in GLOMERULAR FILTRATION RATE to less than 15 ml per min (Kidney Foundation: Kidney Disease Outcome Quality Initiative, 2002). These patients generally require HEMODIALYSIS or KIDNEY TRANSPLANTATION.Carboxyhemoglobinbeta-Thalassemia: A disorder characterized by reduced synthesis of the beta chains of hemoglobin. There is retardation of hemoglobin A synthesis in the heterozygous form (thalassemia minor), which is asymptomatic, while in the homozygous form (thalassemia major, Cooley's anemia, Mediterranean anemia, erythroblastic anemia), which can result in severe complications and even death, hemoglobin A synthesis is absent.Oxygen: An element with atomic symbol O, atomic number 8, and atomic weight [15.99903; 15.99977]. It is the most abundant element on earth and essential for respiration.Antisickling Agents: Agents used to prevent or reverse the pathological events leading to sickling of erythrocytes in sickle cell conditions.Treatment Outcome: Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.Sickle Cell Trait: The condition of being heterozygous for hemoglobin S.Retrospective Studies: Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.Globins: A superfamily of proteins containing the globin fold which is composed of 6-8 alpha helices arranged in a characterstic HEME enclosing structure.Hemoglobin C Disease: A disease characterized by compensated hemolysis with a normal hemoglobin level or a mild to moderate anemia. There may be intermittent abdominal discomfort, splenomegaly, and slight jaundice.Erythropoiesis: The production of red blood cells (ERYTHROCYTES). In humans, erythrocytes are produced by the YOLK SAC in the first trimester; by the liver in the second trimester; by the BONE MARROW in the third trimester and after birth. In normal individuals, the erythrocyte count in the peripheral blood remains relatively constant implying a balance between the rate of erythrocyte production and rate of destruction.Recombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.Prospective Studies: Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.Blood Substitutes: Substances that are used in place of blood, for example, as an alternative to BLOOD TRANSFUSIONS after blood loss to restore BLOOD VOLUME and oxygen-carrying capacity to the blood circulation, or to perfuse isolated organs.Hemoglobin J: A group of abnormal hemoglobins with similar electrophoretic characteristics. They have faster electrophoretic mobility and different amino acid substitutions in either the alpha or beta chains than normal adult hemoglobin. Some of the variants produce hematologic abnormalities, others result in no clinical disorders.Pallor: A clinical manifestation consisting of an unnatural paleness of the skin.Blood Cell Count: The number of LEUKOCYTES and ERYTHROCYTES per unit volume in a sample of venous BLOOD. A complete blood count (CBC) also includes measurement of the HEMOGLOBIN; HEMATOCRIT; and ERYTHROCYTE INDICES.alpha-Thalassemia: A disorder characterized by reduced synthesis of the alpha chains of hemoglobin. The severity of this condition can vary from mild anemia to death, depending on the number of genes deleted.Hemoglobin SC Disease: One of the sickle cell disorders characterized by the presence of both hemoglobin S and hemoglobin C. It is similar to, but less severe than sickle cell anemia.Hemoglobin H: An abnormal hemoglobin composed of four beta chains. It is caused by the reduced synthesis of the alpha chain. This abnormality results in ALPHA-THALASSEMIA.Diphosphoglyceric AcidsBlood Transfusion, Autologous: Reinfusion of blood or blood products derived from the patient's own circulation. (Dorland, 27th ed)Polycythemia: An increase in the total red cell mass of the blood. (Dorland, 27th ed)Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Risk Factors: An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.Follow-Up Studies: Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.Ferrous Compounds: Inorganic or organic compounds that contain divalent iron.Hemolysis: The destruction of ERYTHROCYTES by many different causal agents such as antibodies, bacteria, chemicals, temperature, and changes in tonicity.2,3-Diphosphoglycerate: A highly anionic organic phosphate which is present in human red blood cells at about the same molar ratio as hemoglobin. It binds to deoxyhemoglobin but not the oxygenated form, therefore diminishing the oxygen affinity of hemoglobin. This is essential in enabling hemoglobin to unload oxygen in tissue capillaries. It is also an intermediate in the conversion of 3-phosphoglycerate to 2-phosphoglycerate by phosphoglycerate mutase (EC 5.4.2.1). (From Stryer Biochemistry, 4th ed, p160; Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992, p508)Prognosis: A prediction of the probable outcome of a disease based on a individual's condition and the usual course of the disease as seen in similar situations.Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2: A subclass of DIABETES MELLITUS that is not INSULIN-responsive or dependent (NIDDM). It is characterized initially by INSULIN RESISTANCE and HYPERINSULINEMIA; and eventually by GLUCOSE INTOLERANCE; HYPERGLYCEMIA; and overt diabetes. Type II diabetes mellitus is no longer considered a disease exclusively found in adults. Patients seldom develop KETOSIS but often exhibit OBESITY.Cohort Studies: Studies in which subsets of a defined population are identified. These groups may or may not be exposed to factors hypothesized to influence the probability of the occurrence of a particular disease or other outcome. Cohorts are defined populations which, as a whole, are followed in an attempt to determine distinguishing subgroup characteristics.Hematologic Tests: Tests used in the analysis of the hemic system.Blood Loss, Surgical: Loss of blood during a surgical procedure.Heme: The color-furnishing portion of hemoglobin. It is found free in tissues and as the prosthetic group in many hemeproteins.Anemia, Hemolytic: A condition of inadequate circulating red blood cells (ANEMIA) or insufficient HEMOGLOBIN due to premature destruction of red blood cells (ERYTHROCYTES).Blood Glucose: Glucose in blood.Diabetes Mellitus: A heterogeneous group of disorders characterized by HYPERGLYCEMIA and GLUCOSE INTOLERANCE.Donor Selection: The procedure established to evaluate the health status and risk factors of the potential DONORS of biological materials. Donors are selected based on the principles that their health will not be compromised in the process, and the donated materials, such as TISSUES or organs, are safe for reuse in the recipients.Prevalence: The total number of cases of a given disease in a specified population at a designated time. It is differentiated from INCIDENCE, which refers to the number of new cases in the population at a given time.Phlebotomy: The techniques used to draw blood from a vein for diagnostic purposes or for treatment of certain blood disorders such as erythrocytosis, hemochromatosis, polycythemia vera, and porphyria cutanea tarda.Anemia, Neonatal: The mildest form of erythroblastosis fetalis in which anemia is the chief manifestation.Iron, Dietary: Iron or iron compounds used in foods or as food. Dietary iron is important in oxygen transport and the synthesis of the iron-porphyrin proteins hemoglobin, myoglobin, cytochromes, and cytochrome oxidase. Insufficient amounts of dietary iron can lead to iron-deficiency anemia.Biological Markers: Measurable and quantifiable biological parameters (e.g., specific enzyme concentration, specific hormone concentration, specific gene phenotype distribution in a population, presence of biological substances) which serve as indices for health- and physiology-related assessments, such as disease risk, psychiatric disorders, environmental exposure and its effects, disease diagnosis, metabolic processes, substance abuse, pregnancy, cell line development, epidemiologic studies, etc.Injections, Subcutaneous: