A group of inherited disorders characterized by structural alterations within the hemoglobin molecule.
The condition of being heterozygous for hemoglobin S.
Electrophoresis applied to BLOOD PROTEINS.
The oxygen-carrying proteins of ERYTHROCYTES. They are found in all vertebrates and some invertebrates. The number of globin subunits in the hemoglobin quaternary structure differs between species. Structures range from monomeric to a variety of multimeric arrangements.
Normal adult human hemoglobin. The globin moiety consists of two alpha and two beta chains.
Hemoglobins characterized by structural alterations within the molecule. The alteration can be either absence, addition or substitution of one or more amino acids in the globin part of the molecule at selected positions in the polypeptide chains.
The major component of hemoglobin in the fetus. This HEMOGLOBIN has two alpha and two gamma polypeptide subunits in comparison to normal adult hemoglobin, which has two alpha and two beta polypeptide subunits. Fetal hemoglobin concentrations can be elevated (usually above 0.5%) in children and adults affected by LEUKEMIA and several types of ANEMIA.
Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.
An electrochemical process in which macromolecules or colloidal particles with a net electric charge migrate in a solution under the influence of an electric current.
An abnormal hemoglobin resulting from the substitution of valine for glutamic acid at position 6 of the beta chain of the globin moiety. The heterozygous state results in sickle cell trait, the homozygous in sickle cell anemia.
A highly-sensitive (in the picomolar range, which is 10,000-fold more sensitive than conventional electrophoresis) and efficient technique that allows separation of PROTEINS; NUCLEIC ACIDS; and CARBOHYDRATES. (Segen, Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992)
A commonly occurring abnormal hemoglobin in which lysine replaces a glutamic acid residue at the sixth position of the beta chains. It results in reduced plasticity of erythrocytes.
Electrophoresis in which a second perpendicular electrophoretic transport is performed on the separate components resulting from the first electrophoresis. This technique is usually performed on polyacrylamide gels.
Gel electrophoresis in which the direction of the electric field is changed periodically. This technique is similar to other electrophoretic methods normally used to separate double-stranded DNA molecules ranging in size up to tens of thousands of base-pairs. However, by alternating the electric field direction one is able to separate DNA molecules up to several million base-pairs in length.
Electrophoresis in which agar or agarose gel is used as the diffusion medium.
A compound formed by the combination of hemoglobin and oxygen. It is a complex in which the oxygen is bound directly to the iron without causing a change from the ferrous to the ferric state.
An abnormal hemoglobin that results from the substitution of lysine for glutamic acid at position 26 of the beta chain. It is most frequently observed in southeast Asian populations.
Minor hemoglobin components of human erythrocytes designated A1a, A1b, and A1c. Hemoglobin A1c is most important since its sugar moiety is glucose covalently bound to the terminal amino acid of the beta chain. Since normal glycohemoglobin concentrations exclude marked blood glucose fluctuations over the preceding three to four weeks, the concentration of glycosylated hemoglobin A is a more reliable index of the blood sugar average over a long period of time.
An adult hemoglobin component normally present in hemolysates from human erythrocytes in concentrations of about 3%. The hemoglobin is composed of two alpha chains and two delta chains. The percentage of HbA2 varies in some hematologic disorders, but is about double in beta-thalassemia.
The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.
A family of hemoglobin-like proteins found in BACTERIA; PLANTS; and unicellular eukaryotes. Truncated hemoglobins are distantly related to vertebrate hemoglobins and are typically shorter than vertebrate hemoglobins by 20-40 residues.
A highly miniaturized version of ELECTROPHORESIS performed in a microfluidic device.
Electrophoresis in which cellulose acetate is the diffusion medium.
A reduction in the number of circulating ERYTHROCYTES or in the quantity of HEMOGLOBIN.
Electrophoresis in which a starch gel (a mixture of amylose and amylopectin) is used as the diffusion medium.
Measurement of hemoglobin concentration in blood.
Electrophoresis in which discontinuities in both the voltage and pH gradients are introduced by using buffers of different composition and pH in the different parts of the gel column. The term 'disc' was originally used as an abbreviation for 'discontinuous' referring to the buffers employed, and does not have anything to do with the shape of the separated zones.
