Any blood or formed element especially in invertebrates.
The blood/lymphlike nutrient fluid of some invertebrates.
An arthropod subclass (Xiphosura) comprising the North American (Limulus) and Asiatic (Tachypleus) genera of horseshoe crabs.
A genus of oysters in the family OSTREIDAE, class BIVALVIA.
A family of insect viruses isolated from endoparasitic hymenopteran insects belonging to the families Ichneumonidae and Braconidae. The two genera are Ichnovirus and Bracovirus.
A genus of planorbid freshwater snails, species of which are intermediate hosts of Schistosoma mansoni.
Wormlike or grublike stage, following the egg in the life cycle of insects, worms, and other metamorphosing animals.
A family of marine mollusks in the class BIVALVIA, commonly known as oysters. They have a rough irregular shell closed by a single adductor muscle.
A family of CRUSTACEA, order DECAPODA, comprising the penaeid shrimp. Species of the genus Penaeus are the most important commercial shrimp throughout the world.
A class in the phylum MOLLUSCA comprised of mussels; clams; OYSTERS; COCKLES; and SCALLOPS. They are characterized by a bilaterally symmetrical hinged shell and a muscular foot used for burrowing and anchoring.
A genus of marine mussels in the family MYTILIDAE, class BIVALVIA. The species MYTILUS EDULIS is the highly edible common mussel.
Any of numerous winged hymenopterous insects of social as well as solitary habits and having formidable stings.
The relationship between an invertebrate and another organism (the host), one of which lives at the expense of the other. Traditionally excluded from definition of parasites are pathogenic BACTERIA; FUNGI; VIRUSES; and PLANTS; though they may live parasitically.
A genus in the family Blattidae containing several species, the most common being P. americana, the American cockroach.
Proteins synthesized by organisms belonging to the phylum ARTHROPODA. Included in this heading are proteins from the subdivisions ARACHNIDA; CRUSTACEA; and HORSESHOE CRABS. Note that a separate heading for INSECT PROTEINS is listed under this heading.
A genus of soft-shell clams in the family Myidae, class BIVALVIA.
A species of fruit fly originating in sub-Saharan Africa but widely distributed worldwide. One of the most destructive fruit pests, its larvae feed and develop on many different fruits and some vegetables.
The cells found in the body fluid circulating throughout the CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM.
Insects of the suborder Heterocera of the order LEPIDOPTERA.
A nutritional reservoir of fatty tissue found mainly in insects and amphibians.
A genus of VIBRIONACEAE, made up of short, slightly curved, motile, gram-negative rods. Various species produce cholera and other gastrointestinal disorders as well as abortion in sheep and cattle.
A large family of mollusks in the class BIVALVIA, known commonly as scallops. They possess flat, almost circular shells and are found in all seas from shallow water to great depths.
The engulfing and degradation of microorganisms; other cells that are dead, dying, or pathogenic; and foreign particles by phagocytic cells (PHAGOCYTES).
The largest order of CRUSTACEA, comprising over 10,000 species. They are characterized by three pairs of thoracic appendages modified as maxillipeds, and five pairs of thoracic legs. The order includes the familiar shrimps, crayfish (ASTACOIDEA), true crabs (BRACHYURA), and lobsters (NEPHROPIDAE and PALINURIDAE), among others.
Proteins found in any species of insect.
A genus of nematode worms in the superfamily Heterakoidea. A. galli and A. lineata are important intestinal parasites of domestic fowl.
An enzyme of the oxidoreductase class that catalyzes the reaction between catechol and oxygen to yield benzoquinone and water. It is a complex of copper-containing proteins that acts also on a variety of substituted catechols. EC 1.10.3.1.
A subphylum of chordates intermediate between the invertebrates and the true vertebrates. It includes the Ascidians.
Histamine H1 antagonist used in treatment of allergies, rhinitis, and urticaria.
Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.
Organic substances that are required in small amounts for maintenance and growth, but which cannot be manufactured by the human body.
A metallic element with atomic symbol Fe, atomic number 26, and atomic weight 55.85. It is an essential constituent of HEMOGLOBINS; CYTOCHROMES; and IRON-BINDING PROTEINS. It plays a role in cellular redox reactions and in the transport of OXYGEN.
Men and women working in the provision of health services, whether as individual practitioners or employees of health institutions and programs, whether or not professionally trained, and whether or not subject to public regulation. (From A Discursive Dictionary of Health Care, 1976)
Organic chemicals that form two or more coordination links with an iron ion. Once coordination has occurred, the complex formed is called a chelate. The iron-binding porphyrin group of hemoglobin is an example of a metal chelate found in biological systems.
Products in capsule, tablet or liquid form that provide dietary ingredients, and that are intended to be taken by mouth to increase the intake of nutrients. Dietary supplements can include macronutrients, such as proteins, carbohydrates, and fats; and/or MICRONUTRIENTS, such as VITAMINS; MINERALS; and PHYTOCHEMICALS.
A genus of small, two-winged flies containing approximately 900 described species. These organisms are the most extensively studied of all genera from the standpoint of genetics and cytology.
Proteins that originate from insect species belonging to the genus DROSOPHILA. The proteins from the most intensely studied species of Drosophila, DROSOPHILA MELANOGASTER, are the subject of much interest in the area of MORPHOGENESIS and development.
A species of fruit fly much used in genetics because of the large size of its chromosomes.
A highly reactive aldehyde gas formed by oxidation or incomplete combustion of hydrocarbons. In solution, it has a wide range of uses: in the manufacture of resins and textiles, as a disinfectant, and as a laboratory fixative or preservative. Formaldehyde solution (formalin) is considered a hazardous compound, and its vapor toxic. (From Reynolds, Martindale The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p717)
Substances that are recognized by the immune system and induce an immune reaction.
A glycoprotein that is a kallikrein-like serine proteinase and an esterase, produced by epithelial cells of both normal and malignant prostate tissue. It is an important marker for the diagnosis of prostate cancer.
Substances elaborated by bacteria that have antigenic activity.
A vital dye used as an indicator and biological stain. Various adverse effects have been observed in biological systems.
An algal bloom where the algae produce powerful toxins that can kill fish, birds, and mammals, and ultimately cause illness in humans. The harmful bloom can also cause oxygen depletion in the water due to the death and decomposition of non-toxic algae species.
Compounds based on an 8-membered heterocyclic ring including an oxygen. They can be considered medium ring ethers.
Toxic or poisonous substances elaborated by marine flora or fauna. They include also specific, characterized poisons or toxins for which there is no more specific heading, like those from poisonous FISHES.
Immunoglobulin molecules having a specific amino acid sequence by virtue of which they interact only with the ANTIGEN (or a very similar shape) that induced their synthesis in cells of the lymphoid series (especially PLASMA CELLS).
Information or data used to ensure the safe handling and disposal of substances in the workplace. Such information includes physical properties (i.e. melting, boiling, flashing points), as well as data on toxicity, health effects, reactivity, storage, disposal, first-aid, protective equipment, and spill-handling procedures.
The property of antibodies which enables them to react with some ANTIGENIC DETERMINANTS and not with others. Specificity is dependent on chemical composition, physical forces, and molecular structure at the binding site.
A genus of silkworm MOTHS in the family Bombycidae of the order LEPIDOPTERA. The family contains a single species, Bombyx mori from the Greek for silkworm + mulberry tree (on which it feeds). A native of Asia, it is sometimes reared in this country. It has long been raised for its SILK and after centuries of domestication it probably does not exist in nature. It is used extensively in experimental GENETICS. (From Borror et al., An Introduction to the Study of Insects, 4th ed, p519)
A genus of parasitic FUNGI in the family Nosematidae. Some species are pathogenic for invertebrates of economic importance while others are being researched for possible roles in controlling pest INSECTS. They are also pathogenic in humans.
A quality of cell membranes which permits the passage of solvents and solutes into and out of cells.
A hexosiminidase that specifically hydrolyzes terminal non-reducing N-acetyl-D-galactosamine residues in N-acetyl-beta-D-galactosaminides.
A plant genus of the family MORACEAE that is widely planted for shade.

Anopheles gambiae Ag-STAT, a new insect member of the STAT family, is activated in response to bacterial infection. (1/614)

A new insect member of the STAT family of transcription factors (Ag-STAT) has been cloned from the human malaria vector Anopheles gambiae. The domain involved in DNA interaction and the SH2 domain are well conserved. Ag-STAT is most similar to Drosophila D-STAT and to vertebrate STATs 5 and 6, constituting a proposed ancient class A of the STAT family. The mRNA is expressed at all developmental stages, and the protein is present in hemocytes, pericardial cells, midgut, skeletal muscle and fat body cells. There is no evidence of transcriptional activation following bacterial challenge. However, bacterial challenge results in nuclear translocation of Ag-STAT protein in fat body cells and induction of DNA-binding activity that recognizes a STAT target site. In vitro treatment with pervanadate (vanadate and H2O2) translocates Ag-STAT to the nucleus in midgut epithelial cells. This is the first evidence of direct participation of the STAT pathway in immune responses in insects.  (+info)

A cell-surface superoxide dismutase is a binding protein for peroxinectin, a cell-adhesive peroxidase in crayfish. (2/614)

Peroxinectin, a cell-adhesive peroxidase (homologous to human myeloperoxidase), from the crayfish Pacifastacus leniusculus, was shown by immuno-fluorescence to bind to the surface of crayfish blood cells (haemocytes). In order to identify a cell surface receptor for peroxinectin, labelled peroxinectin was incubated with a blot of haemocyte membrane proteins. It was found to specifically bind two bands of 230 and 90 kDa; this binding was decreased in the presence of unlabelled peroxinectin. Purified 230/90 kDa complex also bound peroxinectin in the same assay. In addition, the 230 kDa band binds the crayfish beta-1,3-glucan-binding protein. The 230 kDa band could be reduced to 90 kDa, thus showing that the 230 kDa is a multimer of 90 kDa units. The peroxinectin-binding protein was cloned from a haemocyte cDNA library, using immuno-screening or polymerase chain reaction based on partial amino acid sequence of the purified protein. It has a signal sequence, a domain homologous to CuZn-containing superoxide dismutases, and a basic, proline-rich, C-terminal tail, but no membrane-spanning segment. In accordance, the 90 and 230 kDa bands had superoxide dismutase activity. Immuno-fluorescence of non-permeabilized haemocytes with affinity-purified antibodies confirmed that the crayfish CuZn-superoxide dismutase is localized at the cell surface; it could be released from the membrane with high salt. It was thus concluded that the peroxinectin-binding protein is an extracellular SOD (EC-SOD) and a peripheral membrane protein, presumably kept at the cell surface via ionic interaction with its C-terminal region. This interaction with a peroxidase seems to be a novel function for an SOD. The binding of the cell surface SOD to the cell-adhesive/opsonic peroxinectin may mediate, or regulate, cell adhesion and phagocytosis; it may also be important for efficient localized production of microbicidal substances.  (+info)

Acidification of the phagosome in Crassostrea virginica hemocytes following engulfment of zymosan. (3/614)

Phagocytic hemocytes are responsible for engulfing and internally degrading foreign organisms within the hemolymph and tissue of the eastern oyster, Crassostrea virginica. Since rapid acidification of the phagosome lumen is typically essential for activation of hydrolytic and reactive oxygen intermediate (ROI) producing enzymes in vertebrate cells, we measured phagosomal pH in oyster hemocytes by using the emission fluorescence of two fluorescent probes, rhodamine and Oregon Green 488 (OG 488), conjugated to zymosan to determine whether oyster hemocyte phagosomes become acidified after phagocytosis of zymosan. The average pH of 1079 phagosomes within 277 hemocytes 1 h after phagocytosis of zymosan was 3.9 +/- 0.03. Observations of 141 hemocytes with internalized zymosan by light microscopy revealed that, over a 60-min time period, 51% of highly granular hemocytes became partially granular, and 29% became agranular. In addition, 83% of partially granular hemocytes containing zymosan at time = 0 became agranular within 60 min. A comparison revealed that the phagosomes of agranular hemocytes were much more acidic (pH 3.1 +/- 0.02) than those of highly granular hemocytes (4.9 +/- 0.02; P < 0.05). These values are significantly lower than most reported in the literature for blood cells from metazoan organisms.  (+info)

Prophenoloxidase-activating enzyme of the silkworm, Bombyx mori. Purification, characterization, and cDNA cloning. (4/614)

Prophenoloxidase-activating enzyme (PPAE) was purified to homogeneity as judged by SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis from larval cuticles of the silkworm, Bombyx mori. The purified PPAE preparation was shown to be a mixture of the isozymes of PPAE (PPAE-I and PPAE-II), which were eluted at different retention times in reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatography. PPAE-I and PPAE-II seemed to be post translationally modified isozymes and/or allelic variants. Both PPAE isozymes were proteins composed of two polypeptides (heavy and light chains) that are linked by disulfide linkage(s) and glycosylated serine proteases. The results of cDNA cloning, peptide mapping, and amino acid sequencing of PPAE revealed that PPAE is synthesized as prepro-PPAE with 441 amino acid residues and is activated from pro-PPAE by cleavage of a peptide bond between Lys152 and Ile153. The homology search showed 36.9% identity of PPAE to easter, which is a serine protease involved in dorso-ventral pattern formation in the Drosophila embryo, and indicated the presence of two consecutive clip-like domains in the light chain. A single copy of the PPAE gene was suggested to be present in the silkworm genome. In the fifth instar larvae, PPAE transcripts were detected in the integument, hemocytes, and salivary glands but not in the fat body or mid gut. A polypeptide cross-reactive to mono-specific anti-PPAE/IgG was transiently detected in the extract of eggs between 1 and 3 h after they were laid.  (+info)

A unique primary structure, cDNA cloning and function of a galactose-specific lectin from ascidian plasma. (5/614)

