Hemodynamics: The movement and the forces involved in the movement of the blood through the CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM.Vascular Resistance: The force that opposes the flow of BLOOD through a vascular bed. It is equal to the difference in BLOOD PRESSURE across the vascular bed divided by the CARDIAC OUTPUT.Renal Circulation: The circulation of the BLOOD through the vessels of the KIDNEY.Blood Pressure: PRESSURE of the BLOOD on the ARTERIES and other BLOOD VESSELS.Blood Flow Velocity: A value equal to the total volume flow divided by the cross-sectional area of the vascular bed.Cardiac Output: The volume of BLOOD passing through the HEART per unit of time. It is usually expressed as liters (volume) per minute so as not to be confused with STROKE VOLUME (volume per beat).Regional Blood Flow: The flow of BLOOD through or around an organ or region of the body.Cerebrovascular Circulation: The circulation of blood through the BLOOD VESSELS of the BRAIN.Models, Cardiovascular: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of the cardiovascular system, processes, or phenomena; includes the use of mathematical equations, computers and other electronic equipment.Pulmonary Circulation: The circulation of the BLOOD through the LUNGS.Dogs: The domestic dog, Canis familiaris, comprising about 400 breeds, of the carnivore family CANIDAE. They are worldwide in distribution and live in association with people. (Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, p1065)Hypertension, Pulmonary: Increased VASCULAR RESISTANCE in the PULMONARY CIRCULATION, usually secondary to HEART DISEASES or LUNG DISEASES.Heart Rate: The number of times the HEART VENTRICLES contract per unit of time, usually per minute.Kidney: Body organ that filters blood for the secretion of URINE and that regulates ion concentrations.Blood Volume: Volume of circulating BLOOD. It is the sum of the PLASMA VOLUME and ERYTHROCYTE VOLUME.Pulsatile Flow: Rhythmic, intermittent propagation of a fluid through a BLOOD VESSEL or piping system, in contrast to constant, smooth propagation, which produces laminar flow.Glomerular Filtration Rate: The volume of water filtered out of plasma through glomerular capillary walls into Bowman's capsules per unit of time. It is considered to be equivalent to INULIN clearance.Liver Circulation: The circulation of BLOOD through the LIVER.Coronary Circulation: The circulation of blood through the CORONARY VESSELS of the HEART.Pulmonary Wedge Pressure: The blood pressure as recorded after wedging a CATHETER in a small PULMONARY ARTERY; believed to reflect the PRESSURE in the pulmonary CAPILLARIES.Splanchnic Circulation: The circulation of blood through the BLOOD VESSELS supplying the abdominal VISCERA.Cardiography, Impedance: A type of impedance plethysmography in which bioelectrical impedance is measured between electrodes positioned around the neck and around the lower thorax. It is used principally to calculate stroke volume and cardiac volume, but it is also related to myocardial contractility, thoracic fluid content, and circulation to the extremities.Pulmonary Artery: The short wide vessel arising from the conus arteriosus of the right ventricle and conveying unaerated blood to the lungs.Oxygen: An element with atomic symbol O, atomic number 8, and atomic weight [15.99903; 15.99977]. It is the most abundant element on earth and essential for respiration.Oxygen Consumption: The rate at which oxygen is used by a tissue; microliters of oxygen STPD used per milligram of tissue per hour; the rate at which oxygen enters the blood from alveolar gas, equal in the steady state to the consumption of oxygen by tissue metabolism throughout the body. (Stedman, 25th ed, p346)Ventricular Function, Left: The hemodynamic and electrophysiological action of the left HEART VENTRICLE. Its measurement is an important aspect of the clinical evaluation of patients with heart disease to determine the effects of the disease on cardiac performance.Hypertension, Portal: Abnormal increase of resistance to blood flow within the hepatic PORTAL SYSTEM, frequently seen in LIVER CIRRHOSIS and conditions with obstruction of the PORTAL VEIN.Blood Gas Analysis: Measurement of oxygen and carbon dioxide in the blood.Microcirculation: The circulation of the BLOOD through the MICROVASCULAR NETWORK.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Ultrasonography, Doppler, Transcranial: A non-invasive technique using ultrasound for the measurement of cerebrovascular hemodynamics, particularly cerebral blood flow velocity and cerebral collateral flow. With a high-intensity, low-frequency pulse probe, the intracranial arteries may be studied transtemporally, transorbitally, or from below the foramen magnum.Spectroscopy, Near-Infrared: A noninvasive technique that uses the differential absorption properties of hemoglobin and myoglobin to evaluate tissue oxygenation and indirectly can measure regional hemodynamics and blood flow. Near-infrared light (NIR) can propagate through tissues and at particular wavelengths is differentially absorbed by oxygenated vs. deoxygenated forms of hemoglobin and myoglobin. Illumination of intact tissue with NIR allows qualitative assessment of changes in the tissue concentration of these molecules. The analysis is also used to determine body composition.Arterial Pressure: The blood pressure in the ARTERIES. It is commonly measured with a SPHYGMOMANOMETER on the upper arm which represents the arterial pressure in the BRACHIAL ARTERY.Stroke Volume: The amount of BLOOD pumped out of the HEART per beat, not to be confused with cardiac output (volume/time). It is calculated as the difference between the end-diastolic volume and the end-systolic volume.Arteries: The vessels carrying blood away from the heart.Vasodilator Agents: Drugs used to cause dilation of the blood vessels.Venous Pressure: The blood pressure in the VEINS. It is usually measured to assess the filling PRESSURE to the HEART VENTRICLE.Hypertension: Persistently high systemic arterial BLOOD PRESSURE. Based on multiple readings (BLOOD PRESSURE DETERMINATION), hypertension is currently defined as when SYSTOLIC PRESSURE is consistently greater than 140 mm Hg or when DIASTOLIC PRESSURE is consistently 90 mm Hg or more.Heart Failure: A heterogeneous condition in which the heart is unable to pump out sufficient blood to meet the metabolic need of the body. Heart failure can be caused by structural defects, functional abnormalities (VENTRICULAR DYSFUNCTION), or a sudden overload beyond its capacity. Chronic heart failure is more common than acute heart failure which results from sudden insult to cardiac function, such as MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION.Diuresis: An increase in the excretion of URINE. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Blood Circulation: The movement of the BLOOD as it is pumped through the CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM.Natriuresis: Sodium excretion by URINATION.Hematocrit: The volume of packed RED BLOOD CELLS in a blood specimen. The volume is measured by centrifugation in a tube with graduated markings, or with automated blood cell counters. It is an indicator of erythrocyte status in disease. For example, ANEMIA shows a low value; POLYCYTHEMIA, a high value.Swine: Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).Heart: The hollow, muscular organ that maintains the circulation of the blood.Disease Models, Animal: Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.Pulmonary Gas Exchange: The exchange of OXYGEN and CARBON DIOXIDE between alveolar air and pulmonary capillary blood that occurs across the BLOOD-AIR BARRIER.Laser-Doppler Flowmetry: A method of non-invasive, continuous measurement of MICROCIRCULATION. The technique is based on the values of the DOPPLER EFFECT of low-power laser light scattered randomly by static structures and moving tissue particulates.Rats, Sprague-Dawley: A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.Renal Plasma Flow: The amount of PLASMA that perfuses the KIDNEYS per unit time, approximately 10% greater than effective renal plasma flow (RENAL PLASMA FLOW, EFFECTIVE). It should be differentiated from the RENAL BLOOD FLOW; (RBF), which refers to the total volume of BLOOD flowing through the renal vasculature, while the renal plasma flow refers to the rate of plasma flow (RPF).Antihypertensive Agents: Drugs used in the treatment of acute or chronic vascular HYPERTENSION regardless of pharmacological mechanism. Among the antihypertensive agents are DIURETICS; (especially DIURETICS, THIAZIDE); ADRENERGIC BETA-ANTAGONISTS; ADRENERGIC ALPHA-ANTAGONISTS; ANGIOTENSIN-CONVERTING ENZYME INHIBITORS; CALCIUM CHANNEL BLOCKERS; GANGLIONIC BLOCKERS; and VASODILATOR AGENTS.Cardiac Catheterization: Procedures in which placement of CARDIAC CATHETERS is performed for therapeutic or diagnostic procedures.Nitric Oxide: A free radical gas produced endogenously by a variety of mammalian cells, synthesized from ARGININE by NITRIC OXIDE SYNTHASE. Nitric oxide is one of the ENDOTHELIUM-DEPENDENT RELAXING FACTORS released by the vascular endothelium and mediates VASODILATION. It also inhibits platelet aggregation, induces disaggregation of aggregated platelets, and inhibits platelet adhesion to the vascular endothelium. Nitric oxide activates cytosolic GUANYLATE CYCLASE and thus elevates intracellular levels of CYCLIC GMP.Renin: A highly specific (Leu-Leu) endopeptidase that generates ANGIOTENSIN I from its precursor ANGIOTENSINOGEN, leading to a cascade of reactions which elevate BLOOD PRESSURE and increase sodium retention by the kidney in the RENIN-ANGIOTENSIN SYSTEM. The enzyme was formerly listed as EC 18.104.22.168.Anesthesia: A state characterized by loss of feeling or sensation. This depression of nerve function is usually the result of pharmacologic action and is induced to allow performance of surgery or other painful procedures.Intracranial Aneurysm: Abnormal outpouching in the wall of intracranial blood vessels. Most common are the saccular (berry) aneurysms located at branch points in CIRCLE OF WILLIS at the base of the brain. Vessel rupture results in SUBARACHNOID HEMORRHAGE or INTRACRANIAL HEMORRHAGES. Giant aneurysms (>2.5 cm in diameter) may compress adjacent structures, including the OCULOMOTOR NERVE. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p841)Portal Vein: A short thick vein formed by union of the superior mesenteric vein and the splenic vein.Kidney Glomerulus: A cluster of convoluted capillaries beginning at each nephric tubule in the kidney and held together by connective tissue.Catheterization, Swan-Ganz: Placement of a balloon-tipped catheter into the pulmonary artery through the antecubital, subclavian, and sometimes the femoral vein. It is used to measure pulmonary artery pressure and pulmonary artery wedge pressure which reflects left atrial pressure and left ventricular end-diastolic pressure. The catheter is threaded into the right atrium, the balloon is inflated and the catheter follows the blood flow through the tricuspid valve into the right ventricle and out into the pulmonary artery.Cerebral Arteries: The arterial blood vessels supplying the CEREBRUM.Hemorheology: The deformation and flow behavior of BLOOD and its elements i.e., PLASMA; ERYTHROCYTES; WHITE BLOOD CELLS; and BLOOD PLATELETS.Ultrasonography, Doppler, Color: Ultrasonography applying the Doppler effect, with the superposition of flow information as colors on a gray scale in a real-time image. This type of ultrasonography is well-suited to identifying the location of high-velocity flow (such as in a stenosis) or of mapping the extent of flow in a certain region.Resuscitation: The restoration to life or consciousness of one apparently dead. (Dorland, 27th ed)SulfonesShock, Hemorrhagic: Acute hemorrhage or excessive fluid loss resulting in HYPOVOLEMIA.Ultrasonography, Doppler: Ultrasonography applying the Doppler effect, with frequency-shifted ultrasound reflections produced by moving targets (usually red blood cells) in the bloodstream along the ultrasound axis in direct proportion to the velocity of movement of the targets, to determine both direction and velocity of blood flow. (Stedman, 25th ed)Magnetic Resonance Angiography: Non-invasive method of vascular imaging and determination of internal anatomy without injection of contrast media or radiation exposure. The technique is used especially in CEREBRAL ANGIOGRAPHY as well as for studies of other vascular structures.Veins: The vessels carrying blood away from the capillary beds.Hydrodynamics: The motion of fluids, especially noncompressible liquids, under the influence of internal and external forces.Acetazolamide: One of the CARBONIC ANHYDRASE INHIBITORS that is sometimes effective against absence seizures. It is sometimes useful also as an adjunct in the treatment of tonic-clonic, myoclonic, and atonic seizures, particularly in women whose seizures occur or are exacerbated at specific times in the menstrual cycle. However, its usefulness is transient often because of rapid development of tolerance. Its antiepileptic effect may be due to its inhibitory effect on brain carbonic anhydrase, which leads to an increased transneuronal chloride gradient, increased chloride current, and increased inhibition. (From Smith and Reynard, Textbook of Pharmacology, 1991, p337)Middle Cerebral Artery: The largest of the cerebral arteries. It trifurcates into temporal, frontal, and parietal branches supplying blood to most of the parenchyma of these lobes in the CEREBRAL CORTEX. These are the areas involved in motor, sensory, and speech activities.Heart Ventricles: The lower right and left chambers of the heart. The right ventricle pumps venous BLOOD into the LUNGS and the left ventricle pumps oxygenated blood into the systemic arterial circulation.Isoflurane: A stable, non-explosive inhalation anesthetic, relatively free from significant side effects.Carbon Dioxide: A colorless, odorless gas that can be formed by the body and is necessary for the respiration cycle of plants and animals.Myocardium: The muscle tissue of the HEART. It is composed of striated, involuntary muscle cells (MYOCYTES, CARDIAC) connected to form the contractile pump to generate blood flow.Treatment Outcome: Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.Portal System: A system of vessels in which blood, after passing through one capillary bed, is conveyed through a second set of capillaries before it returns to the systemic circulation. It pertains especially to the hepatic portal system.Shear Strength: The internal resistance of a material to moving some parts of it parallel to a fixed plane, in contrast to stretching (TENSILE STRENGTH) or compression (COMPRESSIVE STRENGTH). Ionic crystals are brittle because, when subjected to shear, ions of the same charge are brought next to each other, which causes repulsion.Norepinephrine: Precursor of epinephrine that is secreted by the adrenal medulla and is a widespread central and autonomic neurotransmitter. Norepinephrine is the principal transmitter of most postganglionic sympathetic fibers and of the diffuse projection system in the brain arising from the locus ceruleus. It is also found in plants and is used pharmacologically as a sympathomimetic.Atrial Natriuretic Factor: A potent natriuretic and vasodilatory peptide or mixture of different-sized low molecular weight PEPTIDES derived from a common precursor and secreted mainly by the HEART ATRIUM. All these peptides share a sequence of about 20 AMINO ACIDS.Oxyhemoglobins: A compound formed by the combination of hemoglobin and oxygen. It is a complex in which the oxygen is bound directly to the iron without causing a change from the ferrous to the ferric state.Vasodilation: The physiological widening of BLOOD VESSELS by relaxing the underlying VASCULAR SMOOTH MUSCLE.Renal Artery: A branch of the abdominal aorta which supplies the kidneys, adrenal glands and ureters.Stress, Mechanical: A purely physical condition which exists within any material because of strain or deformation by