A collection of blood outside the BLOOD VESSELS. Hematoma can be localized in an organ, space, or tissue.
Accumulation of blood in the EPIDURAL SPACE between the SKULL and the DURA MATER, often as a result of bleeding from the MENINGEAL ARTERIES associated with a temporal or parietal bone fracture. Epidural hematoma tends to expand rapidly, compressing the dura and underlying brain. Clinical features may include HEADACHE; VOMITING; HEMIPARESIS; and impaired mental function.
Accumulation of blood in the SUBDURAL SPACE between the DURA MATER and the arachnoidal layer of the MENINGES. This condition primarily occurs over the surface of a CEREBRAL HEMISPHERE, but may develop in the spinal canal (HEMATOMA, SUBDURAL, SPINAL). Subdural hematoma can be classified as the acute or the chronic form, with immediate or delayed symptom onset, respectively. Symptoms may include loss of consciousness, severe HEADACHE, and deteriorating mental status.
Accumulation of blood in the SUBDURAL SPACE with delayed onset of neurological symptoms. Symptoms may include loss of consciousness, severe HEADACHE, and deteriorating mental status.
Accumulation of blood in the SUBDURAL SPACE with acute onset of neurological symptoms. Symptoms may include loss of consciousness, severe HEADACHE, and deteriorating mental status.
A rare epidural hematoma in the spinal epidural space, usually due to a vascular malformation (CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM VASCULAR MALFORMATIONS) or TRAUMA. Spontaneous spinal epidural hematoma is a neurologic emergency due to a rapidly evolving compressive MYELOPATHY.
Accumulation of blood in the SUBDURAL SPACE over the CEREBRAL HEMISPHERE.
Subdural hematoma of the SPINAL CANAL.
Bleeding into one or both CEREBRAL HEMISPHERES including the BASAL GANGLIA and the CEREBRAL CORTEX. It is often associated with HYPERTENSION and CRANIOCEREBRAL TRAUMA.
The removal of a circular disk of the cranium.
Tomography using x-ray transmission and a computer algorithm to reconstruct the image.
Any operation on the cranium or incision into the cranium. (Dorland, 28th ed)
Potential cavity which separates the ARACHNOID MATER from the DURA MATER.
Fractures of the skull which may result from penetrating or nonpenetrating head injuries or rarely BONE DISEASES (see also FRACTURES, SPONTANEOUS). Skull fractures may be classified by location (e.g., SKULL FRACTURE, BASILAR), radiographic appearance (e.g., linear), or based upon cranial integrity (e.g., SKULL FRACTURE, DEPRESSED).
Bleeding into one or both CEREBRAL HEMISPHERES due to TRAUMA. Hemorrhage may involve any part of the CEREBRAL CORTEX and the BASAL GANGLIA. Depending on the severity of bleeding, clinical features may include SEIZURES; APHASIA; VISION DISORDERS; MOVEMENT DISORDERS; PARALYSIS; and COMA.
Bleeding within the subcortical regions of cerebral hemispheres (BASAL GANGLIA). It is often associated with HYPERTENSION or ARTERIOVENOUS MALFORMATIONS. Clinical manifestations may include HEADACHE; DYSKINESIAS; and HEMIPARESIS.
Traumatic injuries involving the cranium and intracranial structures (i.e., BRAIN; CRANIAL NERVES; MENINGES; and other structures). Injuries may be classified by whether or not the skull is penetrated (i.e., penetrating vs. nonpenetrating) or whether there is an associated hemorrhage.
The outermost of the three MENINGES, a fibrous membrane of connective tissue that covers the brain and the spinal cord.
A scale that assesses the response to stimuli in patients with craniocerebral injuries. The parameters are eye opening, motor response, and verbal response.
A long flat muscle that extends along the whole length of both sides of the abdomen. It flexes the vertebral column, particularly the lumbar portion; it also tenses the anterior abdominal wall and assists in compressing the abdominal contents. It is frequently the site of hematomas. In reconstructive surgery it is often used for the creation of myocutaneous flaps. (From Gray's Anatomy, 30th American ed, p491)
Surgery performed on the nervous system or its parts.
Traumatic injuries to the cranium where the integrity of the skull is not compromised and no bone fragments or other objects penetrate the skull and dura mater. This frequently results in mechanical injury being transmitted to intracranial structures which may produce traumatic brain injuries, hemorrhage, or cranial nerve injury. (From Rowland, Merritt's Textbook of Neurology, 9th ed, p417)
Bleeding within the SKULL, including hemorrhages in the brain and the three membranes of MENINGES. The escape of blood often leads to the formation of HEMATOMA in the cranial epidural, subdural, and subarachnoid spaces.
Leakage and accumulation of CEREBROSPINAL FLUID in the subdural space which may be associated with an infectious process; CRANIOCEREBRAL TRAUMA; BRAIN NEOPLASMS; INTRACRANIAL HYPOTENSION; and other conditions.
Non-invasive method of demonstrating internal anatomy based on the principle that atomic nuclei in a strong magnetic field absorb pulses of radiofrequency energy and emit them as radiowaves which can be reconstructed into computerized images. The concept includes proton spin tomographic techniques.
The infratentorial compartment that contains the CEREBELLUM and BRAIN STEM. It is formed by the posterior third of the superior surface of the body of the sphenoid (SPHENOID BONE), by the occipital, the petrous, and mastoid portions of the TEMPORAL BONE, and the posterior inferior angle of the PARIETAL BONE.
A surgical procedure that entails removing all (laminectomy) or part (laminotomy) of selected vertebral lamina to relieve pressure on the SPINAL CORD and/or SPINAL NERVE ROOTS. Vertebral lamina is the thin flattened posterior wall of vertebral arch that forms the vertebral foramen through which pass the spinal cord and nerve roots.
The removal of fluids or discharges from the body, such as from a wound, sore, or cavity.
A spontaneous diminution or abatement of a disease over time, without formal treatment.
The paired bands of yellow elastic tissue that connect adjoining laminae of the vertebrae. With the laminae, it forms the posterior wall of the spinal canal and helps hold the body erect.
Bleeding within the SKULL that is caused by systemic HYPERTENSION, usually in association with INTRACRANIAL ARTERIOSCLEROSIS. Hypertensive hemorrhages are most frequent in the BASAL GANGLIA; CEREBELLUM; PONS; and THALAMUS; but may also involve the CEREBRAL CORTEX, subcortical white matter, and other brain structures.
An area occupying the most posterior aspect of the ABDOMINAL CAVITY. It is bounded laterally by the borders of the quadratus lumborum muscles and extends from the DIAPHRAGM to the brim of the true PELVIS, where it continues as the pelvic extraperitoneal space.
Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.
Pathological processes in the ESOPHAGUS.
The removal of secretions, gas or fluid from hollow or tubular organs or cavities by means of a tube and a device that acts on negative pressure.
Radiography of the vascular system of the brain after injection of a contrast medium.
Intracranial or spinal cavities containing a cerebrospinal-like fluid, the wall of which is composed of arachnoidal cells. They are most often developmental or related to trauma. Intracranial arachnoid cysts usually occur adjacent to arachnoidal cistern and may present with HYDROCEPHALUS; HEADACHE; SEIZURES; and focal neurologic signs. (From Joynt, Clinical Neurology, 1994, Ch44, pp105-115)
Agents that prevent clotting.
A surgical operation for the relief of pressure in a body compartment or on a body part. (From Dorland, 28th ed)
Bleeding within the brain as a result of penetrating and nonpenetrating CRANIOCEREBRAL TRAUMA. Traumatically induced hemorrhages may occur in any area of the brain, including the CEREBRUM; BRAIN STEM (see BRAIN STEM HEMORRHAGE, TRAUMATIC); and CEREBELLUM.
Pathologic processes that affect patients after a surgical procedure. They may or may not be related to the disease for which the surgery was done, and they may or may not be direct results of the surgery.
Injuries caused by impact with a blunt object where there is no penetration of the skin.
Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.
Increased intracellular or extracellular fluid in brain tissue. Cytotoxic brain edema (swelling due to increased intracellular fluid) is indicative of a disturbance in cell metabolism, and is commonly associated with hypoxic or ischemic injuries (see HYPOXIA, BRAIN). An increase in extracellular fluid may be caused by increased brain capillary permeability (vasogenic edema), an osmotic gradient, local blockages in interstitial fluid pathways, or by obstruction of CSF flow (e.g., obstructive HYDROCEPHALUS). (From Childs Nerv Syst 1992 Sep; 8(6):301-6)
A scale that assesses the outcome of serious craniocerebral injuries, based on the level of regained social functioning.
Tear or break of an organ, vessel or other soft part of the body, occurring in the absence of external force.
The escape of diagnostic or therapeutic material from the vessel into which it is introduced into the surrounding tissue or body cavity.
Diseases of the bony orbit and contents except the eyeball.
Acute and chronic conditions characterized by external mechanical compression of the SPINAL CORD due to extramedullary neoplasm; EPIDURAL ABSCESS; SPINAL FRACTURES; bony deformities of the vertebral bodies; and other conditions. Clinical manifestations vary with the anatomic site of the lesion and may include localized pain, weakness, sensory loss, incontinence, and impotence.
X-ray image-detecting devices that make a focused image of body structures lying in a predetermined plane from which more complex images are computed.
Bleeding into the intracranial or spinal SUBARACHNOID SPACE, most resulting from INTRACRANIAL ANEURYSM rupture. It can occur after traumatic injuries (SUBARACHNOID HEMORRHAGE, TRAUMATIC). Clinical features include HEADACHE; NAUSEA; VOMITING, nuchal rigidity, variable neurological deficits and reduced mental status.
Death resulting from the presence of a disease in an individual, as shown by a single case report or a limited number of patients. This should be differentiated from DEATH, the physiological cessation of life and from MORTALITY, an epidemiological or statistical concept.
A delicate membrane enveloping the brain and spinal cord. It lies between the PIA MATER and the DURA MATER. It is separated from the pia mater by the subarachnoid cavity which is filled with CEREBROSPINAL FLUID.
Disease having a short and relatively severe course.
Pathological processes involving any part of the AORTA.
Diseases that affect the structure or function of the cerebellum. Cardinal manifestations of cerebellar dysfunction include dysmetria, GAIT ATAXIA, and MUSCLE HYPOTONIA.
The tearing or bursting of the weakened wall of the aneurysmal sac, usually heralded by sudden worsening pain. The great danger of a ruptured aneurysm is the large amount of blood spilling into the surrounding tissues and cavities, causing HEMORRHAGIC SHOCK.
An anticoagulant that acts by inhibiting the synthesis of vitamin K-dependent coagulation factors. Warfarin is indicated for the prophylaxis and/or treatment of venous thrombosis and its extension, pulmonary embolism, and atrial fibrillation with embolization. It is also used as an adjunct in the prophylaxis of systemic embolism after myocardial infarction. Warfarin is also used as a rodenticide.
PROCEDURES that use NEUROENDOSCOPES for disease diagnosis and treatment. Neuroendoscopy, generally an integration of the neuroendoscope with a computer-assisted NEURONAVIGATION system, provides guidance in NEUROSURGICAL PROCEDURES.
Mild to moderate loss of bilateral lower extremity motor function, which may be a manifestation of SPINAL CORD DISEASES; PERIPHERAL NERVOUS SYSTEM DISEASES; MUSCULAR DISEASES; INTRACRANIAL HYPERTENSION; parasagittal brain lesions; and other conditions.
Disorders of the centrally located thalamus, which integrates a wide range of cortical and subcortical information. Manifestations include sensory loss, MOVEMENT DISORDERS; ATAXIA, pain syndromes, visual disorders, a variety of neuropsychological conditions, and COMA. Relatively common etiologies include CEREBROVASCULAR DISORDERS; CRANIOCEREBRAL TRAUMA; BRAIN NEOPLASMS; BRAIN HYPOXIA; INTRACRANIAL HEMORRHAGES; and infectious processes.
Techniques used mostly during brain surgery which use a system of three-dimensional coordinates to locate the site to be operated on.
Abnormal protrusion of both eyes; may be caused by endocrine gland malfunction, malignancy, injury, or paralysis of the extrinsic muscles of the eye.
A surgical specialty concerned with the treatment of diseases and disorders of the brain, spinal cord, and peripheral and sympathetic nervous system.
Abnormal outpouching in the wall of intracranial blood vessels. Most common are the saccular (berry) aneurysms located at branch points in CIRCLE OF WILLIS at the base of the brain. Vessel rupture results in SUBARACHNOID HEMORRHAGE or INTRACRANIAL HEMORRHAGES. Giant aneurysms (>2.5 cm in diameter) may compress adjacent structures, including the OCULOMOTOR NERVE. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p841)
Acute and chronic (see also BRAIN INJURIES, CHRONIC) injuries to the brain, including the cerebral hemispheres, CEREBELLUM, and BRAIN STEM. Clinical manifestations depend on the nature of injury. Diffuse trauma to the brain is frequently associated with DIFFUSE AXONAL INJURY or COMA, POST-TRAUMATIC. Localized injuries may be associated with NEUROBEHAVIORAL MANIFESTATIONS; HEMIPARESIS, or other focal neurologic deficits.
The symptom of PAIN in the cranial region. It may be an isolated benign occurrence or manifestation of a wide variety of HEADACHE DISORDERS.
Aneurysm caused by a tear in the TUNICA INTIMA of a blood vessel leading to interstitial HEMORRHAGE, and splitting (dissecting) of the vessel wall, often involving the AORTA. Dissection between the intima and media causes luminal occlusion. Dissection at the media, or between the media and the outer adventitia causes aneurismal dilation.