The complete amino acid sequence of a galactose-specific lectin from the plasma of the ascidian Halocynthia roretzi has been determined by sequential Edman degradation analysis of peptide fragments derived by proteolytic fragmentation and chemical cleavage of the reductive S-pyridylethylated lectin. Peptide fragments were separated by reverse-phase HPLC. The N-terminal and C-terminal amino acid sequences were determined by Edman degradation and enzymatic digestion. The H. roretzi plasma lectin is a single-chain protein consisting of 327 amino acids and four disulfide bonds, one of which was found to be cross-linked intramolecularly. A comparison of the amino acid sequence of the H. roretzi plasma lectin with the sequences of other proteins reveals that the H. roretzi lectin has a structure consisting of a twice-repeated sequence, a fibrinogen-related sequence and a C-type lectin-homologous sequence. The above amino acid sequence was verified by cDNA cloning of this lectin. Three cDNA clones that have single ORFs encoding the lectin precursor were isolated from an H. roretzi hepatopancreas cDNA library. The deduced amino acid sequences in the three cDNA clones contain the same sequence of the mature lectin molecule and the same putative signal sequence. In addition, it was demonstrated that this lectin can enhance phagocytosis by H. roretzi hemocytes. Thus, the plasma lectin is constructed into an oligomer structure via intermolecular disulfide bonds and plays a role in the biological defense of H. roretzi as a defense molecule.  (+info)

A hemocyte-like cell line established from the malaria vector Anopheles gambiae expresses six prophenoloxidase genes. (6/614)

Cell lines from the malaria vector Anopheles gambiae have been established as a tool for the study of the mosquito innate immune system in vitro. Here, we describe the first continuous insect cell line that produces prophenoloxidase (PPO). This cell line (4a-3B) expresses constitutively six PPO genes, three of which are novel (PPO4, PPO5, and PPO6). The PPO genes show distinct temporal expression profiles in the intact mosquito, spanning stages from the embryo to the adult in an overlapping manner. Transient induction of larva-specific PPO genes in blood-fed adult females suggests that the developmental hormone 20-hydroxyecdysone may be involved in PPO gene regulation. Indeed, exposure of 4a-3B cells to 20-hydroxyecdysone in culture results in induction of those PPO genes that are mainly expressed in early developmental stages, and repression of PPO5, which is preferentially expressed at the adult stage. The cell line shows bacteria-induced immune transcripts that encode defensin and Gram-negative bacteria-binding protein, but no induction of PPO transcripts. This cell line most likely derives from a hemocyte lineage, and represents an appropriate in vitro model for the study of the humoral and cellular immune defenses of A. gambiae.  (+info)

Tachylectin-2: crystal structure of a specific GlcNAc/GalNAc-binding lectin involved in the innate immunity host defense of the Japanese horseshoe crab Tachypleus tridentatus. (7/614)

Tachylectin-2, isolated from large granules of the hemocytes of the Japanese horseshoe crab (Tachypleus tridentatus), is a 236 amino acid protein belonging to the lectins. It binds specifically to N-acetylglucosamine and N-acetylgalactosamine and is a part of the innate immunity host defense system of the horseshoe crab. The X-ray structure of tachylectin-2 was solved at 2.0 A resolution by the multiple isomorphous replacement method and this molecular model was employed to solve the X-ray structure of the complex with N-acetylglucosamine. Tachylectin-2 is the first protein displaying a five-bladed beta-propeller structure. Five four-stranded antiparallel beta-sheets of W-like topology are arranged around a central water-filled tunnel, with the water molecules arranged as a pentagonal dodecahedron. Tachylectin-2 exhibits five virtually identical binding sites, one in each beta-sheet. The binding sites are located between adjacent beta-sheets and are made by a large loop between the outermost strands of the beta-sheets and the connecting segment from the previous beta-sheet. The high number of five binding sites within the single polypeptide chain strongly suggests the recognition of carbohydrate surface structures of pathogens with a fairly high ligand density. Thus, tachylectin-2 employs strict specificity for certain N-acetyl sugars as well as the surface ligand density for self/non-self recognition.  (+info)

Factors influencing in vitro killing of bacteria by hemocytes of the eastern oyster (Crassostrea virginica). (8/614)

A tetrazolium dye reduction assay was used to study factors governing the killing of bacteria by oyster hemocytes. In vitro tests were performed on bacterial strains by using hemocytes from oysters collected from the same location in winter and summer. Vibrio parahaemolyticus strains, altered in motility or colonial morphology (opaque and translucent), and Listeria monocytogenes mutants lacking catalase, superoxide dismutase, hemolysin, and phospholipase activities were examined in winter and summer. Vibrio vulnificus strains, opaque and translucent (with and without capsules), were examined only in summer. Among V. parahaemolyticus and L. monocytogenes, significantly (P < 0.05) higher levels of killing by hemocytes were observed in summer than in winter. L. monocytogenes was more resistant than V. parahaemolyticus or V. vulnificus to the bactericidal activity of hemocytes. In winter, both translucent strains of V. parahaemolyticus showed significantly (P < 0.05) higher susceptibility to killing by hemocytes than did the wild-type opaque strain. In summer, only one of the V. parahaemolyticus translucent strains showed significantly (P < 0.05) higher susceptibility to killing by hemocytes than did the wild-type opaque strain. No significant differences (P > 0.05) in killing by hemocytes were observed between opaque (encapsulated) and translucent (nonencapsulated) pairs of V. vulnificus. Activities of 19 hydrolytic enzymes were measured in oyster hemolymph collected in winter and summer. Only one enzyme, esterase (C4), showed a seasonal difference in activity (higher in winter than in summer). These results suggest that differences existed between bacterial genera in their ability to evade killing by oyster hemocytes, that a trait(s) associated with the opaque phenotype may have enabled V. parahaemolyticus to evade killing by the oyster's cellular defense, and that bactericidal activity of hemocytes was greater in summer than in winter.  (+info)

