The oxygen-carrying proteins of ERYTHROCYTES. They are found in all vertebrates and some invertebrates. The number of globin subunits in the hemoglobin quaternary structure differs between species. Structures range from monomeric to a variety of multimeric arrangements.
Normal adult human hemoglobin. The globin moiety consists of two alpha and two beta chains.
Hemoglobins characterized by structural alterations within the molecule. The alteration can be either absence, addition or substitution of one or more amino acids in the globin part of the molecule at selected positions in the polypeptide chains.
The major component of hemoglobin in the fetus. This HEMOGLOBIN has two alpha and two gamma polypeptide subunits in comparison to normal adult hemoglobin, which has two alpha and two beta polypeptide subunits. Fetal hemoglobin concentrations can be elevated (usually above 0.5%) in children and adults affected by LEUKEMIA and several types of ANEMIA.
Minor hemoglobin components of human erythrocytes designated A1a, A1b, and A1c. Hemoglobin A1c is most important since its sugar moiety is glucose covalently bound to the terminal amino acid of the beta chain. Since normal glycohemoglobin concentrations exclude marked blood glucose fluctuations over the preceding three to four weeks, the concentration of glycosylated hemoglobin A is a more reliable index of the blood sugar average over a long period of time.
An abnormal hemoglobin resulting from the substitution of valine for glutamic acid at position 6 of the beta chain of the globin moiety. The heterozygous state results in sickle cell trait, the homozygous in sickle cell anemia.
The chemical or biochemical addition of carbohydrate or glycosyl groups to other chemicals, especially peptides or proteins. Glycosyl transferases are used in this biochemical reaction.
A commonly occurring abnormal hemoglobin in which lysine replaces a glutamic acid residue at the sixth position of the beta chains. It results in reduced plasticity of erythrocytes.
A compound formed by the combination of hemoglobin and oxygen. It is a complex in which the oxygen is bound directly to the iron without causing a change from the ferrous to the ferric state.
An abnormal hemoglobin that results from the substitution of lysine for glutamic acid at position 26 of the beta chain. It is most frequently observed in southeast Asian populations.
An adult hemoglobin component normally present in hemolysates from human erythrocytes in concentrations of about 3%. The hemoglobin is composed of two alpha chains and two delta chains. The percentage of HbA2 varies in some hematologic disorders, but is about double in beta-thalassemia.
A family of hemoglobin-like proteins found in BACTERIA; PLANTS; and unicellular eukaryotes. Truncated hemoglobins are distantly related to vertebrate hemoglobins and are typically shorter than vertebrate hemoglobins by 20-40 residues.
A group of inherited disorders characterized by structural alterations within the hemoglobin molecule.
A reduction in the number of circulating ERYTHROCYTES or in the quantity of HEMOGLOBIN.
Measurement of hemoglobin concentration in blood.
An element with atomic symbol O, atomic number 8, and atomic weight [15.99903; 15.99977]. It is the most abundant element on earth and essential for respiration.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
A disease characterized by compensated hemolysis with a normal hemoglobin level or a mild to moderate anemia. There may be intermittent abdominal discomfort, splenomegaly, and slight jaundice.
Red blood cells. Mature erythrocytes are non-nucleated, biconcave disks containing HEMOGLOBIN whose function is to transport OXYGEN.
Substances that are used in place of blood, for example, as an alternative to BLOOD TRANSFUSIONS after blood loss to restore BLOOD VOLUME and oxygen-carrying capacity to the blood circulation, or to perfuse isolated organs.
A group of abnormal hemoglobins with similar electrophoretic characteristics. They have faster electrophoretic mobility and different amino acid substitutions in either the alpha or beta chains than normal adult hemoglobin. Some of the variants produce hematologic abnormalities, others result in no clinical disorders.
Conjugated protein-carbohydrate compounds including mucins, mucoid, and amyloid glycoproteins.
An abnormal hemoglobin composed of four beta chains. It is caused by the reduced synthesis of the alpha chain. This abnormality results in ALPHA-THALASSEMIA.
A disease characterized by chronic hemolytic anemia, episodic painful crises, and pathologic involvement of many organs. It is the clinical expression of homozygosity for hemoglobin S.
A highly anionic organic phosphate which is present in human red blood cells at about the same molar ratio as hemoglobin. It binds to deoxyhemoglobin but not the oxygenated form, therefore diminishing the oxygen affinity of hemoglobin. This is essential in enabling hemoglobin to unload oxygen in tissue capillaries. It is also an intermediate in the conversion of 3-phosphoglycerate to 2-phosphoglycerate by phosphoglycerate mutase (EC 5.4.2.1). (From Stryer Biochemistry, 4th ed, p160; Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992, p508)
A superfamily of proteins containing the globin fold which is composed of 6-8 alpha helices arranged in a characterstic HEME enclosing structure.
A metallic element with atomic symbol Fe, atomic number 26, and atomic weight 55.85. It is an essential constituent of HEMOGLOBINS; CYTOCHROMES; and IRON-BINDING PROTEINS. It plays a role in cellular redox reactions and in the transport of OXYGEN.
Glycoprotein hormone, secreted chiefly by the KIDNEY in the adult and the LIVER in the FETUS, that acts on erythroid stem cells of the BONE MARROW to stimulate proliferation and differentiation.
The color-furnishing portion of hemoglobin. It is found free in tissues and as the prosthetic group in many hemeproteins.
A group of hereditary hemolytic anemias in which there is decreased synthesis of one or more hemoglobin polypeptide chains. There are several genetic types with clinical pictures ranging from barely detectable hematologic abnormality to severe and fatal anemia.
The volume of packed RED BLOOD CELLS in a blood specimen. The volume is measured by centrifugation in a tube with graduated markings, or with automated blood cell counters. It is an indicator of erythrocyte status in disease. For example, ANEMIA shows a low value; POLYCYTHEMIA, a high value.
An N-acetylglycosamine containing antiviral antibiotic obtained from Streptomyces lysosuperificus. It is also active against some bacteria and fungi, because it inhibits the glucosylation of proteins. Tunicamycin is used as tool in the study of microbial biosynthetic mechanisms.
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
Glucose in blood.
Plasma glycoproteins that form a stable complex with hemoglobin to aid the recycling of heme iron. They are encoded in man by a gene on the short arm of chromosome 16.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.
One of the sickle cell disorders characterized by the presence of both hemoglobin S and hemoglobin C. It is similar to, but less severe than sickle cell anemia.
Carbon monoxide (CO). A poisonous colorless, odorless, tasteless gas. It combines with hemoglobin to form carboxyhemoglobin, which has no oxygen carrying capacity. The resultant oxygen deprivation causes headache, dizziness, decreased pulse and respiratory rates, unconsciousness, and death. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)
Agents which improve the quality of the blood, increasing the hemoglobin level and the number of erythrocytes. They are used in the treatment of anemias.
Electrophoresis applied to BLOOD PROTEINS.
A heterogeneous group of disorders characterized by HYPERGLYCEMIA and GLUCOSE INTOLERANCE.
The number of RED BLOOD CELLS per unit volume in a sample of venous BLOOD.
A subclass of DIABETES MELLITUS that is not INSULIN-responsive or dependent (NIDDM). It is characterized initially by INSULIN RESISTANCE and HYPERINSULINEMIA; and eventually by GLUCOSE INTOLERANCE; HYPERGLYCEMIA; and overt diabetes. Type II diabetes mellitus is no longer considered a disease exclusively found in adults. Patients seldom develop KETOSIS but often exhibit OBESITY.
A sub-subclass of endopeptidases that depend on an ASPARTIC ACID residue for their activity.
Proteins which contain carbohydrate groups attached covalently to the polypeptide chain. The protein moiety is the predominant group with the carbohydrate making up only a small percentage of the total weight.
Anemia characterized by decreased or absent iron stores, low serum iron concentration, low transferrin saturation, and low hemoglobin concentration or hematocrit value. The erythrocytes are hypochromic and microcytic and the iron binding capacity is increased.
Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.
Any of various enzymatically catalyzed post-translational modifications of PEPTIDES or PROTEINS in the cell of origin. These modifications include carboxylation; HYDROXYLATION; ACETYLATION; PHOSPHORYLATION; METHYLATION; GLYCOSYLATION; ubiquitination; oxidation; proteolysis; and crosslinking and result in changes in molecular weight and electrophoretic motility.
An amino sugar formed when glucose non-enzymatically reacts with the N-terminal amino group of proteins. The fructose moiety is derived from glucose by the "classical" Amadori rearrangement.
Complexing agent for removal of traces of heavy metal ions. It acts also as a hypocalcemic agent.
Liquid chromatographic techniques which feature high inlet pressures, high sensitivity, and high speed.
A non-essential amino acid that is involved in the metabolic control of cell functions in nerve and brain tissue. It is biosynthesized from ASPARTIC ACID and AMMONIA by asparagine synthetase. (From Concise Encyclopedia Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 3rd ed)
An amidohydrolase that removes intact asparagine-linked oligosaccharide chains from glycoproteins. It requires the presence of more than two amino-acid residues in the substrate for activity. This enzyme was previously listed as EC 3.2.2.18.
The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
The largest class of organic compounds, including STARCH; GLYCOGEN; CELLULOSE; POLYSACCHARIDES; and simple MONOSACCHARIDES. Carbohydrates are composed of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen in a ratio of Cn(H2O)n.
The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).
Iron-containing proteins that are widely distributed in animals, plants, and microorganisms. Their major function is to store IRON in a nontoxic bioavailable form. Each ferritin molecule consists of ferric iron in a hollow protein shell (APOFERRITINS) made of 24 subunits of various sequences depending on the species and tissue types.
Any compound that contains a constituent sugar, in which the hydroxyl group attached to the first carbon is substituted by an alcoholic, phenolic, or other group. They are named specifically for the sugar contained, such as glucoside (glucose), pentoside (pentose), fructoside (fructose), etc. Upon hydrolysis, a sugar and nonsugar component (aglycone) are formed. (From Dorland, 28th ed; From Miall's Dictionary of Chemistry, 5th ed)
A disorder characterized by reduced synthesis of the beta chains of hemoglobin. There is retardation of hemoglobin A synthesis in the heterozygous form (thalassemia minor), which is asymptomatic, while in the homozygous form (thalassemia major, Cooley's anemia, Mediterranean anemia, erythroblastic anemia), which can result in severe complications and even death, hemoglobin A synthesis is absent.
The condition of being heterozygous for hemoglobin S.
Carbohydrates consisting of between two (DISACCHARIDES) and ten MONOSACCHARIDES connected by either an alpha- or beta-glycosidic link. They are found throughout nature in both the free and bound form.
A group of related enzymes responsible for the endohydrolysis of the di-N-acetylchitobiosyl unit in high-mannose-content glycopeptides and GLYCOPROTEINS.
The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.
A group of abnormal hemoglobins in which amino acid substitutions take place in either the alpha or beta chains but near the heme iron. This results in facilitated oxidation of the hemoglobin to yield excess methemoglobin which leads to cyanosis.
Agents used to prevent or reverse the pathological events leading to sickling of erythrocytes in sickle cell conditions.
A disorder characterized by reduced synthesis of the alpha chains of hemoglobin. The severity of this condition can vary from mild anemia to death, depending on the number of genes deleted.
Electrophoresis in which cellulose acetate is the diffusion medium.
Members of the alpha-globin family. In humans, they are encoded in a gene cluster on CHROMOSOME 16. They include zeta-globin and alpha-globin. There are also pseudogenes of zeta (theta-zeta) and alpha (theta-alpha) in the cluster. Adult HEMOGLOBIN is comprised of 2 alpha-globin chains and 2 beta-globin chains.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
Oxygen-carrying RED BLOOD CELLS in mammalian blood that are abnormal in structure or function.
A conjugated protein which is the oxygen-transporting pigment of muscle. It is made up of one globin polypeptide chain and one heme group.
The destruction of ERYTHROCYTES by many different causal agents such as antibodies, bacteria, chemicals, temperature, and changes in tonicity.
Compounds and molecular complexes that consist of very large numbers of atoms and are generally over 500 kDa in size. In biological systems macromolecular substances usually can be visualized using ELECTRON MICROSCOPY and are distinguished from ORGANELLES by the lack of a membrane structure.
Separation technique in which the stationary phase consists of ion exchange resins. The resins contain loosely held small ions that easily exchange places with other small ions of like charge present in solutions washed over the resins.
Electrophoresis in which a pH gradient is established in a gel medium and proteins migrate until they reach the site (or focus) at which the pH is equal to their isoelectric point.
One of the virulence factors produced by BORDETELLA PERTUSSIS. It is a multimeric protein composed of five subunits S1 - S5. S1 contains mono ADPribose transferase activity.
A subtype of DIABETES MELLITUS that is characterized by INSULIN deficiency. It is manifested by the sudden onset of severe HYPERGLYCEMIA, rapid progression to DIABETIC KETOACIDOSIS, and DEATH unless treated with insulin. The disease may occur at any age, but is most common in childhood or adolescence.
Anemia characterized by a decrease in the ratio of the weight of hemoglobin to the volume of the erythrocyte, i.e., the mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration is less than normal. The individual cells contain less hemoglobin than they could have under optimal conditions. Hypochromic anemia may be caused by iron deficiency from a low iron intake, diminished iron absorption, or excessive iron loss. It can also be caused by infections or other diseases, therapeutic drugs, lead poisoning, and other conditions. (Stedman, 25th ed; from Miale, Laboratory Medicine: Hematology, 6th ed, p393)
The production of red blood cells (ERYTHROCYTES). In humans, erythrocytes are produced by the YOLK SAC in the first trimester; by the liver in the second trimester; by the BONE MARROW in the third trimester and after birth. In normal individuals, the erythrocyte count in the peripheral blood remains relatively constant implying a balance between the rate of erythrocyte production and rate of destruction.
The presence of free HEMOGLOBIN in the URINE, indicating hemolysis of ERYTHROCYTES within the vascular system. After saturating the hemoglobin-binding proteins (HAPTOGLOBINS), free hemoglobin begins to appear in the urine.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
Substances which lower blood glucose levels.
An increase in the total red cell mass of the blood. (Dorland, 27th ed)
Chloro(7,12-diethenyl-3,8,13,17-tetramethyl-21H,23H-porphine-2,18-dipropanoato(4-)-N(21),N(22),N(23),N(24)) ferrate(2-) dihydrogen.
The sequence of carbohydrates within POLYSACCHARIDES; GLYCOPROTEINS; and GLYCOLIPIDS.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
The art or process of comparing photometrically the relative intensities of the light in different parts of the spectrum.
Immature ERYTHROCYTES. In humans, these are ERYTHROID CELLS that have just undergone extrusion of their CELL NUCLEUS. They still contain some organelles that gradually decrease in number as the cells mature. RIBOSOMES are last to disappear. Certain staining techniques cause components of the ribosomes to precipitate into characteristic "reticulum" (not the same as the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM), hence the name reticulocytes.
Partial proteins formed by partial hydrolysis of complete proteins or generated through PROTEIN ENGINEERING techniques.
A hexose or fermentable monosaccharide and isomer of glucose from manna, the ash Fraxinus ornus and related plants. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed & Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)
Organic compounds that generally contain an amino (-NH2) and a carboxyl (-COOH) group. Twenty alpha-amino acids are the subunits which are polymerized to form proteins.
The co-occurrence of pregnancy and a blood disease (HEMATOLOGIC DISEASES) which involves BLOOD CELLS or COAGULATION FACTORS. The hematologic disease may precede or follow FERTILIZATION and it may or may not have a deleterious effect on the pregnant woman or FETUS.
An analytical method used in determining the identity of a chemical based on its mass using mass analyzers/mass spectrometers.
The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.
Abnormal intracellular inclusions, composed of denatured hemoglobin, found on the membrane of red blood cells. They are seen in thalassemias, enzymopathies, hemoglobinopathies, and after splenectomy.
Repetitive withdrawal of small amounts of blood and replacement with donor blood until a large proportion of the blood volume has been exchanged. Used in treatment of fetal erythroblastosis, hepatic coma, sickle cell anemia, disseminated intravascular coagulation, septicemia, burns, thrombotic thrombopenic purpura, and fulminant malaria.
Tests used in the analysis of the hemic system.
A phylum of metazoan invertebrates comprising the segmented worms, and including marine annelids (POLYCHAETA), freshwater annelids, earthworms (OLIGOCHAETA), and LEECHES. Only the leeches are of medical interest. (Dorland, 27th ed)
High molecular weight mucoproteins that protect the surface of EPITHELIAL CELLS by providing a barrier to particulate matter and microorganisms. Membrane-anchored mucins may have additional roles concerned with protein interactions at the cell surface.
The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.
The number of RETICULOCYTES per unit volume of BLOOD. The values are expressed as a percentage of the ERYTHROCYTE COUNT or in the form of an index ("corrected reticulocyte index"), which attempts to account for the number of circulating erythrocytes.
A chromatographic technique that utilizes the ability of biological molecules to bind to certain ligands specifically and reversibly. It is used in protein biochemistry. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
A class of annelid worms with few setae per segment. It includes the earthworms such as Lumbricus and Eisenia.
A plant genus of the family LILIACEAE with roots that contain VERATRUM ALKALOIDS used as emetics, parasiticides, antihypertensives. It is the main ingredient of Boicil.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
Proteins that contain an iron-porphyrin, or heme, prosthetic group resembling that of hemoglobin. (From Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p480)
Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.
The introduction of whole blood or blood component directly into the blood stream. (Dorland, 27th ed)
Stable iron atoms that have the same atomic number as the element iron, but differ in atomic weight. Fe-54, 57, and 58 are stable iron isotopes.
A subfamily in the family MURIDAE, comprising the hamsters. Four of the more common genera are Cricetus, CRICETULUS; MESOCRICETUS; and PHODOPUS.
Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.
The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.
A noninvasive technique that uses the differential absorption properties of hemoglobin and myoglobin to evaluate tissue oxygenation and indirectly can measure regional hemodynamics and blood flow. Near-infrared light (NIR) can propagate through tissues and at particular wavelengths is differentially absorbed by oxygenated vs. deoxygenated forms of hemoglobin and myoglobin. Illumination of intact tissue with NIR allows qualitative assessment of changes in the tissue concentration of these molecules. The analysis is also used to determine body composition.
A serine endopeptidase that is formed from TRYPSINOGEN in the pancreas. It is converted into its active form by ENTEROPEPTIDASE in the small intestine. It catalyzes hydrolysis of the carboxyl group of either arginine or lysine. EC 3.4.21.4.
Glycoproteins found on the membrane or surface of cells.
A mass spectrometric technique that is used for the analysis of large biomolecules. Analyte molecules are embedded in an excess matrix of small organic molecules that show a high resonant absorption at the laser wavelength used. The matrix absorbs the laser energy, thus inducing a soft disintegration of the sample-matrix mixture into free (gas phase) matrix and analyte molecules and molecular ions. In general, only molecular ions of the analyte molecules are produced, and almost no fragmentation occurs. This makes the method well suited for molecular weight determinations and mixture analysis.
Chromatography on non-ionic gels without regard to the mechanism of solute discrimination.
Electrophoresis in which a starch gel (a mixture of amylose and amylopectin) is used as the diffusion medium.
A condition of inadequate circulating red blood cells (ANEMIA) or insufficient HEMOGLOBIN due to premature destruction of red blood cells (ERYTHROCYTES).
A system of cisternae in the CYTOPLASM of many cells. In places the endoplasmic reticulum is continuous with the plasma membrane (CELL MEMBRANE) or outer membrane of the nuclear envelope. If the outer surfaces of the endoplasmic reticulum membranes are coated with ribosomes, the endoplasmic reticulum is said to be rough-surfaced (ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM, ROUGH); otherwise it is said to be smooth-surfaced (ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM, SMOOTH). (King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
Enzymes that catalyze the hydrolysis of N-acylhexosamine residues in N-acylhexosamides. Hexosaminidases also act on GLUCOSIDES; GALACTOSIDES; and several OLIGOSACCHARIDES.
Measurable and quantifiable biological parameters (e.g., specific enzyme concentration, specific hormone concentration, specific gene phenotype distribution in a population, presence of biological substances) which serve as indices for health- and physiology-related assessments, such as disease risk, psychiatric disorders, environmental exposure and its effects, disease diagnosis, metabolic processes, substance abuse, pregnancy, cell line development, epidemiologic studies, etc.
A chemical reaction in which an electron is transferred from one molecule to another. The electron-donating molecule is the reducing agent or reductant; the electron-accepting molecule is the oxidizing agent or oxidant. Reducing and oxidizing agents function as conjugate reductant-oxidant pairs or redox pairs (Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p471).
The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.
The PROTEIN SUBUNITS that comprise multimeric HEMOGLOBINS.
Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.
Chemical bond cleavage reactions resulting from absorption of radiant energy.
The number of LEUKOCYTES and ERYTHROCYTES per unit volume in a sample of venous BLOOD. A complete blood count (CBC) also includes measurement of the HEMOGLOBIN; HEMATOCRIT; and ERYTHROCYTE INDICES.
The relationship between the chemical structure of a compound and its biological or pharmacological activity. Compounds are often classed together because they have structural characteristics in common including shape, size, stereochemical arrangement, and distribution of functional groups.
A major protein in the BLOOD. It is important in maintaining the colloidal osmotic pressure and transporting large organic molecules.
Yeast-like ascomycetous fungi of the family Saccharomycetaceae, order SACCHAROMYCETALES isolated from exuded tree sap.
The N-acetyl derivative of glucosamine.
Proteins that are present in blood serum, including SERUM ALBUMIN; BLOOD COAGULATION FACTORS; and many other types of proteins.
An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.
Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.
Carbohydrate antigen elevated in patients with tumors of the breast, ovary, lung, and prostate as well as other disorders. The mucin is expressed normally by most glandular epithelia but shows particularly increased expression in the breast at lactation and in malignancy. It is thus an established serum marker for breast cancer.
The transfer of erythrocytes from a donor to a recipient or reinfusion to the donor.
The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.
Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.
Spectroscopic method of measuring the magnetic moment of elementary particles such as atomic nuclei, protons or electrons. It is employed in clinical applications such as NMR Tomography (MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING).
People who engage in occupational sexual behavior in exchange for economic rewards or other extrinsic considerations.
The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.
The modification of the reactivity of ENZYMES by the binding of effectors to sites (ALLOSTERIC SITES) on the enzymes other than the substrate BINDING SITES.
The ability of a substance to be dissolved, i.e. to form a solution with another substance. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
CELL LINE derived from the ovary of the Chinese hamster, Cricetulus griseus (CRICETULUS). The species is a favorite for cytogenetic studies because of its small chromosome number. The cell line has provided model systems for the study of genetic alterations in cultured mammalian cells.
The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a carbohydrate.
Therapy for the insufficient cleansing of the BLOOD by the kidneys based on dialysis and including hemodialysis, PERITONEAL DIALYSIS, and HEMODIAFILTRATION.
Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.
Enzymes that catalyze the transfer of N-acetylgalactosamine from a nucleoside diphosphate N-acetylgalactosamine to an acceptor molecule which is frequently another carbohydrate. EC 2.4.1.-.
A molecule that binds to another molecule, used especially to refer to a small molecule that binds specifically to a larger molecule, e.g., an antigen binding to an antibody, a hormone or neurotransmitter binding to a receptor, or a substrate or allosteric effector binding to an enzyme. Ligands are also molecules that donate or accept a pair of electrons to form a coordinate covalent bond with the central metal atom of a coordination complex. (From Dorland, 27th ed)
A genus of gram-negative, aerobic or microaerophilic, colorless filaments. It is nonfruiting, motile by gliding, and found in freshwater sediments and cow dung. One species (V. stercoraria) is considered morphologically to be a streptobacillus. That species is strictly aerobic and produces a homodimeric bacterial hemoglobin, especially under oxygen-limited growth conditions. (From Bergey's Manual of Determinative Bacteriology, 9th ed)
Volume of circulating ERYTHROCYTES . It is usually measured by RADIOISOTOPE DILUTION TECHNIQUE.
Genetically engineered MUTAGENESIS at a specific site in the DNA molecule that introduces a base substitution, or an insertion or deletion.
A basic science concerned with the composition, structure, and properties of matter; and the reactions that occur between substances and the associated energy exchange.
The semi-permeable outer structure of a red blood cell. It is known as a red cell 'ghost' after HEMOLYSIS.
A hydroxylated derivative of the amino acid LYSINE that is present in certain collagens.
The senescence of RED BLOOD CELLS. Lacking the organelles that make protein synthesis possible, the mature erythrocyte is incapable of self-repair, reproduction, and carrying out certain functions performed by other cells. This limits the average life span of an erythrocyte to 120 days.
The composition, conformation, and properties of atoms and molecules, and their reaction and interaction processes.
The pressure that would be exerted by one component of a mixture of gases if it were present alone in a container. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
Analysis of PEPTIDES that are generated from the digestion or fragmentation of a protein or mixture of PROTEINS, by ELECTROPHORESIS; CHROMATOGRAPHY; or MASS SPECTROMETRY. The resulting peptide fingerprints are analyzed for a variety of purposes including the identification of the proteins in a sample, GENETIC POLYMORPHISMS, patterns of gene expression, and patterns diagnostic for diseases.
The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.
An N-acyl derivative of neuraminic acid. N-acetylneuraminic acid occurs in many polysaccharides, glycoproteins, and glycolipids in animals and bacteria. (From Dorland, 28th ed, p1518)
A class of marine annelids including sandworms, tube worms, clamworms, and fire worms. It includes also the genus Myxicola infundibulum.
The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.
Reduction of blood viscosity usually by the addition of cell free solutions. Used clinically (1) in states of impaired microcirculation, (2) for replacement of intraoperative blood loss without homologous blood transfusion, and (3) in cardiopulmonary bypass and hypothermia.
The end-stage of CHRONIC RENAL INSUFFICIENCY. It is characterized by the severe irreversible kidney damage (as measured by the level of PROTEINURIA) and the reduction in GLOMERULAR FILTRATION RATE to less than 15 ml per min (Kidney Foundation: Kidney Disease Outcome Quality Initiative, 2002). These patients generally require HEMODIALYSIS or KIDNEY TRANSPLANTATION.
A class in the phylum MOLLUSCA comprised of mussels; clams; OYSTERS; COCKLES; and SCALLOPS. They are characterized by a bilaterally symmetrical hinged shell and a muscular foot used for burrowing and anchoring.
The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.
A clinical manifestation consisting of an unnatural paleness of the skin.
A family of nonbiting midges, in the order DIPTERA. Salivary glands of the genus Chironomus are used in studies of cellular genetics and biochemistry.
An iron-binding beta1-globulin that is synthesized in the LIVER and secreted into the blood. It plays a central role in the transport of IRON throughout the circulation. A variety of transferrin isoforms exist in humans, including some that are considered markers for specific disease states.
Members of the beta-globin family. In humans, two non-allelic types of gamma-globin - A gamma and G gamma are encoded in the beta-globin gene cluster on CHROMOSOME 11. Two gamma-globin chains combine with two ZETA-GLOBIN chains to form the embryonic hemoglobin Portland. Fetal HEMOGLOBIN F is formed from two gamma-globin chains combined with two ALPHA-GLOBIN chains.
The range or frequency distribution of a measurement in a population (of organisms, organs or things) that has not been selected for the presence of disease or abnormality.
Any technique by which an unknown color is evaluated in terms of standard colors. The technique may be visual, photoelectric, or indirect by means of spectrophotometry. It is used in chemistry and physics. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Simple sugars, carbohydrates which cannot be decomposed by hydrolysis. They are colorless crystalline substances with a sweet taste and have the same general formula CnH2nOn. (From Dorland, 28th ed)
An essential amino acid that is required for the production of HISTAMINE.
Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.
The determination of oxygen-hemoglobin saturation of blood either by withdrawing a sample and passing it through a classical photoelectric oximeter or by electrodes attached to some translucent part of the body like finger, earlobe, or skin fold. It includes non-invasive oxygen monitoring by pulse oximetry.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
A 51-amino acid pancreatic hormone that plays a major role in the regulation of glucose metabolism, directly by suppressing endogenous glucose production (GLYCOGENOLYSIS; GLUCONEOGENESIS) and indirectly by suppressing GLUCAGON secretion and LIPOLYSIS. Native insulin is a globular protein comprised of a zinc-coordinated hexamer. Each insulin monomer containing two chains, A (21 residues) and B (30 residues), linked by two disulfide bonds. Insulin is used as a drug to control insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (DIABETES MELLITUS, TYPE 1).
Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.
Single-stranded complementary DNA synthesized from an RNA template by the action of RNA-dependent DNA polymerase. cDNA (i.e., complementary DNA, not circular DNA, not C-DNA) is used in a variety of molecular cloning experiments as well as serving as a specific hybridization probe.
Diazo derivatives of aniline, used as a reagent for sugars, ketones, and aldehydes. (Dorland, 28th ed)
Studies in which the presence or absence of disease or other health-related variables are determined in each member of the study population or in a representative sample at one particular time. This contrasts with LONGITUDINAL STUDIES which are followed over a period of time.
Conditions or pathological processes associated with the disease of diabetes mellitus. Due to the impaired control of BLOOD GLUCOSE level in diabetic patients, pathological processes develop in numerous tissues and organs including the EYE, the KIDNEY, the BLOOD VESSELS, and the NERVE TISSUE.
A free radical gas produced endogenously by a variety of mammalian cells, synthesized from ARGININE by NITRIC OXIDE SYNTHASE. Nitric oxide is one of the ENDOTHELIUM-DEPENDENT RELAXING FACTORS released by the vascular endothelium and mediates VASODILATION. It also inhibits platelet aggregation, induces disaggregation of aggregated platelets, and inhibits platelet adhesion to the vascular endothelium. Nitric oxide activates cytosolic GUANYLATE CYCLASE and thus elevates intracellular levels of CYCLIC GMP.
An antineoplastic agent that inhibits DNA synthesis through the inhibition of ribonucleoside diphosphate reductase.
The biosynthesis of PEPTIDES and PROTEINS on RIBOSOMES, directed by MESSENGER RNA, via TRANSFER RNA that is charged with standard proteinogenic AMINO ACIDS.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
The movement of materials (including biochemical substances and drugs) through a biological system at the cellular level. The transport can be across cell membranes and epithelial layers. It also can occur within intracellular compartments and extracellular compartments.
Iron or iron compounds used in foods or as food. Dietary iron is important in oxygen transport and the synthesis of the iron-porphyrin proteins hemoglobin, myoglobin, cytochromes, and cytochrome oxidase. Insufficient amounts of dietary iron can lead to iron-deficiency anemia.
Cell surface proteins that bind signalling molecules external to the cell with high affinity and convert this extracellular event into one or more intracellular signals that alter the behavior of the target cell (From Alberts, Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2nd ed, pp693-5). Cell surface receptors, unlike enzymes, do not chemically alter their ligands.