Dissecting intramural haematoma of the oesophagus. (1/1119)

The largest series of patients (n = 10) with dissecting intramural haematoma of the oesophagus is described. The typical features, chest pain with odynophagia or dysphagia and minor haematemesis are usually present but not always elicited at presentation. If elicited, these symptoms should suggest the diagnosis and avoid mistaken attribution to a cardiac origin for the pain. Precipitating factors such as a forced Valsalva manoeuvre cannot be identified in at least half the cases. Early endoscopy is safe, and confirms the diagnosis when an haematoma within the oesophageal wall or the later appearances of a longitudinal ulcer are seen. Dissecting intramural haematoma of the oesophagus has an excellent prognosis when managed conservatively.  (+info)

Intimal tear without hematoma: an important variant of aortic dissection that can elude current imaging techniques. (2/1119)

BACKGROUND: The modern imaging techniques of transesophageal echocardiography, CT, and MRI are reported to have up to 100% sensitivity in detecting the classic class of aortic dissection; however, anecdotal reports of patient deaths from a missed diagnosis of subtle classes of variants are increasingly being noted. METHODS AND RESULTS: In a series of 181 consecutive patients who had ascending or aortic arch repairs, 9 patients (5%) had subtle aortic dissection not diagnosed preoperatively. All preoperative studies in patients with missed aortic dissection were reviewed in detail. All 9 patients (2 with Marfan syndrome, 1 with Takayasu's disease) with undiagnosed aortic dissection had undergone >/=3 imaging techniques, with the finding of ascending aortic dilatation (4.7 to 9 cm) in all 9 and significant aortic valve regurgitation in 7. In 6 patients, an eccentric ascending aortic bulge was present but not diagnostic of aortic dissection on aortography. At operation, aortic dissection tears were limited in extent and involved the intima without extensive undermining of the intima or an intimal "flap." Eight had composite valve grafts inserted, and all survived. Of the larger series of 181 patients, 98% (179 of 181) were 30-day survivors. CONCLUSIONS: In patients with suspected aortic dissection not proven by modern noninvasive imaging techniques, further study should be performed, including multiple views of the ascending aorta by aortography. If patients have an ascending aneurysm, particularly if eccentric on aortography and associated with aortic valve regurgitation, an urgent surgical repair should be considered, with excellent results expected.  (+info)

Primary percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty performed for acute myocardial infarction in a patient with idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura. (3/1119)

A 72-year-old female with idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura (ITP) complained of severe chest pain. Electrocardiography showed ST-segment depression and negative T wave in I, aVL and V4-6. Following a diagnosis of acute myocardial infarction (AMI), urgent coronary angiography revealed 99% organic stenosis with delayed flow in the proximal segment and 50% in the middle segment of the left anterior descending artery (LAD). Subsequently, percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty (PTCA) for the stenosis in the proximal LAD was performed. In the coronary care unit, her blood pressure dropped. Hematomas around the puncture sites were observed and the platelet count was 28,000/mm3. After transfusion, electrocardiography revealed ST-segment elevation in I, aVL and V1-6. Urgent recatheterization disclosed total occlusion in the middle segment of the LAD. Subsequently, PTCA was performed successfully. Then, intravenous immunoglobulin increased the platelet count and the bleeding tendency disappeared. A case of AMI with ITP is rare. The present case suggests that primary PTCA can be a useful therapeutic strategy, but careful attention must be paid to hemostasis and to managing the platelet count.  (+info)

Hemorrhage after an acute ischemic stroke.MAST-I Collaborative Group. (4/1119)

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Hemorrhagic transformation is frequently seen on CT scans obtained in the subacute phase of ischemic stroke. Its prognostic value is controversial. METHODS: We analyzed 554 patients with acute ischemic stroke enrolled in the Multicenter Acute Stroke Trial-Italy (MAST-I) study in whom a second CT scan was performed on day 5. Presence of 1) intraparenchymal hemorrhages (hematoma or hemorrhagic infarction), 2) extraparenchymal bleeding (intraventricular or subarachnoid) and 3) cerebral edema (shift of midline structure, sulcal effacement or ventricular compression) alone or in association were evaluated. Death or disability at 6 months were considered as "unfavorable outcome." RESULTS: Patients who developed intraparenchymal hemorrhages, extraparenchymal bleeding, or cerebral edema had unfavorable outcome (83%, 100%, and 80%, respectively), but multivariate analysis demonstrated that only extraparenchymal bleeding (collinearity) and cerebral edema (OR=6.8; 95% CI, 4.5 to 10.4) were significant independent prognostic findings. Unfavorable outcome correlated with size of intraparenchymal hemorrhage (chi2 for trend=30.5, P<0.0001). Nevertheless, when a large hematoma was present the negative effect was mostly due to concomitant extraparenchymal bleeding (chi2=51.6, P<0.0001), and when hemorrhagic infarction was detected the negative effect was mostly explained by the association with cerebral edema (chi2=36.6, P<0.0001). CONCLUSIONS: Extraparenchymal bleeding and cerebral edema are the main prognostic CT scan findings in the subacute phase of ischemic stroke. Stroke patients with a high risk for developing these 2 types of brain damage should be identified. Measures to prevent and adequately treat their development should be implemented.  (+info)

Clinical and neuroradiological features of intracranial vertebrobasilar artery dissection. (5/1119)

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: We sought to determine the clinical and neuroradiological features of intracranial vertebrobasilar artery dissection. METHODS: The clinical features and MR findings of 31 patients (20 men and 11 women) with intracranial vertebrobasilar artery dissections confirmed by vertebral angiography were analyzed retrospectively. The vertebral angiography revealed the double lumen sign in 11 patients (13 arteries) and the pearl and string sign in 20 patients (28 arteries). RESULTS: The patients ranged in age from 25 to 82 years (mean, 54.8 years). Clinical symptoms due to ischemic cerebellar and/or brain stem lesions were common, but in 3 cases the dissections were discovered incidentally while an unrelated disorder was investigated. Headache, which has been emphasized as the only specific clinical sign of vertebrobasilar artery dissection, was found in 55% of the patients. Intramural hematoma on T1-weighted images has been emphasized as a specific MR finding. The positive rate of intramural hematoma was 32%. Double lumen on 3-dimensional (3-D) spoiled gradient-recalled acquisition (SPGR) images after the injection of contrast medium was identified in 87% of the patients. The 3-D SPGR imaging method is considered useful for the screening of vertebrobasilar artery dissection. CONCLUSIONS: Intracranial vertebrobasilar artery dissection is probably much more frequent than previously considered. Such patients may present no or only minor symptoms. Neuroradiological screening for posterior circulation requires MR examinations, including contrast-enhanced 3-D SPGR. Angiography may be necessary for the definite diagnosis of intracranial vertebrobasilar artery dissection because the sensitivity of the finding of intramural hematoma is not satisfactory.  (+info)

Localization of a bone imaging agent in a calcified hematoma. (6/1119)

A patient with chronic renal failure and secondary hyperparathyroidism had iliac bone biopsy. The procedure was complicated by a soft-tissue hematoma, which had calcified. A 3-4-cm palpable mass was visible in the lower left abdominal wall. Intense uptake of 99mTc-HMDP corresponded with the location of the calcified hematoma in this patient.  (+info)

Progression of mass effect after intracerebral hemorrhage. (7/1119)

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: While the evolution of mass effect after cerebral infarction is well characterized, similar data regarding intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) are scant. Our goal was to determine the time course and cause for progression of mass effect after ICH. METHODS: Patients with spontaneous supratentorial ICH who underwent >/=2 CT scans were identified in our prospectively collected database. CT lesion size and midline shift of the pineal and septum pellucidum were retrospectively measured and correlated with clinical and CT characteristics. Causes for increased midline shift were determined by 2 independent observers. RESULTS: Seventy-six patients underwent 235 scans (3.1+/-1.3 per patient). Initial CT was obtained within 24 hours of ICH in 66. Twenty-five scans were repeated on day 1, 80 on days 2 through 7, 31 on days 8 through 14, and 24 >14 days after ICH. Midline shift was present on 88% of the initial scans. There were 17 instances of midline shift progression: 10 occurred early (0.2 to 1.7 days) and were associated with hematoma enlargement, and 7 occurred late (9 to 21 days) and were associated with edema progression. Progression of mass effect due to edema occurred with larger hemorrhages (P<0.05). Of 65 scans repeated for clinical deterioration, only 10 were associated with increased mass effect. CONCLUSIONS: Progression of mass effect after ICH occurred at 2 distinct time points: within 2 days, associated with hematoma enlargement, and in the second and third weeks, associated with increase in edema. The clinical significance of later-developing edema is unclear.  (+info)

Massive subependymal hemorrhage caused by an occult vascular malformation--two case reports. (8/1119)

Two patients presented with massive subependymal hemorrhage caused by vascular anomalies occult to angiography, computed tomography (CT) scanning, and magnetic resonance (MR) imaging. A 47-year-old male initially presented with a headache and became comatose 3 weeks later. CT and MR imaging demonstrated a massive hematoma in the right caudate head projecting into the lateral ventricle. A 60-year-old male sustained heaviness of his left extremities 8 days prior to admission and his condition gradually deteriorated. Neuroimaging revealed a right thalamic hematoma adjacent to the lateral ventricle. Cerebral angiography, CT, and MR imaging failed to detect any vascular anomaly. The hematomas increased in size gradually and were surgically explored. The histological diagnosis was arteriovenous malformation for the first case and cavernous angioma for the second case that had ruptured repeatedly. These cases were unique in the unusual location in the subependyma, and diagnostic neuroimaging modalities could not disclose the vascular anomalies, and the hematomas enlarged progressively to become critically symptomatic. Surgical intervention is mandatory for mass reduction and correct diagnosis of such lesions, with favorable outcome as long as the surgery is not delayed until too late.  (+info)

A hematoma is defined as a localized accumulation of blood in a tissue, organ, or body space caused by a break in the wall of a blood vessel. This can result from various causes such as trauma, surgery, or certain medical conditions that affect coagulation. The severity and size of a hematoma may vary depending on the location and extent of the bleeding. Symptoms can include swelling, pain, bruising, and decreased mobility in the affected area. Treatment options depend on the size and location of the hematoma but may include observation, compression, ice, elevation, or in some cases, surgical intervention.

An epidural cranial hematoma is a specific type of hematoma, which is defined as an abnormal accumulation of blood in a restricted space, occurring between the dura mater (the outermost layer of the meninges that covers the brain and spinal cord) and the skull in the cranial region. This condition is often caused by trauma or head injury, which results in the rupture of blood vessels, allowing blood to collect in the epidural space. The accumulation of blood can compress the brain tissue and cause various neurological symptoms, potentially leading to serious complications if not promptly diagnosed and treated.

A subdural hematoma is a type of hematoma (a collection of blood) that occurs between the dura mater, which is the outermost protective covering of the brain, and the brain itself. It is usually caused by bleeding from the veins located in this potential space, often as a result of a head injury or trauma.

Subdural hematomas can be classified as acute, subacute, or chronic based on their rate of symptom progression and the time course of their appearance on imaging studies. Acute subdural hematomas typically develop and cause symptoms rapidly, often within hours of the head injury. Subacute subdural hematomas have a more gradual onset of symptoms, which can occur over several days to a week after the trauma. Chronic subdural hematomas may take weeks to months to develop and are often seen in older adults or individuals with chronic alcohol abuse, even after minor head injuries.

Symptoms of a subdural hematoma can vary widely depending on the size and location of the hematoma, as well as the patient's age and overall health. Common symptoms include headache, altered mental status, confusion, memory loss, weakness or numbness, seizures, and in severe cases, coma or even death. Treatment typically involves surgical evacuation of the hematoma, along with management of any underlying conditions that may have contributed to its development.

A subdural hematoma (SDH) is a type of intracranial hemorrhage that occurs between the dura mater and the brain. When it becomes chronic, it means that the bleeding has occurred slowly over time, often over the course of several weeks or months. The blood gradually collects in the potential space between the dura and the arachnoid membrane, forming a clot.

A chronic subdural hematoma (CSDH) is typically characterized by the presence of liquefied blood, which can form a loculated collection that may exert mass effect on the underlying brain tissue. This can lead to symptoms such as headache, confusion, weakness, or even seizures, depending on the size and location of the hematoma.

CSDHs are often associated with underlying brain atrophy, which can create a larger potential space for blood to collect. They may also be seen in patients who are taking anticoagulant medications or have a bleeding disorder. Treatment typically involves surgical evacuation of the hematoma, although smaller CSDHs may be managed conservatively with close monitoring and repeat imaging.

A subdural hematoma is a type of brain injury in which blood accumulates between the dura mater (the outermost layer of the meninges, the protective coverings of the brain and spinal cord) and the brain. In the case of an acute subdural hematoma, the bleeding occurs suddenly and rapidly as a result of trauma, such as a severe head injury from a fall, motor vehicle accident, or assault. The accumulation of blood puts pressure on the brain, which can lead to serious complications, including brain damage or death, if not promptly diagnosed and treated. Acute subdural hematomas are considered medical emergencies and require immediate neurosurgical intervention.

An epidural spinal hematoma is a rare but potentially serious medical condition characterized by the accumulation of blood in the epidural space of the spinal canal. The epidural space is the outermost layer of the spinal canal and it contains fat, blood vessels, and nerve roots.

In an epidural spinal hematoma, blood collects in this space, often as a result of trauma or injury to the spine, or due to complications from medical procedures such as spinal taps or epidural anesthesia. The buildup of blood can put pressure on the spinal cord and nerves, leading to symptoms such as back pain, muscle weakness, numbness, or paralysis below the level of the hematoma.

Epidural spinal hematomas require immediate medical attention and may necessitate surgical intervention to relieve the pressure on the spinal cord and prevent further nerve damage. Risk factors for developing an epidural spinal hematoma include bleeding disorders, anticoagulant medication use, and spinal trauma or surgery.

A subdural hematoma is a type of intracranial hemorrhage, which means it involves bleeding within the skull. More specifically, a subdural hematoma occurs between the dura mater (the outermost layer of the meninges that covers the brain) and the brain itself. This condition is usually caused by trauma or injury to the head, which results in the rupture of blood vessels in the brain. The bleeding then forms a collection of blood in the subdural space, which can compress the brain and lead to various neurological symptoms.

Subdural hematomas can be acute, subacute, or chronic, depending on the time course of symptom onset and the rate of blood accumulation. Acute subdural hematomas typically result from severe head trauma and require immediate medical attention due to their rapid progression and potential for causing significant brain damage or even death. Chronic subdural hematomas, on the other hand, may develop more slowly over time and can sometimes be asymptomatic, although they still have the potential to cause long-term neurological problems if left untreated.

Treatment options for subdural hematomas depend on various factors, including the patient's age, overall health status, the severity of symptoms, and the size and location of the hematoma. In some cases, conservative management with close monitoring may be appropriate, while in other situations, surgical intervention may be necessary to alleviate pressure on the brain and prevent further damage.

A subdural hematoma in the spine is a specific type of spinal hemorrhage, where blood accumulates in the potential space between the dura mater (the outer layer of the meninges that covers the brain and spinal cord) and the arachnoid membrane (the middle layer of the meninges). This space is normally devoid of fluid or blood.

Subdural hematomas in the spine can result from trauma, such as a fall or motor vehicle accident, which causes bleeding from the venous vessels located between the dura mater and arachnoid membrane. As blood accumulates, it can compress the spinal cord and nerve roots, leading to neurological deficits.

Symptoms of a subdural hematoma in the spine may include localized back pain, radiating pain, sensory loss, motor weakness, or paralysis below the level of the lesion. In severe cases, it can lead to respiratory failure, loss of bowel and bladder control, and even death if not promptly diagnosed and treated.

A cerebral hemorrhage, also known as an intracranial hemorrhage or intracerebral hemorrhage, is a type of stroke that results from bleeding within the brain tissue. It occurs when a weakened blood vessel bursts and causes localized bleeding in the brain. This bleeding can increase pressure in the skull, damage nearby brain cells, and release toxic substances that further harm brain tissues.

Cerebral hemorrhages are often caused by chronic conditions like hypertension (high blood pressure) or cerebral amyloid angiopathy, which weakens the walls of blood vessels over time. Other potential causes include trauma, aneurysms, arteriovenous malformations, illicit drug use, and brain tumors. Symptoms may include sudden headache, weakness, numbness, difficulty speaking or understanding speech, vision problems, loss of balance, and altered level of consciousness. Immediate medical attention is required to diagnose and manage cerebral hemorrhage through imaging techniques, supportive care, and possible surgical interventions.

Trephination, also known as trepanation or burr hole surgery, is a surgical procedure that involves making a circular hole in the skull. This ancient medical practice was used in various cultures throughout history for various purposes, such as relieving pressure on the brain, treating mental disorders, or releasing evil spirits. In modern medicine, it is rarely performed and usually reserved for severe conditions like subdural hematomas or infection inside the skull.

X-ray computed tomography (CT or CAT scan) is a medical imaging method that uses computer-processed combinations of many X-ray images taken from different angles to produce cross-sectional (tomographic) images (virtual "slices") of the body. These cross-sectional images can then be used to display detailed internal views of organs, bones, and soft tissues in the body.

The term "computed tomography" is used instead of "CT scan" or "CAT scan" because the machines take a series of X-ray measurements from different angles around the body and then use a computer to process these data to create detailed images of internal structures within the body.

CT scanning is a noninvasive, painless medical test that helps physicians diagnose and treat medical conditions. CT imaging provides detailed information about many types of tissue including lung, bone, soft tissue and blood vessels. CT examinations can be performed on every part of the body for a variety of reasons including diagnosis, surgical planning, and monitoring of therapeutic responses.

In computed tomography (CT), an X-ray source and detector rotate around the patient, measuring the X-ray attenuation at many different angles. A computer uses this data to construct a cross-sectional image by the process of reconstruction. This technique is called "tomography". The term "computed" refers to the use of a computer to reconstruct the images.

