Severe or complete loss of motor function on one side of the body. This condition is usually caused by BRAIN DISEASES that are localized to the cerebral hemisphere opposite to the side of weakness. Less frequently, BRAIN STEM lesions; cervical SPINAL CORD DISEASES; PERIPHERAL NERVOUS SYSTEM DISEASES; and other conditions may manifest as hemiplegia. The term hemiparesis (see PARESIS) refers to mild to moderate weakness involving one side of the body.
Loss of the ability to comprehend the meaning or recognize the importance of various forms of stimulation that cannot be attributed to impairment of a primary sensory modality. Tactile agnosia is characterized by an inability to perceive the shape and nature of an object by touch alone, despite unimpaired sensation to light touch, position, and other primary sensory modalities.
A heterogeneous group of nonprogressive motor disorders caused by chronic brain injuries that originate in the prenatal period, perinatal period, or first few years of life. The four major subtypes are spastic, athetoid, ataxic, and mixed cerebral palsy, with spastic forms being the most common. The motor disorder may range from difficulties with fine motor control to severe spasticity (see MUSCLE SPASTICITY) in all limbs. Spastic diplegia (Little disease) is the most common subtype, and is characterized by spasticity that is more prominent in the legs than in the arms. Pathologically, this condition may be associated with LEUKOMALACIA, PERIVENTRICULAR. (From Dev Med Child Neurol 1998 Aug;40(8):520-7)
Abnormal increase in skeletal or smooth muscle tone. Skeletal muscle hypertonicity may be associated with PYRAMIDAL TRACT lesions or BASAL GANGLIA DISEASES.
The observation of successive phases of MOVEMENT by use of a flashing light.
A variety of techniques used to help individuals utilize their voice for various purposes and with minimal use of muscle energy.
Sense of movement of a part of the body, such as movement of fingers, elbows, knees, limbs, or weights.
Methods or programs of physical activities which can be used to promote, maintain, or restore the physical and physiological well-being of an individual.
Congenital or acquired paralysis of one or both VOCAL CORDS. This condition is caused by defects in the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM, the VAGUS NERVE and branches of LARYNGEAL NERVES. Common symptoms are VOICE DISORDERS including HOARSENESS or APHONIA.
Refusal to admit the truth or reality of a situation or experience.
A diminution of the skeletal muscle tone marked by a diminished resistance to passive stretching.
Manner or style of walking.
A neurosurgical procedure that removes or disconnects the epileptogenic CEREBRAL CORTEX of a hemisphere. Hemispherectomy is usually performed for patients with intractable unilateral EPILEPSY due to malformations of cortical development or brain lesions. Depending on the epileptogenic area in the hemisphere, cortical removal can be total or partial.
The formation of an area of NECROSIS in the CEREBRUM caused by an insufficiency of arterial or venous blood flow. Infarcts of the cerebrum are generally classified by hemisphere (i.e., left vs. right), lobe (e.g., frontal lobe infarction), arterial distribution (e.g., INFARCTION, ANTERIOR CEREBRAL ARTERY), and etiology (e.g., embolic infarction).
Difficulty and/or pain in PHONATION or speaking.
Chairs mounted on wheels and designed to be propelled by the occupant.
A spectrum of pathological conditions of impaired blood flow in the brain. They can involve vessels (ARTERIES or VEINS) in the CEREBRUM, the CEREBELLUM, and the BRAIN STEM. Major categories include INTRACRANIAL ARTERIOVENOUS MALFORMATIONS; BRAIN ISCHEMIA; CEREBRAL HEMORRHAGE; and others.
Radiographic visualization of the cerebral ventricles by injection of air or other gas.
A group of pathological conditions characterized by sudden, non-convulsive loss of neurological function due to BRAIN ISCHEMIA or INTRACRANIAL HEMORRHAGES. Stroke is classified by the type of tissue NECROSIS, such as the anatomic location, vasculature involved, etiology, age of the affected individual, and hemorrhagic vs. non-hemorrhagic nature. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp777-810)
Disorders that feature impairment of eye movements as a primary manifestation of disease. These conditions may be divided into infranuclear, nuclear, and supranuclear disorders. Diseases of the eye muscles or oculomotor cranial nerves (III, IV, and VI) are considered infranuclear. Nuclear disorders are caused by disease of the oculomotor, trochlear, or abducens nuclei in the BRAIN STEM. Supranuclear disorders are produced by dysfunction of higher order sensory and motor systems that control eye movements, including neural networks in the CEREBRAL CORTEX; BASAL GANGLIA; CEREBELLUM; and BRAIN STEM. Ocular torticollis refers to a head tilt that is caused by an ocular misalignment. Opsoclonus refers to rapid, conjugate oscillations of the eyes in multiple directions, which may occur as a parainfectious or paraneoplastic condition (e.g., OPSOCLONUS-MYOCLONUS SYNDROME). (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p240)
Assessment of sensory and motor responses and reflexes that is used to determine impairment of the nervous system.
A form of muscle hypertonia associated with upper MOTOR NEURON DISEASE. Resistance to passive stretch of a spastic muscle results in minimal initial resistance (a "free interval") followed by an incremental increase in muscle tone. Tone increases in proportion to the velocity of stretch. Spasticity is usually accompanied by HYPERREFLEXIA and variable degrees of MUSCLE WEAKNESS. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p54)
Application of electric current in treatment without the generation of perceptible heat. It includes electric stimulation of nerves or muscles, passage of current into the body, or use of interrupted current of low intensity to raise the threshold of the skin to pain.
Moving a patient into a specific position or POSTURE to facilitate examination, surgery, or for therapeutic purposes.
A general term referring to a mild to moderate degree of muscular weakness, occasionally used as a synonym for PARALYSIS (severe or complete loss of motor function). In the older literature, paresis often referred specifically to paretic neurosyphilis (see NEUROSYPHILIS). "General paresis" and "general paralysis" may still carry that connotation. Bilateral lower extremity paresis is referred to as PARAPARESIS.
The superior part of the upper extremity between the SHOULDER and the ELBOW.
The region of the upper limb in animals, extending from the deltoid region to the HAND, and including the ARM; AXILLA; and SHOULDER.
Apparatus used to support, align, prevent, or correct deformities or to improve the function of movable parts of the body.
Performance of complex motor acts.
A condition characterized by long-standing brain dysfunction or damage, usually of three months duration or longer. Potential etiologies include BRAIN INFARCTION; certain NEURODEGENERATIVE DISORDERS; CRANIOCEREBRAL TRAUMA; ANOXIA, BRAIN; ENCEPHALITIS; certain NEUROTOXICITY SYNDROMES; metabolic disorders (see BRAIN DISEASES, METABOLIC); and other conditions.
Plantar declination of the foot.
NECROSIS occurring in the ANTERIOR CEREBRAL ARTERY system, including branches such as Heubner's artery. These arteries supply blood to the medial and superior parts of the CEREBRAL HEMISPHERE, Infarction in the anterior cerebral artery usually results in sensory and motor impairment in the lower body.
Therapeutic modalities frequently used in PHYSICAL THERAPY SPECIALTY by PHYSICAL THERAPISTS or physiotherapists to promote, maintain, or restore the physical and physiological well-being of an individual.
The act of "taking account" of an object or state of affairs. It does not imply assessment of, nor attention to the qualities or nature of the object.
Cognitive disorders characterized by an impaired ability to perceive the nature of objects or concepts through use of the sense organs. These include spatial neglect syndromes, where an individual does not attend to visual, auditory, or sensory stimuli presented from one side of the body.
A syndrome characterized by severe burning pain in an extremity accompanied by sudomotor, vasomotor, and trophic changes in bone without an associated specific nerve injury. This condition is most often precipitated by trauma to soft tissue or nerve complexes. The skin over the affected region is usually erythematous and demonstrates hypersensitivity to tactile stimuli and erythema. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1360; Pain 1995 Oct;63(1):127-33)
A subtype of migraine disorder, characterized by recurrent attacks of reversible neurological symptoms (aura) that precede or accompany the headache. Aura may include a combination of sensory disturbances, such as blurred VISION; HALLUCINATIONS; VERTIGO; NUMBNESS; and difficulty in concentrating and speaking. Aura is usually followed by features of the COMMON MIGRAINE, such as PHOTOPHOBIA; PHONOPHOBIA; and NAUSEA. (International Classification of Headache Disorders, 2nd ed. Cephalalgia 2004: suppl 1)
Treatment for individuals with speech defects and disorders that involves counseling and use of various exercises and aids to help the development of new speech habits.
The act, process, or result of passing from one place or position to another. It differs from LOCOMOTION in that locomotion is restricted to the passing of the whole body from one place to another, while movement encompasses both locomotion but also a change of the position of the whole body or any of its parts. Movement may be used with reference to humans, vertebrate and invertebrate animals, and microorganisms. Differentiate also from MOTOR ACTIVITY, movement associated with behavior.

