Hematocrit: The volume of packed RED BLOOD CELLS in a blood specimen. The volume is measured by centrifugation in a tube with graduated markings, or with automated blood cell counters. It is an indicator of erythrocyte status in disease. For example, ANEMIA shows a low value; POLYCYTHEMIA, a high value.Hemoglobins: The oxygen-carrying proteins of ERYTHROCYTES. They are found in all vertebrates and some invertebrates. The number of globin subunits in the hemoglobin quaternary structure differs between species. Structures range from monomeric to a variety of multimeric arrangements.Hemoglobin A: Normal adult human hemoglobin. The globin moiety consists of two alpha and two beta chains.Hemoglobins, Abnormal: Hemoglobins characterized by structural alterations within the molecule. The alteration can be either absence, addition or substitution of one or more amino acids in the globin part of the molecule at selected positions in the polypeptide chains.Fetal Hemoglobin: The major component of hemoglobin in the fetus. This HEMOGLOBIN has two alpha and two gamma polypeptide subunits in comparison to normal adult hemoglobin, which has two alpha and two beta polypeptide subunits. Fetal hemoglobin concentrations can be elevated (usually above 0.5%) in children and adults affected by LEUKEMIA and several types of ANEMIA.Hemoglobin, Sickle: An abnormal hemoglobin resulting from the substitution of valine for glutamic acid at position 6 of the beta chain of the globin moiety. The heterozygous state results in sickle cell trait, the homozygous in sickle cell anemia.Hemoglobin C: A commonly occurring abnormal hemoglobin in which lysine replaces a glutamic acid residue at the sixth position of the beta chains. It results in reduced plasticity of erythrocytes.Anemia: A reduction in the number of circulating ERYTHROCYTES or in the quantity of HEMOGLOBIN.Oxyhemoglobins: A compound formed by the combination of hemoglobin and oxygen. It is a complex in which the oxygen is bound directly to the iron without causing a change from the ferrous to the ferric state.Hemoglobin A, Glycosylated: Minor hemoglobin components of human erythrocytes designated A1a, A1b, and A1c. Hemoglobin A1c is most important since its sugar moiety is glucose covalently bound to the terminal amino acid of the beta chain. Since normal glycohemoglobin concentrations exclude marked blood glucose fluctuations over the preceding three to four weeks, the concentration of glycosylated hemoglobin A is a more reliable index of the blood sugar average over a long period of time.Hemodilution: Reduction of blood viscosity usually by the addition of cell free solutions. Used clinically (1) in states of impaired microcirculation, (2) for replacement of intraoperative blood loss without homologous blood transfusion, and (3) in cardiopulmonary bypass and hypothermia.Hemoglobin E: An abnormal hemoglobin that results from the substitution of lysine for glutamic acid at position 26 of the beta chain. It is most frequently observed in southeast Asian populations.Erythropoietin: Glycoprotein hormone, secreted chiefly by the KIDNEY in the adult and the LIVER in the FETUS, that acts on erythroid stem cells of the BONE MARROW to stimulate proliferation and differentiation.Hemoglobin A2: An adult hemoglobin component normally present in hemolysates from human erythrocytes in concentrations of about 3%. The hemoglobin is composed of two alpha chains and two delta chains. The percentage of HbA2 varies in some hematologic disorders, but is about double in beta-thalassemia.Erythrocyte Count: The number of RED BLOOD CELLS per unit volume in a sample of venous BLOOD.Hemoglobinometry: Measurement of hemoglobin concentration in blood.Blood Viscosity: The internal resistance of the BLOOD to shear forces. The in vitro measure of whole blood viscosity is of limited clinical utility because it bears little relationship to the actual viscosity within the circulation, but an increase in the viscosity of circulating blood can contribute to morbidity in patients suffering from disorders such as SICKLE CELL ANEMIA and POLYCYTHEMIA.MethemoglobinErythrocytes: Red blood cells. Mature erythrocytes are non-nucleated, biconcave disks containing HEMOGLOBIN whose function is to transport OXYGEN.Oxygen: An element with atomic symbol O, atomic number 8, and atomic weight [15.99903; 15.99977]. It is the most abundant element on earth and essential for respiration.Truncated Hemoglobins: A family of hemoglobin-like proteins found in BACTERIA; PLANTS; and unicellular eukaryotes. Truncated hemoglobins are distantly related to vertebrate hemoglobins and are typically shorter than vertebrate hemoglobins by 20-40 residues.Polycythemia: An increase in the total red cell mass of the blood. (Dorland, 27th ed)Plasma Volume: Volume of PLASMA in the circulation. It is usually measured by INDICATOR DILUTION TECHNIQUES.Blood Substitutes: Substances that are used in place of blood, for example, as an alternative to BLOOD TRANSFUSIONS after blood loss to restore BLOOD VOLUME and oxygen-carrying capacity to the blood circulation, or to perfuse isolated organs.Hemoglobinopathies: A group of inherited disorders characterized by structural alterations within the hemoglobin molecule.Iron: A metallic element with atomic symbol Fe, atomic number 26, and atomic weight 55.85. It is an essential constituent of HEMOGLOBINS; CYTOCHROMES; and IRON-BINDING PROTEINS. It plays a role in cellular redox reactions and in the transport of OXYGEN.CarboxyhemoglobinErythrocyte Indices: ERYTHROCYTE size and HEMOGLOBIN content or concentration, usually derived from ERYTHROCYTE COUNT; BLOOD hemoglobin concentration; and HEMATOCRIT. The indices include the mean corpuscular volume (MCV), the mean corpuscular hemoglobin (MCH), and the mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration (MCHC).Anemia, Sickle Cell: A disease characterized by chronic hemolytic anemia, episodic painful crises, and pathologic involvement of many organs. It is the clinical expression of homozygosity for hemoglobin S.Exchange Transfusion, Whole Blood: Repetitive withdrawal of small amounts of blood and replacement with donor blood until a large proportion of the blood volume has been exchanged. Used in treatment of fetal erythroblastosis, hepatic coma, sickle cell anemia, disseminated intravascular coagulation, septicemia, burns, thrombotic thrombopenic purpura, and fulminant malaria.Erythrocyte Volume: Volume of circulating ERYTHROCYTES . It is usually measured by RADIOISOTOPE DILUTION TECHNIQUE.Diphosphoglyceric AcidsHemoglobin C Disease: A disease characterized by compensated hemolysis with a normal hemoglobin level or a mild to moderate anemia. There may be intermittent abdominal discomfort, splenomegaly, and slight jaundice.Hematologic Tests: Tests used in the analysis of the hemic system.Hemoglobin J: A group of abnormal hemoglobins with similar electrophoretic characteristics. They have faster electrophoretic mobility and different amino acid substitutions in either the alpha or beta chains than normal adult hemoglobin. Some of the variants produce hematologic abnormalities, others result in no clinical disorders.2,3-Diphosphoglycerate: A highly anionic organic phosphate which is present in human red blood cells at about the same molar ratio as hemoglobin. It binds to deoxyhemoglobin but not the oxygenated form, therefore diminishing the oxygen affinity of hemoglobin. This is essential in enabling hemoglobin to unload oxygen in tissue capillaries. It is also an intermediate in the conversion of 3-phosphoglycerate to 2-phosphoglycerate by phosphoglycerate mutase (EC 5.4.2.1). (From Stryer Biochemistry, 4th