Influenza Vaccines: Vaccines used to prevent infection by viruses in the family ORTHOMYXOVIRIDAE. It includes both killed and attenuated vaccines. The composition of the vaccines is changed each year in response to antigenic shifts and changes in prevalence of influenza virus strains. The vaccine is usually bivalent or trivalent, containing one or two INFLUENZAVIRUS A strains and one INFLUENZAVIRUS B strain.Influenza, Human: An acute viral infection in humans involving the respiratory tract. It is marked by inflammation of the NASAL MUCOSA; the PHARYNX; and conjunctiva, and by headache and severe, often generalized, myalgia.Influenza A virus: The type species of the genus INFLUENZAVIRUS A that causes influenza and other diseases in humans and animals. Antigenic variation occurs frequently between strains, allowing classification into subtypes and variants. Transmission is usually by aerosol (human and most non-aquatic hosts) or waterborne (ducks). Infected birds shed the virus in their saliva, nasal secretions, and feces.Influenza A Virus, H1N1 Subtype: A subtype of INFLUENZA A VIRUS with the surface proteins hemagglutinin 1 and neuraminidase 1. The H1N1 subtype was responsible for the Spanish flu pandemic of 1918.Influenza B virus: Species of the genus INFLUENZAVIRUS B that cause HUMAN INFLUENZA and other diseases primarily in humans. Antigenic variation is less extensive than in type A viruses (INFLUENZA A VIRUS) and consequently there is no basis for distinct subtypes or variants. Epidemics are less likely than with INFLUENZA A VIRUS and there have been no pandemics. Previously only found in humans, Influenza B virus has been isolated from seals which may constitute the animal reservoir from which humans are exposed.Seasons: Divisions of the year according to some regularly recurrent phenomena usually astronomical or climatic. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Influenza A Virus, H3N2 Subtype: A subtype of INFLUENZA A VIRUS comprised of the surface proteins hemagglutinin 3 and neuraminidase 2. The H3N2 subtype was responsible for the Hong Kong flu pandemic of 1968.Vaccines, Inactivated: Vaccines in which the infectious microbial nucleic acid components have been destroyed by chemical or physical treatment (e.g., formalin, beta-propiolactone, gamma radiation) without affecting the antigenicity or immunogenicity of the viral coat or bacterial outer membrane proteins.Influenza in Birds: Infection of domestic and wild fowl and other BIRDS with INFLUENZA A VIRUS. Avian influenza usually does not sicken birds, but can be highly pathogenic and fatal in domestic POULTRY.Vaccines: Suspensions of killed or attenuated microorganisms (bacteria, viruses, fungi, protozoa), antigenic proteins, synthetic constructs, or other bio-molecular derivatives, administered for the prevention, amelioration, or treatment of infectious and other diseases.Vaccination: Administration of vaccines to stimulate the host's immune response. This includes any preparation intended for active immunological prophylaxis.Influenza A Virus, H5N1 Subtype: A subtype of INFLUENZA A VIRUS comprised of the surface proteins hemagglutinin 5 and neuraminidase 1. The H5N1 subtype, frequently referred to as the bird flu virus, is endemic in wild birds and very contagious among both domestic (POULTRY) and wild birds. It does not usually infect humans, but some cases have been reported.Hemagglutinin Glycoproteins, Influenza Virus: Membrane glycoproteins from influenza viruses which are involved in hemagglutination, virus attachment, and envelope fusion. Fourteen distinct subtypes of HA glycoproteins and nine of NA glycoproteins have been identified from INFLUENZA A VIRUS; no subtypes have been identified for Influenza B or Influenza C viruses.Pandemics: Epidemics of infectious disease that have spread to many countries, often more than one continent, and usually affecting a large number of people.Hemagglutination Inhibition Tests: Serologic tests in which a known quantity of antigen is added to the serum prior to the addition of a red cell suspension. Reaction result is expressed as the smallest amount of antigen which causes complete inhibition of hemagglutination.Orthomyxoviridae: A family of RNA viruses causing INFLUENZA and other diseases. There are five recognized genera: INFLUENZAVIRUS A; INFLUENZAVIRUS B; INFLUENZAVIRUS C; ISAVIRUS; and THOGOTOVIRUS.Viral Vaccines: Suspensions of attenuated or killed viruses administered for the prevention or treatment of infectious viral disease.Orthomyxoviridae Infections: Virus diseases caused by the ORTHOMYXOVIRIDAE.Antibodies, Viral: Immunoglobulins produced in response to VIRAL ANTIGENS.Vaccines, Synthetic: Small synthetic peptides that mimic surface antigens of pathogens and are immunogenic, or vaccines manufactured with the aid of recombinant DNA techniques. The latter vaccines may also be whole viruses whose nucleic acids have been modified.Vaccines, Combined: Two or more vaccines in a single dosage form.Vaccines, DNA: Recombinant DNA vectors encoding antigens administered for the prevention or treatment of disease. The host cells take up the DNA, express the antigen, and present it to the immune system in a manner similar to that which would occur during natural infection. This induces humoral and cellular immune responses against the encoded antigens. The vector is called naked DNA because there is no need for complex formulations or delivery agents; the plasmid is injected in saline or other buffers.Vaccines, Subunit: Vaccines consisting of one or more antigens that stimulate a strong immune response. They are purified from microorganisms or produced by recombinant DNA techniques, or they can be chemically synthesized peptides.Bacterial Vaccines: Suspensions of attenuated or killed bacteria administered for the prevention or treatment of infectious bacterial disease.Disease Outbreaks: Sudden increase in the incidence of a disease. The concept includes EPIDEMICS and PANDEMICS.AIDS Vaccines: Vaccines or candidate vaccines containing inactivated HIV or some of its component antigens and designed to prevent or treat AIDS. Some vaccines containing antigens are recombinantly produced.Influenza A Virus, H9N2 Subtype: A subtype of INFLUENZA A VIRUS comprised of the surface proteins hemagglutinin 9 and neuraminidase 2. The H9N2 subtype usually infects domestic birds (POULTRY) but there have been some human infections reported.Oseltamivir: An acetamido cyclohexene that is a structural homolog of SIALIC ACID and inhibits NEURAMINIDASE.Neuraminidase: An enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of alpha-2,3, alpha-2,6-, and alpha-2,8-glycosidic linkages (at a decreasing rate, respectively) of terminal sialic residues in oligosaccharides, glycoproteins, glycolipids, colominic acid, and synthetic substrate. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992)Polysorbates: Sorbitan mono-9-octadecanoate poly(oxy-1,2-ethanediyl) derivatives; complex mixtures of polyoxyethylene ethers used as emulsifiers or dispersing agents in pharmaceuticals.Sentinel Surveillance: Monitoring of rate of occurrence of specific conditions to assess the stability or change in health levels of a population. It is also the study of disease rates in a specific cohort such as in a geographic area or population subgroup to estimate trends in a larger population. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Influenza A Virus, H3N8 Subtype: A subtype of INFLUENZA A VIRUS comprised of the surface proteins hemagglutinin 3 and neuraminidase 8. The H3N8 subtype has frequently been found in horses.Influenza A Virus, H2N2 Subtype: A subtype of INFLUENZA A VIRUS comprised of the surface proteins hemagglutinin 2 and neuraminidase 2. The H2N2 subtype was responsible for the Asian flu pandemic of 1957.Vaccines, Attenuated: Live vaccines prepared from microorganisms which have undergone physical adaptation (e.g., by radiation or temperature conditioning) or serial passage in laboratory animal hosts or infected tissue/cell cultures, in order to produce avirulent mutant strains capable of inducing protective immunity.Vaccines, Conjugate: Semisynthetic vaccines consisting of polysaccharide antigens from microorganisms attached to protein carrier molecules. The carrier protein is recognized by macrophages and T-cells thus enhancing immunity. Conjugate vaccines induce antibody formation in people not responsive to polysaccharide alone, induce higher levels of antibody, and show a booster response on repeated injection.Immunization Schedule: Schedule giving optimum times usually for primary and/or secondary immunization.SqualenePopulation Surveillance: Ongoing scrutiny of a population (general population, study population, target population, etc.), generally using methods distinguished by their practicability, uniformity, and frequently their rapidity, rather than by complete accuracy.Immunization Programs: Organized services to administer immunization procedures in the prevention of various diseases. The programs are made available over a wide range of sites: schools, hospitals, public health agencies, voluntary health agencies, etc. They are administered to an equally wide range of population groups or on various administrative levels: community, municipal, state, national, international.Cross Protection: Protection conferred on a host by inoculation with one strain or component of a microorganism that prevents infection when later challenged with a similar strain. Most commonly the microorganism is a virus.Adjuvants, Immunologic: Substances that augment, stimulate, activate, potentiate, or modulate the immune response at either the cellular or humoral level. The classical agents (Freund's adjuvant, BCG, Corynebacterium parvum, et al.) contain bacterial antigens. Some are endogenous (e.g., histamine, interferon, transfer factor, tuftsin, interleukin-1). Their mode of action is either non-specific, resulting in increased immune responsiveness to a wide variety of antigens, or antigen-specific, i.e., affecting a restricted type of immune response to a narrow group of antigens. The therapeutic efficacy of many biological response modifiers is related to their antigen-specific immunoadjuvanticity.United StatesReassortant Viruses: Viruses containing two or more pieces of nucleic acid (segmented genome) from different parents. Such viruses are produced in cells coinfected with different strains of a given virus.Vaccines, Virosome: Vaccines using VIROSOMES as the antigen delivery system that stimulates the desired immune response.Administration, Intranasal: Delivery of medications through the nasal mucosa.Hemagglutinins, Viral: Specific hemagglutinin subtypes encoded by VIRUSES.Malaria Vaccines: Vaccines made from antigens arising from any of the four strains of Plasmodium which cause malaria in humans, or from P. berghei which causes malaria in rodents.Amantadine: An antiviral that is used in the prophylactic or symptomatic treatment of influenza A. It is also used as an antiparkinsonian agent, to treat extrapyramidal reactions, and for postherpetic neuralgia. The mechanisms of its effects in movement disorders are not well understood but probably reflect an increase in synthesis and release of dopamine, with perhaps some inhibition of dopamine uptake.Mass Vaccination: Administration of a vaccine to large populations in order to elicit IMMUNITY.Antiviral Agents: Agents used in the prophylaxis or therapy of VIRUS DISEASES. Some of the ways they may act include preventing viral replication by inhibiting viral DNA polymerase; binding to specific cell-surface receptors and inhibiting viral penetration or uncoating; inhibiting viral protein synthesis; or blocking late stages of virus assembly.Papillomavirus Vaccines: Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent PAPILLOMAVIRUS INFECTIONS. Human vaccines are intended to reduce the incidence of UTERINE CERVICAL NEOPLASMS, so they are sometimes considered a type of CANCER VACCINES. They are often composed of CAPSID PROTEINS, especially L1 protein, from various types of ALPHAPAPILLOMAVIRUS.Zanamivir: A guanido-neuraminic acid that is used to inhibit NEURAMINIDASE.Meningococcal Vaccines: Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent infection with NEISSERIA MENINGITIDIS.Influenza A Virus, H7N7 Subtype: A subtype of INFLUENZA A VIRUS comprised of the surface proteins hemagglutinin 7 and neuraminidase 7. The H7N7 subtype produced an epidemic in 2003 which was highly pathogenic among domestic birds (POULTRY). Some infections in humans were reported.Hospitalization: The confinement of a patient in a hospital.Immunization, Secondary: Any immunization following a primary immunization and involving exposure to the same or a closely related antigen.Influenza A Virus, H7N9 Subtype: A subtype of INFLUENZA A VIRUS with the surface proteins hemagglutinin 7 and neuraminidase 9. This avian origin virus was first identified in humans in 2013.Antigens, Viral: Substances elaborated by viruses that have antigenic activity.Injections, Intradermal: The forcing into the skin of liquid medication, nutrient, or other fluid through a hollow needle, piercing the top skin layer.Injections, Intramuscular: Forceful administration into a muscle of liquid medication, nutrient, or other fluid through a hollow needle piercing the muscle and any tissue covering it.Birds: Warm-blooded VERTEBRATES possessing FEATHERS and belonging to the class Aves.Antibodies, Neutralizing: Antibodies that reduce or abolish some biological activity of a soluble antigen or infectious agent, usually a virus.Mice, Inbred BALB CInfluenza A Virus, H5N2 Subtype: A subtype of INFLUENZA A VIRUS comprised of the surface proteins hemagglutinin 5 and neuraminidase 2. The H5N2 subtype has been found to be highly pathogenic in chickens.Hepatitis B Vaccines: Vaccines or candidate vaccines containing inactivated hepatitis B or some of its component antigens and designed to prevent hepatitis B. Some vaccines may be recombinantly produced.Immunization: Deliberate stimulation of the host's immune response. ACTIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of ANTIGENS or IMMUNOLOGIC ADJUVANTS. PASSIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of IMMUNE SERA or LYMPHOCYTES or their extracts (e.g., transfer factor, immune RNA) or transplantation of immunocompetent cell producing tissue (thymus or bone marrow).Measles Vaccine: A live attenuated virus vaccine of chick embryo origin, used for routine immunization of children and for immunization of adolescents and adults who have not had measles or been immunized with live measles vaccine and have no serum antibodies against measles. Children are usually immunized with measles-mumps-rubella combination vaccine. (From Dorland, 28th ed)Antibody Formation: The production of ANTIBODIES by proliferating and differentiated B-LYMPHOCYTES under stimulation by ANTIGENS.Pertussis Vaccine: A suspension of killed Bordetella pertussis organisms, used for immunization against pertussis (WHOOPING COUGH). It is generally used in a mixture with diphtheria and tetanus toxoids (DTP). There is an acellular pertussis vaccine prepared from the purified antigenic components of Bordetella pertussis, which causes fewer adverse reactions than whole-cell vaccine and, like the whole-cell vaccine, is generally used in a mixture with diphtheria and tetanus toxoids. (From Dorland, 28th ed)Rimantadine: An RNA synthesis inhibitor that is used as an antiviral agent in the prophylaxis and treatment of influenza.Haemophilus Vaccines: Vaccines or candidate vaccines containing antigenic polysaccharides from Haemophilus influenzae and designed to prevent infection. The vaccine can contain the polysaccharides alone or more frequently polysaccharides conjugated to carrier molecules. It is also seen as a combined vaccine with diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis vaccine.Epidemics: Sudden outbreaks of a disease in a country or region not previously recognized in that area, or a rapid increase in the number of new cases of a previous existing endemic disease. Epidemics can also refer to outbreaks of disease in animal or plant populations.BCG Vaccine: An active immunizing agent and a viable avirulent attenuated strain of Mycobacterium tuberculosis, var. bovis, which confers immunity to mycobacterial infections. It is used also in immunotherapy of neoplasms due to its stimulation of antibodies and non-specific immunity.Immunity, Humoral: Antibody-mediated immune response. Humoral immunity is brought about by ANTIBODY FORMATION, resulting from TH2 CELLS activating B-LYMPHOCYTES, followed by COMPLEMENT ACTIVATION.Poliovirus Vaccine, Inactivated: A suspension of formalin-inactivated poliovirus grown in monkey kidney cell tissue culture and used to prevent POLIOMYELITIS.Rabies Vaccines: Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent and treat RABIES. The inactivated virus vaccine is used for preexposure immunization to persons at high risk of exposure, and in conjunction with rabies immunoglobulin, for postexposure prophylaxis.Rotavirus Vaccines: Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent infection with ROTAVIRUS.Madin Darby Canine Kidney Cells: An epithelial cell line derived from a kidney of a normal adult female dog.Cross Reactions: Serological reactions in which an antiserum against one antigen reacts with a non-identical but closely related antigen.Cholera Vaccines: Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent infection with VIBRIO CHOLERAE. The original cholera vaccine consisted of killed bacteria, but other kinds of vaccines now exist.Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (U.S.): An agency of the UNITED STATES PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE that conducts and supports programs for the prevention and control of disease and provides consultation and assistance to health departments and other countries.