Forceful administration under the skin of liquid medication, nutrient, or other fluid through a hollow needle piercing the skin.Nutritional Status: State of the body in relation to the consumption and utilization of nutrients.Hydroxyurea: An antineoplastic agent that inhibits DNA synthesis through the inhibition of ribonucleoside diphosphate reductase.Angiodysplasia: Acquired degenerative dilation or expansion (ectasia) of normal BLOOD VESSELS, often associated with aging. They are isolated, tortuous, thin-walled vessels and sources of bleeding. They occur most often in mucosal capillaries of the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT leading to GASTROINTESTINAL HEMORRHAGE and ANEMIA.Bloodless Medical and Surgical Procedures: The treatment of patients without the use of allogeneic BLOOD TRANSFUSIONS or blood products.Hypoglycemic Agents: Substances which lower blood glucose levels.Severity of Illness Index: Levels within a diagnostic group which are established by various measurement criteria applied to the seriousness of a patient's disorder.Platelet Count: The number of PLATELETS per unit volume in a sample of venous BLOOD.Cross-Sectional Studies: Studies in which the presence or absence of disease or other health-related variables are determined in each member of the study population or in a representative sample at one particular time. This contrasts with LONGITUDINAL STUDIES which are followed over a period of time.Jehovah's Witnesses: Members of a religious denomination founded in the United States during the late 19th century in which active evangelism is practiced, the imminent approach of the millennium is preached, and war and organized government authority in matters of conscience are strongly opposed (from American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language, 4th ed). Jehovah's Witnesses generally refuse blood transfusions and other blood-based treatments based on religious belief.Blood Chemical Analysis: An examination of chemicals in the blood.Regression Analysis: Procedures for finding the mathematical function which best describes the relationship between a dependent variable and one or more independent variables. In linear regression (see LINEAR MODELS) the relationship is constrained to be a straight line and LEAST-SQUARES ANALYSIS is used to determine the best fit. In logistic regression (see LOGISTIC MODELS) the dependent variable is qualitative rather than continuously variable and LIKELIHOOD FUNCTIONS are used to find the best relationship. In multiple regression, the dependent variable is considered to depend on more than a single independent variable.Tibet: An autonomous region located in central Asia, within China.Kidney Diseases: Pathological processes of the KIDNEY or its component tissues.Drug Administration Schedule: Time schedule for administration of a drug in order to achieve optimum effectiveness and convenience.Multivariate Analysis: A set of techniques used when variation in several variables has to be studied simultaneously. In statistics, multivariate analysis is interpreted as any analytic method that allows simultaneous study of two or more dependent variables.Carbon Monoxide: Carbon monoxide (CO). A poisonous colorless, odorless, tasteless gas. It combines with hemoglobin to form carboxyhemoglobin, which has no oxygen carrying capacity. The resultant oxygen deprivation causes headache, dizziness, decreased pulse and respiratory rates, unconsciousness, and death. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)Anemia, Macrocytic: Anemia characterized by larger than normal erythrocytes, increased mean corpuscular volume (MCV) and increased mean corpuscular hemoglobin (MCH).Glucaric Acid: A sugar acid derived from D-glucose in which both the aldehydic carbon atom and the carbon atom bearing the primary hydroxyl group are oxidized to carboxylic acid groups.Renal Insufficiency, Chronic: Conditions in which the KIDNEYS perform below the normal level for more than three months. Chronic kidney insufficiency is classified by five stages according to the decline in GLOMERULAR FILTRATION RATE and the degree of kidney damage (as measured by the level of PROTEINURIA). The most severe form is the end-stage renal disease (CHRONIC KIDNEY FAILURE). (Kidney Foundation: Kidney Disease Outcome Quality Initiative, 2002)Chronic Disease: Diseases which have one or more of the following characteristics: they are permanent, leave residual disability, are caused by nonreversible pathological alteration, require special training of the patient for rehabilitation, or may be expected to require a long period of supervision, observation, or care. (Dictionary of Health Services Management, 2d ed)Hookworm Infections: Infection of humans or animals with hookworms other than those caused by the genus Ancylostoma or Necator, for which the specific terms ANCYLOSTOMIASIS and NECATORIASIS are available.Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1: A subtype of DIABETES MELLITUS that is characterized by INSULIN deficiency. It is manifested by the sudden onset of severe HYPERGLYCEMIA, rapid progression to DIABETIC KETOACIDOSIS, and DEATH unless treated with insulin. The disease may occur at any age, but is most common in childhood or adolescence.Altitude: A vertical distance measured from a known level on the surface of a planet or other celestial body.Transferrin: An iron-binding beta1-globulin that is synthesized in the LIVER and secreted into the blood. It plays a central role in the transport of IRON throughout the circulation. A variety of transferrin isoforms exist in humans, including some that are considered markers for specific disease states.Pregnancy: The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.Phytic Acid: Complexing agent for removal of traces of heavy metal ions. It acts also as a hypocalcemic agent.Survival Rate: The proportion of survivors in a group, e.g., of patients, studied and followed over a period, or the proportion of persons in a specified group alive at the beginning of a time interval who survive to the end of the interval. It is often studied using life table methods.Hemodilution: Reduction of blood viscosity usually by the addition of cell free solutions. Used clinically (1) in states of impaired microcirculation, (2) for replacement of intraoperative blood loss without homologous blood transfusion, and (3) in cardiopulmonary bypass and hypothermia.Gastrointestinal Hemorrhage: Bleeding in any segment of the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT from ESOPHAGUS to RECTUM.Predictive Value of Tests: In screening and diagnostic tests, the probability that a person with a positive test is a true positive (i.e., has the disease), is referred to as the predictive value of a positive test; whereas, the predictive value of a negative test is the probability that the person with a negative test does not have the disease. Predictive value is related to the sensitivity and specificity of the test.Haptoglobins: Plasma glycoproteins that form a stable complex with hemoglobin to aid the recycling of heme iron. They are encoded in man by a gene on the short arm of chromosome 16.Blood Protein Electrophoresis: Electrophoresis applied to BLOOD PROTEINS.Serum Albumin: A major protein in the BLOOD. It is important in maintaining the colloidal osmotic pressure and transporting large organic molecules.Age Factors: Age as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or the effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from AGING, a physiological process, and TIME FACTORS which refers only to the passage of time.Dose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.Iron-Dextran Complex: A complex of ferric oxyhydroxide with dextrans of 5000 to 7000 daltons in a viscous solution containing 50 mg/ml of iron. It is supplied as a parenteral preparation and is used as a hematinic. (Goodman and Gilman's