ed, p160; Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992, p508)Hemoglobin H: An abnormal hemoglobin composed of four beta chains. It is caused by the reduced synthesis of the alpha chain. This abnormality results in ALPHA-THALASSEMIA.Blood Volume: Volume of circulating BLOOD. It is the sum of the PLASMA VOLUME and ERYTHROCYTE VOLUME.Erythropoiesis: The production of red blood cells (ERYTHROCYTES). In humans, erythrocytes are produced by the YOLK SAC in the first trimester; by the liver in the second trimester; by the BONE MARROW in the third trimester and after birth. In normal individuals, the erythrocyte count in the peripheral blood remains relatively constant implying a balance between the rate of erythrocyte production and rate of destruction.Reticulocyte Count: The number of RETICULOCYTES per unit volume of BLOOD. The values are expressed as a percentage of the ERYTHROCYTE COUNT or in the form of an index ("corrected reticulocyte index"), which attempts to account for the number of circulating erythrocytes.Anemia, Iron-Deficiency: Anemia characterized by decreased or absent iron stores, low serum iron concentration, low transferrin saturation, and low hemoglobin concentration or hematocrit value. The erythrocytes are hypochromic and microcytic and the iron binding capacity is increased.Blood Cell Count: The number of LEUKOCYTES and ERYTHROCYTES per unit volume in a sample of venous BLOOD. A complete blood count (CBC) also includes measurement of the HEMOGLOBIN; HEMATOCRIT; and ERYTHROCYTE INDICES.Bloodletting: Puncture of a vein to draw blood for therapeutic purposes. Bloodletting therapy has been used in Talmudic and Indian medicine since the medieval time, and was still practiced widely in the 18th and 19th centuries. Its modern counterpart is PHLEBOTOMY.Hematinics: Agents which improve the quality of the blood, increasing the hemoglobin level and the number of erythrocytes. They are used in the treatment of anemias.Erythrocyte Transfusion: The transfer of erythrocytes from a donor to a recipient or reinfusion to the donor.Globins: A superfamily of proteins containing the globin fold which is composed of 6-8 alpha helices arranged in a characterstic HEME enclosing structure.Anemia, Hypochromic: Anemia characterized by a decrease in the ratio of the weight of hemoglobin to the volume of the erythrocyte, i.e., the mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration is less than normal. The individual cells contain less hemoglobin than they could have under optimal conditions. Hypochromic anemia may be caused by iron deficiency from a low iron intake, diminished iron absorption, or excessive iron loss. It can also be caused by infections or other diseases, therapeutic drugs, lead poisoning, and other conditions. (Stedman, 25th ed; from Miale, Laboratory Medicine: Hematology, 6th ed, p393)Ferritins: Iron-containing proteins that are widely distributed in animals, plants, and microorganisms. Their major function is to store IRON in a nontoxic bioavailable form. Each ferritin molecule consists of ferric iron in a hollow protein shell (APOFERRITINS) made of 24 subunits of various sequences depending on the species and tissue types.Heme: The color-furnishing portion of hemoglobin. It is found free in tissues and as the prosthetic group in many hemeproteins.Thalassemia: A group of hereditary hemolytic anemias in which there is decreased synthesis of one or more hemoglobin polypeptide chains. There are several genetic types with clinical pictures ranging from barely detectable hematologic abnormality to severe and fatal anemia.Carbon Monoxide: Carbon monoxide (CO). A poisonous colorless, odorless, tasteless gas. It combines with hemoglobin to form carboxyhemoglobin, which has no oxygen carrying capacity. The resultant oxygen deprivation causes headache, dizziness, decreased pulse and respiratory rates, unconsciousness, and death. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)Blood Transfusion: The introduction of whole blood or blood component directly into the blood stream. (Dorland, 27th ed)Blood Chemical Analysis: An examination of chemicals in the blood.Plasma Substitutes: Any liquid used to replace blood plasma, usually a saline solution, often with serum albumins, dextrans or other preparations. These substances do not enhance the oxygen- carrying capacity of blood, but merely replace the volume. They are also used to treat dehydration.Renal Dialysis: Therapy for the insufficient cleansing of the BLOOD by the kidneys based on dialysis and including hemodialysis, PERITONEAL DIALYSIS, and HEMODIAFILTRATION.beta-Thalassemia: A disorder characterized by reduced synthesis of the beta chains of hemoglobin. There is retardation of hemoglobin A synthesis in the heterozygous form (thalassemia minor), which is asymptomatic, while in the homozygous form (thalassemia major, Cooley's anemia, Mediterranean anemia, erythroblastic anemia), which can result in severe complications and even death, hemoglobin A synthesis is absent.Erythrocyte Aggregation: The formation of clumps of RED BLOOD CELLS under low or non-flow conditions, resulting from the attraction forces between the red blood cells. The cells adhere to each other in rouleaux aggregates. Slight mechanical force, such as occurs in the circulation, is enough to disperse these aggregates. Stronger or weaker than normal aggregation may result from a variety of effects in the ERYTHROCYTE MEMBRANE or in BLOOD PLASMA. The degree of aggregation is affected by ERYTHROCYTE DEFORMABILITY, erythrocyte membrane sialylation, masking of negative surface charge by plasma proteins, etc. BLOOD VISCOSITY and the ERYTHROCYTE SEDIMENTATION RATE are affected by the amount of erythrocyte aggregation and are parameters used to measure the aggregation.Hemoglobin SC Disease: One of the sickle cell disorders characterized by the presence of both hemoglobin S and hemoglobin C. It is similar to, but less severe than sickle cell anemia.Kidney Failure, Chronic: The end-stage of CHRONIC RENAL INSUFFICIENCY. It is characterized by the severe irreversible kidney damage (as measured by the level of PROTEINURIA) and the reduction in GLOMERULAR FILTRATION RATE to less than 15 ml per min (Kidney Foundation: Kidney Disease Outcome Quality Initiative, 2002). These patients generally require HEMODIALYSIS or KIDNEY TRANSPLANTATION.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Hemolysis: The destruction of ERYTHROCYTES by many different causal agents such as antibodies, bacteria, chemicals, temperature, and changes in tonicity.Blood Proteins: Proteins that are present in blood serum, including SERUM ALBUMIN; BLOOD COAGULATION FACTORS; and many other types of proteins.Erythrocytes, Abnormal: Oxygen-carrying RED BLOOD CELLS in mammalian blood that are abnormal in structure or function.Phytic Acid: Complexing agent for removal of traces of heavy metal ions. It acts also as a hypocalcemic agent.Phlebotomy: The techniques used to draw blood from a vein for diagnostic purposes or for treatment of certain blood disorders such as erythrocytosis, hemochromatosis, polycythemia vera, and porphyria cutanea tarda.Altitude: A vertical distance measured from a known level on the surface of a planet or other celestial body.Haptoglobins: Plasma glycoproteins that form a stable complex with hemoglobin to aid the recycling of heme iron. They are encoded in man by a gene on the short arm of chromosome 16.Blood Pressure: PRESSURE of the BLOOD on the ARTERIES and other BLOOD VESSELS.Erythrocyte Deformability: Ability of ERYTHROCYTES to change shape as they pass through narrow spaces, such as the microvasculature.Blood Protein Electrophoresis: Electrophoresis applied to BLOOD PROTEINS.Serum Albumin: A major protein in the BLOOD. It is important in maintaining the colloidal osmotic pressure and transporting large organic molecules.Pregnancy Complications, Hematologic: The co-occurrence of pregnancy and a blood disease (HEMATOLOGIC DISEASES) which involves BLOOD CELLS or COAGULATION FACTORS. The hematologic disease may precede or follow FERTILIZATION and it may or may not have a deleterious effect on the pregnant woman or FETUS.Hydrogen-Ion Concentration: The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Sickle Cell Trait: The condition of being heterozygous for hemoglobin S.Heinz Bodies: Abnormal intracellular inclusions, composed of denatured hemoglobin, found on the membrane of red blood cells. They are seen in thalassemias, enzymopathies, hemoglobinopathies, and after splenectomy.Blood Glucose: Glucose in blood.Blood Volume Determination: Method for determining the circulating blood volume by introducing a known quantity of foreign substance into the blood and determining its concentration some minutes later when thorough mixing has occurred. From these two values the blood volume can be calculated by dividing the quantity of injected material by its concentration in the blood at the time of uniform mixing. Generally expressed as cubic centimeters or liters per kilogram of body weight.Anemia, Neonatal: The mildest form of erythroblastosis fetalis in which anemia is the chief manifestation.Hemoglobin M: A group of abnormal hemoglobins in which amino acid substitutions take place in either the alpha or beta chains but near the heme iron. This results in facilitated oxidation of the hemoglobin to yield excess methemoglobin which leads to cyanosis.Partial Pressure: The pressure that would be exerted by one component of a mixture of gases if it were present alone in a container. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Antisickling Agents: Agents used to prevent or reverse the pathological events leading to sickling of erythrocytes in sickle cell conditions.Reticulocytes: Immature ERYTHROCYTES. In humans, these are ERYTHROID CELLS that have just undergone extrusion of their CELL NUCLEUS. They still contain some organelles that gradually decrease in number as the cells mature. RIBOSOMES are last to disappear. Certain staining techniques cause components of the ribosomes to precipitate into characteristic "reticulum" (not the same as the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM), hence the name reticulocytes.alpha-Thalassemia: A disorder characterized by reduced synthesis of the alpha chains of hemoglobin. The severity of this condition can vary from mild anemia to death, depending on the number of genes deleted.Hemorheology: The deformation and flow behavior of BLOOD and its elements i.e., PLASMA; ERYTHROCYTES; WHITE BLOOD CELLS; and BLOOD PLATELETS.Recombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.Anemia, Hemolytic: A condition of inadequate circulating red blood cells (ANEMIA) or insufficient HEMOGLOBIN due to premature destruction of red blood cells (ERYTHROCYTES).alpha-Globins: Members of the alpha-globin family. In humans, they are encoded in a gene cluster on CHROMOSOME 16. They include zeta-globin and alpha-globin. There are also pseudogenes of zeta (theta-zeta) and alpha (theta-alpha) in the cluster. Adult HEMOGLOBIN is comprised of 2 alpha-globin chains and 2 beta-globin chains.Platelet Count: The number of PLATELETS per unit volume in a sample of venous BLOOD.Blood Transfusion, Autologous: Reinfusion of blood or blood products derived from the patient's own circulation. (Dorland, 27th ed)Myoglobin: A conjugated protein which is the oxygen-transporting pigment of muscle. It is made up of one globin polypeptide chain and one heme group.Reference Values: The range or frequency distribution of a measurement in a population (of organisms, organs or things) that has not been selected for the presence of disease or abnormality.beta-Globins: Members of the beta-globin family. In humans, they are encoded in a gene cluster on CHROMOSOME 11. They include epsilon-globin, gamma-globin, delta-globin and beta-globin. There is also a pseudogene of beta (theta-beta) in the gene cluster. Adult HEMOGLOBIN is comprised of two ALPHA-GLOBIN chains and two beta-globin chains.Prospective Studies: Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.Iron Isotopes: Stable iron atoms that have the same atomic number as the element iron, but differ in atomic weight. Fe-54, 57, and 58 are stable iron isotopes.Hemoglobinuria: The presence of free HEMOGLOBIN in the URINE, indicating hemolysis of ERYTHROCYTES within the vascular system. After saturating the hemoglobin-binding proteins (HAPTOGLOBINS), free hemoglobin begins to appear in the urine.Oxygen Consumption: The rate at which oxygen is used by a tissue; microliters of oxygen STPD used per milligram of tissue per hour; the rate at which oxygen enters the blood from alveolar gas, equal in the steady state to the consumption of oxygen by tissue metabolism throughout the body. (Stedman, 25th ed, p346)Isotonic Solutions: Solutions having the same osmotic pressure as blood serum, or another solution with which they are compared. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed & Dorland, 28th ed)Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Body Weight: The mass or quantity of heaviness of an individual. It is expressed by units of pounds or kilograms.Blood Loss, Surgical: Loss of blood during a surgical procedure.Hemin: Chloro(7,12-diethenyl-3,8,13,17-tetramethyl-21H,23H-porphine-2,18-dipropanoato(4-)-N(21),N(22),N(23),N(24)) ferrate(2-) dihydrogen.Phenylhydrazines: Diazo derivatives of aniline, used as a reagent for sugars, ketones, and aldehydes. (Dorland, 28th ed)Spectrophotometry: The art or process of comparing photometrically the relative intensities of the light in different parts of the spectrum.Electrophoresis, Cellulose Acetate: Electrophoresis in which cellulose acetate is the diffusion medium.Retrospective Studies: Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.Microcirculation: The circulation of the BLOOD through the MICROVASCULAR NETWORK.Hemodynamics: The movement and the forces involved in the movement of the blood through the CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM.Hydroxyethyl Starch Derivatives: Starches that have been chemically modified so that a percentage of OH groups are substituted with 2-hydroxyethyl ether groups.Diabetes Mellitus: A heterogeneous group of disorders characterized by HYPERGLYCEMIA and GLUCOSE INTOLERANCE.Treatment Outcome: Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.Pregnancy: The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.Blood Specimen Collection: The taking of a blood sample to determine its character as a whole, to identify levels of its component cells, chemicals, gases, or other constituents, to perform pathological examination, etc.Transferrin: An iron-binding beta1-globulin that is synthesized in the LIVER and secreted into the blood. It plays a central role in the transport of IRON throughout the circulation. A variety of transferrin isoforms exist in humans, including some that are considered markers for specific disease states.Erythrocyte Aging: The senescence of RED BLOOD CELLS. Lacking the organelles that make protein synthesis possible, the mature erythrocyte is incapable of self-repair, reproduction, and carrying out certain functions performed by other cells. This limits the average life span of an erythrocyte to 120 days.Annelida: A phylum of metazoan invertebrates comprising the segmented worms, and including marine