CT has become an important tool in medical imaging and diagnosis, allowing radiologists and other physicians to view detailed internal images of the body. It can help identify many different medical conditions including cancer, heart disease, lung nodules, liver tumors, and internal injuries from trauma. CT is also commonly used for guiding biopsies and other minimally invasive procedures.

In summary, X-ray computed tomography (CT or CAT scan) is a medical imaging technique that uses computer-processed combinations of many X-ray images taken from different angles to produce cross-sectional images of the body. It provides detailed internal views of organs, bones, and soft tissues in the body, allowing physicians to diagnose and treat medical conditions.

A craniotomy is a surgical procedure where a bone flap is temporarily removed from the skull to access the brain. This procedure is typically performed to treat various neurological conditions, such as brain tumors, aneurysms, arteriovenous malformations, or traumatic brain injuries. After the underlying brain condition is addressed, the bone flap is usually replaced and secured back in place with plates and screws. The purpose of a craniotomy is to provide access to the brain for diagnostic or therapeutic interventions while minimizing potential damage to surrounding tissues.

The subdural space is a potential space between the dura mater, which is the outermost of the three meninges covering the brain and spinal cord, and the arachnoid mater, which is the middle meningeal layer. This space normally contains a thin film of fluid, but when it becomes filled with blood (subdural hematoma) or pus (subdural empyema), it can cause significant neurological problems due to increased pressure on the brain. The subdural space can also become widened in certain conditions such as dementia or hydrocephalus, leading to a condition called subdural hygroma.

A skull fracture is a break in one or more of the bones that form the skull. It can occur from a direct blow to the head, penetrating injuries like gunshot wounds, or from strong rotational forces during an accident. There are several types of skull fractures, including:

1. Linear Skull Fracture: This is the most common type, where there's a simple break in the bone without any splintering, depression, or displacement. It often doesn't require treatment unless it's near a sensitive area like an eye or ear.

2. Depressed Skull Fracture: In this type, a piece of the skull is pushed inward toward the brain. Surgery may be needed to relieve pressure on the brain and repair the fracture.

3. Diastatic Skull Fracture: This occurs along the suture lines (the fibrous joints between the skull bones) that haven't fused yet, often seen in infants and young children.

4. Basilar Skull Fracture: This involves fractures at the base of the skull. It can be serious due to potential injury to the cranial nerves and blood vessels located in this area.

5. Comminuted Skull Fracture: In this severe type, the bone is shattered into many pieces. These fractures usually require extensive surgical repair.

Symptoms of a skull fracture can include pain, swelling, bruising, bleeding (if there's an open wound), and in some cases, clear fluid draining from the ears or nose (cerebrospinal fluid leak). Severe fractures may cause brain injury, leading to symptoms like confusion, loss of consciousness, seizures, or neurological deficits. Immediate medical attention is necessary for any suspected skull fracture.

A traumatic cerebral hemorrhage is a type of brain injury that results from a trauma or external force to the head, which causes bleeding in the brain. This condition is also known as an intracranial hemorrhage or epidural or subdural hematoma, depending on the location and extent of the bleeding.

The trauma can cause blood vessels in the brain to rupture, leading to the accumulation of blood in the skull and increased pressure on the brain. This can result in various symptoms such as headache, confusion, seizures, vomiting, weakness or numbness in the limbs, loss of consciousness, and even death if not treated promptly.

Traumatic cerebral hemorrhage is a medical emergency that requires immediate attention and treatment. Treatment options may include surgery to relieve pressure on the brain, medication to control seizures and reduce swelling, and rehabilitation to help with recovery. The prognosis for traumatic cerebral hemorrhage depends on various factors such as the severity of the injury, location of the bleeding, age and overall health of the patient, and timeliness of treatment.

A basal ganglia hemorrhage is a type of intracranial hemorrhage, which is defined as bleeding within the skull or brain. Specifically, a basal ganglia hemorrhage involves bleeding into the basal ganglia, which are clusters of neurons located deep within the forebrain and are involved in regulating movement, cognition, and emotion.

Basal ganglia hemorrhages can result from various factors, including hypertension (high blood pressure), cerebral amyloid angiopathy, illicit drug use (such as cocaine or amphetamines), and head trauma. Symptoms of a basal ganglia hemorrhage may include sudden onset of severe headache, altered consciousness, weakness or paralysis on one side of the body, difficulty speaking or understanding speech, and visual disturbances.

Diagnosis of a basal ganglia hemorrhage typically involves imaging studies such as computed tomography (CT) or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Treatment may include supportive care, medications to control symptoms, and surgical intervention in some cases. The prognosis for individuals with a basal ganglia hemorrhage varies depending on the severity of the bleed, the presence of underlying medical conditions, and the timeliness and effectiveness of treatment.

Craniocerebral trauma, also known as traumatic brain injury (TBI), is a type of injury that occurs to the head and brain. It can result from a variety of causes, including motor vehicle accidents, falls, sports injuries, violence, or other types of trauma. Craniocerebral trauma can range in severity from mild concussions to severe injuries that cause permanent disability or death.

The injury typically occurs when there is a sudden impact to the head, causing the brain to move within the skull and collide with the inside of the skull. This can result in bruising, bleeding, swelling, or tearing of brain tissue, as well as damage to blood vessels and nerves. In severe cases, the skull may be fractured or penetrated, leading to direct injury to the brain.

Symptoms of craniocerebral trauma can vary widely depending on the severity and location of the injury. They may include headache, dizziness, confusion, memory loss, difficulty speaking or understanding speech, changes in vision or hearing, weakness or numbness in the limbs, balance problems, and behavioral or emotional changes. In severe cases, the person may lose consciousness or fall into a coma.

Treatment for craniocerebral trauma depends on the severity of the injury. Mild injuries may be treated with rest, pain medication, and close monitoring, while more severe injuries may require surgery, intensive care, and rehabilitation. Prevention is key to reducing the incidence of craniocerebral trauma, including measures such as wearing seat belts and helmets, preventing falls, and avoiding violent situations.

Dura Mater is the thickest and outermost of the three membranes (meninges) that cover the brain and spinal cord. It provides protection and support to these delicate structures. The other two layers are called the Arachnoid Mater and the Pia Mater, which are thinner and more delicate than the Dura Mater. Together, these three layers form a protective barrier around the central nervous system.

The Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) is a standardized tool used by healthcare professionals to assess the level of consciousness and neurological response in a person who has suffered a brain injury or illness. It evaluates three aspects of a patient's responsiveness: eye opening, verbal response, and motor response. The scores from these three categories are then added together to provide an overall GCS score, which can range from 3 (indicating deep unconsciousness) to 15 (indicating a normal level of consciousness). This scale helps medical professionals to quickly and consistently communicate the severity of a patient's condition and monitor their progress over time.

The rectus abdominis is a paired, flat, and long muscle in the anterior (front) wall of the abdomen. It runs from the pubic symphysis (the joint where the two pubic bones meet in the front of the pelvis) to the xiphoid process (the lower end of the sternum or breastbone) and costal cartilages of the fifth, sixth, and seventh ribs.

The rectus abdominis is responsible for flexing the lumbar spine (lower back), which helps in bending forward or sitting up from a lying down position. It also contributes to maintaining proper posture and stabilizing the pelvis and spine. The muscle's visibility, especially in its lower portion, is often associated with a "six-pack" appearance in well-trained individuals.

Neurosurgical procedures are operations that are performed on the brain, spinal cord, and peripheral nerves. These procedures are typically carried out by neurosurgeons, who are medical doctors with specialized training in the diagnosis and treatment of disorders of the nervous system. Neurosurgical procedures can be used to treat a wide range of conditions, including traumatic injuries, tumors, aneurysms, vascular malformations, infections, degenerative diseases, and congenital abnormalities.

Some common types of neurosurgical procedures include:

* Craniotomy: A procedure in which a bone flap is temporarily removed from the skull to gain access to the brain. This type of procedure may be performed to remove a tumor, repair a blood vessel, or relieve pressure on the brain.
* Spinal fusion: A procedure in which two or more vertebrae in the spine are fused together using bone grafts and metal hardware. This is often done to stabilize the spine and alleviate pain caused by degenerative conditions or spinal deformities.
* Microvascular decompression: A procedure in which a blood vessel that is causing pressure on a nerve is repositioned or removed. This type of procedure is often used to treat trigeminal neuralgia, a condition that causes severe facial pain.
* Deep brain stimulation: A procedure in which electrodes are implanted in specific areas of the brain and connected to a battery-operated device called a neurostimulator. The neurostimulator sends electrical impulses to the brain to help alleviate symptoms of movement disorders such as Parkinson's disease or dystonia.
* Stereotactic radiosurgery: A non-invasive procedure that uses focused beams of radiation to treat tumors, vascular malformations, and other abnormalities in the brain or spine. This type of procedure is often used for patients who are not good candidates for traditional surgery due to age, health status, or location of the lesion.

Neurosurgical procedures can be complex and require a high degree of skill and expertise. Patients considering neurosurgical treatment should consult with a qualified neurosurgeon to discuss their options and determine the best course of action for their individual situation.

A closed head injury is a type of traumatic brain injury (TBI) that occurs when there is no penetration or breakage of the skull. The brain is encased in the skull and protected by cerebrospinal fluid, but when the head experiences a sudden impact or jolt, the brain can move back and forth within the skull, causing it to bruise, tear blood vessels, or even cause nerve damage. This type of injury can result from various incidents such as car accidents, sports injuries, falls, or any other event that causes the head to suddenly stop or change direction quickly.

Closed head injuries can range from mild (concussion) to severe (diffuse axonal injury, epidural hematoma, subdural hematoma), and symptoms may not always be immediately apparent. They can include headache, dizziness, nausea, vomiting, confusion, memory loss, difficulty concentrating, mood changes, sleep disturbances, and in severe cases, loss of consciousness, seizures, or even coma. It is essential to seek medical attention immediately if you suspect a closed head injury, as prompt diagnosis and treatment can significantly improve the outcome.

Intracranial hemorrhage (ICH) is a type of stroke caused by bleeding within the brain or its surrounding tissues. It's a serious medical emergency that requires immediate attention and treatment. The bleeding can occur in various locations:

1. Epidural hematoma: Bleeding between the dura mater (the outermost protective covering of the brain) and the skull. This is often caused by trauma, such as a head injury.
2. Subdural hematoma: Bleeding between the dura mater and the brain's surface, which can also be caused by trauma.
3. Subarachnoid hemorrhage: Bleeding in the subarachnoid space, which is filled with cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and surrounds the brain. This type of ICH is commonly caused by the rupture of an intracranial aneurysm or arteriovenous malformation.
4. Intraparenchymal hemorrhage: Bleeding within the brain tissue itself, which can be caused by hypertension (high blood pressure), amyloid angiopathy, or trauma.
5. Intraventricular hemorrhage: Bleeding into the brain's ventricular system, which contains CSF and communicates with the subarachnoid space. This type of ICH is often seen in premature infants but can also be caused by head trauma or aneurysm rupture in adults.

Symptoms of intracranial hemorrhage may include sudden severe headache, vomiting, altered consciousness, confusion, seizures, weakness, numbness, or paralysis on one side of the body, vision changes, or difficulty speaking or understanding speech. Rapid diagnosis and treatment are crucial to prevent further brain damage and potential long-term disabilities or death.

A subdural effusion is an abnormal accumulation of fluid in the potential space between the dura mater (the outermost layer of the meninges that covers the brain and spinal cord) and the arachnoid membrane (one of the three layers of the meninges that surround the brain and spinal cord) in the subdural space.

Subdural effusions can occur due to various reasons, including head trauma, infection, or complications from neurosurgical procedures. The fluid accumulation may result from bleeding (subdural hematoma), inflammation, or increased cerebrospinal fluid pressure. Depending on the underlying cause and the amount of fluid accumulated, subdural effusions can cause various symptoms, such as headaches, altered mental status, or neurological deficits.

Subdural effusions are often asymptomatic and may resolve independently; however, in some cases, medical intervention might be necessary to alleviate the pressure on the brain or address the underlying condition. Imaging techniques like computed tomography (CT) or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans are typically used to diagnose and monitor subdural effusions.

Medical Definition:

Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) is a non-invasive diagnostic imaging technique that uses a strong magnetic field and radio waves to create detailed cross-sectional or three-dimensional images of the internal structures of the body. The patient lies within a large, cylindrical magnet, and the scanner detects changes in the direction of the magnetic field caused by protons in the body. These changes are then converted into detailed images that help medical professionals to diagnose and monitor various medical conditions, such as tumors, injuries, or diseases affecting the brain, spinal cord, heart, blood vessels, joints, and other internal organs. MRI does not use radiation like computed tomography (CT) scans.

The posterior cranial fossa is a term used in anatomy to refer to the portion of the skull that forms the lower, back part of the cranial cavity. It is located between the occipital bone and the temporal bones, and it contains several important structures including the cerebellum, pons, medulla oblongata, and the lower cranial nerves (IX-XII). The posterior fossa also contains the foramen magnum, which is a large opening through which the spinal cord connects to the brainstem. This region of the skull is protected by the occipital bone, which forms the base of the skull and provides attachment for several neck muscles.

A laminectomy is a surgical procedure that involves the removal of the lamina, which is the back part of the vertebra that covers the spinal canal. This procedure is often performed to relieve pressure on the spinal cord or nerves caused by conditions such as herniated discs, spinal stenosis, or tumors. By removing the lamina, the surgeon can access the affected area and alleviate the compression on the spinal cord or nerves, thereby reducing pain, numbness, or weakness in the back, legs, or arms.

Laminectomy may be performed as a standalone procedure or in combination with other surgical techniques such as discectomy, foraminotomy, or spinal fusion. The specific approach and extent of the surgery will depend on the patient's individual condition and symptoms.

Drainage, in medical terms, refers to the removal of excess fluid or accumulated collections of fluids from various body parts or spaces. This is typically accomplished through the use of medical devices such as catheters, tubes, or drains. The purpose of drainage can be to prevent the buildup of fluids that may cause discomfort, infection, or other complications, or to treat existing collections of fluid such as abscesses, hematomas, or pleural effusions. Drainage may also be used as a diagnostic tool to analyze the type and composition of the fluid being removed.

Spontaneous remission in a medical context refers to the disappearance or significant improvement of symptoms of a disease or condition without any specific treatment being administered. In other words, it's a situation where the disease resolves on its own, without any apparent cause. While spontaneous remission can occur in various conditions, it is relatively rare and not well understood. It's important to note that just because a remission occurs without treatment doesn't mean that medical care should be avoided, as many conditions can worsen or lead to complications if left untreated.

The ligamentum flavum is a pair of elastic bands of tissue located in the spine. They connect the laminae, which are parts of the vertebral arch, from one vertebra to the next in the spine. These ligaments help maintain the stability and alignment of the vertebral column, allowing for a limited range of movement while preventing excessive motion that could cause injury. The elasticity of the ligamentum flavum also facilitates the return of the spinal column to its normal position after flexion.

These ligaments are named "flavum" because they have a yellowish color due to their high elastin content. They play an essential role in protecting the spinal cord and nerve roots from damage during movements of the spine. Any degeneration, thickening, or calcification of the ligamentum flavum may lead to conditions such as spinal stenosis, which can cause pain, numbness, or weakness in the back, legs, or arms.

Intracranial hemorrhage, hypertensive is a type of intracranial hemorrhage that occurs due to the rupture of blood vessels in the brain as a result of chronic high blood pressure (hypertension). It is also known as hypertensive intracerebral hemorrhage.

Hypertension can weaken and damage the walls of the small arteries and arterioles in the brain over time, making them more susceptible to rupture. When these blood vessels burst, they cause bleeding into the surrounding brain tissue, forming a hematoma that can compress and damage brain cells.

Intracranial hemorrhage, hypertensive is a medical emergency that requires immediate treatment. Symptoms may include sudden severe headache, weakness or numbness in the face or limbs, difficulty speaking or understanding speech, vision changes, loss of balance or coordination, and altered level of consciousness.