The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, 8th ed, p1292)Fatigue: The state of weariness following a period of exertion, mental or physical, characterized by a decreased capacity for work and reduced efficiency to respond to stimuli.Primary Myelofibrosis: A de novo myeloproliferation arising from an abnormal stem cell. It is characterized by the replacement of bone marrow by fibrous tissue, a process that is mediated by CYTOKINES arising from the abnormal clone.Leukocyte Count: The number of WHITE BLOOD CELLS per unit volume in venous BLOOD. A differential leukocyte count measures the relative numbers of the different types of white cells.Malaria: A protozoan disease caused in humans by four species of the PLASMODIUM genus: PLASMODIUM FALCIPARUM; PLASMODIUM VIVAX; PLASMODIUM OVALE; and PLASMODIUM MALARIAE; and transmitted by the bite of an infected female mosquito of the genus ANOPHELES. Malaria is endemic in parts of Asia, Africa, Central and South America, Oceania, and certain Caribbean islands. It is characterized by extreme exhaustion associated with paroxysms of high FEVER; SWEATING; shaking CHILLS; and ANEMIA. Malaria in ANIMALS is caused by other species of plasmodia.Erythrocyte Aging: The senescence of RED BLOOD CELLS. Lacking the organelles that make protein synthesis possible, the mature erythrocyte is incapable of self-repair, reproduction, and carrying out certain functions performed by other cells. This limits the average life span of an erythrocyte to 120 days.Postoperative Hemorrhage: Hemorrhage following any surgical procedure. It may be immediate or delayed and is not restricted to the surgical wound.Hemoglobin M: A group of abnormal hemoglobins in which amino acid substitutions take place in either the alpha or beta chains but near the heme iron. This results in facilitated oxidation of the hemoglobin to yield excess methemoglobin which leads to cyanosis.Splenomegaly: Enlargement of the spleen.Reticulocytes: Immature ERYTHROCYTES. In humans, these are ERYTHROID CELLS that have just undergone extrusion of their CELL NUCLEUS. They still contain some organelles that gradually decrease in number as the cells mature. RIBOSOMES are last to disappear. Certain staining techniques cause components of the ribosomes to precipitate into characteristic "reticulum" (not the same as the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM), hence the name reticulocytes.Splenectomy: Surgical procedure involving either partial or entire removal of the spleen.Double-Blind Method: A method of studying a drug or procedure in which both the subjects and investigators are kept unaware of who is actually getting which specific treatment.Reference Values: The range or frequency distribution of a measurement in a population (of organisms, organs or things) that has not been selected for the presence of disease or abnormality.Ferric Compounds: Inorganic or organic compounds containing trivalent iron.Malaria, Falciparum: Malaria caused by PLASMODIUM FALCIPARUM. This is the severest form of malaria and is associated with the highest levels of parasites in the blood. This disease is characterized by irregularly recurring febrile paroxysms that in extreme cases occur with acute cerebral, renal, or gastrointestinal manifestations.CreatinineInfant, Newborn: An infant during the first month after birth.Survival Analysis: A class of statistical procedures for estimating the survival function (function of time, starting with a population 100% well at a given time and providing the percentage of the population still well at later times). The survival analysis is then used for making inferences about the effects of treatments, prognostic factors, exposures, and other covariates on the function.alpha-Globins: Members of the alpha-globin family. In humans, they are encoded in a gene cluster on CHROMOSOME 16. They include zeta-globin and alpha-globin. There are also pseudogenes of zeta (theta-zeta) and alpha (theta-alpha) in the cluster. Adult HEMOGLOBIN is comprised of 2 alpha-globin chains and 2 beta-globin chains.Erythroid Precursor Cells: The cells in the erythroid series derived from MYELOID PROGENITOR CELLS or from the bi-potential MEGAKARYOCYTE-ERYTHROID PROGENITOR CELLS which eventually give rise to mature RED BLOOD CELLS. The erythroid progenitor cells develop in two phases: erythroid burst-forming units (BFU-E) followed by erythroid colony-forming units (CFU-E); BFU-E differentiate into CFU-E on stimulation by ERYTHROPOIETIN, and then further differentiate into ERYTHROBLASTS when stimulated by other factors.Sex Factors: Maleness or femaleness as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from SEX CHARACTERISTICS, anatomical or physiological manifestations of sex, and from SEX DISTRIBUTION, the number of males and females in given circumstances.Quality of Life: A generic concept reflecting concern with the modification and enhancement of life attributes, e.g., physical, political, moral and social environment; the overall condition of a human life.Erythrocytes, Abnormal: Oxygen-carrying RED BLOOD CELLS in mammalian blood that are abnormal in structure or function.Parasitemia: The presence of parasites (especially malarial parasites) in the blood. (Dorland, 27th ed)Myoglobin: A conjugated protein which is the oxygen-transporting pigment of muscle. It is made up of one globin polypeptide chain and one heme group.Malnutrition: An imbalanced nutritional status resulted from insufficient intake of nutrients to meet normal physiological requirement.beta-Globins: Members of the beta-globin family. In humans, they are encoded in a gene cluster on CHROMOSOME 11. They include epsilon-globin, gamma-globin, delta-globin and beta-globin. There is also a pseudogene of beta (theta-beta) in the gene cluster. Adult HEMOGLOBIN is comprised of two ALPHA-GLOBIN chains and two beta-globin chains.Benin: A republic in western Africa, south of NIGER and between TOGO and NIGERIA. Its capital is Porto-Novo. It was formerly called Dahomey. In the 17th century it was a kingdom in the southern area of Africa. Coastal footholds were established by the French who deposed the ruler by 1892. It was made a French colony in 1894 and gained independence in 1960. Benin comes from the name of the indigenous inhabitants, the Bini, now more closely linked with southern Nigeria (Benin City, a town there). Bini may be related to the Arabic bani, sons. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p136, 310 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p60)Logistic Models: Statistical models which describe the relationship between a qualitative dependent variable (that is, one which can take only certain discrete values, such as the presence or absence of a disease) and an independent variable. A common application is in epidemiology for estimating an individual's risk (probability of a disease) as a function of a given risk factor.Hydrogen-Ion Concentration: The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Hemoglobinuria: The presence of free HEMOGLOBIN in the URINE, indicating hemolysis of ERYTHROCYTES within the vascular system. After saturating the hemoglobin-binding proteins (HAPTOGLOBINS), free hemoglobin begins to appear in the urine.Jamaica: An island in the Greater Antilles in the West Indies. Its capital is Kingston. It was discovered in 1494 by Columbus and was a Spanish colony 1509-1655 until captured by the English. Its flourishing slave trade was abolished in the 19th century. It was a British colony 1655-1958 and a territory of the West Indies Federation 1958-62. It achieved full independence in 1962. The name is from the Arawak Xaymaca, rich in springs or land of springs. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p564 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p267)Kaplan-Meier Estimate: A nonparametric method of compiling LIFE TABLES or survival tables. It combines calculated probabilities of survival and estimates to allow for observations occurring beyond a measurement threshold, which are assumed to occur randomly. Time intervals are defined as ending each time an event occurs and are therefore unequal. (From Last, A Dictionary of Epidemiology, 1995)Pregnancy Complications, Parasitic: The co-occurrence of pregnancy and parasitic diseases. The parasitic infection may precede or follow FERTILIZATION.Tanzania: A republic in eastern Africa, south of UGANDA and north of MOZAMBIQUE. Its capital is Dar es Salaam. It was formed in 1964 by a merger of the countries of TANGANYIKA and ZANZIBAR.Analysis of Variance: A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.Anemia, Hemolytic, Autoimmune: Acquired hemolytic anemia due to the presence of AUTOANTIBODIES which agglutinate or lyse the patient's own RED BLOOD CELLS.Melena: The black, tarry, foul-smelling FECES that contain degraded blood.Saudi ArabiaHemin: Chloro(7,12-diethenyl-3,8,13,17-tetramethyl-21H,23H-porphine-2,18-dipropanoato(4-)-N(21),N(22),N(23),N(24)) ferrate(2-) dihydrogen.Risk Assessment: The qualitative or quantitative estimation of the likelihood of adverse effects that may result from exposure to specified health hazards or from the absence of beneficial influences. (Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 1988)Body Weight: The mass or quantity of heaviness of an individual. It is expressed by units of pounds or kilograms.Drug Therapy, Combination: Therapy with two or more separate preparations given for a combined effect.Spectrophotometry: The art or process of comparing photometrically the relative intensities of the light in different parts of the spectrum.Comorbidity: The presence of co-existing or additional diseases with reference to an initial diagnosis or with reference to the index condition that is the subject of study. Comorbidity may affect the ability of affected individuals to function and also their survival; it may be used as a prognostic indicator for length of hospital stay, cost factors, and outcome or survival.Bone Marrow: The soft tissue filling the cavities of bones. Bone marrow exists in two types, yellow and red. Yellow marrow is found in the large cavities of large bones and consists mostly of fat cells and a few primitive blood cells. Red marrow is a hematopoietic tissue and is the site of production of erythrocytes and granular leukocytes. Bone marrow is made up of a framework of connective tissue containing branching fibers with the frame being filled with marrow cells.Tranexamic Acid: Antifibrinolytic hemostatic used in severe hemorrhage.Neoplasms: New abnormal growth of tissue. Malignant neoplasms show a greater degree of anaplasia and have the properties of invasion and metastasis, compared to benign neoplasms.United StatesElectrophoresis, Cellulose Acetate: Electrophoresis in which cellulose acetate is the diffusion medium.Case-Control Studies: Studies which start with the identification of persons with a disease of interest and a control (comparison, referent) group without the disease. The relationship of an attribute to the disease is examined by comparing diseased and non-diseased persons with regard to the frequency or levels of the attribute in each group.Linear Models: Statistical models in which the value of a parameter for a given value of a factor is assumed to be equal to a + bx, where a and b are constants. The models predict a linear regression.Chi-Square Distribution: A distribution in which a variable is distributed like the sum of the squares of any given independent random variable, each of which has a normal distribution with mean of zero and variance of one. The chi-square test is a statistical test based on comparison of a test statistic to a chi-square distribution. The oldest of these tests are used to detect whether two or more population distributions differ from one another.Dietary Supplements: Products in capsule, tablet or liquid form that provide dietary ingredients, and that are intended to be taken by mouth to increase the intake of nutrients. Dietary supplements can include macronutrients, such as proteins, carbohydrates, and fats; and/or MICRONUTRIENTS, such as VITAMINS; MINERALS; and PHYTOCHEMICALS.Glomerular Filtration Rate: The volume of water filtered out of plasma through glomerular capillary walls into Bowman's capsules per unit of time. It is considered to be equivalent to INULIN clearance.Diabetes Complications: Conditions or pathological processes associated with the disease of diabetes mellitus. Due to the impaired control of BLOOD GLUCOSE level in diabetic patients, pathological processes develop in numerous tissues and organs including the EYE, the KIDNEY, the BLOOD VESSELS, and the NERVE TISSUE.Glottis: The vocal apparatus of the larynx, situated in the middle section of the larynx. Glottis consists of the VOCAL FOLDS and an opening (rima glottidis) between the folds.Hospitalization: The confinement of a patient in a hospital.Heinz Bodies: Abnormal intracellular inclusions, composed of denatured hemoglobin, found on the membrane of red blood cells. They are seen in thalassemias, enzymopathies, hemoglobinopathies, and after splenectomy.Hepcidins: Forms of hepcidin, a cationic amphipathic peptide synthesized in the liver as a prepropeptide which is first processed into prohepcidin and then into the biologically active hepcidin forms, including in human the 20-, 22-, and 25-amino acid residue peptide forms. Hepcidin acts as a homeostatic regulators of iron metabolism and also possesses antimicrobial activity.Exchange Transfusion, Whole Blood: Repetitive withdrawal of small amounts of blood and replacement with donor blood until a large proportion of the blood volume has been exchanged. Used in treatment of fetal erythroblastosis, hepatic coma, sickle cell anemia, disseminated intravascular coagulation, septicemia, burns, thrombotic thrombopenic purpura, and fulminant malaria.Peritoneal Dialysis: Dialysis fluid being introduced into and removed from the peritoneal cavity as either a continuous or an intermittent procedure.Annelida: A phylum of metazoan invertebrates comprising the segmented worms, and including marine annelids (POLYCHAETA), freshwater annelids, earthworms (OLIGOCHAETA), and LEECHES. Only the leeches are of medical interest. (Dorland, 27th ed)Food, Fortified: Any food that has been supplemented with essential nutrients either in quantities that are greater than those present normally, or which are not present in the food normally. Fortified food includes also food to which various nutrients have been added to compensate for those removed by refinement or processing. (From Segen, Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992)Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Oligochaeta: A class of annelid worms with few setae per segment. It includes the earthworms such as Lumbricus and Eisenia.Proportional Hazards Models: Statistical models used in survival analysis that assert that the effect of the study factors on the hazard rate in the study population is multiplicative and does not change over time.Sulfonylurea CompoundsAdministration, Oral: The giving of drugs, chemicals, or other substances by mouth.Platinum Compounds: Inorganic compounds which contain platinum as the central atom.Diabetic Nephropathies: KIDNEY injuries associated with diabetes mellitus and affecting KIDNEY GLOMERULUS; ARTERIOLES; KIDNEY TUBULES; and the interstitium. Clinical signs include persistent PROTEINURIA, from microalbuminuria progressing to ALBUMINURIA of greater than 300 mg/24 h, leading to reduced GLOMERULAR FILTRATION RATE and END-STAGE RENAL DISEASE.Blood DonorsInjections, Intravenous: Injections made into a vein for therapeutic or experimental purposes.Renal Insufficiency: Conditions in which the KIDNEYS perform below the normal level in the ability to remove wastes, concentrate URINE, and maintain ELECTROLYTE BALANCE; BLOOD PRESSURE; and CALCIUM