Lab Reagents Drosophila Antibody Laboratories manufactures the antibody for drosophila hemocytes reagents distributed by Genprice. The Antibody For Drosophila Hemocytes reagent is RUO (Research Use Only) to test human serum or cell culture lab samples. To purchase these products, for the MSDS, Data Sheet, protocol, storage conditions/temperature or for the concentration, please contact drosophila Antibody. Other Antibody products are available in stock. Specificity: Antibody Category: For Group: Drosophila Hemocytes. Drosophila Hemocytes information ...
We analyzed the heterogeneity of Drosophila hemocytes on the basis of the expression of cell-type specific antigens. The antigens characterize distinct subsets which partially overlap with those defined by morphological criteria. Oil the basis of the expression or the lack of expression of blood cell antigens the following hemocyte populations have been defined: crystal cells, plasmalocytes, lamellocytes and precursor cells. The expression of the antigens and thus the different cell types are developmentally regulated. The hemocytes are arranged ill four main compartments: the circulating blood cells, the sessile tissue, the lymph glands and the posterior hematopoietic tissue. Each hemocyte compartment has a specific and characteristic composition of the various cell types. The described markers represent the first successful attempt to define hemocyte lineages by immunological markers in Drosophila and help to define morphologically, functionally, spatially and developmentally distinct subsets ...
DAPI staining in fixed Drosophila Hemocytes - posted in Cell Biology: Hi everybody, I work with hemocytes extracted from drosophila adult flies and I have a problem with my DAPI staining. When I look at the cells under the microscope most of them are shallow bluish and do not show a clear signal in the nucleus. some of them however do. My protocol is as follows: 1. Extraction of the hemocytes into Schneider + Fetal Bovine Serum (10%) media 2. Fixation with cooled Formaldehyde...
By using an antibody screening approach against a Drosophila blood cell line, we have identified the receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK) PVR as a marker of larval Drosophila hemocytes. This receptor is found on lymph gland prohemocytes and on the surface of mature circulating plasmatocytes/macrophages. The anti‐PVR antibody inhibits thymidine incorporation in blood cell lines, whereas overexpression of one of its ligands, PVF2, induces the proliferation of hemocytes in vivo. These results strongly suggest that the PVF2/PVR couple is involved in hemocyte proliferation. PVR belongs to the PDGF/VEGF subfamily of RTKs. These receptors are characterized by an extracellular sequence composed of five (in: c‐Kit, Flt‐3, c‐Fms, PDGFR α and β) or seven (in VEGFRS: Flt1, KDR, Flt4) Ig domains and a cytoplasmic split tyrosine kinase domain. In vertebrates, receptors of this RTK family function in both cell proliferation and cell migration.. PVR has recently been identified as a chemotactic receptor ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - JAK/STAT and the GATA factor Pannier control hemocyte maturation and differentiation in Drosophila. AU - Minakhina, Svetlana. AU - Tan, William. AU - Steward, Ruth. PY - 2011/1/1. Y1 - 2011/1/1. N2 - The lymph gland is the major site of hematopoiesis in Drosophila. During late larval stages three types of hemocytes are produced, plasmatocytes, crystal cells, and lamellocytes, and their differentiation is tightly controlled by conserved factors and signaling pathways. JAK/STAT is one of these pathways which have essential roles in vertebrate and fly hematopoiesis. We show that Stat has opposing cell-autonomous and non-autonomous functions in hemocyte differentiation. Using a clonal approach we established that loss of Stat in a set of prohemocytes in the cortical zone induces plasmatocyte maturation in adjacent hemocytes. Hemocytes lacking Stat fail to differentiate into plasmatocytes, indicating that Stat positively and cell-autonomously controls plasmatocyte differentiation. We ...
Parameters of hemocyte populations have been considered as relevant indicators of bivalve health and are currently used in immunotoxicological studies. Hemocytes in hemolymph can be collected by puncturing either the pericardial cavity or the adductor muscle sinus with a syringe. Flow cytometry is a methodological approach that is increasingly being used in laboratories for the study of hemocyte parameters in aquatic invertebrates. However, various protocols for hemocyte processing in laboratories equipped with different types of cytometers have been published. In this context, two flow cytometers (EPICS XL4®, Beckman Coulter and FacsCalibur®, Becton Dickinson) and two sites of hemocyte collection (pericardial cavity and adductor muscle sinus) were compared for the analysis of hemocyte parameters in the Pacific oyster, Crassostrea gigas. Hemolymph cells were analyzed in terms of their number and organelle contents. Cell mortality, phagocytosis, non specific esterase, extension of the lysosomal
A new insect member of the signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT) family of transcription factors, Hyphantria cunea STAT (HcSTAT), was cloned from the lepidopteran H. cunea. The domain involved in DNA interaction and the Src homology 2 (SH2) domain were well conserved. During all developmental stages, the gene was expressed at a low level in the haemocytes, fat body cells, midgut, epidermis and Malpighian tubules. The haemocytes and Malpighian tubules showed transcriptional activation of HcSTAT upon Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacterial challenges. These challenges increased the induction and nuclear translocation of the HcSTAT protein that recognizes a STAT target site in H. cunea haemocytes. In vivo treatment with sodium orthovanadate translocated HcSTAT to the haemocyte nucleus. This study shows the involvement of the haemocyte Janus kinase/STAT pathway after microbial infection in lepidopteran insects ...
Generation of transgenic flies: We generated flies that carry a 2.7-kb regulatory region located between the adjacent collagen type IV genes Cg25C and viking (Yasothornsrikulet al. 1997). We PCR cloned an EcoRI-BamHI fragment, using the primers GAATTCCTTCGCCCGCAGACTC and GGATCCGA TGCCCTATGCACTTA, and fused it to the AUG-β-GAL vector (Thummelet al. 1988). A BamHI-XbaI fragment encoding the lacZ gene was excised from this construct. This was replaced with a BamHI-SpeI fragment encoding the GAL4 gene excised from the pGATB vector (Brand and Perrimon 1993) to create the Cg-GAL4 construct. This construct was injected into w1118 embryos to generate transgenic flies carrying P[w, CgGAL4]. Three independent lines all mapping to the second chromosome were obtained. Two of the lines tested gave identical results and were used in this study.. Genetic crosses and phenotypic analyses: Flies were cultured on a standard medium containing corn meal, molasses, yeast, agar, and supplemented with Tegosept. When a ...
Generation of transgenic flies: We generated flies that carry a 2.7-kb regulatory region located between the adjacent collagen type IV genes Cg25C and viking (Yasothornsrikulet al. 1997). We PCR cloned an EcoRI-BamHI fragment, using the primers GAATTCCTTCGCCCGCAGACTC and GGATCCGA TGCCCTATGCACTTA, and fused it to the AUG-β-GAL vector (Thummelet al. 1988). A BamHI-XbaI fragment encoding the lacZ gene was excised from this construct. This was replaced with a BamHI-SpeI fragment encoding the GAL4 gene excised from the pGATB vector (Brand and Perrimon 1993) to create the Cg-GAL4 construct. This construct was injected into w1118 embryos to generate transgenic flies carrying P[w, CgGAL4]. Three independent lines all mapping to the second chromosome were obtained. Two of the lines tested gave identical results and were used in this study.. Genetic crosses and phenotypic analyses: Flies were cultured on a standard medium containing corn meal, molasses, yeast, agar, and supplemented with Tegosept. When a ...
We analyzed the heterogeneity of Drosophilahemocytes on the basis of the expression of cell-type specific antigens. The antigens characterize distinct subsets which partially overlap with those...
The hemolymph of Drosophila contains hemocytes that either circulate freely through the body cavities or are sessile, being associated with various tissues and organs. Hemocytes are responsible for the phagocytosis of apoptotic cells and thus are important for embryonic tissue formation as well as organ remodelling during metamorphosis (Abrams et al., 1993; Franc et al., 1996; Franc, 1999; Hartenstein and Jan, 1992; Tepass et al., 1994). Furthermore, hemocytes play a crucial role in immunological processes (reviewed by Hoffmann and Reichhart, 2002; Lavine and Strand, 2002). In response to an infection, they engulf and melanize foreign material and synthesize and secrete antimicrobial peptides (Braun et al., 1998; Ramet et al., 2002; Sorrentino et al., 2002).. Recent analyses have revealed both genetic and functional similarities between several aspects of insect and mammalian hematopoiesis (reviewed by Franc, 2002; Hoffmann et al., 1999; Traver and Zon, 2002). In both systems, the family of GATA ...
Phagocytosis involves the internalization of extracellular material by invagination of the plasma membrane to form intracellular vesicles called phagosomes, which have functions that include pathogen degradation. The degradative properties of phagosomes are thought to be conferred by sequential fusion with endosomes and lysosomes; however, this maturation process has not been studied in vivo. We employed Drosophila hemocytes, which are similar to mammalian professional macrophages, to establish a model of phagosome maturation. Adult Drosophila females, carrying transgenic Rab7-GFP endosome and Lamp1-GFP lysosome markers, were injected with E. coli DH5α and the hemocytes were collected at 15, 30, 45 and 60 minutes after infection. In wild-type females, E. coli were detected within enlarged Rab7-GFP positive phagosomes at 15 to 45 minutes after infection; and were also observed in enlarged Lamp1-GFP positive phagolysosomes at 45 minutes. Two-photon imaging of hemocytes in vivo confirmed this vesicle
Tropical tasar silkworm, Antheraea mylitta Drury DABA-ecorace is commercially exploited in India for tasar silk production. Generally, its cocoons used to preserve in outdoor and indoor conditions. But in recent past, due to global warming, tasar silk zone day time temperature (May-June) shoots up and it goes up to 35 to 45°C or even more. It cause adverse impact on the survival of tasar silkworm pupae and invite heavy loss to the tasar silk industry. In the present study, hemocyte and enzyme-based methods have been used to evaluate the impact of outdoor and indoor seed cocoon preservation on A. mylitta pupae. Interestingly, differences in Total Hemocyte Count (THC), hemocyte contour/morphology, protein concentration, fat body and hemolymph acid phosphatase (Acp) activity of outdoor and indoor preserved pupae have been observed. Marked variation in THC was observed among high, low and median weight pupae. Although, no significant variation was observed in THC of indoor and outdoor preserved ...
Tese de mestrado, Biologia (Biologia Evolutiva e do Desenvolvimento), 2009, Universidade de Lisboa, Faculdade de CiênciasResumo alargado em português disponível no documentoInsect innate immune system can be partitioned into humoral and cellular defense mechanisms. However, both branches of immune system are interconnected, acting in a synergistic way. The study of these interconnections is an important step to comprehend the immune response as an integrated system. In Drosophila genus 95% of blood cells (hemocytes) are plasmatocytes. These cells participate in numerous processes during development and immune response. Throughout embryogenesis and pupal stage plasmatocytes play an important role in tissue remodeling, phagocytizing dead cells and synthesizing extracellular matrix. During an immune response they are responsible for production of antimicrobial peptides, phagocytosis and aggregation of pathogens. In addition, it is possible to find two other types of hemocytes in Drosophilas ...
AbstractParasitization of silkworm, Bombyx mori by invasive larva of dipteran parasitoid Exorista bombycis caused upto 20% revenue loss in sericulture. The parasitism was successful by suppressing host immune system however mechanism of immune suppression induced by E. bombycis is unknown which is unravelled here. The infestation induced cytotoxic symptoms in host hemocytes, such as vacuolated cytoplasm, porous plasma membrane, indented nuclei with condensed chromatin and dilated RER. One of the markers of necrosis is cell permeabilization, which can be measured as released lactate dehydrogenase (LDH). LDH level showed significantly (P
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Sydney rock oysters (SRO) Saccostrea glomerata suffer mass mortalities during summer and autumn as a result of infection by a protozoan parasite Marteilia sydneyi (QX disease). Mass selected disease resistant (QXR) lines have been used with some success in affected estuaries in recent years, with resistance attributed to oxidative defense systems. However, the role of hemocytes in resistance to QX by SRO has not been fully explored. In the present study, fifty QXR and fifty wild caught (WC) oysters were collected from a lease at Pimpama River during a QX outbreak in January 2011. Hemocytes characteristics (type, morphology) and functions (mortality, phagocytosis and oxidative activity) from both oyster lines were analyzed by flow cytometry in the context of infection intensity and parasite viability (determined histologically). Amongst the QXR oysters, 20% were diseased containing viable parasite, 74% had killed M. sydneyi and 6% were uninfected. In contrast, 86% of WC oysters were diseased, 2% had
A major category of mutant hematopoietic phenotypes in Drosophila is melanotic tumors or nodules, which consist of abnormal and overproliferated blood cells, similar to granulomas. Our analyses of the melanotic mutant dappled have revealed a novel type of gene involved in blood cell regulation. The dappled gene is an essential gene that encodes cytochrome b5, a conserved hemoprotein that participates in electron transfer in multiple biochemical reactions and pathways. Viable mutations of dappled cause melanotic nodules and hemocyte misregulation during both hematopoietic waves of development. The sexes are similarly affected, but hemocyte number is different in females and males of both mutants and wild type. Additionally, initial tests show that curcumin enhances the dappled melanotic phenotype and establish screening of endogenous and xenobiotic compounds as a route for analysis of cytochrome b5 function. Overall, dappled provides a tractable genetic model for cytochrome b5, which has been ...
Induction of caspase genes in hemocytes treated with different PAMPs at 1, 3 and 6 h pt.Results represent the mean ± SD of 4 experimental hemocyte pools. Data
Venom from the parasitoid wasp Pimpla hypochondriaca has potent in vivo activity against insect haemocytes and disrupts host immune responses. Using hybridisation techniques, and more recently random sequence analysis, we had previously identified cDNAs encoding 10 venom proteins from this wasp and deduced their primary structures. We have now extended the random sequence analysis and discovered a further nine cDNAs encoding proteins with predicted signal sequences. The mature proteins were calculated to have masses of between 4 and 22 kDa. Post-signal sequence residues predicted from the cDNAs matched those derived by Edman degradation from venom proteins separated using gel filtration and reverse phase chromatography, confirming that the cloned cDNAs encode proteins which are secreted into the venom sac. Proteins containing at least six cysteine residues were abundant and seven of these cysteine-rich venom proteins, cvp1-7, were identified. The sequences of some of these proteins were similar, ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - A short receptor downregulates JAK/STAT signalling to control the Drosophila cellular immune response. AU - Makki, Rami. AU - Meister, Marie. AU - Pennetier, Delphine. AU - Ubeda, Jean Michel. AU - Braun, Anne. AU - Daburon, Virginie. AU - Krzemień, Joanna. AU - Bourbon, Henri Marc. AU - Zhou, Rui. AU - Vincent, Alain. AU - Crozatier, Michéle. PY - 2010/1/1. Y1 - 2010/1/1. N2 - The posterior signalling centre (PSC), a small group of specialised cells, controls hemocyte (blood cell) homeostasis in the Drosophila larval hematopoietic organ, the lymph gland. This role of the PSC is very reminiscent of the niche, the microenvironment of hematopoietic stem cells in vertebrates. We have recently shown that the PSC acts in a non-cellautonomous manner to maintain janus tyrosine kinase/signal transducers and activators of transcription (JAK/STAT) signalling in hematopoietic progenitors (prohemocytes), thereby preserving the multipotent character necessary for their differentiation ...