The diagnosis of intracranial hemorrhage, hypertensive is typically made through imaging tests such as computed tomography (CT) or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans. Treatment may involve medications to reduce blood pressure, surgery to remove the hematoma, and supportive care to manage complications such as brain swelling or seizures.

The retroperitoneal space refers to the area within the abdominal cavity that is located behind (retro) the peritoneum, which is the smooth serous membrane that lines the inner wall of the abdomen and covers the abdominal organs. This space is divided into several compartments and contains vital structures such as the kidneys, adrenal glands, pancreas, duodenum, aorta, and vena cava.

The retroperitoneal space can be further categorized into two regions:

1. The posterior pararenal space, which is lateral to the psoas muscle and contains fat tissue.
2. The perirenal space, which surrounds the kidneys and adrenal glands and is filled with fatty connective tissue.

Disorders or conditions affecting the retroperitoneal space may include infections, tumors, hematomas, or inflammation, which can lead to various symptoms depending on the specific structures involved. Imaging techniques such as CT scans or MRI are commonly used to diagnose and assess retroperitoneal pathologies.

Treatment outcome is a term used to describe the result or effect of medical treatment on a patient's health status. It can be measured in various ways, such as through symptoms improvement, disease remission, reduced disability, improved quality of life, or survival rates. The treatment outcome helps healthcare providers evaluate the effectiveness of a particular treatment plan and make informed decisions about future care. It is also used in clinical research to compare the efficacy of different treatments and improve patient care.

Esophageal diseases refer to a range of medical conditions that affect the esophagus, which is the muscular tube that connects the throat to the stomach. Here are some common esophageal diseases with their brief definitions:

1. Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD): A chronic condition in which stomach acid or bile flows back into the esophagus, causing symptoms such as heartburn, chest pain, and difficulty swallowing.
2. Esophagitis: Inflammation of the esophageal lining, often caused by GERD, infection, or medication.
3. Esophageal stricture: Narrowing of the esophagus due to scarring or inflammation, which can make swallowing difficult.
4. Esophageal cancer: Cancer that forms in the tissues of the esophagus, often as a result of long-term GERD or smoking.
5. Esophageal motility disorders: Disorders that affect the normal movement and function of the esophagus, such as achalasia, diffuse spasm, and nutcracker esophagus.
6. Barrett's esophagus: A condition in which the lining of the lower esophagus changes, increasing the risk of esophageal cancer.
7. Esophageal diverticula: Small pouches that form in the esophageal wall, often causing difficulty swallowing or regurgitation.
8. Eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE): A chronic immune-mediated disorder characterized by inflammation of the esophagus due to an allergic reaction.

These are some of the common esophageal diseases, and their diagnosis and treatment may vary depending on the severity and underlying cause of the condition.

In medical terms, suction refers to the process of creating and maintaining a partial vacuum in order to remove fluids or gases from a body cavity or wound. This is typically accomplished using specialized medical equipment such as a suction machine, which uses a pump to create the vacuum, and a variety of different suction tips or catheters that can be inserted into the area being treated.

Suction is used in a wide range of medical procedures and treatments, including wound care, surgical procedures, respiratory therapy, and diagnostic tests. It can help to remove excess fluids such as blood or pus from a wound, clear secretions from the airways during mechanical ventilation, or provide a means of visualizing internal structures during endoscopic procedures.

It is important to use proper technique when performing suctioning, as excessive or improperly applied suction can cause tissue damage or bleeding. Medical professionals are trained in the safe and effective use of suction equipment and techniques to minimize risks and ensure optimal patient outcomes.

Cerebral angiography is a medical procedure that involves taking X-ray images of the blood vessels in the brain after injecting a contrast dye into them. This procedure helps doctors to diagnose and treat various conditions affecting the blood vessels in the brain, such as aneurysms, arteriovenous malformations, and stenosis (narrowing of the blood vessels).

During the procedure, a catheter is inserted into an artery in the leg and threaded through the body to the blood vessels in the neck or brain. The contrast dye is then injected through the catheter, and X-ray images are taken to visualize the blood flow through the brain's blood vessels.

Cerebral angiography provides detailed images of the blood vessels in the brain, allowing doctors to identify any abnormalities or blockages that may be causing symptoms or increasing the risk of stroke. Based on the results of the cerebral angiography, doctors can develop a treatment plan to address these issues and prevent further complications.

An Arachnoid cyst is a type of abnormal fluid-filled sac that develops between the brain or spinal cord and the arachnoid membrane, which is one of the three layers that cover and protect the central nervous system. These cysts are filled with cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), which is the same fluid that surrounds and cushions the brain and spinal cord.

Arachnoid cysts can vary in size and may be present at birth or develop later in life due to trauma, infection, or other factors. While many arachnoid cysts are asymptomatic and do not cause any problems, larger cysts or those that grow or shift over time can put pressure on the brain or spinal cord, leading to a range of neurological symptoms such as headaches, seizures, hearing or vision changes, balance or coordination difficulties, and cognitive impairments.

Treatment for arachnoid cysts depends on their size, location, and associated symptoms. In some cases, observation and monitoring may be sufficient, while in others, surgical intervention may be necessary to drain the cyst or create a connection between it and the surrounding CSF space to relieve pressure.

Anticoagulants are a class of medications that work to prevent the formation of blood clots in the body. They do this by inhibiting the coagulation cascade, which is a series of chemical reactions that lead to the formation of a clot. Anticoagulants can be given orally, intravenously, or subcutaneously, depending on the specific drug and the individual patient's needs.

There are several different types of anticoagulants, including:

1. Heparin: This is a naturally occurring anticoagulant that is often used in hospitalized patients who require immediate anticoagulation. It works by activating an enzyme called antithrombin III, which inhibits the formation of clots.
2. Low molecular weight heparin (LMWH): LMWH is a form of heparin that has been broken down into smaller molecules. It has a longer half-life than standard heparin and can be given once or twice daily by subcutaneous injection.
3. Direct oral anticoagulants (DOACs): These are newer oral anticoagulants that work by directly inhibiting specific clotting factors in the coagulation cascade. Examples include apixaban, rivaroxaban, and dabigatran.
4. Vitamin K antagonists: These are older oral anticoagulants that work by inhibiting the action of vitamin K, which is necessary for the formation of clotting factors. Warfarin is an example of a vitamin K antagonist.

Anticoagulants are used to prevent and treat a variety of conditions, including deep vein thrombosis (DVT), pulmonary embolism (PE), atrial fibrillation, and prosthetic heart valve thrombosis. It is important to note that anticoagulants can increase the risk of bleeding, so they must be used with caution and regular monitoring of blood clotting times may be required.

Surgical decompression is a medical procedure that involves relieving pressure on a nerve or tissue by creating additional space. This is typically accomplished through the removal of a portion of bone or other tissue that is causing the compression. The goal of surgical decompression is to alleviate symptoms such as pain, numbness, tingling, or weakness caused by the compression.

In the context of spinal disorders, surgical decompression is often used to treat conditions such as herniated discs, spinal stenosis, or bone spurs that are compressing nerves in the spine. The specific procedure used may vary depending on the location and severity of the compression, but common techniques include laminectomy, discectomy, and foraminotomy.

It's important to note that surgical decompression is a significant medical intervention that carries risks such as infection, bleeding, and injury to surrounding tissues. As with any surgery, it should be considered as a last resort after other conservative treatments have been tried and found to be ineffective. A thorough evaluation by a qualified medical professional is necessary to determine whether surgical decompression is appropriate in a given case.

A traumatic brain hemorrhage is a type of bleeding that occurs within the brain or in the spaces surrounding the brain as a result of trauma or injury. This condition can range from mild to severe, and it is often a medical emergency.

Trauma can cause blood vessels in the brain to rupture, leading to the leakage of blood into the brain tissue or the spaces surrounding the brain. The buildup of blood puts pressure on the delicate tissues of the brain, which can cause damage and result in various symptoms.

There are several types of traumatic brain hemorrhages, including:

1. Epidural hematoma: This occurs when blood accumulates between the skull and the dura mater, the tough outer covering of the brain. It is often caused by a skull fracture that damages an artery or vein.
2. Subdural hematoma: In this type, bleeding occurs between the dura mater and the next inner covering of the brain, called the arachnoid membrane. Subdural hematomas are usually caused by venous injuries but can also result from arterial damage.
3. Intraparenchymal hemorrhage: This refers to bleeding within the brain tissue itself, often due to the rupture of small blood vessels.
4. Subarachnoid hemorrhage: Bleeding occurs in the space between the arachnoid membrane and the innermost covering of the brain, called the pia mater. This type of hemorrhage is commonly caused by an aneurysm or a head injury.

Symptoms of a traumatic brain hemorrhage may include:

* Sudden severe headache
* Nausea and vomiting
* Confusion or disorientation
* Vision changes, such as double vision or blurred vision
* Balance problems or difficulty walking
* Slurred speech or difficulty communicating
* Seizures
* Loss of consciousness
* Weakness or numbness in the face, arms, or legs

Immediate medical attention is necessary if a traumatic brain hemorrhage is suspected. Treatment may involve surgery to relieve pressure on the brain and stop the bleeding, as well as medications to manage symptoms and prevent complications. The prognosis for a traumatic brain hemorrhage depends on various factors, including the location and severity of the bleed, the patient's age and overall health, and the promptness and effectiveness of treatment.

Postoperative complications refer to any unfavorable condition or event that occurs during the recovery period after a surgical procedure. These complications can vary in severity and may include, but are not limited to:

1. Infection: This can occur at the site of the incision or inside the body, such as pneumonia or urinary tract infection.
2. Bleeding: Excessive bleeding (hemorrhage) can lead to a drop in blood pressure and may require further surgical intervention.
3. Blood clots: These can form in the deep veins of the legs (deep vein thrombosis) and can potentially travel to the lungs (pulmonary embolism).
4. Wound dehiscence: This is when the surgical wound opens up, which can lead to infection and further complications.
5. Pulmonary issues: These include atelectasis (collapsed lung), pneumonia, or respiratory failure.
6. Cardiovascular problems: These include abnormal heart rhythms (arrhythmias), heart attack, or stroke.
7. Renal failure: This can occur due to various reasons such as dehydration, blood loss, or the use of certain medications.
8. Pain management issues: Inadequate pain control can lead to increased stress, anxiety, and decreased mobility.
9. Nausea and vomiting: These can be caused by anesthesia, opioid pain medication, or other factors.
10. Delirium: This is a state of confusion and disorientation that can occur in the elderly or those with certain medical conditions.

Prompt identification and management of these complications are crucial to ensure the best possible outcome for the patient.

Nonpenetrating wounds are a type of trauma or injury to the body that do not involve a break in the skin or underlying tissues. These wounds can result from blunt force trauma, such as being struck by an object or falling onto a hard surface. They can also result from crushing injuries, where significant force is applied to a body part, causing damage to internal structures without breaking the skin.

Nonpenetrating wounds can cause a range of injuries, including bruising, swelling, and damage to internal organs, muscles, bones, and other tissues. The severity of the injury depends on the force of the trauma, the location of the impact, and the individual's overall health and age.

While nonpenetrating wounds may not involve a break in the skin, they can still be serious and require medical attention. If you have experienced blunt force trauma or suspect a nonpenetrating wound, it is important to seek medical care to assess the extent of the injury and receive appropriate treatment.

Retrospective studies, also known as retrospective research or looking back studies, are a type of observational study that examines data from the past to draw conclusions about possible causal relationships between risk factors and outcomes. In these studies, researchers analyze existing records, medical charts, or previously collected data to test a hypothesis or answer a specific research question.

Retrospective studies can be useful for generating hypotheses and identifying trends, but they have limitations compared to prospective studies, which follow participants forward in time from exposure to outcome. Retrospective studies are subject to biases such as recall bias, selection bias, and information bias, which can affect the validity of the results. Therefore, retrospective studies should be interpreted with caution and used primarily to generate hypotheses for further testing in prospective studies.

Brain edema is a medical condition characterized by the abnormal accumulation of fluid in the brain, leading to an increase in intracranial pressure. This can result from various causes, such as traumatic brain injury, stroke, infection, brain tumors, or inflammation. The swelling of the brain can compress vital structures, impair blood flow, and cause neurological symptoms, which may range from mild headaches to severe cognitive impairment, seizures, coma, or even death if not treated promptly and effectively.

The Glasgow Outcome Scale (GOS) is a widely used clinical measurement for assessing the outcome and recovery of patients who have suffered a traumatic brain injury (TBI) or other neurological disorders. It was first introduced in 1975 by Graham Jennett and colleagues at the University of Glasgow.

The GOS classifies the overall functional ability and independence of a patient into one of the following five hierarchical categories:

1. **Death:** The patient has died due to the injury or its complications.
2. **Vegetative State (VS):** The patient is unaware of their surroundings, shows no meaningful response to stimuli, and has minimal or absent brainstem reflexes. They may have sleep-wake cycles but lack higher cognitive functions.
3. **Severe Disability (SD):** The patient demonstrates considerable disability in their daily life, requiring assistance with personal care and activities. They might have cognitive impairments, communication difficulties, or physical disabilities that limit their independence.
4. **Moderate Disability (MD):** The patient has some disability but can live independently, manage their own affairs, and return to work in a sheltered environment. They may exhibit minor neurological or psychological deficits.
5. **Good Recovery (GR):** The patient has resumed normal life with minimal or no residual neurological or psychological deficits. They might have some minor problems with memory, concentration, or organizational skills but can perform their daily activities without assistance.

The Glasgow Outcome Scale-Extended (GOS-E) is an updated and more detailed version of the GOS, which further breaks down the original five categories into eight subcategories for a more nuanced assessment of patient outcomes.

Spontaneous rupture in medical terms refers to the sudden breaking or tearing of an organ, tissue, or structure within the body without any identifiable trauma or injury. This event can occur due to various reasons such as weakening of the tissue over time because of disease or degeneration, or excessive pressure on the tissue.

For instance, a spontaneous rupture of the appendix is called an "appendiceal rupture," which can lead to peritonitis, a serious inflammation of the abdominal cavity. Similarly, a spontaneous rupture of a blood vessel, like an aortic aneurysm, can result in life-threatening internal bleeding.

Spontaneous ruptures are often medical emergencies and require immediate medical attention for proper diagnosis and treatment.

Extravasation of diagnostic and therapeutic materials refers to the unintended leakage or escape of these substances from the intended vasculature into the surrounding tissues. This can occur during the administration of various medical treatments, such as chemotherapy, contrast agents for imaging studies, or other injectable medications.

The extravasation can result in a range of complications, depending on the type and volume of the material that has leaked, as well as the location and sensitivity of the surrounding tissues. Possible consequences include local tissue damage, inflammation, pain, and potential long-term effects such as fibrosis or necrosis.

Prompt recognition and management of extravasation are essential to minimize these complications. Treatment may involve local cooling or heating, the use of hyaluronidase or other agents to facilitate dispersion of the extravasated material, or surgical intervention in severe cases.

Orbital diseases refer to a group of medical conditions that affect the orbit, which is the bony cavity in the skull that contains the eye, muscles, nerves, fat, and blood vessels. These diseases can cause various symptoms such as eyelid swelling, protrusion or displacement of the eyeball, double vision, pain, and limited extraocular muscle movement.

Orbital diseases can be broadly classified into inflammatory, infectious, neoplastic (benign or malignant), vascular, traumatic, and congenital categories. Some examples of orbital diseases include:

* Orbital cellulitis: a bacterial or fungal infection that causes swelling and inflammation in the orbit
* Graves' disease: an autoimmune disorder that affects the thyroid gland and can cause protrusion of the eyeballs (exophthalmos)
* Orbital tumors: benign or malignant growths that develop in the orbit, such as optic nerve gliomas, lacrimal gland tumors, and lymphomas
* Carotid-cavernous fistulas: abnormal connections between the carotid artery and cavernous sinus, leading to pulsatile proptosis and other symptoms
* Orbital fractures: breaks in the bones surrounding the orbit, often caused by trauma
* Congenital anomalies: structural abnormalities present at birth, such as craniofacial syndromes or dermoid cysts.