metabolism. Renal insufficiency can be classified by the degree of kidney damage (as measured by the level of PROTEINURIA) and reduction in GLOMERULAR FILTRATION RATE.Hemeproteins: Proteins that contain an iron-porphyrin, or heme, prosthetic group resembling that of hemoglobin. (From Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p480)Cardiovascular Diseases: Pathological conditions involving the CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM including the HEART; the BLOOD VESSELS; or the PERICARDIUM.Preoperative Care: Care given during the period prior to undergoing surgery when psychological and physical preparations are made according to the special needs of the individual patient. This period spans the time between admission to the hospital to the time the surgery begins. (From Dictionary of Health Services Management, 2d ed)Kenya: A republic in eastern Africa, south of ETHIOPIA, west of SOMALIA with TANZANIA to its south, and coastline on the Indian Ocean. Its capital is Nairobi.Blood Proteins: Proteins that are present in blood serum, including SERUM ALBUMIN; BLOOD COAGULATION FACTORS; and many other types of proteins.Helminthiasis: Infestation with parasitic worms of the helminth class.IndiaDiabetic Retinopathy: Disease of the RETINA as a complication of DIABETES MELLITUS. It is characterized by the progressive microvascular complications, such as ANEURYSM, interretinal EDEMA, and intraocular PATHOLOGIC NEOVASCULARIZATION.Iron Isotopes: Stable iron atoms that have the same atomic number as the element iron, but differ in atomic weight. Fe-54, 57, and 58 are stable iron isotopes.Hypoglycemia: A syndrome of abnormally low BLOOD GLUCOSE level. Clinical hypoglycemia has diverse etiologies. Severe hypoglycemia eventually lead to glucose deprivation of the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM resulting in HUNGER; SWEATING; PARESTHESIA; impaired mental function; SEIZURES; COMA; and even DEATH.Antifibrinolytic Agents: Agents that prevent fibrinolysis or lysis of a blood clot or thrombus. Several endogenous antiplasmins are known. The drugs are used to control massive hemorrhage and in other coagulation disorders.Blood Volume: Volume of circulating BLOOD. It is the sum of the PLASMA VOLUME and ERYTHROCYTE VOLUME.Spectroscopy, Near-Infrared: A noninvasive technique that uses the differential absorption properties of hemoglobin and myoglobin to evaluate tissue oxygenation and indirectly can measure regional hemodynamics and blood flow. Near-infrared light (NIR) can propagate through tissues and at particular wavelengths is differentially absorbed by oxygenated vs. deoxygenated forms of hemoglobin and myoglobin. Illumination of intact tissue with NIR allows qualitative assessment of changes in the tissue concentration of these molecules. The analysis is also used to determine body composition.Hemorrhage: Bleeding or escape of blood from a vessel.Red-Cell Aplasia, Pure: Suppression of erythropoiesis with little or no abnormality of leukocyte or platelet production.
... hematocrit or hemoglobin levels; general health history; and a diet assessment. The WIC program has three roles: to find out ... At the state level, the WIC agencies can choose to document immunization screening and referrals, along with many other ... In the study, Rossi took what are called "street-level bureaucrats" and applied them for WIC. These people were either at ... The second eligibility standard for participation in the WIC program-income level-also allows for much subjectivity. In theory ...
Abnormally low hemoglobin A1C levels. Hemoglobin A1C (glycated hemoglobin) is a test for determining the average blood glucose ... The hemoglobin A1C levels are abnormally low because the life span of the red blood cells is decreased, providing less time for ... allowing normal hemoglobin, reticulocyte and bilirubin levels. As in non-hereditary spherocytosis, the spleen destroys the ... Aplastic crisis with dramatic fall in hemoglobin level and (reticulocyte count)-decompensation, usually due to maturation ...
lower hemoglobin levels decreased weight. lower cholesterol higher blood glucose Similar studies: increased mortality, ... of the population have potentially pathogenic levels of ATA. A study published in Nature in 2001 found high levels of anti- ... High levels (titers) of ATA are found in almost all instances of celiac disease. Given the association of ATA with celiac ... ATA IgA are more frequently found in Celiac Disease (CD); however, ATA IgG are found in CD and at higher levels when affected ...
My hemoglobin is 14.7 no EPO. ^ Scribner BH, Oreopoulos DG, The Hemodialysis Product (HDP): A Better Index of Dialysis Adequacy ... Using 2K dialysate potassium level went to normal. Here is the reason: lactate 45 instead of bicarbonate. This is the ...
Cord blood haemoglobin levels". The Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology of the British Empire. 63 (1): 9-14. doi:10.1111/j. ... In recent research, he has shown that people with low vitamin C levels have very high blood histamine levels. He was able to ... The mechanism he argued to be high histamine levels associated with low serum vitamin C, the latter deficiency arising before ... Clemetson CA, Churchman J (June 1955). "Plasma amino-acid levels following protein ingestion by pregnant and non-pregnant ...
Mills GC (Nov 1957). "Hemoglobin catabolism. I. Glutathione peroxidase, an erythrocyte enzyme which protects hemoglobin from ... It has been shown that low levels of glutathione peroxidase as measured in the serum may be a contributing factor to vitiligo. ... Zedan H, Abdel-Motaleb AA, Kassem NM, Hafeez HA, Hussein MR (Mar 2015). "Low glutathione peroxidase activity levels in patients ... Lower plasma glutathione peroxide levels were also observed in patients with type 2 diabetes with macroalbuminuria and this was ...
Their hemoglobin levels, height and weight are monitored. An overall check-up ensures that those with sub spatial ailments are ... The water tank at ground level will act as intermediate structure for water storage and direct source of water to water ... The Jharkhand State Bal Bhavan supplements the work of National Bal Bhavan at state level by conducting activities like ... Citizens Foundation operates on a national level, working in multi-dimensional areas of the development sector, spread over 24 ...
Hemoglobin level- A minimum of 12.5 g/dL. Blood pressure- Diastolic: 50-100 mm Hg, Systolic: 100-180 mm Hg. Body temperature- ... the Union of India in January 1992 led to the establishment of National Blood Transfusion Council (NBTC) at the federal level ... mostly due to physiological problems and low hemoglobin count. Other hurdles in increasing voluntary blood donation include the ...
Levels of hemoglobin are lower in the third trimesters. According to the United Nations (UN) estimates, approximately half of ... Factors increasing the risk (to either the woman, the fetus/es, or both) of pregnancy complications beyond the normal level of ... Generally speaking, unmarried women and those in lower socioeconomic groups experience an increased level of risk in pregnancy ... Gestational diabetes is when a woman without diabetes develops high blood sugar levels during pregnancy. Hyperemesis gravidarum ...
Giulian GG, Gilbert EF, Moss RL (April 1987). "Elevated fetal hemoglobin levels in sudden infant death syndrome". N Engl J Med ... Poets CF, Samuels MP, Wardrop CA, Picton-Jones E, Southall DP (April 1992). "Reduced haemoglobin levels in infants presenting ... SID correlates with levels of nicotine and derivatives in the infant. Nicotine and derivatives cause significant alterations in ... An individual level analysis of five major case-control studies". BMJ Open. 3 (5): e002299. doi:10.1136/bmjopen-2012-002299. ...
It is great for people with low hemoglobin levels. Ragi porridge, ragi halwa ,ragi ela ada , ragi kozhukatta can be made with ...