Functional consequences of mutations in the human alpha1A calcium channel subunit linked to familial hemiplegic migraine. (1/797)

Mutations in alpha1A, the pore-forming subunit of P/Q-type calcium channels, are linked to several human diseases, including familial hemiplegic migraine (FHM). We introduced the four missense mutations linked to FHM into human alpha1A-2 subunits and investigated their functional consequences after expression in human embryonic kidney 293 cells. By combining single-channel and whole-cell patch-clamp recordings, we show that all four mutations affect both the biophysical properties and the density of functional channels. Mutation R192Q in the S4 segment of domain I increased the density of functional P/Q-type channels and their open probability. Mutation T666M in the pore loop of domain II decreased both the density of functional channels and their unitary conductance (from 20 to 11 pS). Mutations V714A and I1815L in the S6 segments of domains II and IV shifted the voltage range of activation toward more negative voltages, increased both the open probability and the rate of recovery from inactivation, and decreased the density of functional channels. Mutation V714A decreased the single-channel conductance to 16 pS. Strikingly, the reduction in single-channel conductance induced by mutations T666M and V714A was not observed in some patches or periods of activity, suggesting that the abnormal channel may switch on and off, perhaps depending on some unknown factor. Our data show that the FHM mutations can lead to both gain- and loss-of-function of human P/Q-type calcium channels.  (+info)

A clinical guide to assess the role of lower limb extensor overactivity in hemiplegic gait disorders. (2/797)

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to assess the role of knee and ankle extensor overactivity in the hemiplegic gait observed in stroke victims and to propose a clinical guide for selecting patients before treatment of a supposed disabling spasticity. METHODS: A standardized physical examination procedure was performed in 135 consecutive stroke patients. All patients were able to walk without human assistance. The period after stroke ranged from 3 to 24 months (mean, 11.5+/-7.25 months). Spasticity was evaluated with the stroke victim in sitting position and during walking. Overactivity of the quadriceps was considered disabling when inducing inability to flex the knee during the swing phase despite adequate control of knee flexion in sitting and standing positions; overactivity of the triceps surae was considered to be disabling when heel strike was not possible despite good control of the ankle flexion in sitting position; triceps retraction was also considered. RESULTS: Disabling overactivity was observed in 56 (41.5%) patients: 11 times for the quadriceps femoris, 21 times for the triceps surae, and 21 times for both muscles. It was considered to be the main disorder impairing gait among only 16 (12%) patients: 9 for the quadriceps alone, 3 for the triceps alone, and 4 for both. Sitting spasticity of the lower limb was not predictive of disabling overactivity during walking. CONCLUSIONS: Extensor muscle overactivity is one of the components of gait disorders in stroke patients. The difficulty in assessing spasticity and its real causal effect in gait disturbances are discussed. A clinical guide is proposed.  (+info)

Activation of selected trunk muscles during symmetric functional activities in poststroke hemiparetic and hemiplegic patients. (3/797)

OBJECTIVE: To compare the EMG activity between the recti abdominii muscles and between the lumbar erector spinae muscles in hemiparetic and hemiplegic patients during functional symmetric trunk movements and to compare patients' EMG activity profiles with those of healthy controls. METHODS: EMG activity from the selected muscles was recorded during three symmetric and time controlled trunk exercises. Data analysis was based on values of cross correlations and of ratios between EMG activity of the bilateral corresponding muscles. RESULTS: In all groups, the highest cross correlations were obtained for both muscles when the muscles acted as prime movers. For the recti abdominii muscles, these values in the patients were comparable with those of the healthy subjects, whereas for the extensor muscles, the highest synchronous activity was displayed in healthy subjects and the lowest in hemiplegic patients. Laterality differences in the amount of EMG activity of the recti abdominii muscles were not biased towards one side. For the extensor muscles, in the controls, the activation levels were higher in the left erector spinae muscle than in the right one in two of the three exercises. Similarly, in the extensor muscles of the hemiparetic patients, activity on the paretic side was higher than on the non-paretic side in two exercises. CONCLUSIONS: In patients with a supratentorial poststroke hemiparesis or hemiplegia, bilateral corresponding axial trunk muscles co-contract during symmetric trunk activities. Synchronous activation is at its highest level during voluntary dynamic tasks and is greater in the recti abdominii than in the erector spinae muscles. For both muscles, EMG activation levels on the paretic side were not lower than on the non-paretic side. Thus, the assertion that the muscles on the paretic side are activated to a lesser extent than their counterparts on the non-paretic side during symmetric trunk movements was not confirmed.  (+info)

Global aphasia without hemiparesis: language profiles and lesion distribution. (4/797)

OBJECTIVES: Global aphasia without hemiparesis (GAWH) is an uncommon stroke syndrome involving receptive and expressive language impairment, without the hemiparesis typically manifested by patients with global aphasia after large left perisylvian lesions. A few cases of GAWH have been reported with conflicting conclusions regarding pathogenesis, lesion localisation, and recovery. The current study was conducted to attempt to clarify these issues. METHODS: Ten cases of GAWH were prospectively studied with language profiles and lesion analysis; five patients had multiple lesions, four patients had a single lesion, and one had a subarachnoid haemorrhage. Eight patients met criteria for cardioembolic ischaemic stroke. RESULTS: Cluster analysis based on acute language profiles disclosed three subtypes of patients with GAWH; these clusters persisted on follow up language assessment. Each cluster evolved into a different aphasia subtype: persistent GAWH, Wernicke's aphasia, or transcortical motor aphasia (TCM). Composite lesion analysis showed that persistent GAWH was related to lesioning of the left superior temporal gyrus. Patients with acute GAWH who evolved into TCM type aphasia had common lesioning of the left inferior frontal gyrus and adjacent subcortical white matter. Patients with acute GAWH who evolved into Wernicke's type aphasia were characterised by lesioning of the left precentral and postcentral gyri. Recovery of language was poor in all but one patient. CONCLUSIONS: Although patients with acute GAWH are similar on neurological examination, they are heterogeneous with respect to early aphasia profile, language recovery, and lesion profile.  (+info)

Sparing effect of hemiplegia on tophaceous gout. (5/797)

The sparing effect of hemiplegia on the development of tophaceous gout is described. The useless upper limb had no tophaceous deposits and the partially paralysed lower limb had only limited urate deposits. Disuse was presumably the major contributor to the limited deposition of urates on the paralysed side.  (+info)

Surgical treatment of internal carotid artery anterior wall aneurysm with extravasation during angiography--case report. (6/797)

A 54-year-old female presented subarachnoid hemorrhage from an aneurysm arising from the anterior (dorsal) wall of the internal carotid artery (ICA). During four-vessel angiography, an extravasated saccular pooling of contrast medium emerged in the suprasellar area unrelated to any arterial branch. The saccular pooling was visualized in the arterial phase and cleared in the venophase during every contrast medium injection. We suspected that the extravasated pooling was surrounded by hard clot but communicated with the artery. Direct surgery was performed but major premature bleeding occurred during the microsurgical procedure. After temporary clipping, an opening of the anterior (dorsal) wall of the ICA was found without apparent aneurysm wall. The vessel wall was sutured with nylon thread. The total occlusion time of the ICA was about 50 minutes. Follow-up angiography demonstrated good patency of the ICA. About 2 years after the operation, the patient was able to walk with a stick and to communicate freely through speech, although left hemiparesis and left homonymous hemianopsia persisted. The outcome suggests our treatment strategy was not optimal, but suture of the ICA wall is one of the therapeutic choices when premature rupture occurs in the operation.  (+info)

Impaired modulation of quadriceps tendon jerk reflex during spastic gait: differences between spinal and cerebral lesions. (7/797)

In healthy subjects, functionally appropriate modulation of short latency leg muscle reflexes occurs during gait. This modulation has been ascribed, in part, to changes in presynaptic inhibition of Ia afferents. The changes in modulation of quadriceps tendon jerk reflexes during gait of healthy subjects were compared with those of hemi- or paraparetic spastic patients. The spasticity was due to unilateral cerebral infarction or traumatic spinal cord injury, respectively. The modulation of the quadriceps femoris tendon jerk reflex at 16 phases of the step cycle was studied. The reflex responses obtained during treadmill walking were compared with control values obtained during gait-mimicking standing postures with corresponding levels of voluntary muscle contraction and knee angles. In healthy subjects the size of the reflexes was profoundly modulated and was generally depressed throughout the step cycle. In patients with spinal lesion the reflex depression during gait was almost removed and was associated with weak or no modulation during the step cycle. In patients with cerebral lesion there was less depression of the reflex size associated with a reduced reflex modulation on the affected side compared with healthy subjects. On the 'unaffected' side of these patients reflex modulation was similar to that of healthy subjects, but the reflex size during gait was not significantly different from standing control values. These observations suggest that the mechanisms responsible for the depression of reflex size and the modulation normally seen during gait in healthy subjects are impaired to different extents in spasticity of spinal or cerebral origin, possibly due to the unilateral preservation of fibre tracts in hemiparesis.  (+info)

Aphasic disorder in patients with closed head injury. (8/797)

Quantitative assessment of 50 patients with closed head injury disclosed that anomic errors and word finding difficulty were prominent sequelae as nearly half of the series had defective scores on tests of naming and/or word association. Aphasic disturbance was associated with severity of brain injury as reflected by prolonged coma and injury of the brain stem.  (+info)

Hemiplegia is a medical term that refers to paralysis affecting one side of the body. It is typically caused by damage to the motor center of the brain, such as from a stroke, head injury, or brain tumor. The symptoms can vary in severity but often include muscle weakness, stiffness, and difficulty with coordination and balance on the affected side. In severe cases, the individual may be unable to move or feel anything on that side of the body. Hemiplegia can also affect speech, vision, and other functions controlled by the damaged area of the brain. Rehabilitation therapy is often recommended to help individuals with hemiplegia regain as much function as possible.

Agnosia is a medical term that refers to the inability to recognize or comprehend the meaning or significance of sensory stimuli, even though the specific senses themselves are intact. It is a higher-level cognitive disorder, caused by damage to certain areas of the brain that are responsible for processing and interpreting information from our senses.