To investigate the effects of dietary β-glucan (0.5 or 1 g kg(-1) diet: 0.5-BG, 1-BG) and rutin (0.5 or 1 g kg(-1) diet: 0.5-RT, 1-RT) after 10 days in the absence of pathogen challenge on the immune response of Fenneropenaeus chinensis, we determined total hemocyte count (THC) and the expression ...
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Small lymph glands (sometimes called lymph nodes) occur throughout the body. Lymph glands that are near each other often form into groups or chains. Examples of where lymph glands group together are the sides of the neck, the armpits and the groins. The diagram shows the main groups of lymph glands in the head and neck. However, lymph glands occur in many other places in the body.. Lymph glands are joined together by a network of lymph channels. Lymph is a fluid that forms between the cells of the body. This watery fluid travels in the lymph channels, through various lymph glands and eventually drains into the bloodstream.. Lymph and lymph glands are major parts of the immune system. They contain white blood cells (lymphocytes) and antibodies that defend the body against infection.. ...
Iwan R. Evans is the author of this article in the Journal of Visualized Experiments: Live Imaging Of Drosophila melanogaster Embryonic Hemocyte Migrations
In yeast, Cdc42 is required to polarize the site of bud formation, and several in vitro studies show that it may also be required for efficient polarization of eukaryotic cells (Etienne-Manneville, 2004). Furthermore, for monocytes in culture, blocking Cdc42 signaling leads to a failure to receive and respond to chemotactic cues (Allen et al., 1998; Chou et al., 2003; Srinivasan et al., 2003). However, our in vivo studies in the fly embryo reveal no significant effect on the numbers of hemocytes recruited to laser wounds after 1 h in Cdc42 mutant embryos. This finding is true also for embryos expressing the dominant-negative Cdc42N17 and Cdc42S89 transgenes specifically in hemocytes (Fig. 3 a). Both developmental dispersal of hemocytes and their recruitment to sites of tissue damage appears grossly normal. But on closer inspection, we observe that hemocyte motility is abnormal. During the migratory phase, and once hemocytes have reached the wound, we frequently see cells with several leading ...
I recently finished my first six week chemo session and am still on the two week break. About two days after the chemo I started to have an unsettled stomach. On the fourth day the diarrhea started. The sixth day I had cramping, really bad diarrhea and the gurgling in the intestinal area. I was taking hemocyte plus capsule (to boost my hemoglobin) for about a month and had just switched to a tablet (new prescription). I thought there might have been a difference between the capsule and tablet. My nurse said it wasnt the hemocyte, but it was the effects of the chemotherapy. I quit taking the hemocyte until I get back home. I am thinking of going back on the hemocyte so my hemoglobin doesnt get too low. Any advice? Unfortunately, I am 1,000 miles from home trying to enjoy a vacation. After about five days of diarrhea, I seem to be back to normal. Can I expect this after each six week session. Thank you to all the nice people who are out there helping with advice.. Regards ...
Interpretive Summary: Technical Abstract: Insects express innate, but not adaptive, immune reactions to infection and invasion. These innate responses are for convenience seen as humoral or cellular reactions. Humoral reactions involve regulated expression of genes encoding a wide range of anti-bacterial and anti-fungal proteins which appear in hemolymph 6 to 12 h post-infection (PI). Cellular immunity entails direct interactions between circulating hemocytes and invaders. These interactions, launched immediately when an infection is detected, include phagocytosis, nodulation, and for organisms too large to be internalized, encapsulation. Nodulation is a multi-step process of attaching invading cells or spores to hemocytes. The hemocytes attach to one another, forming microaggregates, which grow into nodules. The nodules are finally melanized and attached to internal surfaces, where the invaders are secondarily killed by oxygen-dependent mechanisms. Nodulation is responsible for clearing from ...
A laminated structure comprising, at least one optically anisotropic layer formed of a liquid crystalline composition comprising a compound having two or more types of reactive groups, and at least one photosensitive polymer layer. The laminated structure is useful for forming an optically anisotropic layer inside of a liquid crystal cell. The laminated structure is also useful for forming a liquid crystal cell substrate with an optically anisotropic layer having an optically compensating ability, inside of a liquid crystal cell.
Looking for Hematopoietic Organs? Find out information about Hematopoietic Organs. The following article is from The Great Soviet Encyclopedia . It might be outdated or ideologically biased. in animals and man, the organs in which the... Explanation of Hematopoietic Organs
Principal Investigator:KAWANO Keiichi, Project Period (FY):1991 - 1993, Research Category:Grant-in-Aid for General Scientific Research (C), Research Field:生物物性学
Ush-regulates hemocyte-specific gene expression, fatty acid metabolism and cell cycle progression and cooperates with dNuRD to orchestrate hematopoiesis. Lenz, J.; Liefke, R.; Funk, S. F.; Shoup, S.; Nist, A.; Stiewe, T.; Schulz, R.; Tokusumi, Y.; Albert L.; Raifer, H.; Förstemann,K.; Vázquez, O.; Tokusumi,T; Fossett; N.; Brehm, A.* PLoS Genet., 2021, 17, e1009318 ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Theory of Nematic-smectic phase separation in thin twisted liquid crystal cells. AU - Osipov, M.A.. AU - Sambles, J.R.. AU - Ruan, L.. PY - 2003/7/7. Y1 - 2003/7/7. N2 - Recently it has been shown experimentally by the authors that a highly twisted thin nematic cell at low temperatures can separate into a smectic A region in the middle of the cell surrounded by twisted nematic layers at the boundaries. In this case the twist is expelled into the nematic layers and the nematic-smectic A transition temperature is strongly depressed. We present a thermodynamic theory of such a phase transition in a twisted nematic cell, taking into account that the smectic A slab inside the nematic cell can be stable only if the decrease of free energy in the smectic region overcomes the increase in distortion energy of the twist deformation in the nematic layers plus the energy of the nematic-smectic A interface. In such a system the equilibrium thickness of the smectic A slab corresponds to the ...
The insect immune cells known as hemocytes (green) rapidly engulf the bacteria following infection and this can be studied in real-time using timelapse microscopy.
Answers from doctors on occipital lymph glands. First: Would require a personal one-on-one clinical exam. It could be either or both. Whats more important is to find out why? See your dentist and\or physician.
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Hemocytes (blood cells) are important in the immune defense against pathogens in invertebrates. In crusteacean, the hemocytes and plasma components mount a strong innate immune response against different pathogens including bacteria and virus. This thesis is aimed to identify marker proteins associated with development of different hemocyte types, and to find a protein involved in the phenoloxidase-induced melanization and other innate immune reactions in freshwater crayfish Pacifastacus leniusculus. In crustaceans, the hemocytes are produced and partly differentiated in the hematopoietic tissue (Hpt) before they are released into the hemolymph circulation. To investigate the connection between semigranular cells, granular cells and precursor cells in Hpt of P. leniusculus and possibly also in other crustaceans, two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE) coupled with mass spectrometry (MS) analysis was used to identify specific proteins expressed in different hemocytes. The specific expression ...
Hemocytes mediate a series of immune reactions essential for bivalve survival in the environment, however, the impact of harmful algal species and their associated phycotoxins upon bivalve immune system is under debate. To better understand the possible toxic effects of these toxins, Crassostrea gigas hemocytes were exposed to brevetoxin (PbTx-2). Hemocyte viability, monitored through the neutral red retention and MTT reduction assays, and apoptosis (Hoechst staining) remained unchanged during 12 h of exposure to PbTx-2 in concentrations up to 1000 µg/L. Despite cell viability and apoptosis remained stable, hemocytes incubated for 4 h with 1000 µg/L of PbTx-2 revealed higher expression levels of Hsp70 (p | 0.01) and CYP356A1 ( p | 0.05) transcripts and a tendency to increase FABP expression, as evaluated by Real-Time quantitative PCR. The expression of other studied genes (BPI, IL-17, GSTO, EcSOD, Prx6, SOD and GPx) remained unchanged. The results suggest that the absence of cytotoxic effects of PbTx
We evaluate the possibility of using insects as a haematological biomodel and we test phytoestrogen isoflavanoid, genistein, in Schistocerca gregaria, Periplaneta americana and Dysdercus cingulatus. Various reactions of haemocytes were found in these three species, both stimulation and inhibition of haemocyte concentration. The observed data reflected well the possible effects of soy products described in published studies on human subjects and it seems that future studies on the sensitivity of insect haemocytes could lead to an alternative haematological biomodel ...
The complex balance between environmental and host factors is an important determinant of susceptibility to infection. Disturbances of this equilibrium may result in multifactorial diseases as illustrated by the summer mortality syndrome, a worldwide and complex phenomenon that affects the oysters, Crassostrea gigas. The summer mortality syndrome reveals a physiological intolerance making this oyster species susceptible to diseases. Exploration of genetic basis governing the oyster resistance or susceptibility to infections is thus a major goal for understanding field mortality events. In this context, we used high-throughput genomic approaches to identify genetic traits that may characterize inherent survival capacities in C. gigas. Using digital gene expression (DGE), we analyzed the transcriptomes of hemocytes (immunocompetent cells) of oysters able or not able to survive infections by Vibrio species shown to be involved in summer mortalities. Hemocytes were nonlethally collected from oysters before
The PSC has a dual function, as a niche for haemocyte progenitors and also as a master coordinator in the host immune response against wasp eggs. Indeed, although wasp eggs are mainly encapsulated by lamellocytes that originate from circulating, haemocoelic plasmatocytes, the lymph gland-and more specifically the PSC-is required to drive their transdifferentiation. Indeed, collier mutant larvae, which lack a PSC, fail to mount an immune response against the parasitoid (Crozatier et al, 2004). Hence, a signal is thought to originate from the egg after its detection by plasmatocytes, allowing the PSC to drive the lamellocyte programme in the lymph gland and in haemocoelic haemocytes non‐cell‐autonomously (Fig 1).. Sinenko and colleagues now show that wasp parasitization leads to increased ROS levels in PSC cells (Sinenko et al, 2011). Furthermore, artificially raising ROS levels in PSC cells of nonparasitized larvae by genetically interrupting complex I of the electron transport chain (ETC) ...
Horseshoe crab hemocyte selectively responds to bacterial lipopolysaccharides (LPS), which depends critically on the proteolytic activity of the LPS-responsive serine protease zymogen factor C. In response to stimulation by LPS, the hemocyte secretes
Hemocytes of Mytilus edulis were examined cytologically and cytochemically. On the basis of structure, staining reactions, and phagocytic behavior, they were divided into two main groups: basophilic hemocytes and eosinophilic granular hemocytes (granulocytes). The basophilic cells were further divided into small lymphocytes and larger phagocytic macrophages reactive for lysosomal hydrolases. Mitosis was observed in granulocytes and in small lymphoid cells, believed to be the stem cells for the basophilic cell line. A few cells appeared to be intermediate between lymphocytes and small granulocytes. Macrophages were the main cell type involved in the clearance of injected carbon particles. However, granulocytes did show some phagocytic activity. Brown cells displaying apparent amoebocytic behavior were found to contain Fe3+ and Pb2+ in cytoplasmic inclusions, some of which were also reactive for β-glucuronidase and glucosaminidase. These cells appear to have a separate origin from the ...
A highly pure, chemically defined representative of a new class of antimicrobial peptide from the Atlantic white shrimp (Litopenaeus setiferus), penaeidin class 4 [Pen4-1 (penaeidin class 4 isoform 1)], was produced synthetically. Chemical synthesis was achieved by native ligation from two separate domains yielding a bioactive peptide that reflected the characteristics of native penaeidin. Synthetic Pen4-1 proved to be an effective antimicrobial peptide, particularly against the broad-spectrum pathogen Fusarium oxysporum, exhibiting a complex effect on reproductive growth at inhibitory concentrations resulting in the suppression of spore formation. Pen4-1 exhibits unique features [not previously observed for penaeidins from the Pacific white shrimp (L. vannamei)], including target-species specificity against Gram-positive bacteria, indicating a potential partitioning of antimicrobial function among this family of peptides. The proline-rich domain of penaeidin class 4 alone was an active ...
In metazoans, the hematopoietic system plays a key role both in normal development and in defense of the organism. In Drosophila, the cellular immune response involves three types of blood cells: plasmatocytes, crystal cells and lamellocytes. This last cell type is barely present in healthy larvae, but its production is strongly induced upon wasp parasitization or in mutant contexts affecting larval blood cell homeostasis. Notably, several zygotic mutations leading to melanotic mass (or tumor) formation in larvae have been associated to the deregulated differentiation of lamellocytes. To gain further insights into the gene regulatory network and the mechanisms controlling larval blood cell homeostasis, we conducted a tissue-specific loss of function screen using hemocyte-specific Gal4 drivers and UAS-dsRNA transgenic lines. By targeting around 10% of the Drosophila genes, this in vivo RNA interference screen allowed us to recover 59 melanotic tumor suppressor genes. In line with previous studies, we
Nearly 24 million people are affected by autoimmune diseases in the United States. Main causes of autoimmune diseases have been attributed to genetic predisposition and environmental exposure to chemicals such as hormones and pesticides. Due to the large population that are affected by autoimmune diseases, it is critical to understand the mechanisms behind them. In this study, we sought to explore both genetic and environmental factors that affect hematopoiesis, or the formation of specific blood cells, and immune system in Drosophila melanogaster. As Drosophila melanogaster have conserved pathways of hematopoiesis as humans, they were used as the model organism for the study. We examined the presence of lamellocytes, a type of Drosophila blood cell typically only present upon immune challenge by wasp parasitoids, across Drosophila Genetic Reference Panel (DGRP) lines. We then conducted a Genome Wide Association Study (GWAS) to identify single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) that lead to lamellocyte
Amino Acid Sequence, Animals, Base Sequence, Comparative Study, DNA Primers, Gene Expression Profiling, Gene Library, Hemocytes/*chemistry, Molecular Sequence Data, Penaeidae/genetics/*metabolism, Protein Structure; Tertiary, Research Support; Non-U.S. Govt, Sequence Alignment, Sequence Analysis; DNA, Serine Endopeptidases/*blood/genetics/metabolism, Species Specificity ...
A modified pentapeptide has been isolated from the hemocytes of the ascidian Styela plicata. The structure of the peptide was determined by Edman sequence analysis, mass spectrometry, and NMR spectroscopy with the stereochemistry assigned by acid hydrolysis followed by both (a) GC-MS of the volatile amino acid derivatives on a chiral column and (b) ultrasensitive detection of fluorescent diasteromeric derivatives of the component amino acids after reversed-phase HPLC. The peptide L-DOPA-L-DOPA-Gly-L-Pro-dcdeltaDOPA (where DOPA = 3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine and dcdeltaDOPA = decarboxy-(E)-alpha,beta-dehydro-3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine) we designate as tunichrome Sp-1.
