A professional society concerned with the diagnosis, prevention, treatment, and remediation of speech, language, and hearing disorders.
A family of RNA viruses with two genera: MAMASTROVIRUS and AVASTROVIRUS. They cause GASTROENTERITIS in humans and also infect other vertebrates.
Membrane glycoproteins from influenza viruses which are involved in hemagglutination, virus attachment, and envelope fusion. Fourteen distinct subtypes of HA glycoproteins and nine of NA glycoproteins have been identified from INFLUENZA A VIRUS; no subtypes have been identified for Influenza B or Influenza C viruses.
The type species of the genus INFLUENZAVIRUS A that causes influenza and other diseases in humans and animals. Antigenic variation occurs frequently between strains, allowing classification into subtypes and variants. Transmission is usually by aerosol (human and most non-aquatic hosts) or waterborne (ducks). Infected birds shed the virus in their saliva, nasal secretions, and feces.
Proteins found in the nucleus of a cell. Do not confuse with NUCLEOPROTEINS which are proteins conjugated with nucleic acids, that are not necessarily present in the nucleus.
An enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of alpha-2,3, alpha-2,6-, and alpha-2,8-glycosidic linkages (at a decreasing rate, respectively) of terminal sialic residues in oligosaccharides, glycoproteins, glycolipids, colominic acid, and synthetic substrate. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992)
Serologic tests in which a known quantity of antigen is added to the serum prior to the addition of a red cell suspension. Reaction result is expressed as the smallest amount of antigen which causes complete inhibition of hemagglutination.
A subtype of INFLUENZA A VIRUS comprised of the surface proteins hemagglutinin 5 and neuraminidase 1. The H5N1 subtype, frequently referred to as the bird flu virus, is endemic in wild birds and very contagious among both domestic (POULTRY) and wild birds. It does not usually infect humans, but some cases have been reported.
Virus diseases caused by the ORTHOMYXOVIRIDAE.
Vaccines used to prevent infection by viruses in the family ORTHOMYXOVIRIDAE. It includes both killed and attenuated vaccines. The composition of the vaccines is changed each year in response to antigenic shifts and changes in prevalence of influenza virus strains. The vaccine is usually bivalent or trivalent, containing one or two INFLUENZAVIRUS A strains and one INFLUENZAVIRUS B strain.
A condition in which the percentage of progressively motile sperm is abnormally low. In men, it is defined as
A subtype of INFLUENZA A VIRUS comprised of the surface proteins hemagglutinin 3 and neuraminidase 2. The H3N2 subtype was responsible for the Hong Kong flu pandemic of 1968.
An acute viral infection in humans involving the respiratory tract. It is marked by inflammation of the NASAL MUCOSA; the PHARYNX; and conjunctiva, and by headache and severe, often generalized, myalgia.
Infection of domestic and wild fowl and other BIRDS with INFLUENZA A VIRUS. Avian influenza usually does not sicken birds, but can be highly pathogenic and fatal in domestic POULTRY.
Sensitive tests to measure certain antigens, antibodies, or viruses, using their ability to agglutinate certain erythrocytes. (From Stedman, 26th ed)
The type species of MORBILLIVIRUS and the cause of the highly infectious human disease MEASLES, which affects mostly children.
Immunoglobulins produced in response to VIRAL ANTIGENS.
A subtype of INFLUENZA A VIRUS with the surface proteins hemagglutinin 1 and neuraminidase 1. The H1N1 subtype was responsible for the Spanish flu pandemic of 1918.
Agglutination of ERYTHROCYTES by a virus.
Protein-digesting and milk-clotting enzymes found in PINEAPPLE fruit juice and stem tissue. Enzymes from the two sources are distinguished as fruit bromelain and stem bromelain. This enzyme was formerly listed as EC 3.4.22.4.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
Specific molecular components of the cell capable of recognizing and interacting with a virus, and which, after binding it, are capable of generating some signal that initiates the chain of events leading to the biological response.
Semidomesticated variety of European polecat much used for hunting RODENTS and/or RABBITS and as a laboratory animal. It is in the subfamily Mustelinae, family MUSTELIDAE.
Substances, usually of biological origin, that cause cells or other organic particles to aggregate and stick to each other. They include those ANTIBODIES which cause aggregation or agglutination of particulate or insoluble ANTIGENS.
The adherence and merging of cell membranes, intracellular membranes, or artificial membranes to each other or to viruses, parasites, or interstitial particles through a variety of chemical and physical processes.
Species of the genus INFLUENZAVIRUS B that cause HUMAN INFLUENZA and other diseases primarily in humans. Antigenic variation is less extensive than in type A viruses (INFLUENZA A VIRUS) and consequently there is no basis for distinct subtypes or variants. Epidemics are less likely than with INFLUENZA A VIRUS and there have been no pandemics. Previously only found in humans, Influenza B virus has been isolated from seals which may constitute the animal reservoir from which humans are exposed.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
A phenomenon manifested by an agent or substance adhering to or being adsorbed on the surface of a red blood cell, as tuberculin can be adsorbed on red blood cells under certain conditions. (Stedman, 25th ed)
Proteins, usually glycoproteins, found in the viral envelopes of a variety of viruses. They promote cell membrane fusion and thereby may function in the uptake of the virus by cells.
Viruses containing two or more pieces of nucleic acid (segmented genome) from different parents. Such viruses are produced in cells coinfected with different strains of a given virus.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
A subtype of INFLUENZA A VIRUS comprised of the surface proteins hemagglutinin 2 and neuraminidase 2. The H2N2 subtype was responsible for the Asian flu pandemic of 1957.
Warm-blooded VERTEBRATES possessing FEATHERS and belonging to the class Aves.
A generic name for film produced from wood pulp by the viscose process. It is a thin, transparent sheeting of regenerated cellulose, moisture-proof and sometimes dyed, and used chiefly as food wrapping or as bags for dialysis. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed & McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
An epithelial cell line derived from a kidney of a normal adult female dog.
A plant genus of the family LAMIACEAE that contains tilianin, agastanol, and agastaquinone (a cytotoxic diterpenoid quinone).
Sites on an antigen that interact with specific antibodies.
A subtype of INFLUENZA A VIRUS comprised of the surface proteins hemagglutinin 9 and neuraminidase 2. The H9N2 subtype usually infects domestic birds (POULTRY) but there have been some human infections reported.
A plant family of the order Arales, subclass Arecidae, class Liliopsida (monocot).
An N-acyl derivative of neuraminic acid. N-acetylneuraminic acid occurs in many polysaccharides, glycoproteins, and glycolipids in animals and bacteria. (From Dorland, 28th ed, p1518)
Serological reactions in which an antiserum against one antigen reacts with a non-identical but closely related antigen.
Antibodies that reduce or abolish some biological activity of a soluble antigen or infectious agent, usually a virus.
A subtype of INFLUENZA A VIRUS comprised of the surface proteins hemagglutinin 7 and neuraminidase 7. The H7N7 subtype produced an epidemic in 2003 which was highly pathogenic among domestic birds (POULTRY). Some infections in humans were reported.
Change in the surface ANTIGEN of a microorganism. There are two different types. One is a phenomenon, especially associated with INFLUENZA VIRUSES, where they undergo spontaneous variation both as slow antigenic drift and sudden emergence of new strains (antigenic shift). The second type is when certain PARASITES, especially trypanosomes, PLASMODIUM, and BORRELIA, survive the immune response of the host by changing the surface coat (antigen switching). (From Herbert et al., The Dictionary of Immunology, 4th ed)
A ubiquitously expressed complement receptor that binds COMPLEMENT C3B and COMPLEMENT C4B and serves as a cofactor for their inactivation. CD46 also interacts with a wide variety of pathogens and mediates immune response.
A subtype of INFLUENZA A VIRUS comprised of the surface proteins hemagglutinin 3 and neuraminidase 8. The H3N8 subtype has frequently been found in horses.
The measurement of infection-blocking titer of ANTISERA by testing a series of dilutions for a given virus-antiserum interaction end-point, which is generally the dilution at which tissue cultures inoculated with the serum-virus mixtures demonstrate cytopathology (CPE) or the dilution at which 50% of test animals injected with serum-virus mixtures show infectivity (ID50) or die (LD50).
A group of naturally occurring N-and O-acyl derivatives of the deoxyamino sugar neuraminic acid. They are ubiquitously distributed in many tissues.