Proper diagnosis and management of orbital diseases require a multidisciplinary approach involving ophthalmologists, neurologists, radiologists, and other specialists.

Spinal cord compression is a medical condition that refers to the narrowing of the spinal canal, which puts pressure on the spinal cord and the nerves that branch out from it. This can occur due to various reasons such as degenerative changes in the spine, herniated discs, bone spurs, tumors, or fractures. The compression can lead to a range of symptoms including pain, numbness, tingling, weakness, or loss of bladder and bowel control. In severe cases, it can cause paralysis. Treatment options depend on the underlying cause and may include physical therapy, medication, surgery, or radiation therapy.

X-ray computed tomography (CT) scanner is a medical imaging device that uses computer-processed combinations of many X-ray images taken from different angles to produce cross-sectional (tomographic) images (virtual "slices") of the body. These cross-sections can then be manipulated, through either additional computer processing or interactive viewing, to show various bodily structures and functions in 2D or 3D.

In contrast to conventional X-ray imaging, CT scanning provides detailed images of many types of tissue including lung, bone, soft tissue and blood vessels. CT is often used when rapid, detailed images are needed such as in trauma situations or for the detection and diagnosis of stroke, cancer, appendicitis, pulmonary embolism, and musculoskeletal disorders.

CT scanning is associated with some risks, particularly from exposure to ionizing radiation, which can lead to cancer and other diseases. However, the benefits of CT scanning, in particular its ability to detect life-threatening conditions early and accurately, generally outweigh the risks. As a result, it has become an important tool in modern medicine.

A subarachnoid hemorrhage is a type of stroke that results from bleeding into the space surrounding the brain, specifically within the subarachnoid space which contains cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). This space is located between the arachnoid membrane and the pia mater, two of the three layers that make up the meninges, the protective covering of the brain and spinal cord.

The bleeding typically originates from a ruptured aneurysm, a weakened area in the wall of a cerebral artery, or less commonly from arteriovenous malformations (AVMs) or head trauma. The sudden influx of blood into the CSF-filled space can cause increased intracranial pressure, irritation to the brain, and vasospasms, leading to further ischemia and potential additional neurological damage.

Symptoms of a subarachnoid hemorrhage may include sudden onset of severe headache (often described as "the worst headache of my life"), neck stiffness, altered mental status, nausea, vomiting, photophobia, and focal neurological deficits. Rapid diagnosis and treatment are crucial to prevent further complications and improve the chances of recovery.

A fatal outcome is a term used in medical context to describe a situation where a disease, injury, or illness results in the death of an individual. It is the most severe and unfortunate possible outcome of any medical condition, and is often used as a measure of the severity and prognosis of various diseases and injuries. In clinical trials and research, fatal outcome may be used as an endpoint to evaluate the effectiveness and safety of different treatments or interventions.

The arachnoid is one of the three membranes that cover the brain and the spinal cord, known as the meninges. It is located between the dura mater (the outermost layer) and the pia mater (the innermost layer). The arachnoid is a thin, delicate membrane that is filled with cerebrospinal fluid, which provides protection and nutrition to the central nervous system.

The arachnoid has a spider-web like appearance, hence its name, and it is composed of several layers of collagen fibers and elastic tissue. It is highly vascularized, meaning that it contains many blood vessels, and it plays an important role in regulating the flow of cerebrospinal fluid around the brain and spinal cord.

In some cases, the arachnoid can become inflamed or irritated, leading to a condition called arachnoiditis. This can cause a range of symptoms, including pain, muscle weakness, and sensory changes, and it may require medical treatment to manage.

An acute disease is a medical condition that has a rapid onset, develops quickly, and tends to be short in duration. Acute diseases can range from minor illnesses such as a common cold or flu, to more severe conditions such as pneumonia, meningitis, or a heart attack. These types of diseases often have clear symptoms that are easy to identify, and they may require immediate medical attention or treatment.

Acute diseases are typically caused by an external agent or factor, such as a bacterial or viral infection, a toxin, or an injury. They can also be the result of a sudden worsening of an existing chronic condition. In general, acute diseases are distinct from chronic diseases, which are long-term medical conditions that develop slowly over time and may require ongoing management and treatment.

Examples of acute diseases include:

* Acute bronchitis: a sudden inflammation of the airways in the lungs, often caused by a viral infection.
* Appendicitis: an inflammation of the appendix that can cause severe pain and requires surgical removal.
* Gastroenteritis: an inflammation of the stomach and intestines, often caused by a viral or bacterial infection.
* Migraine headaches: intense headaches that can last for hours or days, and are often accompanied by nausea, vomiting, and sensitivity to light and sound.
* Myocardial infarction (heart attack): a sudden blockage of blood flow to the heart muscle, often caused by a buildup of plaque in the coronary arteries.
* Pneumonia: an infection of the lungs that can cause coughing, chest pain, and difficulty breathing.
* Sinusitis: an inflammation of the sinuses, often caused by a viral or bacterial infection.

It's important to note that while some acute diseases may resolve on their own with rest and supportive care, others may require medical intervention or treatment to prevent complications and promote recovery. If you are experiencing symptoms of an acute disease, it is always best to seek medical attention to ensure proper diagnosis and treatment.

Aortic diseases refer to conditions that affect the aorta, which is the largest and main artery in the body. The aorta carries oxygenated blood from the heart to the rest of the body. Aortic diseases can weaken or damage the aorta, leading to various complications. Here are some common aortic diseases with their medical definitions:

1. Aortic aneurysm: A localized dilation or bulging of the aortic wall, which can occur in any part of the aorta but is most commonly found in the abdominal aorta (abdominal aortic aneurysm) or the thoracic aorta (thoracic aortic aneurysm). Aneurysms can increase the risk of rupture, leading to life-threatening bleeding.
2. Aortic dissection: A separation of the layers of the aortic wall due to a tear in the inner lining, allowing blood to flow between the layers and potentially cause the aorta to rupture. This is a medical emergency that requires immediate treatment.
3. Aortic stenosis: A narrowing of the aortic valve opening, which restricts blood flow from the heart to the aorta. This can lead to shortness of breath, chest pain, and other symptoms. Severe aortic stenosis may require surgical or transcatheter intervention to replace or repair the aortic valve.
4. Aortic regurgitation: Also known as aortic insufficiency, this condition occurs when the aortic valve does not close properly, allowing blood to leak back into the heart. This can lead to symptoms such as fatigue, shortness of breath, and palpitations. Treatment may include medication or surgical repair or replacement of the aortic valve.
5. Aortitis: Inflammation of the aorta, which can be caused by various conditions such as infections, autoimmune diseases, or vasculitides. Aortitis can lead to aneurysms, dissections, or stenosis and may require medical treatment with immunosuppressive drugs or surgical intervention.
6. Marfan syndrome: A genetic disorder that affects the connective tissue, including the aorta. People with Marfan syndrome are at risk of developing aortic aneurysms and dissections, and may require close monitoring and prophylactic surgery to prevent complications.

Cerebellar diseases refer to a group of medical conditions that affect the cerebellum, which is the part of the brain located at the back of the head, below the occipital lobe and above the brainstem. The cerebellum plays a crucial role in motor control, coordination, balance, and some cognitive functions.

Cerebellar diseases can be caused by various factors, including genetics, infections, tumors, stroke, trauma, or degenerative processes. These conditions can result in a wide range of symptoms, such as:

1. Ataxia: Loss of coordination and unsteady gait
2. Dysmetria: Inability to judge distance and force while performing movements
3. Intention tremors: Shaking or trembling that worsens during purposeful movements
4. Nystagmus: Rapid, involuntary eye movement
5. Dysarthria: Speech difficulty due to muscle weakness or incoordination
6. Hypotonia: Decreased muscle tone
7. Titubation: Rhythmic, involuntary oscillations of the head and neck
8. Cognitive impairment: Problems with memory, attention, and executive functions

Some examples of cerebellar diseases include:

1. Ataxia-telangiectasia
2. Friedrich's ataxia
3. Multiple system atrophy (MSA)
4. Spinocerebellar ataxias (SCAs)
5. Cerebellar tumors, such as medulloblastomas or astrocytomas
6. Infarctions or hemorrhages in the cerebellum due to stroke or trauma
7. Infections, such as viral encephalitis or bacterial meningitis
8. Autoimmune disorders, like multiple sclerosis (MS) or paraneoplastic syndromes
9. Metabolic disorders, such as Wilson's disease or phenylketonuria (PKU)
10. Chronic alcoholism and withdrawal

Treatment for cerebellar diseases depends on the underlying cause and may involve medications, physical therapy, surgery, or supportive care to manage symptoms and improve quality of life.

A ruptured aneurysm is a serious medical condition that occurs when the wall of an artery or a blood vessel weakens and bulges out, forming an aneurysm, which then bursts, causing bleeding into the surrounding tissue. This can lead to internal hemorrhage, organ damage, and even death, depending on the location and severity of the rupture.

Ruptured aneurysms are often caused by factors such as high blood pressure, smoking, aging, and genetic predisposition. They can occur in any part of the body but are most common in the aorta (the largest artery in the body) and the cerebral arteries (in the brain).

Symptoms of a ruptured aneurysm may include sudden and severe pain, weakness or paralysis, difficulty breathing, confusion, loss of consciousness, and shock. Immediate medical attention is required to prevent further complications and increase the chances of survival. Treatment options for a ruptured aneurysm may include surgery, endovascular repair, or medication to manage symptoms and prevent further bleeding.

Warfarin is a anticoagulant medication that works by inhibiting the vitamin K-dependent activation of several coagulation factors (factors II, VII, IX, and X). This results in prolonged clotting times and reduced thrombus formation. It is commonly used to prevent and treat blood clots in conditions such as atrial fibrillation, deep vein thrombosis, and pulmonary embolism. Warfarin is also known by its brand names Coumadin and Jantoven.

It's important to note that warfarin has a narrow therapeutic index, meaning that the difference between an effective dose and a toxic one is small. Therefore, it requires careful monitoring of the patient's coagulation status through regular blood tests (INR) to ensure that the dosage is appropriate and to minimize the risk of bleeding complications.

Neuroendoscopy is a minimally invasive surgical technique that involves the use of an endoscope to access and treat various conditions within the brain and spinal column. An endoscope is a long, flexible tube with a light and camera at its tip, which allows surgeons to view and operate on internal structures through small incisions or natural openings in the body.

In neuroendoscopy, the surgeon uses the endoscope to navigate through the brain's ventricular system (fluid-filled spaces) or other narrow spaces within the skull or spine to diagnose and treat conditions such as hydrocephalus, brain tumors, arachnoid cysts, and intraventricular hemorrhage.

The benefits of neuroendoscopy include reduced trauma to surrounding tissues, shorter hospital stays, faster recovery times, and improved outcomes compared to traditional open surgical approaches. However, neuroendoscopic procedures require specialized training and expertise due to the complexity of the anatomy involved.

Paraparesis is a medical term that refers to a mild to moderate form of paralysis affecting the lower limbs, specifically the legs. It is characterized by partial loss of strength and mobility, which may result in difficulty walking or maintaining balance. Paraparesis can be caused by various conditions such as spinal cord injuries, multiple sclerosis, spina bifida, or other neurological disorders affecting the spinal cord.

The term "para" means "two," and "paresis" comes from the Greek word "paresis," which means "loosening" or "relaxation." Therefore, paraparesis implies weakness or partial paralysis in two lower extremities. It is important to note that while paraparesis can impact a person's ability to walk and perform daily activities, it does not necessarily lead to complete loss of movement or sensation in the affected limbs.

Proper diagnosis and management of the underlying cause are crucial for improving symptoms and preventing further progression of paraparesis. Treatment options may include physical therapy, medications, assistive devices, or surgical interventions depending on the specific condition causing the paraparesis.

Thalamic diseases refer to conditions that affect the thalamus, which is a part of the brain that acts as a relay station for sensory and motor signals to the cerebral cortex. The thalamus plays a crucial role in regulating consciousness, sleep, and alertness. Thalamic diseases can cause a variety of symptoms depending on the specific area of the thalamus that is affected. These symptoms may include sensory disturbances, motor impairment, cognitive changes, and altered levels of consciousness. Examples of thalamic diseases include stroke, tumors, multiple sclerosis, infections, and degenerative disorders such as dementia and Parkinson's disease. Treatment for thalamic diseases depends on the underlying cause and may include medications, surgery, or rehabilitation therapy.

Stereotaxic techniques are minimally invasive surgical procedures used in neuroscience and neurology that allow for precise targeting and manipulation of structures within the brain. These methods use a stereotactic frame, which is attached to the skull and provides a three-dimensional coordinate system to guide the placement of instruments such as electrodes, cannulas, or radiation sources. The main goal is to reach specific brain areas with high precision and accuracy, minimizing damage to surrounding tissues. Stereotaxic techniques are widely used in research, diagnosis, and treatment of various neurological disorders, including movement disorders, pain management, epilepsy, and psychiatric conditions.

Exophthalmos is a medical condition that refers to the abnormal protrusion or bulging of one or both eyes beyond the normal orbit (eye socket). This condition is also known as proptosis. Exophthalmos can be caused by various factors, including thyroid eye disease (Graves' ophthalmopathy), tumors, inflammation, trauma, or congenital abnormalities. It can lead to various symptoms such as double vision, eye discomfort, redness, and difficulty closing the eyes. Treatment of exophthalmos depends on the underlying cause and may include medications, surgery, or radiation therapy.

Neurosurgery, also known as neurological surgery, is a medical specialty that involves the diagnosis, surgical treatment, and rehabilitation of disorders of the nervous system. This includes the brain, spinal cord, peripheral nerves, and extra-cranial cerebrovascular system. Neurosurgeons use both traditional open and minimally invasive techniques to treat various conditions such as tumors, trauma, vascular disorders, infections, stroke, epilepsy, pain, and congenital anomalies. They work closely with other healthcare professionals including neurologists, radiologists, oncologists, and critical care specialists to provide comprehensive patient care.

An intracranial aneurysm is a localized, blood-filled dilation or bulging in the wall of a cerebral artery within the skull (intracranial). These aneurysms typically occur at weak points in the arterial walls, often at branching points where the vessel divides into smaller branches. Over time, the repeated pressure from blood flow can cause the vessel wall to weaken and balloon out, forming a sac-like structure. Intracranial aneurysms can vary in size, ranging from a few millimeters to several centimeters in diameter.

There are three main types of intracranial aneurysms:

1. Saccular (berry) aneurysm: This is the most common type, characterized by a round or oval shape with a narrow neck and a bulging sac. They usually develop at branching points in the arteries due to congenital weaknesses in the vessel wall.
2. Fusiform aneurysm: These aneurysms have a dilated segment along the length of the artery, forming a cigar-shaped or spindle-like structure. They are often caused by atherosclerosis and can affect any part of the cerebral arteries.
3. Dissecting aneurysm: This type occurs when there is a tear in the inner lining (intima) of the artery, allowing blood to flow between the layers of the vessel wall. It can lead to narrowing or complete blockage of the affected artery and may cause subarachnoid hemorrhage if it ruptures.

Intracranial aneurysms can be asymptomatic and discovered incidentally during imaging studies for other conditions. However, when they grow larger or rupture, they can lead to severe complications such as subarachnoid hemorrhage, stroke, or even death. Treatment options include surgical clipping, endovascular coiling, or flow diversion techniques to prevent further growth and potential rupture of the aneurysm.