An integrin β subunit (FcβInt) cDNA was cloned from hemocytes of Fenneropenaeus chinensis by rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE) PCR. The full-length cDNA of FcβInt consists of 2853bp and encodes a polypeptide of 783 amino acids with a predicted isoelectric point of 5.09. The deduced amino acid sequence of FcβInt possessed the classical domains of β integrin, including the βA domain and four e ...
Hello, I am writing a chapter on flow cytometry in bivalve pathology for a marine biotechnology book. I am having some trouble deciding why my research on differential hemocyte counts in oysters using log90 vs FLS differs from other research on oysters and clams. I get 3 consistent hemocyte subpopulations while other people get 1 broad group and I would like to be able to tell if this is real or if it is the difference between log and linear signal collection. The methods mention that side scatter was used and the axis of the plots is FLS vs SSC. In other studies (mammalian), I see 3 or so wbc groups in histograms labelled FLS vs SSC and they talk about side scatter in the text. Does SSC or side scatter ever imply that log scale was used or should I assume that SSC is a linear scale? There are no numbers along the axes that would help me. Thank you, Kathy Alcox ************************************* Kathryn A. Ashton-Alcox Haskin Shellfish Research Laboratory Rutgers University 6959 Miller ...
A temperature compensation circuit arrangement for liquid crystal cells in optical devices is presented. In an optical device, a liquid crystal cell typically manipulates the optical signals according to an output optical property, such as attenuation, responsive to an AC voltage source electrical signal. A feedback circuit arrangement is connected to the liquid crystal cell and controls the current through the liquid crystal cell with respect to temperature by a predetermined control equations for the output optical property so that the device manipulates the optical signals independently of temperature. The current follows the control equations, which are empirically determined with respect to temperature for one equation.
Fröbius, A., Kanost, M.R., Götz, P. and Vilcinskas, A. (2000) Isolation and characterization of novel inducible serine protease inhibitors from larval hemolymph of the greater wax mothGalleria mellonella. Eur. J. Biochem. 267: 2046-2053.. Ma, C. and Kanost, M.R. (2000) A β,1-3-glucan-recognition protein from an insect, Manduca sexta, agglutinates microorganisms and activates the phenoloxidase cascade. J. Biol. Chem. 275: 7505-7514.. Yu, X.-Q. And Kanost, M.R. (2000) Immulectin-2, a lipopolysaccharide-specific lectin from an insect, Manduca sexta, is induced in response to Gram-negative bacteria. J. Biol. Chem.275:37373-37381.. Wiegand, C., Levin, D., Gillespie, J.P., Willott, W., Kanost, M.R. and Trenczek, T. (2000) Monoclonal antibody MS13 identifies a plasmatocyte membrane protein and inhibits encapsulation and spreading reactions of Manduca sexta hemocytes. Arch. Insect Biochem. Physiol. 45: 95-108.. Jiang, H. and Kanost, M.R. (2000) The clip-domain family of serine proteinases in ...
Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) are important components of the host innate immune response against microbial invasion. We previously characterized the first AMP from an oyster, a defensin, that was shown to be continuously expressed in the mantle of Crassostrea gigas. In this study, we report the cDNA cloning of two new isoforms of the defensin AMP family (Cg-defh1 and Cg-defh2) from the hemocytes of the oyster. The deduced amino acid sequences reveal two peptides of 73 amino acid residues with a mature portion consisting of 43 amino acid residues. Cy-Defh1 and CyDefh2 share 86% amino acid identity and belong to the arthropod-molluscs defensin family. qRT-PCR analyses indicate that Cg-defh2 is continuously expressed in the hemocytes of C. gigas. In ...
PubMed comprises more than 30 million citations for biomedical literature from MEDLINE, life science journals, and online books. Citations may include links to full-text content from PubMed Central and publisher web sites.
Depending on the degree of re-construction needed to produce an adult form, the larval organs selectively liquefy and are eaten by plasmatocyte cells in the hemolymph ( insect blood). In this way nothing is wasted. Subsequently, new and different adult organs are produced from imaginal discs, clusters of embryonic cells retained in an undifferentiated form by the larva. New muscles are formed for jaws, legs, and wings. Newly formed compound eyes and antenna require a much enlarged brain. New neuronal connections are made or rerouted from larval ganglia. New mouth parts, gut and excretory organs are formed to accomodate the adult diet, usually nectar from flowers. And new sex organs are formed that were entirely absent in the larva. The adult form, hardly recognizable from its larval inception, nevertheless has the exact same genetic material as the larva. The processes that control genetic expression and morphogenesis have been intensively studied but many details are unknown. Various ...
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There are a number of causes of swollen lymph glands. The most common cause is infection. See your doctor if you have swollen lymph glands and you do not ...
Helpful, trusted answers from doctors: Dr. Levitt on can cancer be in the soft tissue of a lymph gland: Often the first sign of cancer spreading is to the local lymphnode... When a woman having clinical breast exam, her underam is also examined to make sure no lymphnode etc...Once cancer is diagnosed or suspected, the lymphnodes are biopsied/resected to see if cancer is in there. The nodes are basically filters and when cancer cells pass thru, they are trapped there. Consult your doc.. Good luck..
List of causes of Fever and Rash and Swollen lymph glands, alternative diagnoses, rare causes, misdiagnoses, patient stories, and much more.
being exposed to the environment and building antibodies towards foreign invaders is what the bodys immune system does naturally. Without going into technical detail, vaccines are made of components similar to actual bugs (or a protein the bug makes) that provide the building block for antibodies to be created in the body. This means that if one who is vaccinated is exposed to the ACTUAL pathogen, there is a systemic response causing the body to remember this bug and kill it fairly easily. If there was no vaccine or prior exposure to something very similar, the body does not have an internal defense already in place . Instead, it has to create one, which takes time. This makes the body more susceptible to that pathogen. Essentially, if one is thus exposed to the pathogen, and is susceptible, the immune system may be overwhelmed and the person will begin to show symptoms of the disease. Once the illness is over, however, as long as the disease-causing pathogen does not evolve/change, the body ...
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The main reason why so many people still are dying of AIDS is that perhaps up to 95% of persons with AIDS are not being treated worldwide. In 1996 the death rate in my clinic plummetted 90% and has...
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At the Drapers Fashion Forum today, Anna Chokina, global vice-president face care and personal care at Avon, revealed how the beauty company connects with its customers and stays ahead of competitors.
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... bonds in coagulogen to form coagulin and fragments This enzyme is present in the hemocyte granules of horseshoe crabs Limulus ... its isolation from Limulus polyphemus hemocytes and identification as an intracellular zymogen activated by alpha-chymotrypsin ... "Proclotting enzyme from horseshoe crab hemocytes. cDNA cloning, disulfide locations, and subcellular localization". The Journal ...
Holz A, Bossinger B, Strasser T, Janning W, Klapper R (October 2003). "The two origins of hemocytes in Drosophila". Development ... "Identification of lipoteichoic acid as a ligand for draper in the phagocytosis of Staphylococcus aureus by Drosophila hemocytes ...
Instead those mechanisms are mediated by hemocytes. Hemocytes function similarly to phagocytes and after priming they are able ...
The PVFs in Drosophila melanogaster have functions for the migration of hemocytes and the PVFs in the jellyfish Podocoryne ... "The Drosophila VEGF receptor homolog is expressed in hemocytes". Mechanisms of Development. 109 (1): 69-77. doi:10.1016/S0925- ...
"Morphology and phagocytic ability of hemocytes from Cristaria plicata". Aquaculture. 310 (3-4): 245-251. doi:10.1016/j. ...
Xie, Yanhai; Hu, Baoching; Wen, Chungen; Mu, Songniu (2011). "Morphology and phagocytic ability of hemocytes from Cristaria ...
Lambert, Christophe; Nicolas, Jean-Louis; Bultel, Valérie (2001). "Toxicity to Bivalve Hemocytes of Pathogenic Vibrio ...
There are free-floating cells, the hemocytes, within the hemolymph. They play a role in the arthropod immune system. The ...
It is composed of a fluid plasma in which hemolymph cells called hemocytes are suspended. In addition to hemocytes, the plasma ... There are free-floating cells, the hemocytes, within the hemolymph. They play a role in the arthropod immune system. The immune ...
Hemocytes include many types of cells that are important for immune responses, wound healing, and other functions. Hemolymph ... Hemolymph is composed of plasma in which hemocytes are suspended. Nutrients, hormones, wastes, and other substances are ...
At least four types of hemocytes, or hemolymph cells, are known. The tarantula's heart is a long, slender tube located along ...
These AMPs are found mainly in hemocytes and sub-esophageal nerves. When male S. ocreata spiders ingested around 600 Colony ...
Barracco, Margherita Anna; Steil, Ana Angélica; Gargioni, Rogério (1993). "Morphological characterization of the hemocytes of ...
Arthropods, using hemolymph, have hemocytes as part of their immune system. Blood is circulated around the body through blood ...
... found in Limulus hemocytes. Isolation and characterization". European Journal of Biochemistry. 154 (3): 511-21. doi:10.1111/j. ... bonds in synthetic substrates This enzyme is isolated from the hemocyte granules of the horseshoe crabs Limulus and Tachypleus ... its isolation from Limulus polyphemus hemocytes and identification as an intracellular zymogen activated by alpha-chymotrypsin ...
ISBN 978-0-12-415970-9. Locke, Michael (1997). "Caterpillars have evolved lungs for hemocyte gas exchange". Journal of Insect ...
Hemocytes; fat bodies. Unknown. Lysis; budding. Nucleus. Nucleus. Unknown. Bracovirus. Parasitoid wasps (Braconidae). Hemocytes ... An encapsulated body can also be melanised in order to asphyxiate it, thanks to another type of hemocyte, which uses the ... Without the virus infection, phagocytic hemocytes (blood cells) will encapsulate and kill the wasp egg and larvae but the ...
November 1988). "Tachyplesin, a class of antimicrobial peptide from the hemocytes of the horseshoe crab (Tachypleus tridentatus ... "Direct virus inactivation of tachyplesin I and its isopeptides from horseshoe crab hemocytes". Chemotherapy. 37 (5): 327-34. ...
The ectospermalege is a swelling in the abdomen, often folded, filled with hemocytes. The ectospermalege is visible externally ...
After 10 days hemocyte functioning against injected E. coli bacteria had fully recovered. However, aspects of the immune system ... This is accomplished by altering the behavior of host hemocytes, including inducing apoptosis. Within 24 hours of oviposition, ...
Hemocytes are the cells within the immune response that are able to detect the entry of a pathogen and initiate the immune ... Hemocytes are cells within the immune system of invertebrates found within the hemolymph. These cells travel to the infected ... Entomophthora is a parasitic disease, when entered into the body, the immune response is initiated when hemocyte receptors ...
... alpha-helical antimicrobial peptides from the hemocytes of Styela clava". Adv. Exp. Med. Biol. Advances in Experimental ...
Infection seems to be correlated to haemocyte destruction and diapedesis. A study in the Netherlands of the epidemiology of ...
"Hemocyte" redirects here. For invertebrate immune system cells, see Hemocyte (invertebrate immune system cell). ... A blood cell, also called a hematopoietic cell, hemocyte, or hematocyte, is a cell produced through hematopoiesis and found ...
"Exocytosis and proteomic analysis of the vesicle content of granular hemocytes from a crayfish". Dev Comp Immunol. 29 (12): ...
"Discovery of Plasmodium modulators by genome-wide analysis of circulating hemocytes in Anopheles gambiae". Proc Natl Acad Sci U ...
The overall amount of free haemocyte within S. monstrosus has been found to decrease as they age, possibly thought to trigger ... Islam, A.S. (1982). "Diurnal rhythm of hemocyte population in an insect, Schizodactylus monstrosus Drury". Experientia. 38 (5 ...
... hemocytes". Journal of Biochemistry. 99 (3): 847-57. PMID 3519594. Iwanaga, S (May 2007). "Biochemical principle of Limulus ... bond in limulus proclotting enzyme to form active clotting enzyme From the hemocyte granules of the horseshoe crabs Limulus and ...
... including all organs and hemocyte. hemocyte or haemolymph a fluid in the circulatory system of insects containing nutrients, ...
... : a new antimicrobial peptide from hemocytes of the solitary tunicate, Halocynthia aurantium v t e. ...
A hemocyte is a cell that plays a role in the immune system of invertebrates. It is found within the hemolymph. Hemocytes are ... Embryonic hemocytes are derived from head mesoderm and enter the hemolymph as circulating cells. Larval hemocytes, on the other ... Plasmatocytes are the hemocytes responsible for cell ingestion (phagocytosis) and represent about 95% of circulating hemocytes ... They constitute about 5% of circulating hemocytes. Lamellocytes are flat cells that are never found in adult cells, and instead ...
... in the larval hemocytes. The expression of DRaf gof in hemocytes also results in a massive increase in hemocyte number (Figure ... Hemocytes from l(3)mbn or RasV12 larvae reduce the survival of wild-type hosts compared to buffer or hemocytes from OreR larvae ... Functional assays: Hemocytes were tested for their ability to phagocytose in an in vitro assay. Hemocytes were seeded in 25 μl ... There is a 10-fold increase in the number of Ras-act hemocytes (192 × 103/μl) compared with that of Ras-wt hemocytes (18 × 103/ ...
Analysis of Ras-Induced Overproliferation in Drosophila Hemocytes. H. Asha, Istvan Nagy, Gabor Kovacs, Daniel Stetson, Istvan ... Analysis of Ras-Induced Overproliferation in Drosophila Hemocytes Message Subject (Your Name) has forwarded a page to you from ... Analysis of Ras-Induced Overproliferation in Drosophila Hemocytes. H. Asha, Istvan Nagy, Gabor Kovacs, Daniel Stetson, Istvan ... Analysis of Ras-Induced Overproliferation in Drosophila Hemocytes. H. Asha, Istvan Nagy, Gabor Kovacs, Daniel Stetson, Istvan ...
... Sufang Wang,1,2 Xiaopei Yu,2 Zhihua Lin,2 ... K. Adachi, T. Hirata, T. Nishioka, and M. Sakaguchi, "Hemocyte components in crustaceans convert hemocyanin into a ...
Learn about the potential side effects of Hemocyte-F Elixir (multivitamin with iron). Includes common and rare side effects ... Some of the dosage forms listed on this page may not apply to the brand name Hemocyte-F Elixir. ... Some side effects of Hemocyte-F Elixir may not be reported. Always consult your doctor or healthcare specialist for medical ...
... stimulated generation of reactive oxygen species in the molluscan hemocytes. The responses of the hemocytes were similar ... Production of reactive oxygen species by hemocytes of Biomphalaria glabrata: carbohydrate-specific stimulation.. Hahn UK1, ... To investigate the nature of carbohydrates that evoke a defensive response in hemocytes of the gastropod Biomphalaria glabrata ... ROS generation was measured using the fluorescent probe - 2,7-dichlorofluorescein-diacetate (DCFH-DA). Hemocytes were derived ...
centrifugation of fresh hemocytes - (Jan/27/2014 ). Hello everyone,. A simple question, but im fed up with this.. I work with ... I cant comment specifically on hemocytes, never having worked with them, but in general for cells, increasing RCF (g) is not ... hemocytes of invertebrates. Many articles perform centrifugation steps after collecting the hemolymph, whether in eppenddorf, ...
... embryonic hemocytes and lymph gland hemocytes. The anlage of the embryonic hemocytes is restricted to a region within the head ... 1B). Labeled hemocytes of individual clones were randomly mixed with clonally non-related additional hemocytes and found widely ... In 101 of these a hemocyte clone was identified in stage 17 embryos (Fig. 3A). Up to 16 hemocytes per embryo were labeled, ... Our analyses reveal that the hemocytes of pupae and adult flies consist of a mixture of embryonic hemocytes and lymph gland- ...