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Hemagglutinins: Agents that cause agglutination of red blood cells. They include antibodies, blood group antigens, lectins, autoimmune factors, bacterial, viral, or parasitic blood agglutinins, etc.Neutralization Tests: The measurement of infection-blocking titer of ANTISERA by testing a series of dilutions for a given virus-antiserum interaction end-point, which is generally the dilution at which tissue cultures inoculated with the serum-virus mixtures demonstrate cytopathology (CPE) or the dilution at which 50% of test animals injected with serum-virus mixtures show infectivity (ID50) or die (LD50).Typhoid-Paratyphoid Vaccines: Vaccines used to prevent TYPHOID FEVER and/or PARATYPHOID FEVER which are caused by various species of SALMONELLA. Attenuated, subunit, and inactivated forms of the vaccines exist.Technology Transfer: Spread and adoption of inventions and techniques from one geographic area to another, from one discipline to another, or from one sector of the economy to another. For example, improvements in medical equipment may be transferred from industrial countries to developing countries, advances arising from aerospace engineering may be applied to equipment for persons with disabilities, and innovations in science arising from government research are made available to private enterprise.Smallpox Vaccine: A live VACCINIA VIRUS vaccine of calf lymph or chick embryo origin, used for immunization against smallpox. It is now recommended only for laboratory workers exposed to smallpox virus. Certain countries continue to vaccinate those in the military service. Complications that result from smallpox vaccination include vaccinia, secondary bacterial infections, and encephalomyelitis. (Dorland, 28th ed)Technology, Pharmaceutical: The application of scientific knowledge or technology to pharmacy and the pharmaceutical industry. It includes methods, techniques, and instrumentation in the manufacture, preparation, compounding, dispensing, packaging, and storing of drugs and other preparations used in diagnostic and determinative procedures, and in the treatment of patients.Nasopharynx: The top portion of the pharynx situated posterior to the nose and superior to the SOFT PALATE. The nasopharynx is the posterior extension of the nasal cavities and has a respiratory function.Virus Shedding: The expelling of virus particles from the body. Important routes include the respiratory tract, genital tract, and intestinal tract. Virus shedding is an important means of vertical transmission (INFECTIOUS DISEASE TRANSMISSION, VERTICAL).Tuberculosis Vaccines: Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent or treat TUBERCULOSIS.Influenza A Virus, H1N2 Subtype: A subtype of INFLUENZA A VIRUS comprised of the surface proteins hemagglutinin 1 and neuraminidase 2. It is endemic in both human and pig populations.Infant, Newborn: An infant during the first month after birth.Chickenpox Vaccine: A live, attenuated varicella virus vaccine used for immunization against chickenpox. It is recommended for children between the ages of 12 months and 13 years.Diphtheria-Tetanus-Pertussis Vaccine: A vaccine consisting of DIPHTHERIA TOXOID; TETANUS TOXOID; and whole-cell PERTUSSIS VACCINE. The vaccine protects against diphtheria, tetanus, and whooping cough.Dogs: The domestic dog, Canis familiaris, comprising about 400 breeds, of the carnivore family CANIDAE. They are worldwide in distribution and live in association with people. (Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, p1065)Vaccines, Virus-Like Particle: Vaccines using supra-molecular structures composed of multiple copies of recombinantly expressed viral structural proteins. They are often antigentically indistinguishable from the virus from which they were derived.Virus Cultivation: Process of growing viruses in live animals, plants, or cultured cells.Mumps Vaccine: Vaccines used to prevent infection by MUMPS VIRUS. Best known is the live attenuated virus vaccine of chick embryo origin, used for routine immunization of children and for immunization of adolescents and adults who have not had mumps or been immunized with live mumps vaccine. Children are usually immunized with measles-mumps-rubella combination vaccine.Hepatitis A Vaccines: Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent infection with hepatitis A virus (HEPATOVIRUS).Viral Matrix Proteins: Proteins associated with the inner surface of the lipid bilayer of the viral envelope. These proteins have been implicated in control of viral transcription and may possibly serve as the "glue" that binds the nucleocapsid to the appropriate membrane site during viral budding from the host cell.Functional Laterality: Behavioral manifestations of cerebral dominance in which there is preferential use and superior functioning of either the left or the right side, as in the preferred use of the right hand or right foot.Biosurveillance: Monitoring of information sources of potential value in detecting an emerging epidemic, whether naturally occurring or the result of bioterrorism.Influenzavirus A: A genus in the family ORTHOMYXOVIRIDAE causing influenza and other diseases in humans and animals. It contains many strains as well as antigenic subtypes of the integral membrane proteins hemagglutinin (HEMAGGLUTININS) and NEURAMINIDASE. The type species is INFLUENZA A VIRUS.Influenzavirus B: A genus of the family ORTHOMYXOVIRUS causing HUMAN INFLUENZA and other diseases primarily in humans. In contrast to INFLUENZAVIRUS A, no distinct antigenic subtypes of hemagglutinin (HEMAGGLUTININS) and NEURAMINIDASE are recognized.Phylogeny: The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.Drug Resistance, Viral: The ability of viruses to resist or to become tolerant to chemotherapeutic agents or antiviral agents. This resistance is acquired through gene mutation.Immunoglobulin G: The major immunoglobulin isotype class in normal human serum. There are several isotype subclasses of IgG, for example, IgG1, IgG2A, and IgG2B.Ferrets: Semidomesticated variety of European polecat much used for hunting RODENTS and/or RABBITS and as a laboratory animal. It is in the subfamily Mustelinae, family MUSTELIDAE.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Measles-Mumps-Rubella Vaccine: A combined vaccine used to prevent MEASLES; MUMPS; and RUBELLA.World Health: The concept pertaining to the health status of inhabitants of the world.Streptococcal Vaccines: Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent STREPTOCOCCAL INFECTIONS.Health Personnel: Men and women working in the provision of health services, whether as individual practitioners or employees of health institutions and programs, whether or not professionally trained, and whether or not subject to public regulation. (From A Discursive Dictionary of Health Care, 1976)DucksIncidence: The number of new cases of a given disease during a given period in a specified population. It also is used for the rate at which new events occur in a defined population. It is differentiated from PREVALENCE, which refers to all cases, new or old, in the population at a given time.Anthrax Vaccines: Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent ANTHRAX.Respiratory Tract Infections: Invasion of the host RESPIRATORY SYSTEM by microorganisms, usually leading to pathological processes or diseases.Virus Replication: The process of intracellular viral multiplication, consisting of the synthesis of PROTEINS; NUCLEIC ACIDS; and sometimes LIPIDS, and their assembly into a new infectious particle.RNA, Viral: Ribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.Dengue Vaccines: Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent infection with DENGUE VIRUS. These include live-attenuated, subunit, DNA, and inactivated vaccines.Poultry: Domesticated birds raised for food. It typically includes CHICKENS; TURKEYS, DUCKS; GEESE; and others.Pneumonia, Viral: Inflammation of the lung parenchyma that is caused by a viral infection.Pneumonia: Infection of the lung often accompanied by inflammation.Public Health Surveillance: The ongoing, systematic collection, analysis, and interpretation of health-related data with the purpose of preventing or controlling disease or injury, or of identifying unusual events of public health importance, followed by the dissemination and use of information for public health action. (From Am J Prev Med 2011;41(6):636)Viral Proteins: Proteins found in any species of virus.Outpatients: Persons who receive ambulatory care at an outpatient department or clinic without room and board being provided.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Antigenic Variation: Change in the surface ANTIGEN of a microorganism. There are two different types. One is a phenomenon, especially associated with INFLUENZA VIRUSES, where they undergo spontaneous variation both as slow antigenic drift and sudden emergence of new strains (antigenic shift). The second type is when certain PARASITES, especially trypanosomes, PLASMODIUM, and BORRELIA, survive the immune response of the host by changing the surface coat (antigen switching). (From Herbert et al., The Dictionary of Immunology, 4th ed)Alum Compounds: Aluminum metal sulfate compounds used medically as astringents and for many industrial purposes. They are used in veterinary medicine for the treatment of ulcerative stomatitis, leukorrhea, conjunctivitis, pharyngitis, metritis, and minor wounds.Viral Hepatitis Vaccines: Any vaccine raised against any virus or viral derivative that causes hepatitis.Lung: Either of the pair of organs occupying the cavity of the thorax that effect the aeration of the blood.Vaccine Potency: The relationship between an elicited ADAPTIVE IMMUNE RESPONSE and the dose of the vaccine administered.Antibodies, Bacterial: Immunoglobulins produced in a response to BACTERIAL ANTIGENS.Poliovirus Vaccine, Oral: A live vaccine containing attenuated poliovirus, types I, II, and III, grown in monkey kidney cell tissue culture, used for routine immunization of children against polio. This vaccine induces long-lasting intestinal and humoral immunity. Killed vaccine induces only humoral immunity. Oral poliovirus vaccine should not be administered to immunocompromised individuals or their household contacts. (Dorland, 28th ed)Immunity, Cellular: Manifestations of the immune response which are mediated by antigen-sensitized T-lymphocytes via lymphokines or direct cytotoxicity. This takes place in the absence of circulating antibody or where antibody plays a subordinate role.Yellow Fever Vaccine: Vaccine used to prevent YELLOW FEVER. It consists of a live attenuated 17D strain of the YELLOW FEVER VIRUS.Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay: An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed.Drug-Related Side Effects and Adverse Reactions: Disorders that result from the intended use of PHARMACEUTICAL PREPARATIONS. Included in this heading are a broad variety of chemically-induced adverse conditions due to toxicity, DRUG INTERACTIONS, and metabolic effects of pharmaceuticals.Chickens: Common name for the species Gallus gallus, the domestic fowl, in the family Phasianidae, order GALLIFORMES. It is descended from the red jungle fowl of SOUTHEAST ASIA.Plague Vaccine: A suspension of killed Yersinia pestis used for immunizing people in enzootic plague areas.Age Factors: Age as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or the effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from AGING, a physiological process, and TIME FACTORS which refers only to the passage of time.Fungal Vaccines: Suspensions of attenuated or killed fungi administered for the prevention or treatment of infectious fungal disease.Pregnancy Complications, Infectious: The co-occurrence of pregnancy and an INFECTION. The infection may precede or follow FERTILIZATION.Treatment Outcome: Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.JapanInfluenzavirus C: A genus of the family ORTHOMYXOVIRIDAE comprising viruses similar to types A and B but less common, more stable, more homogeneous, and lacking the neuraminidase protein. They have not been associated with epidemics but may cause mild influenza. Influenza C virus is the type species.Influenza A Virus, H7N3 Subtype: A subtype of INFLUENZA A VIRUS comprised of the surface proteins hemagglutinin 7 and neuraminidase 3. It was first detected in turkeys in Britain in 1963 and there have been several outbreaks on poultry farms since that time. A couple cases of human infections have been reported.Aluminum Hydroxide: A compound with many biomedical applications: as a gastric antacid, an antiperspirant, in dentifrices, as an emulsifier, as an adjuvant in bacterins and vaccines, in water purification, etc.CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes: A critical subpopulation of regulatory T-lymphocytes involved in MHC Class I-restricted interactions. They include both cytotoxic T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and CD8+ suppressor T-lymphocytes.Rubella Vaccine: A live attenuated virus vaccine of duck embryo or human diploid cell tissue culture origin, used for routine immunization of children and for immunization of nonpregnant adolescent and adult females of childbearing age who are unimmunized and do not have serum antibodies to rubella. Children are usually immunized with measles-mumps-rubella combination vaccine. (Dorland, 28th ed)Product Surveillance, Postmarketing: Surveillance of drugs, devices, appliances, etc., for efficacy or adverse effects, after they have been released for general sale.Guillain-Barre Syndrome: An acute inflammatory autoimmune neuritis caused by T cell- mediated cellular immune response directed towards peripheral myelin. Demyelination occurs in peripheral nerves and nerve roots. The process is often preceded by a viral or bacterial infection, surgery, immunization, lymphoma, or exposure to toxins. Common clinical manifestations include progressive weakness, loss of sensation, and loss of deep tendon reflexes. Weakness of respiratory muscles and autonomic dysfunction may occur. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp1312-1314)Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction: A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.Vaccines, Acellular: Vaccines that are produced by using only the antigenic part of the disease causing organism. They often require a "booster" every few years to maintain their effectiveness.Dominance, Cerebral: Dominance of one cerebral hemisphere over the other in cerebral functions.Nucleoproteins: Proteins conjugated with nucleic acids.SAIDS Vaccines: Vaccines or candidate vaccines designed to prevent SAIDS; (SIMIAN ACQUIRED IMMUNODEFICIENCY SYNDROME); and containing inactivated SIMIAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS or type D retroviruses or some of their component antigens.Salmonella Vaccines: Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent infection with SALMONELLA. This includes vaccines used to prevent TYPHOID FEVER or PARATYPHOID FEVER; (TYPHOID-PARATYPHOID VACCINES), and vaccines used to prevent nontyphoid salmonellosis.ColoradoEbola Vaccines: Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent EBOLA HEMORRHAGIC FEVER.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Reverse Genetics: The use of techniques that produce a functional MUTATION or an effect on GENE EXPRESSION of a specific gene of interest in order to identify the role or activity of the gene product of that gene.Sequence Analysis, DNA: A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.Tetanus ToxoidCohort Studies: Studies in which subsets of a defined population are identified. These groups may or may not be exposed to factors hypothesized to influence the probability of the occurrence of a particular disease or other outcome. Cohorts are defined populations which, as a whole, are followed in an attempt to determine distinguishing subgroup characteristics.Pregnancy: The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.Case-Control Studies: Studies which start with the identification of persons with a disease of interest and a control (comparison, referent) group without the disease. The relationship of an attribute to the disease is examined by comparing diseased and non-diseased persons with regard to the frequency or levels of the attribute in each group.Enzyme-Linked Immunospot Assay: A method of detection of the number of cells in a sample secreting a specific molecule. With this method, a population of cells are plated over top of the immunosorbent substrate that captures the secreted molecules.Immunity, Mucosal: Nonsusceptibility to the pathogenic effects of foreign microorganisms or antigenic substances as a result of antibody secretions of the mucous membranes. Mucosal epithelia in the gastrointestinal, respiratory, and reproductive tracts produce a form of IgA (IMMUNOGLOBULIN A, SECRETORY) that serves to protect these ports of entry into the body.Prospective Studies: Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System: Telephone surveys are conducted to monitor prevalence of the major behavioral risks among adults associated with premature MORBIDITY and MORTALITY. The data collected is in regard to actual behaviors, rather than on attitudes or knowledge. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) established the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) in 1984.Age Distribution: The frequency of different ages or age groups in a given population. The distribution may refer to either how many or what proportion of the group. The population is usually patients with a specific disease but the concept is not restricted to humans and is not restricted to medicine.Disease Models, Animal: Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.Dose-Response Relationship, Immunologic: A specific immune response elicited by a specific dose of an immunologically active substance or cell in an organism, tissue, or cell.Genetic Vectors: DNA molecules capable of autonomous replication within a host cell and into which other DNA sequences can be inserted and thus amplified. Many are derived from PLASMIDS; BACTERIOPHAGES; or VIRUSES. They are used for transporting foreign genes into recipient cells. Genetic vectors possess a functional replicator site and contain GENETIC MARKERS to facilitate their selective recognition.Respiratory Tract DiseasesRetrospective Studies: Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.EuropeDiphtheria-Tetanus-acellular Pertussis Vaccines: Combined vaccines consisting of DIPHTHERIA TOXOID; TETANUS TOXOID; and an acellular form of PERTUSSIS VACCINE. At least five different purified antigens of B. pertussis have been used in various combinations in these vaccines.Mice, Inbred C57BLAnseriformes: An order of BIRDS comprising the waterfowl, particularly DUCKS; GEESE; swans; and screamers.Staphylococcal VaccinesImmunity: Nonsusceptibility to the invasive or pathogenic effects of foreign microorganisms or to the toxic effect of antigenic substances.Interferon-gamma: The major interferon produced by mitogenically or antigenically stimulated LYMPHOCYTES. It is structurally different from TYPE I INTERFERON and its major activity is immunoregulation. It has been implicated in the expression of CLASS II HISTOCOMPATIBILITY ANTIGENS in cells that do not normally produce them, leading to AUTOIMMUNE DISEASES.Hemagglutination, Viral: Agglutination of ERYTHROCYTES by a virus.Cytomegalovirus Vaccines: Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent infection with CYTOMEGALOVIRUS.Risk Factors: An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.Cerebrum: Derived from TELENCEPHALON, cerebrum is composed of a right and a left hemisphere. Each contains an outer cerebral cortex and a subcortical basal ganglia. The cerebrum includes all parts within the skull except the MEDULLA OBLONGATA, the PONS, and the CEREBELLUM. Cerebral functions include sensorimotor, emotional, and intellectual activities.West Nile Virus Vaccines: Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent infection with WEST NILE VIRUS.TennesseeDouble-Blind Method: A method of studying a drug or procedure in which both the subjects and investigators are kept unaware of who is actually getting which specific treatment.Acetamides: Derivatives of acetamide that are used as solvents, as mild irritants, and in organic synthesis.ConnecticutSchools: Educational institutions.Swine: Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).Placebos: Any dummy medication or treatment. Although placebos originally were medicinal preparations having no specific pharmacological activity against a targeted condition, the concept has been extended to include treatments or procedures, especially those administered to control groups in clinical trials in order to provide baseline measurements for the experimental protocol.Chick Embryo: The developmental entity of a fertilized chicken egg (ZYGOTE). The developmental process begins about 24 h before the egg is laid at the BLASTODISC, a small whitish spot on the surface of the EGG YOLK. After 21 days of incubation, the embryo is fully developed before hatching.Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice: Knowledge, attitudes, and associated behaviors which pertain to health-related topics such as PATHOLOGIC PROCESSES or diseases, their prevention, and treatment. This term refers to non-health workers and health workers (HEALTH PERSONNEL).Diphtheria-Tetanus Vaccine: A combined vaccine used to prevent infection with diphtheria and tetanus toxoid. This is used in place of DTP vaccine (DIPHTHERIA-TETANUS-PERTUSSIS VACCINE) when PERTUSSIS VACCINE is contraindicated.Poliovirus Vaccines: Vaccines used to prevent POLIOMYELITIS. They include inactivated (POLIOVIRUS VACCINE, INACTIVATED) and oral vaccines (POLIOVIRUS VACCINE, ORAL).