Vaccines used to prevent infection by viruses in the family ORTHOMYXOVIRIDAE. It includes both killed and attenuated vaccines. The composition of the vaccines is changed each year in response to antigenic shifts and changes in prevalence of influenza virus strains. The vaccine is usually bivalent or trivalent, containing one or two INFLUENZAVIRUS A strains and one INFLUENZAVIRUS B strain.
The cis or (Z)-isomer of clomiphene.
A species of MORBILLIVIRUS causing distemper in dogs, wolves, foxes, raccoons, and ferrets. Pinnipeds have also been known to contract Canine distemper virus from contact with domestic dogs.
The developmental entity of a fertilized chicken egg (ZYGOTE). The developmental process begins about 24 h before the egg is laid at the BLASTODISC, a small whitish spot on the surface of the EGG YOLK. After 21 days of incubation, the embryo is fully developed before hatching.
A respiratory infection caused by BORDETELLA PERTUSSIS and characterized by paroxysmal coughing ending in a prolonged crowing intake of breath.
The degree of pathogenicity within a group or species of microorganisms or viruses as indicated by case fatality rates and/or the ability of the organism to invade the tissues of the host. The pathogenic capacity of an organism is determined by its VIRULENCE FACTORS.
Red blood cells. Mature erythrocytes are non-nucleated, biconcave disks containing HEMOGLOBIN whose function is to transport OXYGEN.
The chemical or biochemical addition of carbohydrate or glycosyl groups to other chemicals, especially peptides or proteins. Glycosyl transferases are used in this biochemical reaction.
The etiologic agent of CHOLERA.
Small synthetic peptides that mimic surface antigens of pathogens and are immunogenic, or vaccines manufactured with the aid of recombinant DNA techniques. The latter vaccines may also be whole viruses whose nucleic acids have been modified.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
A highly contagious infectious disease caused by MORBILLIVIRUS, common among children but also seen in the nonimmune of any age, in which the virus enters the respiratory tract via droplet nuclei and multiplies in the epithelial cells, spreading throughout the MONONUCLEAR PHAGOCYTE SYSTEM.
A set of BACTERIAL ADHESINS and TOXINS, BIOLOGICAL produced by BORDETELLA organisms that determine the pathogenesis of BORDETELLA INFECTIONS, such as WHOOPING COUGH. They include filamentous hemagglutinin; FIMBRIAE PROTEINS; pertactin; PERTUSSIS TOXIN; ADENYLATE CYCLASE TOXIN; dermonecrotic toxin; tracheal cytotoxin; Bordetella LIPOPOLYSACCHARIDES; and tracheal colonization factor.
The binding of virus particles to receptors on the host cell surface. For enveloped viruses, the virion ligand is usually a surface glycoprotein as is the cellular receptor. For non-enveloped viruses, the virus CAPSID serves as the ligand.
One of the type I interferons produced by fibroblasts in response to stimulation by live or inactivated virus or by double-stranded RNA. It is a cytokine with antiviral, antiproliferative, and immunomodulating activity.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).
A plant genus of the family BRASSICACEAE. Some members contain CARDIAC GLYCOSIDES.
Proteins that share the common characteristic of binding to carbohydrates. Some ANTIBODIES and carbohydrate-metabolizing proteins (ENZYMES) also bind to carbohydrates, however they are not considered lectins. PLANT LECTINS are carbohydrate-binding proteins that have been primarily identified by their hemagglutinating activity (HEMAGGLUTININS). However, a variety of lectins occur in animal species where they serve diverse array of functions through specific carbohydrate recognition.
Fusion of somatic cells in vitro or in vivo, which results in somatic cell hybridization.
Protection conferred on a host by inoculation with one strain or component of a microorganism that prevents infection when later challenged with a similar strain. Most commonly the microorganism is a virus.
Vaccines in which the infectious microbial nucleic acid components have been destroyed by chemical or physical treatment (e.g., formalin, beta-propiolactone, gamma radiation) without affecting the antigenicity or immunogenicity of the viral coat or bacterial outer membrane proteins.
The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
The naturally occurring or experimentally induced replacement of one or more AMINO ACIDS in a protein with another. If a functionally equivalent amino acid is substituted, the protein may retain wild-type activity. Substitution may also diminish, enhance, or eliminate protein function. Experimentally induced substitution is often used to study enzyme activities and binding site properties.
Epidemics of infectious disease that have spread to many countries, often more than one continent, and usually affecting a large number of people.
The functional hereditary units of VIRUSES.
Layers of protein which surround the capsid in animal viruses with tubular nucleocapsids. The envelope consists of an inner layer of lipids and virus specified proteins also called membrane or matrix proteins. The outer layer consists of one or more types of morphological subunits called peplomers which project from the viral envelope; this layer always consists of glycoproteins.
A species of CERCOPITHECUS containing three subspecies: C. tantalus, C. pygerythrus, and C. sabeus. They are found in the forests and savannah of Africa. The African green monkey (C. pygerythrus) is the natural host of SIMIAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS and is used in AIDS research.
Proteins associated with the inner surface of the lipid bilayer of the viral envelope. These proteins have been implicated in control of viral transcription and may possibly serve as the "glue" that binds the nucleocapsid to the appropriate membrane site during viral budding from the host cell.
Pathological processes of the ENDOCRINE GLANDS, and diseases resulting from abnormal level of available HORMONES.
A genus of the family PARAMYXOVIRIDAE (subfamily PARAMYXOVIRINAE) where the virions of most members have hemagglutinin but not neuraminidase activity. All members produce both cytoplasmic and intranuclear inclusion bodies. MEASLES VIRUS is the type species.
Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.
Thin, hairlike appendages, 1 to 20 microns in length and often occurring in large numbers, present on the cells of gram-negative bacteria, particularly Enterobacteriaceae and Neisseria. Unlike flagella, they do not possess motility, but being protein (pilin) in nature, they possess antigenic and hemagglutinating properties. They are of medical importance because some fimbriae mediate the attachment of bacteria to cells via adhesins (ADHESINS, BACTERIAL). Bacterial fimbriae refer to common pili, to be distinguished from the preferred use of "pili", which is confined to sex pili (PILI, SEX).
Administration of vaccines to stimulate the host's immune response. This includes any preparation intended for active immunological prophylaxis.
A subtype of INFLUENZA A VIRUS with the surface proteins hemagglutinin 7 and neuraminidase 9. This avian origin virus was first identified in humans in 2013.
An antibiotic isolated from the fermentation broth of Fusidium coccineum. (From Merck Index, 11th ed). It acts by inhibiting translocation during protein synthesis.
The property of antibodies which enables them to react with some ANTIGENIC DETERMINANTS and not with others. Specificity is dependent on chemical composition, physical forces, and molecular structure at the binding site.
A species of gram-negative, anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria originally classified within the BACTEROIDES genus. This bacterium produces a cell-bound, oxygen-sensitive collagenase and is isolated from the human mouth.
The destruction of ERYTHROCYTES by many different causal agents such as antibodies, bacteria, chemicals, temperature, and changes in tonicity.
A PYRIDOXAL PHOSPHATE-containing enzyme that catalyzes the transfer of a formyl group from L-GLUTAMATE to N-formimidoyl-L-glutamate and TETRAHYDROFOLATE. This enzyme may also catalyze formyl transfer from 5-formyltetrahydrofolate to L-GLUTAMATE. This enzyme was formerly categorized as EC 2.1.2.6.
The process of intracellular viral multiplication, consisting of the synthesis of PROTEINS; NUCLEIC ACIDS; and sometimes LIPIDS, and their assembly into a new infectious particle.
Conjugated protein-carbohydrate compounds including mucins, mucoid, and amyloid glycoproteins.
The use of techniques that produce a functional MUTATION or an effect on GENE EXPRESSION of a specific gene of interest in order to identify the role or activity of the gene product of that gene.
A viral disease of cloven-hoofed animals caused by MORBILLIVIRUS. It may be acute, subacute, or chronic with the major lesions characterized by inflammation and ulceration of the entire digestive tract. The disease was declared successfully eradicated worldwide in 2010.
Highly pleasant emotion characterized by outward manifestations of gratification; joy.