A brain injury is defined as damage to the brain that occurs following an external force or trauma, such as a blow to the head, a fall, or a motor vehicle accident. Brain injuries can also result from internal conditions, such as lack of oxygen or a stroke. There are two main types of brain injuries: traumatic and acquired.

Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is caused by an external force that results in the brain moving within the skull or the skull being fractured. Mild TBIs may result in temporary symptoms such as headaches, confusion, and memory loss, while severe TBIs can cause long-term complications, including physical, cognitive, and emotional impairments.

Acquired brain injury (ABI) is any injury to the brain that occurs after birth and is not hereditary, congenital, or degenerative. ABIs are often caused by medical conditions such as strokes, tumors, anoxia (lack of oxygen), or infections.

Both TBIs and ABIs can range from mild to severe and may result in a variety of physical, cognitive, and emotional symptoms that can impact a person's ability to perform daily activities and function independently. Treatment for brain injuries typically involves a multidisciplinary approach, including medical management, rehabilitation, and supportive care.

A headache is defined as pain or discomfort in the head, scalp, or neck. It can be a symptom of various underlying conditions such as stress, sinus congestion, migraine, or more serious issues like meningitis or concussion. Headaches can vary in intensity, ranging from mild to severe, and may be accompanied by other symptoms such as nausea, vomiting, or sensitivity to light and sound. There are over 150 different types of headaches, including tension headaches, cluster headaches, and sinus headaches, each with their own specific characteristics and causes.

A dissecting aneurysm is a serious and potentially life-threatening condition that occurs when there is a tear in the inner layer of the artery wall, allowing blood to flow between the layers of the artery wall. This can cause the artery to bulge or balloon out, leading to a dissection aneurysm.

Dissecting aneurysms can occur in any artery, but they are most commonly found in the aorta, which is the largest artery in the body. When a dissecting aneurysm occurs in the aorta, it is often referred to as a "dissecting aortic aneurysm."

Dissecting aneurysms can be caused by various factors, including high blood pressure, atherosclerosis (hardening and narrowing of the arteries), genetic disorders that affect the connective tissue, trauma, or illegal drug use (such as cocaine).

Symptoms of a dissecting aneurysm may include sudden severe chest or back pain, which can feel like ripping or tearing, shortness of breath, sweating, lightheadedness, or loss of consciousness. If left untreated, a dissecting aneurysm can lead to serious complications, such as rupture of the artery, stroke, or even death.

Treatment for a dissecting aneurysm typically involves surgery or endovascular repair to prevent further damage and reduce the risk of rupture. The specific treatment approach will depend on various factors, including the location and size of the aneurysm, the patient's overall health, and their medical history.