Cardiovascular disease in insulin dependent diabetes mellitus: similar rates but different risk factors in the US compared with Europe. (1/4164)

BACKGROUND: Cardiovascular disease (CVD) in insulin dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM) has been linked to renal disease. However, little is known concerning international variation in the correlations with hyperglycaemia and standard CVD risk factors. METHODS: A cross-sectional comparison was made of prevalence rates and risk factor associations in two large studies of IDDM subjects: the Pittsburgh Epidemiology of Diabetes Complications Study (EDC) and the EURODIAB IDDM Complications Study from 31 centres in Europe. Subgroups of each were chosen to be comparable by age and duration of diabetes. The EDC population comprises 286 men (mean duration 20.1 years) and 281 women (mean duration 19.9 years); EURODIAB 608 men (mean duration 18.1 years) and 607 women (mean duration 18.9 years). The mean age of both populations was 28 years. Cardiovascular disease was defined by a past medical history of myocardial infarction, angina, and/or the Minnesota ECG codes (1.1-1.3, 4.1-4.3, 5.1-5.3, 7.1). RESULTS: Overall prevalence of CVD was similar in the two populations (i.e. men 8.6% versus 8.0%, women 7.4% versus 8.5%, EURODIAB versus EDC respectively), although EDC women had a higher prevalence of angina (3.9% versus 0.5%, P < 0.001). Multivariate modelling suggests that glycaemic control (HbA1c) is not related to CVD in men. Age and high density lipoprotein cholesterol predict CVD in EURODIAB, while triglycerides and hypertension predict CVD in EDC. For women in both populations, age and hypertension (or renal disease) are independent predictors. HbA1c is also an independent predictor-inversely in EURODIAB women (P < 0.008) and positively in EDC women (P = 0.03). Renal disease was more strongly linked to CVD in EDC than in EURODIAB. CONCLUSIONS: Despite a similar prevalence of CVD, risk factor associations appear to differ in the two study populations. Glycaemic control (HbA1c) does not show a consistent or strong relationship to CVD.  (+info)

Inhibition of advanced glycation endproduct formation by acetaldehyde: role in the cardioprotective effect of ethanol. (2/4164)

Epidemiological studies suggest that there is a beneficial effect of moderate ethanol consumption on the incidence of cardiovascular disease. Ethanol is metabolized to acetaldehyde, a two-carbon carbonyl compound that can react with nucleophiles to form covalent addition products. We have identified a biochemical modification produced by the reaction of acetaldehyde with protein-bound Amadori products. Amadori products typically arise from the nonenzymatic addition of reducing sugars (such as glucose) to protein amino groups and are the precursors to irreversibly bound, crosslinking moieties called advanced glycation endproducts, or AGEs. AGEs accumulate over time on plasma lipoproteins and vascular wall components and play an important role in the development of diabetes- and age-related cardiovascular disease. The attachment of acetaldehyde to a model Amadori product produces a chemically stabilized complex that cannot rearrange and progress to AGE formation. We tested the role of this reaction in preventing AGE formation in vivo by administering ethanol to diabetic rats, which normally exhibit increased AGE formation and high circulating levels of the hemoglobin Amadori product, HbA1c, and the hemoglobin AGE product, Hb-AGE. In this model study, diabetic rats fed an ethanol diet for 4 weeks showed a 52% decrease in Hb-AGE when compared with diabetic controls (P < 0.001). Circulating levels of HbA1c were unaffected by ethanol, pointing to the specificity of the acetaldehyde reaction for the post-Amadori, advanced glycation process. These data suggest a possible mechanism for the so-called "French paradox," (the cardioprotection conferred by moderate ethanol ingestion) and may offer new strategies for inhibiting advanced glycation.  (+info)

The influence of NO synthase inhibitor and free oxygen radicals scavenger--methylene blue--on streptozotocin-induced diabetes in rats. (3/4164)

The excessive production of nitric oxide (NO) and the subsequent increase of local oxidative stress is suggested as one of the pathophysiological mechanisms of streptozotocin-induced diabetes. It was reported that the administration of NO synthase inhibitors partially attenuated the development of streptozotocin-induced diabetes and reduced hyperglycaemia. Here we have studied the influence of methylene blue, which combines the properties of NO synthase inhibitor with antioxidant effects. The experiments were performed on male rats divided into four groups: control, diabetic (single dose of 70 mg of streptozotocin/kg i.p.), methylene blue (50 mg/kg in the food) and diabetic simultaneously fed with methylene blue. After 45 days the experiments were discontinued by decapitation. Serum glycaemia, glycated haemoglobin and oxidative stress parameters (plasma malondialdehyde concentration and erythrocyte superoxide dismutase activity) were significantly higher in the diabetic group. Simultaneous methylene blue administration partially reduced glycaemia and glycated haemoglobin, but did not decrease oxidative stress. We conclude that NO synthase inhibitor methylene blue partially attenuates the development of streptozotocin-induced diabetes in male rats, but does not reduce the development of oxidative stress in the diabetic group.  (+info)

Relationship between glycosylated hemoglobin and the prevalence of proteinuria in Japanese men. (4/4164)

A total of 5,174 Japanese men were included in a cross-sectional study to examine the relationship between the glycated hemoglobin (HbA1C) level and the prevalence of proteinuria as determined using a reagent strip. The prevalence of proteinuria rose significantly at HbA1C levels above 5.9%, whereas no relationship was observed at HbA1C levels below 5.9%. Multiple logistic regression analysis showed that blood pressure and a family history of diabetes were independent factors associated with proteinuria in subjects with a HbA1C below 5.9% who were not under medication for diabetes. In contrast, HbA1C, obesity and smoking were associated with proteinuria in subjects who were under medication for diabetes and/or have a HbA1C above 5.9%. These findings suggest that maintaining a HbA1C level below 5.9%, non-smoking and a standard body weight may reduce the prevalence of proteinuria in Japanese men. Healthy life-style and standard body weight are especially important for subjects with a family history of diabetes.  (+info)