*Influenza A virus subtype H3N2

"Recommended composition of influenza virus vaccines for use in the 2013 southern hemisphere influenza season". World Health ... All 947 influenza seasonal A (H1) viruses are related to the influenza A (H1N1) component of the 2008-09 influenza vaccine (A/ ... "WHO - Recommended composition of influenza virus vaccines for use in the 2014-2015 northern hemisphere influenza season". "CDC ... Recommended composition of influenza virus vaccines for use in the 2007-2008 northern hemisphere influenza season. WHO WHO - ...

*Historical annual reformulations of the influenza vaccine

"Recommended viruses for influenza vaccines for use in the 2010-2011 northern hemisphere influenza season". WHO. Retrieved 14 ... "Recommended composition of influenza virus vaccines for use in the 2011 southern hemisphere influenza season". WHO. Retrieved ... "Recommended composition of influenza virus vaccines for use in the 2012 southern hemisphere influenza season". WHO. Retrieved ... "Recommended composition of influenza virus vaccines for use in the 2014 southern hemisphere influenza season". WHO. Retrieved ...

*Influenza vaccine

"Recommended composition of influenza virus vaccines for use in the 2018 southern hemisphere influenza season". WHO. 28 ... pdf) WHO , Recommended composition of influenza virus vaccines for use in the 2016 southern hemisphere influenza season ... WHO , Recommended composition of influenza virus vaccines for use in the 2017 southern hemisphere influenza season Archived ... PATH's Vaccine Resource Library influenza resources CDC Inactivated Influenza Vaccine Information Statement Vaccines and ...

*2009 flu pandemic vaccine

"WHO: Recommended composition of influenza virus vaccines for use in the 2009-2010 northern hemisphere influenza season]". World ... WHO - Recommended composition of influenza virus vaccines for use in the 2009-2010 influenza season Archived 7 June 2009 at the ... "Estimates of Pandemic Influenza Vaccine Effectiveness in Europe, 2009-2010: Results of Influenza Monitoring Vaccine ... influenza virus, or weakened live virus that cannot cause influenza. The killed vaccine is injected, while the live vaccine is ...

*Pandemic H1N1/09 virus

The virus is a novel strain of influenza. Existing vaccines against seasonal flu provided no protection. A study at the U.S. ... "2008-2009 Influenza Season Week 39 ending October 3, 2009". Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). 2009-10-09. ... Hilleman M (19 August 2002). "Realities and enigmas of human viral influenza: pathogenesis, epidemiology and control". Vaccine ... In the southern hemisphere 15 to 33% of hospitalized cases went to the ICU in July and August 2009. Unlike H5N1 avian flu and ...

*Fujian flu

Influenza Activity --- United States and Worldwide, 2003-04 Season, and Composition of the 2004-05 Influenza Vaccine published ... The WHO has recommended that the vaccine for the 2005/06 northern hemisphere season contain the A/California/7/2004 (H3N2)-like ... We can't blame China for substandard vaccines. I think there are substandard vaccines for influenza in poultry all over the ... A/Fujian (H3N2) was made part of the trivalent influenza vaccine for the 2004-2005 flu season and its descendants are still the ...

*Flu season

Influenza Influenza vaccine Bird flu Human flu Swine flu Horse flu Dog flu Freshers' flu 2012-13 flu season 2013-14 flu season ... The season occurs during the cold half of the year in each hemisphere. Influenza activity can sometimes be predicted and even ... The flu shot is made up of inactivated (killed) viruses, and the nasal spray vaccines are made up of live viruses. The flu shot ... The annually updated trivalent influenza vaccine consists of hemagglutinin (HA) surface glycoprotein components from influenza ...

*Yellow fever

Following this, two vaccines were developed in the 1930s. The vaccine 17D was developed by the South African microbiologist Max ... During rainy seasons Rio de Janeiro regularly experienced floods, as water from the bay surrounding the city overflowed into ... The trans-Atlantic slave trade was probably the means of introduction into the Western Hemisphere from Africa. The evolutionary ... while the native population usually suffered nonlethal symptoms resembling influenza. This phenomenon, in which certain ...

*Influenza

"Recommended composition of influenza virus vaccines for use in the 2006-2007 influenza season" (PDF). WHO Report. 14 February ... "Safety of trivalent inactivated influenza vaccines in adults: Background for pandemic influenza vaccine safety monitoring". ... Assessment of the 2009 Influenza A (H1N1) Outbreak on Selected Countries in the Southern Hemisphere. 2009. "Archived copy". ... The vaccine is usually effective against three or four types of influenza. It is usually well tolerated. A vaccine made for one ...