There are different types of agnosia, depending on which sense is affected:

* Visual agnosia: The inability to recognize or identify objects, faces, or shapes based on visual input.
* Auditory agnosia: The inability to understand spoken language or recognize sounds, even though hearing is intact.
* Tactile agnosia: The inability to recognize objects by touch, despite normal tactile sensation.
* Olfactory and gustatory agnosia: The inability to identify smells or tastes, respectively, even though the senses of smell and taste are functioning normally.

Agnosia can result from various causes, including stroke, brain injury, infection, degenerative diseases, or tumors that damage specific areas of the brain involved in sensory processing and interpretation. Treatment for agnosia typically focuses on rehabilitation and compensation strategies to help individuals adapt to their deficits and improve their quality of life.

Cerebral palsy (CP) is a group of disorders that affect a person's ability to move and maintain balance and posture. According to the Mayo Clinic, CP is caused by abnormal brain development or damage to the developing brain that affects a child's ability to control movement.

The symptoms of cerebral palsy can vary in severity and may include:

* Spasticity (stiff or tight muscles)
* Rigidity (resistance to passive movement)
* Poor coordination and balance
* Weakness or paralysis
* Tremors or involuntary movements
* Abnormal gait or difficulty walking
* Difficulty with fine motor skills, such as writing or using utensils
* Speech and language difficulties
* Vision, hearing, or swallowing problems

It's important to note that cerebral palsy is not a progressive condition, meaning that it does not worsen over time. However, the symptoms may change over time, and some individuals with CP may experience additional medical conditions as they age.

Cerebral palsy is usually caused by brain damage that occurs before or during birth, but it can also be caused by brain injuries that occur in the first few years of life. Some possible causes of cerebral palsy include:

* Infections during pregnancy
* Lack of oxygen to the brain during delivery
* Traumatic head injury during birth
* Brain bleeding or stroke in the newborn period
* Genetic disorders
* Maternal illness or infection during pregnancy

There is no cure for cerebral palsy, but early intervention and treatment can help improve outcomes and quality of life. Treatment may include physical therapy, occupational therapy, speech therapy, medications to manage symptoms, surgery, and assistive devices such as braces or wheelchairs.

Muscle hypertonia is a term used to describe an increased tone or tension in the muscles, which can be caused by various medical conditions. This state leads to a reduced ability to stretch the muscle fully, and it may interfere with normal movement. The two main types of muscle hypertonia are spasticity and rigidity.

1. Spasticity: It is a velocity-dependent increase in muscle tone, which means that the resistance to passive movement increases as the speed of the movement increases. This type of hypertonia is often associated with upper motor neuron lesions, such as those caused by stroke, spinal cord injury, or multiple sclerosis.
2. Rigidity: It is a constant and non-velocity dependent increase in muscle tone, meaning that the resistance to passive movement remains consistent regardless of the speed. This type of hypertonia can be seen in conditions like Parkinson's disease.

It is essential to diagnose and manage muscle hypertonia effectively to prevent complications such as contractures, pain, and decreased functional abilities. Treatment options may include physical therapy, medications (like antispasticity agents), orthoses, or surgical interventions in severe cases.

Stroboscopy is a medical examination technique used primarily for the evaluation of voice and swallowing disorders. It involves the use of a strobe light that flickers at a rate equal to or close to the vibration rate of the vocal folds (vocal cords). This allows the examiner to visualize the movement of the vocal folds in slow motion, which can help identify any abnormalities in their movement or structure.

During the procedure, a thin, flexible tube called a stroboscope is inserted through the nose and into the throat. The strobe light is then activated, and the examiner observes the vibration of the vocal folds using an attached camera and video monitor. This technique can help diagnose conditions such as vocal fold nodules, polyps, paralysis, and other disorders that affect voice production.

It's important to note that stroboscopy should be performed by a trained healthcare professional, such as an otolaryngologist (ear, nose, and throat specialist) or speech-language pathologist, who has experience in evaluating voice and swallowing disorders.

"Voice training" is not a term that has a specific medical definition in the field of otolaryngology (ear, nose, and throat medicine) or speech-language pathology. However, voice training generally refers to the process of developing and improving one's vocal skills through various exercises and techniques. This can include training in breath control, pitch, volume, resonance, articulation, and interpretation, among other aspects of vocal production. Voice training is often used to help individuals with voice disorders or professionals such as singers and actors to optimize their vocal abilities. In a medical context, voice training may be recommended or overseen by a speech-language pathologist as part of the treatment plan for a voice disorder.

Kinesthesia, also known as proprioception, refers to the perception or awareness of the position and movement of the body parts in space. It is a type of sensory information that comes from receptors located in muscles, tendons, ligaments, and joints, which detect changes in tension, length, and pressure of these tissues during movement. This information is then sent to the brain, where it is integrated with visual and vestibular (inner ear) inputs to create a sense of body position and movement.

Kinesthesia allows us to perform complex movements and maintain balance without having to consciously think about each movement. It helps us to coordinate our movements, adjust our posture, and navigate through our environment with ease. Deficits in kinesthetic perception can lead to difficulties with motor coordination, balance, and mobility.

"Exercise movement techniques" is a general term that refers to the specific ways in which various exercises are performed. These techniques encompass the proper form, alignment, and range of motion for each exercise, as well as any breathing patterns or other instructions that may be necessary to ensure safe and effective execution.

The purpose of learning and practicing exercise movement techniques is to maximize the benefits of physical activity while minimizing the risk of injury. Proper technique can help to ensure that the intended muscles are being targeted and strengthened, while also reducing strain on surrounding joints and connective tissues.

Examples of exercise movement techniques may include:

* The correct way to perform a squat, lunge, or deadlift, with attention to foot placement, knee alignment, and spinal positioning.
* The proper form for a push-up or pull-up, including how to engage the core muscles and maintain stability throughout the movement.
* Breathing techniques for yoga or Pilates exercises, such as inhaling on the expansion phase of a movement and exhaling on the contraction phase.
* Techniques for proper alignment and posture during cardiovascular activities like running or cycling, to reduce strain on the joints and prevent injury.

Overall, exercise movement techniques are an essential component of any safe and effective fitness program, and should be learned and practiced under the guidance of a qualified instructor or trainer.

Vocal cord paralysis is a medical condition characterized by the inability of one or both vocal cords to move or function properly due to nerve damage or disruption. The vocal cords are two bands of muscle located in the larynx (voice box) that vibrate to produce sound during speech, singing, and breathing. When the nerves that control the vocal cord movements are damaged or not functioning correctly, the vocal cords may become paralyzed or weakened, leading to voice changes, breathing difficulties, and other symptoms.

The causes of vocal cord paralysis can vary, including neurological disorders, trauma, tumors, surgery, or infections. The diagnosis typically involves a physical examination, including a laryngoscopy, to assess the movement and function of the vocal cords. Treatment options may include voice therapy, surgical procedures, or other interventions to improve voice quality and breathing functions.

Muscle hypotonia, also known as decreased muscle tone, refers to a condition where the muscles appear to be flaccid or lacking in tension and stiffness. This results in reduced resistance to passive movements, making the limbs feel "floppy" or "like a rag doll." It can affect any muscle group in the body and can be caused by various medical conditions, including neurological disorders, genetic diseases, and injuries to the nervous system. Hypotonia should not be confused with muscle weakness, which refers to the inability to generate normal muscle strength.

Gait is a medical term used to describe the pattern of movement of the limbs during walking or running. It includes the manner or style of walking, including factors such as rhythm, speed, and step length. A person's gait can provide important clues about their physical health and neurological function, and abnormalities in gait may indicate the presence of underlying medical conditions, such as neuromuscular disorders, orthopedic problems, or injuries.

A typical human gait cycle involves two main phases: the stance phase, during which the foot is in contact with the ground, and the swing phase, during which the foot is lifted and moved forward in preparation for the next step. The gait cycle can be further broken down into several sub-phases, including heel strike, foot flat, midstance, heel off, and toe off.

Gait analysis is a specialized field of study that involves observing and measuring a person's gait pattern using various techniques, such as video recordings, force plates, and motion capture systems. This information can be used to diagnose and treat gait abnormalities, improve mobility and function, and prevent injuries.

A hemispherectomy is a radical surgical procedure that involves the removal or disconnection of one cerebral hemisphere, which is half of the brain. This extensive operation is typically considered as a last resort in the treatment of severe, drug-resistant epilepsy that originates from one side of the brain and has not responded to other forms of therapy. The procedure can help reduce the frequency and severity of seizures, but it carries significant risks, including potential impacts on cognitive function, language, and motor skills, depending on the specific area of the brain that is affected.

Cerebral infarction, also known as a "stroke" or "brain attack," is the sudden death of brain cells caused by the interruption of their blood supply. It is most commonly caused by a blockage in one of the blood vessels supplying the brain (an ischemic stroke), but can also result from a hemorrhage in or around the brain (a hemorrhagic stroke).

Ischemic strokes occur when a blood clot or other particle blocks a cerebral artery, cutting off blood flow to a part of the brain. The lack of oxygen and nutrients causes nearby brain cells to die. Hemorrhagic strokes occur when a weakened blood vessel ruptures, causing bleeding within or around the brain. This bleeding can put pressure on surrounding brain tissues, leading to cell death.

Symptoms of cerebral infarction depend on the location and extent of the affected brain tissue but may include sudden weakness or numbness in the face, arm, or leg; difficulty speaking or understanding speech; vision problems; loss of balance or coordination; and severe headache with no known cause. Immediate medical attention is crucial for proper diagnosis and treatment to minimize potential long-term damage or disability.