Frerichs, RR; Webber, LS; Srinivasan, SR; Berenson, GS (1977). "Hemoglobin levels in children from a biracial southern ... his publication topics included pediatric levels of blood cholesterol and triglyceride levels, lipoproteins, blood pressure, ... hemoglobin. and obesity. In early 1978, Frerichs joined the epidemiology faculty at UCLA, rising through the ranks from ...
Glycosylated hemoglobin test A blood test that measures the level of a particular variety of hemoglobin (HbA1c) which is itself ... Hemoglobin A1C (HbA1c) Hemoglobin is the substance in red blood cells that carries oxygen to the cells. Hemoglobin reacts with ... Includes levels that are too high (triglycerides, LDLs) and levels that are too low (HDLs). People with insulin resistance and ... At a gross level, insurance company records can define obesity, or increased understanding of optimum levels of fat can define ...
... low normal blood glucose levels (glycosylated hemoglobin, also called HbA1c); micronutrient (vitamins, potassium, and magnesium ... blood sugar levels and hypertension are best known and researched. More recently, some of the complex immune system patterns ... consumption; maintaining normal, or healthy, blood pressure levels; aspirin supplement cyclodextrin can solubilize cholesterol ...
Stage 1 is characterized by loss of bone marrow iron stores while hemoglobin and serum iron levels remain normal. Serum ... In spite of an increased level of transferrin, serum iron level is decreased along with transferrin saturation. Erythropoiesis ... normal hemoglobin level). It is important to assess this condition because it is accepted that individuals with latent iron ... reduced hemoglobin levels) is present but red blood cell appearance remains normal. Changes in the appearance of red blood ...
Affected individuals with CDAN4 also have increased levels of fetal hemoglobin. Treatment consists of frequent blood ... Hemoglobin is very low and patients are transfusion dependent. MCV is normal or mildly elevated. Erythropoiesis is normoblastic ...
Raising hemoglobin levels has been found in some studies to be associated with higher risks of thrombotic events, strokes and ... "Normalization of hemoglobin level in patients with chronic kidney disease and anemia". N. Engl. J. Med. 355 (20): 2071-84. doi: ... self-administration of the drug has been shown to cause increases in blood hemoglobin and hematocrit to abnormally high levels ... adverse cardiovascular complications in patients with kidney disease if it is used to target an increase of hemoglobin levels ...
Once they eventually break down, they release the heme containing protein hemoglobin. Hemoglobin breaks down and releases iron- ... to keep an eye on the blood levels as this drug is known to lower certain blood levels such as the neutrophils and WBC (white ... While it is ok if these levels go low in the average person, if they go low while taking Deferiprone Ferriprox it can cause ... In response to this upsurge in heme levels, Bergmann glia and microglia produce heme oxygenase 1. Heme oxygenase 1 breaks down ...
Evaluate abnormal hemoglobins by hemoglobin electrophoresis, spectroscopy and measurement of methemoglobin level. Acrocyanosis ... Small blood vessels may be restricted and can be treated by increasing the normal oxygenation level of the blood. Peripheral ... with evidence that levels of 2.0 g/dL of deoxyhemoglobin may reliably produce cyanosis. Since, however, the presence of ... the bluish color is more readily apparent in those with high hemoglobin counts than it is with those with anemia. Also, the ...
... decreasing cholesterol levels, and stopping smoking. Medications and exercise are roughly equally effective. High levels of ... Low hemoglobin. In the Asian population, the b fibrinogen gene G-455A polymorphism was associated with the risk of CHD. ... High levels of lipoprotein(a), a compound formed when LDL cholesterol combines with a protein known as apolipoprotein(a). ... Hemostatic factors: High levels of fibrinogen and coagulation factor VII are associated with an increased risk of CAD. ...
Historically, red blood cell transfusion was considered when the hemoglobin level fell below 100 g/L or hematocrit falls below ... In cases where patients have low levels of hemoglobin but are cardiovascularly stable, parenteral iron is a preferred option ... Hemopure, a hemoglobin-based therapy, is approved for use in South Africa. Minor blood transfusions are used by a minority of ... Various species require different levels of testing to ensure a compatible match. For example, cats have 3 known blood types, ...
In extreme cases, patients have survived with a haemoglobin level of 2 g/dl, about 1/7 the norm, although levels this low are ... Provided blood volume is maintained by volume expanders, a rested patient can safely tolerate very low haemoglobin levels, less ... The body automatically detects the lower hemoglobin level, and compensatory mechanisms start up. The heart pumps more blood ... With enough blood loss, ultimately red blood cell levels drop too low for adequate tissue oxygenation, even if volume expanders ...
A special diet to facilitate milk production and increase hemoglobin levels is followed. Sex is not allowed during this time. ... After the fourth stage of labor the uterus can be palpated at the level of the navel (belly button). The uterus continues to ... including hormone levels and uterus size, returns to a non-pregnant state. Less frequently used are the terms puerperium or ...
A CBC can uncover anemia, which is an abnormally low level of hemoglobin. The tumor itself may be localized by any number of ... Rarely do these cases result in levels over 500 pg/mL, except in the case of patients with liver diseases. Blood tests may also ... Increased levels have been reported in cases of decreased kidney function, acute pancreatitis, hypercorticism, liver diseases, ... The net result is hyperglucagonemia, decreased blood levels of amino acids (hypoaminoacidemia), anemia, diarrhea, and weight ...
Haemoglobin and haematocrit levels are analysed again: if the haematocrit value is less than the initial value (a sign of ... Hypocalcaemia may be relative; calcium levels should be adjusted based on the albumin level and ionized calcium levels should ... The procedure is the following: Analyse haemoglobin and haematocrit levels. A solution of 25% albumin is used that is ... In diabetes mellitus there is an association between increases in glycated hemoglobin levels and the appearance of proteinuria ...
In those who do not want to measure blood levels, measuring urine levels may be done.[82] Managing other cardiovascular risk ... A random blood sugar of greater than 11.1 mmol/l (200 mg/dl) in association with typical symptoms[23] or a glycated hemoglobin ... While low vitamin D levels are associated with an increased risk of diabetes, correcting the levels by supplementing vitamin D3 ... Culturally appropriate education may help people with type 2 diabetes control their blood sugar levels, for up to 24 months.[ ...
Pachauri, A., Acharya, K. K., & Tiwari, A. K. (2014). The effect of tranexamic acid on hemoglobin levels during total knee ... Pachauri, A, Acharya, KK & Tiwari, AK 2014, The effect of tranexamic acid on hemoglobin levels during total knee arthroplasty ... The effect of tranexamic acid on hemoglobin levels during total knee arthroplasty. / Pachauri, Amit; Acharya, Kiran K.; Tiwari ... The effect of tranexamic acid on hemoglobin levels during total knee arthroplasty. American Journal of Therapeutics. 2014 Jan 1 ...