*Influenza pandemic

The capability to produce vaccines varies widely from country to country; only 19 countries are listed as "influenza vaccine ... This Season's Flu Virus Is Resistant to 2 Standard Drugs By Altman LK, The New York Times, Published: 15 January 2006 "The ... by the WHO after evidence of spreading in the southern hemisphere. The 13 November 2009 worldwide update by the WHO stated that ... Typically this vaccine includes material from two influenza A virus subtypes and one influenza B virus strain. A vaccine ...
Seasonal influenza vaccination is the most important way of preventing seasonal influenza virus infections and potentially severe complications, including death. Seasonal influenza vaccination reduces the likelihood of becoming ill with influenza or transmitting influenza to others.•Seasonal influenza vaccines do not contain the 2009 H1N1 strain and are not expected to provide significant cross-protection against pandemic (H1N1) 2009 influenzaInfluenza A (H1N1) 2009 monovalent vaccines to prevent the 2009 H1N1 virus have been licensed; initial doses of licensed vaccine are expected to be available by mid-October 2009.•Two ...
Lancet Infectious Diseases Jan 2018 Volume 18 Number 1 p1-122 e1-e32 http://www.thelancet.com/journals/laninf/issue/current Personal View Urgent challenges in implementing live attenuated influenza vaccine Anika Singanayagam, Maria Zambon, Ajit Lalvani, Wendy Barclay Summary Conflicting reports have emerged about the effectiveness of the live attenuated influenza vaccine. The live attenuated influenza vaccine appears to protect particularly poorly against…
Background: Following the emergence of the 2009 pandemic influenza A(H1N1) virus, monovalent influenza vaccines were developed and marketed in Europe. Within the Influenza Monitoring Vaccine Effectiveness in Europe (I-MOVE) project, we estimated the pandemic influenza vaccines effectiveness (PIVE) using sentinel general practitioners (GP) influenza surveillance networks in seven European countries.. Methods: We conducted a multicentre case-control study between November 2009 and March 2010. Using systematic sampling, GPs swabbed patients presenting with influenza-like illness (ILI European Union case definition) within eight days of symptom onset and collected their vaccination history and a list of potential confounders (e.g. age group, chronic diseases and ...
Treatment of seasonal influenza is dominated by two categories of treatment options, vaccines and antiviral therapies. In the recent years it was observed that demand for seasonal influenza vaccines have increased due to changed perception of patient population. The patient population is of the opinion that preventive healthcare is better compared to curative healthcare; this led to increased demand of vaccines in Asia-Pacific region. Asia-Pacific (APAC) region is an attractive market for seasonal influenza vaccine manufacturers. Major drivers in the market is increasing awareness, increasing vaccination coverage in the APAC countries and rising government support for immunization against seasonal influenza. Major restraints of the market ...
Influenza viruses primarily include influenza A virus and influenza B virus. Due to high variability, influenza A viruses, including H1N1, H5N1, H7N1, H7N2, H7N3, H7N7, H7N9, H9N2, and H10N8, are the typical culprits of pandemic influenza [9-12], while influenza B viruses only lead to limited influenza epidemics [13]. Influenza virus infection always leads to high fever, cough, runny nose and myalgia; many patients have severe pneumonia. Heart, kidney or other organ failure may cause death directly in the most serious cases.. The WHO has established a global influenza program (GIP) to monitor influenza case reports and carry out epidemiological analysis of human ...
Results: The overall sample consisted of 4,011 people. The influenza vaccination coverage rate in Germany increased from 22.3% in 2002/2003 to 25.1% in 2003/2004. This increase is not significant. The most frequent reasons for being vaccinated given by vaccinees were: influenza considered to be a serious illness, which people wanted to avoid (90.1%), having received advice from the family doctor or nurse to be vaccinated (71.3%), and not wanting to infect family and friends (70.4%). Reasons for not being vaccinated mentioned by people who have never been vaccinated were: thinking about it, however, not being vaccinated in the end (47.7%), not expecting to catch influenza (43.6%), and not having received a recommendation from the family doctor to be vaccinated (36.6%). Options encouraging influenza vaccination are: recommendation by the family doctor or nurse ...
The report firstly introduced Influenza Vaccine (Split Virion),Inactivated basic information included Influenza Vaccine (Split Virion),Inactivated definition classification application industry chain structure industry overview; international market analysis, China domestic market analysis, Macroeconomic environment and economic situation analysis and influence, Influenza Vaccine (Split Virion),Inactivated industry policy and plan, Influenza Vaccine (Split Virion),Inactivated product specification, manufacturing process, product cost structure etc. then statistics Global and China key manufacturers Influenza Vaccine (Split Virion),Inactivated capacity production cost price profit production value gross margin etc details information, at the same time, ...
Annual recommendations on influenza seasonal vaccination include community pharmacists, who have low vaccination coverage. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between influenza vaccination in community pharmacists and their knowledge of and attitudes to vaccination. An online cross-sectional survey of community pharmacists in Catalonia, Spain, was conducted between September and November 2014. Sociodemographic, professional and clinical variables, the history of influenza vaccination and knowledge of and attitudes to influenza and seasonal influenza vaccination were collected. The survey response rate was 7.33% (506 out of 6906); responses from 463 community pharmacists were included in the final analyses. Analyses were performed using multivariable logistic regression models and ...
PubMed journal article Effectiveness of intranasal live attenuated influenza vaccine against all-cause acute otitis media in childre were found in PRIME PubMed. Download Prime PubMed App to iPhone or iPad.
Please cite this paper as: Erkoreka A. (2010) The Spanish influenza pandemic in occidental Europe (1918-1920) and victim age. Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses 4(2), 81-89.. Background Studies of the Spanish Influenza pandemic (1918-1920) provide interesting information that may improve our preparation for present and future influenza pandemic threats.. Methods We studied archives from France, Italy, Spain and Portugal, obtaining high-quality data that allowed us to calculate mortality rates associated with the Spanish flu and to characterize the proportional distribution of influenza deaths by age in the capital cities of these countries.. Results French and American troops who fought in the First World War began to be affected from April 1918 onwards by a benign influenza epidemic, which hardly ...
Author Summary Human influenza infections have a pronounced seasonal cycle in temperate regions. Recent laboratory and epidemiological evidence suggests that low humidity conditions in the winter may increase virus survival and enable the virus to transmit efficiently between hosts. However, seasonal influenza activity in some tropical locations occurs during the rainy season, whereas other tropical locations do not experience a well-defined influenza season. The primary goal of this study was to identify the relationship between the timing of seasonal influenza epidemics and climate variability across the globe. We show the importance of thresholds in humidity, temperature and precipitation that affect the epidemiology, and potentially the transmission route, of ...
The development of broadly reactive influenza vaccines raises the need to identify the most appropriate immunoassays that can be used for the evaluation of so-called "universal" influenza vaccines, and to explore a path towards the standardisation of such assays. To address this critical topic, a workshop on "Immunoassay standardisation for universal influenza vaccines" was co-organised in June 2015 by the EDUFLUVAC consortium, a European Union funded project coordinated by the European Vaccine Initiative, and the National Institutes of Health / National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, USA. The workshop agenda encompassed a wide range of immunoassays that can be used to assess immune responses to broadly reactive influenza vaccines, from classical serological assays to assays ...
In June 2006, the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) expanded its 2004 recommendation for routine influenza vaccination of children aged 6--23 months to include children aged 24--59 months. The 2006 ACIP recommendations also reemphasized that previously unvaccinated children aged ,9 years should receive 2 doses of influenza vaccine administered at least 1 month apart to be fully vaccinated (1). In 2007, using data from six immunization information system (IIS)* sentinel sites, CDC conducted the first assessment of influenza vaccination coverage among children aged 6--59 months during the 2006--07 influenza season. The findings demonstrated that, at all six sites, ,30% of children aged 6--23 months and ,20% of children aged 24--59 months were fully vaccinated. Vaccination coverage data from national and state surveys for an ...
INTRODUCTION: Seasonal (inactivated) influenza vaccination is recommended for all individuals aged 65+ and in individuals under 65 who are at an increased risk of complications of influenza infection, for example, people with asthma. Live attenuated influenza vaccine (LAIV) was recommended for children as they are thought to be responsible for much of the transmission of influenza to the populations at risk of serious complications from influenza. A phased roll-out of the LAIV pilot programme began in 2013/2014. There is limited evidence for vaccine effectiveness (VE) in the populations targeted for influenza vaccination. The aim of this study is to examine the safety and effectiveness of the live attenuated seasonal ...
Background: Human Parainfluenza viruses are a common cause of both upper and lower respiratory tract infections, particularly in children. Of the four Parainfluenza virus serotypes, Parainfluenza 4 is least well characterised from both the clinical, epidemiological and genetic perspectives. Methods: Flocked nose or throat swabs from a previous study investigating viral prevalence in community-based adults suffering from influenza like illness were used as the basis for this study. Samples in which no virus was detected using a 16 viral respiratory pathogen real-time PCR panel were barcoded and pyrosequenced using the Roche 454 GS FLX Titanium chemistry. The sequences were analysed using the VirusHunter bioinformatic pipeline. Sanger sequencing was used to complete the detected Parainfluenza 4 coding region. Results: A variant ...
The early onset of the 2012-13 influenza season offered an opportunity to provide an early VE estimate. Overall, the estimate suggests that the 2012-13 influenza vaccine has moderate effectiveness against circulating influenza viruses, similar to a summary VE estimate from a meta-analysis of randomized controlled clinical trial data (2). Influenza vaccination, even with moderate effectiveness, has been shown to reduce illness, antibiotic use, doctor visits, time lost from work, hospitalizations, and deaths (6). Results for the 2012-13 season indicate that vaccination has reduced the risk for influenza-associated medical visits by approximately 60%, demonstrating the benefits of influenza vaccination during the current season. ...
Feeling INFLUENZA LIKE ILLNESS while using Ibuprofen? INFLUENZA LIKE ILLNESS Causes, Patient Concerns and Latest Treatments and Ibuprofen Reports and Side Effects.
Looking for online definition of influenza vaccine in the Medical Dictionary? influenza vaccine explanation free. What is influenza vaccine? Meaning of influenza vaccine medical term. What does influenza vaccine mean?
5 Countries of Europe Collectively Control more than 80 percent in the Europe Influenza Vaccine Market. Influenza virus is mostly activated in the winter season every year in the European region. Vaccination is the best way to prevent from Influenza virus. It is anticipated that Influenza vaccine market is near to US$ 1 Billion due to a large target population, strong public healthcare infrastructure, high per capita healthcare spending and influenza vaccination program in European countries. Our research report title "Europe Influenza Vaccine Market, Vaccinated Population (23 Countries Market Data) By (Child & Adult) & Forecast" cover the following points:. • Influenza vaccinated population (Children and ...
Balish, A., Garten, R., Klimov, A. and Villanueva, J. (2013), Analytical detection of influenza A(H3N2)v and other A variant viruses from the USA by rapid influenza diagnostic tests. Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses, 7: 491-496. doi: 10.1111/irv.12017 ...
During the 2009--10 influenza season, the second wave of influenza activity from 2009 pandemic influenza A (H1N1) occurred in the United States; few seasonal influenza viruses were detected. Influenza activity* peaked in late-October and was associated with higher pediatric mortality and higher rates of hospitalizations in children and young adults than in previous seasons. The proportion of visits to health-care providers for influenza-like illness (ILI), as reported in the U.S. Outpatient Influenza-like Illness Surveillance Network (ILINet), was among the highest since ILI surveillance began in 1997 in its current form. This report summarizes influenza activity in the United States during ...
No safety signals were observed with the administration of quadrivalent live attenuated influenza vaccine, according to a large population study.
Vol 5: Live Attenuated Influenza Vaccine Enhances Colonization of Streptococcus pneumoniae and Staphylococcus aureus in Mice.. . Biblioteca virtual para leer y descargar libros, documentos, trabajos y tesis universitarias en PDF. Material universiario, documentación y tareas realizadas por universitarios en nuestra biblioteca. Para descargar gratis y para leer online.
This report summarizes recommendations of the Healthcare Infection Control Practices Advisory Committee (HICPAC) and the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) concerning influenza vaccination of health-care personnel (HCP) in the United States. These recommendations apply to HCP in acute care hospitals, nursing homes, skilled nursing facilities, physicians offices, urgent care centers, and outpatient clinics, and to persons who provide home health care and emergency medical services. The recommendations are targeted at health-care facility administrators, infection-control professionals, and occupational health professionals responsible for influenza vaccination programs and influenza infection-control programs in their institutions. HICPAC and ACIP recommend that all HCP be vaccinated annually against influenza. Facilities that employ HCP are strongly ...
Provisional data reported as of February 10. Additional information about influenza activity is updated each Friday and is available from CDC at http://www.cdc.gov/flu. Levels of activity are 1) widespread: outbreaks of influenza or increases in influenza-like illness (ILI) cases and recent laboratory-confirmed influenza in at least half the regions of a state; 2) regional: outbreaks of influenza or increases in ILI cases and recent laboratory-confirmed influenza in at least two but less than half the regions of a state; 3) local: outbreaks of influenza or increases in ILI cases and recent laboratory-confirmed influenza in a single region of a state; 4) sporadic: small numbers of laboratory-confirmed ...
Global Influenza Vaccine Market is worth more than US$ 5 Billion. Globally Pediatrics Influenza Vaccinated Population was more than 150 Thousand, but still this figure was significantly less than the Adult Influenza Vaccinated Population. As per our research Pediatrics Influenza Vaccinated population will decline in future and Adult Influenza Vaccinated Population will increase in forecast period.. Get Free 10% Customization in this Report. United States has the highest market share in Influenza Vaccine Market. United States Influenza Vaccine Market Share was almost 4 times more than China and Japan Influenza Vaccine Market Share. United States & China together captures ...
Global Influenza Vaccine Market is worth more than US$ 5 Billion. Globally Pediatrics Influenza Vaccinated Population was more than 150 Thousand, but still this figure was significantly less than the Adult Influenza Vaccinated Population. As per our research Pediatrics Influenza Vaccinated population will decline in future and Adult Influenza Vaccinated Population will increase in forecast period.. Get Free 10% Customization in this Report. United States has the highest market share in Influenza Vaccine Market. United States Influenza Vaccine Market Share was almost 4 times more than China and Japan Influenza Vaccine Market Share. United States & China together captures ...
Global Influenza Vaccine Market is worth more than US$ 5 Billion. Globally Pediatrics Influenza Vaccinated Population was more than 150 Thousand, but still this figure was significantly less than the Adult Influenza Vaccinated Population. As per our research Pediatrics Influenza Vaccinated population will decline in future and Adult Influenza Vaccinated Population will increase in forecast period.. Get Free 10% Customization in this Report. United States has the highest market share in Influenza Vaccine Market. United States Influenza Vaccine Market Share was almost 4 times more than China and Japan Influenza Vaccine Market Share. United States & China together captures ...
Vaccination against influenza is considered the most important public health intervention to prevent unnecessary hospitalizations and premature deaths related to influenza in the elderly, though there are significant inequities among global influenza vaccine resources, capacities, and policies. The objective of this study was to assess the social determinants of health preventing adults ≥65 years old from accessing and accepting seasonal influenza vaccination. A systematic search was performed in January 2011 using MEDLINE, ISI - Web of Science, PsycINFO, and CINAHL (1980-2011). Reference lists of articles were also examined. Selection criteria included qualitative and quantitative studies written in English that examined social determinants of and barriers against seasonal influenza ...
During weeks 22 and 23 in 2012, laboratory confirmed influenza activity remained low in many parts of the northern hemisphere. In the southern hemisphere the influenza season started in some countries with local outbreaks reported. Globally, A(H3N2) viruses remained the dominant virus followed by influenza B and influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 viruses respectively. In Asia, influenza A(H3N2) activity has remained high in the China Hong Kong Special Administrative Region. In week 23, a detection of an oseltamivir resistant influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 virus, the 20th case since 2009, was reported. In Europe, influenza activity was low with sporadic detections reported.. In North America, among the continuing declining detections of ...
We used a mathematical model with two circulating influenza strains to evaluate the effect of modified pH1N1 infection risk following receipt of seasonal influenza vaccine on optimal seasonal vaccination strategies in the Canadian population. Our projections suggest that, in the presence of the best currently available information on the epidemiology of pH1N1 in Canada, the decisions by several jurisdictional health authorities to restrict or delay the use of seasonal vaccines until after the likely peak of the autumn pandemic wave represents a reasonable choice under uncertainty. Specifically, in the presence of low levels of co-circulating seasonal influenza strains, even a relatively small enhancement of risk associated with vaccination has a negative impact on total ...
This report updates 1999 recommendations by the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) on the use of influenza vaccine and antiviral agents (MMWR 1999;48[No. RR-4]: 1-29). These recommendations include five principal changes: a) the age for universal vaccination has been lowered to 50 years from 65 years; b) scheduling of large, organized vaccination campaigns after mid-October may be considered because the availability of vaccine in any location cannot be assured consistently in the early fall; c) 2000-2001 trivalent vaccine virus strains are A/Moscow/10/99 (H3N2)-like, A/New Caledonia/20/99 (H1N1)-like, and B/Beijing/184/93-like strains; d) information on neuraminidase-inhibitor antiviral drugs has been added; and e) a list of other influenza-related infection control documents for special populations has been added. This report and other information on ...
What is avian influenza? Avian influenza, or "bird flu," is an infection caused by influenza A viruses, which normally infect only birds. These influenza A viruses are found in wild birds worldwide and are quite contagious among birds. In many wild species of birds, especially in birds that swim or live near water including ducks, geese and gulls, infection with avian influenza generally does not cause illness, but may lead to serious disease in domesticated birds such as chickens, ducks, and turkeys . What types of avian influenza viruses are there and which cause serious disease in birds? Influenza A viruses are classified into subtypes based on certain proteins present on the outer layer of the virus. These proteins are hemagglutinin (H) and neuraminidase (N). There are ...
We therefore evaluated the efficacy of influenza vaccination in SLE patients in several ways. With respect to the percentage of patients who achieved seroconversion or a fourfold titre rise we found that influenza vaccination was less effective for A/H1N1 and A/H3N2 in SLE patients. Accordingly, fewer SLE patients achieved a protective titre after vaccination against both the influenza A strains together when compared with healthy controls, despite the fact that more patients than controls had received a vaccination with the same viral antigens the year before. We suggest that the GMT in SLE patients after vaccination did not differ from the controls because GMT before vaccination was higher in the patients-which can easily be accounted for by their higher rate of previous vaccination. The conclusion that SLE patients appear to have a decreased immune response compared with healthy controls is supported by ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Impact of the 2009 influenza pandemic on pneumococcal pneumonia hospitalizations in the United States. AU - Weinberger, Daniel M.. AU - Simonsen, Lone. AU - Jordan, Richard. AU - Steiner, Claudia. AU - Miller, Mark. AU - Viboud, Cecile. PY - 2012/2. Y1 - 2012/2. N2 - BACKGROUND:Infection with influenza virus increases the risk for developing pneumococcal disease. The A/H1N1 influenza pandemic in autumn 2009 provided a unique opportunity to evaluate this relationship.METHODS:Using weekly age-, state-, and cause-specific hospitalizations from the US State Inpatient Databases of the Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project 2003-2009, we quantified the increase in pneumococcal pneumonia hospitalization rates above a seasonal baseline during the pandemic period.RESULTS:We found a significant increase in pneumococcal hospitalizations from late August to mid-December 2009, which ...