annelids (POLYCHAETA), freshwater annelids, earthworms (OLIGOCHAETA), and LEECHES. Only the leeches are of medical interest. (Dorland, 27th ed)Iron, Dietary: Iron or iron compounds used in foods or as food. Dietary iron is important in oxygen transport and the synthesis of the iron-porphyrin proteins hemoglobin, myoglobin, cytochromes, and cytochrome oxidase. Insufficient amounts of dietary iron can lead to iron-deficiency anemia.Chromium Isotopes: Stable chromium atoms that have the same atomic number as the element chromium, but differ in atomic weight. Cr-50, 53, and 54 are stable chromium isotopes.Oximetry: The determination of oxygen-hemoglobin saturation of blood either by withdrawing a sample and passing it through a classical photoelectric oximeter or by electrodes attached to some translucent part of the body like finger, earlobe, or skin fold. It includes non-invasive oxygen monitoring by pulse oximetry.Dehydration: The condition that results from excessive loss of water from a living organism.Polycythemia Vera: A myeloproliferative disorder of unknown etiology, characterized by abnormal proliferation of all hematopoietic bone marrow elements and an absolute increase in red cell mass and total blood volume, associated frequently with splenomegaly, leukocytosis, and thrombocythemia. Hematopoiesis is also reactive in extramedullary sites (liver and spleen). In time myelofibrosis occurs.Risk Factors: An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.Capillaries: The minute vessels that connect the arterioles and venules.Oligochaeta: A class of annelid worms with few setae per segment. It includes the earthworms such as Lumbricus and Eisenia.Leukocyte Count: The number of WHITE BLOOD CELLS per unit volume in venous BLOOD. A differential leukocyte count measures the relative numbers of the different types of white cells.Osmotic Fragility: RED BLOOD CELL sensitivity to change in OSMOTIC PRESSURE. When exposed to a hypotonic concentration of sodium in a solution, red cells take in more water, swell until the capacity of the cell membrane is exceeded, and burst.Nutritional Status: State of the body in relation to the consumption and utilization of nutrients.Anoxia: Relatively complete absence of oxygen in one or more tissues.Ferrous Compounds: Inorganic or organic compounds that contain divalent iron.Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2: A subclass of DIABETES MELLITUS that is not INSULIN-responsive or dependent (NIDDM). It is characterized initially by INSULIN RESISTANCE and HYPERINSULINEMIA; and eventually by GLUCOSE INTOLERANCE; HYPERGLYCEMIA; and overt diabetes. Type II diabetes mellitus is no longer considered a disease exclusively found in adults. Patients seldom develop KETOSIS but often exhibit OBESITY.Biological Markers: Measurable and quantifiable biological parameters (e.g., specific enzyme concentration, specific hormone concentration, specific gene phenotype distribution in a population, presence of biological substances) which serve as indices for health- and physiology-related assessments, such as disease risk, psychiatric disorders, environmental exposure and its effects, disease diagnosis, metabolic processes, substance abuse, pregnancy, cell line development, epidemiologic studies, etc.Hemeproteins: Proteins that contain an iron-porphyrin, or heme, prosthetic group resembling that of hemoglobin. (From Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p480)Blood Glucose Self-Monitoring: Self evaluation of whole blood glucose levels outside the clinical laboratory. A digital or battery-operated reflectance meter may be used. It has wide application in controlling unstable insulin-dependent diabetes.Splenectomy: Surgical procedure involving either partial or entire removal of the spleen.Blood Flow Velocity: A value equal to the total volume flow divided by the cross-sectional area of the vascular bed.Regression Analysis: Procedures for finding the mathematical function which best describes the relationship between a dependent variable and one or more independent variables. In linear regression (see LINEAR MODELS) the relationship is constrained to be a straight line and LEAST-SQUARES ANALYSIS is used to determine the best fit. In logistic regression (see LOGISTIC MODELS) the dependent variable is qualitative rather than continuously variable and LIKELIHOOD FUNCTIONS are used to find the best relationship. In multiple regression, the dependent variable is considered to depend on more than a single independent variable.Rheology: The study of the deformation and flow of matter, usually liquids or fluids, and of the plastic flow of solids. The concept covers consistency, dilatancy, liquefaction, resistance to flow, shearing, thixotrophy, and VISCOSITY.Osmolar Concentration: The concentration of osmotically active particles in solution expressed in terms of osmoles of solute per liter of solution. Osmolality is expressed in terms of osmoles of solute per kilogram of solvent.Cerebrovascular Circulation: The circulation of blood through the BLOOD VESSELS of the BRAIN.Infant, Newborn: An infant during the first month after birth.Erythrocyte Membrane: The semi-permeable outer structure of a red blood cell. It is known as a red cell 'ghost' after HEMOLYSIS.Protoporphyrins: Porphyrins with four methyl, two vinyl, and two propionic acid side chains attached to the pyrrole rings. Protoporphyrin IX occurs in hemoglobin, myoglobin, and most of the cytochromes.Iron-Dextran Complex: A complex of ferric oxyhydroxide with dextrans of 5000 to 7000 daltons in a viscous solution containing 50 mg/ml of iron. It is supplied as a parenteral preparation and is used as a hematinic. (Goodman and Gilman's The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, 8th ed, p1292)Nitric Oxide: A free radical gas produced endogenously by a variety of mammalian cells, synthesized from ARGININE by NITRIC OXIDE SYNTHASE. Nitric oxide is one of the ENDOTHELIUM-DEPENDENT RELAXING FACTORS released by the vascular endothelium and mediates VASODILATION. It also inhibits platelet aggregation, induces disaggregation of aggregated platelets, and inhibits platelet adhesion to the vascular endothelium. Nitric oxide activates cytosolic GUANYLATE CYCLASE and thus elevates intracellular levels of CYCLIC GMP.Blood Gas Analysis: Measurement of oxygen and carbon dioxide in the blood.Spectroscopy, Near-Infrared: A noninvasive technique that uses the differential absorption properties of hemoglobin and myoglobin to evaluate tissue oxygenation and indirectly can measure regional hemodynamics and blood flow. Near-infrared light (NIR) can propagate through tissues and at particular wavelengths is differentially absorbed by oxygenated vs. deoxygenated forms of hemoglobin and myoglobin. Illumination of intact tissue with NIR allows qualitative assessment of changes in the tissue concentration of these molecules. The analysis is also used to determine body composition.Carbon Dioxide: A colorless, odorless gas that can be formed by the body and is necessary for the respiration cycle of plants and animals.Dose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.Autoanalysis: Method of analyzing chemicals using automation.Fructosamine: An amino sugar formed when glucose non-enzymatically reacts with the N-terminal amino group of proteins. The fructose moiety is derived from glucose by the "classical" Amadori rearrangement.Electrophoresis, Starch Gel: Electrophoresis in which a starch gel (a mixture of amylose and amylopectin) is used as the diffusion medium.Cardiopulmonary Bypass: Diversion of the flow of blood from the entrance of the right atrium directly to the aorta (or femoral artery) via an oxygenator thus bypassing both the heart and lungs.Isoelectric Focusing: Electrophoresis in which a pH gradient is established in a gel medium and proteins migrate until they reach the site (or focus) at which the pH is equal to their isoelectric point.Hemoglobin Subunits: The PROTEIN SUBUNITS that comprise multimeric HEMOGLOBINS.Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid: Liquid chromatographic techniques which feature high inlet pressures, high sensitivity, and high speed.Regional Blood Flow: The flow of BLOOD through or around an organ or region of the body.Kidney: Body organ that filters blood for the secretion of URINE and that regulates ion concentrations.Photolysis: Chemical bond cleavage reactions resulting from absorption of radiant energy.Injections, Subcutaneous: Forceful administration under the skin of liquid medication, nutrient, or other fluid through a hollow needle piercing the skin.Electrolytes: Substances that dissociate into two or more ions, to some extent, in water. Solutions of electrolytes thus conduct an electric current and can be decomposed by it (ELECTROLYSIS). (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Macromolecular Substances: Compounds and molecular complexes that consist of very large numbers of atoms and are generally over 500 kDa in size. In biological systems macromolecular substances usually can be visualized using ELECTRON MICROSCOPY and are distinguished from ORGANELLES by the lack of a membrane structure.Fluid Shifts: Translocation of body fluids from one compartment to another, such as from the vascular to the interstitial compartments. Fluid shifts are associated with profound changes in vascular permeability and WATER-ELECTROLYTE IMBALANCE. The shift can also be from the lower body to the upper body as in conditions of weightlessness.Protein Conformation: The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).Erythroid Precursor Cells: The cells in the erythroid series derived from MYELOID PROGENITOR CELLS or from the bi-potential MEGAKARYOCYTE-ERYTHROID PROGENITOR CELLS which eventually give rise to mature RED BLOOD CELLS. The erythroid progenitor cells develop in two phases: erythroid burst-forming units (BFU-E) followed by erythroid colony-forming units (CFU-E); BFU-E differentiate into CFU-E on stimulation by ERYTHROPOIETIN, and then further differentiate into ERYTHROBLASTS when stimulated by other factors.Bilirubin: A bile pigment that is a degradation product of HEME.CreatininePlasma: The residual portion of BLOOD that is left after removal of BLOOD CELLS by CENTRIFUGATION without prior BLOOD COAGULATION.Dogs: The domestic dog, Canis familiaris, comprising about 400 breeds, of the carnivore family CANIDAE. They are worldwide in distribution and live in association with people. (Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, p1065)Eagles: Large members of the FALCONIFORMES order of birds, family Accipitridae, most especially the genera Aquila, Haliaeetus, Harpia, and Circaetus. They are characterized by their powerful talons, which carry long, curved, pointed claws and by their opposable hindtoe.Cardiac Output: The volume of BLOOD passing through the HEART per unit of time. It is usually expressed as liters (volume) per minute so as not to be confused with STROKE VOLUME (volume per beat).Protein Binding: The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.Cohort Studies: Studies in which subsets of a defined population are identified. These groups may or may not be exposed to factors hypothesized to influence the probability of the occurrence of a particular disease or other outcome. Cohorts are defined populations which, as a whole, are followed in an attempt to determine distinguishing subgroup characteristics.Blood Preservation: The process by which blood or its components are kept viable outside of the organism from which they are derived (i.e., kept from decay by means of a chemical agent, cooling, or a fluid substitute that mimics the natural state within the organism).Vascular Resistance: The force that opposes the flow of BLOOD through a vascular bed. It is equal to the difference in BLOOD PRESSURE across the vascular bed divided by the CARDIAC OUTPUT.Predictive Value of Tests: In screening and diagnostic tests, the probability that a person with a positive test is a true positive (i.e., has the disease), is referred to as the predictive value of a positive test; whereas, the predictive value of a negative test is the probability that the person with a negative test does not have the disease. Predictive value is related to the sensitivity and specificity of the test.Albumins: Water-soluble proteins found in egg whites, blood, lymph, and other tissues and fluids. They coagulate upon heating.Point-of-Care Systems: Laboratory and other services provided to patients at the bedside. These include diagnostic and laboratory testing using automated information entry.Allosteric Regulation: The modification of the reactivity of ENZYMES by the binding of effectors to sites (ALLOSTERIC SITES) on the enzymes other than the substrate BINDING SITES.Follow-Up Studies: Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.Vitreoscilla: A genus of gram-negative, aerobic or microaerophilic, colorless filaments. It is nonfruiting, motile by gliding, and found in freshwater sediments and cow dung. One species (V. stercoraria) is considered morphologically to be a streptobacillus. That species is strictly aerobic and produces a homodimeric bacterial hemoglobin, especially under oxygen-limited growth conditions. (From Bergey's Manual of Determinative Bacteriology, 9th ed)Cyanosis: A bluish or purplish discoloration of the skin and mucous membranes due to an increase in the amount of deoxygenated hemoglobin in the blood or a structural defect in the hemoglobin molecule.Blood: The body fluid that circulates in the vascular system (BLOOD VESSELS). Whole blood includes PLASMA and BLOOD CELLS.Bone Marrow: The soft tissue filling the cavities of bones. Bone marrow exists in two types, yellow and red. Yellow marrow is found in the large cavities of large bones and consists mostly of fat cells and a few primitive blood cells. Red marrow is a hematopoietic tissue and is the site of production of erythrocytes and granular leukocytes. Bone marrow is made up of a framework of connective tissue containing branching fibers with the frame being filled with marrow cells.Diet: Regular course of eating and drinking adopted by a person or animal.Analysis of Variance: A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.Liver: A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.Age Factors: Age as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or the effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from AGING, a physiological process, and TIME FACTORS which refers only to the passage of time.Cross-Sectional Studies: Studies in which the presence or absence of disease or other health-related variables are determined in each member of the study population or in a representative sample at one particular time. This contrasts with LONGITUDINAL STUDIES which are followed over a period of time.Dietary Supplements: Products in capsule, tablet or liquid form that provide dietary ingredients, and that are intended to be taken by mouth to increase the intake of nutrients. Dietary supplements can include macronutrients, such as proteins, carbohydrates, and fats; and/or MICRONUTRIENTS, such as VITAMINS; MINERALS; and PHYTOCHEMICALS.Polychaeta: A class of marine annelids including sandworms, tube worms, clamworms, and fire worms. It includes also the genus Myxicola infundibulum.