A disease characterized by compensated hemolysis with a normal hemoglobin level or a mild to moderate anemia. There may be ... "Hemoglobin C Disease" is a descriptor in the National Library of Medicines controlled vocabulary thesaurus, MeSH (Medical ... This graph shows the total number of publications written about "Hemoglobin C Disease" by people in this website by year, and ... Hemoglobin C disease. N Engl J Med. 2004 Oct 7; 351(15):1577; author reply 1577. ...
Anti-diabetic medication adherence and glycemic control: the mean glycosylated haemoglobin (HbA1c)in a subset of 62 patients ... Good glycemic control wasdefinedas HbA1cl of < 6.5% to 7.0%. Levels of HbA1c between 7.1 to 7.5% were defined as satisfactory ... Patientswith poor glycemic control were those whoseHbA1c levels were above7.5% or had fasting blood glucose of more than 6.1 ... Other social demographic characteristics analyzed were level of education and religion;-they were not associated with anti- ...
Hemoglobin levels can become high or low, and we describe symptoms, risks, prevention, and treatment. Learn about hemoglobin ... Hemoglobin is a protein in red blood cells. Oxygen entering the lungs adheres to this protein, allowing blood cells to ... How are hemoglobin levels tested?. Hemoglobin levels are measured by a blood test. Hemoglobin, or Hb, is usually expressed in ... Low hemoglobin levels. Low hemoglobin levels usually indicate that a person has anemia. There are several kinds of anemia:. * ...
An elevated hemoglobin count may impair circulation and disrupt the adequate delivery of oxygen to the tissues, possibly ... What is the average hemoglobin count for a 40-year-old woman?. A: A normal hemoglobin count for an adult woman is between 12 ... How do doctors diagnose the cause of a low hemoglobin count?. A: Doctors diagnose the cause of anemia, or low hemoglobin count ... However, the range of normal levels ... Full Answer , Filed Under: * Medical Ranges & Levels ...
Creatine - an amino acid that when taken as a supplement to whey protein may increase levels of insulin in the body, leading to ... Among the general health benefits of protein powder, say experts at the American College of Nutrition, are lower levels of body ... Egg protein powder typically contains high levels of sulfur-containing amino acids, which are said to be critical to hormone- ... research indicates that long-term benefits of using protein powders result in quicker workout recovery and heightened levels of ...
Sometimes your body does not contain adequate levels of hemoglobin, a condition known as anemia. ... Hemoglobin, a vital protein found in your red blood cells, transports oxygen throughout your body. ... Normal Hemoglobin Levels. Hemoglobin is considered low if it is less than 13 grams per deciliter, or g/dL, for men and 12 g/dL ... When hemoglobin levels are low, your tissues and organs do not receive enough oxygen. This can make you feel tired, weak or ...
A high maternal hemoglobin level during pregnancy has been correlated to a low birth weight and a low placental weight, but has ... Microscopic perivillous fibrin was slightly associated with a high hemoglobin level (greater than 130 g/l) in a bivariate ... Placental lesions and maternal hemoglobin levels. A comparative investigation.. Nordenvall M1, Sandstedt B. ... These findings may indicate that a high maternal hemoglobin level impairs the uteroplacental circulation. ...
His haemoglobin level has risen and carbon-dioxide levels have come down, but he will continue to need oxygen," she added. ... Buddhadeb Bhattacharjees Condition Improves, Haemoglobin Level Up Chief Minister Mamata Banerjee visited Mr Bhattacharjee on ...
Red blood cells are red because of hemoglobin.The amount of hemoglobin you need is based on age and gender. Men need between 14 ... Hemoglobin, a protein found in red blood cells, carries oxygen from your lungs through your bloodstream to all of your cells. ... Treat the underlying cause of your low hemoglobin to stabilize hemoglobin levels. Treat severe anemia with a blood transfusion. ... If your hemoglobin levels are too low, you may have anemia, which can leave your feeling fatigued or short of breath. Once your ...
Hemoglobin deficiency results in anemia and can be caused due to various ... ... Does Kepra cause haemoglobin levels to go higher than normal levels?. Posted 6 Apr 2013 • 2 answers ... How to improve the Haemoglobin level in blood?. Asked. 24 May 2010 by grandhijaya. Active. 24 May 2010. Topics. blood disorders ... The above recommendations will not only solve the problem of how to increase hemoglobin levels, but will also help you lead a ...
However, no study has examined whether increased NO consumption by enhanced circulating levels of cell-free hemoglobin plays a ... Increased circulating cell-free hemoglobin levels reduce nitric oxide bioavailability in preeclampsia.. Sandrim VC1, Montenegro ... Plasma ceruloplasmin concentrations and plasma NO consumption (pNOc) were assessed and plasma hemoglobin (pHb) concentrations ... higher ceruloplasmin levels than those found in healthy pregnant women (P,0.01). We found significant positive correlations ...
Learn about normal hemoglobin levels, and how high or low levels can cause anemia, cancer, lung diseases, indicate bone marrow ... Learn about related hemoglobin S (sickle cell disease), hemoglobin A1c, and thalassemia. ... Information about low and high hemoglobin levels in the blood. ... My hemoglobin level is 4. Now I am confused as to what I do. ... My hemoglobin level was 2.9. I went into the hospital, had a blood and iron transfusion, did various tests, and they do not ...
... via hemoglobin test) when he was 12 months old. Now hes 16 months and its 8. Hes currently taking ferrous sulfate twice a ... A hemoglobin test measures hemoglobin levels - not iron. The most common reason for low hemoglobin is low iron, but it can be ... Hemoglobin Levels. Q&A Published: January 12, 2003 , Reviewed by: Khanh-Van Le-Bucklin, Stephanie DAugustine , Last reviewed: ... My sons iron level was at 5.1 (via hemoglobin test) when he was 12 months old. Now hes 16 months and its 8. Hes currently ...
The mean HbF level in our study was 2.32% (standard deviation, SD: 2.47). There was no significant difference in HbF levels ... There are several genetically different conditions under which higher levels of fetal hemoglobin (HbF) synthesis can persist ... RESULTS: The mean HbF level was 2.32%, but there was no significant difference in HbF level between the AA and PNH groups (p = ... G gamma-levels of the HbF of patients with bone marrow failure syndromes. Braz J Med Biol Res. 1987;20(3-4):363-8. [ Links ]. ...
... fetal hemoglobin level and (B) log fetal hemoglobin level against the morbidity score. Tables represent results of linear ... The mean total hemoglobin level was 89.0 ± 16.1 g/L (range 57-131 g/L), and the median HbF level was 37.2% (interquartile range ... as well as the positive correlation with total hemoglobin levels, suggests an ameliorating role of HbF level on the severity of ... Fetal hemoglobin levels and morbidity in untransfused patients with β-thalassemia intermedia. Khaled M. Musallam, Vijay G. ...
We ask about hemoglobin levels (male) to learn more about your cell-related lab values (applies to men only) ... Hemoglobin (Hb, HGB). Unit: g/dL [g/L] or [mmol/L]. ... normal hemoglobin levels or elevated hemoglobin levels, The ... What Causes Abnormal Hemoglobin Levels In Men?. In order to deal properly with abnormal hemoglobin levels in men we need to ... Hemoglobin Levels (Female) Hematocrit Levels (Female) Hematocrit Levels (Male) Your White Blood Cell Count Your Erythrocyte ...