Perianal hematoma (anus) Subungual hematoma (nail) Rectus sheath hematoma Petechiae - small pinpoint hematomas less than 3 mm ... Subdermal hematoma (under the skin) Intramuscular hematoma (inside muscle tissue) Skull/brain: Subgaleal hematoma - between the ... A hematoma, also spelled haematoma, or blood suffusion is a localized bleeding outside of blood vessels, due to either disease ... Epidural hematoma - between the skull and dura mater Subdural hematoma - between the dura mater and arachnoid mater ...
In some cases, both pneumatoceles and hematomas exist in the same injured lung. Pulmonary hematomas take longer to heal than ... A pulmonary hematoma is a collection of blood within the tissue of the lung. It may result when a pulmonary laceration fills ... Unlike contusions, hematomas do not usually interfere with gas exchange in the lung, but they do increase the risk of infection ... An indication of more severe damage to the lung than pulmonary contusion, a hematoma also takes longer to clear. ...
When a hematoma resolves, it may become fibrotic, leaving behind scar tissue. A resolving hematoma may liquify to form a seroma ... Also hematomas that occur after surgery for excision of a malignant tumor are drained, because a hematoma to which irradiation ... Larger hematomas are more likely to lead to inflammation or fibrosis. Breast hematomas can sometimes lead to skin discoloration ... A recent hematoma can be drained by means of needle aspiration or (rarely) open surgical drainage. "Breast hematoma". ...
... is the pooling of blood (hematoma) between the chorion, a membrane surrounding the embryo, and the uterine ... A chorionic hematoma appears on ultrasound as a hypoechoic crescent adjacent to the gestational sac. The hematoma is considered ... Hematomas are classified by their location between tissue layers: Subchorionic hematomas, the most common type, are between the ... Chorionic hematomas can be caused by the separation of the chorion from the endometrium (inner membrane of the uterus). ...
Postoperative hematomas are a cutaneous condition characterized by a collection of blood below the skin, and result as a ... Subungual hematoma List of cutaneous conditions Rapini, Ronald P.; Bolognia, Jean L.; Jorizzo, Joseph L. (2007). Dermatology: 2 ...
A hematoma block is an analgesic technique used to allow painless manipulation of fractures while avoiding the need for full ... "Hematoma Block For the Closed Reduction of Fractures" (PDF). Retrieved 18 May 2015. v t e (Articles with short description, ... This collection, or pool, of blood is known as a hematoma. Injection of a suitable local anesthetic by needle and syringe ... Tseng, Ping-Tao; Leu, Tsai-Hsueh; Chen, Yen-Wen; Chen, Yu-Pin (December 2018). "Hematoma block or procedural sedation and ...
A subungual hematoma is a collection of blood (hematoma) underneath a toenail or fingernail. It can be extremely painful for an ... Subungual hematomas are treated by either making a hole through the nail into the hematoma (trephining) within 48 hours of ... ISBN 978-0-7817-5074-5. Pingel, C.; McDowell, C. (2022). "Subungual Hematoma Drainage". Subungual Hematoma Drainage - ... Pingel, C; McDowell, C (January 2019). "Subungual Hematoma Drainage". StatPearls [Internet]. PMID 29494114. "Subungual Hematoma ...
Large hematomas usually start within the ethmoid labyrinth, and smaller ones tend to begin on the sinus floor. The hematoma ... A growing hematoma causes pressure necrosis of the bone surrounding the hematoma, but only on rare occasions does it cause ... Prognosis for this condition varies according to extent of the hematoma, but is normally fairly good. Smaller hematomas carry a ... Ethmoid hematoma is a progressive and locally destructive disease of horses. It is indicated by a mass in the paranasal sinuses ...
A "heat hematoma" is an epidural hematoma caused by severe thermal burn, causing contraction and exfoliation of the dura mater ... Nontraumatic epidural hematoma in a young woman. The grey area in the top right is organizing hematoma, causing midline shift ... Epidural hematomas may occur in combination with subdural hematomas, or either may occur alone. CT scans reveal subdural or ... Arterial epidural hematomas usually progress rapidly. However, venous epidural hematomas, caused by a dural sinus tear, are ...
... is a hematoma located in, or on the border of the anus. It is sometimes inappropriately referred to as an ... The symptoms of a perianal hematoma can present over a short period of time. Pain, varying from mild to severe, will occur as ... Management of thrombosed perianal hematoma has been poorly studied as of 2018. If diagnosed within the first few hours of ... Perianal hematoma are caused by the rupture of a small vein that drains blood from the anus. This rupture may be the result of ...
Unlike epidural hematomas, which cannot expand past the sutures of the skull, subdural hematomas can expand along the inside of ... Subdural Hematoma at eMedicine Imaging and Mechanism of Subdural Hematoma - MedPix (CS1 maint: DOI inactive as of August 2023, ... Chronic subdural hematomas have a better prognosis if properly managed. In contrast, epidural hematomas are usually caused by ... Treatment of a subdural hematoma depends on its size and rate of growth. Some small subdural hematomas can be managed by ...
Spinal extradural haematoma or spinal epidural hematoma (SEH) is bleeding into the epidural space in the spine. These may arise ... The source of bleeding in spinal epidural hematoma is likely to be this venous plexus.[citation needed] The best way to confirm ... The anatomy of the epidural space is such that spinal epidural hematoma has a different presentation from intracranial epidural ... "Spinal epidural hematoma". The Journal of the American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons. 18 (8): 494-502. doi:10.5435/00124635- ...
... is a condition affecting the nasal septum. It can be associated with trauma. A septal hematoma is blood ... Sometimes palpitation is used to diagnose the hematoma. A septal hematoma requires urgent treatment from a physician in order ... it is a strong indicator of a nasal septal hematoma. A septal hematoma is highly likely in patients who have had trauma or a ... then the nasal septal hematoma is still treatable if seen by a physician. Septal hematomas are rare but can effect everyone in ...
... seen on axial CT - with active bleeding under Marcoumar Rectus sheath hematoma as seen on ultrasound ... A rectus sheath hematoma is an accumulation of blood in the sheath of the rectus abdominis muscle. It causes abdominal pain ... The hematoma may be caused by either rupture of the epigastric artery or by a muscular tear. Several factors have been ... Most hematomas resolve without treatment, but they may take several months to resolve. Multiplanar CT scan of a spontaneous ...
... is a skin condition characterized by spontaneous focal hemorrhage into the palm or the volar surface ... 828 List of cutaneous conditions Hematoma Phalanx bone James, William D.; Berger, Timothy G.; et al. (2006). Andrews' Diseases ...
... (MDHSR) has been described by Cozzutto and Lazzaroni-Fossati in 1980, by ... Metanephric dysplastic hematoma of the sacral region. Virchows Arch (Pathol Anat) 402:99-106 Finegold M (1986) Pathology of ...
Small hematomas may be monitored closely to ensure the hematoma is not enlarging and resolved properly. A large hematoma larger ... Two types of hematomas occurring within the brain are: subdural and extradural hematomas, which are classified as a traumatic ... Following a serve brain injury or a skull fracture one of the two hematomas may occur. An extradural hematoma is a TBI where ... Subdural and epidural hematomas are serious injuries and recovery varies widely depending on the severity of the hematoma. ...
According to Fritsch: Possibilities could include rare infection; bleeding; hematoma; pain; discomfort; swelling; suture ... hematoma; relapse (ears protruding again); hypersensitivity; pain with pressure and cold, pressure damage (necrosis) from too ...
Plauché, WC (3 October 1980). "Subgaleal hematoma. A complication of instrumental delivery". JAMA. 244 (14): 1597-1598. doi: ...
In an auricular hematoma, blood accumulates between the perichondrium and cartilage. The hematoma mechanically obstructs blood ... However, because of potentially more remarkable injuries often associated with auricular hematoma, auricular hematoma can ... Less frequently, the hematoma may form in the concha or the area in and around the external auditory meatus. Importantly, an ... Because an acute hematoma can lead to cauliflower ear, prompt evacuation of the blood can prevent permanent deformity. There ...
Pooling of blood under the skin can cause a hematoma, particularly after blunt trauma or the suture of a laceration. Hematomas ... Hematomas occur immediately following a bone fracture, and the healing process often takes from six weeks to three months to ... Injuries of the external ear are typically lacerations of the cartilage or the formation of a hematoma. Injuries of the middle ... Blunt trauma to the muscles can cause contusions and hematomas. Excessive tensile strength can overstretch a muscle, causing a ...
Ginsburg CM (April 1998). "Nasal septal hematoma". Pediatr Rev. 19 (4): 142-3. doi:10.1542/pir.19-4-142. PMID 9557069. ( ... A nasal septal abscess is frequently a result of a secondary bacterial infection of a nasal septal hematoma.[citation needed] ...
A 1994 article in Neurology suggests Mozart died of a subdural hematoma. A skull believed to be Mozart's was saved by the ... A left temporal fracture and concomitant erosions raise the question of a chronic subdural hematoma, which would be consistent ... 265-266 Drake Jr, ME (1993). "Mozart's chronic subdural hematoma". Neurology. 43 (11): 2400-2403. doi:10.1212/wnl.43.11.2400. ...
... haematoma; relapse (ears protrude again); too closely pinned ear; hypertrophic scar; keloid; hypersensitivity; pressure damage ...
... haematoma; relapse (ears protrude again); hypertrophic scarring or keloids along the skin incision; hypersensitivity and pain ...
The autopsy report for Rajka states, among other things: "...hematoma in the lower extremities due to beating ..." and " ... "hematoma in the forehead." Rajka and Zdenka, known as Sisters Baković, along with Anka Butorac, Ljubica Gerovac, Nada Dimić, ...
Mahboubi S, Kaufmann JH (1978). "Intramural duodenal hematoma in children. The role of the radiologist in its conservative ...
Septal hematoma and septal abscess. Adhesions and synechiae between septal mucosa and lateral nasal wall. Saddle nose due to ... Septal perforation and septal hematoma are possible, as is a decrease in the sense of smell. Temporary numbness of the front ...
M'Cormick [sic], J. N. (1873). "Hematoma of the Dura Mater". American Practitioner. 8 (15): 224-226. McCormack, J. N. (1874). " ...
JAMA 1976; 236: 954 "Iliacus hematoma syndrome." Kounis N G, Macauley MB, Ghorbal MS. Canadian Medical Association Journal 1975 ...
Perianal hematoma (anus) Subungual hematoma (nail) Rectus sheath hematoma Petechiae - small pinpoint hematomas less than 3 mm ... Subdermal hematoma (under the skin) Intramuscular hematoma (inside muscle tissue) Skull/brain: Subgaleal hematoma - between the ... A hematoma, also spelled haematoma, or blood suffusion is a localized bleeding outside of blood vessels, due to either disease ... Epidural hematoma - between the skull and dura mater Subdural hematoma - between the dura mater and arachnoid mater ...
An epidural hematoma (EDH) is bleeding between the inside of the skull and the outer covering of the brain (called the dura ... An epidural hematoma (EDH) is bleeding between the inside of the skull and the outer covering of the brain (called the dura ... Large hematomas or solid blood clots may need to be removed through a larger opening in the skull (craniotomy). ... A non-contrast head CT scan will confirm the diagnosis of EDH, and will pinpoint the exact location of the hematoma and any ...
Repeated injuries to the ear are the most common reasons for the formation of ear hematoma. Injuries to the auricle are common ... Physical trauma is the most common cause of auricular hematoma. ... Why Is a Hematoma Worse Than a Bruise?. A hematoma is like a ... How Long Does It Take for a Hematoma to Go Away?. A hematoma is not a bruise. Learn what causes a hematoma and what you can do ... Hematoma. A hematoma is a collection of blood that is outside a blood vessel. There are different areas where hematomas occur ...
Subdural hematoma is the most common type of traumatic intracranial mass lesion. ... A subdural hematoma (SDH) is a collection of blood below the inner layer of the dura but external to the brain and arachnoid ... Subacute subdural hematoma. The crescent-shaped clot is less white than on CT scan of acute subdural hematoma. In spite of the ... However, subdural hematomas may be mixed in nature, such as when acute bleeding has occurred into a chronic subdural hematoma. ...
A randomized trial in acute subdural hematoma shows similar outcome whether the bone flap is replaced or not during ... Traumatic subdural hematoma often requires surgical evacuation using either craniotomy or decompressive craniectomy. While ... The new international, multicenter, pragmatic study recruited patients with traumatic acute subdural hematomas that needed ... Cite this: Similar Outcome for Craniotomy, Craniectomy in Acute Hematoma - Medscape - Apr 27, 2023. ...
Epidural hematoma (EDH) is a traumatic accumulation of blood between the inner table of the skull and the stripped-off dural ... encoded search term (Epidural Hematoma Management in the ED) and Epidural Hematoma Management in the ED What to Read Next on ... Bilateral acute epidural hematoma with good outcome. J Clin Diagn Res. 2013 Nov. 7 (11):2594-5. [QxMD MEDLINE Link]. ... Extradural hematoma: toward zero mortality. A prospective study. Neurosurgery. 1984 Jan. 14(1):8-12. [QxMD MEDLINE Link]. ...
CT scan of an acute left-sided epidural hematoma. Note the typical convex or lens-shaped appearance. The hematoma takes this ... CT scan of an acute left-sided epidural hematoma. Note the typical convex or lens-shaped appearance. The hematoma takes this ... encoded search term (Epidural Hematomas) and Epidural Hematomas What to Read Next on Medscape ... Traumatic epidural haematoma of the posterior fossa in childhood: 16 new cases and a review of the literature. Br J Neurosurg. ...
Six cases in which intracranial hematomas containing drugs and chemicals were detected were examined in this study. Of the ... The purpose of this study was to determine how drug findings in intracranial hematomas should be assessed in forensic autopsy ... The purpose of this study was to determine how drug findings in intracranial hematomas should be assessed in forensic autopsy ... Six cases in which intracranial hematomas containing drugs and chemicals were detected were examined in this study. Of the six ...
... how to identify a hematoma, and how exercising too soon after surgery affects the risk of hematoma. A hematoma is a blood ... Hematoma. Bleeding After Surgery. On this page, Dr. Loftus explains what a hematoma is, how to prevent it, and how to treat it ... Most hematomas appear either within a day of surgery or about three weeks later. Hematomas which occur shortly after surgery ... Hematomas usually require an additional operation for removal, as untreated hematomas are painful and increase the likelihood ...
... J ... The authors compare the case with the 8 other published cases of postinjection epidural hematomas in patients with coagulopathy ... but the patient nevertheless developed a spinal epidural hematoma requiring emergency surgical evacuation. ...
Investigating the efficacy of saireito for bilateral chronic subdural hematomas (B-CSDH). Clinical study shows saireito ... Bilateral Chronic Subdural Hematomas, Contralateral Hematoma, Medical Treatment, Saireito, Steroid-Like Effect ... S. H. Park, S. H. Lee, J. Park, J. H. Hwang, S. K. Hwang and I. S. Hamm, "Chronic subdural hematoma preceded by traumatic ... Effect of Postoperative Administration of Saireito for Bilateral Chronic Subdural Hematomas () Satoshi Utsuki, Hidehiro Oka, ...
What is a Hematoma? Definition A Hematoma is a collection or pooling of blood around blood ... Difference Between Hematoma and Abscess A Hematoma is a collection of blood outside and around the blood vessels as a result of ... Two main types of hematoma are spinal and subdural hematoma.. Can a hematoma turn into an infection?. A hematoma can turn into ... Table showing Comparison of hematoma and abscess. Summary of Difference between Hematoma and abscess. *Hematoma is pooling of ...
The American Society of Plastic Surgeons (ASPS) has released supplemental data for its 2022 procedural statistics, revealing generational trends, increasing male interest in minimally invasive procedures, and fluctuating surgeon fees, with an emphasis on safety and authenticity in the pursuit of beauty and self-confidence. ...
Palavras-chave : hemorrhage; Platelets; Antiplatelet therapies; Mortality; Hematoma enlargement; Hematoma volume. · resumo em ... GEA-GARCIA, J.H. de et al. Antiplatelet therapies are associated with hematoma enlargement and increased mortality in ... Moreover, hematoma volume increased by more than a third in AT-users (69% vs. 33%, p=0.002), and AT was the only significant ... 45%, p,0.001). In addition, of the patients with hematoma enlargement, over one-third had higher overall mortality (62.5 vs. ...
DogLeggs Surgi-Sox aural compression bandage is a better alternative to traditional bandages when your dog gets an ear hematoma ... What Causes Ear Hematomas?. Ear hematomas are extremely common in dogs. They can occur suddenly and without warning. They are ... Preventing Aural Hematomas. The best way to prevent hematomas is by closely monitoring your dogs ear health. Ears should be ... Also known as aural hematomas, an ear hematoma is a collection of blood under the skin of a dogs ear flap. This condition is ...
A) Acute subdural hematoma, on the left side. B) Subdural hematoma with... ... A 1-month follow-up CT scan of his head without contrast showed complete resolution of the subdural hematoma (Figure, panel C ... reported a case of CCHF in a person with a bilateral frontal parasagittal hematoma that was managed with oral ribavirin and ... A repeat CT scan of his head showed a subdural hematoma with surrounding edema and midline shift (Figure, panel B). ...
Before and after hematoma repair. Brain surgery may be needed in treatment of subdural hematoma to remove blood and to decrease ...
... on the RapidAI platform reportedly offers a sensitivity rate of 93 percent for detection of hemispheric subdural hematoma on ... FDA Clears AI-Powered Module for Detecting Hemispheric Subdural Hematomas on CT. November 9, 2023. Jeff Hall ... For suspected acute and chronic hemispheric subdural hematomas , 1 mL, the Rapid SDH module offers a sensitivity rate of 93 ... In addition to flagging suspected cases of hemispheric subdural hematomas, RapidAI said the Rapid SDH module facilitates ...
An 11-month-old girl presented to hospital with a massive subdural haematoma and bilateral retinal haemorrhages following an ... Subdural hematomas in infants with benign enlargement of the subarachnoid spaces are not pathognomonic for child abuse. AJNR Am ... Stray-Pedersen, A., Omland, S., Nedregaard, B. et al. An infant with subdural hematoma and retinal hemorrhages: does von ... An infant with subdural hematoma and retinal hemorrhages: does von Willebrand disease explain the findings?. *Case Report ...
A septal hematoma is a collection of blood under the membrane that lines the cartilage of the nasal septum. ...
Umbilical Cord Hematoma Secondary to in Utero Intravascular Transfusion for Rh Isoimmunization. Fetal Therapy (1987) 2 (2): 65- ... Hematoma of the umbilical cord secondary to cordocentesis for intrauterine fetal transfusion ...
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Both patients developed a subdural hematoma contralateral to the side of a temporal fossa arachnoid cyst. It is likely that ... Temporal fossa arachnoid cyst presenting with bilateral subdural hematoma following trauma: Two case reports. Publication Type ... Occurrence of contralateral subdural hematomas in patients with temporal fossa arachnoid cysts has rarely been observed and is ... HomePublicationsTemporal fossa arachnoid cyst presenting with bilateral subdural hematoma following trauma: Two case reports ...
Lingual haematoma after treatment with alteplase (recombinant tissue plasminogen activator) for acute myocardial infarction. ... Lingual haematoma after treatment with alteplase (recombinant tissue plasminogen activator) for acute myocardial infarction. ...
Low incidence of seizures in patients with chronic subdural haematoma. ...
Lingual haematoma after treatment with alteplase (recombinant tissue plasminogen activator) for acute myocardial infarction. ... Lingual haematoma after treatment with alteplase (recombinant tissue plasminogen activator) for acute myocardial infarction. ...
Chronic Subdural Hematoma: A Historical and Clinical Perspective. Ronald Sahyouni, Khodayar Goshtasbi, Amin Mahmoodi, Diem K. ... Effects of minimally invasive techniques for evacuation of hematoma in basal ganglia on cortical spinal tract from patients ... Calcified or Ossified Chronic Subdural Hematoma: A Systematic Review of 114 Cases Reported During Last Century with a ... Minimally Invasive Procedures Reduced the Damages to Motor Function in Patients with Thalamic Hematoma: Observed by Motor ...
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Lingual haematoma: a rare complication of usual warfarin dose. Emergency medicine journal : EMJ 2008 Jul;25;406 2008 Jul ... Warfarin induced sublingual hematoma: a Ludwig angina mimic. American journal of otolaryngology 2015;36;84-6 2015 Spontaneous ... Upper Airway Hematoma Secondary to Warfarin Therapy: A Systematic Review of Reported Cases. North American journal of medical ... Lingual and sublingual hematoma causing upper airway obstruction. The Journal of emergency medicine 2012 Dec;43;1075-6 2012 Dec ...
P99 Neonatal subdural haematoma following forceps-assisted delivery: a systematic review of the literature ... P99 Neonatal subdural haematoma following forceps-assisted delivery: a systematic review of the literature ... P99 Neonatal subdural haematoma following forceps-assisted delivery: a systematic review of the literature ...
  • Subdural hematomas are usually characterized on the basis of their size and location and the amount of time elapsed since the inciting event age (ie, whether they are acute, subacute, or chronic). (medscape.com)
  • Generally, acute subdural hematomas are less than 72 hours old and are hyperdense compared with the brain on computed tomography scans. (medscape.com)
  • Chronic subdural hematomas develop over the course of weeks and are hypodense compared with the brain. (medscape.com)
  • However, subdural hematomas may be mixed in nature, such as when acute bleeding has occurred into a chronic subdural hematoma. (medscape.com)
  • In a more comprehensive review of the literature on the surgical treatment of acute subdural hematomas, lucid intervals were noted in up to 38% of cases. (medscape.com)
  • In one study, 82% of comatose patients with acute subdural hematomas had parenchymal contusions. (medscape.com)
  • The term complicated has been applied to subdural hematomas in which a significant injury of the underlying brain has also been identified. (medscape.com)
  • A minority of chronic subdural hematoma cases derived from acute subdural hematomas that have matured (ie, liquefied) because of lack of treatment. (medscape.com)
  • The new international, multicenter, pragmatic study recruited patients with traumatic acute subdural hematomas that needed evacuation. (medscape.com)
  • The aim of this retrospective study was to investigate the efficacy of saireito for bilateral chronic subdural hematomas (B-CSDH). (scirp.org)