Influenza remains a potentially significant and largely preventable source of morbidity and mortality, yet vaccine coverage is low. Young children are at particular risk for underimmunization because they may need to receive 2 doses in a current season. Even among those young children that initiate vaccination, only 40% receive the important second dose, yet one dose does not confer adequate protection. Low-income, urban children may be at particular risk of not receiving two doses. While traditional mail and phone immunization reminders notifying families that a vaccine is due have had limited efficacy in low-income, urban populations, we have demonstrated the success of using text messages. Comparing the effectiveness of different forms of reminders on receipt of this critical second dose of influenza vaccine has not been studied. Besides failure to remember to return for ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Immunogenicity and safety of concomitant MF59-adjuvanted influenza vaccine and 23-valent pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine administration in older adults. AU - Song, Joon-Young. AU - Cheong, Hee-Jin. AU - Tsai, T. F.. AU - Chang, Hyun ah. AU - Choi, Min Joo. AU - Jeon, Ji Ho. AU - Kang, Seong Hee. AU - Jeong, Eun Ju. AU - Noh, Ji Yun. AU - Kim, Woo Joo. PY - 2015/1/1. Y1 - 2015/1/1. N2 - Background: Concomitant administration of influenza and pneumococcal vaccines facilitates their uptake by older adults; however, data on immunogenicity and safety of concomitant administration of adjuvanted trivalent inactivated influenza vaccine (aIIV3) and 23-valent pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine (PPSV23) have not been reported. Methods: Subjects aged ≥65 years (. N=. 224) were randomized 1:1:1:1 to receive ...
Seqirus Fluvax (previously bioCSL) is registered by the Therapeutic Goods Administration (TGA) for administration in children ≥5 years of age; however, it is not recommended for use in children , 9 years of age (refer to 4.7.11 Adverse events and 4.7.13 Variations from product information below).. All the influenza vaccines currently available in Australia are either split virion or subunit vaccines prepared from purified inactivated influenza virus that has been cultivated in embryonated hens eggs. The influenza virus composition of vaccines for use in Australia is determined annually by the Australian Influenza Vaccine Committee following recommendations by the World Health Organization based on global influenza epidemiology.23. Since the late 1970s, ...
Latest industry research report on Influenza Vaccines Market. Influenza is a type of seasonal or pandemic condition causing fever, coryza, cough, headache, and malaise. The severity of influenza symptoms varies across age groups and type of influenza. According to the World Health Organization (WHO), approximately, 3 to 5 million people are prone to seasonal epidemics, annually.. The growing number of ageing population and an increase in the frequency of seasonal influenza outbreak supplement the demand for influenza vaccines across the healthcare industry. Intellectual property rights are providing security to the patent holders, thereby, increases their market share. However, the upcoming patent expirations for top ...
[177 Pages Report] Check for Discount on Global Avian Influenza Vaccines Consumption 2016 Market Research Report report by QYResearch Group. The Global Avian Influenza Vaccines Consumption 2016 Market Research Report...
Abstract. Secondary or reactive hemophagocytic syndrome (HPS) is frequently related to viral infections. However, the novel swine-origin influenza A (H1N1) virus associated HPS has never been reported. On October 10, 2009, a 17-year-old female child with no past medical history, complaining of severe asthenia, pneumonia, myalgia, and high fever, was admitted to our department, and H1N1 DNA was detected. Five days after her hospitalization, all signs and symptoms aggravated into HPS. After treatment for H1N1 influenza, the patient had a recovery and clearance of H1N1 infection 10 days after hospitalization. Three weeks later, the patient was discharged without any complaints, indicating the etiological role of H1N1infection in HPS.
The aim of the study is to demonstrate safety and immunogenicity of the quadrivalent influenza intradermal (QIV-ID) vaccine compared to the trivalent influenza vaccine (TIV) containing the B strain from the primary (Yamagata) lineage (TIV-ID1) and the trivalent influenza vaccine containing B strain from the alternate (Victoria) lineage (TIV-ID2) vaccines in producing protection against four strains of influenza virus.. Primary Objective:. ...
Because fatal infections with highly pathogenic avian influenza A (HPAI) virus subtype H5N1 have been reported in birds of prey, we sought to determine detailed information about the birds susceptibility and protection after vaccination. Ten falcons vaccinated with an inactivated influenza virus (H5N2) vaccine seroconverted. We then challenged 5 vaccinated and 5 nonvaccinated falcons with HPAI (H5N1). All vaccinated birds survived; all unvaccinated birds died within 5 days. For the nonvaccinated birds, histopathologic examination showed tissue degeneration and necrosis, immunohistochemical techniques showed influenza virus antigen in affected tissues, and these birds shed high levels of infectious virus from the oropharynx and cloaca. Vaccinated birds showed no influenza virus antigen in tissues and shed virus at lower titers from the oropharynx only. ...
The 2009 influenza A H1N1 pandemic placed unprecedented demand on public health authorities and the vaccine industry. Efforts were coordinated internationally to maximise the speed of vaccine development, distribution, and delivery, and the European Unions novel fast-track authorisation procedures mandated increased postmarketing surveillance to monitor vaccine safety. Clinicians in Finland and Sweden later identified an apparent increase in the incidence of narcolepsy associated with a specific adjuvanted pandemic influenza vaccine. After extensive review, the European Medicines Agency confirmed the existence of this association, which has since been detected in England, Ireland, France, and Norway. Assessments of the causal mechanisms continue. In this Review, we discuss how the narcolepsy association was detected, and we present the evidence according to the causality ...
EFSAs role is to provide EU risk managers with independent scientific advice and scientific assistance on the animal health and welfare dimension of avian influenza and any possible food safety issues. Since the risk of avian influenza was first identified, EFSA has issued a substantial body of scientific advice to assist risk managers in making appropriate decisions and actions. To carry out its scientific work, EFSA exchanges information with national food safety authorities, the European Commission, the European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control (ECDC) and other international organisations active in this field.. EFSA has provided scientific advice on the food safety aspects of avian influenza confirming that there is no available epidemiological evidence that avian influenza can be transmitted to humans through consumption of food.. EFSA has also issued advice on ...
Three main research products are reported in this dissertation. This research focused on estimation of the seroprevalence rates in agricultural workers with exposure to pigs and poultry, and determination of risk factors for infection. Chapter 2, Are swine workers in the United States at increased risk of infection with zoonotic influenza virus?, reports controlled, cross-sectional seroprevalence studies among farmers, meat processing workers, veterinarians, and control subjects. Using a hemagglutination inhibition assay against six influenza A virus isolates, all 3 exposed study groups demonstrated markedly elevated titers against the H1N1 and H1N2 swine influenza virus isolates, compared with control subjects. Chapter 3, Infection due to 3 avian influenza subtypes in United States veterinarians, describes a controlled, ...
PubMed journal article Effectiveness of influenza vaccine for preventing laboratory-confirmed influenza hospitalizations in adults, 2011-2012 influenza seaso were found in PRIME PubMed. Download Prime PubMed App to iPhone, iPad, or Android
Diversity, flexibility, adaptability: three key features that contribute to the efficient transmission and continued existence of influenza A viruses.. Influenza A viruses (IVA) are enveloped viruses, classified as a genus in the family Orthomyxoviridae. This virus family includes seven genera housing viruses that cause influenza in vertebrates (Influenza A-D), infect salmon (ISAvirus) or that are arboviruses (Thogotovirus) infecting vertebrates and invertebrates such as ticks and mosquitoes. In humans and farm animals IVA is the most important group, inducing dramatic diseases in humans and other mammals as well as in birds. Based on the variability of the two viral surface proteins, haemagglutinin (HA) and neuraminidase, IVA can be divided into 16 HA- and 9 NA-subtypes, with the recent addition of two new subtypes detected in tropical bats (H17N10, H18N11). In birds, 16 HA ...
BACKGROUND: The objective of this study was to assess the predictive effects of socioeconomic factors to explain influenza vaccination coverage rates in 11 European countries. METHODS: Data from national household surveys collected over up to seven consecutive seasons between 2001/2002 and 2007/2008 were analyzed to assess the associations of socioeconomic factors with immunization against influenza. RESULTS: In total, data from 92,101 household contacts representative for the national non-institutionalized population aged above 14 years were analyzed. Influenza vaccination coverage rates in Europe remain suboptimal with little or no progress in the last years. The results of this study indicate that gender, household income, size of household, educational level and population size of living residence may significantly contribute to explain chances of getting immunized against ...
Cyclophilin A (CypA) is the main member of the immunophilin superfamily that has peptidyl-prolyl cis-trans isomerase activity. CypA participates in protein folding, cell signaling, inflammation and tumorigenesis. Further, CypA plays critical roles in the replication of several viruses. Upon influenza virus infection, CypA inhibits viral replication by interacting with the M1 protein. In addition, CypA is incorporated into the influenza virus virions. Finally, Cyclosporin A (CsA), the main inhibitor of CypA, inhibits influenza virus replication through CypA-dependent and -independent pathways. This review briefly summarizes recent advances in understanding the roles of CypA during influenza virus infection.
Author Summary H5N1 influenza virus has been responsible for poultry outbreaks over the last 12 years-the longest recorded example of highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) circulation in poultry. The ecological success of this virus in diverse species of both poultry and wild birds with sporadic introduction to humans suggests that it is a likely source of the next human pandemic. Genome sequences of H5N1 viruses reveal extensive genetic reassortment (mixing) with other influenza subtypes to produce many H5N1 genotypes that have developed into multiple genetically distinct clades, some of which have spread to affect over 60 countries. Here, we analyze all available sequence data of avian influenza viruses from Eurasia and show that the original HPAI H5N1 virus (referred to as A/goose/Guangdong/1/96) was likely introduced directly into poultry as an intact virus particle ...
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According to Thompson, et al. (2003), approximately 51,000 people per year died annually due to influenza related diseases between 1990 and 1999. Mortality rates are appreciably higher for those over 65 years of age.. In order to reduce mortality and morbidity from influenza in the U.S., the CDCs Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) released its "Prevention and Control of Influenza" guide this summer. The report documents important information regarding influenza and gives recommendations to patients and providers regarding when/for whom/in what manner influenza vaccinations should be administered.. According to this paper, influenza is divided into two types: influenza A and influenza B. ...
Canine influenza H3N8 virus originated in horses, has spread to dogs, and can now spread between dogs. The H3N8 equine influenza (horse flu) virus has been known to exist in horses for more than 40 years. In 2004, however, cases of an unknown respiratory illness in dogs (initially greyhounds) were reported in the United States. An investigation showed that this respiratory illness was caused by the equine influenza A H3N8 virus. Scientists believe this virus jumped species (from horses to dogs) and has adapted to cause illness in dogs and spread among dogs, especially those housed in kennels and shelters. This is now considered a dog-specific H3N8 virus. In September 2005, this virus was identified by experts as a "newly emerging pathogen in the dog population" in the United States.. The H3N2 canine influenza virus is an avian flu virus that adapted to infect dogs. This ...
To evaluate the effectiveness of an intensive hand hygiene campaign on reducing absenteeism caused by influenza-like illness (ILI), diarrhea, conjunctivitis, and laboratory-confirmed influenza, we conducted a randomized control trial in 60 elementary schools in Cairo, Egypt. Children in the intervention schools were required to wash hands twice each day, and health messages were provided through entertainment activities. Data were collected on student absenteeism and reasons for illness. School nurses collected nasal swabs from students with ILI, which were tested by using a qualitative diagnostic test for influenza A and B. Compared with results for the control group, in the intervention group, overall absences caused by ILI, diarrhea, conjunctivitis, and laboratory-confirmed influenza were reduced by 40%, 30%, 67%, and 50%, respectively (p<0.0001 for each illness). ...
Health care providers should not use live attenuated influenza vaccine (LAIV) in the upcoming 2016-17 season due to poor effectiveness, a Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) committee said Wednesday.. Academy leaders say they support the interim recommendation by the CDCs Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP).. "We agree with ACIPs decision today to recommend health care providers and parents use only the inactivated vaccine for this influenza season," said AAP President Benard Dreyer, M.D., FAAP.. The AAP recommends children ages 6 months and older be immunized against influenza every year. Previously, the CDC and AAP had recommended either form of flu vaccine - the inactivated influenza vaccine (IIV) that is given by injection and is approved for ...
Influenza B viruses cause the same spectrum of disease as influenza A. However, influenza B viruses do not cause pandemics. This property may be a consequence of the limited host range of the virus - humans and seals - which limits the generation of new strains by reassortment. The virus causes significant morbidity: in the US in 2008, approximately one-third of all laboratory confirmed cases of influenza were caused by influenza B (as shown on the first graph on this CDC page). Consequently the seasonal trivalent influenza vaccine contains an influenza B virus component. ...
We at Bernville Veterinary Clinic - Pet Spa & Resort are now recommending that our dog patients be vaccinated for Canine Influenza and will require it for our Spa guests. Canine Influenza Virus (H3N8) is an influenza virus that is relatively new and highly contagious. It can be a part of a complex of viral and bacterial upper respiratory agents causing illness in dogs. Different parts of the country have experienced outbreaks, including the northeast and Pennsylvania. Signs of Canine Flu are very similar to Kennel Cough except usually more severe. These signs include coughing mainly; fever, ocular & nasal discharge, and sneezing. The disease can progress to pneumonia in severe cases. About 80% of dogs exposed to the virus will show signs of the Flu and up to 8% can die from infection. The 20% who show no signs will still shed and spread the virus. The virus can remain active on hands for up to 12 hours and ...
We limited our search to studies with laboratory-confirmed influenza virus infection, which may have underestimated case rates because of variable testing and reporting of results. Other studies have reported estimated incidence rates of influenza-associated outcomes among pregnant women without laboratory confirmation of influenza disease. A study that used multiple data sources-not all of which contained laboratory-confirmed influenza disease-to quantify influenza-associated hospitalizations in Canada from 1994-2000 reported a rate of 150 influenza-associated hospitalizations (95% CI: 140-170) per 100,000 pregnant women per influenza season [37]. This rate was more than 10-fold higher than the highest rate reported by the four studies of ...
The World Health Organization (WHO), the U.S. Department of Health, and Human Services (HHS) and other like-minded organizations and governments are committed to assisting in the creation of regionally-based, independent and sustainable vaccine production capacity in developing and emerging economy countries through capacity building and technology transfer. As a means of initiating a coordinated discussion among the international community regarding this shared goal, WHO and HHS convened the Sustainable Influenza Vaccine Production Capacity Stakeholders Workshop in Washington D.C. in January 2010. A key theme that emerged during the workshop discussions was the fact that sustainable vaccine production capacity cannot be achieved in the absence of robust national regulatory systems. A robust regulatory system is one the exhibits the capability to perform their regulatory functions with consistency under a wide range of ...
Avian influenza-known informally as avian flu or bird flu is a variety of influenza caused by viruses adapted to birds. The type with the greatest risk is highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI). Bird flu is similar to swine flu, dog flu, horse flu and human flu as an illness caused by strains of influenza viruses that have adapted to a specific host. Out of the three types of influenza viruses (A, B, and C), influenza A virus is a zoonotic infection with a natural reservoir almost entirely in birds. Avian influenza, for most purposes, refers to the influenza A virus. Though influenza A is adapted to birds, it can also stably adapt and sustain person-to person transmission. Recent ...
Alicia provided highlights of the influenza surveillance report from week 47, ending on November 25, 2017. Overall, influenza activity is increasing throughout the country.. The percentage of respiratory specimens testing positive for influenza in clinical laboratories was 7.2%.. The majority of specimens (75.6%) tested at public health laboratories were influenza A, and 24.4% were influenza B. Influenza A H3 continues to be the dominant strain reported, though smaller numbers of influenza A (H1) and influenza B also have been reported. For the 2017-2018 season as a whole, 89.1% of influenza A specimens were H3. For the B viruses for which lineage information was available, 62.4% were B ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - The clinical usefulness of the SD bioline influenza antigen test® for detecting the 2009 influenza A (H1N1) virus. AU - Choi, Wonseok. AU - Noh, Ji Yun. AU - Huh, Joong Yeon. AU - Kee, Sae Yoon. AU - Jeong, Hye Won. AU - Lee, Jacob. AU - Song, Joon-Young. AU - Cheong, Hee-Jin. AU - Kim, Woo Joo. PY - 2011/7/1. Y1 - 2011/7/1. N2 - Though the 2009 worldwide influenza A (H1N1) pandemic has been declared to have ended, the influenza virus is expected to continue to circulate from some years as a seasonal influenza. A rapid antigen test (RAT) can aid in rapid diagnosis and allow for early antiviral treatment. We evaluated the clinical usefulness of RAT using SD Bioline Influenza Antigen Test® kit to detect the influenza virus, considering various ...
Influenza virus kills nearly 500,000 individuals each year and this number can increase dramatically during a pandemic with a novel strain of influenza virus. Infections with influenza virus can be prevented by antiviral drugs like oseltamivir or vaccinations. However, antiviral drugs are not prescribed prophylactically and vaccination is not monitored for efficacy providing ample opportunity for influenza to infect and cause disease. If we can identify individuals that are at increased risk of severe influenza virus we can tailor our care to provide drugs prophylactically to improve health and longevity. The goal of our research is to define genetic biomarkers that predict susceptibility to influenza disease. The interferon pathway is very important for restricting ...
Protective immunity against influenza virus infection is mediated by neutralizing antibodies, but the precise role of T cells in human influenza immunity is uncertain. We conducted influenza infection studies in healthy volunteers with no detectable antibodies to the challenge viruses H3N2 or H1N1. We mapped T cell responses to influenza before and during infection. We found a large increase in influenza-specific T cell responses by day 7, when virus was completely cleared from nasal samples and serum antibodies were still undetectable. Preexisting CD4+, but not CD8+, T cells responding to influenza internal proteins were associated with lower virus shedding and less severe illness. These CD4+ cells also responded to pandemic H1N1 (A/CA/07/2009) peptides and showed evidence of cytotoxic activity. These cells ...
Intercell Supports the Japanese Encephalitis Vaccination Recommendations of CDCs Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices - Expanded Guidelines to include availability of IXIARO(R) vaccine for
During week 52 in 2011 and week 1 in 2012, laboratory confirmed influenza activity continued to increase in some countries in the northern hemisphere but in general influenza activity remained low. Globally influenza A(H3N2) remained the predominant virus subtype detected. Influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 detection was very low, while the proportion of circulating B virus varied. Co-circulation of both B/Yamagata and B/Victoria lineage viruses were reported in some countries.. In Europe, the Middle East, North Africa and North America, influenza A(H3N2) activity continued to increase in some countries with localized to widespread activity reported. Influenza B virus was detected at low levels with A(H1N1)pdm09 detected sporadically.. In Asia, activity of influenza ...
Summary Parenteral immunization of BALB/c mice at 3 months of age with inactivated influenza virus vaccine elicited a haemagglutinin (HA)-specific serum IgG antibody response. The magnitude of this response declined with advancing age at the time of vaccination. By contrast, HA-specific IgA and IgG antibody levels observed in lung lavage fluids of mice immunized at 1 and 2 years of age were comparable to those of 5 month old mice when inactivated influenza virus vaccine was administered intragastrically. The secretory immune response was not fully developed in the first 3 weeks of life. However, the HA-specific IgA and IgG responses to oral vaccination in sera were reduced in 1 or 2 year old mice when compared to 5 month old mice. These data demonstrated the preservation of the virus-specific secretory IgA response in the pulmonary fluids of aged mice after oral vaccination with inactivated ...
The antiviral drug oseltamivir (Tamiflu(®)) is a cornerstone in influenza pandemic preparedness plans worldwide. However, resistance to the drug is a growing concern. The active metabolite oseltamivir carboxylate (OC) is not degraded in surface water or sewage treatment plants and has been detected in river water during seasonal influenza outbreaks. The natural influenza reservoir, dabbling ducks, can thus be exposed to OC in aquatic environments. Environmental-like levels of OC induce resistance development in influenza A/H1N1 virus in mallards. There is a risk of resistance accumulation in influenza viruses circulating among wild birds when oseltamivir is used extensively. By reassortment or direct transmission, oseltamivir resistance can be transmitted to humans potentially causing a resistant pandemic or human-adapted ...