The hemocytes cultured in the different media maintained high viability after 24 hr, 48 hr, and 96 hr, as opposed with those of ... The aim of this study was to test the applicability of hemocytes from Mytilus edulis for in vitro toxicity testing, and ... In order to identify an optimal medium to maintain the viability of hemocytes in vitro, four media were assessed (Leibovitz (L- ... This study established responses in the cell viability of the blue mussel hemocytes exposed to different PAHs. ...
Granulocytes are larger hemocytes which readily spread on glass surface and which strongly react to the Gomori substrate, ... BARRACCO, Margherita Anna; STEIL, Ana Angélica and GARGIONI, Rogério. Morphological characterization of the hemocytes of the ... They do not appear to contain lysosome-like bodies and represent less than 10% of the circulating hemocytes. ... Two hemocyte types were identified: hyalinocytes and granulocytes. Hyalinocytes are small young (immature), poorly spreading ...
My protocol is as follows: 1. Extraction of the hemocytes into Schneider + Fetal Bovine Serum (10%) media 2. Fixation with ... I work with hemocytes extracted from drosophila adult flies and I have a problem with my DAPI staining. When I look at the ... DAPI staining in fixed Drosophila Hemocytes - posted in Cell Biology: Hi everybody, ... I work with hemocytes extracted from drosophila adult flies and I have a problem with my DAPI staining. When I look at the ...
Drosophila hemocyte antigen hemocyte subpopulation monoclonal antibody hemocyte development These authors contributed equally ... The hemocytes are arranged in four main compartments: the circulating blood cells, the sessile tissue, the lymph glands and the ... Each hemocyte compartment has a specific and characteristic composition of the various cell types. The described markers ... On the basis of the expression or the lack of expression of blood cell antigens the following hemocyte populations have been ...
Infection with shrimp hemocyte iridescent virus (SHIV), a new virus of the family Iridoviridae isolated in China, results in a ... Infection with shrimp hemocyte iridescent virus (SHIV), a new virus of the family Iridoviridae isolated in China, results in a ... Shrimp hemocyte iridescent virus (SHIV) caused severe disease and high mortality in farmed Litopenaeus vannamei in December of ... Complete genome sequence of shrimp hemocyte iridescent virus (SHIV) isolated from white leg shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei ...
... has been verified and temporarily specified as shrimp hemocyte iridescent virus (SHIV). Histopathological examination revealed ... basophilic inclusions and pyknosis in hematopoietic tissue and hemocytes in gills, hepatopancreas, periopods and muscle. Using ... we temporarily specified the aetiological agent as shrimp hemocyte iridescent virus (SHIV), which could cause shrimp hemocyte ... et al. Characterization of a new member of Iridoviridae, Shrimp hemocyte iridescent virus (SHIV), found in white leg shrimp ( ...
The results suggest that the absence of cytotoxic effects of PbTx-2 in Crassostrea gigas hemocytes, even at high concentrations ... To better understand the possible toxic effects of these toxins, Crassostrea gigas hemocytes were exposed to brevetoxin (PbTx-2 ... hemocytes incubated for 4 h with 1000 µg/L of PbTx-2 revealed higher expression levels of Hsp70 (p , 0.01) and CYP356A1 ( p , ... Hemocyte viability, monitored through the neutral red retention and MTT reduction assays, and apoptosis (Hoechst staining) ...
Antibodies for proteins involved in negative regulation of hemocyte proliferation pathways, according to their Panther/Gene ...
Antibody For Drosophila Hemocytes. Lab Reagents Drosophila Antibody Laboratories manufactures the antibody for drosophila ... The Antibody For Drosophila Hemocytes reagent is RUO (Research Use Only) to test human serum or cell culture lab samples. To ...
Effects of cadmium on aneploidy and hemocyte parameters in the Pacific oyster K. Bouilly B. Gagnaire 1 M. Bonnard Hélène Thomas ... K. Bouilly, B. Gagnaire, M. Bonnard, Hélène Thomas-Guyon, T. Renault, et al.. Effects of cadmium on aneploidy and hemocyte ...
for hemocyte udvinding. Gennemsnitligt antal samlede hemocytes. hemolymph. kapillar udvinding. (denne metode). 192.44 (SD: ... Hemocytes var fast og farves med DAPI som tidligere beskrevet20. Hemocytes er monteret på chambered coverslips og afbildet af ... givet tæt på dobbelt så mange hemocytes fra hver 10 dissekeret larverne (fig. 6B). En årsag til det øgede antal hemocytes fra ... Under udvinding af hemocytes, ville vi observere melanization af hemocytes i DHIM så tidligt som 10 min efter ekstraktion. Som ...
... the circulating hemocytes of the Anodonta cygnea in Anzali Lagoon were identified. At first, two types of hemocytes were ... The hemocytes were then stained and the granulocytes subclassifed into eosinophilic and basophilic granulocytes and an intermix ... Introduce of the morphological characterization of hemocytes is a prerequisite to further exploring the causes of death in ...
The binding to LPS made the bacteria adhere to the surface of hemocytes. This process would facilitate phagocytosis of the ... SpBark was upregulated in hemocytes after challenges with bacteria, suggesting that it might be involved in antibacterial ... This study provided new insights into the hemocyte phagocytosis mechanisms of invertebrates and the multiple biological ... SpBark was upregulated in hemocytes after challenges with bacteria, suggesting that it might be involved in antibacterial ...
Macrobrachium rosenbergii hemocytes are the major targets during S. eriocheiris infection. As wall-less bacteria, S. ... In this investigation, six potential hemocyte receptor proteins were identified firstly that mediate interaction between S. ... In this investigation, six potential hemocyte receptor proteins were identified firstly that mediate interaction between S. ... Macrobrachium rosenbergii hemocytes are the major targets during S. eriocheiris infection. As wall-less bacteria, S. ...
The infestation induced cytotoxic symptoms in host hemocytes, such as vacuolated cytoplasm, porous plasma membrane, indented ... high release into extracellular medium in vitro after exposure of hemocytes to parasitoid larval tissue protein compared with ... These observations reveal that dipteran endoparasitoid invasion induced H2O2 production in the hemocytes causing cytotoxicity, ... lipid peroxidation and membrane porosity that suppressed both humoral- and cell-mediated immune responses of hemocytes in B. ...
Moreover, we showed that Cg-BigDefs are expressed in oyster hemocytes only and follow different patterns of gene expression. ...
... hemocyte) lineage relationships in Drosophila melanogaster. The development of the hemocyte lineages in Drosophila is a result ... We describe here a cell lineage tracing system set up to analyze the development of hemocyte lineages and functionally distinct ... This system allowed us to distinguish two major embryonic hemocyte lineages, the crq and Dot lineages, in two, physically ... Cell lineage tracing reveals the plasticity of the hemocyte lineages and of the hematopoietic compartments in Drosophila ...
Concomitant primary infection of the midgut epithelial cells and the hemocytes of Trichoplusia ni by Autographa californica ...
The present study sought to detect mutagenic changes in hemocytes of B. glabrata exposed to oxyfluorfen. To perform these tests ... The present studys results demonstrate the cytotoxic and genotoxic effects of oxyfluorfen on hemocytes of B. glabrata. ... and apoptosis in hemocytes of mollusks when compared to the control group. Unlike chronic exposure, acute exposure was dose- ...
Chen J-H, Bayne CJ (1995) Bivalve mollusc hemocyte behaviors: characterization of hemocyte aggregation and adhesion and their ... García-García E, Prado-Álvarez M, Novoa B, Figueras A, Rosales C (2008) Immune responses of mussel hemocyte subpopulations are ... Caza F, Betoulle S, Auffret M, Brousseau P, Fournier M, St-Pierre Y (2015) Comparative analysis of hemocyte properties from ... Moore MN, Lowe DM (1977) The cytology and cytochemistry of the hemocytes of Mytilus edulis and their responses to ...
In Vitro Interactions of Asian Freshwater Clam (Corbicula fluminea) Hemocytes and Cryptosporidium parvum Oocysts.. T K Graczyk ... Corbicula fluminea hemocytes phagocytosed infectious oocysts of Cryptosporidium parvum in vitro. After 15, 30, 60, 90, and 120 ... In Vitro Interactions of Asian Freshwater Clam (Corbicula fluminea) Hemocytes and Cryptosporidium parvum Oocysts. ... In Vitro Interactions of Asian Freshwater Clam (Corbicula fluminea) Hemocytes and Cryptosporidium parvum Oocysts. ...
Get up-to-date information on Hemocyte Plus side effects, uses, dosage, overdose, pregnancy, alcohol and more. Learn more about ... How was your experience with Hemocyte Plus?. First, a little about yourself. Male Female ... Hemocyte Plus is a brand name medication included in the following groups of medications: Vitamin B1, plain, Vitamin B12 ... For more information about Hemocyte Plus see its generics Copper Sulfate, Cyanocobalamin, Ferrous Fumarate, Folic Acid, ...
  • Plasmatocytes are the hemocytes responsible for cell ingestion (phagocytosis) and represent about 95% of circulating hemocytes. (wikipedia.org)
  • This study provided new insights into the hemocyte phagocytosis mechanisms of invertebrates and the multiple biological functions of Bark proteins. (frontiersin.org)
  • These results collectively demonstrated that EsGSK3 could regulate the innate immune responses of E. sinensis by promoting TNF-α production and inhibiting haemocyte phagocytosis. (ovid.com)
  • Bivalve immunity is mainly supported by hemocytes and participates directly by phagocytosis to eliminate pathogens. (pasteur.fr)
  • Phagocytosis of fluorescent microbeads by hemocytes was greatest at the lowest pH treatment. (noaa.gov)
  • These results suggest that hemocytes were dying, likely by apoptosis, at a rate faster than upregulated phagocytosis was able to remove moribund cells from circulation at the lowest pH. (noaa.gov)
  • Hemocytes are involved in a variety of immune effector responses, including phagocytosis and melanization in mosquitoes. (iastate.edu)
  • KMNP suppression had no effect on phagocytosis and degradation of Gram-positive bacteria or on amplification of SINV in hemocytes. (iastate.edu)
  • All embryonic hemocytes behave like a homogenous population with respect to their potential for phagocytosis. (biologists.com)
  • Because tunicates are vulnerable to these compounds in their natural habitats, we used Ciona intestinalis to establish an assay for phagocytosis in vitro of yeast by hemocytes after exposure to different concentrations (0.0015, 0.015, 0.15 and 1.5 μM) of four organotin compounds: tributyltin (TBT), triphenyltin (TPT), dibutyltin (DBT) and diphenyltin (DPT). (unipa.it)
  • We have shown that in response to ecdysone signalling, hemocytes rapidly up regulate actin dynamics, motility and phagocytosis of apoptotic corpses, and acquire the ability to chemotax to damaged epithelia. (datamed.org)
  • Most importantly, individuals lacking ecdysone-activated hemocytes are defective in bacterial phagocytosis and are fatally susceptible to infection by bacteria ingested at larval stages, despite the normal systemic production of antimicrobial peptides. (datamed.org)
  • In insects, serotonin modulates hemocyte phagocytosis, nodule formation and the populations of hemocyte classes. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The aim of this study was to test the applicability of hemocytes from Mytilus edulis for in vitro toxicity testing, and quantify the cytotoxic response following exposure of the hemocytes to selected PAHs (naphthalene, phenanthrene, pyrene, benzo(a)pyrene, 2,6-dimethylnaphthalene, 1,5-/1,7-dimethylphenanthrene). (uio.no)
  • 0.01) high release into extracellular medium in vitro after exposure of hemocytes to parasitoid larval tissue protein compared with control revealing membrane permeability and loss of cell integrity. (degruyter.com)
  • Canesi L, Ciacci C, Vallotto D, Gallo G, Marcomini A, Pojana G (2010) In vitro effects of suspensions of selected nanoparticles (C60 fullerene, TiO 2 , SiO 2 ) on Mytilus hemocytes. (springer.com)
  • In Vitro Interactions of Asian Freshwater Clam (Corbicula fluminea) Hemocytes and Cryptosporidium parvum Oocysts. (asm.org)
  • Corbicula fluminea hemocytes phagocytosed infectious oocysts of Cryptosporidium parvum in vitro. (asm.org)
  • This study focuses on two aspects of hemocyte behaviour in vitro: hemocyte/substrate adhesion and gap junction formation. (uwo.ca)
  • Cockroach (Periplaneta americana) hemocytes resuspendad in medium containing purified lipophorin, either in the presence or absence of Ca{dollar}\sp{lcub}2+{rcub},{dollar} remained non-adherent to glass coverslips and retained a discoid morphology in vitro for at least 30 minutes. (uwo.ca)
  • The finding that lipophorin stabilized hemocytes in vitro is important since to date it has been difficult to maintain hemocytes in a non-adhesive state in vitro. (uwo.ca)
  • Hemocyte flattening in vitro was delayed by plating cells on lipophorin-coated coverslips in order to facilitate patch-clamp studies of these cells. (uwo.ca)
  • Ena/VASP proteins, believed to be actin anti-capping proteins, have been studied extensively in fibroblasts in vitro, and using Drosophila macrophages (hemocytes) within the developing embryo, the role of the Drosophila homologue of Mena, Ena, is investigated in vivo. (bath.ac.uk)
  • Consistent with data from fibroblasts in vitro, Ena localised to regions of actin dynamics within migratory hemocytes, where this protein stimulated lamellipodial dynamics and positively regulated filopodial number and length. (bath.ac.uk)
  • In vitro exposure of hemocytes to sublethal Cd concentrations had marked effects on MT expression, as measured by a quantitative RT-PCR assay, inducing MT in a dose-dependent manner to a maximum, above which greater Cd exposure inhibited induction. (umaryland.edu)
  • abstract = "Hemocytes (effectors) of Ciona intestinalis showed a natural cytotoxic capacity (HCA) when assayed in vitro against erythrocytes (targets). (unipa.it)
  • Anti-SE (calcium-dependent) and anti-RE (calcium-independent) agglutinins were also found in the reaction medium, probably released by hemocytes as a consequence of the in vitro experiments. (unipa.it)
  • Similar responses were noticed 1 h after topical application or addition to in vitro hemocyte cultures. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Production of reactive oxygen species by hemocytes of Biomphalaria glabrata: carbohydrate-specific stimulation. (nih.gov)
  • To investigate the nature of carbohydrates that evoke a defensive response in hemocytes of the gastropod Biomphalaria glabrata, we tested eight different carbohydrates, conjugated to bovine serum albumin (BSA), for generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). (nih.gov)
  • We studied hemocytes of Biomphalaria glabrata with the use of light and transmission microscopy and flow cytometry with LysoTracker and SYTO62. (unimore.it)
  • The quantification of the Biomphalaria glabrata hemocytes was performed on groups of snails at 1, 5, 1, 15, 2 and 3 days post-infection that had been individually infected with 5, 1, 15 or 3 Schistosoma mansoni miracidia. (docplayer.com.br)
  • INTRODUCTION The resistance of Biomphalaria snails to parasitic infection with Schistosoma mansoni is directly related to the hemocyte capacity of the vector to phagocytose and destroy 1,2,3,4 newly penetrated parasites. (docplayer.com.br)
  • The objective of the present study was to evaluate the hemocyte production profile of captive Biomphalaria glabrata snails after experimental infection with different numbers of S. mansoni miracidia. (docplayer.com.br)
  • The characterization of the variability in hemocyte production is fundamental for understanding the resistance mechanisms of different Biomphalaria species for infection with S. mansoni. (docplayer.com.br)
  • Cherkasov, A.S., Grewal, S., and Sokolova, I.M. (2007) Combined effects of temperature and cadmium exposure on haemocyte apoptosis and cadmium accumulation in the eastern oyster Crassostrea virginica (Gmelin). (koreascience.or.kr)
  • MT is also found in the macrophage-like cells, hemocytes, of the bivalve, Crassostrea virginica. (umaryland.edu)
  • Larval hemocytes, on the other hand, are responsible for tissue remodeling during development. (wikipedia.org)
  • Activated Ras causes a dramatic increase in the number of circulating larval hemocytes (blood cells), which is caused by cellular overproliferation. (genetics.org)
  • The cellular defense performed by larval hemocytes was observed under electron microscopy. (bvsalud.org)
  • Embryonic hemocytes are derived from head mesoderm and enter the hemolymph as circulating cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • The hemolymph of Drosophila contains hemocytes that either circulate freely through the body cavities or are sessile, being associated with various tissues and organs. (biologists.org)