  • The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has granted 510(k) clearance for RapidAI's Rapid SDH, an artificial intelligence (AI)-enabled module that reportedly notifies radiologists of suspected hemispheric subdural hematomas within one minute of reviewing a computed tomography (CT) scan. (diagnosticimaging.com)
  • In addition to flagging suspected cases of hemispheric subdural hematomas, RapidAI said the Rapid SDH module facilitates multidisciplinary collaboration for the management of these patients via automated notification sent via the RapidAI app, PACS and e-mail. (diagnosticimaging.com)
  • Large bone flap is separated followed by irrigation and evacuation of the hematoma. (neurocare.ai)
  • Rapid evacuation of the hematoma restores close contact between the cartilage and perichondrium, thereby reducing the likelihood of deformity by minimizing the ischemia that would otherwise result from a remaining hematoma. (wikipedia.org)
  • Chronic subdural hematoma can occur in the elderly after apparently insignificant head trauma. (medscape.com)
  • Chronic subdural hematoma is a common treatable cause of dementia. (medscape.com)
  • M. Miyagami and Y. Kagawa, "Effectiveness of Kampo medicine Gorei-San for chronic subdural hematoma," No Shinkei Geka, Vol. 37, No. 8, 2009, pp. 765-770. (scirp.org)
  • M. Muramatsu, T. Yoshikawa and K. Hanabusa, "Effectiveness of kampo medicine gorei-san-ryo for chronic subdural hematoma in very elderly patients," No Shinkei Geka, Vol. 33, No. 10, 2005, pp. 965-969. (scirp.org)
  • T. F. Sun, R. Boet and W. S.Poon, "Non-surgical primary treatment of chronic subdural haematoma: Preliminary results of using dexamethasone," B. J Neurosurg, Vol.19, No. 4, 2005, pp. 327-333. (scirp.org)
  • J. L. Voelker, "Nonoperative treatment of chronic subdural hematoma," Neurosurg Clin. (scirp.org)
  • T. H. Tsai, A. S. Lieu, S. L. Hwang, T. Y. Huang and Y. F. Hwang, "A comparative study of the patients with bilateral or unilateral chronic subdural hematoma: precipitating factors and postoperative outcomes," J Trauma. (scirp.org)
  • H. Fujisawa, S. Nomura, E. Tsuchida and H. Ito, "Serum protein exudation in chronic subdural haematomas: a mechanism for haematoma enlargement? (scirp.org)
  • C. K. Park, K. H. Choi, M. C. Kim, J. K. Kang and C. R. Choi, "Spontaneous evolution of posttraumatic subdural hygroma into chronic subdural haematoma," Acta Neurochir (Wien), Vol. 127, No.1-2, 1994, pp. 41-47. (scirp.org)
  • Also, dogs that have frequent ear infections or other chronic ear problems are more likely to develop hematomas. (dogleggs.com)
  • Low incidence of seizures in patients with chronic subdural haematoma. (bmj.com)
  • Subdural hematoma can be classified as the acute or the chronic form, with immediate or delayed symptom onset, respectively. (embl.de)
  • Introduction Chronic subdural haematoma (cSDH) tends to occur in older patients, often with significant comorbidity. (bmj.com)
  • Axial CT image showing left hemispheric chronic subdural hematoma with neomembrane and compression of the left hemisphere. (torontonotes.ca)
  • In this paper, the authors present a case in which the current American Society for Regional Anesthesia and Pain Medicine guidelines were strictly followed with respect to withholding and reintroducing warfarin and enoxaparin after an epidural steroid injection, but the patient nevertheless developed a spinal epidural hematoma requiring emergency surgical evacuation. (nih.gov)
  • This condition primarily occurs over the surface of a CEREBRAL HEMISPHERE, but may develop in the spinal canal (HEMATOMA, SUBDURAL, SPINAL). (embl.de)
  • Because the vertebral canal is a fixed space, the hematoma can compress the spinal cord and nerve roots and potentially cause permanent neurologic damage. (medscape.com)
  • Spinal epidural hematoma after neuraxial anesthesia is exceedingly rare. (medscape.com)
  • A nationwide data analysis from 2016 reviewed more than 3.7 million instances of epidural analgesia over a period of 12 years and found the rate of spinal hematoma to be 0.6 per 100,000 in obstetric patients and 18.5 per 100,000 in nonobstetric patients. (medscape.com)
  • A spinal subdural or epidural hematoma is an accumulation of blood in the subdural or epidural space that can mechanically compress the spinal cord. (msdmanuals.com)
  • Spinal subdural or epidural hematoma (usually thoracic or lumbar) is rare but may result from back trauma, anticoagulant or thrombolytic therapy, or, in patients with bleeding diatheses, lumbar puncture. (msdmanuals.com)
  • Hematoma is suspected in patients with symptoms and signs of acute, nontraumatic spinal cord compression or sudden, unexplained lower extremity paresis, particularly if a possible cause (eg, trauma, bleeding diathesis) is present. (msdmanuals.com)
  • Diagnosis of a spinal subdural or epidural hematoma is by MRI or, if MRI is not immediately available, by CT myelography. (msdmanuals.com)
  • Treatment of a spinal subdural or epidural hematoma is immediate surgical drainage. (msdmanuals.com)
  • Suspect spinal subdural or epidural hematoma in patients with local or radicular back pain and percussion tenderness or sudden, unexplained lower-extremity paresis, particularly if a possible cause (eg, trauma, bleeding diathesis) is present. (msdmanuals.com)
  • A retrospective study was made to identify possible risk factors of postoperative spinal epidural hematoma by reviewing the clinical cases of this rare complication and analyzing the postoperative evaluations of patients. (orthobullets.com)
  • From 2002 to 2010, out of 15,562 who underwent lumbar decompression procedure with/without instrumentation, 25 patients required reoperation for epidural hematoma after the initial spinal surgery. (orthobullets.com)
  • Subdural hematoma may also be spontaneous or caused by a procedure, such as a lumbar puncture (see Etiology). (medscape.com)
  • A 1-month follow-up CT scan of his head without contrast showed complete resolution of the subdural hematoma (Figure, panel C). Thrombocytopenia could be considered a risk factor for the development of a spontaneous acute subdural hematoma of arterial origin with more rapid and aggressive evolution ( 4 ). (cdc.gov)
  • Spontaneous lingual and sublingual haematoma: a rare complication of warfarin use. (pneumotox.com)
  • Spontaneous sublingual haematoma in a patient treated with warfarin. (pneumotox.com)
  • Spontaneous Retroperitoneal Hematoma Presenting as Femoral Neuropathy in a Patient on Low Molecular Weight Heparin Therapy. (tnmgc.com)
  • Smith SW, Clark M, Nelson J, Heegaard W, Lufkin KC, Ruiz E. Emergency department skull trephination for epidural hematoma in patients who are awake but deteriorate rapidly. (medscape.com)
  • Bilateral acute epidural hematoma with good outcome. (medscape.com)
  • reported a case of CCHF in a person with a bilateral frontal parasagittal hematoma that was managed with oral ribavirin and intravenous ceftriaxone, platelet transfusions, and supportive therapy ( 5 ). (cdc.gov)
  • An 11-month-old girl presented to hospital with a massive subdural haematoma and bilateral retinal haemorrhages following an allegedly minor fall. (springer.com)
  • Subdural hematoma is the most common type of traumatic intracranial mass lesion. (medscape.com)
  • Acute subdural hematoma is the most common type of traumatic intracranial hematoma, occurring in 24% of patients who present comatose. (medscape.com)
  • Traumatic subdural hematoma often requires surgical evacuation using either craniotomy or decompressive craniectomy. (medscape.com)
  • Management and outcome of traumatic epidural hematoma in 41 infants and children from a single center. (medscape.com)
  • Delayed onset of traumatic extradural hematoma. (medscape.com)
  • Novel Minimally Invasive Treatment Strategy for Acute Traumatic Epidural Hematoma: Endovascular Embolization Combined with Drainage Surgery and Use of Urokinase. (medscape.com)
  • Utility of clinical and radiographic findings in the management of traumatic epidural hematoma. (medscape.com)
  • Repeat Head CT for Expectant Management of Traumatic Epidural Hematoma. (medscape.com)
  • Toxicological analysis of intracranial hematomas may be useful not only for determining whether individuals were under the influence of ethanol at the time they were injured, but also for detecting pre-traumatic usage of other drugs and chemicals. (astm.org)
  • People presenting with possible auricular hematoma often have additional injuries (for example, head/neck lacerations) due to the frequently traumatic causes of auricular hematoma. (wikipedia.org)
  • Hematoma presents as discolored, tender bruise on the surface of skin with no fever and rarely swelling while abscess is a raised, soft mass with center of liquefied pus, debris and bacteria which can be accompanied by fever. (differencebetween.net)
  • A hematoma is a bruise that occurs deep within the tissue of an organ. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Hematomas will usually reabsorb into the body, like a bruise. (calendar-canada.ca)
  • This page will inform you of the risk of a hematoma developing after breast augmentation surgery, how to reduce the risk of hematomas, how to identify a hematoma, and how exercising too soon after surgery affects the risk of hematoma. (infoplasticsurgery.com)
  • Men have a higher risk of hematomas. (spsboca.com)
  • Hematomas which occur shortly after surgery usually do so because of a blood vessel spasm during surgery which relaxed afterward, thereby allowing that vessel to bleed. (infoplasticsurgery.com)
  • Hematomas which occur weeks later usually do so during the natural phase of clot lysis, during which time your body naturally reabsorbs blood clots which you formed during surgery. (infoplasticsurgery.com)
  • Hematoma can occur as a consequence of trauma to the epidural venous plexus during placement of a needle or catheter. (medscape.com)
  • Most hematomas occur immediately after the surgery or after the first night after the surgery. (spsboca.com)
  • Hematoma can occur after blunt trauma or surgery, in patients with clotting deficiencies, or spontaneously. (calendar-canada.ca)
  • Importantly, an auricular hematoma can also occur on the posterior ear surface, or even both surfaces. (wikipedia.org)
  • Gutowski P, Meier U, Rohde V, Lemcke J, von der Brelie C. Clinical Outcome of Epidural Hematoma Treated Surgically in the Era of Modern Resuscitation and Trauma Care. (medscape.com)
  • Immediately drain the hematoma surgically. (msdmanuals.com)
  • However, depending on the size, location and cause of the hematoma, the area may need to be drained surgically, or take a longer period of time to resolve. (calendar-canada.ca)
  • Subdermal hematoma (under the skin) Intramuscular hematoma (inside muscle tissue) Skull/brain: Subgaleal hematoma - between the galea aponeurosis and periosteum Cephalohematoma - between the periosteum and skull. (wikipedia.org)
  • If performed incorrectly, one of the most dangerous complications of a vacuum extraction delivery is called a subgaleal hematoma (SGH). (yostlaw.com)
  • The frequency of subgaleal hematomas after vacuum-assisted vaginal delivery ranges from 26 to 45 per 1000 deliveries. (yostlaw.com)
  • When auricular hematoma is not fully drained, recurs, or is left untreated, it may lead to permanent deformity known as a cauliflower ear . (medicinenet.com)
  • What happens if hematoma left untreated? (calendar-canada.ca)
  • The most common cause of cauliflower ear is blunt trauma to the ear leading to a hematoma which, if left untreated, eventually heals to give the distinct appearance of cauliflower ear. (wikipedia.org)
  • Hematoma is accumulation of blood around the injured blood vessels while an abscess is accumulation of pus and bacteria at the site of infection. (differencebetween.net)
  • Hematoma is the result of blood cells that pool around the injured blood vessels as a result of trauma while abscess is a result of body's immune response that leads to accumulation of pus, bacteria and debris. (differencebetween.net)
  • There are three categories of hematoma - subdural hematoma, epidural hematoma and intracerebral (intraparenchymal) hematoma. (calendar-canada.ca)
  • This is called an intracerebral hematoma. (medlineplus.gov)
  • A non-contrast head CT scan will confirm the diagnosis of EDH, and will pinpoint the exact location of the hematoma and any associated skull fracture. (medlineplus.gov)
  • A hematoma is benign and is initially in liquid form spread among the tissues including in sacs between tissues where it may coagulate and solidify before blood is reabsorbed into blood vessels. (wikipedia.org)
  • Svoboda N, Tyll T, Beneš V, Netuka D. Epidural hematoma - benign or potentially malignant disease? (medscape.com)
  • Unlike cancer, breast hematomas are benign. (calendar-canada.ca)
  • Postoperative symptomatic epidural hematoma (SEH) is a serious complication of lumbar spine surgery. (orthobullets.com)
  • The findings suggest that preoperative diastolic blood pressure, intraoperative use of gelfoam for dura coverage and postoperative drain output are risk factors for symptomatic epidural hematoma after lumbar decompression surgery. (orthobullets.com)
  • Lingual haematoma: a rare complication of usual warfarin dose. (pneumotox.com)
  • Subcapsular renal hematoma is an extremely rare complication following this procedure. (minervamedica.it)
  • A repeat CT scan of his head showed a subdural hematoma with surrounding edema and midline shift (Figure, panel B). (cdc.gov)
  • Kopacz AA, Miears H, Collins RA, Nagy L. Novel Predictive Markers on Computed Tomography for Predicting Early Epidural Hematoma Growth in Pediatric Patients. (medscape.com)
  • Computed tomography angiography for detection of middle meningeal artery lesions associated with acute epidural hematomas. (medscape.com)
  • Glasgow Coma Scale score was 13 (Figure, panel A). A computed tomography (CT) scan of his head without contrast showed acute subdural hematoma on the left side. (cdc.gov)
  • The Rapid SDH module on the RapidAI platform reportedly offers a sensitivity rate of 93 percent for detection of hemispheric subdural hematoma on non-contrast computed tomography (CT) scans. (diagnosticimaging.com)
  • The authors compare the case with the 8 other published cases of postinjection epidural hematomas in patients with coagulopathy, and the specific risk factors that may have contributed to the hemorrhagic complication in this patient is analyzed. (nih.gov)
  • CONCLUSIONS: Subcapsular renal hematoma represents a rare but potentially serious complication after ureterorenoscopic lithotripsy. (minervamedica.it)
  • Only one article revealed a complication which was a shaft hematoma that resolved spontaneously over a period of a few days. (cdc.gov)
  • A hematoma, also spelled haematoma, or blood suffusion is a localized bleeding outside of blood vessels, due to either disease or trauma including injury or surgery and may involve blood continuing to seep from broken capillaries. (wikipedia.org)
  • A Hematoma is a collection of blood outside and around the blood vessels as a result of rupture of the wall of the blood vessel. (differencebetween.net)
  • A Hematoma is a collection or pooling of blood around blood vessels as a result of trauma or injury to the wall of blood vessel. (differencebetween.net)
  • A hematoma is a collection of blood outside the blood vessels that causes pain and swelling, and disfiguring bruises. (calendar-canada.ca)
  • Hematomas on articulations can reduce mobility of a member and present roughly the same symptoms as a fracture. (wikipedia.org)
  • What are the signs and symptoms of auricular hematoma? (medicinenet.com)
  • The signs and symptoms of auricular hematoma depend on the severity of the trauma. (medicinenet.com)
  • Usually minor and superficial hematomas are presented without any systemic symptoms. (differencebetween.net)
  • If the hematoma symptoms are severe or if it continues to expand over the course of a few days, you should visit your doctor right away. (calendar-canada.ca)
  • Lingual and sublingual hematoma causing upper airway obstruction. (pneumotox.com)
  • Lingual hematoma threatening airway obstruction in a patient on oral anticoagulation with warfarin. (pneumotox.com)
  • LOS ANGELES ― A common dilemma in neurosurgery is whether to immediately replace the bone flap in the skull after surgical treatment of an acute subdural hematoma. (medscape.com)
  • This may seem like an inordinate time for those who are eager to return to exercise, but not doing so will increase your risk of hematoma, which is a potentially serious problem. (infoplasticsurgery.com)
  • However, because of potentially more remarkable injuries often associated with auricular hematoma, auricular hematoma can easily be overlooked without directed attention. (wikipedia.org)
  • Perichondral hematoma and consequently cauliflower ear are diagnosed clinically. (wikipedia.org)
  • Due to its lumpy bumpy appearance, the untreated auricular hematoma with the scarred tissue is called a cauliflower ear . (medicinenet.com)
  • Brain surgery may be needed in treatment of subdural hematoma to remove blood and to decrease intracranial pressure. (limamemorial.org)
  • Clinical manifestations from raised intracranial pressure by enlarging hematoma. (neurocare.ai)
  • However, the medical record should be reviewed thoroughly from a toxicological view point if victims underwent medical treatment prior to death because drugs administered for the purpose of medical treatment can disseminate into preexisting intracranial hematomas, depending on the size of the hematomas. (astm.org)
  • Treatment depends upon the type and location of hematoma. (differencebetween.net)
  • Hematoma is caused due to trauma or injury, use of medicines like blood thinners, and reduced platelets count while abscess is caused due to compromised immune system due to diabetes, steroid therapy, cancer treatment, and other autoimmune diseases. (differencebetween.net)
  • Recommended treatment varies depending on the size of the hematoma and how long it has been present. (dogleggs.com)
  • Lingual haematoma after treatment with alteplase (recombinant tissue plasminogen activator) for acute myocardial infarction. (bmj.com)
  • Also known as aural hematomas, an ear hematoma is a collection of blood under the skin of a dog's ear flap. (dogleggs.com)
  • To keep an ear stationary after aural hematoma surgery, I place two stay sutures. (dvm360.com)
  • A subdural hematoma (SDH) is a collection of blood below the inner layer of the dura but external to the brain and arachnoid membrane (see the images below). (medscape.com)
  • Bir SC, Maiti TK, Ambekar S, Nanda A. Incidence, hospital costs and in-hospital mortality rates of epidural hematoma in the United States. (medscape.com)
  • METHODS: We report the retrospective experience of two urological referral units for stones disease by analyzing incidence, risk factors and management of subcapsular renal hematoma. (minervamedica.it)
  • Although parturients, a cohort of patients that often receives neuraxial anesthesia, are generally in a hypercoagulable state, certain conditions of pregnancy (eg, gestational thrombocytopenia, HELLP [hemolysis, elevated liver enzymes, low platelets] syndrome, and complications of preeclampsia) can increase the incidence of epidural hematoma. (medscape.com)
  • An epidural hematoma (EDH) is bleeding between the inside of the skull and the outer covering of the brain (called the dura mater). (medlineplus.gov)
  • Acute subdural hematoma is commonly associated with extensive primary brain injury. (medscape.com)
  • In recognition of this fact, a subdural hematoma that is not associated with an underlying brain injury is sometimes termed a simple or pure subdural hematoma. (medscape.com)
  • Signal density of the hematoma compared with the brain parenchyma changes over time after injury. (medscape.com)
  • Presentation varies widely in acute subdural hematoma (see Clinical). (medscape.com)
  • Demographic data, medical history and clinical and laboratory parameters were recorded, along with hematoma volume upon admission and after 24h, and mortality. (isciii.es)
  • After spine decompression surgery, early detection and evacuation of hematoma are the key to avoid neurologic deterioration and have better clinical outcomes. (orthobullets.com)
  • We report an unusual case of acute subdural hematoma secondary to CCHF. (cdc.gov)
  • We report a case of acute subdural hematoma secondary to CCHF, where thrombocytopenia was the main cause of cerebral hemorrhage. (cdc.gov)
  • Upper Airway Hematoma Secondary to Warfarin Therapy: A Systematic Review of Reported Cases. (pneumotox.com)
  • The slow process of reabsorption of hematomas can allow the broken down blood cells and hemoglobin pigment to move in the connective tissue. (wikipedia.org)
  • The quantity of hemoglobin in the hematoma determines the amount of radiation absorbed. (medscape.com)
  • Stages of hemorrhage commonly coexist within the same hematoma because hemoglobin degradation proceeds at variable rates in the center versus the periphery of a single hematoma cavity ( Figs. (calendar-canada.ca)
  • In a large series of patients who developed intracranial hematomas requiring emergent decompression, more than half had lucid intervals and were able to make conversation between the time of their injury and subsequent deterioration. (medscape.com)
  • Symptomatic epidural hematoma after lumbar decompression surgery. (orthobullets.com)
  • If the symptom of decreased muscle power or perianal anesthesia was not improved after hematoma evacuation, there was a tendency for permanent leg weakness after 1-year follow-up (p = 0.001, 0.003). (orthobullets.com)
  • Vertex epidural hematoma can be mistaken for artifact in traditional axial CT scan sections. (medscape.com)
  • Some hematomas are visible under the surface of the skin (commonly called bruises) or possibly felt as masses or lumps. (wikipedia.org)
  • Large hematomas or solid blood clots may need to be removed through a larger opening in the skull ( craniotomy ). (medlineplus.gov)
  • Subdural hematoma occurs not only in patients with severe head injury but also in patients with less severe head injuries, particularly those who are elderly or who are receiving anticoagulants. (medscape.com)
  • When a hematoma occurs, blood from a damaged vessel pools under the skin. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • When a hematoma occurs on the penis, a man should seek immediate medical attention. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Auricular hematoma most often occurs in the potential space between the helix and the antihelix (scapha) and extends anteriorly into the fossa triangularis. (wikipedia.org)
  • A septal hematoma is a collection of blood under the membrane that lines the cartilage of the nasal septum. (msdmanuals.com)
  • In an auricular hematoma, blood accumulates between the perichondrium and cartilage. (wikipedia.org)
  • The hematoma mechanically obstructs blood flow from the perichondrium to the avascular cartilage. (wikipedia.org)
  • Hutchinson presented the findings from the Randomized Evaluation of Surgery With Craniectomy for Patients Undergoing Evacuation of Acute Subdural Hematoma (RESCUE-ASDH) trial at the annual meeting of the American Association of Neurological Surgeons (AANS) 2023. (medscape.com)
  • In addition, of the patients with hematoma enlargement, over one-third had higher overall mortality (62.5 vs. 28.8%, p =0.001). (isciii.es)
  • Our results show an association between AT and subsequent hematoma enlargement, as well as increased mortality in patients presenting with ICH who were receiving AT. (isciii.es)
  • Emergency medicine, urgent care, primary care physicians frequently care for patients with hematomas. (calendar-canada.ca)
  • Our aim was to determine whether AT is associated with hematoma enlargement and increased mortality in ICH. (isciii.es)