A live attenuated virus vaccine of chick embryo origin, used for routine immunization of children and for immunization of adolescents and adults who have not had measles or been immunized with live measles vaccine and have no serum antibodies against measles. Children are usually immunized with measles-mumps-rubella combination vaccine. (From Dorland, 28th ed)
Deliberate stimulation of the host's immune response. ACTIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of ANTIGENS or IMMUNOLOGIC ADJUVANTS. PASSIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of IMMUNE SERA or LYMPHOCYTES or their extracts (e.g., transfer factor, immune RNA) or transplantation of immunocompetent cell producing tissue (thymus or bone marrow).
A name for several highly contagious viral diseases of animals, especially canine distemper. In dogs, it is caused by the canine distemper virus (DISTEMPER VIRUS, CANINE). It is characterized by a diphasic fever, leukopenia, gastrointestinal and respiratory inflammation and sometimes, neurologic complications. In cats it is known as FELINE PANLEUKOPENIA.
A family of spherical viruses, of the order MONONEGAVIRALES, somewhat larger than the orthomyxoviruses, and containing single-stranded RNA. Subfamilies include PARAMYXOVIRINAE and PNEUMOVIRINAE.
A species of PNEUMOVIRUS causing an important respiratory infection in cattle. Symptoms include fever, conjunctivitis, and respiratory distress.
A spasm of the diaphragm that causes a sudden inhalation followed by rapid closure of the glottis which produces a sound.
Immunoglobulins produced in a response to BACTERIAL ANTIGENS.
The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.
The properties of a pathogen that makes it capable of infecting one or more specific hosts. The pathogen can include PARASITES as well as VIRUSES; BACTERIA; FUNGI; or PLANTS.
The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.
Serum that contains antibodies. It is obtained from an animal that has been immunized either by ANTIGEN injection or infection with microorganisms containing the antigen.
The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.
A subtype of INFLUENZA A VIRUS comprised of the surface proteins hemagglutinin 7 and neuraminidase 2. It has been involved in a number of outbreaks in the 21st century on poultry farms and has been isolated a few times in humans.
A guanido-neuraminic acid that is used to inhibit NEURAMINIDASE.
Process of growing viruses in live animals, plants, or cultured cells.
A subfamily in the family MURIDAE, comprising the hamsters. Four of the more common genera are Cricetus, CRICETULUS; MESOCRICETUS; and PHODOPUS.
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
Proteins conjugated with nucleic acids.
Membrane glycoproteins found in high concentrations on iron-utilizing cells. They specifically bind iron-bearing transferrin, are endocytosed with its ligand and then returned to the cell surface where transferrin without its iron is released.
A hexose or fermentable monosaccharide and isomer of glucose from manna, the ash Fraxinus ornus and related plants. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed & Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)
Live vaccines prepared from microorganisms which have undergone physical adaptation (e.g., by radiation or temperature conditioning) or serial passage in laboratory animal hosts or infected tissue/cell cultures, in order to produce avirulent mutant strains capable of inducing protective immunity.
Conditions resulting from abnormalities in the arteries branching from the ASCENDING AORTA, the curved portion of the aorta. These syndromes are results of occlusion or abnormal blood flow to the head-neck or arm region leading to neurological defects and weakness in an arm. These syndromes are associated with vascular malformations; ATHEROSCLEROSIS; TRAUMA; and blood clots.
A species of BORDETELLA that is parasitic and pathogenic. It is found in the respiratory tract of domestic and wild mammalian animals and can be transmitted from animals to man. It is a common cause of bronchopneumonia in lower animals.
Diseases of birds which are raised as a source of meat or eggs for human consumption and are usually found in barnyards, hatcheries, etc. The concept is differentiated from BIRD DISEASES which is for diseases of birds not considered poultry and usually found in zoos, parks, and the wild.
DNA molecules capable of autonomous replication within a host cell and into which other DNA sequences can be inserted and thus amplified. Many are derived from PLASMIDS; BACTERIOPHAGES; or VIRUSES. They are used for transporting foreign genes into recipient cells. Genetic vectors possess a functional replicator site and contain GENETIC MARKERS to facilitate their selective recognition.
A species of gram-negative bacteria pathogenic to CHICKENS; TURKEYS, and guinea fowls. It causes disease in a wide variety of organs and tissues including JOINTS, tendon sheaths and the RESPIRATORY TRACT.
The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.
An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed.
The major immunoglobulin isotype class in normal human serum. There are several isotype subclasses of IgG, for example, IgG1, IgG2A, and IgG2B.
Ribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.
Nutritional physiology of children aged 13-18 years.
Methods used for studying the interactions of antibodies with specific regions of protein antigens. Important applications of epitope mapping are found within the area of immunochemistry.
Delivery of medications through the nasal mucosa.
Inoculation of a series of animals or in vitro tissue with an infectious bacterium or virus, as in VIRULENCE studies and the development of vaccines.
The expelling of virus particles from the body. Important routes include the respiratory tract, genital tract, and intestinal tract. Virus shedding is an important means of vertical transmission (INFECTIOUS DISEASE TRANSMISSION, VERTICAL).
Medical specialty concerned with the promotion and maintenance of the physical and mental health of employees in occupational settings.
Recombinant DNA vectors encoding antigens administered for the prevention or treatment of disease. The host cells take up the DNA, express the antigen, and present it to the immune system in a manner similar to that which would occur during natural infection. This induces humoral and cellular immune responses against the encoded antigens. The vector is called naked DNA because there is no need for complex formulations or delivery agents; the plasmid is injected in saline or other buffers.
A genus of the family BUNYAVIRIDAE causing HANTAVIRUS INFECTIONS, first identified during the Korean war. Infection is found primarily in rodents and humans. Transmission does not appear to involve arthropods. HANTAAN VIRUS is the type species.
A peptidohydrolytic enzyme that is formed from PREKALLIKREIN by FACTOR XIIA. It activates FACTOR XII; FACTOR VII; and PLASMINOGEN. It is selective for both ARGININE and to a lesser extent LYSINE bonds. EC 3.4.21.34.
Method for measuring viral infectivity and multiplication in CULTURED CELLS. Clear lysed areas or plaques develop as the VIRAL PARTICLES are released from the infected cells during incubation. With some VIRUSES, the cells are killed by a cytopathic effect; with others, the infected cells are not killed but can be detected by their hemadsorptive ability. Sometimes the plaque cells contain VIRAL ANTIGENS which can be measured by IMMUNOFLUORESCENCE.
A species of gram-negative, aerobic bacteria, commonly found in the clinical laboratory, and frequently resistant to common antibiotics.
A plant species of the Astragalus genus which is source of Huang qi preparation used in TRADITIONAL CHINESE MEDICINE.
Sudden increase in the incidence of a disease. The concept includes EPIDEMICS and PANDEMICS.
Carbohydrates consisting of between two (DISACCHARIDES) and ten MONOSACCHARIDES connected by either an alpha- or beta-glycosidic link. They are found throughout nature in both the free and bound form.
Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).
Substances elaborated by bacteria that have antigenic activity.
The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.
Microscopy using an electron beam, instead of light, to visualize the sample, thereby allowing much greater magnification. The interactions of ELECTRONS with specimens are used to provide information about the fine structure of that specimen. In TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen are imaged. In SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY an electron beam falls at a non-normal angle on the specimen and the image is derived from the reactions occurring above the plane of the specimen.
A genus of protozoa that comprise the malaria parasites of mammals. Four species infect humans (although occasional infections with primate malarias may occur). These are PLASMODIUM FALCIPARUM; PLASMODIUM MALARIAE; PLASMODIUM OVALE, and PLASMODIUM VIVAX. Species causing infection in vertebrates other than man include: PLASMODIUM BERGHEI; PLASMODIUM CHABAUDI; P. vinckei, and PLASMODIUM YOELII in rodents; P. brasilianum, PLASMODIUM CYNOMOLGI; and PLASMODIUM KNOWLESI in monkeys; and PLASMODIUM GALLINACEUM in chickens.
Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.