Brain-derived neurotrophic factor improves blood glucose control and alleviates fasting hyperglycemia in C57BLKS-Lepr(db)/lepr(db) mice. (5/4164)

Systemic administration of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) decreases nonfasted blood glucose in obese, non-insulin-dependent diabetic C57BLKS-Lepr(db)/lepr(db) (db/db) mice, with a concomitant decrease in body weight. By measuring percent HbA1c in BDNF-treated and pair-fed animals, we show that the effects of BDNF on nonfasted blood glucose levels are not caused by decreased food intake but reflect a significant improvement in blood glucose control. Furthermore, once established, this effect can persist for weeks after cessation of BDNF treatment. Oral glucose tolerance tests were performed to examine the effects of BDNF on blood glucose control in the fasted state and after an oral glucose challenge. BDNF treatment normalized fasting blood glucose from initially hyperglycemic levels and also showed evidence for beneficial, although less marked, effects on the ability to remove exogenous glucose from blood. One means to lower fasting blood glucose is to reduce the glucose output of peripheral tissues that normally play a part in the maintenance of fasting hyperglycemia. Because the liver is the major endogenous source of glucose in blood during fasting, and because hepatic weight and glucose output are increased in type 2 diabetes, we evaluated the effects of BDNF on liver tissue. BDNF reduced the hepatomegaly present in db/db mice, in association with reduced liver glycogen and reduced liver enzyme activity in serum, supporting the possible involvement of liver tissue in the mechanism of action for BDNF.  (+info)

A 1-year multicenter randomized double-blind comparison of repaglinide and glyburide for the treatment of type 2 diabetes. Dutch and German Repaglinide Study Group. (6/4164)

OBJECTIVE: Repaglinide is a newly developed oral blood glucose-lowering agent that exerts its effect by stimulating insulin secretion. This multicenter study was designed to compare the efficacy and safety of this drug with glyburide in a 1-year randomized double-blind study of outpatients with type 2 diabetes. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: A total of 424 subjects (154 women, 270 men) participated and had the following characteristics: age, 61 +/- 9 years; duration of diabetes. 8 years (range 0.5-35); BMI, 28.3 +/- 3.5 kg/m2; HbA1c, 7.1 +/- 1.4%; and fasting plasma glucose, 10.8 +/- 3.1 mmol/l. The majority of the subjects (91%) were previously treated with sulfonylurea, alone or in combination with metformin. The patients were randomized to a 2:1 ratio of repaglinide (0.5-4 mg t.i.d.) or glyburide (1.75-10.5 mg daily) treatment. The study protocol included a screening visit to assess patient eligibility; a titration period of 6-8 weeks, during which the dosages of repaglinide and glyburide were optimized; and a subsequent 12-month treatment period on fixed, optimal dosages. RESULTS: The trial was completed by 320 subjects, 211 (74%) in the repaglinide and 109 (78%) in the glyburide group. HbA1c initially decreased in both groups and then increased during the second half-year of the maintenance period to a similar extent in the repaglinide and glyburide subjects (0.58 and 0.45% vs. at screening, respectively). In the small group of subjects who previously controlled their condition with diet only (n = 37), a sustained improvement of metabolic control could be observed with both drugs, which was slightly better with glyburide than with repaglinide (theta HbA1c -2.4 vs. -1.0%; P < 0.05). The same trends were seen with fasting plasma glucose. There were no changes in serum lipids. Over the course of the study, 15% of the repaglinide-treated and 13% of glyburide-treated subjects withdrew due to adverse events, mostly hyperglycemia. No differences in adverse events between both drugs were reported. There were no differences in incidences of hypoglycemia. CONCLUSIONS: Repaglinide is a safe and efficacious oral blood glucose-lowering agent, with a potency similar to that of glyburide. Its rapid onset of action and hepatic clearance allows meal-related administration, including in subjects with impaired kidney function.  (+info)

Long-term intensive treatment of type 1 diabetes with the short-acting insulin analog lispro in variable combination with NPH insulin at mealtime. (7/4164)

OBJECTIVE: To establish whether the short-acting insulin analog lispro can be successfully implemented in long-term intensive insulin therapy in type 1 diabetes, and if so, what its effects are on glycemic control and frequency and awareness of hypoglycemia. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: We randomized 56 type 1 diabetic patients to treatment with either lispro (n = 28) or human regular insulin (Hum-R; n = 28) as mealtime insulin for 1 year (open design, parallel groups). Lispro was injected at mealtime and Hum-R was given 10-40 min before meals (bedtime NPH was continued on both occasions). With lispro, NPH was added at breakfast (approximately 70/30), lunch (approximately 60/40), and supper (approximately 80/20) (mixing percentage of lispro/NPH) to optimize premeal and bedtime blood glucose. RESULTS: Total daily insulin units were no different in the two treatment groups, but with lispro approximately 30% less short-acting insulin at meals and approximately 30% more NPH was needed versus Hum-R (P < 0.05). The bedtime NPH dosage was no different. With lispro + NPH, the mean daily blood glucose was lower than with Hum-R (8.0 +/- 0.1 vs. 8.8 +/- 0.1 mmol/l; P < 0.05), HbA1c was lower (6.34 +/- 0.10 vs. 6.71 +/- 0.11%, mean value over 1 year; P < 0.002), and hypoglycemia (blood glucose < or = 3.8 mmol/l) was less frequent (7.4 +/- 0.5 vs. 11.5 +/- 0.7 episodes/patient-month) and tended to occur more within 90 min after meals than in the postabsorptive state (P < 0.05 vs. Hum-R). After 1 year, plasma adrenaline and symptom responses to experimental, stepped hypoglycemia improved with lispro and were closer to the responses of 12 nondiabetic control subjects versus Hum-R both in terms of thresholds and magnitude (P < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: We concluded that mealtime injection of lispro + NPH improves the 24-h blood glucose and the percentage HbA1c as compared with Hum-R. The improvement can be maintained long term. Intensive therapy with lispro + NPH results in less frequent hypoglycemia and better awareness and counterregulation of hypoglycemia.  (+info)

Microalbuminuria prevalence varies with age, sex, and puberty in children with type 1 diabetes followed from diagnosis in a longitudinal study. Oxford Regional Prospective Study Group. (8/4164)

OBJECTIVE: The predictive value of microalbuminuria (MA) in children with type 1 diabetes has not been defined. We describe the natural history of MA in a large cohort of children recruited at diagnosis of type 1 diabetes. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: Between 1985 and 1996, 514 children (279 male) who developed type 1 diabetes before the age of 16 years (91% of those eligible from a region where ascertainment of new cases is 95%) were recruited for a longitudinal study with central annual assessment of HbAlc and albumin excretion (three urine samples). Dropout rates have been < 1% per year, and 287 children have been followed for > 4.5 years. RESULTS: MA (defined as albumin-to-creatinine ratio > or = 3.5 and > or = 4.0 mg/mmol in boys and girls, respectively) developed in 63 (12.8%) and was persistent in 22 (4.8%) of the subjects. The cumulative probability (based on the Kaplan-Meier method) for developing MA was 40% after 11 years. HbAlc was worse in those who developed MA than in others (mean difference +/- SEM: 1.1% +/- 0.2, P < 0.001). In subjects who had been 5-11 years of age when their diabetes was diagnosed, the appearance of MA was delayed until puberty, whereas of those whose age was < 5 years at diagnosis of diabetes, 5 of 11 (45%) developed MA before puberty. The adjusted proportional probability (Cox model) of MA was greater for female subjects (200%), after pubertal onset (310%), and with greater HbAlc (36% increase for every 1% increase in HbAlc). Despite earlier differences based on age at diagnosis of diabetes (< 5, 5-11, and > 11 years), the overall cumulative risks in these groups were similar (38 vs. 29 vs. 39%, respectively) after 10 years' duration of diabetes. CONCLUSIONS: Prepubertal duration of diabetes and prepubertal hyperglycemia contribute to the risk of postpubertal MA. The differences in rates of development of MA relating to HbAlc, sex, and age at diagnosis relative to puberty may have long-term consequences for the risk of subsequent nephropathy and for cardiovascular risk.  (+info)