Dysphonia is a medical term that refers to difficulty or discomfort in producing sounds or speaking, often characterized by hoarseness, roughness, breathiness, strain, or weakness in the voice. It can be caused by various conditions such as vocal fold nodules, polyps, inflammation, neurological disorders, or injuries to the vocal cords. Dysphonia can affect people of all ages and may impact their ability to communicate effectively, causing social, professional, and emotional challenges. Treatment for dysphonia depends on the underlying cause and may include voice therapy, medication, surgery, or lifestyle modifications.

A wheelchair is defined medically as a mobility aid with wheels, providing the user with increased independence and freedom of movement. It is designed to accommodate individuals who have difficulty walking or are unable to walk due to various reasons such as physical disabilities, illnesses, or injuries. Wheelchairs can be manually propelled by the user or others, or they can be power-driven (motorized). They come in different types and designs, including standard, lightweight, sports, pediatric, bariatric, and reclining wheelchairs, to cater to the diverse needs of users. Some wheelchairs are custom-made to ensure optimal comfort, safety, and functionality for the user.

Cerebrovascular disorders are a group of medical conditions that affect the blood vessels of the brain. These disorders can be caused by narrowing, blockage, or rupture of the blood vessels, leading to decreased blood flow and oxygen supply to the brain. The most common types of cerebrovascular disorders include:

1. Stroke: A stroke occurs when a blood vessel in the brain becomes blocked or bursts, causing a lack of oxygen and nutrients to reach brain cells. This can lead to permanent damage or death of brain tissue.
2. Transient ischemic attack (TIA): Also known as a "mini-stroke," a TIA occurs when blood flow to the brain is temporarily blocked, often by a blood clot. Symptoms may last only a few minutes to a few hours and typically resolve on their own. However, a TIA is a serious warning sign that a full-blown stroke may occur in the future.
3. Aneurysm: An aneurysm is a weakened or bulging area in the wall of a blood vessel. If left untreated, an aneurysm can rupture and cause bleeding in the brain.
4. Arteriovenous malformation (AVM): An AVM is a tangled mass of abnormal blood vessels that connect arteries and veins. This can lead to bleeding in the brain or stroke.
5. Carotid stenosis: Carotid stenosis occurs when the carotid arteries, which supply blood to the brain, become narrowed or blocked due to plaque buildup. This can increase the risk of stroke.
6. Vertebrobasilar insufficiency: This condition occurs when the vertebral and basilar arteries, which supply blood to the back of the brain, become narrowed or blocked. This can lead to symptoms such as dizziness, vertigo, and difficulty swallowing.

Cerebrovascular disorders are a leading cause of disability and death worldwide. Risk factors for these conditions include age, high blood pressure, smoking, diabetes, high cholesterol, and family history. Treatment may involve medications, surgery, or lifestyle changes to reduce the risk of further complications.

Pneumoencephalography is a diagnostic procedure that is rarely used today, due to the development of less invasive techniques. It involves the introduction of air or another gas into the ventricular system or subarachnoid space of the brain, followed by X-ray imaging to visualize the structures and any abnormalities within the intracranial cavity.

The primary purpose of this procedure was to diagnose conditions affecting the brain's ventricles, such as hydrocephalus, tumors, or inflammation. The introduction of air into the cranium allowed for better visualization of these structures and any potential abnormalities. However, due to its invasive nature, risks associated with the procedure, and the availability of non-invasive imaging techniques like CT and MRI scans, pneumoencephalography has fallen out of favor in modern medicine.

A stroke, also known as cerebrovascular accident (CVA), is a serious medical condition that occurs when the blood supply to part of the brain is interrupted or reduced, leading to deprivation of oxygen and nutrients to brain cells. This can result in the death of brain tissue and cause permanent damage or temporary impairment to cognitive functions, speech, memory, movement, and other body functions controlled by the affected area of the brain.

Strokes can be caused by either a blockage in an artery that supplies blood to the brain (ischemic stroke) or the rupture of a blood vessel in the brain (hemorrhagic stroke). A transient ischemic attack (TIA), also known as a "mini-stroke," is a temporary disruption of blood flow to the brain that lasts only a few minutes and does not cause permanent damage.

Symptoms of a stroke may include sudden weakness or numbness in the face, arm, or leg; difficulty speaking or understanding speech; vision problems; loss of balance or coordination; severe headache with no known cause; and confusion or disorientation. Immediate medical attention is crucial for stroke patients to receive appropriate treatment and prevent long-term complications.

Ocular motility disorders refer to a group of conditions that affect the movement of the eyes. These disorders can result from nerve damage, muscle dysfunction, or brain injuries. They can cause abnormal eye alignment, limited range of motion, and difficulty coordinating eye movements. Common symptoms include double vision, blurry vision, strabismus (crossed eyes), nystagmus (involuntary eye movement), and difficulty tracking moving objects. Ocular motility disorders can be congenital or acquired and may require medical intervention to correct or manage the condition.

A neurological examination is a series of tests used to evaluate the functioning of the nervous system, including both the central nervous system (the brain and spinal cord) and peripheral nervous system (the nerves that extend from the brain and spinal cord to the rest of the body). It is typically performed by a healthcare professional such as a neurologist or a primary care physician with specialized training in neurology.

During a neurological examination, the healthcare provider will assess various aspects of neurological function, including:

1. Mental status: This involves evaluating a person's level of consciousness, orientation, memory, and cognitive abilities.
2. Cranial nerves: There are 12 cranial nerves that control functions such as vision, hearing, smell, taste, and movement of the face and neck. The healthcare provider will test each of these nerves to ensure they are functioning properly.
3. Motor function: This involves assessing muscle strength, tone, coordination, and reflexes. The healthcare provider may ask the person to perform certain movements or tasks to evaluate these functions.
4. Sensory function: The healthcare provider will test a person's ability to feel different types of sensations, such as touch, pain, temperature, vibration, and proprioception (the sense of where your body is in space).
5. Coordination and balance: The healthcare provider may assess a person's ability to perform coordinated movements, such as touching their finger to their nose or walking heel-to-toe.
6. Reflexes: The healthcare provider will test various reflexes throughout the body using a reflex hammer.

The results of a neurological examination can help healthcare providers diagnose and monitor conditions that affect the nervous system, such as stroke, multiple sclerosis, Parkinson's disease, or peripheral neuropathy.

Muscle spasticity is a motor disorder characterized by an involuntary increase in muscle tone, leading to stiffness and difficulty in moving muscles. It is often seen in people with damage to the brain or spinal cord, such as those with cerebral palsy, multiple sclerosis, or spinal cord injuries.

In muscle spasticity, the muscles may contract excessively, causing rigid limbs, awkward movements, and abnormal postures. The severity of muscle spasticity can vary from mild stiffness to severe contractures that limit mobility and function.

Muscle spasticity is caused by an imbalance between excitatory and inhibitory signals in the central nervous system, leading to overactivity of the alpha motor neurons that control muscle contraction. This can result in hyperreflexia (overactive reflexes), clonus (rapid, rhythmic muscle contractions), and flexor or extensor spasms.

Effective management of muscle spasticity may involve a combination of physical therapy, medication, surgery, or other interventions to improve function, reduce pain, and prevent complications such as contractures and pressure sores.

Electric stimulation therapy, also known as neuromuscular electrical stimulation (NMES) or electromyostimulation, is a therapeutic treatment that uses electrical impulses to stimulate muscles and nerves. The electrical signals are delivered through electrodes placed on the skin near the target muscle group or nerve.

The therapy can be used for various purposes, including:

1. Pain management: Electric stimulation can help reduce pain by stimulating the release of endorphins, which are natural painkillers produced by the body. It can also help block the transmission of pain signals to the brain.
2. Muscle rehabilitation: NMES can be used to prevent muscle atrophy and maintain muscle tone in individuals who are unable to move their muscles due to injury or illness, such as spinal cord injuries or stroke.
3. Improving circulation: Electric stimulation can help improve blood flow and reduce swelling by contracting the muscles and promoting the movement of fluids in the body.
4. Wound healing: NMES can be used to promote wound healing by increasing blood flow, reducing swelling, and improving muscle function around the wound site.
5. Muscle strengthening: Electric stimulation can be used to strengthen muscles by causing them to contract and relax repeatedly, which can help improve muscle strength and endurance.

It is important to note that electric stimulation therapy should only be administered under the guidance of a trained healthcare professional, as improper use can cause harm or discomfort.

Patient positioning in a medical context refers to the arrangement and placement of a patient's body in a specific posture or alignment on a hospital bed, examination table, or other medical device during medical procedures, surgeries, or diagnostic imaging examinations. The purpose of patient positioning is to optimize the patient's comfort, ensure their safety, facilitate access to the surgical site or area being examined, enhance the effectiveness of medical interventions, and improve the quality of medical images in diagnostic tests.

Proper patient positioning can help prevent complications such as pressure ulcers, nerve injuries, and respiratory difficulties. It may involve adjusting the height and angle of the bed, using pillows, blankets, or straps to support various parts of the body, and communicating with the patient to ensure they are comfortable and aware of what to expect during the procedure.

In surgical settings, patient positioning is carefully planned and executed by a team of healthcare professionals, including surgeons, anesthesiologists, nurses, and surgical technicians, to optimize surgical outcomes and minimize risks. In diagnostic imaging examinations, such as X-rays, CT scans, or MRIs, patient positioning is critical for obtaining high-quality images that can aid in accurate diagnosis and treatment planning.