Either of the pair of organs occupying the cavity of the thorax that effect the aeration of the blood.
Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.
Substances that augment, stimulate, activate, potentiate, or modulate the immune response at either the cellular or humoral level. The classical agents (Freund's adjuvant, BCG, Corynebacterium parvum, et al.) contain bacterial antigens. Some are endogenous (e.g., histamine, interferon, transfer factor, tuftsin, interleukin-1). Their mode of action is either non-specific, resulting in increased immune responsiveness to a wide variety of antigens, or antigen-specific, i.e., affecting a restricted type of immune response to a narrow group of antigens. The therapeutic efficacy of many biological response modifiers is related to their antigen-specific immunoadjuvanticity.
Sorbitan mono-9-octadecanoate poly(oxy-1,2-ethanediyl) derivatives; complex mixtures of polyoxyethylene ethers used as emulsifiers or dispersing agents in pharmaceuticals.
Suspensions of attenuated or killed viruses administered for the prevention or treatment of infectious viral disease.
Artificial, single or multilaminar vesicles (made from lecithins or other lipids) that are used for the delivery of a variety of biological molecules or molecular complexes to cells, for example, drug delivery and gene transfer. They are also used to study membranes and membrane proteins.
Vaccines using VIROSOMES as the antigen delivery system that stimulates the desired immune response.
The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.
Any of various enzymatically catalyzed post-translational modifications of PEPTIDES or PROTEINS in the cell of origin. These modifications include carboxylation; HYDROXYLATION; ACETYLATION; PHOSPHORYLATION; METHYLATION; GLYCOSYLATION; ubiquitination; oxidation; proteolysis; and crosslinking and result in changes in molecular weight and electrophoretic motility.
The process of cumulative change at the level of DNA; RNA; and PROTEINS, over successive generations.
A species of anaerobic, gram-positive, rod-shaped bacteria in the family Clostridiaceae that produces proteins with characteristic neurotoxicity. It is the etiologic agent of BOTULISM in humans, wild fowl, HORSES; and CATTLE. Seven subtypes (sometimes called antigenic types, or strains) exist, each producing a different botulinum toxin (BOTULINUM TOXINS). The organism and its spores are widely distributed in nature.
The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.
The first alpha-globulins to appear in mammalian sera during FETAL DEVELOPMENT and the dominant serum proteins in early embryonic life.
A dilated cavity extended caudally from the hindgut. In adult birds, reptiles, amphibians, and many fishes but few mammals, cloaca is a common chamber into which the digestive, urinary and reproductive tracts discharge their contents. In most mammals, cloaca gives rise to LARGE INTESTINE; URINARY BLADDER; and GENITALIA.
The infective system of a virus, composed of the viral genome, a protein core, and a protein coat called a capsid, which may be naked or enclosed in a lipoprotein envelope called the peplos.
Test for tissue antigen using either a direct method, by conjugation of antibody with fluorescent dye (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, DIRECT) or an indirect method, by formation of antigen-antibody complex which is then labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, INDIRECT). The tissue is then examined by fluorescence microscopy.
A subfamily in the family CEBIDAE that consists of four genera: CALLITHRIX (marmosets), CALLIMICO (Goeldi's monkey), LEONTOPITHECUS (lion tamarins), and SAGUINUS (long-tusked tamarins). The members of this family inhabit the tropical forests of South and Central America.
Insulated enclosures in which temperature, humidity, and other environmental conditions can be regulated at levels optimal for growth, hatching, reproduction, or metabolic reactions.
CELL LINE derived from the ovary of the Chinese hamster, Cricetulus griseus (CRICETULUS). The species is a favorite for cytogenetic studies because of its small chromosome number. The cell line has provided model systems for the study of genetic alterations in cultured mammalian cells.
Area of the human body underneath the SHOULDER JOINT, also known as the armpit or underarm.
Genotypic differences observed among individuals in a population.
Any immunization following a primary immunization and involving exposure to the same or a closely related antigen.
Represents 15-20% of the human serum immunoglobulins, mostly as the 4-chain polymer in humans or dimer in other mammals. Secretory IgA (IMMUNOGLOBULIN A, SECRETORY) is the main immunoglobulin in secretions.
Forceful administration into a muscle of liquid medication, nutrient, or other fluid through a hollow needle piercing the muscle and any tissue covering it.
Diseases of domestic swine and of the wild boar of the genus Sus.
Glycoprotein from Sendai, para-influenza, Newcastle Disease, and other viruses that participates in binding the virus to cell-surface receptors. The HN protein possesses both hemagglutinin and neuraminidase activity.
A subtype of INFLUENZA A VIRUS comprised of the surface proteins hemagglutinin 1 and neuraminidase 2. It is endemic in both human and pig populations.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
An acetamido cyclohexene that is a structural homolog of SIALIC ACID and inhibits NEURAMINIDASE.
The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.
Genetically engineered MUTAGENESIS at a specific site in the DNA molecule that introduces a base substitution, or an insertion or deletion.
Infections with bacteria of the family BACTEROIDACEAE.
The movement of materials (including biochemical substances and drugs) through a biological system at the cellular level. The transport can be across cell membranes and epithelial layers. It also can occur within intracellular compartments and extracellular compartments.
The ability of a substance to be dissolved, i.e. to form a solution with another substance. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
Glycoproteins found on the membrane or surface of cells.
A protozoan, previously also considered a fungus. Characteristics include sporangia that are stalked and multilobed. It is widely used in biomedical research.
A mutation in which a codon is mutated to one directing the incorporation of a different amino acid. This substitution may result in an inactive or unstable product. (From A Dictionary of Genetics, King & Stansfield, 5th ed)
A subfamily of the family MURIDAE comprised of 69 genera. New World mice and rats are included in this subfamily.
Agents used in the prophylaxis or therapy of VIRUS DISEASES. Some of the ways they may act include preventing viral replication by inhibiting viral DNA polymerase; binding to specific cell-surface receptors and inhibiting viral penetration or uncoating; inhibiting viral protein synthesis; or blocking late stages of virus assembly.
The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.
The graphic recording of chest wall movement due to cardiac impulses.
Technique involving the diffusion of antigen or antibody through a semisolid medium, usually agar or agarose gel, with the result being a precipitin reaction.
Substances that are recognized by the immune system and induce an immune reaction.
Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.
A genus of the family ORTHOMYXOVIRIDAE comprising viruses similar to types A and B but less common, more stable, more homogeneous, and lacking the neuraminidase protein. They have not been associated with epidemics but may cause mild influenza. Influenza C virus is the type species.
The tubular and cavernous organs and structures, by means of which pulmonary ventilation and gas exchange between ambient air and the blood are brought about.
The relationship between the chemical structure of a compound and its biological or pharmacological activity. Compounds are often classed together because they have structural characteristics in common including shape, size, stereochemical arrangement, and distribution of functional groups.
Transfer of immunity from immunized to non-immune host by administration of serum antibodies, or transplantation of lymphocytes (ADOPTIVE TRANSFER).
Vaccines using supra-molecular structures composed of multiple copies of recombinantly expressed viral structural proteins. They are often antigentically indistinguishable from the virus from which they were derived.
The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.
Centrifugation using a rotating chamber of large capacity in which to separate cell organelles by density-gradient centrifugation. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Biologically active DNA which has been formed by the in vitro joining of segments of DNA from different sources. It includes the recombination joint or edge of a heteroduplex region where two recombining DNA molecules are connected.
Body organ that filters blood for the secretion of URINE and that regulates ion concentrations.
A histone chaperone that facilitates nucleosome assembly by mediating the formation of the histone octamer and its transfer to DNA.