http://www.cdc.gov/swineflu/clinician_pregnant.htm (2 of 4) [4/28/2009 4:21:44 PM] CDC - Influenza (Flu) , Interim Guidance Pregnant Women and Swine Influenza: Considerations for Clinicians The risk for swine influenza A (H1N1) might be reduced by taking steps to reduce the chance of being exposed to respiratory infections. There is no vaccine available yet to prevent swine influenza A (H1N1). These actions include frequent handwashing, covering coughs, and having ill persons stay home, except to seek medical care, and minimize contact with others in the household who may be ill with swine flu. Additional measures that can limit transmission of a new influenza strain include voluntary home quarantine of members of households with confirmed or probable swine influenza cases, reduction of ...
Influenza A and B viruses cause a pandemic threat to human health throughout the world [1]. Sporadic transmission of influenza viruses from birds to humans could lead to unpredictable pandemic outbreaks. Influenza is an infectious disease of the respiratory tract that can infect millions of people and kills hundreds of thousands of them [2]. Humans, infected with influenza A, manifest typically an acute upper respiratory tract illness characterized by fever, cough, and sore throat. Disease severity depends mainly on the virulence of the influenza virus strain and immune competence of the patients [3]. Influenza viruses are members of the Orthomyxoviridae family, and they are further classed as A, B, and C viruses [4]. Until now, 17 influenza A hemagglutinin (HA) subtypes ...
A multidisciplinary research team, including scholars from the Institute of Medical Virology at Justus Liebig University Giessen, has recently developed a tool, which is suitable to identify candidate pandemic influenza viruses circulating in animal hosts.. On the basis of a combined application of a computational technique (ISM) and experimental molecular virological methods, the research team from Germany and Serbia was able to develop and validate a new tool to predict possible biological effects resulting from naturally occurring mutations as they are found for example in H5N1 viruses in Egypt. Thus, the ISM technique can help to identify those influenza viruses circulating in animal hosts that could efficiently transmit to humans and therewith possess a possible pandemic potential.. The research team involves the Institute of Medical Virology (JLU), the Georg-Speyer-Haus - Institute for Tumor Biology and Experimental Therapy (Frankfurt ...
Heterosubtypic immunity, defined as cross-reactive immune responses to influenza virus of a different serotype than the virus initially encountered, was investigated in association with virus-specific cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) responses induced in systemic and mucosa-associated lymph nodes after immunization via different routes. Mice immunized by the pulmonary route with live nonpathogenic influenza virus, strain Udorn (H3N2), survived challenge with mouse-adapted pathogenic influenza virus, strain PR/8/34 (H1N1). These mice developed strong heterosubtypic CTL responses in spleen, cervical lymph nodes (CLN), and mediastinal lymph nodes (MLN). Alternately, only 20% of mice immunized intravenously, intraperitoneally, or intranasally survived the challenge; all of these developed CTL responses in spleen and CLN, but not in MLN. Direct correlation between short-term and long-term memory heterosubtypic CTL ...
Background: In 2006, Nigeria reported Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza (HPAI) in poultry. In 2007, the first human case was detected linked to poultry from a Live Bird Market (LBM). The West and Central African Regional Laboratory for Avian Influenza in Nigeria is responsible for investigating specimens from birds meeting the case definition of HPAI (passive surveillance) and for specimens collected routinely from LBMs and high risk areas (active HPAI surveillance). We evaluated the laboratory component of the surveillance systems to determine whether it meets their objectives of early detection and response.. Methods: We used CDCs updated guidelines for evaluating public health surveillance systems, conducted six key informant interviews, reviewed laboratory reports and analyzed HPAI surveillance data from 2006-2009.. Results: The active system employed a simple case definition with timely submission of specimens. Laboratory results were ...
What Can Traditional Chinese Medicine Do For You During The Flu Season? The flu season is hitting us particularly hard this season. Its been everywhere in the news. Some hospitals are making it mandatory that workers in high-risk areas receive the flu vaccine. Generally, most flu activity in the US occurs from November through March. The best way to treat a disease is to prevent it. It is absolutely a bad idea to wait to dig a well until you are thirsty. So, do something to enhance your qi now, before the influenza virus shoots you down. In China, special anti-virus teas are usually given in public schools to help prevent illness during the flu season. Chinese herbs such as Huang Qi (Astralagus) and Dang Shen (Codonopsis) are used to strengthen qi and to boost the immune system. Herbs such as Ban Lan Gen (Isatis) and Da Qing Ye (Daqingye) are commonly used as anti-virus herbs. ...
The 2006 outbreaks of H5N1 avian influenza in Egypt interrupted poultry production and caused staggering economic damage. In addition, H5N1 avian influenza viruses represent a significant threat to public health. Therefore, the rapid detection of H5 viruses is very important in order to control the disease. In this study, a qualitative reverse transcription recombinase polymerase amplification (RT-RPA) assay for the detection of hemagglutinin gene of H5 subtype influenza viruses was developed. The results were compared to the real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Anin vitrotranscribed RNA standard of 970 nucleotides of the hemagglutinin gene was developed and used to determine the assay sensitivity. The developed H5 RT-RPA assay was able to detect one RNA molecule within 7min, while in real-time RT-PCR, at least 90min was required. H5 RT-RPA assay did not detect nucleic acid ...
Since prehistoric times, the Bering Strait area (Beringia) has served as an avenue of dispersal between the Old and the New Worlds. On a field expedition to this area, we collected fecal samples from dabbling ducks, geese, shorebirds, and gulls on the Chukchi Peninsula, Siberia, and Pt. Barrow, Alaska, and characterized the subtypes of avian influenza virus present in them. Four of 202 samples (2%) from Alaska were positive for influenza A virus RNA in two independent polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based screening assays, while all shorebird samples from the Chukchi Peninsula were negative. Subtypes H3N8 and H6N1 were recorded once, while subtype H8N4 was found in two samples. Full-length sequences were obtained from the three unique isolates, and phylogenetic analysis with representative sequences for the Eurasian and North American lineages of influenza A virus showed that one HA gene clustered with the ...
Common symptoms of influenza infection include fever, chills, sore throat, muscle pains, severe headache, weakness/fatigue, and a nonproductive cough. Certain patients, including infants, the elderly, the immunocompromised, and those with impaired lung function, are at risk for serious complications. Influenza viruses cause annual outbreaks of influenza worldwide. In Canada, influenza or "flu" season usually runs from November to April and an estimated 10-25% of Canadians may get the flu each year. Although most of these people recover completely, an estimated 4,000 to 8,000 Canadians, mostly seniors, die every year from pneumonia related to influenza and many others may die from other serious complications of influenza.. Influenza infection may be treated ...
Influenza Influenza virus got first acknowledged in 1933. There are two main types of influenza: influenza A and influenza B. Influenza A usually causes a more severe illness than influenza B. So what is influenza exactly? Influenza or flu (as we know it commonly) is a respiratory illness associated with infection by influenza virus. Some of the symptoms of influenza are headache, fever, cough, cold, sore throat, aching muscles and joints. Though, these symptoms are mild, there may arise serious complications like bronchitis and secondary bacterial pneumonia. However you dont need to worry if you are attacked by the ...
Influenza A virus causes influenza in birds and some mammals, and is the only species of influenza virus A genus of the Orthomyxoviridae family of viruses. Strains of all subtypes of influenza A virus have been isolated from wild birds, although disease is uncommon. Some isolates of influenza A virus cause severe disease both in domestic poultry and, rarely, in humans. Occasionally, viruses are transmitted from wild aquatic birds to domestic poultry, and this may cause an outbreak or give rise to human influenza pandemics. Influenza A viruses are negative-sense, single-stranded, segmented RNA viruses. The several subtypes are labeled according to an H number (for the type of hemagglutinin) and an N number (for the type of neuraminidase). There are 18 different known H ...
Background: In humans, the inability to provide lasting protection against influenza B virus infection is due, in part, to the rapid evolution of the viral surface glycoprotein, haemagglutinin (HA), which leads to a change in its antigenic nature. Therefore, the evolution of the haemagglutinin (HA) an important influenza antigen has and continues to be a subject of intensive research. In this study, we analyzed the evolution occurring in the haemagglutinin of influenza B viruses from Kenya since virological surveillance began in 2005. Methods: Thirty (30) influenza B haemagglutinin sequences of viruses isolated from different parts of the country between 2005-2009 at the NIC were analyzed. Nucleotide sequences, prediction of amino acid sequences, alignments, and phylogenetic tree construction were completed using BioEdit and MEGA® software Results: During the five year study ...
Because fatal infections with highly pathogenic avian influenza A (HPAI) virus subtype H5N1 have been reported in birds of prey, we sought to determine detailed information about the birds susceptibility and protection after vaccination. Ten falcons vaccinated with an inactivated influenza virus (H5N2) vaccine seroconverted. We then challenged 5 vaccinated and 5 nonvaccinated falcons with HPAI (H5N1). All vaccinated birds survived; all unvaccinated birds died within 5 days. For the nonvaccinated birds, histopathologic examination showed tissue degeneration and necrosis, immunohistochemical techniques showed influenza virus antigen in affected tissues, and these birds shed high levels of infectious virus from the oropharynx and cloaca. Vaccinated birds showed no influenza virus antigen in tissues and shed virus at lower titers from the oropharynx only. ...
Public Health in the National News - During the recent government shutdown, news media frequently mentioned that the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) had stopped surveillance testing for the influenza virus. What is surveillance testing and why is tracking influenza outbreaks important? The Nebraska Public Health Labs assistant director, Anthony Sambol, and state training coordinator, Karen Stiles, help shed some light on the process recommended by the CDC.. The Nebraska Department of Health and Human Services Office of Epidemiology has had a comprehensive, statewide influenza surveillance testing system in place since 1999. This system actively tracks the type and incidence of influenza infections in our state. When a patient is diagnosed by the Rapid Influenza Detection Test as having an ...
Background: In June 2009 a global influenza pandemic was declared by the World Health Organisation. A vaccination programme against H1N1 influenza was introduced in many countries from September 2009, but there was low uptake in both the general population and health professionals in many, though not all, countries. Purpose: To examine the psychological and demographic factors associated with uptake of vaccination during the 2009 pandemic. Method: A systematic literature review searching Web of Science and PubMed databases up to 24 January 2011. Results: 37 articles met the study inclusion criteria. Using the framework of Protection Motivation Theory the review found that both the degree of threat experienced in the 2009 pandemic influenza outbreak and perceptions of vaccination as an effective coping strategy were associated with stronger intentions and higher uptake of vaccination. Appraisal of threat ...
Wild birds are considered natural reservoirs of avian influenza virus (AIV) and at least 105 species of wild birds have been reported to harbor these viruses [1]. The migratory nature of these bird populations may help disseminate AIV across countries and continents. Most of the wild birds have been reported to harbor low pathogenic avian influenza (LPAI) viruses [2-5] although highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) viruses have also been isolated from some species [6]. To understand how AIV is evolving in nature, it is important to identify the AIV subtypes circulating within wild bird populations.. A number of surveillance programs have been undertaken to isolate and identify the subtypes of AIV present in wild bird species e.g., waterfowl and geese [3, 7, 8] with limited reports in raptors. Thus, van Borm et al [9] detected HPAI H5N1 in Thai eagles that were smuggled into Belgium and Ducatez et al [10] ...
The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) cleared a new test developed by the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) to diagnose human influenza infections and the highly pathogenic influenza A (H5N1) viruses. The device, called the Human Influenza Virus Real-Time RT-PCR Detection and Characterization Panel (rRT-PCR Flu Panel), uses a molecular biology technique to detect flu virus and differentiate between seasonal and novel influenza. The device is used to isolate and amplify viral genetic material present in secretions taken from a patients nose or throat. The viral genetic material is labeled with fluorescent molecules, which are then detected and analyzed by a diagnostic instrument called the Applied Biosystems 7500 Fast Dx, also cleared today by the FDA for diagnostic use simultaneously with the CDCs rRT-PCR Flu Panel. The test panel ...
P2Y6 receptors are involved in mediating the effect of inactivated avian influenza virus H5N1 on IL-6 and CXCL8 mRNA expression in respiratory epithelium. . Biblioteca virtual para leer y descargar libros, documentos, trabajos y tesis universitarias en PDF. Material universiario, documentación y tareas realizadas por universitarios en nuestra biblioteca. Para descargar gratis y para leer online.
Hemagglutinin (HA) of influenza viruses is a cylindrically shaped homotrimer, where each monomer comprises two disulfide-linked subdomains HA1 and HA2. Influenza infection is initiated by binding of HA1 to its host cell receptors and followed by the fusion between viral and host endosomal membranes mediated by HA2. Human influenza viruses preferentially bind to sialic acid that is linked to galactose by an α2,6-linkage (α2,6), whereas avian and swine influenza viruses preferentially recognize α2,3 or α 2,3/α2,6. For animal influenza viruses to cross host species barriers, their HA proteins must acquire mutations to gain the capacity to allow human-to-human transmission. In this study, the informational spectrum method (ISM), a bioinformatics approach, was applied to identify mutations and to elucidate the contribution to the receptor binding ...
A quantitative real time reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) assay with specific primers recommended by the World Health Organization (WHO) has been widely used successfully for detection and monitoring of the pandemic H1N1/2009 influenza A virus. In this study, we report the design and characterization of a novel set of primers to be used in a qRT-PCR assay for detecting the pandemic H1N1/2009 virus. The newly designed primers target three regions that are highly conserved among the hemagglutinin (HA) genes of the pandemic H1N1/2009 viruses and are different from those targeted by the WHO-recommended primers. The qRT-PCR assays with the newly designed primers are highly specific, and as specific as the WHO-recommended primers for detecting pandemic H1N1/2009 viruses and other influenza viruses including influenza B viruses and influenza A viruses of ...
Influenza virus infection is one of the major causes of human morbidity and mortality. Between humans, this virus spreads mostly via aerosols excreted from the respiratory system. Current means of prevention of influenza virus infection are not entirely satisfactory because of their limited efficacy. Safe and effective preventive measures against pandemic influenza are greatly needed. We demonstrate that infection of mice induced by aerosols of influenza A virus was prevented by chlorine dioxide (ClO2) gas at an extremely low concentration (below the long-term permissible exposure level to humans, namely 0.1 p.p.m.). Mice in semi-closed cages were exposed to aerosols of influenza A virus (1 LD50) and ClO2 gas (0.03 p.p.m.) simultaneously for 15 min. Three days after exposure, pulmonary virus titre (TCID50) was 102.6±1.5 in five mice treated ...
Vaccination against influenza and Streptococcus pneumoniae is recommended for elderly and immunocompromised individuals. However, there is little information concerning the efficacy of vaccination in specific groups of patients. In this study, 52 patients underwent vaccination against influenza, S. pneumoniae and Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) as they attended hospital outpatient clinics. Serum was analysed prior to vaccination and 4-6 weeks afterwards. Antibody titres against S. pneumoniae and Hib were compared with reference values corresponding to the geometric mean titres of a healthy UK population. For influenza vaccination, haemagglutination inhibition (HI) titres were measured against three inactivated strains; a titre of , or = 1/40 was considered protective. No patient had protective titres to all three antigens prior to vaccination and 41 patients (85%) had ...
Serological assays based on hemagglutination inhibition (HI) are historically the most common way to determine antigenic characteristics of influenza A viruses, and the HI test also serves as a functional assay for detection of anti-influenza antibodies in sera.11 The HI test exploits the ability of influenza viruses to agglutinate red blood cells (RBCs), a characteristic for which the HA gene was named. Thus, an influenza virus can be identified as to its subtype in an HI assay. A standard concentration of influenza virus (antigen) and serial dilutions of HA-subtype-specific antiserum are mixed, and after a short incubation period, RBCs are added to the antigen-antibody mixture.12 If the serum antibodies bind to the viral hemagglutinin, hemagglutination is inhibited, and the RBCs settle to the bottom of the test well. Hemagglutination ...
Phylogenetic analyses performed in this study and by others (7, 19, 24) have shown that each segment of the pandemic H1N1 2009 influenza virus clusters with an established swine influenza lineage, suggesting that the progenitors of this virus likely originated in pigs. In previously documented instances of swine influenza virus infections of people, only limited human transmission was evident (22, 23, 30). The pandemic H1N1 2009 virus has demonstrated the ability for sustained human-to-human transmission, and the results of this and an associated study (10) confirm that the virus is also capable of human-to-swine, swine-to-swine, and swine-to-human transmission.. Based on a presumed single point source of infection for this swine herd (10), it is worth noting that none of the isolates, based on the sequences obtained for the H1, N1, NP, or M gene, were identical. This is in contrast to the apparent genetic ...
Currently, this region is battling against highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) virus H5N1 and the virus has been isolated in non-poultry birds in various countries in Middle East as well as in the European and African continents. These developments have ignited global fears of an imminent influenza pandemic. The adoption of a vaccination policy, targeted either to control or to prevent infection in poultry, is generally discouraged. Nevertheless, the need to boost eradication efforts in order to limit further spread of infection and avoid heavy economic losses, and advances in modern vaccine technologies, have prompted a re-evaluation of the potential use of vaccination in poultry as an additional tool in comprehensive disease control strategies. Hence, several types of vaccines are available and some of them have been tested experimentally and/or used in commercial farms. DNA vaccines ...
McElligott JT, Darden PM. Pediatrics 2010 Mar;125(3):e467-72. PMID: 20156897. OBJECTIVE: The goal was to determine whether patient-held vaccination records improve vaccination rates.. METHODS: The public-use files of the 2004-2006 National Immunization Survey, a national, validated survey of households with children 19 to 35 months of age, were used. The main outcome was up-to-date (UTD) vaccination status (4 diphtheria-tetanus-acellular pertussis/diphtheria-tetanus vaccine, 3 poliovirus vaccine, 1 measles vaccine, 3 Haemophilus influenza type B vaccine, and 3 hepatitis B vaccine doses), and the main predictor was the use of a vaccination record. Control variables were race/ethnicity, maternal education, poverty status, language, number of children in the home, state of residence, and number of health care providers.. RESULTS: Overall, 80.8% of children were UTD, and 40.8% of children had ...
As of April 27, 2009, the Government of Mexico has reported 18 laboratory confirmed human cases of swine influenza A/H1N1 infection. Investigation is continuing to clarify the spread and severity of the disease in Mexico. Suspect clinical cases have been reported in 19 of the countrys 32 states. The World Health Organization (WHO), the Global Alert and Response Network (GOARN), and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) have sent experts to Mexico to work with health authorities. CDC has confirmed that seven of 14 respiratory specimens sent to CDC by the Mexican National Influenza Center are positive for swine influenza virus and are similar to the swine influenza viruses recently identified in the United States.. On April 25, the WHO Director-General declared this event a Public Health Emergency of International Concern under the rules of the International ...
The 64-year-old male patient from Kunming, who was known to have contact with dead poultry, had onset on November 21 and was in a serious condition.. "This is the first human case reported in the Mainland since October 2017. As winter approaches, based on the seasonal pattern of avian influenza (H7N9) viruses, their activity in the Mainland is expected to increase," a spokesman for the Hong Kong Centre for Health Protection (CHP). LISTEN: H7N9 avian influenza in China: Should we be worried?. Since 2013, 1,564 human cases have been reported with all but 31 reported in China. 766 cases have been reported just since Oct. 2016.. Most human cases are exposed to avian influenza A(H7N9) virus through contact with infected poultry or contaminated environments, including live poultry markets. Since the virus continues to be detected in animals and environments, and live poultry vending continues, ...
WHO/Europe aim to reduce influenza-related morbidity and mortality by strengthening virological and epidemiological surveillance for mild and severe influenza; using surveillance data to estimate the burden of influenza in order to prioritize national influenza vaccination programmes; and maintaining and strengthening pandemic preparedness activities at the national level. WHO/Europe also monitors the emergence of other respiratory pathogens that have the potential to spread among humans. These include coronaviruses, which cause a range of illnesses from severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) and Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) to the common cold.. ...