Paresis is a medical term that refers to a partial loss of voluntary muscle function. It is often described as muscle weakness, and it can affect one or several parts of the body. Paresis can be caused by various conditions, including nerve damage, stroke, spinal cord injuries, multiple sclerosis, and infections like polio or botulism. The severity of paresis can range from mild to severe, depending on the underlying cause and the specific muscles involved. Treatment for paresis typically focuses on addressing the underlying condition causing it.

In medical terms, the arm refers to the upper limb of the human body, extending from the shoulder to the wrist. It is composed of three major bones: the humerus in the upper arm, and the radius and ulna in the lower arm. The arm contains several joints, including the shoulder joint, elbow joint, and wrist joint, which allow for a wide range of motion. The arm also contains muscles, blood vessels, nerves, and other soft tissues that are essential for normal function.

The term "upper extremity" is used in the medical field to refer to the portion of the upper limb that extends from the shoulder to the hand. This includes the arm, elbow, forearm, wrist, and hand. The upper extremity is responsible for various functions such as reaching, grasping, and manipulating objects, making it an essential part of a person's daily activities.

Orthotic devices are custom-made or prefabricated appliances designed to align, support, prevent deformity, or improve the function of movable body parts. They are frequently used in the treatment of various musculoskeletal disorders, such as foot and ankle conditions, knee problems, spinal alignment issues, and hand or wrist ailments. These devices can be adjustable or non-adjustable and are typically made from materials like plastic, metal, leather, or fabric. They work by redistributing forces across joints, correcting alignment, preventing unwanted movements, or accommodating existing deformities. Examples of orthotic devices include ankle-foot orthoses, knee braces, back braces, wrist splints, and custom-made foot insoles.

Motor skills are defined as the abilities required to plan, control and execute physical movements. They involve a complex interplay between the brain, nerves, muscles, and the environment. Motor skills can be broadly categorized into two types: fine motor skills, which involve small, precise movements (such as writing or picking up small objects), and gross motor skills, which involve larger movements using the arms, legs, and torso (such as crawling, walking, or running).

Motor skills development is an essential aspect of child growth and development, and it continues to evolve throughout adulthood. Difficulties with motor skills can impact a person's ability to perform daily activities and can be associated with various neurological and musculoskeletal conditions.

Chronic brain damage is a condition characterized by long-term, persistent injury to the brain that results in cognitive, physical, and behavioral impairments. It can be caused by various factors such as trauma, hypoxia (lack of oxygen), infection, toxic exposure, or degenerative diseases. The effects of chronic brain damage may not be immediately apparent and can worsen over time, leading to significant disability and reduced quality of life.

The symptoms of chronic brain damage can vary widely depending on the severity and location of the injury. They may include:

* Cognitive impairments such as memory loss, difficulty concentrating, trouble with problem-solving and decision-making, and decreased learning ability
* Motor impairments such as weakness, tremors, poor coordination, and balance problems
* Sensory impairments such as hearing or vision loss, numbness, tingling, or altered sense of touch
* Speech and language difficulties such as aphasia (problems with understanding or producing speech) or dysarthria (slurred or slow speech)
* Behavioral changes such as irritability, mood swings, depression, anxiety, and personality changes

Chronic brain damage can be diagnosed through a combination of medical history, physical examination, neurological evaluation, and imaging studies such as MRI or CT scans. Treatment typically focuses on managing symptoms and maximizing function through rehabilitation therapies such as occupational therapy, speech therapy, and physical therapy. In some cases, medication or surgery may be necessary to address specific symptoms or underlying causes of the brain damage.

Equinus deformity is a condition in which the ankle remains in a permanently plantarflexed position, meaning that the toes are pointing downward. This limitation in motion can occur in one or both feet and can be congenital (present at birth) or acquired. Acquired equinus deformity can result from conditions such as cerebral palsy, stroke, trauma, or prolonged immobilization. The limited range of motion in the ankle can cause difficulty walking, pain, and abnormalities in gait. Treatment options for equinus deformity may include physical therapy, bracing, orthotic devices, or surgery.

Anterior cerebral artery infarction refers to the death of brain tissue (also known as an infarct) in the territory supplied by the anterior cerebral artery (ACA) due to insufficient blood flow. The ACA supplies oxygenated blood to the frontal lobes of the brain, which are responsible for higher cognitive functions such as reasoning, problem-solving, and decision-making, as well as motor control of the lower extremities.

An infarction in this territory can result from various causes, including atherosclerosis, embolism, thrombosis, or vasospasm. Symptoms of an ACA infarction may include weakness or paralysis on one side of the body (usually the lower extremities), difficulty with coordination and balance, urinary incontinence, changes in personality or behavior, and impaired cognitive function. The severity of symptoms depends on the extent and location of the infarct. Immediate medical attention is necessary to prevent further damage and improve the chances of recovery.

Physical therapy modalities refer to the various forms of treatment that physical therapists use to help reduce pain, promote healing, and restore function to the body. These modalities can include:

1. Heat therapy: This includes the use of hot packs, paraffin baths, and infrared heat to increase blood flow, relax muscles, and relieve pain.
2. Cold therapy: Also known as cryotherapy, this involves the use of ice packs, cold compresses, or cooling gels to reduce inflammation, numb the area, and relieve pain.
3. Electrical stimulation: This uses electrical currents to stimulate nerves and muscles, which can help to reduce pain, promote healing, and improve muscle strength and function.
4. Ultrasound: This uses high-frequency sound waves to penetrate deep into tissues, increasing blood flow, reducing inflammation, and promoting healing.
5. Manual therapy: This includes techniques such as massage, joint mobilization, and stretching, which are used to improve range of motion, reduce pain, and promote relaxation.
6. Traction: This is a technique that uses gentle pulling on the spine or other joints to help relieve pressure and improve alignment.
7. Light therapy: Also known as phototherapy, this involves the use of low-level lasers or light-emitting diodes (LEDs) to promote healing and reduce pain and inflammation.
8. Therapeutic exercise: This includes a range of exercises that are designed to improve strength, flexibility, balance, and coordination, and help patients recover from injury or illness.

Physical therapy modalities are often used in combination with other treatments, such as manual therapy and therapeutic exercise, to provide a comprehensive approach to rehabilitation and pain management.

In a medical context, awareness generally refers to the state of being conscious or cognizant of something. This can include being aware of one's own thoughts, feelings, and experiences, as well as being aware of external events or sensations.

For example, a person who is awake and alert is said to have full awareness, while someone who is in a coma or under general anesthesia may be described as having reduced or absent awareness. Similarly, a person with dementia or Alzheimer's disease may have impaired awareness of their surroundings or of their own memory and cognitive abilities.

In some cases, awareness may also refer to the process of becoming informed or educated about a particular health condition or medical treatment. For example, a patient may be encouraged to increase their awareness of heart disease risk factors or of the potential side effects of a medication. Overall, awareness involves a deep understanding and perception of oneself and one's environment.

Perceptual disorders are conditions that affect the way a person perceives or interprets sensory information from their environment. These disorders can involve any of the senses, including sight, sound, touch, taste, and smell. They can cause a person to have difficulty recognizing, interpreting, or responding appropriately to sensory stimuli.

Perceptual disorders can result from damage to the brain or nervous system, such as from a head injury, stroke, or degenerative neurological condition. They can also be caused by certain mental health conditions, such as schizophrenia or severe depression.

Symptoms of perceptual disorders may include:

* Misinterpretations of sensory information, such as seeing things that are not there or hearing voices that are not present
* Difficulty recognizing familiar objects or people
* Problems with depth perception or spatial awareness
* Difficulty judging the size, shape, or distance of objects
* Trouble distinguishing between similar sounds or colors
* Impaired sense of smell or taste

Perceptual disorders can have a significant impact on a person's daily life and functioning. Treatment may involve medication, therapy, or rehabilitation to help the person better cope with their symptoms and improve their ability to interact with their environment.

Reflex Sympathetic Dystrophy (RSD), also known as Complex Regional Pain Syndrome (CRPS), is a chronic pain condition that most often affects a limb after an injury or trauma. It is characterized by prolonged or excessive pain and sensitivity, along with changes in skin color, temperature, and swelling.

The symptoms of RSD/CRPS are thought to be caused by an overactive sympathetic nervous system, which controls involuntary bodily functions such as heart rate, blood pressure, and sweating. In RSD/CRPS, the sympathetic nerves are believed to send incorrect signals to the brain, causing it to perceive intense pain even in the absence of any actual tissue damage.

RSD/CRPS can be classified into two types: Type 1, which occurs after an injury or trauma that did not directly damage the nerves, and Type 2, which occurs after a distinct nerve injury. The symptoms of both types are similar, but Type 2 is typically more severe and may involve more widespread nerve damage.

Treatment for RSD/CRPS usually involves a combination of medications, physical therapy, and other therapies such as spinal cord stimulation or sympathetic nerve blocks. Early diagnosis and treatment can help improve outcomes and reduce the risk of long-term complications.

"Migraine with Aura" is a neurological condition that is formally defined by the International Classification of Headache Disorders (ICHD) as follows:

"An migraine attack with focal neurological symptoms that usually develop gradually over 5 to 20 minutes and last for less than 60 minutes. Motor weakness is not a feature of the aura."