... or hereditary persistence of fetal hemoglobin syndromes. Beta thalassemia is a hereditary disease affecting hemoglobin. As with ... hematocrit; and serum bilirubin. All beta thalassemias may exhibit abnormal red blood cells, a family history is followed by ... Normal adult hemoglobin contains 2 alpha and 2 beta subunits. Thalassemias typically affect only the mRNAs for production of ... They are forms of thalassemia caused by reduced or absent synthesis of the beta chains of hemoglobin that result in variable ...
... hematocrit or hemoglobin levels; general health history; and a diet assessment. The WIC program has three roles: to find out ...
However, the hematocrit and hemoglobin is decreased. The issue is thought of as representing any of the following: a decreased ...
Hematocrit and hemoglobin concentrations remain in general unchanged. There are a number of companies who provide altitude ... Wehrlin, JP; Zuest, P; Hallén, J; Marti, B (June 2006). "Live high-train low for 24 days increases hemoglobin mass and red cell ... September 1998). "Altitude training at 2690m does not increase total Haemoglobin mass or sea level V̇O2max in world champion ... At high altitudes, there is a decrease in oxygen hemoglobin saturation. This hypoxic condition causes hypoxia-inducible factor ...
Hematologic effects: Anemia may occur; monitor hemoglobin or hematocrit in people on long-term treatment. Celecoxib does not ...
Other important hematological parameters are platelet count, clotting time, hematocrit and hemoglobin. Proper technique ... Positive fecal and urine hemoglobin tests have also been reported. Post-marketing events have been the occurrence of ...
The haematocrit and haemoglobin content decreases till twenty to thirty days after birth. There is a peak in the content of all ...
Haemoglobin and haematocrit levels are analysed again: if the haematocrit value is less than the initial value (a sign of ... The procedure is the following: Analyse haemoglobin and haematocrit levels. A solution of 25% albumin is used that is ... If the haematocrit level is greater than the initial one this is a contraindication for the use of diuretics as they would ... In diabetes mellitus there is an association between increases in glycated hemoglobin levels and the appearance of proteinuria ...
Recommended laboratory blood testing includes: cross-matching blood, hemoglobin, hematocrit, platelets, coagulation time, and ... Evidence supports holding off on blood transfusions in those who have a hemoglobin greater than 7 to 8 g/dL and moderate ... Often blood transfusions are not recommended unless the hemoglobin is less than 70 or 80 g/L. Treatment with proton pump ...
... homozygous mutants had an increased susceptibility to Citrobacter infection and displayed a decreased hematocrit and hemoglobin ...
Consensus for clinical diagnosis of CMS use laboratory values: haemoglobin in Males ≥ 21 g/dL; Females ≥ 19 g/dL, haematocrit ... Alternatively, bloodletting (phlebotomy) can be performed to lower the haematocrit temporarily; when combined with volume ... with subsequent increased haematocrit) and hypoxaemia; raised blood pressure in the lungs (pulmonary hypertension) can develop ... as the body adapts to the normal oxygen level near sea-level and the haematocrit normalises. ...
The use of training masks, however, has no measurable effect on hemoglobin, hematocrit levels and oxygen transport in athletes ...
Homozygous mutant males had decreased haematocrit and haemoglobin levels, while animals of both sex displayed an increase in ...
Historically, red blood cell transfusion was considered when the hemoglobin level fell below 100 g/L or hematocrit falls below ... Hemopure, a hemoglobin-based therapy, is approved for use in South Africa. Minor blood transfusions are used by a minority of ... In cases where patients have low levels of hemoglobin but are cardiovascularly stable, parenteral iron is a preferred option ... Most attempts to find a suitable alternative to blood thus far have concentrated on cell-free hemoglobin solutions. Blood ...
A sufficiently low hemoglobin (Hb) by definition makes the diagnosis of anemia, and a low hematocrit value is also ... A low MCV, a low mean corpuscular hemoglobin or mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration, and the corresponding appearance of ... Anemia is defined as a decrease in the number of red blood cells or the amount of hemoglobin in the blood. When onset is slow, ... A hemoglobin electrophoresis provides useful evidence for distinguishing these two conditions, along with iron studies. It is ...
... and decreased hemoglobin and hematocrit. The term "non-hereditary spherocytosis" is occasionally used, albeit rarely. Anemia ...
Hemoglobin. Level of hemoglobin molecules.. HCT. Hematocrit. Similar to RBC but in percentage.. ...
also found that although hemoglobin production decreases as the RBC matures, the cell creates more protein to aid in hemoglobin ... reducing the hematocrit. This process exists only in adulthood. Development brings many changes about in the Italian crested ... An Analysis of Hemoglobin Synthesis in Erythropoeitic Cells. Developmental Biology 80:107-119. ) (Fritsche, R. 1997. Ontogeny ... found that red blood cells of the newt not only produce hemoglobin, but also ferritin, ribosomal proteins, and proteins assumed ...
Captive birds showed higher hematocrit and red blood cell numbers than the free living flamingos, and a blood hemoglobin ... An increase in hemoglobin would correspond with an adults increase in metabolic needs. A smaller mean cellular volume recorded ... and both mammals and birds use a hemoglobin molecule as the primary oxygen carrier with little to no difference in oxygen ... in free living flamingos coupled with similar mean hemoglobin content between captive and free living flamingos could show ...
During diving, the haematocrit and haemoglobin are temporarily increased by reflex splenic contraction, which discharges a ... Chronic physiological adaptations of blood include elevated hematocrit, hemoglobin, and myoglobin levels which enable greater ... and in addition have a far greater concentration of haemoglobin and myoglobin, and this haemoglobin and myoglobin is also ... a difference augmented by considerably more oxygen bound to hemoglobin and myoglobin of diving mammals, enabling prolongation ...
... larger heart and cardiac output high hematocrit, high hemoglobin concentration and high blood oxygen transport capacity and ...
In April 2004 his blood was found to have a high ratio of hemoglobin to reticulocytes (young red blood cells), indicative of ... and the positive test at the Vuelta were not the only indications that Hamilton was manipulating his hematocrit level. ...
... decrease in hematocrit and hemoglobin, and increase in blood reticulocytes. Regarding the carginogenic risk, chlorpropham is ...