external forces or by non-uniform thermal expansion; expressed quantitatively in units of force per unit area.Myocardial Contraction: Contractile activity of the MYOCARDIUM.Hypotension: Abnormally low BLOOD PRESSURE that can result in inadequate blood flow to the brain and other vital organs. Common symptom is DIZZINESS but greater negative impacts on the body occur when there is prolonged depravation of oxygen and nutrients.Prospective Studies: Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.Fontan Procedure: A procedure in which total right atrial or total caval blood flow is channeled directly into the pulmonary artery or into a small right ventricle that serves only as a conduit. The principal congenital malformations for which this operation is useful are TRICUSPID ATRESIA and single ventricle with pulmonary stenosis.Hemodilution: Reduction of blood viscosity usually by the addition of cell free solutions. Used clinically (1) in states of impaired microcirculation, (2) for replacement of intraoperative blood loss without homologous blood transfusion, and (3) in cardiopulmonary bypass and hypothermia.Infusions, Intravenous: The long-term (minutes to hours) administration of a fluid into the vein through venipuncture, either by letting the fluid flow by gravity or by pumping it.Epoprostenol: A prostaglandin that is a powerful vasodilator and inhibits platelet aggregation. It is biosynthesized enzymatically from PROSTAGLANDIN ENDOPEROXIDES in human vascular tissue. The sodium salt has been also used to treat primary pulmonary hypertension (HYPERTENSION, PULMONARY).Ventricular Function, Right: The hemodynamic and electrophysiological action of the right HEART VENTRICLE.Shock: A pathological condition manifested by failure to perfuse or oxygenate vital organs.Ventricular Pressure: The pressure within a CARDIAC VENTRICLE. Ventricular pressure waveforms can be measured in the beating heart by catheterization or estimated using imaging techniques (e.g., DOPPLER ECHOCARDIOGRAPHY). The information is useful in evaluating the function of the MYOCARDIUM; CARDIAC VALVES; and PERICARDIUM, particularly with simultaneous measurement of other (e.g., aortic or atrial) pressures.Vascular Stiffness: Loss of vascular ELASTICITY due to factors such as AGING; and ARTERIOSCLEROSIS. Increased arterial stiffness is one of the RISK FACTORS for many CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASES.Receptors, Endothelin: Cell surface proteins that bind ENDOTHELINS with high affinity and trigger intracellular changes which influence the behavior of cells.Echocardiography: Ultrasonic recording of the size, motion, and composition of the heart and surrounding tissues. The standard approach is transthoracic.Angiotensin II: An octapeptide that is a potent but labile vasoconstrictor. It is produced from angiotensin I after the removal of two amino acids at the C-terminal by ANGIOTENSIN CONVERTING ENZYME. The amino acid in position 5 varies in different species. To block VASOCONSTRICTION and HYPERTENSION effect of angiotensin II, patients are often treated with ACE INHIBITORS or with ANGIOTENSIN II TYPE 1 RECEPTOR BLOCKERS.Capillaries: The minute vessels that connect the arterioles and venules.Portal Pressure: The venous pressure measured in the PORTAL VEIN.Plasma Volume: Volume of PLASMA in the circulation. It is usually measured by INDICATOR DILUTION TECHNIQUES.Cerebral Veins: Veins draining the cerebrum.Vasoconstriction: The physiological narrowing of BLOOD VESSELS by contraction of the VASCULAR SMOOTH MUSCLE.Carotid Artery, Internal: Branch of the common carotid artery which supplies the anterior part of the brain, the eye and its appendages, the forehead and nose.Isotonic Solutions: Solutions having the same osmotic pressure as blood serum, or another solution with which they are compared. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed & Dorland, 28th ed)Hypotension, Controlled: Procedure in which arterial blood pressure is intentionally reduced in order to control blood loss during surgery. This procedure is performed either pharmacologically or by pre-surgical removal of blood.Arterioles: The smallest divisions of the arteries located between the muscular arteries and the capillaries.Sus scrofa: A species of SWINE, in the family Suidae, comprising a number of subspecies including the domestic pig Sus scrofa domestica.Heart Function Tests: Examinations used to diagnose and treat heart conditions.Meclofenamic Acid: A non-steroidal anti-inflammatory agent with antipyretic and antigranulation activities. It also inhibits prostaglandin biosynthesis.Plethysmography: Recording of change in the size of a part as modified by the circulation in it.Lung: Either of the pair of organs occupying the cavity of the thorax that effect the aeration of the blood.Systole: Period of contraction of the HEART, especially of the HEART VENTRICLES.Diastole: Post-systolic relaxation of the HEART, especially the HEART VENTRICLES.Purines: A series of heterocyclic compounds that are variously substituted in nature and are known also as purine bases. They include ADENINE and GUANINE, constituents of nucleic acids, as well as many alkaloids such as CAFFEINE and THEOPHYLLINE. Uric acid is the metabolic end product of purine metabolism.Hyperemia: The presence of an increased amount of blood in a body part or an organ leading to congestion or engorgement of blood vessels. Hyperemia can be due to increase of blood flow into the area (active or arterial), or due to obstruction of outflow of blood from the area (passive or venous).Sheep: Any of the ruminant mammals with curved horns in the genus Ovis, family Bovidae. They possess lachrymal grooves and interdigital glands, which are absent in GOATS.Cardiotonic Agents: Agents that have a strengthening effect on the heart or that can increase cardiac output. They may be CARDIAC GLYCOSIDES; SYMPATHOMIMETICS; or other drugs. They are used after MYOCARDIAL INFARCT; CARDIAC SURGICAL PROCEDURES; in SHOCK; or in congestive heart failure (HEART FAILURE).Ophthalmic Artery: Artery originating from the internal carotid artery and distributing to the eye, orbit and adjacent facial structures.Computer Simulation: Computer-based representation of physical systems and phenomena such as chemical processes.Milrinone: A positive inotropic cardiotonic agent with vasodilator properties. It inhibits cAMP phosphodiesterase type 3 activity in myocardium and vascular smooth muscle. Milrinone is a derivative of amrinone and has 20-30 times the inotropic potency of amrinone.Pressure: A type of stress exerted uniformly in all directions. Its measure is the force exerted per unit area. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Dose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.Vasoconstrictor Agents: Drugs used to cause constriction of the blood vessels.Endothelin-1: A 21-amino acid peptide produced in a variety of tissues including endothelial and vascular smooth-muscle cells, neurons and astrocytes in the central nervous system, and endometrial cells. It acts as a modulator of vasomotor tone, cell proliferation, and hormone production. (N Eng J Med 1995;333(6):356-63)Central Venous Pressure: The blood pressure in the central large VEINS of the body. It is distinguished from peripheral venous pressure which occurs in an extremity.Echocardiography, Doppler: Measurement of intracardiac blood flow using an M-mode and/or two-dimensional (2-D) echocardiogram while simultaneously recording the spectrum of the audible Doppler signal (e.g., velocity, direction, amplitude, intensity, timing) reflected from the moving column of red blood cells.Medetomidine: An agonist of RECEPTORS, ADRENERGIC ALPHA-2 that is used in veterinary medicine for its analgesic and sedative properties. It is the racemate of DEXMEDETOMIDINE.Cyclic Nucleotide Phosphodiesterases, Type 5: A cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase subfamily that is highly specific for CYCLIC GMP. It is found predominantly in vascular tissue and plays an important role in regulating VASCULAR SMOOTH MUSCLE contraction.Hypotension, Orthostatic: A significant drop in BLOOD PRESSURE after assuming a standing position. Orthostatic hypotension is a finding, and defined as a 20-mm Hg decrease in systolic pressure or a 10-mm Hg decrease in diastolic pressure 3 minutes after the person has risen from supine to standing. Symptoms generally include DIZZINESS, blurred vision, and SYNCOPE.Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors: A class of drugs whose main indications are the treatment of hypertension and heart failure. They exert their hemodynamic effect mainly by inhibiting the renin-angiotensin system. They also modulate sympathetic nervous system activity and increase prostaglandin synthesis. They cause mainly vasodilation and mild natriuresis without affecting heart rate and contractility.NG-Nitroarginine Methyl Ester: A non-selective inhibitor of nitric oxide synthase. It has been used experimentally to induce hypertension.Sympathetic Nervous System: The thoracolumbar division of the autonomic nervous system. Sympathetic preganglionic fibers originate in neurons of the intermediolateral column of the spinal cord and project to the paravertebral and prevertebral ganglia, which in turn project to target organs. The sympathetic nervous system mediates the body's response to stressful situations, i.e., the fight or flight reactions. It often acts reciprocally to the parasympathetic system.Chronic Disease: Diseases which have one or more of the following characteristics: they are permanent, leave residual disability, are caused by nonreversible pathological alteration, require special training of the patient for rehabilitation, or may be expected to require a long period of supervision, observation, or care. (Dictionary of Health Services Management, 2d ed)Blood Viscosity: The internal resistance of the BLOOD to shear forces. The in vitro measure of whole blood viscosity is of limited clinical utility because it bears little relationship to the actual viscosity within the circulation, but an increase in the viscosity of circulating blood can contribute to morbidity in patients suffering from disorders such as SICKLE CELL ANEMIA and POLYCYTHEMIA.Kidney Function Tests: Laboratory tests used to evaluate how well the kidneys are working through examination of blood and urine.Aorta: The main trunk of the systemic arteries.Rats, Wistar: A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.Nitric Oxide Synthase: An NADPH-dependent enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of L-ARGININE and OXYGEN to produce CITRULLINE and NITRIC OXIDE.Venae Cavae: The inferior and superior venae cavae.Ultrasonography, Doppler, Pulsed: Ultrasonography applying the Doppler effect, with velocity detection combined with range discrimination. Short bursts of ultrasound are transmitted at regular intervals and the echoes are demodulated as they return.Analysis of Variance: A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.Hypertrophy, Right Ventricular: Enlargement of the RIGHT VENTRICLE of the heart. This increase in ventricular mass is often attributed to PULMONARY HYPERTENSION and is a contributor to cardiovascular morbidity and mortality.Reference Values: The range or frequency distribution of a measurement in a population (of organisms, organs or things) that has not been selected for the presence of disease or abnormality.Plasma Substitutes: Any liquid used to replace blood plasma, usually a saline solution, often with serum albumins, dextrans or other preparations. These substances do not enhance the oxygen- carrying capacity of blood, but merely replace the volume. They are also used to treat dehydration.Vena Cava, Inferior: The venous trunk which receives blood from the lower extremities and from the pelvic and abdominal organs.Rats, Inbred SHR: A strain of Rattus norvegicus with elevated blood pressure used as a model for studying hypertension and stroke.Compliance: Distensibility measure of a chamber such as the lungs (LUNG COMPLIANCE) or bladder. Compliance is expressed as a change in volume per unit change in pressure.Hypertension, Renal: Persistent high BLOOD PRESSURE due to KIDNEY DISEASES, such as those involving the renal parenchyma, the renal vasculature, or tumors that secrete RENIN.Random Allocation: A process involving chance used in therapeutic trials or other research endeavor for allocating experimental subjects, human or animal, between treatment and control groups, or among treatment groups. It may also apply to experiments on inanimate objects.Fentanyl: A potent narcotic analgesic, abuse of which leads to habituation or addiction. It is primarily a mu-opioid agonist. Fentanyl is also used as an adjunct to general anesthetics, and as an anesthetic for induction and maintenance. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p1078)Heart Defects, Congenital: Developmental abnormalities involving structures of the heart. These defects are present at birth but may be discovered later in life.Femoral Vein: The vein accompanying the femoral artery in the same sheath; it is a continuation of the popliteal vein and becomes the external iliac vein.Cardiac Pacing, Artificial: Regulation of the rate of contraction of the heart muscles by an artificial pacemaker.Liver Cirrhosis: Liver disease in which the normal microcirculation, the gross vascular anatomy, and the hepatic architecture have been variably destroyed and altered with fibrous septa surrounding regenerated or regenerating parenchymal nodules.Sodium: A member of the alkali group of metals. It has the atomic symbol Na, atomic number 11, and atomic weight 23.Venous Insufficiency: Impaired venous blood flow or venous return (venous stasis), usually caused by inadequate venous valves. Venous insufficiency often occurs in the legs, and is associated with EDEMA and sometimes with VENOUS STASIS ULCERS at the ankle.Hemoglobins: The oxygen-carrying proteins of ERYTHROCYTES. They are found in all vertebrates and some invertebrates. The number of globin subunits in the hemoglobin quaternary structure differs between species. Structures range from monomeric to a variety of multimeric arrangements.Collateral Circulation: Maintenance of blood flow to an organ despite obstruction of a principal vessel. Blood flow is maintained through small vessels.Models, Anatomic: Three-dimensional representation to show anatomic structures. Models may be used in place of intact animals or organisms for teaching, practice, and study.Shock, Septic: Sepsis associated with HYPOTENSION or hypoperfusion despite adequate fluid resuscitation. Perfusion abnormalities may include, but are not limited to LACTIC ACIDOSIS; OLIGURIA; or acute alteration in mental status.Cardiovascular Physiological Phenomena: Processes and properties of the CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM as a whole or of any of its parts.Cardiovascular System: The HEART and the BLOOD VESSELS by which BLOOD is pumped and circulated through the body.Magnetic Resonance Imaging: Non-invasive method of demonstrating internal anatomy based on the principle that atomic nuclei in a strong magnetic field absorb pulses of radiofrequency energy and emit them as radiowaves which can be reconstructed into computerized images. The concept includes proton spin tomographic techniques.Enalapril: An angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor that is used to treat HYPERTENSION and HEART FAILURE.Pulmonary Edema: Excessive accumulation of extravascular fluid in the lung, an indication of a serious underlying disease or disorder. Pulmonary edema prevents efficient PULMONARY GAS EXCHANGE in the PULMONARY ALVEOLI, and can be life-threatening.Anesthesia, IntratrachealPartial Pressure: The pressure that would be exerted by one component of a mixture of gases if it were present alone in a container. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Prostaglandins: A group of compounds derived from unsaturated 20-carbon fatty acids, primarily arachidonic acid, via the cyclooxygenase pathway. They are extremely potent mediators of a diverse group of physiological processes.TetrazolesPhenylpropionatesAortic Valve Stenosis: A pathological constriction that can occur above (supravalvular stenosis), below (subvalvular stenosis), or at the AORTIC VALVE. It is characterized by restricted outflow from the LEFT VENTRICLE into the AORTA.Ritodrine: An adrenergic beta-2 agonist used to control PREMATURE LABOR.Receptor, Endothelin A: A subtype of endothelin receptor found predominantly in the VASCULAR SMOOTH MUSCLE. It has a high affinity for ENDOTHELIN-1 and ENDOTHELIN-2.Rheology: The study of the deformation and flow of matter, usually liquids or fluids, and of the plastic flow of solids. The concept covers consistency, dilatancy, liquefaction, resistance to flow, shearing, thixotrophy, and VISCOSITY.Rest: Freedom from activity.Ventricular Remodeling: The geometric and structural changes that the HEART VENTRICLES undergo, usually following MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION. It comprises expansion of the infarct and dilatation of the healthy ventricle segments. While most prevalent in the left ventricle, it can also occur in the right ventricle.Hepatic Veins: Veins which drain the liver.Teprotide: A synthetic nonapeptide (Pyr-Trp-Pro-Arg-Pro-Gln-Ile-Pro-Pro) which is identical to the peptide from the venom of the snake, Bothrops jararaca. It inhibits kininase II and ANGIOTENSIN I and has been proposed as an antihypertensive agent.Retinal Vessels: The blood vessels which supply and drain the RETINA.Anoxia: Relatively complete absence of oxygen in one or more tissues.Brain: The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.Anesthesia, General: Procedure in which patients are induced into an unconscious state through use of various medications so that they do not feel pain during surgery.Angiotensin Receptor Antagonists: Agents that antagonize ANGIOTENSIN RECEPTORS. Many drugs in this class specifically target the ANGIOTENSIN TYPE 1 RECEPTOR.Heart-Assist Devices: Small pumps, often implantable, designed for temporarily assisting the heart, usually the LEFT VENTRICLE, to pump blood. They consist of a pumping chamber and a power source, which may be partially or totally external to the body and activated by electromagnetic motors.Respiratory Physiological Processes: Biological actions and events that support the functions of the RESPIRATORY SYSTEM.Phosphodiesterase Inhibitors: Compounds which inhibit or antagonize the biosynthesis or actions of phosphodiesterases.Aortic Valve: The valve between the left ventricle and the ascending aorta which prevents backflow into the left ventricle.Lypressin: The porcine antidiuretic hormone (VASOPRESSINS). It is a cyclic nonapeptide that differs from ARG-VASOPRESSIN by one amino acid, containing a LYSINE at residue 8 instead of an ARGININE. Lys-vasopressin is used to treat DIABETES INSIPIDUS or to improve vasomotor tone and BLOOD PRESSURE.Natriuretic Agents: Endogenous or exogenous chemicals that regulate the WATER-ELECTROLYTE BALANCE in the body. They consist of peptides and non-peptide compounds.Double-Blind Method: A method of studying a drug or procedure in which both the subjects and investigators are kept unaware of who is actually getting which specific treatment.Cardiopulmonary Bypass: Diversion of the flow of blood from the entrance of the right atrium directly to the aorta (or femoral artery) via an oxygenator thus bypassing both the heart and lungs.Sodium Chloride: A ubiquitous sodium salt that is commonly used to season food.Sulfonamides: A group of compounds that contain the structure SO2NH2.Carotid Stenosis: Narrowing or stricture of any part of the CAROTID ARTERIES, most often due to atherosclerotic plaque formation. Ulcerations may form in atherosclerotic plaques and induce THROMBUS formation. Platelet or cholesterol emboli may arise from stenotic carotid lesions and induce a TRANSIENT ISCHEMIC ATTACK; CEREBROVASCULAR ACCIDENT; or temporary blindness (AMAUROSIS FUGAX). (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp 822-3)Retinal Artery: Central retinal artery and its branches. It arises from the ophthalmic artery, pierces the optic nerve and runs through its center, enters the eye through the porus opticus and branches to supply the retina.Prostaglandin Antagonists: Compounds that inhibit the action of prostaglandins.Hypertension, Renovascular: Hypertension due to RENAL ARTERY OBSTRUCTION or compression.Carotid Arteries: Either of the two principal arteries on both sides of the neck that supply blood to the head and neck; each divides into two branches, the internal carotid artery and the external carotid artery.Hemofiltration: Extracorporeal ULTRAFILTRATION technique without HEMODIALYSIS for treatment of fluid overload and electrolyte disturbances affecting renal, cardiac, or pulmonary function.omega-N-Methylarginine: A competitive inhibitor of nitric oxide synthetase.
The evolution of early fibromuscular lesions hemodynamically induced in the dog renal artery. I. Light and transmission electron microscopy. (1/14436)In view of the important roles of arterial intimal fibromuscular lesions as precursors of atherosclerotic plaque and occlusive lesions in arterial reconstructions, a model has been developed for the rapid hemodynamic induction of these lesions by anastomosis of the dog right renal artery to the inferior vena cava. Light and transmission electron microscopic observations were made on the arterial shunt after periods of rapid flow ranging form 10 minutes to 2 hours to identify initial factor(s) and evolutionary mechanisms in the etiology of the lesions. The sequence of events included aberrations in ruthenium red staining of the endothelial luminal membrane at 10 minutes, multilayered thickening of the subendothelial basement membrane (BM) at 15 minutes, and initial reorientation and migration of smooth muscle cells (SMC) into the intima along with the appearance of areas of degeneration of the internal elastic lamina (IEL) at 30 minutes. The endothelial cells were still intact in some areas overlying the SMC migration and IEL degeneration, but they were separating from the surface in other such areas. As subendothelium became exposed, some platelet adherence was noted. By 2 hours, the entire wall reaction was fully developed. Initial observations indicate that in the evolution of this hemodynamically induced lesion visible alteration in the endothelial cells is not prerequisite to degeneration of the underlying IEL and reorientation and migration of medial SMC. (+info)
Signal-, set- and movement-related activity in the human brain: an event-related fMRI study. (2/14436)Electrophysiological studies on monkeys have been able to distinguish sensory and motor signals close in time by pseudorandomly delaying the cue that instructs the movement from the stimulus that triggers the movement. We have used a similar experimental design in functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), scanning subjects while they performed a visuomotor conditional task with instructed delays. One of four shapes was presented briefly. Two shapes instructed the subjects to flex the index finger; the other two shapes coded the flexion of the middle finger. The subjects were told to perform the movement after a tone. We have exploited a novel use of event-related fMRI. By systematically varying the interval between the visual and acoustic stimuli, it has been possible to estimate the significance of the evoked haemodynamic response (EHR) to each of the stimuli, despite their temporal proximity in relation to the time constant of the EHR. Furthermore, by varying the phase between events and image acquisition, we have been able to achieve high temporal resolution while scanning the whole brain. We dissociated sensory and motor components of the sensorimotor transformations elicited by the task, and assessed sustained activity during the instructed delays. In calcarine and occipitotemporal cortex, the responses were exclusively associated with the visual instruction cues. In temporal auditory cortex and in primary motor cortex, they were exclusively associated with the auditory trigger stimulus. In ventral prefrontal cortex there were movement-related responses preceded by preparatory activity and by signal-related activity. Finally, responses associated with the instruction cue and with sustained activity during the delay period were observed in the dorsal premotor cortex and in the dorsal posterior parietal cortex. Where the association between a visual cue and the appropriate movement is arbitrary, the underlying visuomotor transformations are not achieved exclusively through frontoparietal interactions. Rather, these processes seem to rely on the ventral visual stream, the ventral prefrontal cortex and the anterior part of the dorsal premotor cortex. (+info)
Protective effect of bactericidal/permeability-increasing protein (rBPI21) in baboon sepsis is related to its antibacterial, not antiendotoxin, properties. (3/14436)OBJECTIVE AND SUMMARY BACKGROUND DATA: The recombinant fragment of bactericidal/permeability-increasing protein, rBPI21, has potent bactericidal activity against gram-negative bacteria as well as antiendotoxin (lipopolysaccharide [LPS]) action. On the basis of these activities, the authors sought to discover whether rBPI21 would be protective in baboons with live Escherichia coli-induced sepsis and whether the potential protective effects of rBPI21 (together with antibiotics) would be more closely related to its antibacterial or LPS-neutralizing effects. METHODS: In a prospective, randomized, placebo-controlled subchronic laboratory study, the efficacy of rBPI21 or placebo was studied over 72 hours in chronically instrumented male baboons infused with live E. coli under antibiotic therapy. RESULTS: Intravenous rBPI21 attenuated sepsis-related organ failure and increased survival significantly. Bacteremia was significantly reduced in the rBPI21 group at 2 hours after the start of the E. coli infusion, whereas circulating LPS was less affected. The in vivo formation of tumor necrosis factor was significantly suppressed by the rBPI21 treatment regimen. Microcirculation and organ function were improved. CONCLUSIONS: In baboon live E. coli sepsis, the salutary effect of rBPI21 results from a more prevalent antibacterial than antiendotoxin activity. (+info)
NaCl-induced renal vasoconstriction in salt-sensitive African Americans: antipressor and hemodynamic effects of potassium bicarbonate. (4/14436)In 16 African Americans (blacks, 14 men, 2 women) with average admission mean arterial pressure (MAP, mm Hg) 99.9+/-3.5 (mean+/-SEM), we investigated whether NaCl-induced renal vasoconstriction attends salt sensitivity and, if so, whether supplemental KHCO3 ameliorates both conditions. Throughout a 3-week period under controlled metabolic conditions, all subjects ate diets containing 15 mmol NaCl and 30 mmol potassium (K+) (per 70 kg body wt [BW] per day). Throughout weeks 2 and 3, NaCl was loaded to 250 mmol/d; throughout week 3, dietary K+ was supplemented to 170 mmol/d (KHCO3). On the last day of each study week, we measured renal blood flow (RBF) and glomerular filtration rate (GFR) using renal clearances of PAH and inulin. Ten subjects were salt sensitive (SS) (DeltaMAP >+5%) and 6 salt resistant (SR). In NaCl-loaded SS but not SR subjects, RBF (mL/min/1.73 m2) decreased from 920+/-75 to 828+/-46 (P<0.05); filtration fraction (FF, %) increased from 19. 4+/- to 21.4 (P<0.001); and renal vascular resistance (RVR) (10(3)xmm Hg/[mL/min]) increased from 101+/-8 to 131+/-10 (P<0.001). In all subjects combined, DeltaMAP varied inversely with DeltaRBF (r =-0.57, P=0.02) and directly with DeltaRVR (r = 0.65, P=0.006) and DeltaFF (r = 0.59, P=0.03), but not with MAP before NaCl loading. When supplemental KHCO3 abolished the pressor effect of NaCl in SS subjects, RBF was unaffected but GFR and FF decreased. The results show that in marginally K+-deficient blacks (1) NaCl-induced renal vasoconstrictive dysfunction attends salt sensitivity; (2) the dysfunction varies in extent directly with the NaCl-induced increase in blood pressure (BP); and (3) is complexly affected by supplemented KHCO3, GFR and FF decreasing but RBF not changing. In blacks, NaCl-induced renal vasoconstriction may be a pathogenetic event in salt sensitivity. (+info)
Low calorie diet enhances renal, hemodynamic, and humoral effects of exogenous atrial natriuretic peptide in obese hypertensives. (5/14436)The expression of the natriuretic peptide clearance receptor is abundant in human and rat adipose tissue, where it is specifically inhibited by fasting. In obese hypertensives, plasma atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) levels were found to be lower than in obese normotensives. Therefore, the increased adipose mass might influence ANP levels and/or its biological activity. The aim of the present study was to evaluate whether the humoral, hemodynamic, and renal effects of exogenous ANP in obese hypertensives might be enhanced by a very low calorie diet. Eight obese hypertensives received a bolus injection of ANP (0.6 mg/kg) after 2 weeks of a normal calorie/normal sodium diet, and blood pressure (BP), heart rate, ANP, cGMP, plasma renin activity, and aldosterone were evaluated for 2 hours before and after the injection. Diuresis and natriuresis were measured every 30 minutes. The patients then started a low calorie/normal sodium diet (510 kcal/150 mmol/d) for 4 days, and then the ANP injection protocol was repeated. The low calorie diet induced a slight weight loss (from 90.6+/-1.1 to 87. 7+/-1.2 kg; P<0.01), which was accompanied by increase of cGMP excretion (from 146.0+/-10.1 to 154.5+/-9.5 nmol/24 h; P<0.05) together with a reduction of BP (P<0.01 versus basal levels). ANP injection after diet was followed by an increase of ANP levels similar to that observed before diet, but plasma cGMP, diuresis, and natriuresis increased significantly only after diet. Similarly, the decrease of BP after ANP administration was significantly higher after diet (change in mean arterial pressure, -6.4+/-0.7 versus -4. 0+/-0.6 mm Hg; P<0.05) as well as that of aldosterone (P<0.01). These data show that a low calorie diet enhances the humoral, renal, and hemodynamic effects of ANP in obese hypertensives and confirm the importance of caloric intake in modulating the biological activity of ANP, suggesting that the natriuretic peptide system can play a role in the acute changes of natriuresis and diuresis associated with caloric restriction. (+info)
Sympathetic nerve alterations assessed with 123I-MIBG in the failing human heart. (6/14436)Norepinephrine (NE) reuptake function is impaired in heart failure and this may participate in myocyte hyperstimulation by the neurotransmitter. This alteration can be assessed by 123I-metaiodobenzylguanidine (MIBG) scintigraphy. METHODS: To determine whether the impairment of neuronal NE reuptake was reversible after metoprolol therapy, we studied 18 patients (43+/-7 y) with idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy who were stabilized at least for 3 mo with captopril and diuretics. Patients underwent, before and after 6 mo of therapy with metoprolol, measurements of radionuclide left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF), maximal oxygen consumption and plasma NE concentration. The cardiac adrenergic innervation function was scintigraphically assessed with MIBG uptake and release measurements on the planar images obtained 20 min and 4 h after tracer injection. To evaluate whether metoprolol had a direct interaction with cardiac MIBG uptake and release, six normal subjects were studied before and after a 1-mo metoprolol intake. RESULTS: In controls, neither cardiac MIBG uptake and release nor circulating NE concentration changed after the 1-mo metoprolol intake. Conversely, after a 6-mo therapy with metoprolol, patients showed increased cardiac MIBG uptake (129%+/-10% versus 138%+/-17%; P = 0.009), unchanged cardiac MIBG release and decreased plasma NE concentration (0.930+/-412 versus 0.721+/-0.370 ng/mL; P = 0.02). In parallel, patients showed improved New York Heart Association class (2.44+/-0.51 versus 2.05+/-0.23; P = 0.004) and increased LVEF (20%+/-8% versus 27%+/-8%; P = 0.0005), whereas maximal oxygen uptake remained unchanged. CONCLUSION: Thus, a parallel improvement of myocardial NE reuptake and of hemodynamics was observed after a 6-mo metoprolol therapy, suggesting that such agents may be beneficial in heart failure by directly protecting the myocardium against excessive NE stimulation. (+info)