Characterization of a new genotype of measles virus detected in China and England. (1/1515)

We report the co-circulation of a new lineage of measles virus (MV) and an Edmonston-like (Ed-like) genotype of MV in China during 1995-7. Sequence analysis of 25 strains was performed on a 282 nucleotides (nt) region of the nucleoprotein (N) gene, a 450-nt region of the haemagglutinin (H) gene and a 152-nt region of the matrix (M) gene by direct sequencing of RT-PCR amplicons obtained from clinical specimens. The entire H gene was sequenced from two strains. The results showed that 24/25 Chinese strains belonged to a new genogroup and were distinct from the vaccine strains used in China and the UK, and also from MV strains previously described in Europe, Africa and the USA. The remaining strain was Ed-like. Two strains of the new genotype (IV) and one of the Ed-like genotype were also detected in the UK in 1996.  (+info)

Immunoglobulin-specific radioimmunoprecipitation assays for quantitation of nasal secretory antibodies to hemagglutinin of type A influenza viruses. (2/1515)

Radioimmunoprecipitation (RIP) assays were developed to selectively quantitate class-specific antibodies to purified hemagglutinins (HA) of type A influenza virus in nasal secretions. Rabbit anti-human secretory piece of immunoglobulin A (IgA) and rabbit anti-human IgG were used as second antibodies. A third antibody, goat anti-rabbit IgG, was incorporated into the system to separate immune complexes formed between iodinated HA, nasal wash test specimen, and second antibody. The utilization of this reagent avoided the need for large quantities of IgA and IgG antibody-negative carrier secretions. Nasal was specimens obtained from 14 adults immunized with an inactivated type A influenza virus vaccine were evaluated by RIP and viral neutralization assays. Significant homologous postvaccination secretory IgA and IgG antibody levels were demonstrable in 13 (93%) of individuals by RIP, whereas only 5 (36%) exhibited rises by viral neutralization tests. Moreover, the geometric mean IgA and IgG antibody levels were at least 20- and 37-fold greater than the neutralizing antibody titer. The pattern of heterologous immunoglobulin-specific antibody responses tended to be similar to those observed with the homologous HA subunit.  (+info)

The cytoplasmic tail of the influenza C virus glycoprotein HEF negatively affects transport to the cell surface. (3/1515)

The surface glycoprotein, HEF, of influenza C virus (C/Johannesburg/1/66) has been shown to undergo a post-translation conformational change that is evident in a dramatic change of electrophoretic mobility. If the corresponding gene is expressed in the absence of other viral proteins, this folding process does not occur at all or only very inefficiently. A chimaeric protein, HEF-HA(Tail), in which the short cytoplasmic tail (Arg-Thr-Lys) of HEF was replaced by the cytoplasmic tail of the haemagglutinin of an influenza A virus (fowl plague virus) was constructed. In contrast to the wild-type protein, the chimaeric protein was detected on the cell surface. No further improvement of the surface expression was observed when both the transmembrane domain and the cytoplasmic tail were replaced by the corresponding domains of either the influenza A haemagglutinin or gp40, an endogenous protein of MDCK cells. For the HEF-HA(Tail) construct this study shows that a substantial amount of the protein is converted to the 100 kDa mature form that is observed in virus-infected cells. The HEF-HA expressed on the cell surface reacted positively in esterase and haemadsorption assays, indicating that it was present in a biologically active form. The results show that the short cytoplasmic tail of HEF has a negative effect on the folding and surface transport of this protein. How this effect may be prevented during a virus infection is discussed.  (+info)

Structural and functional studies of the measles virus hemagglutinin: identification of a novel site required for CD46 interaction. (4/1515)

The entry of measles virus (MV) into human cells is mediated by the initial attachment of the viral hemagglutinin (HA) to the complement regulatory protein CD46. Two subdomains, one each within CD46 short consensus repeats (SCRs) 1 and 2, are responsible for this interaction. However, little is known about the regions within MV HA needed for a high-affinity CD46 interaction. To better define the HA-CD46 interaction, we took three approaches: chimeric domain swapping, peptide scanning, and alanine scanning mutagenesis. Chimeras of MV HA and the closely related rinderpest virus (RPV) HA were generated and tested for cell surface expression and the ability to hemadsorb CD46+ red blood cells (RBC). Exchanges with the N terminus of RPV were tolerated as MV HA could be replaced with RPV HA up to amino-acid position 154. However, both larger swaps with RPV and a small RPV HA replacement at the C terminus aborted cell-surface expression. Peptide scanning with 51 overlapping peptides derived from three MV HA regions showed one peptide, corresponding to MV HA amino acids 468-487, blocked hemagglutination of African green monkey (AGM) RBCs and inhibited MV infection of Chinese hamster ovary cells (CHO) expressing human CD46. Alanine scanning mutants mapped sites on the MV HA that were not required for trafficking to the cell surface or function in hemagglutination as well as a novel site required for CD46 interaction, amino acids 473-477.  (+info)

Protection of mice against a lethal influenza virus challenge after immunization with yeast-derived secreted influenza virus hemagglutinin. (5/1515)

The A/Victoria/3/75 (H3N2-subtype) hemagglutinin (HA) gene was engineered for expression in Pichia pastoris as a soluble secreted molecule. The HA cDNA lacking the C-terminal transmembrane anchor-coding sequence was fused to the Saccharomyces cerevisiae alpha-mating factor secretion signal and placed under control of the methanol-inducible P. pastoris alcohol oxidase 1 (AOX1) promoter. Growth of transformants on methanol-containing medium resulted in the secretion of recombinant non-cleaved soluble hemagglutinin (HA0s). Remarkably, the pH of the induction medium had an important effect on the expression level, the highest level being obtained at pH 8.0. The gel filtration profile and the reactivity against a panel of different HA-conformation specific monoclonal antibodies indicated that HA0s was monomeric. Analysis of the N-linked glycans revealed a typical P. pastoris type of glycosylation, consisting of glycans with 10-12 glycosyl residues. Mice immunized with purified soluble hemagglutinin (HA0s) showed complete protection against a challenge with 10 LD50 of mouse-adapted homologous virus (X47), whereas all control mice succumbed. Heterologous challenge with X31 virus [A/Aichi/2/68 (H3N2-subtype)], resulted in significantly higher survival rates in the immunized group compared with the control group. These results, together with the safety, reliability and economic potential of P. pastoris, as well as the flexibility and fast adaptation of the expression system may allow development of an effective recombinant influenza vaccine.  (+info)

Sodium dodecyl sulfate stability of HLA-DR1 complexes correlates with burial of hydrophobic residues in pocket 1. (6/1515)

Certain class II MHC-peptide complexes are resistant to SDS-induced dissociation. This property, which has been used as an in vivo as well as an in vitro peptide binding assay, is not understood at the molecular level. Here we have investigated the mechanistic basis of SDS stability of HLA-DR1 complexes by using a biosensor-based assay and SDS-PAGE with a combination of wild-type and mutant HLA-DR1 and variants of hemagglutinin peptide HA306-318. Experiments with wild-type DR1 along with previously published results establish that the SDS-stable complexes are formed only when the hydrophobic pocket 1 (P1) is occupied by a bulky aromatic (Trp, Phe, Tyr) or an aliphatic residue (Met, Ile, Val, Leu). To further explore whether the SDS sensitivity is primarily due to the exposed hydrophobic regions, we mutated residue beta Gly86 at the bottom of P1 to tyrosine, presumably reducing the depth of the pocket and the exposure of hydrophobic residues and increasing the contacts between subunits. In direct contrast to wild-type DR1, the peptide-free mutant DR1 exists as an alpha/beta heterodimer in SDS. Moreover, the presence of a smaller hydrophobic residue, such as alanine, as P1 anchor with no contribution from any other anchor is sufficient to enhance the SDS stability of the mutant complexes, demonstrating that the basis of SDS resistance may be localized to P1 interactions. The good correlation between SDS sensitivity and the exposure of hydrophobic residues provides a biochemical rationale for the use of this assay to investigate the maturation of class II molecules and the longevity of the complexes.  (+info)

The genome nucleotide sequence of a contemporary wild strain of measles virus and its comparison with the classical Edmonston strain genome. (7/1515)