The symptoms of an aura may include visual disturbances such as flickering lights, zigzag lines, or blind spots; sensory disturbances such as tingling or numbness in the face, arms, or legs; and speech or language difficulties. These symptoms are caused by abnormal electrical activity in the brain and typically precede or accompany a migraine headache, although they can also occur without a headache.

It's important to note that not all people who experience migraines will have an aura, and some people may have an aura without a headache. If you are experiencing symptoms of a migraine with aura or any other type of headache, it is recommended that you consult with a healthcare professional for proper diagnosis and treatment.

Speech Therapy, also known as Speech-Language Pathology, is a medical field that focuses on the assessment, diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of communication and swallowing disorders in children and adults. These disorders may include speech sound production difficulties (articulation disorders or phonological processes disorders), language disorders (expressive and/or receptive language impairments), voice disorders, fluency disorders (stuttering), cognitive-communication disorders, and swallowing difficulties (dysphagia).

Speech therapists, who are also called speech-language pathologists (SLPs), work with clients to improve their communication abilities through various therapeutic techniques and exercises. They may also provide counseling and education to families and caregivers to help them support the client's communication development and management of the disorder.

Speech therapy services can be provided in a variety of settings, including hospitals, clinics, schools, private practices, and long-term care facilities. The specific goals and methods used in speech therapy will depend on the individual needs and abilities of each client.

In the context of medicine and healthcare, "movement" refers to the act or process of changing physical location or position. It involves the contraction and relaxation of muscles, which allows for the joints to move and the body to be in motion. Movement can also refer to the ability of a patient to move a specific body part or limb, which is assessed during physical examinations. Additionally, "movement" can describe the progression or spread of a disease within the body.