Enteroviral RNA replication in the myocardium of patients with left ventricular dysfunction and clinically suspected myocarditis. (7/14436)BACKGROUND: Previous studies dealing with the detection of enteroviral RNA in human endomyocardial biopsies have not differentiated between latent persistence of the enteroviral genome and active viral replication. Enteroviruses that are considered important factors for the development of myocarditis have a single-strand RNA genome of positive polarity that is transcribed by a virus-encoded RNA polymerase into a minus-strand mRNA during active viral replication. The synthesis of multiple copies of minus-strand enteroviral RNA therefore occurs only at sites of active viral replication but not in tissues with mere persistence of the viral genome. METHODS AND RESULTS: We investigated enteroviral RNA replication versus enteroviral RNA persistence in endomyocardial biopsies of 45 patients with left ventricular dysfunction and clinically suspected myocarditis. Using reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction in conjunction with Southern blot hybridization, we established a highly sensitive assay to specifically detect plus-strand versus minus-strand enteroviral RNA in the biopsies. Plus-strand enteroviral RNA was detected in endomyocardial biopsies of 18 (40%) of 45 patients, whereas minus-strand RNA as an indication of active enteroviral RNA replication was detected in only 10 (56%) of these 18 plus-strand-positive patients. Enteroviral RNA was not found in biopsies of the control group (n=26). CONCLUSIONS: These data demonstrate that a significant fraction of patients with left ventricular dysfunction and clinically suspected myocarditis had active enteroviral RNA replication in their myocardium (22%). Differentiation between patients with active viral replication and latent viral persistence should be particularly important in future studies evaluating different therapeutic strategies. In addition, molecular genetic detection of enteroviral genome and differentiation between replicating versus persistent viruses is possible in a single endomyocardial biopsy. (+info)
Suppression of atherosclerotic development in Watanabe heritable hyperlipidemic rabbits treated with an oral antiallergic drug, tranilast. (8/14436)BACKGROUND: Inflammatory and immunological responses of vascular cells have been shown to play a significant role in the progression of atheromatous formation. Tranilast [N-(3,4-dimethoxycinnamoyl) anthranillic acid] inhibits release of cytokines and chemical mediators from various cells, including macrophages, leading to suppression of inflammatory and immunological responses. This study tested whether tranilast may suppress atheromatous formation in Watanabe heritable hyperlipidemic (WHHL) rabbits. METHODS AND RESULTS: WHHL rabbits (2 months old) were given either 300 mg x kg-1 x d-1 of tranilast (Tranilast, n=12) or vehicle (Control, n=13) PO for 6 months. Tranilast treatment was found to suppress the aortic area covered with plaque. Immunohistochemical analysis showed that there was no difference in the percentage of the RAM11-positive macrophage area and the frequency of CD5-positive cells (T cells) in intimal plaques between Tranilast and Control. Major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II expression in macrophages and interleukin-2 (IL-2) receptor expression in T cells, as markers of the immunological activation in these cells, was suppressed in atheromatous plaque by tranilast treatment. Flow cytometry analysis of isolated human and rabbit peripheral blood mononuclear cells showed that an increase in expression both of MHC class II antigen on monocytes by incubation with interferon-gamma and of IL-2 receptor on T cells by IL-2 was suppressed by the combined incubation with tranilast. CONCLUSIONS: The results indicate that tranilast suppresses atherosclerotic development partly through direct inhibition of immunological activation of monocytes/macrophages and T cells in the atheromatous plaque. (+info)
Contribution of Peripheral Blood Pooling to Central Hemodynamic Disturbances During Endotoxin Insult in Intact Dogs - D'Orio...
en] The aim of the present study was to determine possible effects of Escherichia coli endotoxin on peripheral vascular compliance and relate them to concomitant central hemodynamic disturbances. Endotoxin was infused at 0.25 micrograms/kg.min during 2 h in six anesthetized dogs, while six additional animals served as controls. Vascular compliance of the systemic circulation was calculated in intact animals from the changes in CVP after known changes in systemic blood volume. In control dogs, vascular compliance averaged 2.3 ml/mm Hg.kg body weight. During slow endotoxin infusion, cardiovascular effects were measurable only after a certain period of time had elapsed from the start of endotoxin insult and consisted of hypotension associated with systemic vasodilation. Systemic BP decreased gradually from 124 to 68 mm Hg while vascular compliance was finally increased by 100%, when compared to control values. This latter rise was responsible for a reduction in the cardiac preloads. Pulmonary wedge ...
Assessment of Prosthetic Valve Function After TAVR | JACC: Cardiovascular Imaging
Doppler echocardiography is the cornerstone of noninvasive hemodynamic assessment of any valvular prosthesis, as findings correlate very well with invasive hemodynamic data (14). Similar to surgically implanted bioprostheses, quantitative hemodynamic assessment relies on flow-dependent (measured by continuous wave [CW] Doppler: peak aortic velocity, mean TAV gradients) and flow-independent parameters (calculated from LVOT and aortic measurements: effective orifice area [EOA]; Doppler velocity index [DVI]). However, TAV valves have unique features. Indeed, in-stent flow acceleration occurs at 2 levels (subvalvular and post-cusp) (15), therefore LVOT diameter and flow should be measured at the inferior edge of the stent (Figure 3). Furthermore, final hemodynamic performance depends on the type/size of prosthesis, native valvular anatomy, and procedural variables (13). In this context, establishing a "normal range" is challenging, and comparisons to the baseline hemodynamic characteristics of the ...
Abstract 17312: Excessive Expansive Coronary Remodeling is Associated with an Adverse Hemodynamic Profile Leading to Rapid...
Introduction: Coronary hemodynamic factors, in particular low endothelial shear stress (ESS) determine atherosclerosis progression. Vascular remodeling in response to plaque growth affects local blood flow profile and therefore the natural history of individual lesions. Compensatory expansive remodeling (ER) prevents a plaque from encroaching into the lumen, but an excessive ER response promotes high-risk lesions. Hypothesis: Excessive ER aggravates the local ESS microenvironment in humans, leading to accelerated coronary atherosclerosis.. Methods: We investigated the PREDICTION Study database of 3D coronary reconstruction by angiography & IVUS at the time of an acute coronary event (baseline, BL) and at 6-10 months followup (FU). At BL, we identified discrete plaques (max thickness ,0.5 mm, length 9 to 30 mm) with normal adjacent regions and assessed ESS (using computational fluid dynamics) and remodeling in 3mm-long segments of these plaques. At FU, we assessed ESS and plaque growth in the ...
Perioperative sympatholysis. Beneficial effects of the a2-adrenoceptor agonist mivazerol on hemodynamic stability and...
Hemodynamic function at rest, during acute stress, and in the field: Predictors of cardiac structure and function 2 years later...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Hemodynamic function at rest, during acute stress, and in the field. T2 - Predictors of cardiac structure and function 2 years later in youth. AU - Kapuku, Gaston K.. AU - Treiber, Frank A.. AU - Davis, Harry C.. AU - Harshfield, Gregory A.. AU - Cook, Barton B.. AU - Mensah, George A.. PY - 1999/11. Y1 - 1999/11. N2 - Left ventricular hypertrophy is an independent predictor of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. However, predictors of cardiac structure and function in youth are not completely understood. On 2 occasions (2.3 years apart), we examined 146 youth aged initially 10 to 19 years (mean age, 14.2 ± 1.8 years). On the initial visit, hemodynamic function was assessed at rest, during laboratory stress (ie, orthostasis, car-driving simulation, video game, and forehead cold), and in the field (ie, ambulatory blood pressure). Quantitative M-mode echocardiograms were obtained on both visits. On both visits, black compared with white youth had higher resting laboratory ...
October | 2013 | Plc Signaling
Position of PKA activation Here, we report that a b adrenergic mediated rise in cAMP and subsequent activation of PKA is very important for TP induced cardioprotection which can be consistent with our early in the day observation2 that the change from hypothermic perfusion to normothermia during TP caused a quick and significant enlargement of haemodynamic function, although H 89 totally abolished and sotalol partially abolished the TP mediated development of haemodynamic function and reduction of LDH release during reperfusion. RPP was paid off to 60% of the first value and was notably less than in adenosine treated hearts, when hearts perfused with isoproterenol were moved deubiquitinating enzyme inhibitor to adenosine. By the end of pre ischaemia, this parameter was still slightly diminished in hearts of the consecutive isoproterenol adenosine group. Perfusion with isoproterenol but not adenosine also decreased the glycogen content of the spirits by. 500-pages. There was no additive effect of ...
Abstract 11950: S100A1 Protein Delivery Reverses Abnormal Hemodynamics in Isolated Perfused Lung From Knockout Mice with...
Background: Knockout mice (KO) deficient in S100A1, an endothelial cell (EC) protein with intra and extra-cellular activity, develop pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) with reduced endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) activity, impaired production of NO, and increased EC apoptosis. To explore therapeutic potential in PAH, the impact of exogenous S100A1 protein delivery on hemodynamics in isolated perfused lungs and signalling in cultured pulmonary ECs was examined in KO and wild-type (WT) mice.. Methods and Results: In vivo, KO exhibited elevation in right ventricular systolic pressure (28.41±3.6 vs.14.9±2.41 mmHg in WT, p, 0.05, n=5), with no change in left ventricular (LV) hemodynamics including LV end-diastolic pressure volume relationship (0.35±0.15 vs.0.33±0.05 mmHg/µl vs.WT, n=8). KO perfused lungs exhibited augmented basal pulmonary vascular resistance (R0) and responses to 1µg/ml Angiotensin II (0.15±0.03 and 0.23±0.06 vs.0.09±0.01 and 0.12±0.01 mmHg*ml-1*kg-1* min-1 in ...
Clinical Trials Registry | Internet Stroke Center
Nearly half of all patients with heart failure have a preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF)1-3. This group is increasing in prevalence, has similar morbidity and mortality to systolic HF, and, despite increasing awareness of the healthcare burden, is without proven treatments1. This is related largely to a limited understanding of the basic mechanisms causing the disease3. Recent studies have added to contemporary understanding, but the pathophysiology remains controversial and incompletely understood4-8. A limitation of most prior studies is that the noninvasive measurements employed are merely surrogates for gold standard, invasive hemodynamic assessment9. There is general consensus that HFpEF patients have increased left ventricular filling pressures (LVDP) and relatively normal systolic function at rest5,8,10, but two critical questions remain: what causes the increase in LVDP, and, are there important deficits in the cardiovascular response to exercise stress in HFpEF patients3,4? The current ...
Alterations of LVEDP during IR; left ventricular end di | Open-i
EZecg Patch - Hemodynamics Company LLC
Hemodynamics Company is a new ambulatory cardiac monitoring (AECG) company with members comprised of the most tenured experts from across the industry to deliver a simple, high quality & clinically viable wearable ECG sensor called the EZecg Patch.. Hemodyamics Co is a Medicare approved Independent Diagnostic Testing Facility (IDTF) based in the Dallas / Fort Worth area aimed to deliver a superior long term continuous ECG monitoring solution to improve many of the limitations or weaknesses from the existing Patch Monitoring companies in the industry today.. The Hemodynamics EZecg Patch is a simple, peel & stick, single channel ECG monitoring patch that is generally worn for 3-7 days. The EZecg Patch is reported by more than 80% of patients to be a preferred method of monitoring due to the comfort, easy of use & the convenience of wearing such a small monitor. Most patients say they forget that the monitor is even there!. Here is why many medical facilities are choosing to adopt the EZecg Patch ...
People - Biomedical Ultrasound Research Lab - Western University
My research focus is the development of ultrasonic techniques for non-invasive imaging and flow visualization, primarily to elucidate the connections between vascular tissue changes and local hemodynamics. The development and progression of vascular disease involves an inherent feedback loop whereby local hemodynamics (e.g. oscillating shear) affect tissue changes (e.g. plaque development), which in turn affect the hemodynamics (e.g. turbulence). Hence, to investigate the role of hemodynamics in vascular disease, it is important to be able to map out and characterize the local hemodynamics relative to the tissue geometry and composition (available through various imaging modalities, incl. ultrasound), as well as follow any correlated tissue and hemodynamic changes.. ...
116 - Hemodynamic Measurements - Part 2 | BIOPAC
Core Lecture Series: Shock - ppt download
Non-invasive hemodynamics]. - MyScienceWork
Chapt. 21. Custom outline. bios255-1.docx - 255 Week 2 Chapter 21 Blood Vessels and Hemodynamics BIOS 255 Week 2 Chapter 21 The...
physioreview10(Hemodynamics) Flashcards - Cram.com
Well, about 10 days ago our little italian greyhound was hit by a car - she spent a night in the hospital, but has been
Cilostazol is useful for the treatment of sinus bradycardia and associated hemodynamic deterioration following heart...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Cilostazol is useful for the treatment of sinus bradycardia and associated hemodynamic deterioration following heart transplantation. AU - Uchikawa, Tomoki. AU - Fujino, Takeo. AU - Higo, Taiki. AU - Ohtani, Kisho. AU - Shiose, Akira. AU - Tsutsui, Hiroyuki. PY - 2019/1/1. Y1 - 2019/1/1. N2 - Bradycardia is a common complication at the early postoperative period after heart transplantation (HT). The heart rate (HR) usually recovers within a few weeks; however, several patients need a temporary pacemaker or chronotropic agents to stabilize their hemodynamics. Here, we report the first case of transient bradycardia associated with hemodynamic deterioration following HT, which was successfully treated with cilostazol, a phosphodiesterase-3-inhibiting agent. A 59-year-old man received HT for advanced heart failure due to ischemic cardiomyopathy. General fatigue persisted even after the HT. His HR was around 60 beats per minute (bpm) with sinus rhythm. Echocardiography showed no ...