The aim of the study was to assess the association between glycemic control understanding as a glycated haemoglobin level and indices of diabetic neuropathy.. METHODS: We evaluated 204 patients with diabetes (type 1 - 29; type 2 - 175). Glycated haemoglobin was determined using The Diabetes Control and Complications Trial/ National Glycohemoglobin Standardization Program method. Evaluation of complaints from the lower extremities was based on the Neuropathy Syndrome Total Score questionnaire. We used a mono lament for evaluation of touch sensation (Semmes-Weinstein 5.07-10 g), a 128 Hz calibrated tune-fork for the vibration perception test, Tip-Therm to assess temperature sensation.. RESULTS: The mean glycated haemoglobin level was assessed on 8.53±1.87%. The mean Neuropathy Syndrome Total Score: 11.45±6.37. Decreased sensation of touch on both sides was determined in 30% of cases, decreased sensation of temperature in 59% and decreased sensation of vibration in 30%. For Neuropathy Syndrome ...
Anyone whos had diabetes for any length of time knows that A1C tests havent been reliable until recently. In the past, many different types of A1C tests gave different results depending on the lab that analyzed them.. However, the National Glycohemoglobin Standardization Program has helped improve the accuracy of these tests. Manufacturers of A1C tests now have to prove that their tests are consistent with those used in a major diabetes study. Accurate home test kits are also now available for purchase.. Accuracy is relative when it comes to A1C or even blood glucose tests, though. The A1C test result can be up to half a percent higher or lower than the actual percentage. That means if your A1C is 6, it might indicate a range from 5.5 to 6.5.. Some people may have a blood glucose test that indicates diabetes but their A1C is normal, or vice versa. Before confirming a diagnosis of diabetes, your doctor should repeat the test that was abnormal on a different day This is not necessary in the ...
On This Site Tests: Glucose Tests; Urine Albumin; Urine Albumin/Creatinine Ratio; Fructosamine Conditions: Diabetes In the News: Screening, Diet and Exercise Key Factors in Task Forces New Diabetes Guidelines (2015), Task Force Updates Recommendations for Screening for Pre-Diabetes and Diabetes in Adults (2014), New Report Finds that Diabetes is on the Rise (2014) Elsewhere On The Web American Diabetes Association: Diabetes Basics American Diabetes Association: Risk Test American Association of Diabetes Educators Centers for Disease Control and Prevention: Diabetes Public Health Resource National Diabetes Information Clearinghouse: Prevent diabetes problems - Keep your diabetes under control National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases: Diabetes A to Z National Glycohemoglobin Standardization Program American Diabetes Association - DiabetesPro, estimated Average Glucose, eAG Ask a Laboratory Scientist Your questions will be answered by a laboratory scientist as part of a ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Umbilicial cord glycosylated hemoglobin in infants of diabetic mothers. T2 - Relationships to neonatal hypoglycemia, macrosomia, and cord serum C-peptide. AU - Sosenko, J. M.. AU - Kitzmiller, J. L.. AU - Fluckiger, R.. PY - 1982/1/1. Y1 - 1982/1/1. N2 - Relationships of neonatal glycemia and birthweight to antecedent fetal glycemia and insulinemia have been examined in the offspring of 63 insulin-dependent diabetic and 29 nondiabetic mothers. Glycosylated hemoglobin levels in maternal and cord blood were measured by the thiobarbituric acid (TBA) colorimetric technique to estimate antecedent fetal and maternal glycemia; cord serum C-peptide was assayed to estimate fetal insulinemia. Glycosylated hemoglobin levels were significantly elevated in the diabetic mothers and their offspring as compared with controls (P , 0.001), and maternal and cord blood levels were highly correlated in the diabetic group (r = 0.61, P , 0.001). Cord serum C-peptide and glycosylated hemoglobin levels ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Point-of-Care Hemoglobin A1c. AU - OBrien, Matthew James. AU - Sacks, David B.. N1 - Funding Information: reported receiving support from the National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases (R21-DK112066) and personal fees from Funding Information: Novo Nordisk. Dr Sacks reported receiving support from the National Institutes of Health Clinical Center Intramural Program and grants from the National Institutes of Health and serving as the chair on the National Glycohemoglobin Standardization Program steering committee.. PY - 2019/10/8. Y1 - 2019/10/8. UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=85072252129&partnerID=8YFLogxK. UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=85072252129&partnerID=8YFLogxK. U2 - 10.1001/jama.2019.14063. DO - 10.1001/jama.2019.14063. M3 - Comment/debate. C2 - 31513231. AN - SCOPUS:85072252129. VL - 322. SP - 1404. EP - 1405. JO - JAMA - Journal of the American Medical Association. JF - JAMA - Journal of the American Medical ...
BackgroundWith increasing use of glucosamine-containing supplements for the treatment of osteoarthritis, there is increasing concern in the medical community ab
Each patient developed severe neuropathic pain within 8 weeks of initiating intensive glycemic control. Nine patients (age range, 19-29) had type 1 diabetes, and 7 patients (age range, 31-58) had type 2 diabetes. Other common causes of neuropathy were ruled out. Average glycosylated hemoglobin levels were about 14% before intensive glycemic control and about 7% afterward. Pain was in a stocking-glove distribution in 13 patients and was diffuse in 3 patients. Autonomic symptoms (e.g., orthostatic hypotension, gastrointestinal dysfunction) occurred commonly, and standardized tests of sympathetic and parasympathetic function were abnormal in most patients. Retinopathy also worsened during the first 6 months of sustained glycemic control. Pain subsided eventually in most patients, but only after 1 to 2 years of combination drug therapies for neuropathic pain ...
Background: Diabetes mellitus involves 8.7% of the adult community in India, and its preponderance is rising. Diabetes is an independent risk factor for complications after open cardiac surgery. Poor glycaemic control, measured by glycosylated haemoglobin A1C (HbA1c), is associated with high incidence of micro and macroangiopathy. HbA1c reflects the patients prevailing sugar control over the previous 120-150 days. Perioperative cardiac surgical risk scoring systems like Euro Score and STS scoring systems do not include HbA1c level as risk factor. We intended to study the correlation of preoperative HbA1c level and outcome after cardiac surgery.. Methodology: A total of 350 patients who had undergone elective cardiac surgery were included. All patients were stratified into two groups, Group 1 with HbA1c level , 7%, Group 2 ,7%. Intraoperative and postoperative adverse events were documented retrospectively. The two groups of patients were compared with regard to their demographic data, operation ...
In this study, the measurement of GA was shown to provide a more relevant method to assess glycemic control in HD patients with diabetes. Although PG was measured without overnight fasting, a previous report showed that nonfasting, rather than fasting, PG was a better marker of glycemic control in type 2 diabetes (21). Because the mean values of monthly-determined PG essentially were the same throughout the study period, it was suggested that glycemic control had been stable during the 2 mo before the determination of GA and HbA1c and that a single determination just before the Monday/Tuesday HD session might be representative of glycemic control in HD patients with diabetes. Although HbA1c and GA reflect glycemic control during the preceding 4 to 6 wk and 1 to 2 wk (11), the stable glycemic control during the preceding 2 mo can negate the different impact of acute changes of glycemic control between HbA1c and GA in this study. Supportive of this notion is that the correlation coefficient ...
Type 1 diabetes is a chronic condition that causes many problems for adolescents and their families. Given the increasing prevalence of diabetes and the numerous complications of the disease that require long-term treatment and the need for daily blood glucose control, lifestyle modification and knowledge acquisition regarding self-care behaviors are essential throughout life.Considering the increasing prevalence of diabetes, this study evaluated the effect of self-care education on glycosylated Hemoglobin (HbA1c) level and blood glucose control in adolescents with diabetes in Ilam, Iran.A randomized clinical trial was conducted on patients with type 1 diabetes in Ilam. Patients were assigned randomly to experimental (n = 21) and control (n = 24) groups. A total of seven self-care group training sessions were arranged by the researcher; each session lasted 90 minutes and each group included five people. Patient fasting blood sugar (FBS) and HbA1c levels were measured before and three months after the
Objective: Diabetic neuropathy is a common complication of diabetes. Though the beneficial effect of exercise on diabetes is well established, specifi..
Diabetes mellitus is a risk factor for atherosclerosis. Changes in the atheromatous plaque are the cause of ischemic heart disease and myocardial infarction. Various articles have shown that HbA1c as an independent risk factor for coronary artery disease (CAD).23-25 Geng et al.26 in his met analysis found association between high HbA1c level and long-term mortality and myocardial infarction among non-diabetic patients. However, risk for early deaths in non-diabetic patients with CAD was not associated with high level of HbA1c. In his meta-analysis, a total of 18,041 participants were included for the analysis,27-43 which showed a significantly increased risk of long-term mortality in patients with a high HbA1c level than those with a low HbA1c level (OR 1.76, 95%CI 1.44-2.16, P? 1,750mg/dl) ...
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Results: Via linear regression we found statistically significant linear relations between GLUand GHbA1c for female and male patients, male patients had higher mean level of GLU than female (+10.7mg/dL p,0.05), similarly for GHbA1c (+0.24% p,0.05). For healthy controls, neither linear relation nor gender difference was identified. Subsequently we calculated eAG on the basis of GLU level, we found a significant correlation Corr.Coeff.=0.56) between GLU and eAG for DM patients and no correlation (Corr.Coeff.=0.026) for healthy controls. These finding were consistent when the analysis was repeated separately for both genders, however with no difference between men and women.. Conclusions: eAG and GLU values cannot be used in general population interchangeably. One strategy option could be the use of eAG levels together with GHbA1c values.. Keywords: Diabetes mellitus; Glucose; Glycosylated haemoglobin; Statistical models; Regression analysis Published on: Mar 2, 2016 Pages: 25-33. Full Text PDF ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Clinical use and time relationship of changes in affinity measurement of glycosylated albumin and glycosylated hemoglobin. AU - Rendell, M.. AU - Paulsen, R.. AU - Eastberg, S.. AU - Stephen, P. M.. AU - Valentine, J. L.. AU - Smith, C. H.. AU - Nierenberg, J.. AU - Rasbold, K.. AU - Klenk, D.. AU - Smith, P. K.. PY - 1986/1/1. Y1 - 1986/1/1. N2 - Simple techniques for measurement of glycosylated hemoglobin and glycosylated albumin by affinity chromatographyy on m-aminophenylboronic acid agarose columns have recently been developed. This study explored the time course of changes in glycoalbumin versus those of glycohemoglobin in response to rapid changes in ambient glucose concentration. One would predict that glycoalbumin levels would change more rapidly than glycohemoglobin levels due to the shorter half-life of albumin than hemoglobin. This was found to be the case in a group of rabbits rendered diabetic with alloxan. Glycoalbumin levels plateaued 4 weeks after alloxan ...
Glycated haemoglobin (hba1c) synonym: glycosylated haemoglobin. glycated haemoglobin (hba1c) an hba1c of 48 mmol/mol. Hemoglobin a1c unit conversion between %
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Laboratory results may differ depending on the analytical technique, the age of the subject, and biological variation among individuals. Two individuals with the same average blood sugar can have A1C values that differ by as much as 1 percentage point.[8] In general, the reference range (that found in healthy persons), is about 4%-5.9%.[9] Higher levels of HbA1c are found in people with persistently elevated blood sugar, as in diabetes mellitus. While diabetic patient treatment goals vary, many include a target range of HbA1c values. A diabetic person with good glucose control has a HbA1c level that is close to or within the reference range. The International Diabetes Federation and American College of Endocrinology recommend HbA1c values below 6.5%, while American Diabetes Association recommends that the HbA1c be below 7.0% for most patients. A high HbA1c represents poor glucose control. Persistent elevations in blood sugar (and therefore HbA1c) increase the risk for the long-term vascular ...
INTRODUCTION: The objective of this study was to compare differences in glucoregulation, frequency of hypoglycemic episodes, glucose variability and lipid profiles of inpatients with poorly regulated type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) after evening versus morning glargine application. METHODS: Eighteen patients with poorly regulated T1DM, glycated hemoglobin (Hba1c) levels ≥7% and frequent nocturnal and/or morning hypoglycemic episodes were included in this study. There was a 12-week screening phase where patients continued their usual insulin regimen and were encouraged to achieve optimal glycemic control; however, all patients maintained HbA1c values ≥7% and continued to have frequent nocturnal and/or morning hypoglycemic events and were therefore transitioned to morning application of insulin glargine for 12 weeks. The primary outcome was to investigate changes in HbA1c values 12 weeks after the transition. The secondary outcome was to evaluate the effect of transition on glucose ...
The purpose of this study is to evaluate the benefits and risks of lixisenatide (AVE0010), in comparison to placebo, used in a 2-step dose titration regimen in monotherapy, over a period of 12 weeks of treatment.. The primary objective is to assess the effects of lixisenatide, in comparison to placebo, on glycemic control using a 2-step dose titration regimen in terms of glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) reduction (absolute change) at Week 12.. Secondary objectives are to assess the effects of lixisenatide, in comparison to placebo, on glycemic control in terms of HbA1c reduction when it is used in a one-step dose titration regimen over a period of 12 weeks, body weight, fasting plasma glucose (FPG), 2-hour postprandial plasma glucose (PPG) after a standardized meal, to assess the safety and tolerability, pharmacokinetics (PK) and anti-lixisenatide antibody development. ...
The purpose of this study is to evaluate the benefits and risks of lixisenatide (AVE0010), in comparison to placebo, used in a 2-step dose titration regimen in monotherapy, over a period of 12 weeks of treatment.. The primary objective is to assess the effects of lixisenatide, in comparison to placebo, on glycemic control using a 2-step dose titration regimen in terms of glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) reduction (absolute change) at Week 12.. Secondary objectives are to assess the effects of lixisenatide, in comparison to placebo, on glycemic control in terms of HbA1c reduction when it is used in a one-step dose titration regimen over a period of 12 weeks, body weight, fasting plasma glucose (FPG), 2-hour postprandial plasma glucose (PPG) after a standardized meal, to assess the safety and tolerability, pharmacokinetics (PK) and anti-lixisenatide antibody development. ...
To explore the potential economic benefits of improved glycemic control, we conducted a retrospective study using enrollment, medical claims, and clinical laboratory data for ∼2,500 adults with diabetes enrolled in the Fallon Clinic health plan within a recent 4-year period. We found that the likelihood of inpatient admission for selected short-term complications and the average number of such stays increased significantly with higher levels of HbAlc. On an adjusted basis, patients with poor glycemic control had more than double the number of inpatient admissions over a 3-year period than those with good glycemic control 31 vs. 13 per 100 patients, respectively; P , 0.01). The largest absolute difference in admission rates occurred in patients who had long-term diabetic complications (30 per 100 patients with good control vs. 74 per 100 patients with poor control; P , 0.01). Corresponding average adjusted charges were also lowest among patients with good control and highest among those with ...
This analysis of the DCCT data has shown that in patients with type 1 diabetes, increasing variability in A1C adds to the risk of microvascular complications over and above that predicted by the mean A1C value alone. This finding was present in the DCCT cohort overall and was also a feature of both treatment groups individually when the mean A1C alone was initially predictive. The effect was most pronounced among those patients who were in the conventionally treated group, presumably because the event rate, the range of variability, and the spread of variability at any given mean A1C was much larger than those for patients in the intensively treated patients.. The magnitude of the effect of A1C variability is marked, such that a 1% absolute increase in A1C SD results in at least a doubling in retinopathy and an 80% increase in nephropathy risk using either of our models. As shown in Fig. 1B, put into the context of individuals participating in the DCCT, it means that a patient in the 97.5th ...
Background Little is known about the relative contribution of long-term glycemic variability to the risk of macrovascular complications in type 2 diabetes. This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of A1C variability on the progression of carotid artery intima-media thickness (IMT) in type 2 ...
Hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) is a form of hemoglobin. The HbA1c test is a routine test for people with diabetes. Medsinglong brand hgb a1c MSLGH04 HbA1c Test for Diabetes - Diagnosis.
Hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) variability may be a more powerful predictor of all-cause mortality with type 2 diabetes than average HbA1c, according to a study publish
Authors: RE GILBERT, C TSALAMANDRIS, LA BACH, S PANAGIOTOPOULOS, RC OBRIEN, TJ ALLEN, I GOODALL, V YOUNG, E SEEMAN, RML MURRAY, ME COOPER, G JERUMS
The glycosylated hemoglobin test shows what a persons average blood glucose level was for the 2 to 3 months before the test. This can help determine how well a persons diabetes is being controlled over time.
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Learn more about Glycosylated Hemoglobin Test at Swedish Medical Center DefinitionReasons for TestPossible ComplicationsWhat to ExpectCall Your Doctorrevision ...
Ryu, J. and Lee, C. (2012), Association of glycosylated hemoglobin with the gene encoding CDKAL1 in the Korean Association Resource (KARE) study. Hum. Mutat., 33: 655-659. doi: 10.1002/humu.22040 ...
Health,A significant association exists between depression severity and poor ...The study involved 200 Hispanics with diabetes. We found a steady... This held especially true among patients with moderate-severe dep...However there is no such association found in non-Hispanic diabet...Hispanics have high incident rates of diabetes and are more likely...,Poor,Glycaemic,Control,In,Hispanics,With,Diabetes,Causes,Severe,Depression,,medicine,medical news today,latest medical news,medical newsletters,current medical news,latest medicine news
At any given average glucose level, high variability results in higher glycosylated hemoglobin level. In a study involving 427 diabetic patients (63% had t
The A1C test is a blood test used to diagnose Type 1 and Type 2 diabetes. It also gauges how well diabetes is being managed through a diabetes treatment plan, according to Mayo Clinic. The A1C test...
A1C test review for nurses and nursing students An A1C test is a blood test that is used to diagnose both type 1 and type 2 diabetes. This exam is also been referred to as a hemoglobin A1C, HbA1c, glycosylated hemoglobin, and glycated hemoglobin. The A1c results show what your average blood sugar level was for the last 8-12 weeks. […]. » Read more ...
A1C test review for nurses and nursing students An A1C test is a blood test that is used to diagnose both type 1 and type 2 diabetes. This exam is also been referred to as a hemoglobin A1C, HbA1c, glycosylated hemoglobin, and glycated hemoglobin. The A1c results show what your average blood sugar level was for the last 8-12 weeks. […]. » Read more ...
In this population-based cohort study of 3794 people developing diabetes, we found that education and income are inversely associated with an increased risk for HbA1c ,70 mmol/mol (8.6%) at the time of diagnosis with T2D. We also found that earlier IHD disease decreased the odds of having a high HbA1c level at diagnosis. Adjusting for earlier IHD disease increased the risk estimates slightly for low education and income as the prevalence of IHD were higher in these groups.. A strength of the study is that it is based on incident of newly diagnosed cases of T2D and LADA in a defined dynamic population. The exposures were identified and registered before and independent of the outcome ruling out reversed causation and dependent misclassification of the exposures. We also had information on relevant confounders. The outcome was prevalence of increased levels of HbA1c, implying an inability to distinguish between incidence and duration. However, HbA1c was measured at the time of the diagnosis and ...