The only complete genome nucleotide sequences of measles virus (MeV) reported to date have been for the Edmonston (Ed) strain and derivatives, which were isolated decades ago, passaged extensively under laboratory conditions, and appeared to be nonpathogenic. Partial sequencing of many other strains has identified >/=15 genotypes. Most recent isolates, including those typically pathogenic, belong to genotypes distinct from the Edmonston type. Therefore, the sequence of Ed and related strains may not be representative of those of pathological measles circulating at that or any time in human populations. Taking into account these issues as well as the fact that so many studies have been based upon Ed-related strains, we have sequenced the entire genome of a recently isolated pathogenic strain, 9301B. Between this recent isolate and the classical Ed strain, there were 465 nucleotide differences (2.93%) and 114 amino acid differences (2.19%). Computation of nonsynonymous and synonymous substitutions in open reading frames as well as direct comparisons of noncoding regions of each gene and extracistronic regulatory regions clearly revealed the regions where changes have been permissible and nonpermissible. Notably, considerable nonsynonymous substitutions appeared to be permissible for the P frame to maintain a high degree of sequence conservation for the overlapping C frame. However, the cause and the effect were largely unclear for any substitution, indicating that there is a considerable gap between the two strains that cannot be filled. The sequence reported here would be useful as a reference of contemporary wild-type MeV.  (+info)

Identification of a coronavirus hemagglutinin-esterase with a substrate specificity different from those of influenza C virus and bovine coronavirus. (8/1515)

We have characterized the hemagglutinin-esterase (HE) of puffinosis virus (PV), a coronavirus closely related to mouse hepatitis virus (MHV). Analysis of the cloned gene revealed approximately 85% sequence identity to HE proteins of MHV and approximately 60% identity to the corresponding esterase of bovine coronavirus. The HE protein exhibited acetylesterase activity with synthetic substrates p-nitrophenyl acetate, alpha-naphthyl acetate, and 4-methylumbelliferyl acetate. In contrast to other viral esterases, no activity was detectable with natural substrates containing 9-O-acetylated sialic acids. Furthermore, PV esterase was unable to remove influenza C virus receptors from human erythrocytes, indicating a substrate specificity different from HEs of influenza C virus and bovine coronavirus. Solid-phase binding assays revealed that purified PV was unable to bind to sialic acid-containing glycoconjugates like bovine submaxillary mucin, mouse alpha1 macroglobulin or bovine brain extract. Because of the close relationship to MHV, possible implications on the substrate specificity of MHV esterases are suggested.  (+info)