Splanchnic and systemic hemodynamic responses to portal vein endotoxin after resuscitation from hemorrhagic shock<...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Splanchnic and systemic hemodynamic responses to portal vein endotoxin after resuscitation from hemorrhagic shock. AU - Gavin, T. J.. AU - Fabian, T. C.. AU - Wilson, J. D.. AU - Trenthem, L. L.. AU - Pritchard, F. E.. AU - Croce, M. A.. AU - Stewart, R. M.. AU - Proctor, K. G.. PY - 1994. Y1 - 1994. N2 - Background. Hemorrhagic shock and sepsis are usually studied separately or in rodents. This study combined the two insults in a large animal model. Methods. Anesthetized pigs were bled, held in shock for 1 hour, and then resuscitated with fluid. After 3 days, Escherichia coli endotoxin (LPS) was infused into the portal vein (150 μg/kg x 30 min) to mimic the effect of enteric substances breaching the mucosal barrier. Systemic and splanchnic hemodynamic, circulating leukocytes, and plasma levels of tumor necrosis factor (TNF) were measured in five groups: 40% hemorrhage plus fluid only resuscitation, 10% hemorrhage plus fluid-blood resuscitation, 50% hemorrhage plus fluid-blood ...
Hemodynamic assessment of transluminal angioplasty for lower extremity ischemia<...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Hemodynamic assessment of transluminal angioplasty for lower extremity ischemia. AU - Neiman, H. L.. AU - Bergan, J. J.. AU - Yao, J. S.T.. AU - Brandt, T. D.. AU - Greenberg, M.. AU - OMara, C. S.. PY - 1982/1/1. Y1 - 1982/1/1. N2 - Seventy-two patients underwent hemodynamic testing before and after treatment for occlusive disease of their lower extremities. Percutaneous transluminal angioplasty (PTA) was used to treat lesions in 26 iliac segments and produced 23 initially improved ankle or upper thigh indices, two hemodynamic failures, and one technical failure; PTA for 54 femoropopliteal lesions produced initial hemodynamic improvement in 41 cases, three hemodynamic failures, and ten technical failures. Hemodynamic follow-up of the iliac segments showed improvement in 25 (92%) as measured by the systolic pressure index of the ankle; follow-up of the femoropopliteal segments showed continued patency of 41 (65.9%). The authors analyze these hemodynamic data.. AB - Seventy-two ...
Use of milrinone in the management of haemodynamic instability following duct ligation.
Circadian hemodynamic characteristics in hypertensive patients with primary aldosteronism
Objective:The present study aimed to compare circadian hemodynamic characteristics in hypertensive patients with and without primary aldosteronism.Methods:Circadian hemodynamics, including 24-h brachial and central blood pressure (BP), SBP variability indices, central pulse wave velocity (PWV), augm
Phosphocreatine in the treatment of patients with myocardial infarct: effects on hemodynamics and oxygen supply]. - Semantic...
Changes in the major parameters of central and intracardiac hemodynamics and bodys oxygen supply were examined in 93 patients with massive myocardial infarction in the in-hospital period of the disease. Traditional therapy was given to 71 patients; in addition, phosphocreatine infusions (a course dose being 30 g) were used in 22 patients in acute myocardial infarction. Phosphocreatine therapy failed to substantially affect cardiac pump function, but prevented left ventricular dilation and development of congestive heart failure. The patients receiving phosphocreatine showed an increase in bodys oxygen consumption due to its elevated tissue extraction. No adverse effects of phosphocreatine were found.
Valvular Aortic StenosisA Clinical and Hemodynamic Profile of Patients | Annals of Internal Medicine | American College of...
We retrospectively reviewed the clinical and hemodynamic findings in 397 patients with valvular aortic stenosis at their first hemodynamic evaluation. This series is considered representative of aortic stenosis because it is heavily weighted toward older patients (average age, 61.1 years) and severe aortic stenosis (87.3% of patients had aortic valve area less than 1 cm2). We identified two categories of symptoms: angina and syncope, which develop during a fully compensated stage of aortic stenosis ("prefailure symptoms"); and dyspnea or congestive failure, which signifies various degrees of left ventricular malfunction. The preponderance of soft or medium intensity systolic murmur and normal or widened pulse pressure emphasizes the changing clinical picture of aortic stenosis in an aging population. Coexisting coronary artery disease was found in 60% of patients, but those with and without coronary disease did not differ significantly, even in the presence of angina. ...
Left ventricular geometric patterns and adaptations to hemodynamics are similar in elderly men and women
Background: Common conditions such as obesity and hypertension result in hemodynamic alterations that will induce remodeling of the left ventricle (LV). However, differences between the genders in the relationship of hemodynamics to LV geometry are not well known. The present study aims to investigate differences between the genders in this respect, in a sample of elderly persons. Methods: Echocardiography and Doppler was performed in a population-based sample aged 70 - The Prospective Investigation of the Vasculature in Uppsala Seniors (PIVUS) study (n = 922). Hemodynamic patterns obtained by echocardiography and Doppler were evaluated in relation to four LV geometric groups (normal, concentric remodeling, eccentric hypertrophy and concentric hypertrophy). Results: No significant difference between the genders was observed regarding the prevalence of the LV geometric groups. Mean values of most evaluated echocardiography and Doppler variables differed between men and women, such as LA, IVS, ...
Markers of hemodynamic state and heart failure as predictors for outcome in cardiac surgery : with special reference to mixed...
Background. Complications of an inadequate haemodynamic state are a leading cause of morbidity and mortality after cardiac surgery. Unfortunately, commonly used methods to assess haemodynamic status are not well documented with respect to outcome. The aim of this study was to investigate SV(O2) as a prognostic marker for short-and long-term outcome in a large unselected coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) cohort and in subgroups with or without treatment for intraoperative heart failure. less thanbrgreater than less thanbrgreater thanMethods. Two thousand seven hundred and fifty-five consecutive CABG patients and subgroups comprising 344 patients with and 2411 patients without intraoperative heart failure, respectively, were investigated. SV(O2) was routinely measured on admission to the intensive care unit (ICU). The mean (SD) follow-up was 10.2 (1.5) yr. less thanbrgreater than less thanbrgreater thanResults. The best cut-off for 30 day mortality related to heart failure based on ...
JCDD | Free Full-Text | Effect of Outflow Tract Banding on Embryonic Cardiac Hemodynamics
We analyzed heart wall motion and blood flow dynamics in chicken embryos using in vivo optical coherence tomography (OCT) imaging and computational fluid dynamics (CFD) embryo-specific modeling. We focused on the heart outflow tract (OFT) region of day 3 embryos, and compared normal (control) conditions to conditions after performing an OFT banding intervention, which alters hemodynamics in the embryonic heart and vasculature. We found that hemodynamics and cardiac wall motion in the OFT are affected by banding in ways that might not be intuitive a priori. In addition to the expected increase in ventricular blood pressure, and increase blood flow velocity and, thus, wall shear stress (WSS) at the band site, the characteristic peristaltic-like motion of the OFT was altered, further affecting flow and WSS. Myocardial contractility, however, was affected only close to the band site due to the physical restriction on wall motion imposed by the band. WSS were heterogeneously distributed in both normal and
Effects of the menstrual cycle and sex on postexercise hemodynamics | Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology
blood pressure is typically reduced for ∼2 h after a single bout of dynamic exercise in sedentary and endurance-trained humans (20, 31, 34). In general, this postexercise hypotension is characterized by a sustained increase in systemic vascular conductance that is not completely offset by ongoing elevations in cardiac output (20). Both sedentary and endurance-trained women and sedentary men follow this typical pattern of hemodynamics, but endurance-trained men exhibit postexercise hypotension with a different hemodynamic pattern characterized by reductions in cardiac output (44).. Several mechanisms appear to underlie the sustained peripheral vasodilation following exercise. Halliwill et al. (23) demonstrated the baroreflex is reset to defend a lower pressure following exercise; thus, sympathetic vasoconstrictor outflow is reduced postexercise in humans (23). In addition to this reduction in sympathetic nerve activity, there is reduced vascular responsiveness to a given level of sympathetic ...
Patent US5156154 - Monitoring the hemodynamic state of a patient from measurements of ... - Google Patents
A hemodynamic control apparatus and method for regulating blood flow within the cardiovascular system in a closed-loop control system using ultrasound measurement techniques to determine a hemodynamic sttus of the patient and to derive a control parameter for modulating the hemodynamics of the system using electrical or pharmaceutical therapy. This apparatus and method provides for the monitoring of cardiac myofibril motion to assess heart contractility and hemodynamic performance, and to control an implantable cardiac assist or therapy device. In this manner, the invention maintains the patients hemodynamic status without invading the left heart or the arterial system of the patient.
Noradrenaline and Nω-monomethyl-L-arginine (L-NMMA): effects on haemodynamics and regional blood flow in healthy and septic...
This prospective, non-randomized, controlled experimental study looks at the effects of NΩ-monomethyl-l-arginine (l-NMMA) on haemodynamics, oxygen transport and regional blood flow in healthy and septic sheep, and compares these effects with those of noradrenaline (NA; norepinephrine). All sheep were chronically instrumented. Six sheep received l-NMMA (7 mg·kg-1·h-1), six sheep received NA, and seven sheep received the carrier alone (0.9% NaCl). The NA dosage was continuously and individually adjusted to achieve the same increase in blood pressure as observed in matched sheep of the l-NMMA group (non-septic phase). Treatment was discontinued after 3 h. Sepsis was initiated and maintained by a continuous infusion of live Pseudomonas aeruginosa. After 24 h of sepsis, the sheep were again challenged over a treatment period of 3 h with their previously assigned drug (septic phase). During the non-septic phase of the experiment, NA and l-NMMA both caused an increase in mean arterial pressure (MAP) ...
Etanercept reduces late endotoxin-induced pulmonary hypertension in the pig
To evaluate whether etanercept, a tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-blocking agent, may counteract hemodynamic deterioration in endotoxemic shock, we designed a prospective, randomized placebo-controlled trial with parallel groups, consisting of 13 pigs aged 10-14 weeks receiving general anesthesia. Five pigs were given 25 mg of etanercept, 1 h before the start of a 4-h continuous infusion of endotoxin. Another 5 pigs were given the corresponding volume of saline, 1 h before the start of a 4-h continuous infusion of endotoxin. Three pigs were given 25 mg of etanercept, 1 hr before the start of a 4-h continuous infusion of saline. At 1 h of endotoxemia, mean pulmonary arterial pressure (MPAP) and pulmonary vascular resistance index (PVRI) increased identically in both groups of pigs receiving endotoxin. Thereafter, two distinct different patterns in hemodynamics were observed. TNF-blocked pigs showed significantly lower MPAP and PVRI compared to controls. In the etanercept-treated endotoxemic pigs, ...
Pulmonary Capillary Wedge Pressure (PCWP) by E/e' Calculator
Hypertrophy in the denervated heart: A comparison of central sympatholytic treatment with 6-hydroxydopamine and peripheral...
The effects of widespread destruction of central catecholaminergic structures on systemic hemodynamics, ventricular performance, myocardial hypertrophy and the renin-angiotensin system in developing male spontaneously hypertensive rats of the Okamoto strain (SHR) and control normotensive Kyoto Wistar (WKY) rats were examined and contrasted with the effects of peripheral sympathectomy. Both centrally administered 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) and nerve growth factor antiserum (NGFAS) prevented the development of hypertension in the spontaneously hypertensive rats but did not affect blood pressure in the control rats. Peripheral vascular resistance remained elevated and cardiac and stroke indexes depressed in both 6-OHDA- and NGFAS-treated spontaneously hypertensive rats despite preservation of normal blood pressure. Ventricular performance was depressed in the sham-treated spontaneously hypertensive rats and was not improved by either treatment. Neither 6-OHDA nor NGFAS treatment prevented the ...
The Effect of Compression Duration on Hemodynamics during Mechanical High‐impulse CPR<...
TY - JOUR. T1 - The Effect of Compression Duration on Hemodynamics during Mechanical High‐impulse CPR. AU - Swart, Gary L.. AU - Mateer, James R.. AU - DeBehnke, Daniel J.. AU - Jameson, Stephen J.. AU - Osborn, Jeffrey L.. PY - 1994/9. Y1 - 1994/9. N2 - Objective: To determine whether shorter compression durations combined with fixed increased compression velocity during mechanical high‐impulse CPR (HI‐CPR) improve resuscitation hemodynamics, compared with mechanical standard CPR (SCPR). Methods: A porcine model of ventricular fibrillation was used, with each animal serving as its own control. Twelve anesthetized swine (20-25 kg each) were instrumented for hemodynamic monitoring. Ventricular fibrillation was induced and followed, after 3 minutes, by mechanical SCPR (50% duty cycle) for 10 minutes. Mechanical HI‐CPR was then applied, with compression durations varied randomly at 2‐minute intervals for 20% (COM20), 30% (COM30), and 40% (COM40) of the CPR cycle. A 2‐minute mechanical ...
Safety, Efficacy, and Treatment Satisfaction Switching From Flolan to Remodulin Using the Crono Five Ambulatory Pump in...
Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH), which is defined as an elevation in pulmonary arterial pressure and pulmonary vascular resistance, is a severe hemodynamic abnormality common to a variety of diseases and syndromes. Elevation in pulmonary arterial pressure causes an increase in right ventricular afterload, impairing right ventricular function and ultimately leading to inactivity and death. The goal of PAH treatment is to lengthen survival time, to ameliorate symptoms of PAH, and to improve health related quality of life (HRQOL).. Remodulin® (treprostinil sodium), a stable analogue of prostacyclin, possesses potent pulmonary and systemic vasodilatory and platelet anti-aggregatory actions in vitro and in vivo. Recently, Remodulin received FDA approval for intravenous therapy based upon bioequivalence of the intravenous (IV) and subcutaneous (SC) routes of administration. Remodulin is more chemically stable than epoprostenol and may offer potential safety and convenience advantages compared ...