An element with atomic symbol O, atomic number 8, and atomic weight [15.99903; 15.99977]. It is the most abundant element on earth and essential for respiration.
Red blood cells. Mature erythrocytes are non-nucleated, biconcave disks containing HEMOGLOBIN whose function is to transport OXYGEN.
Electrophoresis in which a pH gradient is established in a gel medium and proteins migrate until they reach the site (or focus) at which the pH is equal to their isoelectric point.
A group of abnormal hemoglobins with similar electrophoretic characteristics. They have faster electrophoretic mobility and different amino acid substitutions in either the alpha or beta chains than normal adult hemoglobin. Some of the variants produce hematologic abnormalities, others result in no clinical disorders.
A disease characterized by compensated hemolysis with a normal hemoglobin level or a mild to moderate anemia. There may be intermittent abdominal discomfort, splenomegaly, and slight jaundice.
Substances that are used in place of blood, for example, as an alternative to BLOOD TRANSFUSIONS after blood loss to restore BLOOD VOLUME and oxygen-carrying capacity to the blood circulation, or to perfuse isolated organs.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
An abnormal hemoglobin composed of four beta chains. It is caused by the reduced synthesis of the alpha chain. This abnormality results in ALPHA-THALASSEMIA.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
A disease characterized by chronic hemolytic anemia, episodic painful crises, and pathologic involvement of many organs. It is the clinical expression of homozygosity for hemoglobin S.
The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
A superfamily of proteins containing the globin fold which is composed of 6-8 alpha helices arranged in a characterstic HEME enclosing structure.
Organic compounds that generally contain an amino (-NH2) and a carboxyl (-COOH) group. Twenty alpha-amino acids are the subunits which are polymerized to form proteins.
A metallic element with atomic symbol Fe, atomic number 26, and atomic weight 55.85. It is an essential constituent of HEMOGLOBINS; CYTOCHROMES; and IRON-BINDING PROTEINS. It plays a role in cellular redox reactions and in the transport of OXYGEN.
Chromatography on non-ionic gels without regard to the mechanism of solute discrimination.
The color-furnishing portion of hemoglobin. It is found free in tissues and as the prosthetic group in many hemeproteins.
A highly anionic organic phosphate which is present in human red blood cells at about the same molar ratio as hemoglobin. It binds to deoxyhemoglobin but not the oxygenated form, therefore diminishing the oxygen affinity of hemoglobin. This is essential in enabling hemoglobin to unload oxygen in tissue capillaries. It is also an intermediate in the conversion of 3-phosphoglycerate to 2-phosphoglycerate by phosphoglycerate mutase (EC 5.4.2.1). (From Stryer Biochemistry, 4th ed, p160; Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992, p508)
A group of hereditary hemolytic anemias in which there is decreased synthesis of one or more hemoglobin polypeptide chains. There are several genetic types with clinical pictures ranging from barely detectable hematologic abnormality to severe and fatal anemia.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
Electrophoresis in which various denaturant gradients are used to induce nucleic acids to melt at various stages resulting in separation of molecules based on small sequence differences including SNPs. The denaturants used include heat, formamide, and urea.
Separation technique in which the stationary phase consists of ion exchange resins. The resins contain loosely held small ions that easily exchange places with other small ions of like charge present in solutions washed over the resins.
The volume of packed RED BLOOD CELLS in a blood specimen. The volume is measured by centrifugation in a tube with graduated markings, or with automated blood cell counters. It is an indicator of erythrocyte status in disease. For example, ANEMIA shows a low value; POLYCYTHEMIA, a high value.
Glycoprotein hormone, secreted chiefly by the KIDNEY in the adult and the LIVER in the FETUS, that acts on erythroid stem cells of the BONE MARROW to stimulate proliferation and differentiation.
Compounds and molecular complexes that consist of very large numbers of atoms and are generally over 500 kDa in size. In biological systems macromolecular substances usually can be visualized using ELECTRON MICROSCOPY and are distinguished from ORGANELLES by the lack of a membrane structure.
Plasma glycoproteins that form a stable complex with hemoglobin to aid the recycling of heme iron. They are encoded in man by a gene on the short arm of chromosome 16.