Patients with diabetes may be able to manage their disease better with an automated instant-messaging service. For 12 weeks, patients who used a Web-based short messaging service lost weight, had better control of their blood sugar, and had lower blood sugar before and after meals, according to Korean researchers. The study involved 35 patients with diabetes and 36 patients in a control group. The patients who used the service recorded their diet and the amount of exercise on a Web site and were given a device to calculate blood sugar and a pedometer that linked with their cell phone and sent data directly to their Web data sheet. The system sent messages back to the cell phones. After 12 weeks, the researchers found that patients who used the service had lost an average of 1.9 kg and had a decrease in their average glycosylated hemoglobin levels from 8.06% to 7.34%. The control group saw no change. Their findings were published in the November 2007 issue of Diabetes Care. F A S T F A C T : ...
Background: Since the DCCT demonstrated that improved glycaemic control reduced complications the goal of diabetes management has been to maintain HbA1c as close to normal as possible. Recent changes by the laboratory to our HbA1c assay, combined with the debate about deanonymised publication of clinic s HbA1c results, creating the potential for league tables , focussed our attention on the variation between HbA1c assays.. Clinical data: Our local adult hospital, which previously processed our HbA1c specimens, opted to replace an aging analyser. During the evaluation of the new analyser, samples were run on both systems for a trial period. Our clinic average HbA1c on the existing analyser was 8.4% but rose 0.7 to 9.1% on the replacement. A few months later we introduced point of care testing and evaluated 3 different analysers. Despite all analysers being DCCT aligned, our clinic average was 8.9, 8.4 or 7.6% depending on the system!. Discussion: The international consensus within the ...
New entrants in the type 2 diabetes treatment market share a similar goal: To solve patients constant struggle with glycemic control.
想找hba1c level答案在【硬是要APP】蒐集全球最新資訊及認知hba1c臨床意義 78筆2頁,My Blood Glucose & HbA1c app關注網路熱門話題,2015年2月8日 - Find out why the hemoglobin A1c test (HbA1c) is so important for people with ... The average amount of sugar in your blood can be found by measuring your hemoglobin A1c level.
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It has shown that the decrease of blood glucose levels in patient with diabetes mellitus decreases mortality and morbidity rates. Main purpose in diab..
In our registry-based observational study, patients with type 1 diabetes and a glycated hemoglobin level of 6.9% or lower had a risk of death from any cause or from cardiovascular causes that was twice as high as the risk for matched controls. (Funded by the Swedish Society of Medicine and others.).
This page has been provided for those who are new to the forum or to the concept of low-carbing as a primary tool for managing diabetes. Although it is aimed principally at Type 2 diabetics, Type 1s and others can also benefit significantly. Managing diabetes means different things to different people, but ultimately the aim for T2s should be to get your blood sugar numbers into the same area as non-diabetics. This means an HbA1c level of less than 42 mmol/mol (6.0% in the old measurement system). (48 mmol/mol or 6.5% and above is regarded as diabetic, 42-47 mmol/mol as prediabetic). For T1s the aim should be the lowest practicable levels concomitant with good control and avoidance of hypos in accordance with their consultants guidance and personal life choices. ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Correlation of glycosylated hemoglobin levels with fasting and postprandial glucose in south Indian type 2 diabetic patients. AU - Haghighatpanah, Mohammad. AU - Thunga, Girish. AU - Khare, Sarvajeet. AU - Mallayasamy, Surulivelrajan. PY - 2016. Y1 - 2016. N2 - Objective: To assess the correlation of glycosylated hemoglobin levels with fasting and postprandial glucose in South Indian type 2 diabetic patients. Methods: This retrospective observational study was carried out as per the protocol approved by the institutional ethics committee (IEC) and case records of patients (≥ 40 y old) diagnosed with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and complications, that fasting blood sugar (FBS), postprandial blood sugar (PPBS) and HbA1c measured during previous follow-ups were included in the study. Statistical analyses were carried out using SPSS Ver. 20 and p ≤ 0. 05 were considered statistically significant. Results: Based on the study criteria, 633 case profiles were selected and ...
Hypoglycaemia is the most important adverse effect of intensive glycaemic management in patients with diabetes. Severe episodes can be accompanied by confusion, disorientation, irrational behaviour, convulsions, coma, permanent impairment of brain function, serious injury, and even death. Hypoglycaemia is particularly dangerous if it occurs while patients are driving or operating potentially hazardous machinery, and in those living alone with no one to provide assistance. Asymptomatic episodes may be accompanied by silent myocardial ischaemia.1 Loss of warning signs (hypoglycaemia unawareness) and severe episodes become more prevalent as glycaemia control improves to the point that glucose levels are at normal or near normal levels. Indeed, hypoglycaemia has been identified as the limiting factor that prevents patients with diabetes from achieving excellent glycaemic control.2 3. The Diabetes Control and Complications Trial (DCCT) reported 62 episodes of severe hypoglycaemia requiring assistance ...
Disclosure of Interests Mark C. Genovese Grant/research support from: Sanofi/Genzyme, Genentech/Roche, RPharm, Consultant for: Sanofi/Genzyme, Genentech/Roche, RPharm, Gerd Rüdiger Burmester Consultant for: Roche, Sanofi-Genzyme, Speakers bureau: Roche, Sanofi-Genzyme, Owen Hagino Shareholder of: Sanofi Genzyme, Employee of: Sanofi Genzyme, Hubert van Hoogstraten Shareholder of: Sanofi, Regeneron, Novartis, Grant/research support from: Zambon, Employee of: Sanofi, Erin Mangan Shareholder of: Regeneron, Pfizer, Employee of: Regeneron, Karthinathan Thangavelu Shareholder of: Sanofi, Employee of: Sanofi, Roy Fleischmann Grant/research support from: AbbVie, Amgen, AstraZeneca, Bristol-Myers Squibb, Celtrion, Genentech, GSK, Janssen, Lilly, Novartis, Pfizer Inc, Sanofi-Aventis, UCB, Consultant for: AbbVie, Amgen, AstraZeneca, Bristol-Myers Squibb, Celtrion, Genentech, GSK, Janssen, Lilly, Novartis, Pfizer Inc, Sanofi-Aventis, UCB, Thomas Mandrup-Poulsen Consultant for: Sanofi Genzyme, Speakers ...
To examine long term changes on glycated hemoglobin in sedentary employees exposed to two different walking programs during a 10-week intervention. A total of 68 sedentary employees participated in a 10-week walking intervention and were randomly assigned to one of three groups: intermittent walking, continuous walking or control group. Hemoglobin A1cNOW+ device tested glycated hemoglobin and accelerometry assessed physical activity. Results showed glycated hemoglobin significantly decreased over the ten weeks (5.82±0.49, 5.66±0.44) F(1,64) =4.229, p=.044) in the continuous walking group. Post-Hoc test showed the continuous walking group was significantly affected, F=8.463, p=.009, with a large size effect n2=.297. There were no changes within the intermittent group (5.69±0.63, 5.63±0.6) or control group (5.59±0.6, 5.6±0.54) (p,0.05). Accelerometry showed a main effect of time by group interaction F(4,124) =4.688, p=0.001). Post-Hoc indicated that the continuous walking group took ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Glycated hemoglobin and the risk of kidney disease and retinopathy in adults with and without diabetes. AU - Selvin, Elizabeth. AU - Ning, Yang. AU - Steffes, Michael W.. AU - Bash, Lori D.. AU - Klein, Ronald. AU - Wong, Tien Y.. AU - Astor, Brad C.. AU - Sharrett, A. Richey. AU - Brancati, Frederick L.. AU - Coresh, Josef. PY - 2011/1. Y1 - 2011/1. N2 - OBJECTIVE: Glycated hemoglobin was recently recommended for use as a diagnostic test for diabetes. We examined the association between 2010 American Diabetes Association diagnostic cut points for glycated hemoglobin and microvascular outcomes (chronic kidney disease, end-stage renal disease [ESRD], and retinopathy) and formally tested for the presence of risk thresholds in the relationships of glycated hemoglobin with these outcomes. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: Prospective cohort and cross-sectional analyses of 11,357 participants (773 with a history of diagnosed diabetes) from the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Glycated hemoglobin and the risk of kidney disease and retinopathy in adults with and without diabetes. AU - Selvin, Elizabeth. AU - Ning, Yang. AU - Steffes, Michael W.. AU - Bash, Lori D.. AU - Klein, Ronald. AU - Wong, Tien Y.. AU - Astor, Brad C.. AU - Sharrett, A. Richey. AU - Brancati, Frederick L.. AU - Coresh, Josef. PY - 2011/1/1. Y1 - 2011/1/1. N2 - OBJECTIVE: Glycated hemoglobin was recently recommended for use as a diagnostic test for diabetes. We examined the association between 2010 American Diabetes Association diagnostic cut points for glycated hemoglobin and microvascular outcomes (chronic kidney disease, end-stage renal disease [ESRD], and retinopathy) and formally tested for the presence of risk thresholds in the relationships of glycated hemoglobin with these outcomes. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: Prospective cohort and cross-sectional analyses of 11,357 participants (773 with a history of diagnosed diabetes) from the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) ...
Globally, diabetes mellitus (DM) has risen dramatically over the past two decades and is expected to keep rising for the next 20 years. If uncontrolled it may lead to complications to the patients that could be prevented or delayed. The disease could be diagnosed and monitored by blood glucose and/or glycated hemoglobin (HbA1) testing. HbA1 can tell long term hyperglycemia of the last 2-3 months period and can predict the risk of diabetic complications; however, the use of glycated hemoglobin test in the country, specifically, in the study area is almost none. Therefore, this study had the aim of assessing glycemic control and describing the risk of complications among diabetic patients using glycated hemoglobin. Cross-sectional study was conducted in Jimma University specialized hospital among 148 diabetic patients from May to July 2012. After the study was ethically approved, HbA1, random blood sugar (RBS), socio-demographic data and clinical information were collected from every diabetic patients who
Aim of work was to assess the effect of various degrees of diabetic control during pregnancy on the cardiac function in fetuses and infants at 24-72 hours after birth. Echocardiographic examination of fetuses was done at 6 weeks intervals starting at 20 weeks of gestation in 12 fetuses of good control diabetic women, 5 fetuses of fair control diabetic women and 3 fetuses of poor control diabetic women. Echocardiographic examination was reported at 24-72 hours after birth. Glycosylated hemoglobin of the mothers was estimated early in pregnancy at 8 weeks gestation and then at 8 weeks intervals. Maternal diabetic control was classified into good, fair and poor control according to the maternal Glycosylated hemoglobin levels. Twenty age matched healthy nondiabetic pregnant women and also 20 age and sex matched normal healthy newborns of comparable gestation and birth weight were used. In good control diabetic women the only abnormality found in fetuses and after birth was mild asymmetric septal hypertrophy
Intervention. Patients were allocated to 1 of 2 minimally invasive glucose monitoring devices (GlucoWatch Biographer, n = 100; MiniMed Continuous Glucose Monitoring System [CGMS], n = 102), attention control with standard care and nurse feedback (n = 100), or standard care alone (n = 102). All patients continued self-monitoring of blood glucose (SMBG). The GlucoWatch (G2 Biographer, Animas Corporation, West Chester, PA) could be worn anywhere on the body (ideally on the forearm) for ≤ 13 hours and extracted fluid through the skin, displaying glucose values to the patient every 10 minutes. Patients were to wear the GlucoWatch ≥ 4 times per month but ≤ 4 times per week for 12 weeks, and then as desired until 18 months. Diabetes research nurses (DRNs) used data from the GlucoWatch and SMBG to adjust insulin doses at 4, 8, and 12 weeks and at 6, 12, and 18 months. The CGMS (Medtronic, Northridge, CA) was inserted into the abdominal wall; it recorded an average glucose estimation every 5 ...
The prevalence of DM is 9.7% in mainland China, which translates into 92.4 million adults with diabetes [28]. Of patients included in the present study, 89 (22.9%) had DM, and only 35 (39.3%) diabetic patients had good glycemic control. Our results were consistent with previous reports [5]. Considering the negative impact of DM on the prognosis for cancer patients, we conducted this study. We found that poor glycemic control (HbA1c ≥ 7.0%) was independently associated with an increased risk of tumor recurrence and death in LACC patients who received NACT. In addition, DM patients, regardless of the glycemic control status, were less likely to achieve CR after NACT than were non-diabetics.. Previous studies assessed the influence of glycemic control status on survival outcomes in cancer patients. In diabetic patients receiving curative resection for hepatitis C virus-related hepatocellular carcinoma, poor glycemic control was an independent predictor of relapse following surgery [8]. In ...
AIMS: To investigate the effect of adding the short-acting glucagon-like peptide 1 receptor agonist (GLP-1RA) exenatide to insulin treatment on markers of cardiovascular risk in type 1 diabetes.. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In a randomized, double-blind, parallel-group trial, 108 individuals with type 1 diabetes aged ≥18 years on multiple daily injection therapy with a body mass index ,22.0 kg/m2 and glycated haemoglobin concentration of 59 to 88 mmol/mol (7.5%-10.0%) were randomized (1:1) to preprandial subcutaneous injection of 10 μg exenatide (Byetta®) or placebo three times daily over 26 weeks as add-on treatment to existing insulin therapy. Reported markers of cardiovascular risk were secondary endpoints and were analyzed in a baseline-adjusted linear mixed model in the intention-to-treat population. The primary results of this study, the MAG1C (Meal-time Administration of exenatide for Glycaemic control in type 1 diabetes Cases) trial, were previously reported.. RESULTS: Exenatide changed ...
Laboratory results may differ depending on the analytical technique, the age of the subject, and biological variation among individuals. Higher levels of HbA1c are found in people with persistently elevated blood sugar, as in diabetes mellitus. While diabetic patient treatment goals vary, many include a target range of HbA1c values. A diabetic person with good glucose control has a HbA1c level that is close to or within the reference range. The International Diabetes Federation and the American College of Endocrinology recommend HbA1c values below 48 mmol/mol (6.5 DCCT %), while the American Diabetes Association recommends HbA1c be below 53 mmol/mol (7.0 DCCT %) for most patients.[24] Recent results from large trials suggest that a target below 53 mmol/mol (7 DCCT %) for older adults with type 2 diabetes may be excessive: Below 53 mmol/mol (7 DCCT %) the health benefits of reduced A1C become smaller, and the intensive glycemic control required to reach this level leads to an increased rate of ...
Laboratory results may differ depending on the analytical technique, the age of the subject, and biological variation among individuals. Higher levels of HbA1c are found in people with persistently elevated blood sugar, as in diabetes mellitus. While diabetic patient treatment goals vary, many include a target range of HbA1c values. A diabetic person with good glucose control has a HbA1c level that is close to or within the reference range. The International Diabetes Federation and the American College of Endocrinology recommend HbA1c values below 48 mmol/mol (6.5 DCCT %), while the American Diabetes Association recommends HbA1c be below 53 mmol/mol (7.0 DCCT %) for most patients.[24] Recent results from large trials suggest that a target below 53 mmol/mol (7 DCCT %) for older adults with type 2 diabetes may be excessive: Below 53 mmol/mol (7 DCCT %) the health benefits of reduced A1C become smaller, and the intensive glycemic control required to reach this level leads to an increased rate of ...
HealthDay)-Poor glycemic control is associated with increased risks for stroke and death among patients with type 2 diabetes, according to a study published online Oct. 1 in Diabetes, Obesity and Metabolism.. Alexander Zabala, M.D., from the Karolinska Institutet in Stockholm, and colleagues used the Swedish National Diabetes Register to compare stroke incidence among patients with type 2 diabetes. Each patient with type 2 diabetes (406,271 patients) was matched with five individual population-based controls (2,008,640 control individuals; mean age, 64 years for both).. The researchers found that during a median follow-up of 7.3 years, 6.5 percent of patients with type 2 diabetes and 4.4 percent of controls were diagnosed with a stroke. The incidence rates were 10.88 versus 7.03 events per 1,000 person-years, respectively (hazard ratio [HR], 1.54). In adjusted analysis, the risk for stroke increased with increasing glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) levels among patients with type 2 diabetes (hazard ...
Background: Measurement of glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) levels is standard of care in assessment of glycemic control among diabetes mellitus patients. Traditional high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) based tests are expensive, need specialized equipment, and have a longer turn-around-time. Point-of-care tests to estimate HbA1c levels are now commercially available but with only limited studies from developed nations. We performed this study to understand diagnostic accuracy of two commercially available HbA1c point-of-care test. Methods: The study was conducted in an urban and a rural outpatient clinic in central India. We compared HbA1c estimated from two index tests (Hemocue Hb501, Sweden; SD Biosensor, South Korea) from capillary blood samples and compared it with HPLC, as a reference standard in an independent and a blinded manner. We estimated diagnostic accuracy of the index tests as compared to the reference standard. Results: The area under Reciever Operating Curve (ROC) for
What is HbA1c level test? Hemoglobin A1c is a type of hemoglobin in the red blood cells that is glycated/bound to the glucose. The average life span of the red blood cells is 120 days, so this Hb a1c test suggests 3 months (8-12 weeks) average glucose/sugar level in ones body and thus can be used for diagnosis of diabetes and also for followup in case of diabetes patients to know sugar control. Hba1c value suggests long term glucose control in comparison to sugar test which varies frequently.. HbA1c Test price in Ahmedabad - Rs 500 (home visit charges extra as per distance). ...
Glycated hemoglobin. Try saying that three times fast! Dont worry, you can actually abbreviate this complicated term as A1c. Unfortunately, for many diabetics, the information surrounding A1c levels can be just as confusing as the tongue-twisting medical term.. Lets simplify things: A1c levels are a measurement of the percentage of hemoglobin (the oxygen-carrying protein in red blood cells) that is connected to sugar (glucose) in the bloodstream. When there is a high amount glucose floating around in the body, the A1c level will also be high.. Unlike the glucose self-monitoring that most diabetics use on a daily basis, the A1c test shows the average of glucose levels over a three-month period of time. This is because red blood cells regenerate every 8-12 weeks. Because of this, the A1c levels change very slowly. Sudden changes or instant readings are not possible with this test.. The test is quite convenient since it does not require the patient to be fasting. A1c tests can be used to ...
ORLANDO, Fla.--(BUSINESS WIRE)-- Bristol-Myers Squibb Company (NYSE: BMY) and AstraZeneca (NYSE: AZN) today announced results up to 76-weeks from a Phase 3 study of ONGLYZA™ (saxagliptin) as initial
1. Acott AA, Theus SA, Kim LT. Long-term glucose control and risk of perioperative complications. Am J Surg 2009;198(5):596-599.. 2. Dronge AS, Perkal MF, Kancir S, et al. Long-term glycemic control and postoperative infectious complications. Arch Surg 2006;141(4):375-380.. 3. Glassman SD, Alegre G, Carreon L, et al. Perioperative complications of lumbar instrumentation and fusion in patients with diabetes mellitus. Spine J 2003;3(6):496-501.. 4. Golden SH, Peart-Vigilance C, Kao WH, Brancati FL. Perioperative glycemic control and the risk of infectious complications in a cohort of adults with diabetes. Diabetes Care 1999;22(9):1408-1414.. 5. Halkos ME, Puskas JD, Lattouf OM, et al. Elevated preoperative hemoglobin A1c level is predictive of adverse events after coronary artery bypass surgery. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg 2008;136(3):631-640.. 6. Lamloum SM, Mobasher LA, Karar AH, et al. Relationship between postoperative infectious complications and glycemic control for diabetic patients in an ...
Author(s) (or their employer(s)) 2019. Re-use permitted under CC BY. Published by BMJ. This is an open access article distributed in accordance with the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 Unported (CC BY 4.0) license, which permits others to copy, redistribute, remix, transform and build upon this work for any purpose, provided the original work is properly cited, a link to the licence is given, and indication of whether changes were made. See: http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 ...
AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: By use of a parallel and partly crossover randomised, controlled trial design we sought to elucidate the underlying mechanisms behind the advantageous effects of interval walking training (IWT) compared with continuous walking training (CWT) on glycaemic control in individuals with type 2 diabetes. We hypothesised that IWT, more than CWT, would improve insulin sensitivity including skeletal muscle insulin signalling, insulin secretion and disposition index (DI). METHODS: By simple randomisation (sequentially numbered, opaque sealed envelopes), eligible individuals (diagnosed with type 2 diabetes, no exogenous insulin treatment) were allocated to three groups: a control group (CON, n = 8), an IWT group (n = 12) and an energy expenditure-matched CWT group (n = 12). Training groups were prescribed free-living training, five sessions per week (60 min/session). A three-stage hyperglycaemic clamp, including glucose isotope tracers and skeletal muscle biopsies, was performed before and ...
The hemoglobin that is bond to glucose is called glycated hemoglobin. Glycated hemoglobin is used to determine the control of blood glucose in diabetic patients. Higher amounts of glycated hemoglobin indicate poor control.
Summary of methods and results: Seven databases were searched for randomized controlled trials (RCTs), and hand searching of journals and reference lists was performed. Two authors independently screened titles and abstracts, extracted data, and assessed risk of bias, with a third author arbitrating disagreements. Thirty-five RCTs were identified. These studies either compared nonsurgical periodontal therapy, defined as scaling and root planing (SRP) or mechanical therapy, with usual care or no active treatment, or compared different types of nonsurgical periodontal therapy. Low-quality evidence indicates that SRP reduces mean glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) by 0.29 percentage points (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.48% to 0.10% lower) at 3 to 4 months, and 0.02 percentage points (95% CI: 0.20% lower to 0.16% higher) at 6 months. The addition of antimicrobial therapy did not provide added benefit to SRP alone, with 0.00 percentage points change in HbA1c at 3 to 4 months (95% CI: 0.22% lower to ...
Global Glycated Hemoglobin Testing Market research report includes the present situation and the advance estimations of the Glycated Hemoglobin Testing industry for forthcoming years 2017-2026. The Glycated Hemoglobin Testing business report covers data for the notable year 2016, the base year of evaluation is 2017....
TY - JOUR. T1 - Implications of the Hemoglobin Glycation Index on the Diagnosis of Prediabetes and Diabetes. AU - Hsia, Daniel S.. AU - Rasouli, Neda. AU - Pittas, Anastassios G.. AU - Lary, Christine W.. AU - Peters, Anne. AU - Lewis, Michael R.. AU - Kashyap, Sangeeta R.. AU - Johnson, Karen C.. AU - Leblanc, Erin S.. AU - Phillips, Lawrence S.. AU - Hempe, James M.. AU - Desouza, Cyrus V.. AU - Brodsky, Irwin. AU - Ceglia, Lisa. AU - Chadha, Chhavi. AU - Chatterjee, Ranee. AU - Dawson-Hughes, Bess. AU - Desouza, Cyruse. AU - Dolor, Rowena. AU - Foreyt, John. AU - Ghazi, Adline. AU - Kim, Sun. AU - Liao, Emilia. AU - Malozowski, Saul. AU - Neff, Lisa M.. AU - Oneil, Patrick. AU - Park, Jean. AU - Pratley, Richard. AU - Raskin, Philip. AU - Robbins, David. AU - Rosen, Clifford. AU - Aroda, Vanita R.. AU - Sheehan, Patricia. AU - Staten, Myrlene A.. AU - Knowler, William C.. PY - 2020/1/8. Y1 - 2020/1/8. N2 - Objective: Fasting plasma glucose (FPG), 2-hour plasma glucose (2hPG) from a 75-g oral ...
A strategy of intensive glucose control, involving gliclazide (modified release) and other drugs as required, that lowered the glycated hemoglobin value to 6.5% yielded a 10% relative reduction in the combined outcome of major macrovascular and microvascular events, primarily as a consequence of a 2 …
Press release - Allied Market Research - Glycosylated Hemoglobin and C-Peptide Market to Obtain Awesome Hike in Revenues - published on openPR.com
A hemoglobin A1c test measures the amount of glucose attached to your hemoglobin. Discover what hemoglobin A1C test is all about by reading this guide.
Depression, a common comorbid condition with diabetes, has been found to be associated with hyperglycaemia.1 However, the mechanisms linking depression to glycaemic control are not well understood.1 The study by Katon et al adds to our knowledge of whether interventions for depression improve both depression and glycaemic control. In 4 previous studies examining these relations, only one2 showed reductions in both glycaemic control and depressive symptoms.. The PCCI involved trained specialty nurses as the centrepiece of the intervention, in collaboration with a primary care physician, to deliver individualised stepped care for depression. Multifaceted interventions, especially those that include a nurse case manager and/or patient education, have shown improvements in process outcomes and patient outcomes such as glycaemic control.3 2 areas related to this collaborative intervention are noteworthy. Firstly, although the authors generally described the duration of each of the 3 steps and the ...
Almost 130,000 American children and adolescents have type 1 diabetes. Studies have demonstrated that intensive therapy and optimal glycemic control dramatically reduce the occurrence of complications in adolescents older than 13 years. At 12 months after initiation of a new intensive management program, Grey and colleagues studied the clinical and psychosocial factors associated with glycemic control and quality of life in adolescents with type 1 diabetes.. The study authors recruited patients aged 12 to 20 years who had used insulin therapy for at least one year. The patients had no health problems except for treated hypothyroidism, no history of hypoglycemic attacks within the previous six months, and were in the appropriate school grade according to their age within one year. Recent glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) levels of 7.2 to 14.0 percent were required for inclusion in the study. The 35 male and 48 female volunteers were treated with intensive management. In addition, one half were ...
You may need this test to check for prediabetes or diabetes.. If you have diabetes or prediabetes, you may need this test to see how well you control your blood sugar. People with diabetes need to track their blood sugar (glucose) levels every day to make sure they arent too high or too low. The A1C test gives results for a longer period of time. It shows if your blood sugar has been too high on average over the last 3 months. Glucose sticks to hemoglobin in the blood. Hemoglobin is a protein in red blood cells that carries oxygen. When blood sugar is high, more glucose builds up and sticks to the hemoglobin. The A1C test measures how much of the hemoglobin is coated with sugar.. You may have the test when a healthcare provider first works with you to treat your diabetes. You may then need to have the A1C test 2 or more times a year. This depends on the type of diabetes you have and how well its controlled. The American Diabetes Association (ADA) advises an A1C test at least 2 times a year if ...
A1C is a universally used blood test to assess glycemic control during the previous 2-3 months in patients with diabetes (1). It is used to monitor long-term glycemic control and assess patients response to therapy and is a quality-assessment tool for diabetes care in the United Kingdom and throughout the world (2). Hence, it is important that any condition that can affect the true value of A1C be considered in clinical practice.. We report here a case series of patients attending our adult secondary care diabetes clinic, all of whom were noted to have considerably lower A1C levels than what would be expected from their daily blood glucose monitoring results. The cause for the falsely low A1C in each case was found to be drug-induced hemolysis, most commonly due to sulfasalazine use. When A1C is inaccurate, fructosamine levels can be another way of monitoring average glycemic control, particularly in patients taking drugs that cause drug-induced hemolysis (1,3). ...
Monogenic diabetes is rare but is an important diagnosis in pediatric diabetes clinics. These patients are often not identified as this relies on the recognition of key clinical features by an alert clinician. Biomarkers (islet autoantibodies and C-peptide) can assist in the exclusion of patients with type 1 diabetes and allow systematic testing that does not rely on clinical recognition. Our study aimed to establish the prevalence of monogenic diabetes in U.K. pediatric clinics using a systematic approach of biomarker screening and targeted genetic testing ...
With great interest, we read the recent article by Nyström et al. (1) assessing the relationships of preoperative glycemic control in type 1 diabetes and long-term risks of major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE) and all-cause mortality after coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) in an observational cohort study. They showed that preoperative poor glycemic control defined by hemoglobin A1c levels was associated with increased long-term risks of MACE and all-cause mortality. The strengths of this study include the large sample of patients with a long follow-up and use of appropriate statistical methods to estimate the relationships of preoperative glycemic control with the risks of MACE and all-cause mortality. In our view, however, several issues in this study seemed not to be well addressed.. First, perioperative blood management was not included in the study design. It has been shown that preoperative anemia is common among patients undergoing CABG and is an important risk factor for ...
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Authors: Catherine Ngan, Ya-Chu May Tsai, Dharshan Palasubramaniam, Amy Wilson-OBrien, Jamie Layland, Robert Whitbourn, Andrew Wilson
Sigma-Aldrich offers abstracts and full-text articles by [Rozh H Al-Mashhadi, Martin M Bjørklund, Martin B Mortensen, Christina Christoffersen, Torben Larsen, Erling Falk, Jacob F Bentzon].
by Trisha Thacker and Gabriela Ratzker of Advisor Squad team. The most popular standardized measure of blood glucose levels used by people with diabetes is the Hemoglobin A1c Test. This test measures how much sugar is bound to the hemoglobin in the red blood cells and is thus also called the Glycohemoglobin Test. Since the red blood cells have an average lifespan of three months, the test reveals average blood glucose levels for three months. However, there are other factors that influence the HbA1C result such as cholesterol levels, kidney or liver disease, vitamin supplements and other conditions affecting hemoglobin such as anemia.. Moreover, since the test is an average of 3 months - it does not reveal the exact fluctuations in blood glucose that could have led to hyperglycemia and hypoglycemia. A person with extreme fluctuations in both directions may have the same HbA1c result as a person with a steady and stable blood glucose value. Additionally, the greatest drawback of HbA1c is that it ...
NEW YORK, Sept. 1, 2014 /PRNewswire/ -- Reportlinker.com announces that a new market research report is available in its catalogue:. Glycated Haemoglobin (HbA1c) Testing Market, 2014 - 2024. http://www.reportlinker.com/p02317667/Glycated-Haemoglobin-HbA1c-Testing-Market-2014---2024.html. INTRODUCTION. Diabetes is a chronic disease growing at an alarming rate around the globe.Over 382 million people are estimated to be currently suffering from the disease; the number, though, is likely to increase to 592 million by 2035. With a very high prevalence, especially in some regions such as China and India, an increasing proportion of diabetic patients are expected to look for more efficient and accurate diagnostic tests in the future. HbA1c, adapted for clinical testing to monitor diabetes in 1990s, is one such test; it can monitor and give average glucose results over the past 120 days. The test offers significant advantages over usual blood glucose monitoring assays; these include no prior fasting ...
This sample tests for glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) levels; HbA1c gives healthcare professionals an idea of blood glucose ... Hemoglobin A1c is a measure of the percent of red blood cells that are glycated, or have a glucose molecule attached. This can ... In 2011-2012, the prevalence of diabetes in the U.S. using hemoglobin A1C, fasting plasma glucose or the two-hour plasma ... Prediabetes can be diagnosed by measuring hemoglobin A1c, fasting glucose, or glucose tolerance test. Many people may be ...
"The clinical information value of the glycosylated hemoglobin assay". N. Engl. J. Med. 310 (6): 341-6. doi:10.1056/ ... In a similar way to hemoglobin A1c testing (which measures the glycation of hemoglobin), fructosamine testing determines the ... "Hemoglobin variants and hemoglobin A1c analysis: Problem solved?". Clinical Chemistry. 49 (8): 1245-1247. doi:10.1373/49.8.1245 ... A1c results may also be falsely high or low in hemoglobinopathies because abnormal hemoglobin variants can interfere in the ...
... glycosylated hemoglobin, also called HbA1c); micronutrient (vitamins, potassium, and magnesium) consumption; maintaining normal ...
Okada S, Ichiki K, Tanokuchi S, Ishii K, Hamada H, Ota Z (1995). "Improvement of stress reduces glycosylated haemoglobin levels ...
Steinbrook R. (February 2006). "Facing the Diabetes Epidemic - Mandatory Reporting of Glycosylated Hemoglobin Values in New ... non-disclosed hemoglobin A1C diabetes registry which tracks patients' blood sugar control over several months and reports the ...
1999). "Continuous glucose monitoring used to adjust diabetes therapy improves glycosylated hemoglobin: A pilot study". ...
Kesavadev J, Balakrishnan S, Ahammed S, Jothydev S (August 2009). "Reduction of glycosylated hemoglobin following 6 months of ... This supports tighter control over blood sugar and hemoglobin A1c levels, reducing the chance of long-term complications ...
Association between glycosylated hemoglobin and intentional weight loss in overweight and obese patients with type 2 diabetes ...
Randomized controlled trials found that self-monitoring of blood glucose did not improve glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) among ... reduction in their glycosylated hemoglobin values. Furthermore, a recent study showed that patients described as being " ... demonstrated that patients with continuous sensors experience less hyperglycemia and also reduce their glycosylated hemoglobin ...
"The effect of glucosamine-chondroitin supplementation on glycosylated hemoglobin levels in patients with type 2 diabetes ... Glucosamine (C6H13NO5) is an amino sugar and a prominent precursor in the biochemical synthesis of glycosylated proteins and ...
The main measure of effectiveness was the level of glycosylated haemoglobin (HbA1c), which gives an indication of how well ...
Other diagnostic tests to determine the level of diabetic control are fructosamine and glycosylated hemoglobin (GHb) blood ...
Borate and a suitable polymer bed are used to chromatograph non-glycosylated hemoglobin differentially from glycosylated ... hemoglobin (chiefly HbA1c), which is an indicator of long-term hyperglycemia in diabetes mellitus. Borax alone does not have a ...
... after eating or averages using glycosylated albumen or hemoglobin, myoglobin, creatine kinase, troponin, brain-type natriuretic ...
Glycosylated hemoglobin test A blood test that measures the level of a particular variety of hemoglobin (HbA1c) which is itself ... Hemoglobin A1C (HbA1c) Hemoglobin is the substance in red blood cells that carries oxygen to the cells. Hemoglobin reacts with ... Some machines can also measure the amount of ketones in the blood, using different testing strips, or glycosolated hemoglobin ( ... Hemoglobin A1C. HCF diet A high-carbohydrate, high-fiber diet. Hemochromatosis A condition in which excess iron levels are ...
... never reached its potential due in part to the popularization of glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) as the primary basis for ... and a new measurement for glycosylation of hemoglobin. The former led to the widespread use of reflectance meters and ...
... and she pioneered the use of glycosylated haemoglobin monitoring in 1978 and a computer data sharing system for local GPs to ...
... hemoglobin a, glycosylated MeSH D12.776.422.512.380.450 - hemoglobin A2 MeSH D12.776.422.512.426.338 - hemoglobin C MeSH ... hemoglobin H MeSH D12.776.422.512.426.480 - hemoglobin J MeSH D12.776.422.512.426.510 - hemoglobin M MeSH D12.776.422.512. ... 426.588 - hemoglobin, sickle MeSH D12.776.467.100.100.100 - angiopoietin-1 MeSH D12.776.467.100.100.200 - angiopoietin-2 MeSH ... D12.776.422.512.426.375 - hemoglobin E MeSH D12.776.422.512.426.463 - ...
... postprandial glucose and glycosylated haemoglobin. Upon its launch as a scientifically validated drug, which was supposedly ...
... trials by the international Cochrane Collaboration found that the effects on blood glucose and glycosylated haemoglobin A1c ( ...
... and glycosylated hemoglobin (Hb1Ac) levels. Furthermore, an in vivo study in rats showed that 80% of isotopically labelled Cr3+ ...
... to be compliant with treatment recommendations and had less well-controlled disease as measured by glycosylated hemoglobin. ...
... and self-acceptance showed lower levels of glycosylated hemoglobin, which is a marker for glucose levels/insulin resistance. ...
... blood glycosylated haemoglobin, LPO, serum AST, and ALT, and significant increase in the antioxidant enzymes such as CAT, GSH, ...
... was approved for glycemic control in people with type 2 diabetes, as measured by glycosylated haemoglobin A1c ( ...
... a glycosylated hemoglobin. The binding of glucose to amino acids in the hemoglobin takes place spontaneously (without the help ... Hemoglobin (American) or haemoglobin (British) (/ˈhiːməˌɡloʊbɪn, ˈhɛ-, -moʊ-/[1][2][3]); abbreviated Hb or Hgb, is the iron- ... Deoxygenated hemoglobin[edit]. Deoxygenated hemoglobin is the form of hemoglobin without the bound oxygen. The absorption ... Hemoglobin Hopkins-2 - A variant form of hemoglobin that is sometimes viewed in combination with Hemoglobin S to produce sickle ...
... is preferred over glycosylated hemoglobin to reflect the correct (nonenyzmatic) process. Early literature ... Glycated hemoglobin (hemoglobin A1c, HbA1c, A1C, or less commonly HgbA1c, haemoglobin A1c, HbA1c, Hb1c, etc.) is a form of ... HbA1c is a measure of the beta-N-1-deoxy fructosyl component of hemoglobin.[2] The origin of the naming derives from Hemoglobin ... Larsen ML, Hørder M, Mogensen EF (1990). "Effect of long-term monitoring of glycosylated haemoglobin levels in insulin- ...
... glycosylated hemoglobin differentially from glycosylated hemoglobin (chiefly HbA1c), which is an indicator of long term ...
... a glycosylated hemoglobin. The binding of glucose to amino acids in the hemoglobin takes place spontaneously (without the help ... Excessive glucose in one's blood can attach to hemoglobin and raise the level of hemoglobin A1c. Hemoglobin and hemoglobin-like ... Hemoglobin Portland II (ζ2β2). In the fetus: Hemoglobin F (α2γ2) (PDB: 1FDH​). After birth: Hemoglobin A (adult hemoglobin) ( ... There is more than one hemoglobin gene: in humans, hemoglobin A (the main form of hemoglobin present) is coded for by the genes ...
EPO is highly glycosylated (40% of total molecular weight), with half-life in blood around 5 h. EPO's half-life may vary ... Risk increases when EPO treatment raises hemoglobin levels over 11 g/dL to 12 g/dL: this is to be avoided. rhEPO has been used ... particularly when used to increase the hemoglobin levels to more than 11 g/dL to 12 g/dL. In 1905, Paul Carnot proposed the ...
A random blood sugar of greater than 11.1 mmol/l (200 mg/dl) in association with typical symptoms[23] or a glycated hemoglobin ... "Hemoglobin A1c Targets for Glycemic Control With Pharmacologic Therapy for Nonpregnant Adults With Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus: A ... Glycosylated hemoglobin. *Glucose tolerance test. *Postprandial glucose test. *Fructosamine. *Glucose test. *C-peptide ...
Glycosylated hemoglobin. *Glucose tolerance test. *Postprandial glucose test. *Fructosamine. *Glucose test. *C-peptide ...
Glycosylated hemoglobin. *Glucose tolerance test. *Postprandial glucose test. *Fructosamine. *Glucose test. *C-peptide ...
Glycosylated hemoglobin Dakal pang pamamasa[mag-edit , alilan ya ing pikuwanan]. *National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive ...
Glycated hemoglobin (hemoglobin A1C) at or above 48 mmol/mol (≥ 6.5 DCCT %). (This criterion was recommended by the American ... See also: Glycated hemoglobin and Glucose tolerance test. WHO diabetes diagnostic criteria[37][38] edit Condition. 2-hour ... Diabetes is diagnosed by testing the level of sugar or glycated hemoglobin (HbA1C) in the blood.[5][7] Type 1 diabetes can be ... Glycosylated hemoglobin. *Glucose tolerance test. *Postprandial glucose test. *Fructosamine. *Glucose test. *C-peptide ...
The most common application is to separate glycoproteins from non-glycosylated proteins, or one glycoform from another ... chromatography for use in determining long term assessment of diabetic patients through analysis of their glycated hemoglobin.[ ...
Glycosylated hemoglobin. *Glucose tolerance test. *Postprandial glucose test. *Fructosamine. *Glucose test. *C-peptide ...
See also: Glycated hemoglobin and Glucose tolerance test. WHO diabetes diagnostic criteria[59][60] edit Condition. 2 hour ... Glycated hemoglobin (HbA1C) ≥ 48 mmol/mol (≥ 6.5 DCCT %).[61]. A positive result, in the absence of unequivocal high blood ... Glycated hemoglobin is better than fasting glucose for determining risks of cardiovascular disease and death from any cause.[66 ... "Glycated hemoglobin, diabetes, and cardiovascular risk in nondiabetic adults". The New England Journal of Medicine. 362 (9): ...
... is preferred over glycosylated hemoglobin to reflect the correct (nonenyzmatic) process. Early literature ... Glycated hemoglobin (hemoglobin A1c, HbA1c, A1C, or less commonly HgbA1c, haemoglobin A1c, HbA1c, Hb1c, etc.) is a form of ... HbA1c is a measure of the beta-N-1-deoxy fructosyl component of hemoglobin.[2] The origin of the naming derives from Hemoglobin ... Larsen ML, Hørder M, Mogensen EF (1990). "Effect of long-term monitoring of glycosylated haemoglobin levels in insulin- ...