  • Morphofunctional parameters of hemocytes in the assessment of the physiological status of bivalves Anisimova, A. 2014-01-05 00:00:00 This review presents data on the morphofunctional properties of bivalve hemocytes and considers the effects of the most significant biotic and abiotic factors on the hemolymph cell population dynamics and the immunological parameters of hemocytes. (deepdyve.com)
  • Horseshoe crab (Tachypleus tridentatus) are ancient arachnids that possess a primitive circulatory system, the hemolymph, containing only one kind of cell, the hemocyte. (nii.ac.jp)
  • Although hemocytes do not appear to be essential for the propagation of an innate immune response and organism survival [ 5 ], they play a role in clearing exogenous objects from the hemolymph and in sensitizing humoral components of immune defense [ 6 ]. (mdpi.com)
  • Specifically, this study assessed the number of hemocytes that were produced and released into the hemolymph in response to the parasitic infection. (docplayer.com.br)
  • The results revealed that B. glabrata possesses a cellular defense mechanism that is characterized by the release of hemocytes into the hemolymph. (docplayer.com.br)
  • Basch demonstrated that this process can be altered by numerous factors, such as the vector's nutritional state, the virulence of the parasitic strain, the hemocyte quantity in the hemolymph, certain direct or indirect environmental conditions and the number of miracidia that manage to penetrate the host. (docplayer.com.br)
  • Hemolymph samples (2mL) were collected by direct puncture from each snail at 1, 5, 1, 15, 2 and 3 days post-infection to evaluate the quantity of the circulating hemocytes. (docplayer.com.br)
  • In mosquitoes, hemocytes are functionally divided into three populations: granulocytes, oenocytoids and prohemocytes. (wikipedia.org)
  • Two hemocyte types were identified: hyalinocytes and granulocytes. (scielo.br)
  • Granulocytes are larger hemocytes which readily spread on glass surface and which strongly react to the Gomori substrate, indicating the enzyme acid phosphatase usually found in lysosomes. (scielo.br)
  • At first, two types of hemocytes were recognized, granulocytes and agranulocytes, were identified based on the existence of cytoplasmic granules under light microscopy. (scialert.net)
  • The hemocytes were then stained and the granulocytes subclassifed into eosinophilic and basophilic granulocytes and an intermix. (scialert.net)
  • Hemocytes, particularly granulocytes, which are the phagocytic cells, exhibited virus infection from 6 hours post-infection (hpi) for up to 96 hpi, with two strains of SINV, the transducing TE/5'2J/GFP and the orally infectious MRE16-eGFP, in four different species of mosquito. (iastate.edu)
  • Foragers also had the biggest hemocytes (either prohemocytes, granulocytes, or plasmatocytes) in comparison to the other classes of females, which might have arisen as a compensation for the reduction in number of these cells during aging. (ufv.br)
  • These data represent a significant advancement in mosquito hemocyte biology, providing the first comprehensive proteomic profiling of mosquito phagocytic granulocytes during homeostasis blood-feeding, and pathogen challenge. (dinglasanlab.org)
  • A cDNA of a PKC alpha binding protein (also called PICK1: protein interacting with C kinase 1) was cloned in hemocytes of the beet armyworm, Spodoptera exigua (Noctuidae: Lepidoptera). (nih.gov)
  • Using cDNAs and ESTs derived from Ciona hemocytes, we identified 79 possible hemocyte-preferential transcripts and determined the cDNA sequence of each clone. (elsevier.com)
  • In this study, we report the cDNA cloning of two new isoforms of the defensin AMP family (Cg-defh1 and Cg-defh2) from the hemocytes of the oyster. (ifremer.fr)
  • The complete cDNA sequence coding for the coagulogen present in the horseshoe crab (Tachypleus tridentatus) hemocytes was determined. (elsevier.com)
  • Clones carrying cDNA fragments for coagulogen were isolated from a cDNA library of the hemocyte mRNA using synthetic oligodeoxyribonuclcotides as probes. (elsevier.com)
  • The sulfhydryl inhibitor N-ethylmaleimide (NEM) inhibits the agglutination of horseshoe crab hemocytes. (sciencemag.org)
  • This new method for arresting horseshoe crab hemocyte agglutination suggests the participation of sulfhydryl groups in the process. (sciencemag.org)
  • This enzyme catalyses the following chemical reaction Selective cleavage of -Arg18- and -Arg47- bonds in coagulogen to form coagulin and fragments This enzyme is present in the hemocyte granules of horseshoe crabs Limulus and Tachypleus. (wikipedia.org)
  • Proclotting enzyme from horseshoe crab hemocytes. (wikipedia.org)
  • A cysteine protease inhibitor with an apparent M(r) = 12,600, designated limulus (L)-cystatin, was isolated from hemocyte lysates of the Japanese horseshoe crab (Tachypleus tridentatus), using two steps of chromatography, including dextran sulfate-agarose, and carboxymethylated papain-agarose. (elsevier.com)
  • A low molecular weight protein protease inhibitor was purified from Japanese horseshoe crab (Tachypleus tridentatus) hemocytes. (elsevier.com)
  • Drosophila melanogaster hemocytes are highly motile macrophage-like cells that undergo a stereotypic pattern of migration to populate the whole embryo by late embryogenesis. (bath.ac.uk)
  • We have revealed that regulation of macrophage-like cells (hemocytes) by the steroid hormone ecdysone is essential for an effective innate immune response over metamorphosis. (datamed.org)
  • Hemocytes were derived from two different strains of B. glabrata: one of the strains used (MO) is susceptible to infection by the trematode Schistosoma mansoni (PR-1 strain), while the other snail strain (13-16-R1) is resistant to infection with PR-1. (nih.gov)
  • Infection with shrimp hemocyte iridescent virus (SHIV), a new virus of the family Iridoviridae isolated in China, results in a high mortality rate in white leg shrimp ( Litopenaeus vannamei ). (springer.com)
  • Macrobrachium rosenbergii hemocytes are the major targets during S. eriocheiris infection. (frontiersin.org)
  • Concomitant primary infection of the midgut epithelial cells and the hemocytes of Trichoplusia ni by Autographa californica nucleopolyhedroviris. (gc.ca)
  • Infection studies indicated that increased hemocyte abundance enhanced clearance of the bacterium Escherichia coli at lower levels of infection. (prolekare.cz)
  • The suppressed expression of Se-PICK1 significantly impaired the larvae of S. exigua to induce hemocyte-spreading behavior and to form hemocyte nodules in response to bacterial infection. (nih.gov)
  • Adult female mosquitoes from four different species were injected with the prototype alphavirus - Sindbis virus (SINV), and infection status of hemocytes was examined. (iastate.edu)
  • Without the virus infection, phagocytic hemocytes (blood cells) will encapsulate and kill the wasp egg and larvae but the immune suppression caused by the virus allows for survival of the wasp egg and larvae, leading to hatching and complete development of the immature wasp in the caterpillar. (wikipedia.org)
  • Adult Drosophila females, carrying transgenic Rab7-GFP endosome and Lamp1-GFP lysosome markers, were injected with E. coli DH5α and the hemocytes were collected at 15, 30, 45 and 60 minutes after infection. (mdpi.com)
  • The maximum peak of cellular production occurred 24 hours after infection, and there was a significant reduction in the hemocyte concentration over the following 1 days. (docplayer.com.br)
  • However, at 15 days post-infection, there was a second increase in the cellular hemocyte production, although this was not as strong as the primary peak. (docplayer.com.br)
  • At 3 days post-infection, there was another moderate rise in the cellular hemocyte production. (docplayer.com.br)
  • This decrease in survival is comparable to the one observed in pupae lacking immune cells altogether, indicating that ecdysone-regulation is essential to hemocyte immune functions and survival after infection. (datamed.org)
  • SpBark was upregulated in hemocytes after challenges with bacteria, suggesting that it might be involved in antibacterial defense. (frontiersin.org)
  • In turn, hemocytes serve as the most important constitutive defense in mosquitoes against pathogens that enter the hemocoel. (prolekare.cz)
  • Exposure of hemocytes to bacterial endotoxins (LPS) results in the activation of an intracellular coagulation cascade, a defense against microbial invasion. (nii.ac.jp)
  • To identify hemocyte membrane receptors implicated in defense and proliferation, we decided to raise monoclonal antibodies directed against the surface proteins of hemocytes. (embopress.org)
  • Caspase proteins constitute the core of the apoptotic machinery and can be categorized as either initiators or effectors of apoptosis.Evaluation of the genes' tissue expression patterns revealed extremely high expression levels within the gland and gills, where the apoptotic process is highly active due to the clearance of damaged cells.Hemocytes also showed high expression values, probably due to of the role of apoptosis in the defense against pathogens. (nih.gov)
  • Hemocytes also showed high expression values, probably due to of the role of apoptosis in the defense against pathogens. (nih.gov)
  • Hemocytes represent one of the most important defense mechanisms against foreign material in Crustacea and are also involved in a variety of other physiological responses. (cibnor.mx)
  • The enzymes and carbohydrates are useful tools in hemocyte classification and cellular defense mechanism studies. (cibnor.mx)
  • In addition, after a bacterial challenge, the level of Cg-defh2 transcripts decreases dramatically in the circulating hemocyte population and this decrease can be correlated with an increase of Cg-defh2 transcripts in the gill and the mantle tissue, suggesting a possible migration of the hemocytes expressing Cg-defh2 towards the tissues implicated in the first defense barrier of the oyster. (ifremer.fr)
  • This reduced amount of hemocytes in foragers might allow energy savings to perform colony activities such as foraging and defense. (ufv.br)
  • The hemocytes are the mollusk's main line of defense against parasites and Correspondence / Correspondência / Correspondencia: Daniel Valle Vasconcelos Santos Rua Arciprestes Manoel Teodoro, nº 265 Bairro: Batista Campos CEP: Belém Pará Brasil Tel.: 55 (91) bacteria, and these cells are believed to originate from the 6 amoebocyte-producing organ, although some authors have suggested that these specialized cells may have a 7,8 multicentric origin. (docplayer.com.br)
  • The present study examines whether harman and norharman may influence the phagocytic activity of insect hemocytes by regulating serotonin levels. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Significantly greater serotonin levels and hemocyte phagocytic activity were observed after 24 h of exposure to food contaminated with harman and norharman. (biomedcentral.com)
  • They confirm for the first time that harman and norharman (metabolites of the entomopathogenic fungus C. coronatus ) elevate serotonin levels in G. mellonella hemocytes, thus potentially stimulating their phagocytic activity. (biomedcentral.com)
  • To further elucidate the role of activated Ras in cell overproliferation, we generated a collagen promoter-Gal4 strain to overexpress Ras V12 in Drosophila hemocytes. (genetics.org)
  • We analyzed the heterogeneity of Drosophila hemocytes on the basis of the expression of cell-type specific antigens. (springer.com)
  • Drosophila Antibody Laboratories manufactures the antibody for drosophila hemocytes reagents distributed by Genprice. (iowaodes.com)
  • The Antibody For Drosophila Hemocytes reagent is RUO (Research Use Only) to test human serum or cell culture lab samples. (iowaodes.com)
  • We have studied the embryonic development of Drosophila hemocytes and their conversion into macrophages. (biologists.com)
  • We employed Drosophila hemocytes, which are similar to mammalian professional macrophages, to establish a model of phagosome maturation. (mdpi.com)
  • The interaction of endosomes and lysosomes with E. coli phagosomes observed in Drosophila hemocytes was consistent with that previously described for phagosome maturation in human ex vivo macrophages. (mdpi.com)
  • abstract = "Previously, a novel cell type, the multinucleated giant hemocyte (MGH) was identified in the ananassae subgroup of Drosophilidae. (elsevier.com)
  • RNA interference of Se-PICK1 in the fifth instar larvae with 100ng of a specific double-stranded RNA could effectively knockdown its expression after 48h post-injection in hemocytes. (nih.gov)
  • The titer and distribution of F- and G-actin were altered in hemocytes from parasitized insects relative to control cells, with plasma from parasitized larvae having an intermediate effect. (uky.edu)
  • Co-localization studies of haemocyte-derived extracellular DNA with histones and myeloperoxidase in larvae-entrapping structures confirmed classical characteristics of ETs. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Functional larval entrapment assays demonstrated that almost half of the haemocyte-exposed larvae were contacted or even immobilized by released InEPTs. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Challenging A. mellifera L5 larvae with nylon implants enhanced NO production and spreading in granulocyte-like hemocytes and increased the number of this NO-producing hemocyte type. (conicet.gov.ar)
  • A further aspect of this study was to investigate a potential correlation between immune priming responses and prohaemocytes-haemocyte differentiation processes in larvae. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • During the summers of 2011 and 2012, we conducted a series of experiments to address the existence of TgIP, evaluated the magnitude of such a response and quantified changes in haemocyte populations in honeybee larvae. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • In order to identify the genes which expression change at the onset of metamorphosis, we have sorted hemocytes from 3rd instar larvae and from young prepupae and compared their gene expression. (datamed.org)
  • We have sorted hemocytes from 3rd instar and young prepupae of this genotype to compare their gene expression to the gene expression in larvae and prepupae from the control individuals. (datamed.org)
  • We infested S. frugiperda larvae with nematodes and dissected three tissues: the midgut, the fat body and the hemocytes at two time-points: 8 h and 15 h after infestation. (omicsdi.org)
  • Chen J-H, Bayne CJ (1995) Bivalve mollusc hemocyte behaviors: characterization of hemocyte aggregation and adhesion and their inhibition in the California mussel (Mytilus californianus). (springer.com)
  • The infestation induced cytotoxic symptoms in host hemocytes, such as vacuolated cytoplasm, porous plasma membrane, indented nuclei with condensed chromatin and dilated RER. (degruyter.com)
  • The present study's results demonstrate the cytotoxic and genotoxic effects of oxyfluorfen on hemocytes of B . glabrata . (springer.com)
  • Hemocyte cytotoxic activity (HCA) assayed against SE is a calcium-dependent reaction, occurs rapidly (15-30 min), at 25-37°C over a wide range of pH (5.4-8.0). (unipa.it)
  • Various levels of cytotoxic activity reveal hemocyte specificity. (unipa.it)
  • Gomesin is a potent antimicrobial peptide (AMP) isolated from hemocytes of the spider and antitumor aftereffect of gomesin may also involve a cytotoxic influence on endothelial cells because cultured individual endothelial cells were killed in a similar focus range. (ap26113.com)
  • This system allowed us to distinguish two major embryonic hemocyte lineages, the crq and Dot lineages, in two, physically separated compartments, the embryonic macrophages and the embryonic lymph gland. (nih.gov)
  • Thus, in the wild type, about 80-90% of hemocytes become macrophages during late development. (biologists.com)
  • Here we report a conserved role for autophagy specifically in the cortical remodeling of Drosophila blood cells (hemocytes) and mouse macrophages. (pnas.org)
  • Drosophila blood cells, called hemocytes, are an evolutionary equivalent of mammalian macrophages in terms of ontogeny, gene expression, and immune roles in pathogen clearance. (pnas.org)
  • Drosophila only exhibit innate immunity and the cellular response is carried out by hemocytes (the prototype of vertebrate macrophages). (mdpi.com)
  • Therefore, we compared the cellular immune response of human macrophages (THP-1) and Drosophila melanogaster hemocytes (Schneider 2 cells) after exposure to four different concentrations of the neonicotinoid imidacloprid. (univ-lorraine.fr)
  • The sophisticated innate immunity of insects, the phylogenetic conservation and the power of Drosophila genetics allowed the investigation of immune cell (hemocyte) lineage relationships in Drosophila melanogaster. (nih.gov)