Carbon monoxide (CO). A poisonous colorless, odorless, tasteless gas. It combines with hemoglobin to form carboxyhemoglobin, which has no oxygen carrying capacity. The resultant oxygen deprivation causes headache, dizziness, decreased pulse and respiratory rates, unconsciousness, and death. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)
One of the sickle cell disorders characterized by the presence of both hemoglobin S and hemoglobin C. It is similar to, but less severe than sickle cell anemia.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of bacteria.
A chromatographic technique that utilizes the ability of biological molecules to bind to certain ligands specifically and reversibly. It is used in protein biochemistry. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
The pH in solutions of proteins and related compounds at which the dipolar ions are at a maximum.
Electrophoresis in which paper is used as the diffusion medium. This technique is confined almost entirely to separations of small molecules such as amino acids, peptides, and nucleotides, and relatively high voltages are nearly always used.
Agents which improve the quality of the blood, increasing the hemoglobin level and the number of erythrocytes. They are used in the treatment of anemias.
Anemia characterized by decreased or absent iron stores, low serum iron concentration, low transferrin saturation, and low hemoglobin concentration or hematocrit value. The erythrocytes are hypochromic and microcytic and the iron binding capacity is increased.
The number of RED BLOOD CELLS per unit volume in a sample of venous BLOOD.
ERYTHROCYTE size and HEMOGLOBIN content or concentration, usually derived from ERYTHROCYTE COUNT; BLOOD hemoglobin concentration; and HEMATOCRIT. The indices include the mean corpuscular volume (MCV), the mean corpuscular hemoglobin (MCH), and the mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration (MCHC).
The art or process of comparing photometrically the relative intensities of the light in different parts of the spectrum.
Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.
Liquid chromatographic techniques which feature high inlet pressures, high sensitivity, and high speed.
Complexing agent for removal of traces of heavy metal ions. It acts also as a hypocalcemic agent.
Proteins found in any species of bacterium.
A disorder characterized by reduced synthesis of the beta chains of hemoglobin. There is retardation of hemoglobin A synthesis in the heterozygous form (thalassemia minor), which is asymptomatic, while in the homozygous form (thalassemia major, Cooley's anemia, Mediterranean anemia, erythroblastic anemia), which can result in severe complications and even death, hemoglobin A synthesis is absent.
... while steady state values were also significantly higher than that of haemoglobin AA individuals (P = 0.001). Conclusions: This ... This group also had their haemoglobin phenotypes determined by electrophoresis using cellulose acetate strips. ... Cite this paper: Adebola, M. , Olanrewaju, D. , Ogundeyi, M. and Shonde-Adebola, K. (2018) Coagulation Changes in Children with ... The presence of HbS results in a conformational change in the haemoglobin tetramer which causes the de-oxygenated HbS molecules ...
Pauling and his co-authors used electrophoreses to demonstrate the presence of a modified form of hemoglobin in those who have ... He published seven papers on the subject during his post-graduate stay in Caltech and graduated summa cum laude in 1925 with a ... This paper was the first to exhibit the role of Mendelian inheritance in determining a proteins physical properties. It ... His experience in working with hemoglobin as well as his theory of specificity in biological molecules led him to believe that ...
Using electrophoresis, Dr Pauling and colleagues demonstrated that sickle cell anemia was caused by an abnormal form of ... In 1949, Dr Linus Pauling coined the term molecular disease when describing sickle cell anemia in a landmark paper published in ... hemoglobin. November 20, 2019. mPulse Mobile celebrates innovation and health outcomes with second annual activate awards. ...
An abnormal hemoglobin that results from the substitution of lysine for glutamic acid at position 26 of the beta chain. It is ... Papers overview. Semantic Scholar uses AI to extract papers important to this topic. ... Hemoglobin E:PrThr:Pt:Bld:Ord:Electrophoresis. Process of secretion. Expand. Narrower. (. 1. ). hemoglobin E Saskatoon ... Hemoglobin E. Known as: Hemoglobin E [Chemical/Ingredient], e hemoglobin, haemoglobin e ...