WHO recommendations for influenza virus vaccine composition for the 2018-2019 Northern hemisphere seasonWHO recommendations for influenza virus vaccine composition for the 2018-2019 Northern hemisphere season

... agreed on the recommended composition of the trivalent influenza vaccine for the northern hemisphere 2018-2019 influenza season ... WHO: Recommended composition of influenza virus vaccines for use in the 2018- 2019 northern hemisphere influenza season ... Influenza season summaries In the Influenza season summaries you find the ECDC main outputs during the influenza season as well ... WHO recommendations for influenza virus vaccine composition for the 2018 southern hemisphere influenza season ECDC comment - 3 ...
more infohttps://www.ecdc.europa.eu/en/news-events/who-recommendations-influenza-virus-vaccine-composition-2018-2019-northern-hemisphere

Influenza Vaccine Recombinant Monograph for Professionals - Drugs.comInfluenza Vaccine Recombinant Monograph for Professionals - Drugs.com

Influenza Vaccine Recombinant reference guide for safe and effective use from the American Society of Health-System Pharmacists ... Recommended composition of influenza virus vaccines for use in the 2018-2019 northern hemisphere influenza season. Wkly ... inactivated influenza vaccine (i.e., influenza virus vaccine inactivated or influenza vaccine recombinant) can be used.100 112 ... influenza vaccine recombinant (RIV), and influenza vaccine live intranasal (LAIV).100 Influenza virus vaccine inactivated is ...
more infohttps://www.drugs.com/monograph/influenza-vaccine-recombinant.html

Department of Health | Australian influenza report 2012-15 to 28 September 2012 (#9/2012)Department of Health | Australian influenza report 2012-15 to 28 September 2012 (#9/2012)

2013 Southern Hemisphere Vaccine. On 19 September 2012, the WHO recommended that vaccines for the 2013 influenza season ( ... 5 WHO, Recommended composition of influenza virus vaccines for use in the 2013 southern hemisphere influenza season [Accessed ... On 19 September 2012, the WHO recommended that vaccines for the 2013 southern hemisphere influenza season contain the following ... strain in the 2012 Southern Hemisphere seasonal influenza vaccine, it is expected that the vaccine will still offer significant ...
more infohttp://www.health.gov.au/internet/main/publishing.nsf/Content/cda-ozflu-no9-12.htm

Update: Influenza Activity --- United States, August 30, 2009--March 27, 2010, and Composition of the 2010--11 Influenza VaccineUpdate: Influenza Activity --- United States, August 30, 2009--March 27, 2010, and Composition of the 2010--11 Influenza Vaccine

Recommended viruses for influenza vaccines for use in the 2010--2011 northern hemisphere influenza season. Geneva, Switzerland ... 11 Influenza Vaccine. WHO has recommended vaccine strains for the 2010--11 Northern Hemisphere trivalent influenza vaccine, and ... 10 influenza season, through March 27, 2010, and also reports on the 2010--11 Northern Hemisphere influenza vaccine strain ... 11 Northern Hemisphere vaccines belongs to the B/Victoria lineage. The 23 influenza B viruses characterized to date this season ...
more infohttps://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/preview/mmwrhtml/mm5914a3.htm

Department of Health | Australian influenza report 2010 -  23 - 29 October 2010 (#43/10)Department of Health | Australian influenza report 2010 - 23 - 29 October 2010 (#43/10)

2011 Southern Hemisphere Vaccine. The WHO has recommended that the composition of vaccines for use in the 2011 influenza season ... Recommended composition of influenza virus vaccines for use in the 2011 southern hemisphere influenza season. Available from ... The 2011 composition is the same as the current 2010 Southern Hemisphere influenza vaccine.. 4. International Influenza ... The WHO has reported that influenza activity is decreasing in most parts of the Southern Hemisphere and the season does not ...
more infohttp://www.health.gov.au/internet/main/publishing.nsf/Content/cda-ozflu-no43-10.htm

A Re-licensing Study to Assess the Efficacy of Inflexal V Formulated With WHO Recommended 2009/2010 Influenza Virus Strains for...A Re-licensing Study to Assess the Efficacy of Inflexal V Formulated With WHO Recommended 2009/2010 Influenza Virus Strains for...

This study is to assess whether the Northern Hemisphere 2009/2010 season influenza vaccine Inflexal V fulfills the EMEA ... Drug Information available for: Influenza Vaccines U.S. FDA Resources Further study details as provided by Crucell Holland BV: ... Inflexal V influenza vaccine, formulated for the WHO requirements of the 2009-2010 season, containing per 0.5 mL dose:. *15 µg ... Inflexal V influenza vaccine, formulated for the WHO requirements of the 2009-2010 season, containing per 0.5 mL dose:. *15 µg ...
more infohttps://clinicaltrials.gov/show/NCT01306253

Latitudinal Patterns of Travel Among Returned Travelers With Influenza: Results From the GeoSentinel Surveillance Network, 1997...Latitudinal Patterns of Travel Among Returned Travelers With Influenza: Results From the GeoSentinel Surveillance Network, 1997...

Alternate hemisphere and out-of-season influenza vaccine availability may benefit a small proportion of travelers. As noted ... Marti F, Steffen R, Mutsch M. Influenza vaccine: a travelers vaccine? Exp Rev Vaccines 2008; 7:679-687.. *CrossRef , ... Conclusions. Alternate hemisphere and out-of-season influenza vaccine availability may benefit a small proportion of travelers ... Use of northern hemisphere influenza vaccines by travelers to the southern hemisphere. MMWR Morbid Mortal Wkly Rep 2009; 58:312 ...
more infohttp://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1708-8305.2011.00579.x/full

Seqirus Releases Real-World Data Indicating Significantly Greater Effectiveness of Cell-Based Seasonal Influenza Vaccines...Seqirus Releases Real-World Data Indicating Significantly Greater Effectiveness of Cell-Based Seasonal Influenza Vaccines...

... today released a new real-world evidence analysis indicating that its cell-based quadrivalent influenza vaccine (QIVc) was 36. ... Seasonal Influenza Vaccine during the 2017-2018 Northern Hemisphere Influenza Season. Presented at NFID Clinical Vaccinology ... indicating-significantly-greater-effectiveness-of-cell-based-seasonal-influenza-vaccines-compared-to-standard-influenza-vaccine ... inactive influenza vaccine (QIVc) versus egg-based, quadrivalent, inactive influenza vaccine (QIVe). ...
more infohttps://www.medindia.net/health-press-release/Seqirus-Releases-Real-World-Data-Indicating-Significantly-Greater-Effectiveness-of-Cell-Based-Seasonal-Influenza-Vaccines-Compared-to-Standard-Influenza--393509-1.htm

Public Health-Driven Research and Innovation for Next-Generation Influenza Vaccines, European Union - Volume 25, Number 2...Public Health-Driven Research and Innovation for Next-Generation Influenza Vaccines, European Union - Volume 25, Number 2...

... but unpredictable antigenic changes in circulating strains require annual modification of seasonal influenza vaccines. Vaccine ... novel vaccines that evoke broadly protective and long-lasting immune responses against both seasonal and pandemic influenza, ... Influenza virus infections are a major public health threat. Vaccination is available, ... During recent influenza seasons, overall vaccine effectiveness has been as low as 19% (in 2014-15 in the Northern Hemisphere) ( ...
more infohttps://wwwnc.cdc.gov/eid/article/25/2/18-0359

Public Health-Driven Research and Innovation for Next-Generation Influenza Vaccines, European Union - Volume 25, Number 2...Public Health-Driven Research and Innovation for Next-Generation Influenza Vaccines, European Union - Volume 25, Number 2...