Progressive myocardial dysfunction associated with increased vascular resistance.<...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Progressive myocardial dysfunction associated with increased vascular resistance.. AU - Franciosa, J. A.. AU - Heckel, R.. AU - Limas, C.. AU - Cohn, J. N.. PY - 1980/10. Y1 - 1980/10. N2 - To study heart failure from a myocardial lesion, we injected glass beads into the circumflex coronary artery of 11 conscious dogs and followed hemodynamics for 10 mo. Heart rate remained unchanged. Control mean arterial pressure of 112.3 +/- 3.0 (SE) mmHg was unchanged at 1 and 3 mo, but rose to 127.2 +/- 8.5 to 84.0 +/- 7.6 ml . kg-1 . min-1 at 10 mo (P , 0.02), but was unchanged at 1 and 3 mo. Left ventricular end-diastolic pressure (LVEDP) averaged 4.6 +/- 0.8 mmHg at control and rose to 11.8 +/- 1.4 mmHg at 1 mo and 14.9 +/- 2.5 mmHg at 10 mo (both P , 0.01). Systemic vascular resistance rose significantly by 10 mo. The ratio of stroke work to LVEDP fell from 13.1 +/- 0.1 at control to 3.8 +/- 0.5 by 10 mo (P , 0.01). In this dog model, left ventricular dysfunction is manifest early by ...
Hemodynamic assessment and support in sepsis and septic shock in resource-limited settings - Nuffield Department of Medicine
Exercise and heart failure | The Scientist Magazine®
NEW YORK, June 22 (Praxis Press) Exercise training in patients with chronic heart failure improves work capacity, but effects on central hemodynamic function are not well established. Hambrecht and colleagues assigned 73 men younger than 70 with chronic heart failure to an exercise program or to a physically inactive control group (see paper). For the first 2 weeks of the program, participants exercised on a bicycle ergometer for 10 minutes four to six times a day under hospital supervision. For
Brain death-induced impairment of cardiac contractile performance can be reversed by explantation and may not preclude the use...
The shortage of suitable donor hearts for cardiac transplantation is exacerbated by the exclusion of those that exhibit contractile malfunction during the period after brain death but before excision. We have replicated the phenomenon of brain death-induced hemodynamic deterioration in the rat in vivo. After 60 minutes of brain death (defined as the absence of electrical activity in the brain), a variety of indicators of cardiac contractile function fell by approximately 50% (thus cardiac index fell from 21 +/- 2 to 11 +/- 1 ml/min per 100 g body weight). However, once excised and perfused ex vivo, the hearts recovered a level of cardiac function that was identical to that from control animals that had not been subjected to brain death. Similarly, when hearts were excised, stored (6 hours at 4 degrees C), and reperfused ex vivo with blood, they also recovered a functional capability identical to that of normal hearts from animals that had not been subjected to brain death. Our results question ...
Since the E/e ratio was first described in 1997 as a noninvasive surrogate marker of mean pulmonary capillary wedge pressure, it has gained a central role in diagnostic recommendations and a supremacy in clinical use that require critical reappraisal. We review technical factors, physiological influences, and pathophysiological processes that can complicate the interpretation of E/e. The index has been validated in certain circumstances, but its use cannot be extrapolated to other situations-such as critically ill patients or children-in which it has either been shown not to work or it has not been well validated. Meta-analyses demonstrated that E/e is not useful for the diagnosis of HFpEF and that changes in E/e are uninformative during diastolic stress echocardiography. A similar ratio has been applied to estimate right heart filling pressure despite insufficient evidence. As a composite index, changes in E/e should only be interpreted with knowledge of changes in its components. ...
Atriopeptin III does not Alter Cardiac Performance in Rats
Maternal Hemodynamics at 11-13 Weeks' Gestation in Gestational Diabetes Mellitus
FUNDING NOTICE. The Glycosmedia website and newsletter has been made possible with funding support from our sponsors. None of our sponsors have control over the content of the website, newsletter, apps, Twitter feed or RSS newsfeed.. For information about sponsorship and advertising please contact our editor-in-chief Jim Young [email protected] ...
This prospective study compared geometric and hemodynamic parameters in unruptured sidewall intracranial aneurysms for different FD treatment responses at 2 follow-up time points. Other studies have reported on the parameters for differentiation of the aneurysm response,15,16 but we highlighted the relationship between in vivo aneurysm hemodynamics and the treatment responses, and tried to give a hemodynamic explanation for the delayed occlusion. Our results showed geometric and hemodynamic differences between the occlusion and remnant groups at 6 and 12 months. In addition, 4D flow MR imaging before treatment with a FD gave important insights into the ostium hemodynamics that were helpful in predicting the treatment responses. Among all the geometric parameters, a large ostium maximum diameter (,4.9 mm) was constantly and significantly associated with delayed occlusion, similar to a previous report.9. However, ostium hemodynamics provided new perspectives to investigate the influence of the FD. ...
This prospective study compared geometric and hemodynamic parameters in unruptured sidewall intracranial aneurysms for different FD treatment responses at 2 follow-up time points. Other studies have reported on the parameters for differentiation of the aneurysm response,15,16 but we highlighted the relationship between in vivo aneurysm hemodynamics and the treatment responses, and tried to give a hemodynamic explanation for the delayed occlusion. Our results showed geometric and hemodynamic differences between the occlusion and remnant groups at 6 and 12 months. In addition, 4D flow MR imaging before treatment with a FD gave important insights into the ostium hemodynamics that were helpful in predicting the treatment responses. Among all the geometric parameters, a large ostium maximum diameter (,4.9 mm) was constantly and significantly associated with delayed occlusion, similar to a previous report.9. However, ostium hemodynamics provided new perspectives to investigate the influence of the FD. ...
Hemodynamic findings in patients with brain stroke.
The cardiovascular effects of hyperoxia during and after cabg surgery | Intensive Care Medicine Experimental | Full Text
Baseline and surgery characteristics were not different between groups. The mean age of patients was 66 years (SD 8) vs. 68(6), respectively. Mean duration of CPB was 105 minutes (SD 24) vs. 108(28). Weighted PaO2 during CPB was 220 mmHg, IQR (211-233) vs. 157 (151-162, P, 0.0001), respectively. In the ICU, weighted PaO2 was 107 (86-141) vs. 90 (84-98, P = 0.03). Median maximum values of CK-MB were 25.8µg/L, IQR (20.3-32.6) vs. 24.9 (18.0-31.2, P = 0.5) and of Troponin-T 0.35 µg/L, IQR (0.30-0.46) vs. 0.42(0.26-0.49, P = 0.9). Areas under the curve (AUC) of CK-MB (Figure 1) were median 23.5 µg/L/h, IQR (18.4-28.1) vs. 21.5(15.8-26.6, P = .35) and 0.30µg/L/h (0.25-0.44) vs. 0.39 (0.24-0.43, P = .81) for Troponin-T. Cardiac Index, Systemic Vascular Resistance Index, and serum lactate levels (Lactatemax median 2 mmol/L IQR(1.4-2.6) vs. 2.2(1.7-2.6, P = .52)) were similar between groups throughout the ICU period. ...
Issues | The Netherlands Journal of Critical Care (NJCC)
Shock is one of the leading causes of ICU admission, and is associated with a high risk of death, whatever its cause. Ad- renergic agents are the most commonly used vasopressor agents. Although the alpha-adrenergic properties of these agents raise blood pressure, they can also variably stimulate the beta-adrenergic and dopaminergic receptors. Accordingly, these agents have different haemodynamic profiles as well as different metabolic profiles. Minimal beta-adrenergic stimulation may be beneficial in preventing the decrease in cardiac output related to the increase in left ventricular afterload associated with the correction of hypotension. However, excessive beta-adrenergic stimulation (which can occur as the doses of these agents are adjusted for the vasopressor effect can have profound metabolic effects and promote arrhythmias. Whether these differences in haemodynamic and metabolic profiles impact out- come has long been undefined. Two randomized trials comparing dopamine and norepinephrine ...
Hemodynamic Monitoring System Market by Product (Systems and Disposables), by Type (Invasive, Minimally Invasive, Non-Invasive)...
Over the years, the hemodynamic monitoring systems market has witnessed various technological advancements in order to better serve the critically ill patients. These advancements have led to the development of minimally invasive and noninvasive hemodynamic monitoring systems with an aim to reduce pain, increase comfort, and most importantly reduce infectious diseases, primarily sepsis. In 2014, the disposables segment accounted for the largest share of the global hemodynamic monitoring systems market, by product; the invasive hemodynamic monitoring systems segment accounted for the largest share of the hemodynamic monitoring systems market, by type; while the hospitals segment accounted for a major share of the hemodynamic monitoring system market, by end user. In 2014, North America accounted for the largest share of the global hemodynamic monitoring systems market, followed by Europe, Asia, and the Rest of the World (RoW). In the coming years, the hemodynamic monitoring systems market is ...
A New Exercise Central Hemodynamics Paradigm | Hypertension
Using Minimally Invasive Cardiac Output Data vs. Standard Care for Patients Emergently Admitted to the Intensive Care Unit Who...
Hemodynamic instability during the first 24-hours of Intensive Care Unit (ICU) admission is associated with increased risk of subsequent morbidity and mortality. Goal-directed hemodynamic support has been successfully used in a variety of patients to improve outcome. In contrast, a similar therapeutic approach applied later, or in patients with established multi-organ failure, has no beneficial effect and may even worsen the outcome.. It is conceivable that there is a window of opportunity during the phases of hemodynamic instability where therapeutic interventions have the greatest potential to influence the subsequent course of critical illness. Large scale uses of therapeutic protocols for early intervention have been hampered by logistic problems. The burden of installing invasive hemodynamic monitoring and protocols is labor intensive and requires a continuous presence of personnel with a thorough understanding of complex physiology. Various techniques have been introduced for monitoring ...
18th SPR Pediatric Cardiovascular MR Hands-On Symposium | Lurie Children's
The 18th SPR Hands-on Cardiac MR Basic Course is a three-day intensive course. Goals are to review the necessary basic knowledge of heart disease in children and to illustrate the practical use of MR for morphologic, functional, and hemodynamic evaluation. The course will consist of didactic lectures, free-form discussion sessions, interactive MR scanning, and hands-on post processing sessions. At the completion of the course, the attendees should feel confident in initiating a cardiovascular MR program at their respective institutions to support the increasing demand for cardiovascular MR imaging in recent years. In addition, through this symposium, the organizers hope to create a support network for radiologists and cardiologists relating to issues that arise in the clinical practice of cardiovascular imaging.. This year the 20th SPR Annual Advanced Course on Pediatric Cardiovascular Imaging will be held following the 18th SPR Pediatric Cardiovascular MR Hands-On Symposium. Learn more. ...
PA Catheter (Controversies)
Randomized controlled trial of 433 patients at 26 sites randomized to receive therapy guided by clinical assessment and a PAC or clinical assessment alone. The target in both groups was resolution of clinical congestion, with additional PAC targets of a pulmonary capillary wedge pressure of 15 mm Hg and a right atrial pressure of 8 mm Hg. Medications were not specified, but inotrope use was explicitly discouraged. Results: PAC did not significantly affect the primary end point of days alive and out of the hospital during the first 6 months (p = 0.99), mortality (p = 0.35), or number of days hospitalized (p = 0.67). In-hospital adverse events were more common among patients in the PAC group (21.9% vs. 11.5%, p = 0.04), although there were no deaths related to PAC use.. ...
Electrophysiology | Osypka Medical | Cardiotronic
Pacing optimization using information from an electrocardiogram (ECG) and echocardiography (Echo) has been conducted in efforts to improve pacing therapy but is known to be very time consuming and costly. Schaumann et al. showed that an improved method of optimizing AV and VV delays with the Electrical Cardiometry (EC) Monitors. Schaumann determined that by recording stroke volume and cardiac output at fixed atrial rates, for three different AV timing and 5 different VV delays in left-to-right ventricular pacing, optimization could be conducted more effectively.  The setup of the EC Monitors and real-time hemodynamic measurements during pacemaker optimization of both the AV timing and interventricular pacing delay proved to be a superior pacing optimization method compared to using ECG and Echo.. ...
Publications: Drynan, Eleanor - Murdoch University Research Repository
2018) Assessment of agreement between invasive blood pressure measured centrally and peripherally and the influence of different haemodynamic states in anaesthetised horses. Veterinary Anaesthesia and Analgesia, 45 (4). In Press. Mosing, M., Waldmann, A.D., Raisis, A., Böhm, S.H., Drynan, E. and Wilson, K. ...
Our research lies at the interface of vascular inflammation and endothelial mechanobiology, and addresses the mechanisms of endothelial vulnerability leading to atherosclerosis. We apply a multidisciplinary systems approach, and develop novel technologies and protocols to test how arterial hemodynamics locally regulates inflammation induced by systemic risk factors for vascular disease to affect lesion formation. The outcomes of this work will be the elucidation of a vulnerable endothelial phenotype and a better understanding of mechanisms to guide the development of novel strategies to prevent, diagnose and treat cardiovascular disease.. ...
Hemodynamic tracing from cardiac catheterization. Simul | Open-i
Hemodynamic Monitoring Made Easy 1st Edition | Rent 9780702027819 | 0702027812
Aimed at practising nurses, this text provides comprehensive coverage of hemodynamic monitoring, including the latest technologies available to monitor cardiac output and the latest approaches to goal-directed therapy.Bennett, David is the author of Hemodynamic Monitoring Made Easy , published 2005 under ISBN 9780702027819 and ISBN 0702027812. [read more] ...
Critical Care Myths: Hemodynamics
Занятие за границей: первопричины да перспективы Во сегодняшний день про работодателя не так важен диплом, который заверяет об полученном образовании, а теоретические да утилитарные навыки, который Вы смогли купить в ходе обучения. Как не прискорбно, Университеты в нашей стране как правило никак не готовы дать те знания да искусства, что требует настоящий рабочий рынок. Оттого ...
DBLP: Günter Siegel
United States Hemodynamic Monitoring System Market 2017 has received a massive boost in its Growth globally as the number of...
RIU 437 - Vascular Technology Procedures I For General Ultrasound Lab - Acalog ACMS™
Application of the noninvasive vascular testing of the abdominal and peripheral arterial system with relevant hemodynamics pertinent to a general sonography perspective in the laboratory. Clinical data relative to related anatomic, physiologic, and pathologic conditions will be emphasized. Prerequisites: RIU 320 and RIU 321. Corequisite: RIU 436 ...