If both arms are affected, the condition is referred to as double hemiplegia. Some patients with spastic hemiplegia only ... There are many different brain dysfunctions that can account for the cause for spastic hemiplegia. Spastic hemiplegia occurs ... Spastic hemiplegia is a neuromuscular condition of spasticity that results in the muscles on one side of the body being in a ... Infants with spastic hemiplegia may develop a hand preference earlier than is typical. There is no known cure for cerebral ...
... (also known as crossed hemiplegia) is a form of hemiplegia that has an ipsilateral cranial nerve palsies ... There are multiple forms of alternating hemiplegia, Weber's syndrome, middle alternating hemiplegia, and inferior alternating ... 779-780 Hemiplegia Alternating hemiplegia of childhood Weber's syndrome Medial medullary syndrome Familial hemiplegic migraine ... People with alternating hemiplegia are often underweight and with the help of dietitians, a meal plan should be developed for ...
Alternating Hemiplegia Information Page at NINDS Homepage of the Alternating Hemiplegia of Childhood Foundation (AHCF) Archived ... "Alternating hemiplegia of childhood". Genetics Home Reference. Retrieved 2019-03-21. "Alternating hemiplegia of childhood , ... Many also experienced hemiplegia and dystonia before 3 months of age. A final symptom that may be considered paroxysmal is a ... Normally, hemiplegia and other associated symptoms cease completely with sleep, but they may recur upon waking. Most frequently ...
... at IMDb Walking Troubles of Organic Hemiplegy on Dailymotion Dr Gh. Marinescu on ... Walking Troubles of Organic Hemiplegy (1898) is the first documentary film in the world, created by Romanian neurologist ... A Case of Hysterical Hemiplegia Cured Through Hypnotic Suggestion (1899) Walking Difficulties Due to Progressive Locomotary ...
Spastic hemiplegia Hemiplegia is a type of cerebral palsy affecting one vertical half of the body (such as one arm and one leg ... People with hemiplegia typically favor an arm or hand and may keep the weaker hand in a fist. Typically, people that have ... "Hemiplegia". CHASA. Retrieved 2020-03-31. Birol Balaban, Evren Yasar, Ugur Dal, Kamil Yazicioglu, Haydar Mohur & Tunc Alp ... In spastic cerebral palsy in children with low birth weights, 25% of children had hemiplegia, 37.5% had quadriplegia, and 37.5 ...
Hemiplegia is common when the stroke affects the corticospinal tract. Other causes of hemiplegia include spinal cord injury, ... "hemiplegia in children". Children's Hemiplegia and Stroke Association (CHASA). Archived from the original on February 4, 2012. ... "What is hemiplegia? , HemiHelp: for children and young people with hemiplegia (hemiparesis)". HemiHelp. Archived from the ... The incidence of hemiplegia is much higher in premature babies than term babies. There is also a high incidence of hemiplegia ...
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C7: Athletes with hemiplegia. C8: Athletes with minimal disability; must meet eligibility criteria and have an impairment that ...
C7: Athletes with hemiplegia. C8: Athletes with minimal disability; must meet eligibility criteria and have an impairment that ...
C7: Athletes with hemiplegia. C8: Athletes with minimal disability; must meet eligibility criteria and have an impairment that ...
C7: Athletes with hemiplegia. C8: Athletes with minimal disability; must meet eligibility criteria and have an impairment that ...
C7: Athletes with hemiplegia. C8: Athletes with minimal disability; must meet eligibility criteria and have an impairment that ...
C7: Athletes with hemiplegia. C8: Athletes with minimal disability; must meet eligibility criteria and have an impairment that ...
C7: Athletes with hemiplegia. C8: Athletes with minimal disability; must meet eligibility criteria and have an impairment that ...
CP commonly causes hemiplegia. Those with hemiplegia have limited use of the limbs on one side of the body, and have normal use ... People with hemiplegia often adapt by ignoring the limited limbs, and performing nearly all activities with the unaffected ...
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C7: Athletes with hemiplegia. C8: Athletes with minimal disability; must meet eligibility criteria and have an impairment that ...
C7: Athletes with hemiplegia. C8: Athletes with minimal disability; must meet eligibility criteria and have an impairment that ...
C7: Athletes with hemiplegia. C8: Athletes with minimal disability; must meet eligibility criteria and have an impairment that ...
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C7: Athletes with hemiplegia. C8: Athletes with minimal disability; must meet eligibility criteria and have an impairment that ...
C7: Athletes with hemiplegia. C8: Athletes with minimal disability; must meet eligibility criteria and have an impairment that ...
C7: Athletes with hemiplegia. C8: Athletes with minimal disability; must meet eligibility criteria and have an impairment that ...
Kansagra S, Mikati MA, Vigevano F (2013). "Alternating hemiplegia of childhood". Pediatric Neurology Part II. Handbook of ... to reduce the severity and duration of attacks of paralysis associated with the more serious form of alternating hemiplegia, as ...
If both arms are affected, the condition is referred to as double hemiplegia. Some patients with spastic hemiplegia only ... There are many different brain dysfunctions that can account for the cause for spastic hemiplegia. Spastic hemiplegia occurs ... Spastic hemiplegia is a neuromuscular condition of spasticity that results in the muscles on one side of the body being in a ... Infants with spastic hemiplegia may develop a hand preference earlier than is typical. There is no known cure for cerebral ...
Hemiplegia in Children: What Do I Do Next? (Childrens Hemiplegia and Stroke Association) ... Alternating hemiplegia of childhood (National Library of Medicine) * Hyperkalemic periodic paralysis: MedlinePlus Genetics ( ...
Read medical definition of Hemiplegia
Hemiplegia - caused by stroke - indicates the dysfunctions of the neurological network between the limbs and brain. ... Hemiplegia is a condition that is characterized by paralysis of one half of the body, usually due to a brain ... ... Hemiplegia - caused by stroke - indicates the dysfunctions of the neurological network between the limbs and brain. Under this ... Alternating hemiplegia of childhood (AHC) is a rare disorder that usually begins in infancy. ...
Left Laryngeal Hemiplegia) a condition that affects horses ability to breathe during exercise and causes a whistle or snore ... Many times, the exact cause of left laryngeal hemiplegia is unknown, so it is called Idiopathic Laryngeal Hemiplegia (ILH). ... Diagnosing Laryngeal Hemiplegia. A horse wearing a dynamic endoscope.. A thorough examination by a veterinarian may help to ... Grade VI Left Laryngeal Hemiplegia.. In some cases, trauma has occurred to the left side of the horses neck in the jugular ...
encoded search term (Shoulder Pain in Hemiplegia) and Shoulder Pain in Hemiplegia What to Read Next on Medscape ... Shoulder pain in hemiplegia: statistical relationship with five variables. Arch Phys Med Rehabil. 1986 Aug. 67(8):514-6. [QxMD ... Shoulder subluxation in hemiplegia: effects of three different supports. Arch Phys Med Rehabil. 1991 Jul. 72(8):582-6. [QxMD ... Common symptoms of the shoulder and upper extremity (UE) reported by patients with hemiplegia include the following:. * Reduced ...
Alternating hemiplegia of childhood (AHC) is an infrequent neurological disorder characterized by re ... An Option to Consider for Alternating Hemiplegia of Childhood: Aripiprazole. Dundar, Nihal Olgac MD*; Cavusoglu, Dilek MD†; ... An Option to Consider for Alternating Hemiplegia of Childhood: Aripiprazole : Clinical Neuropharmacology. ... Alternating hemiplegia of childhood (AHC) is an infrequent neurological disorder characterized by recurrent transient attacks ...
... child with hemiplegia, Childrens Hemiplegia and Stroke Association, disability, education, hemiparesis, hemiplegia, hemiplegic ... child with hemiplegia, children with hemiplegia, Childrens Hemiplegia and Stroke Association, decision making difficulties, ... Filed Under: Our Kids Rock! Tagged With: champion pumpkin carver, child with hemiplegia, children with hemiplegia, Childrens ... Filed Under: Local Groups Tagged With: Childrens Hemiplegia and Stroke Association, hemiplegia, hemiplegic cerebral palsy, in- ...
Repeated bouts of hemiplegia involving the right or left sides of the body that may alternate to the other side (in laterality) ... Episodes of bilateral hemiplegia or quadriplegia start either as a generalization of a hemiplegic episode or as bilateral from ... Learn about Alternating Hemiplegia of Childhood (AHC). AHC is a rare neurological disorder characterized by repeated, ... Alternating Hemiplegia of Childhood Foundation (AHCF). 2000 Town Center, Suite 1900. Southfield, MI 48075 ...
This report also provides a detailed analysis of the current hemiplegia marketed drugs and late-stage pipeline drugs. ... The 7 major hemiplegia markets are expected to exhibit a CAGR of 3.76% during 2023-2033. ... The hemiplegia market has been comprehensively analyzed in IMARCs new report titled Hemiplegia Market: Epidemiology, Industry ... Hemiplegia: Current Treatment Scenario, Marketed Drugs and Emerging Therapies. *What are the current marketed drugs and what ...
Acute Hemiplegia in Childhood. A Report of a Study Group Held at Clevedon April 20-22, 1961 ... Acute Hemiplegia in Childhood. A Report of a Study Group Held at Clevedon April 20-22, 1961 ...
... hemiplegia oculomotoria alternans怎么读,hemiplegia oculomotoria alternans的发音是什么可 ... hemiplegia 的发音 *oculomotoria 的发音 *alternans 的发音 ... hemiplegia oculomotoria alternans英语什么意思:韦伯氏综合征 ... hemiplegia oculomotoria alternans的发
AHP, anosognosia, hemiplegia, self-awareness, stroke National Category Neurosciences Identifiers. URN: urn:nbn:se:his:diva-5125 ... Anosognosia for Hemiplegia: Theoretical, Clinical, and Neural Aspects. Gerafi, Joel University of Skövde, School of Humanities ... Anosognosia for hemiplegia (AHP) is relatively common among patients who suffer from a stroke. It is characterized as a denial ... resulting in a left hemiplegia. The purpose of this review is to provide a comprehensive overview of AHP by presenting ...
This paper provides a comprehensive literature review on hemiplegia in men. A single case study of a man with hemiplegia living ... People with hemiplegia are limited physically in their daily activities. This limitation affects their social well-being and ... Hemiplegia, or paralysis of one side of the body, is caused by injury or illness (for example, a stroke), and leads to other ... This paper provides a comprehensive literature review on hemiplegia in men. A single case study of a man with hemiplegia living ...
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Providing support for children and families living with hemiplegia. ... Derby based Hemiplegia support group. HEMI Hearts is a voluntary community group, founded and operated by parents. ... Our committee is made up of parents and grandparents of a child living with Hemiplegia. We meet each month to plan our groups, ... As parents of children with hemiplegia we understand that some of the best support we have received is from families ...
Copyright Alternating Hemiplegia of Childhood (AHC UK) 2021 - 2022 (Registered Charity no: 1192701) , Website Managed by "A ...
Copyright Alternating Hemiplegia of Childhood (AHC UK) 2021 - 2022 (Registered Charity no: 1192701) , Website Managed by "A ...
ALTERNATING HEMIPLEGIA OF CHILDHOOD 1; AHC1 description, symptoms and related genes. Get the complete information in our ... Alternating Hemiplegia Of Childhood 1; Ahc1. Description. Alternating hemiplegia of childhood is a rare syndrome of episodic ... ATP1A2-Related Alternating Hemiplegia of Childhood. By MVZ Dortmund Dr. Eberhard & Partner in Germany. ATP1A2 ... Hemiplegia/Stroke NGS Panel. By Fulgent Genetics Fulgent Genetics in United States. POLG, OTC, SLC2A1, SCN1A, NOTCH3, CACNA1A, ...
REACH Camp Hemiplegia Foundation benefits when you shop. Help today! ... REACH Camp Hemiplegia Foundation. Mission Viejo, California. Cause Description:. REACH Camp Hemiplegia Foundation is dedicated ... Help REACH Camp Hemiplegia Foundation. Every purchase from great stores helps REACH Camp Hemiplegia Foundation. ... iGive.com is the easy way to support REACH Camp Hemiplegia Foundation. Your everyday purchases REACH Camp Hemiplegia Foundation ...
Laryngeal Hemiplegia. Other horses, such as racing Thoroughbreds or Warmblood sport horses, are more commonly diagnosed with ... There are a variety of surgical options to treat laryngeal hemiplegia, depending on the degree of paralysis, the age of the ... Horses with laryngeal hemiplegia have delayed abduction of or a paralyzed arytenoid. ...
Home»Human Story»Adventure/Endurance, Physical Feat»Maximum half marathons completed by a person with Hemiplegia ... Maximum half marathons completed by a person with Hemiplegia. By Asia Book of Records Team. February 22, 2022. Updated:. March ... He completed 7 half marathons from 2012 to 2021 despite a left sided Hemiplegia (a partial paralysis caused by a brain injury ... set a record for completing the maximum number of half marathons by a person with Hemiplegia. ...
HemiKids is an online discussion group where you can meet other parents of children who have hemiplegia, ... and young adults who have hemiplegia or hemiplegic cerebral palsy, often due to perinatal stroke, childhood stroke, or other ... Childrens Hemiplegia and Stroke Association (CHASA). Address: 4101 W. Green Oaks,, Suite 305, # 149. Arlington, TX 76016 Phone ... With over 1800 families, youll find others who understand the joys and challenges of raising a child with hemiplegia. We talk ...