Playing Hide and Seek: How Glycosylation of the Influenza Virus Hemagglutinin Can Modulate the Immune Response to Infection. . Biblioteca virtual para leer y descargar libros, documentos, trabajos y tesis universitarias en PDF. Material universiario, documentación y tareas realizadas por universitarios en nuestra biblioteca. Para descargar gratis y para leer online.
The A(H7N9) virus hemagglutinin protein has several motifs that are characteristic of mammalian-adapted and human influenza viruses, including mutations that confer human-type receptor-binding and enhanced virus replication in mammals. The pandemic risk rises exponentially should these viruses acquire the ability to transmit readily among humans.. Reports indicate that several A(H7N9) viruses from patients who were undergoing antiviral treatment acquired resistance to the primary medical countermeasure-neuraminidase inhibitors (such as oseltamivir, peramivir, and zanamivir). Acquisition of resistance to these inhibitors by A(H7N9) viruses could increase the risk of serious outcomes of A(H7N9) virus infections.. The hemagglutinin proteins of A(H7N9) viruses have a cleavage site consistent with a low-pathogenic phenotype in birds; in the past, highly pathogenic H7 variants (with basic amino acid insertions at the cleavage site that enable the spread of the virus to internal organs) have emerged ...
I am looking for a source of Influenza virus haemagglutinin antigen. I need this to use as a positive control for westerns to check expression of a HA tagged protein. The antibody we are going to use is mAb 12CA5 (from Boehringer). I will appreciate if anyone in knowledge of the commercial availablility of the compatible HA antigen will give me the details of the source. Thanks very much Obaid Khan ...
Biochemical tests used in the identification of infectious agents include the detection of metabolic or enzymatic products characteristic of a particular infectious agent. Since bacteria ferment carbohydrates in patterns characteristic of their genus and species, the detection of fermentation products is commonly used in bacterial identification. Acids, alcohols and gases are usually detected in these tests when bacteria are grown in selective liquid or solid media. The isolation of enzymes from infected tissue can also provide the basis of a biochemical diagnosis of an infectious disease. For example, humans can make neither RNA replicases nor reverse transcriptase, and the presence of these enzymes are characteristic of specific types of viral infections. The ability of the viral protein hemagglutinin to bind red blood cells together into a detectable matrix may also be characterized as a biochemical test for viral infection, although strictly speaking hemagglutinin is not an enzyme and has no ...
Hemagglutinin molecule of the H1 subtype from H1N1 swine flu virus, a type of influenza A virus. Hemagglutinin is a protein on the surface of the influenza virus that allows it to attach to host cells by binding to sialic acid residues on their cell membr - Stock Image C004/8948
Vaccine researchers have developed a strategy aimed at generating broadly cross-reactive antibodies against the influenza virus: embrace the unfamiliar.. In recent years, researchers interested in a universal flu vaccine identified a region of the viral hemagglutinin protein called the stem or stalk, which doesnt mutate and change as much as other regions and could be the basis for a vaccine that is protective against a variety of flu strains.. In an Emory Vaccine Center study, human volunteers immunized against the avian flu virus H5N1 readily developed antibodies against the stem region of the viral hemagglutinin protein. In contrast, those immunized with standard seasonal trivalent vaccines did not, instead developing most of their antibodies against the more variable head region. H5N1, regarded as a potential pandemic strain, is not currently circulating in the United States and the volunteers had not been exposed to it before.. The results were published Monday, August 25 in ...
Vaccine researchers have developed a strategy aimed at generating broadly cross-reactive antibodies against the influenza virus: embrace the unfamiliar.. In recent years, researchers interested in a universal flu vaccine identified a region of the viral hemagglutinin protein called the stem or stalk, which doesnt mutate and change as much as other regions and could be the basis for a vaccine that is protective against a variety of flu strains.. In an Emory Vaccine Center study, human volunteers immunized against the avian flu virus H5N1 readily developed antibodies against the stem region of the viral hemagglutinin protein. In contrast, those immunized with standard seasonal trivalent vaccines did not, instead developing most of their antibodies against the more variable head region. H5N1, regarded as a potential pandemic strain, is not currently circulating in the United States and the volunteers had not been exposed to it before.. The results were published Monday, August 25 in ...
Anti-Hemagglutinin/HA Antibody (11053-MM09), manufactured by Sino Biological is validated in ELISA,ELISA(Cap). Custom antibody services and bulk production also available. To learn more comprehensive our antibody product information including immunogen, specificity, and more, you can read all details here.
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Anti-Hemagglutinin/HA Antibody11713-T54, manufactured by Sino Biological is validated in WB,ELISA,FCM,ICC/IF,IP. Custom antibody services and bulk production also available. To learn more comprehensive our antibody product information including immunogen, specificity, and more, you can read all details here.
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Experimentally induced adaptations in the 2009 H1N1 influenza virus led to dramatically increased replication rates and decreased receptor-binding affinity in human lung cells, according to findings published this week in Virology.. A team of German and Austrian researchers serially passaged a 2009 H1N1 variant isolate in human A549 lung epithelial cells to determine factors that might affect the strains future virulence.. After six passages, the viruss replication rate abruptly rose, causing a 100-fold increase in viral titers. Both the original isolate and the adapted strain infected A549 cells with similar effectiveness.. Investigators identified five mutations that occurred with a frequency of more than 20% in viral hemagglutinin (HA). Three of these mutations led to an amino acid change in viral proteins.. Two HA mutations, HA1 D130E and HA2 I91L, caused significant changes to the A549 receptor-binding affinity. The mutation HA1 D130E affects the HA globular head near the cell receptor ...
The selective binding between avian and human influenza A viral hemagglutinins (HA) subtype H3 and Neu5Acα2-3 and α2-6Gal (avian α2-3, human α2-6) is ...
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TY - JOUR. T1 - X-ray crystallographic analysis of measles virus hemagglutinin.. AU - Hashiguchi, Takao. AU - Maenaka, Katsumi. AU - Yanagi, Yusuke. PY - 2008/6. Y1 - 2008/6. N2 - X-ray crystallographic analyses, together with nuclear magnetic resonance, have revealed three-dimensional structures of many important viral proteins, thereby allowing us to better understand the interactions between viral and host cell molecules. In this review, we summarize the recently determined crystal structure of the measles virus (MV) attachment protein hemagglutinin. Based on this structural information, we also discuss how the MV hemagglutinin interacts with various cellular receptors and why MV vaccines have been effective for many years without inducing escape mutant viruses. Other topics discussed are a putative MV receptor present on polarized epithelial cells and the protein expression system using a cultured human cell line 293SGnTI(-), which is suitable for X-ray crystallographic analyses.. AB - X-ray ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Immune recognition of influenza virus haemagglutinin.. AU - Skehel, J. J.. AU - Barnet, B. C.. AU - Burt, D. S.. AU - Daniels, R. S.. AU - Douglas, A. R.. AU - Graham, C. M.. AU - Hodgson, J.. AU - Knossow, M.. AU - Mills, K. H.. AU - Riska, P. F.. PY - 1989/6/12. Y1 - 1989/6/12. N2 - Haemagglutinin glycoproteins are the components of influenza virus membranes against which infectivity-neutralizing antibodies are directed. Sequence analysis of natural and laboratory-selected variant haemagglutinins indicates the regions of the molecule recognized by antibodies and by helper T cells; the identity of these regions and the relations between them are discussed.. AB - Haemagglutinin glycoproteins are the components of influenza virus membranes against which infectivity-neutralizing antibodies are directed. Sequence analysis of natural and laboratory-selected variant haemagglutinins indicates the regions of the molecule recognized by antibodies and by helper T cells; the identity of ...
Antigenic determinants of influenza virus haemagglutinin. VI. Antigenic characterization of the oligosaccharide sidechains from HA1of influenza virus haemagglutinins Journal Articles ...
Citation. Das SR, Hensley SE, Ince WL, Brooke CB, Subba A, Delboy MG, Russ G, Gibbs JS, Bennink JR, Yewdell JW. Defining Influenza A Virus Hemagglutinin Antigenic Drift by Sequential Monoclonal Antibody Selection.. Cell Host & Microbe. 2013 Mar 13; 13: 314-23.. External Citation. Abstract. Human influenza A virus (IAV) vaccination is limited by antigenic drift, rapid antibody-driven escape reflecting amino acid substitutions in the globular domain of hemagglutinin (HA), the viral attachment protein. To better understand drift, we used anti-hemagglutinin monoclonal Abs (mAbs) to sequentially select IAV escape mutants. Twelve selection steps, each resulting in a single amino acid substitution in the hemagglutinin globular domain, were required to eliminate antigenicity defined by monoclonal or polyclonal Abs. Sequential mutants grow robustly, showing the structural plasticity of HA, although several hemagglutinin substitutions required an epistatic substitution in the neuraminidase glycoprotein ...
In the polarized kidney cell line MDCK, the influenza virus hemagglutinin (HA) has been well characterized as a model for apically sorted membrane glycoproteins. Previous work from our laboratory has shown that a single amino acid change in the cytoplasmic sequence of HA converts it from a protein that is excluded from coated pits to one that is efficiently internalized. Using trypsin or antibodies to mark protein on the surface, we have shown in MDCK cells that HA containing this mutation is no longer transported to the apical surface but instead is delivered directly to the basolateral plasma membrane. We propose that a cytoplasmic feature similar to an endocytosis signal can cause exclusive basolateral delivery. ...
DNA vaccines expressing plasma membrane and secreted forms of the influenza and measles virus hemagglutinins (HAs) have been used to evaluate the effect of secretion on DNA-raised antibody responses. At low doses of DNA, the plasma membrane form of the influenza virus HA raised higher titers of antibody than the secreted form. The isotype of the DNA-raised antibodies depended on both the method of DNA delivery and the form of the expressed antigen. Following intramuscular injections, DNAs expressing membrane bound forms of the influenza and measles HAs raised predominantly IgG2a. By contrast, DNAs expressing the secreted from of the two HAs as well as another secreted protein, human growth hormone, raised predominantly IgG1. Gene gun delivery resulted in predominantly IgG1 antibody responses for both secreted and membrane bound forms of the hemagglutinins. The raising of predominantly IgG1 by i.m. delivery of the secreted form of the influenza hemagglutinin was IL-4 dependent suggesting that a T-helper