"The effect of glucosamine-chondroitin supplementation on glycosylated hemoglobin levels in patients with type 2 diabetes ...
A random blood sugar of greater than 11.1 mmol/l (200 mg/dL) in association with typical symptoms[23] or a glycated hemoglobin ... Glycosylated hemoglobin. *Glucose tolerance test. *Postprandial glucose test. *Fructosamine. *Glucose test. *C-peptide ...
Hemoglobin and myoglobin are two O2-binding proteins that contain iron porphyrins. Various cytochromes are also hemoproteins. A ... Glycosylated Porphyrins, Phthalocyanines, and Other Porphyrinoids for Diagnostics and Therapeutics. Chemical Reviews, 115(18), ... a cofactor of the protein hemoglobin. Representative porphyrins and derivatives Porphin is the simplest porphyrin, a rare ...
"Structural analysis of polymers of sickle cell hemoglobin. I. Sickle hemoglobin fibers". Journal of Molecular Biology. 199 (2 ... "Cryo-EM structure of a fully glycosylated soluble cleaved HIV-1 envelope trimer". Science. 342 (6165): 1484-90. doi:10.1126/ ... She developed software to analyze poorly ordered sickle cell hemoglobin fibers and went on to collaborate with Ron Milligan's ... "Cryo-EM structure of a fully glycosylated soluble cleaved HIV-1 envelope trimer". Science. 342 (6165): 1484-1490. Bibcode: ...
... is preferred over glycosylated hemoglobin to reflect the correct (non-enzymatic) process. Early literature ... the more glucose binds to hemoglobin in the red blood cells and the higher the glycated hemoglobin. Once a hemoglobin molecule ... Delack JB, Stogdale L (October 1983). "Glycosylated hemoglobin measurement in dogs and cats: implications for its utility in ... Hemoglobin A1c was first separated from other forms of hemoglobin by Huisman and Meyering in 1958 using a chromatographic ...
Identification of multiple glycosylated sites". The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 261 (29): 13542-5. doi:10.1016/S0021-9258( ... Rahbar S (October 1968). "An abnormal hemoglobin in red cells of diabetics". Clinica Chimica Acta; International Journal of ... It has been known for a long time that human blood proteins like hemoglobin and serum albumin may undergo a slow non-enzymatic ...
The protein has a molecular mass of approximately 19,000 g/mol, and is non-glycosylated. The polypeptide is 177 amino acids in ... Severe impairment has led to an increased number of patients with reduced hemoglobin due to dilutional anemia. Patients with ...
The glycosylated hemoglobin test shows what a persons average blood glucose level was for the 2 to 3 months before the test. ... Glycosylated Hemoglobin Test (Hemoglobin A1c). Hemoglobin is the substance inside red blood cells that carries oxygen to the ... A blood test can measure the amount of glycosylated hemoglobin in the blood. The glycosylated hemoglobin test shows what a ... this means the hemoglobin has become glycosylated (also referred to as hemoglobin A1c, or HbA1c). As a persons blood sugar ...
Glycosylated hemoglobin definition at Dictionary.com, a free online dictionary with pronunciation, synonyms and translation. ... Words nearby glycosylated hemoglobin. glycoside, glycosphingolipid, glycostatic, glycosuria, glycosyl, glycosylated hemoglobin ... Any of four hemoglobin fractions that together account for less than 4 percent of the total hemoglobin in the blood. ... In the lungs hemoglobin forms a loose combination with oxygen, which it readily gives up when it reaches the tissues. ...
Glycosylated Hemoglobin Test (Hemoglobin A1c). Say: gly-koh-sih-lay-tid hee-muh-glow-bin test ... doctors say the hemoglobin has become glycosylated. The glucose remains attached to the hemoglobin for the life of the red ... This blood test measures the amount of glycosylated hemoglobin in the blood. In other words, its a way of figuring out what ... As a persons blood sugar gets higher, glucose attaches to hemoglobin (a substance inside red blood cells that carries oxygen ...
Changes in glycosylated haemoglobin after oral glucose load. Br Med J (Clin Res Ed) 1981; 283 :1403 ... Changes in glycosylated haemoglobin after oral glucose load.. Br Med J (Clin Res Ed) 1981; 283 doi: https://doi.org/10.1136/bmj ...
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In the method, a specific binding partner to the first form of hemoglobin is added to the sample, and the sample is then ... A method useful for determining the content of a first hemoglobin in a blood sample which also contains other forms of ... The first form of hemoglobin can be a glycosylated hemoglobin, such as hemoglobin A1c (Hb A1c). In this case, the ... The nonglycosylated hemoglobin passes through the column. The glycosylated hemoglobin is then dissociated from the complex by ...
Evaluation of Glycosylated Hemoglobin in Diabetic Patients Message Subject (Your Name) has forwarded a page to you from ...
... Glycosylated Hemoglobin Test (Hemoglobin A1c). (En español: Prueba de ... doctors say the hemoglobin has become glycosylated. The glucose remains attached to the hemoglobin for the life of the red ... This blood test measures the amount of glycosylated hemoglobin in the blood. In other words, its a way of figuring out what ... As a persons blood sugar gets higher, glucose attaches to hemoglobin (a substance inside red blood cells that carries oxygen ...
... Hike in Revenues - published on openPR.com ... Global Glycosylated Hemoglobin and C-Peptide market:Reliable Market Size & Share … The global Glycosylated Hemoglobin and C- ... Glycosylated Hemoglobin C-peptide Market Report 2017 " to its Large Report database. In this report, the EMEA Glycosylated ... Glycosylated Hemoglobin and C-Peptide Market Key Segments:. By Product. o Capsule. o Tablet. o Other. By Application. o ...
Patient-Determined Glycosylated Hemoglobin Measurements: An Aid to Patient Education Message Subject (Your Name) has forwarded ... In the laboratory, the fast fraction method correlated well with known mixed standards of between 0 and 40% hemoglobin A1c (r2 ... The feasibility of patient determination of fast fraction hemoglobin (HbA1) was evaluated. ...
Erythrocyte Membrane Lipid Peroxidation and Glycosylated Hemoglobin in Diabetes. Sushil K Jain, Robert McVie, John Duett, John ... Erythrocyte Membrane Lipid Peroxidation and Glycosylated Hemoglobin in Diabetes. Sushil K Jain, Robert McVie, John Duett, John ... Erythrocyte Membrane Lipid Peroxidation and Glycosylated Hemoglobin in Diabetes Message Subject (Your Name) has forwarded a ... of membrane lipid peroxidative damage in erythrocytes was significantly correlated with the level of glycosylated hemoglobin, ...
Glycosylated (or glycated) hemoglobin (hemoglobin A1c, Hb1c , or HbA1c) is a form of hemoglobin used primarily to identify the ... Hemoglobin A1c Test. References. *↑ Larsen ML, Hørder M, Mogensen EF (1990). "Effect of long-term monitoring of glycosylated ... Glycosylated hemoglobin measurement is not appropriate where there has been a change in diet or treatment within 6 weeks. ... Nathan DM, Singer DE, Hurxthal K, Goodson JD (1984). "The clinical information value of the glycosylated hemoglobin assay". N. ...
Lack of relation between glycosylated haemoglobin concentrations and number of daily insulin injections. Br Med J (Clin Res Ed ... Lack of relation between glycosylated haemoglobin concentrations and number of daily insulin injections.. Br Med J (Clin Res Ed ... Lack of relation between glycosylated haemoglobin concentrations and number of daily insulin injections. ... Lack of relation between glycosylated haemoglobin concentrations and number of daily insulin injections. ...
Measurements of glycosylated hemoglobin (hemoglobin A1) obtained up to four years before the urine testing were used as an ... Glycosylated hemoglobin and the risk of microalbuminuria in patients with insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus.. Krolewski AS1, ... Glycosylated hemoglobin and the risk of microalbuminuria in insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. EURODIAB IDDM Complications ... it increased nonlinearly with the hemoglobin A1 value. For hemoglobin A1 values below 10.1 percent, the slope of the relation ...
... measured by glycosylated hemoglobin at the initial examination, and the four-year incidence and progression of diabetic ... Glycosylated hemoglobin predicts the incidence and progression of diabetic retinopathy JAMA. 1988 Nov 18;260(19):2864-71. ... Glycosylated hemoglobin was measured by microcolumn. Retinopathy was determined from stereoscopic fundus photographs. In the ... The relationship between hyperglycemia, measured by glycosylated hemoglobin at the initial examination, and the four-year ...
... Cancer Causes Control. 1999 Oct;10(5):379-86. ... We evaluated the association of glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c), a clinical indicator of average glycemia over the previous 2 ...
Learn more about Glycosylated Hemoglobin Test at Swedish Medical Center DefinitionReasons for TestPossible ComplicationsWhat to ... A glycosylated hemoglobin test (HbA1c) is a blood test that measures the percentage of hemoglobin (a protein found in blood red ... The higher your blood sugar is, the more that glucose gets attached to your hemoglobin. ...
What is glycosylated hemoglobin test? Meaning of glycosylated hemoglobin test as a legal term. What does glycosylated ... Definition of glycosylated hemoglobin test in the Legal Dictionary - by Free online English dictionary and encyclopedia. ... Glycosylated hemoglobin test legal definition of glycosylated hemoglobin test https://legal-dictionary.thefreedictionary.com/ ... redirected from glycosylated hemoglobin test). Also found in: Dictionary, Thesaurus, Medical, Financial, Encyclopedia. test. ...
Spontaneous Abortion and Glycosylated Haemoglobin in Diabetic Pregnancy A.D. Wright ; A.D. Wright ... A.D. Wright, H.O. Nicholson, A. Pollock, K.G. Taylor, S. Betts; Spontaneous Abortion and Glycosylated Haemoglobin in Diabetic ...
The Value of Glycosylated Haemoglobin Measurements in Diabetic Pregnancy B. J. Burke; B. J. Burke ... B. J. Burke, G. Dixon, C. Owens, C. A. Pennock, P. E. Savage; The Value of Glycosylated Haemoglobin Measurements in Diabetic ... The oxygen-linked zinc-binding site of human haemoglobin Biochem J (March, 1978) ...
This analysis first modeled the interaction between hypoglycemia and glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) in clinical trials that ... Negative binomial meta-regression analysis of combined glycosylated hemoglobin and hypoglycemia outcomes across eleven Phase ...
Association of glycosylated hemoglobin with the gene encoding CDKAL1 in the Korean Association Resource (KARE) study†. ... Ryu, J. and Lee, C. (2012), Association of glycosylated hemoglobin with the gene encoding CDKAL1 in the Korean Association ...
The Effect of Physical Activity Interventions on Glycosylated Haemoglobin (HbA1c) in Non-diabetic Populations: A Systematic ... Haemoglobin A1c (HbA1C) in non-diabetic and diabetic vascular patients. Is HbA1C an independent risk factor and predictor of ... aim of this review was to estimate the effect of physical activity on glycaemic control measured by glycosylated haemoglobin ( ... Cavero-Redondo I, Peleteiro B, Álvarez-Bueno C, Rodríguez-Artalejo F, Martinez-Vizcaino V. Glycated haemoglobin A1c as a ...
GLYCOSYLATED HAEMOGLOBIN INCREASED Causes, Patient Concerns and Latest Treatments and Metformin Reports and Side Effects. ... Check out the latest treatments for GLYCOSYLATED HAEMOGLOBIN INCREASED. ➢ GLYCOSYLATED HAEMOGLOBIN INCREASED treatment research ... Percentage of Participants With Glycosylated Hemoglobin ≤ 6.5%; Percentage of Participants With Glycosylated Hemoglobin ≤ 7.0 ... Percentage of Participants With Glycosylated Hemoglobin ≤ 7.5%; Percentage of Participants With a Decrease in Glycosylated ...
Glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) is a good indicator of disease control in diabetic patients, which can reflect the level of ... Glycated hemoglobin analyzer is the instrument that can measure the degree of hemoglobin and glucose binding to HbA1c. ...
Impact of Admission Glycosylated Hemoglobin A1c on Angiographic Characteristics and Short Term Clinical Outcomes of Nondiabetic ...
Adjusted relative risk estimates for glycosylated hemoglobin (total glycosylated hemoglobin, hemoglobin A1, or hemoglobin A1c ... Meta-Analysis: Glycosylated Hemoglobin and Cardiovascular Disease in Diabetes Mellitus. Ann Intern Med. ;141:421-431. doi: ... Meta-Analysis: Glycosylated Hemoglobin and Cardiovascular Disease in Diabetes Mellitus Elizabeth Selvin, MPH; Spyridon ... Search of the MEDLINE database by using Medical Subject Heading search terms and key words related to glycosylated hemoglobin, ...
Standardization of method for determining glycosylated hemoglobin (Hb A1c) by cation exchange high performance liquid ... The proportion of normal hemoglobin fraction (Hb F, Hb A1c and Hb Ao), as well as the hemoglobin variants (Hb S and Hb C), were ... At present, the determination of glycosylated hemoglobin in Brazilian clinical laboratories is usually done with the dedicated ... TRIVELLI, L. A.; RANNEY, H. M.; LAI, H. T. Hemoglobin components in patients with diabetes mellitus. N. Engl. J. Med., v.284, p ...
... Chen, B ... The hexapeptides attached onto beads were screened with glycosylated haemoglobin HbA(1c). The structures of the peptides ... glycosylated haemoglobin; one-bead one-compound National Category Engineering and Technology Identifiers. URN: urn:nbn:se:liu: ... one of the lead sequences has shown that this class of ligand has a high affinity and specificity for glycosylated haemoglobin ...
Serum triglyceride was done by method of Bucole G and Harold D 1973, and glycosylated haemoglobin by fast ion exchange Resin ... Study of serum triglyceride and glycosylated hemoglobin in type II diabetes mellitus with hypertension. 3rd World Congress on ...
  • Glucose (a type of sugar) molecules in the blood normally become stuck to hemoglobin molecules - this means the hemoglobin has become glycosylated (also referred to as hemoglobin A1c, or HbA1c). (kidshealth.org)
  • We evaluated the association of glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c), a clinical indicator of average glycemia over the previous 2 months, and possibly, indirectly, a marker of average blood insulin level, with colorectal carcinogenesis. (nih.gov)
  • A glycosylated hemoglobin test (HbA1c) is a blood test that measures the percentage of hemoglobin (a protein found in blood red cells) that has attached to glucose. (swedishhospital.com)
  • This analysis first modeled the interaction between hypoglycemia and glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) in clinical trials that compared insulin glargine (glargine) with human neutral protamine Hagedorn insulin (NPH) in patients with type 1 or type 2 diabetes mellitus. (nih.gov)
  • This delays patient counselling and treatment adjustments based on glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c) levels, and sometimes follow-up can be lost completely. (thefreelibrary.com)
  • Objectives We conducted a post hoc analysis into the effect of sarilumab treatment on glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) levels. (bmj.com)
  • There was no interaction between change in HbA1c and corticosteroid use nor were changes in HbA1c correlated with changes in CRP, DAS28-CRP, or hemoglobin level. (bmj.com)
  • Objectives To explore the value of high-frequency ultrasonography (US) for evaluating the impact of different levels of glycosylated haemoglobin (HbA1c) on carotid intima-medial thickness (IMT) and haemodynamics of newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) patients. (bmj.com)
  • AstraZeneca and Bristol-Myers Squibb Company today announced results from a randomized, double blind Phase 3 clinical study, which demonstrated that the addition of the investigational drug dapagliflozin to existing glimepiride (sulphonylurea) therapy produced significant reductions in glycosylated hemoglobin levels (HbA1c) in adult patients with type 2 diabetes compared to glimepiride alone. (astrazeneca.com)
  • To compare cardio metabolic characteristics of Asian Indians with incident type 2 diabetes diagnosed by Oral Glucose Tolerance Test (OGTT) or by Glycosylated Haemoglobin (HbA1c). (omicsonline.org)
  • Measurement of glycosylated haemoglobin (HbA1c) equals to assessments of multiple blood glucose (fasting and post prandial) values over a period of 2 to 3 months and therefore is a more robust estimation of average glycaemic status. (omicsonline.org)
  • Associations between local-area residential features and glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) may be mediated by individual-level health behaviors. (physiciansweekly.com)
  • Measurement of glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) levels is standard of care in assessment of glycemic control among diabetes mellitus patients. (preprints.org)
  • Glycosylated Hemoglobin, also called Glycated Hemoglobin, Hemoglobin A1c, or HbA1c, refers to hemoglobin which is bound to glucose. (1mg.com)
  • In addition, pathological changes were evaluated including glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c), advanced glycation end products (AGEs) in the kidney, as well as in circulation level and pro-inflammatory markers ICAM-1 levels in diabetic mice. (mdpi.com)
  • GluCoA1c Portable Hemoglobin A1C Test Kit (learn more about HbA1c Test ) is for use with the corresponding Hba1C Test Analyzer to quantitatively measure the HbA1c in human capillary blood or venous blood. (biohermesglobal.com)
  • GluCoA1c Portable Hemoglobin A1C Test Kit i s applicable to: HbA1c level detection and monitoring conducted by clinical medical professionals. (biohermesglobal.com)
  • The test kit adopts Boronate Affinity Chromatography to measure the percentage of HbA1c in total hemoglobin. (biohermesglobal.com)
  • Glycated haemoglobin (hba1c) synonym: glycosylated haemoglobin. (diabeteshealthstudy.com)
  • glycated haemoglobin (hba1c) an hba1c of 48 mmol/mol. (diabeteshealthstudy.com)
  • Hba1c mmol/mol % glycated hemoglobin (glycosylated hemoglobin or hba1c) is a marker for the average blood glucose levels over the previous two or three. (diabeteshealthstudy.com)
  • The hba1c results will be reported exclusively as mmol/mol of haemoglobin without glucose attached, rather glycosylated haemoglobin (hba1c) and cardiovascular. (diabeteshealthstudy.com)
  • Hba1c units converter haemoglobin molecules stay in the blood for around 3 months so download a free chart which converts hba1c in % units to mmol/mol and. (diabeteshealthstudy.com)
  • mmol/l) = (hba1c * 1.98) convert glycosylated hemoglobin a1 to average blood sugar level . (diabeteshealthstudy.com)
  • The length of time that the haemoglobin is exposed to a given hba1c values are now being reported as mmol/mol instead of as a per. (diabeteshealthstudy.com)
  • ALR2 activity and sorbitol levels along with glucose and glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1C) levels in erythrocytes were determined. (molvis.org)
  • The purpose of this study was to determine if an increase in dietary fiber affects glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) and fasting blood glucose in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. (jabfm.org)
  • 4 Medical nutrition therapy has been shown to reduce glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) by 1% to 2% in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. (jabfm.org)
  • We also hypothesised that those with OSA were more likely to have higher glycosylated haemoglobin (HbA1c), reflecting poorer diabetic control. (bmj.com)
  • Glycosylated hemoglobin A1C (HbA1c) has been widely recognized as a marker for predicting the severity of diabetes mellitus (DM) and several cardiovascular diseases. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The study was aimed to investigate the pattern of dyslipidemia among the subjects and understand its association with glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) level in diabetic and healthy controls. (biochemjournal.com)
  • This study showed a significant correlation between levels of glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) and lipid profile. (biochemjournal.com)
  • Objectives: The aim of the present cross-sectional study was to investigate the association between serum glycosylated haemoglobin (HbA1c) levels and periodontal status in patients with periodontitis (CP) and periodontally healthy controls. (unime.it)
  • Glycated hemoglobin ( hemoglobin A1c , HbA1c , A1C , or less commonly HgbA1c, haemoglobin A1c, HbA 1c , Hb1c, etc.) is a form of hemoglobin that is bound to glucose. (wikipedia.org)
  • Avail Glycosylated Hemoglobin (HbA1C) lab test at Home. (nightingales.in)
  • What is HBA1C (Glycated Hemoglobin) Test for Diabetes? (nightingales.in)
  • Glycated Hemoglobin (HBA1C) Test for Diabetes is carried out to measure the amount of blood sugar attached to hemoglobin. (nightingales.in)
  • Why you need to do HBA1C (Glycated Hemoglobin) Test for Diabetes? (nightingales.in)
  • What parameters measured in Glycosylated Hemoglobin (HbA1C)? (nightingales.in)
  • The relation between glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c), a marker of glycemic control, and the development of subclinical atherosclerosis is debated. (edu.iq)
  • 2018). 'Correlation of glycosylated haemoglobin (HbA1c) levels with subclinical atherosclerosis in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus', The Medical Journal of Basrah University , 36(2), pp. 103-114. (edu.iq)
  • HbA1c is a measure of the beta-N-1-deoxy fructosyl component of hemoglobin. (wikipedia.org)
  • The first fraction to separate, probably considered to be pure Hemoglobin A, was designated HbA0, and the following fractions were designated HbA1a, HbA1b, and HbA1c, in their order of elution. (wikipedia.org)
  • Glycosylation of hemoglobin has been implicated in nephropathy and retinopathy in diabetes mellitus . (wikidoc.org)
  • Glycosylated hemoglobin and the risk of microalbuminuria in patients with insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. (nih.gov)
  • Glycosylated hemoglobin and the risk of microalbuminuria in insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. (nih.gov)