... but unpredictable antigenic changes in circulating strains require annual modification of seasonal influenza vaccines. Vaccine ... novel vaccines that evoke broadly protective and long-lasting immune responses against both seasonal and pandemic influenza, ... Influenza virus infections are a major public health threat. Vaccination is available, ... During recent influenza seasons, overall vaccine effectiveness has been as low as 19% (in 2014-15 in the Northern Hemisphere) ( ...
more infohttps://wwwnc.cdc.gov/eid/article/25/2/18-0359_article

Summary of the 2016-2017 Influenza Season | CDCSummary of the 2016-2017 Influenza Season | CDC

... viruses analyzed this season have remained like the vaccine viruses recommended for production of Northern Hemisphere vaccines ... For more information visit: FLUAD™ Flu Vaccine With Adjuvant.. How well will flu vaccines work this season?. Influenza vaccine ... Season Summary Reports. *Seasonal Influenza Vaccine Effectiveness, 2016-2017. *Vaccine Benefits from the 2016 - 2017 Flu Season ... Live attenuated influenza vaccine (LAIV) - or the nasal spray vaccine - is not recommended for use during the 2016-2017 season ...
more infohttps://espanol.cdc.gov/enes/flu/about/season/flu-season-2016-2017.htm

Safety and Reactogenicity of FluBlok and Comparison of Immunogenicity, Efficacy and Effectiveness Against TIV - Full Text View ...Safety and Reactogenicity of FluBlok and Comparison of Immunogenicity, Efficacy and Effectiveness Against TIV - Full Text View ...

Use of experimental vaccines or any influenza vaccine other than FluBlOk after May 31st 2007 for the 2008 Southern Hemisphere ... or 2007 to 2008 Northern hemisphere epidemic seasons.. *History of severe reactions following immunization with influenza virus ... Influenza Biological: FluBlok Influenza Vaccination Biological: TIV (Fluzone) Influenza Vaccination Phase 3 ... Receipt of any other licensed vaccines within 2 weeks (for inactivated vaccines) or 4 weeks (for live vaccines) prior to ...
more infohttps://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT00539864?term=flublok&rank=4

ISRCTN - ISRCTN40098615: Assessment of the immunogenicity and safety of the Northern Hemisphere 2008/2009-season influenza...ISRCTN - ISRCTN40098615: Assessment of the immunogenicity and safety of the Northern Hemisphere 2008/2009-season influenza...

The Northern Hemisphere 2008/2009-season influenza vaccine fulfills the European Medicines Agency (EMEA) requirements for re- ... registration of influenza vaccines. Ethics approval. Ethics approval received from the Local Medical Ethics Committee ( ... Assessment of the immunogenicity and safety of the Northern Hemisphere 2008/2009-season influenza vaccine in elderly and young ... Influenza Intervention. Biological: single dose of trivalent virosomal adjuvanted influenza vaccine (Inflexal® V). Total ...
more infohttp://www.isrctn.com/ISRCTN40098615

Avian Flu Diary: WHO: Recommended Composition Of 2017-2018 Northern Hemisphere Flu VaccineAvian Flu Diary: WHO: Recommended Composition Of 2017-2018 Northern Hemisphere Flu Vaccine

Recommended composition of influenza virus vaccines for use in the 2017-2018 northern hemisphere influenza season - full report ... Recommended composition of influenza virus vaccines for use in the 2017-2018 northern hemisphere influenza season ... It is recommended that trivalent vaccines for use in the 2017-2018 northern hemisphere influenza season contain the following: ... and to decide on the composition of the next influenza seasons flu vaccine.. NIAID has a terrific 3-minute video that shows ...
more infohttp://afludiary.blogspot.com/2017/03/who-recommended-composition-of-2017.html

Avian Flu Diary: WHO: Recommended Composition Of 2016-2017 Northern Hemisphere Flu VaccineAvian Flu Diary: WHO: Recommended Composition Of 2016-2017 Northern Hemisphere Flu Vaccine

Recommended composition of influenza virus vaccines for use in the 2016-2017 northern hemisphere influenza season - full report ... Recommended composition of influenza virus vaccines for use in the 2016-2017 northern hemisphere influenza season ... It is recommended that trivalent vaccines for use in the 2016-2017 influenza season (northern hemisphere winter) contain the ... and to decide on the composition of the next influenza seasons flu vaccine. Due to the time it takes to manufacture and ...
more infohttp://afludiary.blogspot.com/2016/02/who-recommended-composition-of-2016.html

FDA Committee Recommends 2018-2019 Influenza Vaccine StrainsFDA Committee Recommends 2018-2019 Influenza Vaccine Strains

The FDAs Vaccines and Related Biological Products Advisory Committee chose the influenza vaccine strains for the 2018-2019 ... season, after disappointing vaccine effectiveness during the 2017-2018 season. ... Vaccines and Related Biological Products Advisory Committee has chosen the influenza vaccine strains for the 2018-2019 season ... in the Northern Hemisphere, which begins in the fall of 2018.. On February 22, the World Health Organization made its ...
more infohttps://www.medscape.com/viewarticle/893314

Canadian Immunization Guide Chapter on Influenza and Statement on Seasonal Influenza Vaccine for 2019-2020 - Canada.caCanadian Immunization Guide Chapter on Influenza and Statement on Seasonal Influenza Vaccine for 2019-2020 - Canada.ca

... updates NACIs recommendations regarding the use of seasonal influenza vaccines. ... Canadian Immunization Guide Chapter on Influenza and Statement on Seasonal Influenza Vaccine for 2019-2020, ... of influenza virus vaccines are typically available in February of each year for the upcoming season in the Northern Hemisphere ... Influenza vaccine is safe and well-tolerated. Influenza vaccine cannot cause influenza illness because inactivated influenza ...
more infohttps://www.canada.ca/en/public-health/services/publications/vaccines-immunization/canadian-immunization-guide-statement-seasonal-influenza-vaccine-2019-2020.html?utm_source=Canadian+Public+Health+Assocation&utm_campaign=b0a635bf47-EMAIL_CAMPAIGN_2019_06_01_06_31&utm_medium=email&utm_term=0_1f88f45ba0-b0a635bf47-149398619

Influenza | WHO | Regional Office for AfricaInfluenza | WHO | Regional Office for Africa

... the water we drink and the medicines and vaccines that treat and protect us. The Organization aims to provide every child, ... Influenza infection is transmitted through respiratory droplets or contact and is clinically indistinguishable from other ... Influenza is an acute viral respiratory disease that is often characterized by fever, headache, myalgia, sore throat and cough ... recommends seasonal influenza vaccine compositions twice a year for the Northern and Southern hemisphere influenza seasons, and ...
more infohttps://www.afro.who.int/health-topics/influenza

Influenza | Regional Office for AfricaInfluenza | Regional Office for Africa

... the water we drink and the medicines and vaccines that treat and protect us. The Organization aims to provide every child, ... Influenza infection is transmitted through respiratory droplets or contact and is clinically indistinguishable from other ... Influenza is an acute viral respiratory disease that is often characterized by fever, headache, myalgia, sore throat and cough ... recommends seasonal influenza vaccine compositions twice a year for the Northern and Southern hemisphere influenza seasons, and ...
more infohttps://www.afro.who.int/fr/node/8126

WHO | Recommended composition of influenza virus vaccines for use in the 2014 southern hemisphere influenza seasonWHO | Recommended composition of influenza virus vaccines for use in the 2014 southern hemisphere influenza season

Candidate viruses for vaccine development and production for the sourthern hemisphere 2014. * Influenza A(H1N1)pdm09. pdf, ... Recommended composition of influenza virus vaccines for use in the 2014 southern hemisphere influenza season. 26 September 2013 ... It is recommended that trivalent vaccines for use in the 2014 influenza season (southern hemisphere winter) contain the ... Recommended composition of influenza virus vaccines for use in the 2014 influenza season - full report. pdf, 193kb ...
more infohttp://origin.who.int/entity/influenza/vaccines/virus/recommendations/2014_south/en/

FDA Approves Additional Vaccine for Upcoming Influenza Season  |  WebWireFDA Approves Additional Vaccine for Upcoming Influenza Season | WebWire

... an influenza vaccine to immunize people 18 years of age and older against the disease caused by strains of influe... ... With the addition of FluLaval, there are now five FDA-licensed vaccines for the United States for the upcoming influenza season ... older against the disease caused by strains of influenza virus judged likely to cause seasonal flu in the Northern Hemisphere ... the manufacturers have projected making a total of about 115 million doses of influenza vaccine for the 2006 2007 season, but ...
more infohttps://www.webwire.com/ViewPressRel.asp?aId=21684

Whats new in the world of pandemic and avian flu?: February 2010What's new in the world of pandemic and avian flu?: February 2010

... and vaccine manufacturers on the viruses to be included in influenza vaccines for the next northern hemisphere season. WHO ... Twice a year, influenza experts meet to make recommendations on the composition of the next seasons influenza vaccines. Next ... In contrast to many other vaccines, the viruses in influenza vaccines are replaced frequently because circulating influenza ... and to make recommendations to WHO of which influenza viruses should be contained in influenza vaccine for the upcoming season ...
more infohttp://avianflunetwork.blogspot.com/2010/02/

Assessment of an optimized manufacturing process for inactivated quadrivalent influenza vaccine: a phase III, randomized,...Assessment of an optimized manufacturing process for inactivated quadrivalent influenza vaccine: a phase III, randomized,...

Two phylogenetically and antigenically distinct influenza B lineages (B/Yamagata and B/Victoria) emerged globally in humans in ... Recommended composition of influenza virus vaccines for use in the 2014-2015 northern hemisphere influenza season. 20 February ... Influenza Vaccines - United States, 2014-15 Influenza Season. November 2014, http://​www.​cdc.​gov/​flu/​protect/​vaccine/​ ... Influenza Vaccines - United States, 2014-15 Influenza Season. November 2014, http://​www.​cdc.​gov/​flu/​protect/​vaccine/​ ...
more infohttps://www.springermedizin.de/assessment-of-an-optimized-manufacturing-process-for-inactivated/15703236

WHO | Recommended composition of influenza virus vaccines for use in the 2013-14 northern hemisphere influenza seasonWHO | Recommended composition of influenza virus vaccines for use in the 2013-14 northern hemisphere influenza season

Candidate viruses for vaccine development and production for the northern hemisphere 2013-14. * Influenza A(H1N1)pdm09. pdf, ... Recommended composition of influenza virus vaccines for use in the 2013-14 northern hemisphere influenza season. 21 February ... It is recommended that trivalent vaccines for use in the 2013-14 influenza season (northern hemisphere winter) contain the ... Recommended composition of influenza virus vaccines for use in the 2013-14 influenza season - full report. pdf, 230kb ...
more infohttp://www9.who.int/entity/influenza/vaccines/virus/recommendations/2013_14_north/en/
  • The facility was purpose-built in partnership with the Biomedical Advanced Research and Development Authority (BARDA) to combat pandemic influenza threats. (medindia.net)
  • We know that the most effective approach to saving lives from pandemic influenza is to develop innovative technology that is used to combat seasonal influenza," said BARDA Director Rick Bright , Ph.D. "Today's announcement further underscores the positive impact public-private partnerships can have on the ability to protect people in our nation and around the world from the devastating impact of influenza. (medindia.net)
  • The European Union fosters research and innovation to develop novel vaccines that evoke broadly protective and long-lasting immune responses against both seasonal and pandemic influenza, underpinned by a political commitment to global public health. (cdc.gov)
  • US economic loss due to pandemic influenza has been estimated at up to US $45.3 billion in GDP losses ( 5 ). (cdc.gov)
  • Pandemic influenza is caused by a new or novel influenza that is introduced into a population where few people are immune. (who.int)
  • In view of these considerations, it is widely accepted that improved and alternative vaccines are needed for control of seasonal and pandemic influenza. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • This report describes the contribution of influenza laboratories and national influenza centres in countries in the WHO Region for the Eastern Mediterranean to the selection process of seasonal and pre-pandemic influenza virus subtypes. (who.int)
  • However, enhancing the contribution through initiatives such as the Pandemic Influenza Preparedness Framework is still needed. (who.int)
  • According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), the manufacturers have projected making a total of about 115 million doses of influenza vaccine for the 2006 2007 season, but these projections could change as manufacturing continues. (webwire.com)
  • Influenza antigen preparation varies between manufacturers. (europa.eu)
  • Does a low HI titer (meaning antigenic novelty) for a virus antigen relative to an antiserum of a virus that is currently prevalent mean that the new virus will likely dominate in the next season? (stackexchange.com)
  • Browse other questions tagged virology data antigen influenza or ask your own question . (stackexchange.com)
  • Avian influenza can also infect humans and the first cases of human infection with a highly pathogenic avian influenza (A/H5N1) were reported in 1997 in Hong Kong Special Administrative Region, China. (who.int)
  • In addition to A/H5N1 an increasing number of other avian influenza A viruses are being recognised as causing sporadic infections in humans. (who.int)
  • A number of avian influenza outbreaks have been reported in the African region resulting in the large scale death or destruction of backyard and commercial poultry, however few human cases have been reported. (who.int)
  • Further antigenic and genetic characteristics of recent seasonal influenza viruses are described in the full report of the recommendation. (europa.eu)
  • States are requested to submit a subset of their influenza virus isolates to CDC for antigenic characterization. (cdc.gov)
  • Antigenic variation (high or low HI titers) is also a part of the decision, but every season has a number of viruses that have low HI titers to the current vaccine and the real question is whether those occasional outliers are just sporadic, or whether they're showing signs of becoming increasingly common. (stackexchange.com)
  • Four component vaccines are recommended to include the same three viruses above, plus an additional B virus called B/Phuket/3073/2013-like virus (B/Yamagata lineage). (cdc.gov)
  • The committee also voted unanimously to include a B/Phuket/3073/2013-like virus (B/Yamagata/16/88 lineage) as the second influenza B strain in the quadrivalent vaccine. (medscape.com)
  • The species diversity of influenza provides the virus with numerous opportunities for reassortment between subtypes, and natural reservoirs of influenza A make elimination of the disease impossible. (cdc.gov)
  • Virus subtypes A(H1) and A(H3) caused 51.6 % and 48.4 % of influenza A cases, respectively. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Swine were considered the original "intermediate host" for influenza, because they supported reassortment of divergent subtypes. (wikipedia.org)
  • Proportionate morbidity estimates by region of travel can inform pre-travel consultation and emphasize the ease of acquisition of infections such as influenza during travel. (wiley.com)
  • Influenza virus infections are a major public health threat. (cdc.gov)
  • During February 14--March 27, states in the Southeast (Alabama, Florida, Georgia, Kentucky, Mississippi, North Carolina, South Carolina, and Tennessee) accounted for approximately 55% of the influenza positives reported but only 20% of the specimens tested. (cdc.gov)
  • The timing of influenza activity and the predominant circulating virus in the Southern Hemisphere during May 19–September 28, 2019 varied by region. (cdc.gov)
  • Five influenza-associated pediatric deaths occurring during this period were reported to CDC. (cdc.gov)