Filed under: Documentary History Websites, Hemoglobin & Sickle Cell Anemia , Tagged: Arne Tiselius, electrophoresis, genetics, ... published the first four papers of what would ultimately become a fifteen-paper series. This body of scholarship was the ... Filed under: Documentary History Websites, Hemoglobin & Sickle Cell Anemia , Tagged: hemoglobin, immunology, Karl Landsteiner, ... susceptibility of hemoglobin and hemoglobin derivatives?" So I did. And they gave me fifty thousand dollars. This shows that ...
Sand Paper Invented Invented by I. Structures of the Cell. If you want to download you have to send your own contributions. ... Electrophoresis buffer, 50x. Step 7 Using the results of Steps 5 and 6, answer the problem. Mendel and basic genetics packet ws ... Sickle Cell Anemia Sickle cell anemia is the result of a type of mutation in the gene that codes for part of the hemoglobin ... Do this on a separate sheet of paper (staple it to this review). The mean on this test is 52 and the standard deviation is 5. ...
Hemoglobin electrophoresis was used to detect structural hemoglobin variants. RESULTS. Anemia prevalence was 44% with the use ... This paper presents a situation analysis of the burden of anemia in Cambodia, including a discussion of the country-specific ... The mean hemoglobin for all ages at baseline was 11.3 g/dL (SD 0.9). At 12 months, the mean was 11.9 g/dL (SD 0.8), with a mean ... Hemoglobin concentrations were greater by 11.8 g/L (95% CI: 9.1, 14.6; P. CONCLUSION. The iron ingot shaped as a lucky fish is ...
At day 4, the hemoglobin level had decreased to 9.3 g/dL and the patient was given a blood transfusion. After 5 consecutive ... Further genotyping by using nested PCR (merozoite surface proteins 1 and 2 repeat markers) and capillary electrophoresis (10) ... of several filter paper blood spots obtained during the 23 days of hospitalization confirmed that the patient had a polyclonal ... Blood tests showed the following results: leukocyte count 13.3 × 109/cells/L, hemoglobin 153 g/L, platelet count 20.9 × 109/L, ...
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  • In 1949, Dr Linus Pauling coined the term molecular disease when describing sickle cell anemia in a landmark paper published in Science. (magellanrx.com)
  • Using electrophoresis, Dr Pauling and colleagues demonstrated that sickle cell anemia was caused by an abnormal form of hemoglobin. (magellanrx.com)
  • Hemoglobin electrophoresis was used to detect structural hemoglobin variants. (luckyironfish.com)
  • An investigation of hemoglobin, Pauling quickly decided, would require more than one year to obtain results. (wordpress.com)
  • Although Pauling had originally intended for the grant money to go specifically toward his work on hemoglobin, as he corresponded with his funders he expressed an openness to studying other "interesting biochemical problems," and indeed this quickly became the case. (wordpress.com)
  • An abnormal hemoglobin that results from the substitution of lysine for glutamic acid at position 26 of the beta chain. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Do literature search then perform electrophoresis and kinetics experiments independently or as a team in a safe manner and report and results using scientific writing. (uaeu.ac.ae)
  • Haemoglobin, serum iron and C-reactive protein concentrations were measured at baseline, 3 and 6 months. (luckyironfish.com)
  • This proficiency in theoretical mathematics on the mechanics of atoms and molecules yielded fifty papers during his five year tenure as a professor at Cal-tech. (thebrightesthub.com)
  • One of Pauling's first major forays into the world of biology came about through his study of hemoglobin, the molecule responsible for transporting oxygen in the blood. (wordpress.com)
  • Specifically, in 1934, he launched a study hemoglobin partly as a means to begin a larger inquiry into the structure of proteins. (wordpress.com)
  • Blood was analyzed for hemoglobin, serum ferritin, and serum transferrin receptor. (luckyironfish.com)
  • A simplified screening strategy for thalassaemia and haemoglobin E in rural communities in south-east Asia. (semanticscholar.org)
  • We sought to determine whether there was a difference in hemoglobin concentrations in rural Cambodian anemic women (aged 18-49 y) who cooked with the iron ingot or consumed a daily iron supplement compared with a control after 1 y. (luckyironfish.com)
  • The journal publishes the most significant new research papers or any other original contribution in the form of reviews and reports on new concepts in all areas pertaining to its scope and research being done in the world, thus ensuring its scientific priority and significance. (stmjournals.in)

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