  • Negative binomial meta-regression analysis of combined glycosylated hemoglobin and hypoglycemia outcomes across eleven Phase III and IV studies of insulin glargine compared with neutral protamine Hagedorn insulin in type 1 and type 2 diabetes mellitus. (nih.gov)
  • Stanton KG, Davis RE (1978) The relationship between the control of diabetes mellitus and circulation glycosylated haemoglobin A 1 . (springer.com)
  • Koenig RJ, Peterson CM, Jones RL, Saudek C, Lehrman M, Cera-mi A (1976) Correlation of glucose regulation and haemoglobin A 1c in diabetes mellitus. (springer.com)
  • In diabetes mellitus , higher amounts of glycated hemoglobin, indicating poorer control of blood glucose levels, have been associated with cardiovascular disease , nephropathy , neuropathy , and retinopathy . (wikipedia.org)
  • Diabetes Mellitus (DM) is associated with long-term damage, dysfunction, and failure of various body organs.Glycosylated haemoglobin (GHbA1c) is a significant biochemical marker in patients with DM which provides an estimation of long-term average glycaemia. (peertechzpublications.com)
  • In the method, a specific binding partner to the first form of hemoglobin is added to the sample, and the sample is then subjected to. (google.com)
  • c) determining the content of the first form of hemoglobin in the sample from the electropherogram. (google.com)
  • 2. The method of claim 1 wherein the first form of hemoglobin is a glycosylated hemoglobin. (google.com)
  • f) determining the absolute concentration of the first form of hemoglobin in the sample from a standard curve of protein concentration versus the ratio of protein signal to internal standard signal. (google.com)
  • 8. The method of claim 7 wherein the first form of hemoglobin is Hb A 1c . (google.com)
  • Glycosylated (or glycated) hemoglobin (hemoglobin A1c, Hb 1c , or Hb A1c ) is a form of hemoglobin used primarily to identify the average plasma glucose concentration over prolonged periods of time. (wikidoc.org)
  • As hemoglobin and glucose are together in the red blood cell, the glucose gradually binds to the A1c form of hemoglobin in a process called glycosylation. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Another form of hemoglobin that cannot transport oxygen is methemoglobin , in which the iron atom is oxidized to the +3 oxidation state. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • There is more than one hemoglobin gene: in humans, hemoglobin A (the main form of hemoglobin present) is coded for by the genes, HBA1, HBA2, and HBB. (wikipedia.org)
  • Based on the Glycosylated Hemoglobin C-Peptide industrial chain, this report mainly elaborates the definition, types, applications and major players of Glycosylated Hemoglobin C-Peptide market in details. (futuristicreports.com)
  • With the elevation of blood sugar levels, some glucose binds spontaneously to Hemoglobin A (this binding is called Glycosylation or Glycation) and remains bound for the complete lifetime of the RBC, which is 120 days normally. (1mg.com)
  • It then turns to functional abnormalities of whole blood in sickle cell anemia, inhibition of sickle hemoglobin gelation by amino acids and peptides, and intermolecular interactions in crystals of human deoxy hemoglobins A, C, F, and S. The chapters that follow focus on glycosylation of human hemoglobin, the phase transitions of sickle-cell hemoglobin, conformational effects of the HbS mutation, and mechanisms for hemoglobin oxidation. (elsevier.com)
  • [5] The use of hemoglobin A1c for monitoring the degree of control of glucose metabolism in diabetic patients was proposed in 1976 by Koenig and coworkers. (wikidoc.org)
  • In Type 1 (insulin-dependent) diabetic patients with a constant haemoglobin A 1c during the preceding 2 years, 15 ambulatory blood glucose profiles during a 5-week period showed a constant glucose level and provided a precise estimate of the mean blood glucose concentration. (springer.com)
  • The use of hemoglobin A1c for monitoring the degree of control of glucose metabolism in diabetic patients was proposed in 1976 by Anthony Cerami , Ronald Koenig and coworkers. (wikipedia.org)
  • The aim of this review was to estimate the effect of physical activity on glycaemic control measured by glycosylated haemoglobin (HbA 1c ) levels in non-diabetic populations, and to determine which type of physical activity has a greater influence on glycaemic control. (springer.com)
  • Poor glycaemic control, measured by glycosylated haemoglobin A 1C (HbA 1c ), is associated with high incidence of micro and macroangiopathy. (sljol.info)
  • Any of four hemoglobin fractions that together account for less than 4 percent of the total hemoglobin in the blood. (dictionary.com)
  • Excellent levels, for someone with diabetes, would be 7.0% (.070) or less of total hemoglobin having glucose attached. (diabeteshome.ca)
  • IMSEAR at SEARO: Effect of pregnancy on glycosylated hemoglobin. (who.int)
  • The American Diabetes Association guidelines are similar to others in advising that the glycosylated hemoglobin test be performed at least two times a year in patients with diabetes who are meeting treatment goals (and who have stable glycemic control) and quarterly in patients with diabetes whose therapy has changed or who are not meeting glycemic goals. (wikidoc.org)
  • The risk of microalbuminuria in patients with IDDM increases abruptly above a hemoglobin A1 value of 10.1 percent (equivalent to a hemoglobin A1c value of 8.1 percent), suggesting that efforts to reduce the frequency of diabetic nephropathy should be focused on reducing hemoglobin A1 values that are above this threshold. (nih.gov)
  • Topper E, Doron M, Karp M, Laron Z (1979) Relationship between glycosylated haemoglobin and postprandial blood glucose in insulin-dependent juvenile diabetes patients. (springer.com)
  • Dunn PJ, Cole RA, Soeldner JS, Gleason RE (1981) Stability of haemoglobin A 1c levels on repetitive determination in diabetic out-patients. (springer.com)
  • The Green Tea powder reduced hemoglobin A1c levels significantly and improved diastolic blood pressure in patients with borderline diabetes. (invitehealth.com)
  • Good correlation between the Afinion AS100 analyser and the ABX Pentra 400 analyser for the measurement of glycosylated haemoglobin and lipid levels in older adults in Durban, South Africa. (thefreelibrary.com)
  • A blood test can measure the amount of glycosylated hemoglobin in the blood. (kidshealth.org)
  • The glycosylated hemoglobin test shows what a person's average blood glucose level was for the 2 to 3 months before the test. (kidshealth.org)
  • This blood test measures the amount of glycosylated hemoglobin in the blood. (kidshealth.org)
  • Glycosylated hemoglobin is a test that indicates how much sugar has been in a person's blood during the past two to four months. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • The glycosylated hemoglobin test reveals how close to normal it has been during the past several months. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Glycosylated Hemoglobin Test measures the percentage of glycosylated hemoglobin in blood which reflects the average blood glucose over a period of past two to three months (8 - 12 weeks). (1mg.com)
  • When can false results appear in the Glycated Hemoglobin Test? (1mg.com)
  • The test is called the Hemoglobin A1c, or Hgb A1c. (diabeteshome.ca)
  • What is a Hemoglobin A1C Test? (diabeteshome.ca)
  • It reflects the mean glucose concentration over the previous period of 3 months and it is a good indicator of long term glycemic control it should be done with blood and urine glucose measurements for better clinical understanding.The hemoglobin A1c test may be used to screen for and diagnose diabetes and prediabetes in adults. (molq.in)
  • This test measures average levels of blood sugar over the past three months, by looking at the amount of sugar attached to hemoglobin, which is an important part of the blood. (phadkelabs.com)
  • See Hemoglobin A1C Test. (cdc.gov)
  • The test is also known as glycated hemoglobin, glycosylated hemoglobin, hemoglobin A1C. (nightingales.in)
  • The higher the levels of glucose in blood, higher will be the glycation of circulating hemoglobin. (ekincare.com)
  • The process by which sugars attach to hemoglobin is called glycation. (wikipedia.org)
  • Glycation of proteins is a frequent occurrence, but in the case of hemoglobin, a nonenzymatic condensation reaction occurs between glucose and the N-end of the beta chain. (wikipedia.org)
  • Measurements of glycosylated hemoglobin (hemoglobin A1) obtained up to four years before the urine testing were used as an index of hyperglycemia. (nih.gov)
  • The relationship between hyperglycemia, measured by glycosylated hemoglobin at the initial examination, and the four-year incidence and progression of diabetic retinopathy was examined in a population-based study in Wisconsin. (nih.gov)
  • Thus, each hemoglobin molecule can bind one molecule of oxygen. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • The mammalian hemoglobin molecule can bind (carry) up to four oxygen molecules. (wikipedia.org)
  • A good correlation was found for a curvilinear relationship (haemoglobin A 1c =2.07 x mean blood glucose 0.596 , r=0.98). (springer.com)
  • The invention disclosed relates to an electrochemical assay which is particularly concerned with an assay for the presence of, or amount of, glycosylated haemoglobin in a blood sample, but which extends to a general assay for detecting the presence of, monitoring the level of or determining the concentration of compounds containing cis-diol groups, such as glycols, nucleic acid components, sugars, polyols, catechols and glycosylated proteins. (google.ca)
  • Lack of relation between glycosylated haemoglobin concentrations and number of daily insulin injections. (bmj.com)
  • however, the relation of glycosylated hemoglobin to macrovascular disease is less clear. (annals.org)
  • The degree of membrane lipid peroxidative damage in erythrocytes was significantly correlated with the level of glycosylated hemoglobin, an index of mean glucose level for the preceding 3-4mo. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • A buildup of glycated hemoglobin within the red cell reflects the average level of glucose to which the cell has been exposed during its life cycle . (wikidoc.org)
  • This report focuses on Glycosylated Hemoglobin and C-Peptide volume and value at global level, regional level and company level. (reportsnreports.com)
  • Higher the level of glucose in the blood, greater is the amount of it binding to Hemoglobin A. Hemoglobin A1c is the dominant form of Glycated Hemoglobin. (1mg.com)
  • The higher the level of glucose in the blood, the more glycated hemoglobin is formed. (molq.in)
  • see also hemoglobin a1c level an risk of malformation. (diabeteshealthstudy.com)
  • Whether glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA 1C ) level, a marker of glucose control, is predictive of the development of cognitive impairment or dementia is unknown. (elsevier.com)
  • The invention disclosed relates to an electrochemical assay which is particularly concerned with an assay for the presence of, or amount of, glycosylated haemoglobin in a blood sample, but which extends to a general assay for detecting the presence of, monitoring the level of or determining the concentration. (google.ca)
  • Excessive glucose in one's blood can attach to hemoglobin and raise the level of hemoglobin A1c. (wikipedia.org)
  • [2] The origin of the naming derives from Hemoglobin type A being separated on cation exchange chromatography . (wikipedia.org)
  • The primary outcome was fasting blood glucose, and the secondary outcomes included glycosylated hemoglobin A1c, total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, triglyceride and postprandial blood glucose. (isharonline.org)
  • Several methods are used to measure the amount of bound hemoglobin and glucose. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • All are based on the separation of hemoglobin bound to glucose from that without glucose. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Glycosylated hemoglobin refers to a hemoglobin molecule to which glucose is bound. (reportsnreports.com)
  • Hemoglobin A1c is a type of hemoglobin in the red blood cells that is glycated/bound to the glucose. (qline.in)
  • Hemoglobin is involved in the transport of other gases: It carries some of the body's respiratory carbon dioxide (about 20-25% of the total) as carbaminohemoglobin, in which CO2 is bound to the heme protein. (wikipedia.org)
  • As a person's blood sugar gets higher, glucose attaches to hemoglobin (a substance inside red blood cells that carries oxygen to cells). (kidshealth.org)
  • Hemoglobin A1c, also glycated hemoglobin or A1c, is formed in the blood when glucose attaches to hemoglobin. (molq.in)
  • To conduct a meta-analysis of observational studies of the association between glycosylated hemoglobin and cardiovascular disease in diabetic persons. (annals.org)
  • Search of the MEDLINE database by using Medical Subject Heading search terms and key words related to glycosylated hemoglobin, diabetes, and cardiovascular disease. (annals.org)
  • Prospective cohort studies with data on glycosylated hemoglobin levels and incident cardiovascular disease. (annals.org)
  • For example, as the hemoglobin A1 value increased from 8.1 to 10.1 percent, the odds of microalbuminuria increased by a factor of 1.3, but as the value increased from 10.1 to 12.1 percent, the odds were increased by a factor of 2.4. (nih.gov)
  • Paisey RB, MacFarlane DG, Sherriff RJ, Hartog M, Slade RR, White DA (1980) The relationship between blood glycosylated haemoglobin and home capillary blood glucose levels in diabetics. (springer.com)
  • Hemoglobin is present in the red blood cells and carries oxygen from the lungs to the rest of your body. (nightingales.in)
  • Hemoglobin in blood carries oxygen from the lungs or gills to the rest of the body (i.e. the tissues). (wikipedia.org)
  • Svendsen PA, Christiansen JS, Søegaard U, Welinder BS, Nerup J (1980) Rapid changes in chromatographically determined haemoglobin A 1c induced by short-term changes in glucose concentration. (springer.com)
  • Diabetic treatment aims at achieving a normal blood glucose concentration as reflected by the glycosylated haemoglobin concentration. (lu.se)
  • The hemoglobin concentration of blood varies with the hematocrit. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • The normal values for the blood hemoglobin concentration are 13.5 to 18.0 g/100 ml in males and 12.0 to 16.0 g/100 ml in females. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • The normal mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration , which is the concentration within the red blood cells, is 32 to 36 g/100 ml. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • A chapter that assesses the effect of physiological parameters, such as pH, oxygen concentration, protein concentration, non-gelling hemoglobins, and the erythrocyte membrane, on the kinetics of polymerization of deoxyhemoglobin S concludes the book. (elsevier.com)
  • The most common type of hemoglobin in mammals contains four such subunits. (wikipedia.org)
  • A method useful for determining the content of a first hemoglobin in a blood sample which also contains other forms of hemoglobin is based on capillary electrophoresis. (google.com)
  • Hemoglobin A1c was first separated from other forms of hemoglobin by Huisman and Meyering in 1958 using a chromatographic column . (wikidoc.org)
  • A positive relationship between incidence and progression of retinopathy and glycosylated hemoglobin remained after controlling for duration of diabetes, age, sex, and baseline retinopathy. (nih.gov)
  • This market is driven by several factors such as increasing incidences of cancers, diabetes, and other blood disorders, changing lifestyle of people that would lead to diabetes, and increasing research over the application of glycosylated hemoglobin C-peptide for other indications. (reportsnreports.com)
  • Most monosaccharides, including glucose, galactose and fructose, spontaneously (i.e. non-enzymatically) bond with hemoglobin, when present in the bloodstream of humans. (wikipedia.org)
  • As a person's blood sugar becomes higher, more of the person's hemoglobin becomes glycosylated. (kidshealth.org)
  • Biochemical and Clinical Aspects of Hemoglobin Abnormalities contains the proceedings of a symposium held on the Pingree Park campus of Colorado State University on October 2-7, 1977. (elsevier.com)
  • Contributors discuss the biochemical and clinical aspects of hemoglobin abnormalities and cover topics ranging from amino acid substitutions to sickle cell disease, glycosylated hemoglobins, cystamine inhibition of sickling, and gelation of sickle cell hemoglobin. (elsevier.com)
  • Graf RJ, Halter JB, Porte D (1978) Glycosylated haemoglobin in normal subjects and subjects with maturity onset diabetes. (springer.com)
  • 4. The method of claim 3 wherein the macromolecular specific binding partner is an antibody that specifically binds Hb A 1c and lacks significant binding affinity for Hb A and other hemoglobin variants. (google.com)
  • Glucose in the blood binds to the hemoglobin to red blood cells. (nightingales.in)
  • The impact of mobile monitoring technologies on glycosylated hemoglobin in diabetes: a systematic review. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Hemoglobin is a protein found in every red blood cell. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Hemoglobin is the protein found in Red Blood Cells and is responsible for transporting oxygen. (1mg.com)
  • Hemoglobin consists of protein subunits (the globin molecules), and these proteins, in turn, are folded chains of a large number of different amino acids called polypeptides. (wikipedia.org)
  • This review aims to evaluate the evidence for the effectiveness of mhealth interventions in diabetes management on glycosylated hemoglobin. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Objectives This study sought to investigate into the biologically plausible interaction between the common haptoglobin (Hp) polymorphism rs#72294371 and glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA(1c)) on risk of coronary heart disease (CHD).Background Studies of the association between the Hp polymorphism and CHD report inconsistent results. (harvard.edu)
  • This paper reports the synthesis and screening of a combinatorial peptide library for new affinity ligands for glycosylated haemoglobin (HbA(1c)), which is an important indicator of diabetes control. (diva-portal.org)
  • Computer modelling simulation of one of the lead sequences has shown that this class of ligand has a high affinity and specificity for glycosylated haemoglobin. (diva-portal.org)
  • The affinity of hemoglobin for carbon monoxide is 210 times as strong as its affinity for oxygen. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • [3] Normal levels of glucose produce a normal amount of glycated hemoglobin. (wikipedia.org)
  • The higher your blood sugar is, the more that glucose gets attached to your hemoglobin. (swedishhospital.com)
  • During this time, the hemoglobin molecules get glycated (i.e. glucose gets attached to it) at variable rate. (ekincare.com)
  • The Glycosylated Hemoglobin C-Peptide market revenue was xx.xx Million USD in 2016, grew to xx.xx Million USD in 2019, and will reach xx.xx Million USD in 2026, with a CAGR of x.x% during 2020-2026. (futuristicreports.com)
  • Chapter 5: Production Volume, Price, Gross Margin, and Revenue ($) of Glycosylated Hemoglobin C-Peptide by Regions (2016-2020). (futuristicreports.com)
  • Chapter 6: Glycosylated Hemoglobin C-Peptide Production, Consumption, Export and Import by Regions (2016-2020). (futuristicreports.com)
  • Hemoglobin is the substance inside red blood cells that carries oxygen to the cells of the body. (kidshealth.org)
  • In the lungs hemoglobin forms a loose combination with oxygen, which it readily gives up when it reaches the tissues. (dictionary.com)
  • hemoglobin unbound to oxygen ( deoxyhemoglobin ) is darker. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • This accounts for the bright red color of arterial blood, in which the hemoglobin is about 97 per cent saturated with oxygen. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • The chains are coded by different genes, which are turned on and off during development in order to produce hemoglobins with the oxygen-carrying properties required at each developmental stage. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • The reader is also introduced to oxidation of oxyhemoglobin by reductants, the kinetics of oxygen binding to human red blood cells, and oxidation of human hemoglobin by copper. (elsevier.com)
  • Hemoglobin, or haemoglobin (spelling differences) (Greek αἷμα (haîma, "blood") + -in) + -o- + globulin (from Latin globus ("ball, sphere") + -in) (/ˈhiːməˌɡloʊbɪn, ˈhɛ-, -moʊ-/), abbreviated Hb or Hgb, is the iron-containing oxygen-transport metalloprotein in the red blood cells (erythrocytes) of almost all vertebrates (the exception being the fish family Channichthyidae) as well as the tissues of some invertebrates. (wikipedia.org)
  • Hemoglobin has an oxygen-binding capacity of 1.34 mL O2 per gram, which increases the total blood oxygen capacity seventy-fold compared to dissolved oxygen in blood. (wikipedia.org)
  • In these tissues, hemoglobin has a non-oxygen-carrying function as an antioxidant and a regulator of iron metabolism. (wikipedia.org)
  • In these organisms, hemoglobins may carry oxygen, or they may act to transport and regulate other small molecules and ions such as carbon dioxide, nitric oxide, hydrogen sulfide and sulfide. (wikipedia.org)
  • The oxygen-carrying property of hemoglobin was described by Hünefeld in 1840. (wikipedia.org)
  • In the normal 120-day life span of the red blood cell , glucose molecules join hemoglobin, forming glycated hemoglobin. (wikidoc.org)
  • Many abnormal hemoglobins arising from mutations have been discovered. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Free-radical build-up promotes the excitation of Fe2+-hemoglobin through Fe3+-Hb into abnormal ferryl hemoglobin (Fe4+-Hb). (wikipedia.org)
  • Measuring glycated hemoglobin assesses the effectiveness of therapy by monitoring long-term serum glucose regulation. (wikidoc.org)