Adah really could lose her hemiplegia.. Towards the end of the book Adah says she is "losing [her] slant." This outcome may ... Adah was the most challenging character Ive ever created, starting with a lot of medical research about hemiplegia." ...
BS is closely related to Webers syndrome and Claudes syndrome.… Benedict Syndrome (Hemiplegia Eye Movement Syndrome): Read ... Hemiplegia Eye Movement Syndrome Benedict syndrome (BS), also termed paramedian midbrain syndrome, is a rare stroke ... Benedikt syndrome - hemiplegia with clonic spasm or tremor and oculomotor paralysis on the opposite side. Medical Eponyms © ... Gaze Palsey Paramedian Midbrain Syndrome: Similar to Weber Syndrome except hemiparesis instead of hemiplegia Midbrain: ( ...
Hemiplegia. 2,692 (0.4). 274 (0.3). 134 (0.7). 45 (0.6). 82 (1.7). 10.2. 5.0. 1.7. 3.0. ...
... ... Uca, A. U., Kozak, H. H., Seyithanoğlu, A., Poyraz, N. (2014). Could Hemiplegia Vegetativa Alterna be a Cerebral Sign of Heart ... https://app.trdizin.gov.tr/makale/TVRZeU9EQXlNZz09/could-hemiplegia-vegetativa-alterna-be-a-cerebral-sign-of-heart-valve- ...
Children with neurological weakness primarily affecting one upper limb (hemiplegia) can be considered for constraint induced ... Adults with neurological weakness primarily affecting one upper limb (hemiplegia) can be considered for constraint induced ... which is a thorough and detailed objective assessment that evaluates hand function and sensation in adults with hemiplegia. The ... which is a thorough and detailed objective assessment that evaluates hand function in children with hemiplegia. The Paediatric ...
  • The Children's Hemiplegia and Stroke Association has teamed with Dr. Susan Levine at the Department of Psychology at the University of Chicago to recruit participants for a Language Development Project. (chasa.org)
  • The veterinary term for roaring is called Left Laryngeal Hemiplegia, meaning paralysis of half of the larynx. (smartpakequine.com)
  • Hemiplegia refers to a medical condition characterized by weakness or paralysis on one side of the body. (imarcgroup.com)
  • Hemiplegia, or paralysis of one side of the body, is caused by injury or illness (for example, a stroke), and leads to other disabilities. (nova.edu)
  • He completed 7 half marathons from 2012 to 2021 despite a left sided Hemiplegia (a partial paralysis caused by a brain injury), as confirmed on January 21, 2022. (asiabookofrecords.com)
  • About 20-30% of people with cerebral palsy have spastic hemiplegia. (wikipedia.org)
  • CHASA is first international non-profit organization to offer information and support to families of infants, children, and young adults who have hemiplegia or hemiplegic cerebral palsy, often due to perinatal stroke, childhood stroke, or other rare causes. (cpfamilynetwork.org)
  • HemiKids is an online discussion group where you can meet other parents of children who have hemiplegia, hemiparesis, or hemiplegic cerebral palsy. (cpfamilynetwork.org)
  • This movement is called supination and many children with hemiplegia or hemiparesis have problems with supination of their affected hand. (chasa.org)
  • Alternating hemiplegia of childhood (AHC) is an infrequent neurological disorder characterized by recurrent transient attacks of hemiplegia that last minutes to days and impress either side of the body, dystonic or tonic attacks, and nystagmus. (lww.com)
  • Alternating hemiplegia of childhood (AHC) is a rare disorder mainly characterised by attacks of hemiplegia and mental retardation. (qxmd.com)
  • With over 1800 families, you'll find others who understand the joys and challenges of raising a child with hemiplegia. (cpfamilynetwork.org)
  • A child with hemiplegia who would give his honest opinion about whether the Airy Arm would help in real life situations and whose family would be willing to trek him back and forth to Rochester for numerous fittings. (brainrecoveryproject.org)
  • Alternating hemiplegia of childhood (AHC) is a rare disorder that usually begins in infancy. (medindia.net)
  • An Option to Consider for Alternating Hemiplegia of Childhoo. (lww.com)
  • Alternating hemiplegia of childhood is a rare syndrome of episodic hemi- or quadriplegia lasting minutes to days. (mendelian.co)
  • Genetic Heterogeneity of Alternating Hemiplegia of ChildhoodSee also AHC2 ( OMIM ), caused by mutation in the ATP1A3 gene ( OMIM ). (mendelian.co)
  • Scholars@Duke publication: Alternating hemiplegia of childhood: evolution over time and mouse model corroboration. (duke.edu)
  • Alternating hemiplegia of childhood is a rare neurodevelopmental disorder caused by ATP1A3 mutations. (duke.edu)
  • Here, we evaluate alternating hemiplegia of childhood progression in humans and in the D801N knock-in alternating hemiplegia of childhood mouse, Mashlool, model. (duke.edu)
  • This study performed an ambidirectional (prospective and retrospective data) analysis of an alternating hemiplegia of childhood patient cohort (n = 42, age 10.24 ± 1.48 years) seen at one US centre. (duke.edu)
  • We then performed a retrospective confirmation study on a multicentre cohort of alternating hemiplegia of childhood patients from France (n = 52). (duke.edu)
  • In conclusion, (i) non-paroxysmal alternating hemiplegia of childhood manifestations show, on average over time, progression associated with severity of early-life non-paroxysmal disability and age. (duke.edu)
  • Alternating hemiplegia of childhood: no mutations in the second familial hemiplegic migraine gene ATP1A2. (qxmd.com)
  • Brain infections that cause spastic hemiplegia are meningitis, multiple sclerosis, and encephalitis. (wikipedia.org)
  • Acute Hemiplegia in Childhood. (bmj.com)
  • Hemiplegia - caused by stroke - indicates the dysfunctions of the neurological network between the limbs and brain. (medindia.net)
  • Prof. Huanmin Gao and co-workers from People's Hospital of Ningxia Hui Autonomous Region in China performed contralateral needling at acupoints Chize (LU5) and Jianliao (TE14) in 106 stroke patients presenting complete hemiplegia and found that contralateral needling at these two acupoints can significantly promote the recovery of affected limb function of stroke patients with therapeutic effects superior to conventional acupuncture. (medindia.net)
  • The increasing cases of brain stroke that cause a sudden interruption of blood supply to the brain, leading to cell damage, are primarily driving the hemiplegia market. (imarcgroup.com)
  • Anosognosia for hemiplegia (AHP) is relatively common among patients who suffer from a stroke. (diva-portal.org)
  • For the past 15 years, CHASA has recognized the need for information and support for families of children with hemiplegia due to pediatric stroke or other causes. (cpfamilynetwork.org)
  • Effect of early rehabilitation nursing on neurological function and quality of life of patients with hemiplegia after stroke: A meta-analysis. (bvsalud.org)
  • Meta-analysis was used to systematically evaluate the effects of early rehabilitation nursing on neurological function and quality of life of patients with hemiplegia after stroke . (bvsalud.org)
  • Compared with the controls, early rehabilitation nursing can effectively improve neurological function and quality of life of patients with hemiplegia after stroke . (bvsalud.org)
  • This study provides a theoretical basis for the clinical application of early rehabilitation nursing in patients with hemiplegia after stroke . (bvsalud.org)
  • Most studies have speculated about the etiology of shoulder pain in hemiplegia but have failed to establish a cause-and-effect relationship. (medscape.com)
  • Anosognosia is a neuropsychological deficit of self-awareness and most frequently associated with both cortical and subcortical lesions distributed within the right hemisphere, resulting in a left hemiplegia. (diva-portal.org)
  • The French neurologist, Joseph Babinski, first described anosognosia when highlighting the obliviousness of those afflicted with left hemiplegia, in 1914. (nih.gov)
  • The 7 major hemiplegia markets are expected to exhibit a CAGR of 3.76% during 2023-2033. (imarcgroup.com)
  • Children with neurological weakness primarily affecting one upper limb (hemiplegia) can be considered for constraint induced movement therapy. (cimt.co.uk)
  • With spastic hemiplegia, one upper extremity and one lower extremity is affected, so cervical, lumbar and sacral segments of the spinal column can be affected. (wikipedia.org)
  • Typically, a brain or spinal cord injury can cause hemiplegia. (walnerlaw.com)
  • Could Hemiplegia Vegetativa Alterna be a Cerebral Sign of Heart Valve Disease? (erbakan.edu.tr)
  • Studies in cognition and rehabilitation in hemiplegia. (bvsalud.org)
  • After the initiation of aripiprazole therapy, duration and frequency of hemiplegia episodes were decreased. (lww.com)
  • Some patients with spastic hemiplegia only experience minor impairments, where in severe cases one side of the body could be completely paralyzed. (wikipedia.org)
  • Many patients with spastic hemiplegia are subjected to canes, walkers and even wheelchairs. (wikipedia.org)
  • Patients with spastic hemiplegia are a high risk for experiencing seizures. (wikipedia.org)
  • Il s'agit d'une étude transversale, monocentrique et descriptive, durant 12 mois, incluant les patients âgés d'au moins 18 ans admis en réanimation polyvalente pour un sepsis ou choc septique. (bvsalud.org)
  • Amid the excitement of shopping for school supplies and thinking about meeting new friends, parents of children with hemiplegia find many questions pertaining to their child's diagnosis and learning styles. (chasa.org)
  • Infants with spastic hemiplegia may develop a hand preference earlier than is typical. (wikipedia.org)
  • Hemiplegia in Children: What Do I Do Next? (medlineplus.gov)
  • A Support group for children & families living with hemiplegia. (hemihearts.org.uk)
  • Established to provide a support group for children and families living with hemiplegia. (hemihearts.org.uk)
  • As parents of children with hemiplegia we understand that some of the best support we have received is from families experiencing similar difficulties, emotions and celebrating success. (hemihearts.org.uk)
  • There are many different brain dysfunctions that can account for the cause for spastic hemiplegia. (wikipedia.org)
  • REACH Camp Hemiplegia Foundation is dedicated to providing the opportunity for every Hemiplegic child in the U.S. to benefit from life-changing Constraint Induced Therapy. (igive.com)
  • Spastic hemiplegia is a neuromuscular condition of spasticity that results in the muscles on one side of the body being in a constant state of contraction. (wikipedia.org)
  • When someone suffers from hemiplegia, they lose function in one side of the body. (walnerlaw.com)
  • Grade VI Left Laryngeal Hemiplegia. (smartpakequine.com)
  • Many times, the exact cause of left laryngeal hemiplegia is unknown, so it is called Idiopathic Laryngeal Hemiplegia (ILH). (smartpakequine.com)
  • For individuals who have had strokes with resultant hemiplegia, motor and functional recovery are important steps in the treatment process. (medscape.com)
  • Individuals with hemiplegia may have difficulty with activities that involve motor skills, such as walking, grasping objects, or speaking. (imarcgroup.com)
  • According to the report the United States has the largest patient pool for hemiplegia and also represents the largest market for its treatment. (imarcgroup.com)
  • A single case study of a man with hemiplegia living in Hong Kong is also presented here. (nova.edu)
  • iGive.com is the easy way to support REACH Camp Hemiplegia Foundation. (igive.com)
  • People with hemiplegia are limited physically in their daily activities. (nova.edu)
  • The relationship between upper extremity motor function and independence in basic activities of daily living in subjects with hemiplegia was explored. (aota.org)
  • It is suggested that variables other than motor function, such as the learning of compensatory techniques and perceptual-cognitive status, are responsible for this discrepancy because they can influence activities of daily living performance in persons with hemiplegia. (aota.org)
  • Nutrition is essential for the proper growth and development for a child with spastic hemiplegia. (wikipedia.org)
  • If both arms are affected, the condition is referred to as double hemiplegia. (wikipedia.org)
  • The results obtained in 18 subjects with hemiplegia indicate that the scores on the Barthel Index are poorly correlated with both the Fugl-Meyer Test and the Functional Test for the Hemiplegic/Paretic Upper Extremity scores. (aota.org)
  • IMARC Group's new report provides an exhaustive analysis of the hemiplegia market in the United States, EU5 (Germany, Spain, Italy, France, and United Kingdom) and Japan. (imarcgroup.com)
  • This report is a must-read for manufacturers, investors, business strategists, researchers, consultants, and all those who have any kind of stake or are planning to foray into the hemiplegia market in any manner. (imarcgroup.com)
  • This report also provides a detailed analysis of the current hemiplegia marketed drugs and late-stage pipeline drugs. (imarcgroup.com)
  • Apart from this, the emerging popularity of neuromuscular electrical stimulation on account of its several associated benefits, such as reducing imbalances in the affected side of the brain and promoting neuroplasticity, is expected to drive the hemiplegia market in the coming years. (imarcgroup.com)
  • Nihad Panju (born on September 25, 1990) of Maharashtra, India, set a record for completing the maximum number of half marathons by a person with Hemiplegia. (asiabookofrecords.com)
  • Your everyday purchases REACH Camp Hemiplegia Foundation mean serious donations! (igive.com)
  • Every purchase from great stores helps REACH Camp Hemiplegia Foundation. (igive.com)
  • Adah was the most challenging character I've ever created, starting with a lot of medical research about hemiplegia. (mentalfloss.com)