Eddy (fluid dynamics)
Pulse wave velocity
Vascular remodelling in the embryo
Great saphenous vein
Ultrasonography of chronic venous insufficiency of the legs
Hemodynamics is the study of blood flow and of the laws that govern the circulation of blood in the blood vessels). It follows ... It has become the reference standard used in the assessment of the condition and hemodynamics of the veins of the lower limbs. ... It has become the reference standard for examining the condition and hemodynamics of the lower limb veins. Particular veins of ... ISBN 2-906594-06-7. Franceschi, Claude; Zamboni, Paolo (2009). Principles of Venous Hemodynamics. New York: Nova Science ...
Hemodynamics Hyperviscosity syndrome Rouleaux, is a configuration that RBC aggregates take. Baskurt, OK; Hardeman M; Rampling ... T. How, Advances in Hemodynamics and Hemorheology Vol. 1, JAI Press LTD., 1996, 1-32. R. Bird, R. Armstrong, O. Hassager, ... Understanding wave propagation in arterial walls, local hemodynamics, and wall shear stress gradient is important in ... Baskurt OK, Meiselman HJ (2003). "Blood rheology and hemodynamics". Seminars in Thrombosis and Haemostasis. 29: 435-450. doi: ...
Anterior accessory saphenous vein
Joshua B. Bederson
Visual impairment due to intracranial pressure
Venous return curve
Acute cardiac unloading
D. S. Burkhoff, G.; Doshi, D., Uriel, N., Hemodynamics of Mechanical Circulatory Support. Journal of the American College of ... The American Journal of Physiology 236, H498-505 Burkhoff D., Dickstein M. HARVI: Cardiovascular Physiology & Hemodynamics. ... Burkhoff D. HARVI: Cardiovascular Physiology & Hemodynamics. Part II. Advanced Physiological Concepts (Version 2.0.0) [Mobile ...
Jose Chacko Periappuram
Effects on renal hemodynamics and atrial natriuretic factor". Gastroenterology. 101 (4): 1060-7. PMID 1832407. Moore K, Ward PS ... 1989). "Systemic and regional hemodynamics in patients with liver cirrhosis and ascites with and without functional renal ... fluid from the abdomen using a needle or catheter in order to relieve discomfort-may cause enough alteration in hemodynamics to ... was the first to characterize splanchnic vasodilation and kidney vasoconstriction as the key alterations in hemodynamics in ...
Hemodynamics - Wikipedia
The word hemodynamics (/ˌhiːmədaɪˈnæmɪks, -moʊ-/) uses combining forms of hemo- and dynamics, thus "the dynamics of blood ... WR Milnor: Hemodynamics, Williams & Wilkins, 1982. *B Bo Sramek: Systemic Hemodynamics and Hemodynamic Management, 4th Edition ... Hemodynamics or hæmodynamics is the dynamics of blood flow. The circulatory system is controlled by homeostatic mechanisms, ... Thus hemodynamics explains the physical laws that govern the flow of blood in the blood vessels. ...
Hemodynamics - Wikipedia
Thus hemodynamics explains the physical laws that govern the flow of blood in the blood vessels. Blood flow ensures the ... Hemodynamics or hæmodynamics is the dynamics of blood flow. The circulatory system is controlled by homeostatic mechanisms, ... The study of the blood flow is called hemodynamics. The study of the properties of the blood flow is called hemorheology. Blood ... classic hydrodynamics and fluids mechanics based on the use of classical viscometers are not capable of explaining hemodynamics ...
Snapshots of Hemodynamics | SpringerLink
The authors of Snapshots of Hemodynamics have designed each chapter to provide a succinct overview of an individual topic in a ... cardiology cardiovascular cardiovascular function genetics hemodynamics molecular biology physiology Authors and affiliations. ... It is written in the same quick reference style as its predecessor to help the reader understand how hemodynamics can ... Existing chapters have been extensively updated while new chapters have been included on pulmonary system hemodynamics and wave ...
Hemodynamics - Android app on AppBrain
Hemodynamics is a great reference tool for health care providers such as doctors, nurses, and respiratory... ... Hemodynamics is a great reference tool for health care providers such as doctors, nurses, and respiratory therapists! It ... Hemodynamics is a great reference tool for health care providers such as doctors, nurses, and respiratory therapists! It ...
Cardiovascular Hemodynamics - An Introductory Guide | Saif Anwaruddin | Springer
This practical book provides a concise tutorial of all the essential aspects of cardiovascular hemodynamics and the techniques ... Cardiovascular Hemodynamics. An Introductory Guide. Editors: Anwaruddin, S., Martin, J.M., Stephens, J.C., Askari, A.T. (Eds.) ... It is an excellent book that I highly recommend for anyone interested in learning more about hemodynamics." (Mohi Alkadri, ... This practical book provides a concise tutorial of all the essential aspects of cardiovascular hemodynamics and the techniques ...
Effect of sildenafil on ocular haemodynamics | Eye
... on ocular haemodynamics. Methods In this prospective study we examined the effect of a single oral dose of 50 mg sildenafil ( ... Effects of sildenafil citrate on human hemodynamics. Am J Cardiol 1999;83:C13-20. ... Dündar, S., Dündar, M., Koçak, I. et al. Effect of sildenafil on ocular haemodynamics. Eye 15, 507-510 (2001). https://doi.org/ ...
Hemodynamics - Wikipedia
Hemodynamics or haemodynamics is the dynamics of blood flow. The circulatory system is controlled by homeostatic mechanisms, ... The word hemodynamics (/ˌhiːmədaɪˈnæmɪks, -moʊ-/) uses combining forms of hemo- (actually the term comes from the ancient ... WR Milnor: Hemodynamics, Williams & Wilkins, 1982. *B Bo Sramek: Systemic Hemodynamics and Hemodynamic Management, 4th Edition ... Thus hemodynamics explains the physical laws that govern the flow of blood in the blood vessels. ...
Computational Hemodynamics - Theory, Modelling and Applications | SpringerLink
Shock - hemodynamics (video) | Shock | Khan Academy
Cerebral hemodynamics in ischemic cerebrovascular disease
... technological advances have made it possible to measure regional cerebral hemodynamics in individual patients. Studies ... Cerebral hemodynamics in ischemic cerebrovascular disease Ann Neurol. 1991 Mar;29(3):231-40. doi: 10.1002/ana.410290302. ... During the past decade, technological advances have made it possible to measure regional cerebral hemodynamics in individual ... Measurements of regional cerebral hemodynamics have provided new insight into the pathogenesis of transient ischemic attacks ...
Hemodynamics in intracranial aneurysms
Hemodynamics are considered a risk factor for the initiation, growth and rupture of intracranial aneurysms. In this thesis ... Hemodynamics in intracranial aneurysms. Supervisors. C.B.L.M. Majoie. E.T. van Bavel. ... Third, the main outcome of the comparison study in chapter 10 is absence of additional value of aneurysm hemodynamics for ... First, I discuss the need to obtain aneurysm hemodynamics in a patient-specific manner, followed by possible clinical routines ...
Autonomic neural control of cerebral hemodynamics - IEEE Journals & Magazine
Biomechanics/Hemodynamics - Wikibooks, open books for an open world
Biomechanics/Hemodynamics. From Wikibooks, open books for an open world. , Biomechanics. The latest reviewed version was ... The most important feature of the operation of the heart from the viewpoint of haemodynamics is that it nearly always pumps any ... The rigid pipe model of haemodynamics is applicable when considering any instantaneous flow of blood from the arteries to the ... Over any period of time, especially periods greater than the interval between heartbeats, hemodynamics is controlled by the ...
Hemodynamics and Mechanobiology of Aortic Valve Inflammation and Calcification
... Kartik Balachandran,1 Philippe Sucosky,2 and ... Normal Valve Hemodynamics. The aortic valve opens during systole when the ventricle is contracting and then closes during ... Diseased Valve Hemodynamics. Aortic valve pathology, long thought to be due to passive degenerative valve disease caused by ... This paper presents a detailed review of the hemodynamics and mechanobiology of the cardiac valve as it relates to valve ...
Hemodynamics of speech production: An fNIRS investigation of children who stutter | Scientific Reports
A New Exercise Central Hemodynamics Paradigm | Hypertension
Principles of Venous Hemodynamics | Nova Science Publishers
Principles of Venous Hemodynamics. Claude Franceschi. Saint Joseph and Pitie, Salpetriere Hospitals, France ... 8. HAEMODYNAMICS OF VENOUS INSUFFICIENCY: ASSESSMENT TECHNIQUES, pp. 87-96. (C. Franceschi; P. Zamboni) ... 1. PHYSICAL PRINCIPLES OF VENOUS HAEMODYNAMICS. (Paolo Zamboni, Univ. of Ferrara School of Medicine, Ferrara, Italy), pp. 1-8 ...
Hemodynamics for the Bedside Nurse
... knowledge of hemodynamics and the appropriate interventions for treating problems affecting preload and afterload. After ... The goal of this hemodynamics continuing education module is to update nurses ... The goal of this hemodynamics continuing education module is to update nurses knowledge of hemodynamics and the appropriate ... Hemodynamics refers to the forces affecting circulation, including preload and afterload. Nurses assess the stability of ...
Hemodynamics of Counterpulsation
Hemodynamics Instability - DrugBank
This project is supported by the Canadian Institutes of Health Research (award #111062), Alberta Innovates - Health Solutions, and by The Metabolomics Innovation Centre (TMIC), a nationally-funded research and core facility that supports a wide range of cutting-edge metabolomic studies. TMIC is funded by Genome Alberta, Genome British Columbia, and Genome Canada, a not-for-profit organization that is leading Canadas national genomics strategy with funding from the federal government. Maintenance, support, and commercial licensing is provided by OMx Personal Health Analytics, Inc. Designed by Educe Design & Innovation Inc. ...
Frontiers | Cerebral hemodynamics during graded Valsalva maneuvers | Physiology
These data illustrate that an intense VM profoundly affects cerebral hemodynamics, with a reactive hyperemia occurring during ... Cerebral hemodynamics during graded Valsalva maneuvers. Blake G. Perry1*, James D. Cotter2, Gaizka Mejuto3, Toby Mündel1 and ... Prefrontal cortical hemodynamics were obtained non-invasively (n = 10) using near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS, NIRO-200; ... Citation: Perry BG, Cotter JD, Mejuto G, Mündel T and Lucas SJE (2014) Cerebral hemodynamics during graded Valsalva maneuvers. ...
Hemodynamics in Ruptured Intracranial Aneurysms | IntechOpen
Hemodynamics in cerebral blood vessels plays a key role in the lifetime cycle of intracranial aneurysms (IA). Understanding ... Modeling hemodynamics using computational fluid dynamics (CFD) could aid in understanding the processes in the development of ... Detailed CFD analysis of the rupture point can further strengthen the association between hemodynamics and rupture. In this ... can help in building complex knowledge on the relationship between the biology of the wall and hemodynamics. ...
Dependence of LV Hemodynamics on Pacing Site - Tabular View - ClinicalTrials.gov
Dependence of LV Hemodynamics on Pacing Site Official Title Characterization of LV Hemodynamics During Epicardial and ... Dependence of LV Hemodynamics on Pacing Site. The safety and scientific validity of this study is the responsibility of the ... segments on cardiac hemodynamics in patients with impaired LV function undergoing epicardial ablation and mapping procedure. ...
Hemodynamics Of Human Placenta
Cardiovascular Biomechanics and Hemodynamics | Bioengineering | University of Colorado Denver
Assessment of Coronary Hemodynamics and Vascular Function.
Right Ventricle Morphology and Hemodynamics in BrS - Full Text View - ClinicalTrials.gov
Hemorheology and hemodynamics - IOS Press
Shear-thinning effects of hemodynamics in patient-specific cerebral aneurysms
... Alberto Gambaruto 1, , João Janela 2, , ... H. Meng, Z. Wang, Y. Hoi, L. Gao, E. Metaxa, D. D. Swartz and J. Kolega, Complex haemodynamics at the apex of an arterial ... H. Meng, Z. Wang, Y. Hoi, L. Gao, E. Metaxa, D. D. Swartz and J. Kolega, Complex haemodynamics at the apex of an arterial ... M. Kim, D. B. Taulbee, M. Tremmel and H. Meng, Comparison of two stents in modifying cerebral aneurysm haemodynamics,, Annals ...
An image-based modeling framework for patient-specific computational hemodynamics
We present a modeling framework designed for patient-specific computational hemodynamics to be performed in the context of ... An image-based modeling framework for patient-specific computational hemodynamics Med Biol Eng Comput. 2008 Nov;46(11):1097-112 ... We present a modeling framework designed for patient-specific computational hemodynamics to be performed in the context of ... a first step towards the sharing of tools and data which will be necessary for computational hemodynamics to play a role in ...