  • Together, these findings extend current knowledge to further illustrate the importance of hemocytes in shaping mosquito innate immunity and their principal role in defining malaria parasite survival in the mosquito host. (dinglasanlab.org)
  • There are four basic types of hemocytes found in fruit flies: secretory, plasmatocytes, crystal cells, and lamellocytes. (wikipedia.org)
  • On the basis of the expression or the lack of expression of blood cell antigens the following hemocyte populations have been defined: crystal cells, plasmatocytes, lamellocytes and precursor cells. (springer.com)
  • Hemocytes fra Drosophila larver var smittet med virale eller bakterielle patogener, enten ex vivo eller i vivo . (jove.com)
  • Effects of metaldehyde on oyster hemocyte parameters were thus monitored through in vivo experiments based on a short-term exposure. (pasteur.fr)
  • In this work, metaldehyde at 0.1 μg/L, which corresponds to an average concentration detected in the environment, modulated hemocyte activities of Pacific oysters after an in vivo short-term contact. (pasteur.fr)
  • Indeed, such constraints prevented ruffling, a more detrimental form of retraction, in hemocytes in vivo. (bath.ac.uk)
  • Hemocytes that arise in the embryo persist into larval stages in free circulation with known surveillance functions and have been studied for in vivo requirements for cell morphology and migration ( 1 - 3 ). (pnas.org)
  • Here we explore the apparent dual role for Atg1 in the regulation of morphogenesis and autophagy, and evaluate the significance of autophagy in hemocyte cortical behavior and in vivo functions. (pnas.org)
  • By overexpressing in vivo one of its putative ligands, PVF2, we induced a dramatic increase in circulating hemocytes. (embopress.org)
  • Two-photon imaging of hemocytes in vivo confirmed this vesicle morphology, including enlargement of Rab7-GFP and Lamp1-GFP structures that often appeared to protrude from hemocytes. (mdpi.com)
  • The anlage of these lymph gland-derived hemocytes is not determined at the blastoderm stage, as indicated by the overlap of clones with other tissues. (biologists.org)
  • 454 RNA sequencing was carried out on tissues and hemocytes of L. elliptica, resulting in 42.525 contigs of which 48% were assigned putative functions. (awi.de)
  • In the larval stage, it was highly expressed in hemocyte and brain tissues. (nih.gov)
  • these studies also showed that virus replication in hemocytes is important for dissemination into other tissues. (iastate.edu)
  • The present study sought to detect mutagenic changes in hemocytes of B . glabrata exposed to oxyfluorfen. (springer.com)
  • The herbicide concentrations were 0.125, 0.25, and 0.5 mg/L. The results showed that oxyfluorfen induced significant frequencies of micronuclei, binucleated cells, and apoptosis in hemocytes of mollusks when compared to the control group. (springer.com)
  • We evaluated the viability in terms of health indicators, the condition indices and hemocyte apoptosis rates of the oysters inhabiting two representative farming sites, Incheon and Taean each with different environmental variables. (koreascience.or.kr)
  • To understand the mechanisms of caspase gene regulation, hemocytes were treated with UV-light, environmental pollutants and pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) and apoptosis was evaluated by microscopy, flow cytometry and qPCR techniques. (nih.gov)
  • A hemocyte is a cell that plays a role in the immune system of invertebrates. (wikipedia.org)
  • Hemocytes are phagocytes of invertebrates. (wikipedia.org)
  • I work with hemocytes of invertebrates. (protocol-online.org)
  • Invertebrates rely on the efficient innate immune mechanisms against invaders, in which the continuous production of hemocytes (hematopoiesis) is indispensable. (usda.gov)
  • Previous investigations have demonstrated Macrobrachium rosenbergii hemocytes to be the main cellular targets of S. eriocheiris , from which infections disseminate into the prawn body ( 5 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • In mosquitoes, the immune responses are divided into two main components: the humoral component that consists mainly of pattern recognition receptors and anti-microbial peptide production, and the cellular component, that consists of hemocytes or blood cells that circulate in the open body cavity or hemocoel. (iastate.edu)
  • We hypothesize that MT expression influences hemocyte immune function: modulation of MT expression alters hemocyte resistance to Cd toxicity and alters cellular immune response to invading microorganisms. (umaryland.edu)
  • This could be due to cleaving of GJ protein or cell adhesion molecules on the hemocyte surface. (uwo.ca)
  • And EsGSK3 protein was mostly detected in the cytoplasm of haemocyte by immunofluorescence analysis. (ovid.com)
  • Covalent association of lipopolysaccharide at the hemocyte surface of insects is an initial step for its internalization--Protein-tyrosine phosphorylation requirement. (ucl.ac.uk)
  • Immunofluorescent localization of the Pm VRP15 protein revealed it accumulated around the nuclear membrane in all three types of shrimp hemocytes and that the protein was highly up-regulated in WSSV-infected shrimps. (plos.org)
  • Integrating existing hemocyte transcriptional profiles, we also compare differences in hemocyte transcript and protein expression to provide new insight into hemocyte gene regulation and discuss the potential that post-transcriptional regulation may be an important component of hemocyte gene expression. (dinglasanlab.org)
  • Circulating insect hemocytes become adherent to foreign surfaces and to one another during immune and wound healing responses. (uwo.ca)
  • In this study, we analyzed transcriptional variations in the two main effectors of the insect immune response, the hemocytes and the fat body, after injection of filter-purified HdIV. (biomedcentral.com)
  • In this study we show that insect hemocytes in response to LPS facilitate internalization of LPS (either cell-associated or cell-free). (ucl.ac.uk)
  • Insect hemocytes recognize pathogens and phagocytose material in a similar manner to neutrophils. (maynoothuniversity.ie)
  • Insect hemocytes and mammalian neutrophils are sensitive to the same inhibitors. (maynoothuniversity.ie)
  • The anlage of the embryonic hemocytes is restricted to a region within the head mesoderm between 70 and 80% egg length. (biologists.org)
  • In Drosophila , hematopoiesis takes place at two different stages of ontogenesis: a first population of hemocytes arises from the head mesoderm during early embryogenesis, followed by a second population that derives from the mesodermal lymph glands at a later stage of development ( Traver and Zon, 2002 ). (biologists.org)
  • The origin of hemocytes from the head mesoderm is further supported by the finding that in Bicaudal D, a mutation that lacks all head structures, and in twist snail double mutants, where no mesoderm develops, hemocytes do not form. (biologists.com)
  • The hemocytes are arranged in four main compartments: the circulating blood cells, the sessile tissue, the lymph glands and the posterior hematopoietic tissue. (springer.com)
  • Histopathological examination revealed basophilic inclusions and pyknosis in hematopoietic tissue and hemocytes in gills, hepatopancreas, periopods and muscle. (nature.com)
  • The responses of the hemocytes were similar whether they were derived from susceptible or resistant snails. (nih.gov)
  • This study established responses in the cell viability of the blue mussel hemocytes exposed to different PAHs. (uio.no)
  • These observations reveal that dipteran endoparasitoid invasion induced H 2 O 2 production in the hemocytes causing cytotoxicity, lipid peroxidation and membrane porosity that suppressed both humoral- and cell-mediated immune responses of hemocytes in B. mori . (degruyter.com)
  • Hemocyte responses of the thick shell mussel Mytilus coruscus exposed to nano-TiO2 and seawater acidification. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Our results revealed the considerable plasticity and concerted action of the hematopoietic compartments and the hemocyte lineages in the development of the innate immune system and in the course of the cell-mediated immune response in Drosophila. (nih.gov)
  • However, the autophagy pathway has never been explored in the hemocytes of C. gigas, which are the main effectors of its immune system and thus play a key role in the defence of the Pacific oyster against pathogens. (ifremer.fr)
  • The mutant hemocytes retain the ability to phagocytose bacteria as well as to differentiate into lamellocytes. (genetics.org)
  • A blood cell , also called a hematopoietic cell , hemocyte , or hematocyte , is a cell produced through hematopoiesis and found mainly in the blood . (wikipedia.org)
  • We then showed that: 1) decapitation of mosquitoes after blood feeding inhibited hemocyte proliferation, 2) a single dose of insulin-like peptide 3 (ILP3) sufficient to stimulate egg production rescued proliferation, and 3) knockdown of the AaMIR inhibited ILP3 rescue activity. (prolekare.cz)
  • Taken together, our results reveal a previously unrecognized role for the insulin signaling pathway in regulating hemocyte proliferation. (prolekare.cz)
  • I work with hemocytes extracted from drosophila adult flies and I have a problem with my DAPI staining. (protocol-online.org)
  • Here, we describe the morphological features and the total and differential counts of hemocytes in different female classes (newly emerged workers, nurses, foragers, and virgin queens) of the eusocial stingless bee Melipona quadrifasciata. (ufv.br)
  • The present work describes the construction of the first R. philippinarum microarray containing immune-related hemocyte sequences and the application of this microarray to study the gene transcription profiles of hemocytes from clams that were challenged with the bacteria Vibrio alginolyticus or the protistan parasite Perkinsus olseni through a time course. (csic.es)
  • These results suggest that profiles of hemocytes of M. quadrifasciata vary according to the caste and age of this eusocial bee. (ufv.br)
  • Introduce of the morphological characterization of hemocytes is a prerequisite to further exploring the causes of death in bivalves, therefore in this study, the circulating hemocytes of the Anodonta cygnea in Anzali Lagoon were identified. (scialert.net)
  • By lineage analyses of transplanted cells, we specified two separate anlagen that give rise to different populations of hemocytes: embryonic hemocytes and lymph gland hemocytes. (biologists.org)
  • This is particularly evident in the case of mosquito-arbovirus interactions, where the role of hemocytes, the primary immune cells, in establishing vector competence is unclear. (iastate.edu)
  • In the current study, the role hemocytes might play in mosquito-arbovirus interactions was explored. (iastate.edu)
  • Additionally, upon examining the virus entry mechanisms into mosquito hemocyte-like cells, SINV was shown to use the clathrin-mediated endocytosis machinery for entry, aided by the use of acidic compartments, cytoskeletal network and signaling cascades. (iastate.edu)
  • Hemocytes, the primary immune cell population in mosquitoes, are important components of the mosquito innate immune response, yet critical aspects of their biology have remained uncharacterized. (dinglasanlab.org)
  • The described markers represent the first successful attempt to define hemocyte lineages by immunological markers in Drosophila and help to define morphologically, functionally, spatially and developmentally distinct subsets of hemocytes. (springer.com)
  • Cell lineage tracing reveals the plasticity of the hemocyte lineages and of the hematopoietic compartments in Drosophila melanogaster. (nih.gov)
  • The development of the hemocyte lineages in Drosophila is a result of a precisely regulated succession of intracellular and intercellular events, though the nature and extent of these interactions are not known. (nih.gov)
  • We describe here a cell lineage tracing system set up to analyze the development of hemocyte lineages and functionally distinct hemocyte subsets. (nih.gov)
  • To investigate autophagy in oyster hemocytes, tools currently used to monitor this mechanism in mammals, including flow cytometry, fluorescent microscopy and transmission electron microscopy, were adapted and applied to the hemocytes of the Pacific oyster. (ifremer.fr)
  • Conference of protection by oyster MT against Cd-induced toxicity was demonstrated in hemocytes through disruption of MT expression by phosphorothioate oligodeoxynucleotides antisense to a portion of the MT mRNA. (umaryland.edu)
  • Changes in the expression of putative stress response genes were then investigated in hemocytes and siphon tissue of young and old animals subjected to starvation- and injury-experiments in order to investigate their response to sedimentation (food dilution, starvation) and iceberg scouring (injury). (awi.de)
  • Blood cells (hemocytes) play important roles in tissue remodeling during embryogenesis and metamorphosis and in immune defenses of insects. (embopress.org)
  • Tissue distribution analysis showed that Pm VRP15 transcript was mainly expressed in the hemocytes of shrimp. (plos.org)
  • Shrimp hemocyte iridescent virus (SHIV) caused severe disease and high mortality in farmed Litopenaeus vannamei in December of 2014 in Zhejiang Province in China and was isolated and identified by Qiu et al. (springer.com)
  • A newly discovered iridescent virus that causes severe disease and high mortality in farmed Litopenaeus vannamei in Zhejiang, China, has been verified and temporarily specified as shrimp hemocyte iridescent virus (SHIV). (nature.com)
  • Based on the sequenced data, we identified and described a novel virus of family Iridoviridae , which was temporarily specified as shrimp hemocyte iridescent virus (SHIV). (nature.com)
  • Fluorescent lectin-binding assays and cytochemical reactions were used to identify specificity and distribution of carbohydrate moieties and presence of several hydrolytic enzymes, in hemocytes of whiteleg shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei. (cibnor.mx)
  • Autophagy was monitored in fresh hemocytes withdrawn from the adductor muscles of oysters using a combination of the three aforementioned methods. (ifremer.fr)
  • Bouki E, Dimitriadis VK, Kaloyianni M, Dailianis S (2013) Antioxidant and pro-oxidant challenge of tannic acid in mussel hemocytes exposed to cadmium. (springer.com)
  • Hemocytes are known to accumulate high levels of several metals including cadmium (Cd). (umaryland.edu)
  • Our analyses reveal that the hemocytes of pupae and adult flies consist of a mixture of embryonic hemocytes and lymph gland-derived hemocytes, originating from two distinct anlagen that are determined at different stages of development. (biologists.org)
  • Of eight synthetic peptides with sequences corresponding to short regions (15 to 43 amino acids) of human apoB-100, one peptide corresponding to amino acids 4154-4189 inhibited hemocyte adhesion. (uwo.ca)
  • Subsequently, two molecular species of coagulogen, named coagulogens type I and type II, were identified by tryptic peptide mapping of the mature proteins isolated from the hemocyte lysate. (elsevier.com)
  • Northern blotting revealed expression of the mRNA in hemocytes and slightly in heart but expression was negligible in hepatopancreas, intestine, stomach, and muscle. (elsevier.com)
  • Chen J-H (1992) The cell activation model of hemocyte aggregation and adhesion in the California mussel, Mytilus Californianus. (springer.com)
  • Combined effects of seawater acidification and high temperature on hemocyte parameters in the thick shell mussel Mytilus coruscus. (semanticscholar.org)
  • We demonstrate that the migratory patterns of hemocytes at the embryonic ventral midline are orchestrated by chemotactic signals from the PDGF/VEGF ligands Pvf2 and -3 and that these directed migrations occur independently of phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) signaling. (bath.ac.uk)
  • Hemocytes derive exclusively from the mesoderm of the head and disperse along several invariant migratory paths throughout the embryo. (biologists.com)
  • El-Desouky Ammar, Saskia A. Hogenhout, L. R. Nault (2011) CIL:25366, Maize mosaic virus, Peregrinus maidis, hemocyte (sensu Nematoda and Protostomia). (cellimagelibrary.org)
  • A second anlage, which gives rise to additional hemocytes at the onset of metamorphosis, is located within the thoracic mesoderm at 50 to 53% egg length. (biologists.org)
  • The up-regulation of these genes was particularly high in the hemocytes of young, fed individuals after acute injury. (awi.de)
  • Induction of caspase genes in hemocytes treated with different PAMPs at 1, 3 and 6 h pt.Results represent the mean ± SD of 4 experimental hemocyte pools. (nih.gov)
  • Moreover, and in order to identify which genes are regulated by the ecdysone signalling, we have used individuals expressing a dominant negative form of the Ecdysone Receptor specifically in their hemocytes. (datamed.org)