Chronic self-administration of the drug has been shown to cause increases in blood hemoglobin and hematocrit to abnormally high ... Raising hemoglobin levels has been found in some studies to be associated with higher risks of thrombotic events, strokes and ... "Normalization of hemoglobin level in patients with chronic kidney disease and anemia". N. Engl. J. Med. 355 (20): 2071-84. doi: ... risk of adverse cardiovascular complications in patients with kidney disease if it is used to target an increase of hemoglobin ...
... it was stated that his high hematocrit and hemoglobin values were physiologically determined. As his contract ended prior to ... Before the 2002 Tour de Romandie, Gustov was tested with a hematocrit level above fifty percent. This indicates either health ...
The haematocrit and haemoglobin content decreases till 20-30 days after birth. A peak in the content of all these haemological ...
International Health notes that the normal rule for hematocrit count is three times the hemoglobin count. The hematocrit value ... International Health notes that the normal rule for hematocrit count is three times the hemoglobin count. The hematocrit value ... What is the function of hemoglobin?. A: InnovateUs states that the main function of hemoglobin is transporting oxygen from the ... What does the hemoglobin reading on a blood test mean?. * Q: What is the effect of acetylcholine on heart rate and blood ...
So let me draw the adult hemoglobin over here on the left. Let me just first write out adult hemoglobin. So Hb for hemoglobin ... The fetal hemoglobin is basically this curve. So this is kind of the hemoglobin F curve. If you just look at the curve, it ... So if you see p50, if you see that term, you can remember now that the hemoglobin F p50 is lower than the hemoglobin A p50. And ... So this will be hemoglobin adult type, or hemoglobin A. Now if I had, lets say really high levels of 2,3-DPG, let me just draw ...
Normal hematocrit for men is 38.8 to 50 percent. For... ... Normal hemoglobin for men is 13.5 to 17.5 grams per deciliter ( ... Hemoglobin and hematocrit are commonly tested when a physician orders a complete blood count, or CBC. This laboratory test is ... Hematocrit measures the number of red blood cells in the blood by volume. Low hematocrit is another indicator of anemia, ... Normal hemoglobin for men is 13.5 to 17.5 grams per deciliter (g/dl), according to Mayo Clinic. For women, the normal range is ...
Hemoglobin analysis shows hemoglobin SS for sickle cell disease and hemoglobin AS for sickle cell trait. ... Anemia; Low hemoglobin, low hematocrit, low red cell count. *Study Identifies Factors Associated With Hearing Loss in ... Acute blood loss resulting in a rapid decrease in hemoglobin or hematocrit can be life-threatening. If not promptly treated, ... Obtain hematocrit or hemoglobin measurement or RBC number to determine RBC mass. ...
... namely haemoglobin and haematocrit, glycerol has been prohibited by the World Anti-Dop … ... Reductions in haemoglobin were 0.2 g/dl (95%-CI: -0.3, 0.0) larger and there was no difference in the changes in haematocrit ... Meta-analysis: Effects of glycerol administration on plasma volume, haemoglobin, and haematocrit Drug Test Anal. Nov-Dec 2013;5 ... namely haemoglobin and haematocrit, glycerol has been prohibited by the World Anti-Doping Agency since 2010. In order to test ...
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Reference Ranges for Hematocrit and Blood Hemoglobin Concentration During the Neonatal Period: Data From a Multihospital Health ... Reference Ranges for Hematocrit and Blood Hemoglobin Concentration During the Neonatal Period: Data From a Multihospital Health ... Reference Ranges for Hematocrit and Blood Hemoglobin Concentration During the Neonatal Period: Data From a Multihospital Health ... Reference Ranges for Hematocrit and Blood Hemoglobin Concentration During the Neonatal Period: Data From a Multihospital Health ...
Anemia; Low hemoglobin, low hematocrit, low red cell count J. Eric Russell ... Close more info about Anemia; Low hemoglobin, low hematocrit, low red cell count ... Close more info about Anemia; Low hemoglobin, low hematocrit, low red cell count ... Low (and high) values for hemoglobin or hematocrit should be confirmed by repeat analysis. ...
Low (and high) values for hemoglobin or hematocrit should be confirmed by repeat analysis. ... This is done by multiplying the observed reticulocyte count by the ratio of the patients hematocrit to a normal hematocrit. ... laboratory values for hemoglobin and hematocrit may not accurately reflect the deficit in total body red cell mass. Repeat CBCs ... and/or amount of intracellular hemoglobin (mean corpuscular hemoglobin, MCH). Common conditions resulting in a hypochromic ...
Reasons for decreased hematocrit or hemoglobin count are anemia iron deficiency, bone marrow suppression and chronic infection ... Hematocrit Levels , What Is Hematocrit Normal Range in Blood (Hemoglobin) *Hemoglobin Levels , How To Increase Haemoglobin ... Hematocrit Levels , What Is Hematocrit Normal Range in Blood (Hemoglobin). *Hemoglobin Levels , How To Increase Haemoglobin ... Question: What causes decreased hematocrit?. Hematocrit is measurement of the red blood cells in the blood. Hematocrit can be ...
The mean hematocrit in the 45 patients for whom we had appropriate data was 24.4 (±5.2 SD). We used a mean hematocrit value of ... Cognitive Impairment in Children with Hemoglobin SS Sickle Cell Disease: Relationship to MR Imaging Findings and Hematocrit. R ... Cognitive Impairment in Children with Hemoglobin SS Sickle Cell Disease: Relationship to MR Imaging Findings and Hematocrit ... Cognitive Impairment in Children with Hemoglobin SS Sickle Cell Disease: Relationship to MR Imaging Findings and Hematocrit ...
What does low hemoglobin, low hematocrit, low much and high rdw mean? My labs have been like this for over a year Anemia. ... What does a high hematocrit and hemoglobin mean - ... High hemoglobin and hematocrit and headaches * Low hemoglobin ... What does low hemoglobin,low hematocrit,low much and high rdw mean? My labs have been like this for over a year ... Hemoglobin 106 low hematocrit, MCV, MCH low and RDW 18.4. Ferritin 7. Is the high RDW a concern. last b12 was 137? ...
Hemoglobin analysis shows hemoglobin SS for sickle cell disease and hemoglobin AS for sickle cell trait. ... Acute blood loss resulting in a rapid decrease in hemoglobin or hematocrit can be life-threatening. If not promptly treated, ... Obtain hematocrit or hemoglobin measurement or RBC number to determine RBC mass. ... Screening tests for the presence of sickle hemoglobin, usually based on the altered solubility of sickle hemoglobin, are ...
There is a correlation between both serum hemoglobin (HGB) and hematocrit (HCT) and attenuation values of vessels in ... Hematocrit and HGB do not influence calculated perfusion maps. There is no need for HCT/HGB-adjusted cerebral blood volume ... Hematocrit, HGB, and attenuation values did not differ between patients with stroke and controls. A statistically significant ...