Renal hemodynamicsCoronary HemodynamicsCardiovascularMicrovascular hemodynamicsPulmonaryIntra-aneurysmal hemodynamicsHypertensionRetrobulbar hemodynamicsComputational hemodynamicsBiomechanicsAneurysmsAortic valvesCharacterizationPatientsMicrocirculationCorrelationCerebral blooAneurysmAbnormalCerebrovascularRuptureViscosityAlterationsOxygenationModelingStudyClinicalVasculatureGeometryFNIRSVenousMetabolismRegulationAssessmentRespiratoryMeasurementBlood2019Mesh
- Abnormal renal hemodynamics in black salt-sensitive patients with hypertension. (ahajournals.org)
- FASEB SRC announces conference: Renal Hemodynamics: Integrating with the Nephron &a. (bio-medicine.org)
- The 2013 FASEB Science Research Conference on Renal Hemodynamics: Int...Held every three years the 2013 conference format is designed to faci. (bio-medicine.org)
- Bethesda, MD The Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology (FASEB) announces the opening of registration for the Science Research Conference (SRC): Renal Hemodynamics: Integrating with the Nephron and Beyond. (bio-medicine.org)
- The 2013 FASEB Science Research Conference on "Renal Hemodynamics: Integrating with the Nephron and Beyond" is an important and unique scientific conference that will focus on presentation and discussion of the latest research findings in the area of renal hemodynamic mechanisms that are the cause and consequence of a wide range of disorders including hypertension, diabetes, obesity, metabolic syndrome, glomerular sclerosis and nephropathy. (bio-medicine.org)
- These data suggest that renal metabolism and renal hemodynamics are closely intertwined. (asnjournals.org)
- Assessment of Coronary Hemodynamics and Vascular Function. (biomedsearch.com)
- A model describing the primary relations between the cardiac muscle and coronary circulation might be useful for interpreting coronary hemodynamics in case multiple types of coronary circulatory disease are present. (hindawi.com)
- Here, the different components of the model are explained and the ability of the model to describe coronary hemodynamics in health and disease is evaluated. (hindawi.com)
- We conclude that the model adequately can predict coronary hemodynamics in both normal and diseased state based on patient-specific clinical data. (hindawi.com)
- The remainder of the book is divided into sections on various clinical entities, including valvular heart disease, cardiomyopathies, pericardial disease, coronary hemodynamics and fractional flow reserve, mechanical support devices (e.g. intra-aortic balloon counterpulsation, ventricular assist devices), arrhythmias and cardiac pacing. (researchandmarkets.com)
- This new edition reviews recent developments in genetics and molecular biology and new noninvasive measurement techniques that have enabled vast improvements in the measurement and understanding of cardiovascular hemodynamics. (springer.com)
- It is written in the same quick reference style as its predecessor to help the reader understand how hemodynamics can quantitatively characterize the function of the heart and arterial system, both separately and in combination, thereby revealing information about what genetic and molecular processes are of importance for cardiovascular function. (springer.com)
- This practical book provides a concise tutorial of all the essential aspects of cardiovascular hemodynamics and the techniques used to assess cardiovascular performance. (springer.com)
- This is a review of hemodynamics in cardiovascular medicine. (springer.com)
- Extensive research is being conducted on all aspects of cardiovascular mechanics and hemodynamics. (ucdenver.edu)
- Cardiovascular Hemodynamics for the Clinician , 2nd Edition, provides a useful, succinct and understandable guide to the practical application of hemodynamics in clinical medicine for all trainees and clinicians in the field. (wiley.com)
- Cardiovascular Hemodynamics for the Clinician. (researchandmarkets.com)
- These three factors are affected by the menstrual cycle, and all have effects on cardiovascular function and/or regulation that may influence postexercise hemodynamics. (physiology.org)
- to investigate the affect of reduced aortic compliance on cardiovascular hemodynamics. (epfl.ch)
- Correction of acidemia using sodium bicarbonate does not improve hemodynamics in critically ill patients who have metabolic acidosis and increased blood lactate or the cardiovascular response to infused catecholamines in these patients. (annals.org)
- In cases with fibrosis there was no correlation between haemodynamics and lung volumes or arterial oxygen tensions, suggesting other mechanisms for PH in addition to pulmonary destruction and hypoxaemia. (bmj.com)
- This fantastic tool allows you to induce cardiogenic shock, implant a device, and track the effects in real-time so that you can gauge the effects on hemodynamics including pulmonary capillary wedge pressure, mean arterial pressure, coronary artery blood flow velocity, cardiac output, and the ventricular-arterial interaction. (tctmd.com)
- Because alterations of intrarenal hemodynamics are important in the progression of renal disease and because salt-sensitive animal models with hypertension manifest a greater propensity to develop glomerulosclerosis in association with a rise in glomerular capillary pressure, we tested whether the renal hemodynamic adaptation to high dietary Na+ intake differs in salt-sensitive and salt-resistant hypertensive patients. (ahajournals.org)
- Hemodynamics, biochemical and reflexive changes produced by atenolol in hypertension. (ahajournals.org)
- The book's approach is aimed at students and researchers entering this field from engineering, applied mathematics, biotechnology or medicine, wishing to engage in this emerging and exciting field of computational hemodynamics modelling. (springer.com)
- J. R. Cebral, F. Mut, M. Raschi, E. Scrivano, P. Lylyk and C. M. Putman, Aneurysm rupture following treatment with flow diverting stents: Computational hemodynamics analysis of treatment ,, AJNR Am. J. Neuroradiol , 32 (2011), 27. (aimsciences.org)
- We present a modeling framework designed for patient-specific computational hemodynamics to be performed in the context of large-scale studies. (nih.gov)
- The framework is available as part of an open-source effort, the Vascular Modeling Toolkit, a first step towards the sharing of tools and data which will be necessary for computational hemodynamics to play a role in evidence-based medicine. (nih.gov)
- Hemodynamics are considered a risk factor for the initiation, growth and rupture of intracranial aneurysms. (uva.nl)
- In this thesis several aspects of the research of hemodynamics in intracranial aneurysms are discussed. (uva.nl)
- Hemodynamics in cerebral blood vessels plays a key role in the lifetime cycle of intracranial aneurysms (IA). (intechopen.com)
- A. C. Burleson, C. M. Strother and V. T. Turitto, Computer modeling of intracranial saccular and lateral aneurysms for the study of their haemodynamics ,, Neurosurgery , 37 (1995), 774. (aimsciences.org)
- A. Gambaruto, J. Janela, A. Moura and A. Sequeira, Sensitivity of haemodynamics in patient specific cerebral aneurysms to vascular geometry and blood rheology ,, Mathematical Biosciences and Engineering , 8 (2011), 409. (aimsciences.org)
- In this paper, an efficient methodology for patient-specific modeling and characterization of the hemodynamics in cerebral aneurysms from medical images is described. (nih.gov)
- We examined the relationship between hemodynamics and growth of 2 fusiform basilar artery aneurysms in an effort to define hemodynamic variables that may be helpful in predicting aneurysmal growth. (ajnr.org)
- Examples of work include development of novel structural models of vascular mechanics, evaluation of structure-function relationships in extracellular matrix, myocardial mechanics in heart failure, role of blood flow in changes in vascular cell expression, role of flow factors in bicuspid aortic valves, and hemodynamics of congenital heart disease. (ucdenver.edu)
- During the past decade, technological advances have made it possible to measure regional cerebral hemodynamics in individual patients. (nih.gov)
- The purpose of this study is to evaluate the effects of epicardial and endocardial pacing at each side of the left ventricular (LV) segments on cardiac hemodynamics in patients with impaired LV function undergoing epicardial ablation and mapping procedure. (clinicaltrials.gov)
- Platz E, Merz A, Silverman M, Lewis E, Groarke JD, Waxman A, Systrom D. Association between lung ultrasound findings and invasive exercise haemodynamics in patients with undifferentiated dyspnoea. (harvard.edu)
- Does Lower Limb Exercise Worsen Renal Artery Hemodynamics in Patients with Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm? (plos.org)
- Realization of transcranial doppler and optic nerve sheath in severe preeclamptic patients to evaluate the impact of nicardipine and labetalol on cerebral hemodynamics. (clinicaltrials.gov)
- Cerebral haemodynamics in cirrhotic patients with hepatic encephalopathy. (sigmaaldrich.com)
- The aim of this study was to evaluate cerebral haemodynamics by TCD in patients with compensated and decompensated cirrhosis, and patients with and without HE. (sigmaaldrich.com)
- These results indicate that cerebral haemodynamics are altered in patients with cirrhosis, in relation to severity of disease and HE. (sigmaaldrich.com)
- To determine whether correction of acidemia using bicarbonate improves hemodynamics in patients who have lactic acidosis. (annals.org)
- Application of Cineholomicrography to the Study of Microcirculation Hemodynamics. (dtic.mil)
- Instrumentation was developed for the study of microcirculation hemodynamics and related physiological studies of man and animal. (dtic.mil)
- There exists a need to evaluate cf-PWV as an early diagnostic of progressive vascular stiffening and to better assess the potential effects of regional variations in central mechanical properties on blood hemodynamics that adversely affect microcirculation in the heart, brain and kidneys. (umich.edu)
- First, I discuss the need to obtain aneurysm hemodynamics in a patient-specific manner, followed by possible clinical routines for obtaining such information. (uva.nl)
- Detailed analysis of the quality of the aneurysm wall under the microscope, together with histological assessment of the aneurysm wall and CFD modeling, can help in building complex knowledge on the relationship between the biology of the wall and hemodynamics. (intechopen.com)
- J. R. Cebral, M. A. Castro, S. Appanaboyina, C. M. Putman, D. Millan and A. F. Frangi, Efficient pipeline for image-based patient-specific analysis of cerebral aneurysm haemodynamics: Technique and sensitivity ,, IEEE Transactions on Medical Imaging , 24 (2005), 457. (aimsciences.org)
- Efficient pipeline for image-based patient-specific analysis of cerebral aneurysm hemodynamics: technique and sensitivity. (nih.gov)
- Hemodynamics is thought to play an important role in the mechanisms of cerebral aneurysm initiation, progression, and rupture. (ajnr.org)
- OBJECTIVE: To obtain insight into hemodynamics during abnormal cardiac development, a chick model was developed recently in which a spectrum of conotruncal anomalies, in combination with abnormal semilunar valves and/or pharyngeal arch artery malformations, was induced through extraembryonic venous obstruction (venous clip) at stage 17 (70-h incubation). (biomedsearch.com)
- Factors other than elevated levels of ammonia may be implicated in hepatic encephalopathy (HE) pathophysiology, including abnormal cerebral haemodynamics. (sigmaaldrich.com)
- This outcome raises questions whether there still is a future for hemodynamics in rupture risk prediction, and whether additional studies are still required to determine its definitive role for this purpose. (uva.nl)
- Detailed CFD analysis of the rupture point can further strengthen the association between hemodynamics and rupture. (intechopen.com)
- In order to investigate the numerical difference arising from the modeling of blood viscosity in the hemodynamics of the carotid artery before and after angioplasty with stenting, geometries based on clinical exams of a patient were used. (aiche.org)
- Blood viscosity and hemodynamics during exercise" by Philippe Connes, Aurélien Pichon et al. (edu.au)
- We tested the effects of submaximal exercise on blood viscosity (ηb), nitric oxide production (NO) and hemodynamics. (edu.au)
- The study of the blood flow is called hemodynamics . (wikipedia.org)
- Purpose To study the effect of sildenafil, which is an effective agent for the treatment of erectile dysfunction, on ocular haemodynamics. (nature.com)
- In this study we will combine ES and NIRS to determine the onset and recovery of muscle fatigue and hemodynamics for young males and females, as well as for older females for low-force work. (hig.se)
- Hemodynamics is the study of blood flow across the body and forces affecting it, often measured using various methods that are either invasive or noninvasive. (ukessays.com)
- Impedance Plethysmography techniques which use the changes in electrical impedance over body surface for measurement of changes in the tissue volumes can be used to study hemodynamics. (ukessays.com)
- In this study, we used fNIRS to measure cerebral hemodynamics in the prefrontal cortex (PFC) in 18-36 months old toddlers ( n = 29) as part of a longitudinal study that enrolled typically-developing toddlers as well as those "at risk" for language and other delays based on presence of early language delays. (frontiersin.org)
- The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of red blood cell (RBC) transfusion on the hemorrheologic properties and microcirculatory hemodynamics in anemic hematology outpatients receiving 2 to 4 RBC units of either "fresh" (leukoreduced storage for less than 1 week) or "aged" (leukoreduced storage for 3-4 weeks) RBCs. (wiley.com)
- Study design: Two sites monitoring cerebral hemodynamics during surfactant administration. (iospress.com)
- This study reports a method for automated assessment of hemodynamics in the conjunctival microvascular network. (arvojournals.org)
- A high-yield reference, this book is replete with figures, tracings, tables, and clinical pearls that reinforce the basic tenets of hemodynamics. (springer.com)
- Further investigations into the importance of hemodynamic factors in ischemic stroke can now be based on accurate assessment of cerebral (not carotid or vertebrobasilar) hemodynamics in the context of other coexisting epidemiological, clinical, hematological, and angiographic risk factors. (nih.gov)
- The goal of this paper is to review the methodologies for assessment of coronary vascular function and haemodynamics which are utilized in research and to discuss their potential applicability in the clinical settings. (biomedsearch.com)
- Previous studies have suggested a link between renal metabolism and local kidney hemodynamics to prevent potential hypoxic injury of particularly vulnerable nephron segments, such as the outer medullary region. (asnjournals.org)
- Hemodynamics, Myocardial Metabolism, and Therapeutical Response in Cardiogenic Noncoronary (NCS), Coronary (CS), and Mixed Shock (MS).. Ann Intern Med. (annals.org)
- Hemodynamics is a great reference tool for health care providers such as doctors, nurses, and respiratory therapists! (appbrain.com)
- The frequency range associated with low-frequency hemodynamics and respiratory rate (0.03 to 0.3 Hz) exhibits the largest differences in signal amplitudes for bleeding, blood vessels, and cortex. (spiedigitallibrary.org)
- Hemodynamics or hæmodynamics is the dynamics of blood flow . (wikipedia.org)
- Thus hemodynamics explains the physical laws that govern the flow of blood in the blood vessels . (wikipedia.org)
- Blood vessels are not rigid tubes, so classic hydrodynamics and fluids mechanics based on the use of classical viscometers are not capable of explaining hemodynamics. (wikipedia.org)
- Nurses assess the stability of hemodynamics by taking a patient's blood pressure or palpating a pulse. (nurse.com)
- The hemodynamics in the eye is influenced by the intraocular pressure (IOP), the pressure inside the eye globe, which is in turn influenced by the ocular blood flow. (archives-ouvertes.fr)
- In general terms, the topic of hemodynamics deals with flow and distribution of blood and fluids within the body. (mhmedical.com)
- Conclusions Exposure to household air pollution was associated with higher blood pressure and central haemodynamics in older Chinese women, with no associations observed with pulse wave velocity. (bmj.com)
- The hemodynamics did not vary significantly between the three groups, except for coronary blood flow. (annals.org)
- On October 4-6, 2019, the 5th National Congress with international participation of the Bulgarian Society of Neurosonology and Cerebral Hemodynamics was held at the Hilton Hotel in Sofia, orhanized by its president Acad. (eso-stroke.org)
- On October 5, 2019, the Hilton Hotel celebrated the 15th anniversary of the creation of the Journal of Neurosonology and Cerebral Hemodynamics-the only Bulgarian journal in the field of neuroscience referenced in several international scientific bases as the Emerging Souce Citation Index of Clarivate Analytics, NLM Catalog of PubMed, Web of Science, and VINITI Reference Journal. (eso-stroke.org)
- The "Neurosonologist of the Year 2019" Award was given to Sonya Karakaneva, MD for her significant contributions to ultrasound diagnostics of the nervous system as a founder and General Secretary of the Bulgarian Society of Neurosonology and Cerebral Hemodynamics. (eso-stroke.org)