Background: The pre-procedural serum hemoglobin (H) level is a well known predictor of all-cause mortality in patients ... Abstract 11368: Pre-Procedural Hemoglobin Level Predicts Mortality in Patients Undergoing Peripheral Vascular Interventions. ... The lowest mortality rate was seen in patients with a pre-procedural H level between 13-14 gram/dl. Pre-procedural H level can ... Abstract 11368: Pre-Procedural Hemoglobin Level Predicts Mortality in Patients Undergoing Peripheral Vascular Interventions ...
... mean hemoglobin levels stayed relatively stable after converting from an erythropoiesis-stimulating agent to the ... Vadadustat Maintains Hemoglobin Levels in Hemodialysis Patients Natasha Persaud Digital Content Editor ... Patients mean hemoglobin levels stayed relatively stable after converting from an erythropoiesis-stimulating agent to the ... Results showed no statistically significant change in mean Hb from pre-baseline levels. Mean Hb remained relatively stable ...
Keywords: multiple sclerosis, erythrocytes, adult minor hemoglobin, hemoglobin A2 ... Results: HbA2 levels negatively correlated with MSSS (Spearman correlation, R: -0.186, P=0.025). Exclusion of confounding ... Average HbA2 levels were highest among patients treated with interferon β1a. Conclusion: RBC fragility is increased in MS, and ... HbA2 levels were measured in 146 MS patients with high performance liquid chromatography and association with MS Severity ...
Common Variants at 10 Genomic Loci Influence Hemoglobin A1C Levels via Glycemic and Nonglycemic Pathways. ... The heritability of HbA1c levels is relatively high (47-59%) when compared with FG (34-36%) or glucose levels as determined by ... and abnormal glycation of hemoglobin could also be associated with increased levels of HbA1c. We aimed to identify such genetic ... are also associated with HbA1c levels (7-15). A GWAS for HbA1c levels in 14,618 nondiabetic women found a suggestive ...
... Aug 18, 2005 - 2:05:00 AM ... Hemoglobin (Hgb) is the major substance in red blood cells, and its level indicates the bloods ability to carry oxygen ... RxPG] Low hemoglobin levels are a predictor of increased risk of death and complications among heart failure patients, ... What remains unclear, however, is the ideal level of hemoglobin to be achieved in patients with heart failure," he said.. ...
... Balzan, Riccardo; Mishkovsky, Mor; Simonenko, Yana; van ...
Transfusion, mortality and hemoglobin level: Associations among emergency department patients in Kigali, Rwanda. Adobe Acrobat ... Transfusion, mortality and hemoglobin level: associations among emergency department patients in Kigali, Rwanda ... with stratified analyses performed at hemoglobin levels of 7 mg/dL and 5 mg/dL. Results: Of 3609 cases sampled, 1116 met ... transfusion with mortality outcomes across hemoglobin levels amongst emergency center (EC) patients presenting with medical ...
W. M. El-Sadr, C. M. Mullin, A. Carr et al., "Effects of HIV disease on lipid, glucose and insulin levels: results from a large ... Fructosamine and Hemoglobin A1c Correlations in HIV-Infected Adults in Routine Clinical Care: Impact of Anemia and Albumin ... L. A.-C. Wright and I. B. Hirsch, "The challenge of the use of glycemic biomarkers in diabetes: reflecting on hemoglobin A1C, 1 ... M.-E. Diop, J.-P. Bastard, N. Meunier et al., "Inappropriately low glycated hemoglobin values and hemolysis in HIV-infected ...
  • The leading research is focusing on hemoglobin-based oxygen carriers (HBOCs), which are limited in clinical application due to the pressor effect they induce. (vcu.edu)
  • Following L-NAME pretreatment, HBOC administration alone and with papaverine produced no significant elevation in MAP, indicating that the increase in resistance required basal amounts of nitric oxide (NO). This study concludes that the constriction of the arterioles correlated with the level of hypertension, and that these effects occur in a dose-dependent manner as a consequence of NO scavenging. (vcu.edu)
  • however, the extent to which interindividual variation in HbF levels contributes to the clinical heterogeneity observed in TI patients has never been evaluated. (bloodjournal.org)
  • Pre-procedural H level can be used in clinical practice to risk stratify patients being considered for PVI. (ahajournals.org)
  • Clinical data and preoperative Hb levels were obtained from medical records. (rug.nl)
  • Heterogeneity of HbF levels in β 0 -thalassemia/HbE disease has been reported to be associated with variations in clinical manifestations of the disease, and several genetic-modifying factors beyond the β-globin gene cluster have been identified as HbF regulators. (springermedizin.de)
  • However, while these patients had high HbF levels (38.1 ± 7.5%), they were all associated with a severe clinical phenotype. (springermedizin.de)
  • These results suggest that while reduction of KLF1 expression in β 0 -thalassemia/HbE erythroblasts can increase HbF levels, it is not sufficient to alleviate the clinical phenotype. (springermedizin.de)
  • We explored the relationship of hemoglobin with clinical outcome at 6 months, as measured by the modified Rankin Scale (mRS). Ordinal logistic regression was used to evaluate the independent effect of hemoglobin on clinical outcome, and to explore the influence of sex on that association. (neurology.org)
  • Vadadustat, an investigational oral inhibitor of hypoxia-inducible factor prolyl-4-hydroxylase domain proteins (HIF-PHDs), can maintain mean hemoglobin (Hb) within target range for hemodialysis (HD) patients, according to new study findings. (renalandurologynews.com)
  • These results confirm previously published data that also show once-monthly Aranesp administration maintains stable hemoglobin control," said Marcia R. Silver, M.D., FACP, director, Hemodialysis Program Division of Nephrology and Hypertension, MetroHealth Medical Center, and associate professor of Medicine, Case Western Reserve University. (amgen.com)
  • We retrospectively analyzed the correlation between VerifyNow P2Y12 reaction unit (PRU) and hemoglobin level in 102 hemodialysis patients and compared it with 131 patients as control group from September 2009 to March 2010. (onlinejacc.org)
  • But LTA value did not showed correlation with Hb level (correlation coefficient r = -0.003, p = 0.979) in hemodialysis patients. (onlinejacc.org)
  • For evaluation of antiplatelet activity of P2Y12 inhibitors with VerifyNow P2Y12 assay in hemodialysis patients, the hemoglobin level should be considered as significant confounding factor. (onlinejacc.org)
  • Low levels of hemoglobin contribute to a variety of symptoms such as dizziness, lethargy, pale skin, and if severe, result in organ damage. (md-health.com)
  • Objectives To investigate potential determinants of severe hypoglycaemia, including baseline characteristics, in the Action to Control Cardiovascular Risk in Diabetes (ACCORD) trial and the association of severe hypoglycaemia with levels of glycated haemoglobin (haemoglobin A 1C ) achieved during therapy. (bmj.com)