Results: A good fit was obtained using Haematocrit = 5.62 + 2.60 * Haemoglobin. On average, haematocrit/3 levels were slightly ... Anaemia is assessed either by measurement of the haematocrit or the haemoglobin concentration. For comparisons across studies, ... Haemoglobin was also estimated from haematocrit with the commonly used threefold conversion. ... The relationship between the haemoglobin concentration and the haematocrit in Plasmodium falciparum malaria ...
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Why would hemoglobin and hematocrit be low in a COPD patients? * Please explain the low level of hemoglobin and hematocrit in ... Why would hemoglobin and hematocrit be low in a COPD patients? * Please explain the low level of hemoglobin and hematocrit in ... Why would the hemoglobin and hematocrit be low in a non-surgical patient with a distal femur fracture? ... Why would the hemoglobin and hematocrit be low in a non-surgical patient with a distal femur fracture? ...
Dietary pattern, haemoglobin and haematocrit status of pregnant women in Ogbaru Local Government Area of Anambra State, Nigeria ... Keywords: Food habits, haemoglobin, haematocrit, pregnant women Abstract. Background: Pregnancy is a normal physiologic process ... This study examined the dietary pattern, haemoglobin and haematocrit status of pregnant women in Ogbaru Local Government Area ( ... Majority (93%) of the women had normal packed cell volume of 33% and above; up to 79.7% had haemoglobin of 12 - 16g/dl. Only ...
10 and Hematocrit: 30. Suggestions?. Ask a Doctor about diagnosis, treatment and medication for Anemia, Ask a Hematologist ... Hemoglobin: 10 Hematocrit: 30 MCV: 68 MCHC: 26 MCH: 22 RDW: 18 What is a a definitive diagnosis and plan of care based on ... It appears that she has low hemoglobin (anemia) due to iron deficiency. Definitive diagnosis can be reached by serum iron ...
Bone marrow biopsy may be useful to determine if polycythemia vera is in a hypercellular phase with greater than 60% cellularity or in a hypocellular bone marrow with markedly increased reticulin fibers.. Copyright © 2017, 2013 Decision Support in Medicine, LLC. All rights reserved. No sponsor or advertiser has participated in, approved or paid for the content provided by Decision Support in Medicine LLC. The Licensed Content is the property of and copyrighted by DSM. ...
Hemoglobin and Hematocrit answers are found in the Daviss Lab & Diagnostic Tests powered by Unbound Medicine. Available for ... Hemoglobin and Hematocrit is a topic covered in the Daviss Lab & Diagnostic Tests. To view the entire topic, please sign in or ... "Hemoglobin and Hematocrit." Daviss Lab & Diagnostic Tests, 7th ed., F.A. Davis Company, 2017. Nursing Central, nursing. ... Hemoglobin and Hematocrit [Internet]. In: Daviss Lab & Diagnostic Tests. F.A. Davis Company; 2017. [cited 2020 June 02]. ...
... hemoglobin (Hgb), and hematocrit (Hct); any of these counts can be altered, and in most anemias the RBC and hemoglobin will be ... Hematocrit. -The volume percentage of red blood cells in whole blood.. Hemoglobin. -A protein in red blood cells that ... It is usually defined by measuring the haemoglobin level in the blood. Because of the wide range of haemoglobin values at ... The oxygen-carrying molecule in red blood cells is hemoglobin (pronounced HEE-muh-glo-bin). Hemoglobin is a large, complex ...
Maintain specimen at room temperature. Do not refrigerate. If multiple draw, collect EDTA (lavender-top) tube last. Traumatic draw can introduce thromboplastin and trap WBC and platelets. Refrigeration can precipitate fibrin and trap WBC and platelets.. ...
Hematocrit or hemoglobin screening. To diagnose iron deficiency anemia, your doctor may run tests to look for:. *Hemoglobin ... Hematocrit also called Hct. It is the volume of red blood cells compared to the total blood volume, which is made up of red ... A sufficient hemoglobin level must be maintained so that body tissue can get enough oxygen. ...
2016 · What are normal high hemoglobin and hematocrit testosterone ranges of hematocrit, red cell counts, and hemoglobin? Some ... hemoglobin and hematocrit) High hemoglobin with a high RBC count and high hematocrit …. 11. 2006 · Anemia is a common ... Hemoglobin can be less than one third of hematocrit, but it is normally nearly. The treatment of high or low hematocrit depends ... D. When hematocrit is too high, your cardiovascular system will suffer hemoglobin and hematocrit) or polycythemia (high RBCs, ...
  • Deletion forms: Deletions of different sizes involving the β globin gene produce different syndromes such as (βo) or hereditary persistence of fetal hemoglobin syndromes. (wikipedia.org)
  • Hemoglobin analysis shows hemoglobin SS for sickle cell disease and hemoglobin AS for sickle cell trait. (oncologynurseadvisor.com)
  • Screening tests for the presence of sickle hemoglobin, usually based on the altered solubility of sickle hemoglobin, are positive in both sickle cell disease and sickle cell trait. (oncologynurseadvisor.com)
  • Children with hemoglobin SS sickle cell disease are known to suffer cognitive impairment if they have silent infarct, but recent evidence suggests that patients with hemoglobin SS sickle cell disease may be impaired even if they are free of infarction. (ajnr.org)
  • A cohort of 49 patients was examined, all of whom had hemoglobin SS sickle cell disease but no history of clinical stroke. (ajnr.org)
  • The incidence of mild mental deficiency was elevated at least 11-fold in a small sample of patients with sickle cell disease with no clinical history of stroke, and the full-scale intelligence quotient of these patients correlated with hematocrit ( 2 ). (ajnr.org)
  • Because this hypothesis has been controversial ( 4 ), we sought to elucidate the relationship between full-scale intelligence quotient, MR imaging, and hematocrit in a cohort of patients with hemoglobin SS sickle cell disease, the most severe form of sickle cell disease. (ajnr.org)
  • A cohort of 49 patients with hemoglobin SS sickle cell disease was examined, all of whom had no history of clinical stroke and were seen at our institution. (ajnr.org)
  • Most patients were tested as part of an ongoing, prospective study of sickle cell disease ( 2 ), and these patients were probably representative of patients with hemoglobin SS sickle cell disease at St. Jude. (ajnr.org)
  • There is a correlation between both serum hemoglobin (HGB) and hematocrit (HCT) and attenuation values of vessels in noncontrast-enhanced computed tomography (NECT), which could influence calculated perfusion maps in CT perfusion. (ovid.com)
  • InnovateUs states that the main function of hemoglobin is transporting oxygen from the lungs to other parts of the body. (reference.com)
  • Other cells that contain haemoglobin include the A9 dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra , macrophages , alveolar cells , lungs, retinal pigment epithelium, hepatocytes, mesangial cells in the kidney, endometrial cells, cervical cells and vaginal epithelial cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Here, we assessed the association of sleep duration with Hgb and hematocrit (Hct) observationally in late adolescence in a population-representative Chinese birth cohort "Children of 1997" with validation using Mendelian Randomization (MR) in adults. (cdc.gov)