Author: Hütter, J. et al.; Genre: Journal Article; Published in Print: 2013; Title: Toward Animal Cell Culture-Based Influenza Vaccine Design: Viral Hemagglutinin N-Glycosylation Markedly Impacts Immunogenicity
Citation. Magadán JG, Khurana S, Das SR, Frank GM, Stevens J, Golding H, Bennink JR, Yewdell JW. Influenza a Virus Hemagglutinin Trimerization Completes Monomer Folding and Antigenicity.. Journal of Virology. 2013 Sep 01; 87: 9742-53.. External Citation. Abstract. Influenza A virus (IAV) remains an important human pathogen largely because of antigenic drift, the rapid emergence of antibody escape mutants that precludes durable vaccination. The most potent neutralizing antibodies interact with cognate epitopes in the globular head domain of hemagglutinin (HA), a homotrimeric glycoprotein. The H1 HA possesses five distinct regions defined by a large number of mouse monoclonal antibodies (MAbs), i.e., Ca1, Ca2, Cb, Sa, and Sb. Ca1-Ca2 sites require HA trimerization to attain full antigenicity, consistent with their locations on opposite sides of the trimer interface. Here, we show that full antigenicity of Cb and Sa sites also requires HA trimerization, as revealed by immunofluorescence ...
Hemagglutinin     Hemagglutinin (HA) or haemagglutinin (BE) is an antigenic glycoprotein found on the surface of the influenza viruses (as well as
Influenza A virus H1 HA (Hemagglutinin) antibody [B219M] for ELISA, WB. Anti-Influenza A virus H1 HA (Hemagglutinin) mAb (GTX41203) is tested in Influenza A virus samples. 100% Ab-Assurance.
Influenza A virus H1 HA (Hemagglutinin) antibody [58CE8-1-5] for ICC/IF. Anti-Influenza A virus H1 HA (Hemagglutinin) mAb (GTX40266) is tested in Influenza A virus samples. 100% Ab-Assurance.
Das Hüllglykoprotein Hämagglutinin (HA) von Influenzavirus ist verantwortlich sowohl für die Bindung als auch für die nachfolgende Fusion der viralen Hülle mit der endosomalen Membran. Eine Analyse der 3D Struktur der HA-Ektodomaine zeigt, dass die Stabilität des Proteins sowohl durch kovalente als auch durch nicht-kovalente Wechselwirkungen bedingt ist. Die Konformationsänderung von HA bei saurem pH-Wert weißt auf eine mögliche Rolle von Protonierungseffekten auf ionisierbare Aminosäuren hin. Untersuchungen zur Bedeutung geladener Aminosäuren und Salzbrücken für die Struktur des HA wurden auf der Grundlage von ‚site directed mutagenesis durchgeführt. Der Einfluss der Mutationen auf die Konformationsänderung und die Fusionsaktivität von HA wurden durch einen Proteinase K-Assay bzw. Fluoreszenzmikroskopie erfasst. Die Ergebnisse beider Methoden wurden miteinander korreliert. Abgesehen von der Mutante R109E zeigten Wildtyp-HA und alle anderen Mutanten eine vergleichbare ...
Das Hüllglykoprotein Hämagglutinin (HA) von Influenzavirus ist verantwortlich sowohl für die Bindung als auch für die nachfolgende Fusion der viralen Hülle mit der endosomalen Membran. Eine Analyse der 3D Struktur der HA-Ektodomaine zeigt, dass die Stabilität des Proteins sowohl durch kovalente als auch durch nicht-kovalente Wechselwirkungen bedingt ist. Die Konformationsänderung von HA bei saurem pH-Wert weißt auf eine mögliche Rolle von Protonierungseffekten auf ionisierbare Aminosäuren hin. Untersuchungen zur Bedeutung geladener Aminosäuren und Salzbrücken für die Struktur des HA wurden auf der Grundlage von ‚site directed mutagenesis durchgeführt. Der Einfluss der Mutationen auf die Konformationsänderung und die Fusionsaktivität von HA wurden durch einen Proteinase K-Assay bzw. Fluoreszenzmikroskopie erfasst. Die Ergebnisse beider Methoden wurden miteinander korreliert. Abgesehen von der Mutante R109E zeigten Wildtyp-HA und alle anderen Mutanten eine vergleichbare ...
Rabbit polyclonal antibody raised against synthetic peptide of Seasonal H1N1 Hemagglutinin. A synthetic peptide corresponding to Seasonal H1N1 Hemagglutinin. (PAB16771) - Products - Abnova
Shop Hemagglutinin/proteinase ELISA Kit, Recombinant Protein and Hemagglutinin/proteinase Antibody at MyBioSource. Custom ELISA Kit, Recombinant Protein and Antibody are available.
Biochemical tests used in the identification of infectious agents include the detection of metabolic or enzymatic products characteristic of a particular infectious agent. Since bacteria ferment carbohydrates in patterns characteristic of their genus and species, the detection of fermentation products is commonly used in bacterial identification. Acids, alcohols and gases are usually detected in these tests when bacteria are grown in selective liquid or solid media. The isolation of enzymes from infected tissue can also provide the basis of a biochemical diagnosis of an infectious disease. For example, humans can make neither RNA replicases nor reverse transcriptase, and the presence of these enzymes are characteristic of specific types of viral infections. The ability of the viral protein hemagglutinin to bind red blood cells together into a detectable matrix may also be characterized as a biochemical test for viral infection, although strictly speaking hemagglutinin is not an enzyme and has ...
Biochemical tests used in the identification of infectious agents include the detection of metabolic or enzymatic products characteristic of a particular infectious agent. Since bacteria ferment carbohydrates in patterns characteristic of their genus and species, the detection of fermentation products is commonly used in bacterial identification. Acids, alcohols and gases are usually detected in these tests when bacteria are grown in selective liquid or solid media. The isolation of enzymes from infected tissue can also provide the basis of a biochemical diagnosis of an infectious disease. For example, humans can make neither RNA replicases nor reverse transcriptase, and the presence of these enzymes are characteristic of specific types of viral infections. The ability of the viral protein hemagglutinin to bind red blood cells together into a detectable matrix may also be characterized as a biochemical test for viral infection, although strictly speaking hemagglutinin is not an enzyme and has no ...
Biochemical tests used in the identification of infectious agents include the detection of metabolic or enzymatic products characteristic of a particular infectious agent. Since bacteria ferment carbohydrates in patterns characteristic of their genus and species, the detection of fermentation products is commonly used in bacterial identification. Acids, alcohols and gases are usually detected in these tests when bacteria are grown in selective liquid or solid media. The isolation of enzymes from infected tissue can also provide the basis of a biochemical diagnosis of an infectious disease. For example, humans can make neither RNA replicases nor reverse transcriptase, and the presence of these enzymes are characteristic., of specific types of viral infections. The ability of the viral protein hemagglutinin to bind red blood cells together into a detectable matrix may also be characterized as a biochemical test for viral infection, although strictly speaking hemagglutinin is not an enzyme and has ...
Biochemical tests used in the identification of infectious agents include the detection of metabolic or enzymatic products characteristic of a particular infectious agent. Since bacteria ferment carbohydrates in patterns characteristic of their genus and species, the detection of fermentation products is commonly used in bacterial identification. Acids, alcohols and gases are usually detected in these tests when bacteria are grown in selective liquid or solid media. The isolation of enzymes from infected tissue can also provide the basis of a biochemical diagnosis of an infectious disease. For example, humans can make neither RNA replicases nor reverse transcriptase, and the presence of these enzymes are characteristic., of specific types of viral infections. The ability of the viral protein hemagglutinin to bind red blood cells together into a detectable matrix may also be characterized as a biochemical test for viral infection, although strictly speaking hemagglutinin is not an enzyme and has ...
Biochemical tests used in the identification of infectious agents include the detection of metabolic or enzymatic products characteristic of a particular infectious agent. Since bacteria ferment carbohydrates in patterns characteristic of their genus and species, the detection of fermentation products is commonly used in bacterial identification. Acids, alcohols and gases are usually detected in these tests when bacteria are grown in selective liquid or solid media. The isolation of enzymes from infected tissue can also provide the basis of a biochemical diagnosis of an infectious disease. For example, humans can make neither RNA replicases nor reverse transcriptase, and the presence of these enzymes are characteristic., of specific types of viral infections. The ability of the viral protein hemagglutinin to bind red blood cells together into a detectable matrix may also be characterized as a biochemical test for viral infection, although strictly speaking hemagglutinin is not an enzyme and has ...
Ready-to-use high expression level Hemagglutinin/HA cDNA clones are full sequence confirmed with various fusion tags, 27 in lentiviral vector, 171 in expression vector, 2 in cloning vector also available.
The 12CA5 monoclonal antibody recognizes the 9-amino acid sequence YPYDVPDYA, derived from influenza virus hemagglutinin (HA). HA is commonly added to proteins of interest using recombinant DNA technology. The HA tag can then be used for detection or purification of the tagged protein.
p>An evidence describes the source of an annotation, e.g. an experiment that has been published in the scientific literature, an orthologous protein, a record from another database, etc.,/p> ,p>,a href=/manual/evidences>More…,/a>,/p> ...
除此之外3初步的分析還指出3這種病毒不會在鳥類身上引起嚴重的症狀3這根自2002起蹂躪亞洲的H5N1病毒株不同》雖然不會在鳥類身上引起嚴重的症狀3但是在人類身上就會3因為我們對這種新病毒毫無免疫力4此外3初步研究指出3這種新型病毒會感染下呼吸道的深層3而這種感染3就像引起SARS的新型冠狀病毒一樣3會引起嚴重的疾病》另外3這種病毒如何跟人們呼吸道上的蛋白質接受器結合也跟它引起疾病的嚴重程度有關3而科學家們還需要進一步研究4雖然都是非常初步的3但分析已經指出3該病毒的H蛋白(haemagglutinin(已經產生了突變使得這個蛋白質可以跟哺乳動物呼吸道上的接受器結合3而且3該病毒還具有數個突變跟哺乳動物的嚴重疾病有關》 ...
Sasisekharan noted that recent studies have shown that the hemagglutinin protein from the avian flu virus has on occasion to glycans of the upper airway. The
Zhang X., Lu G., Qi J., Li Y., He Y., Xu X., Shi J., Zhang C.W., Yan J., Gao G.F.. Measles virus is a major public health concern worldwide. Three measles virus cell receptors have been identified so far, and the structures of the first two in complex with measles virus hemagglutinin (MV-H) have been reported. Nectin-4 is the most recently identified receptor in epithelial cells, and its binding mode to MV-H remains elusive. In this study, we solved the structure of the membrane-distal domain of human nectin-4 in complex with MV-H. The structure shows that nectin-4 binds the MV-H β4-β5 groove exclusively via its N-terminal IgV domain; the contact interface is dominated by hydrophobic interactions. The binding site in MV-H for nectin-4 also overlaps extensively with those of the other two receptors. Finally, a hydrophobic pocket centered in the β4-β5 groove is involved in binding to all three identified measles virus receptors, representing a potential target for antiviral drugs.. Nat. ...
cansSAR 3D Structure of 5VTQ_B | CRYSTAL STRUCTURE OF THE A/HONG KONG/1/1968 (H3N2) INFLUENZA VIRUS HEMAGGLUTININ G225L/L226S MUTANT IN COMPLEX WITH 3-SLN | 5VTQ
Define haemagglutinin. haemagglutinin synonyms, haemagglutinin pronunciation, haemagglutinin translation, English dictionary definition of haemagglutinin. or n an antibody that causes the clumping of red blood cells
1HGD: BINDING OF INFLUENZA VIRUS HEMAGGLUTININ TO ANALOGS OF ITS CELL-SURFACE RECEPTOR, SIALIC ACID: ANALYSIS BY PROTON NUCLEAR MAGNETIC RESONANCE SPECTROSCOPY AND X-RAY CRYSTALLOGRAPHY
Mouse monoclonal antibody raised against Influenza B virus hemagglutinin. B/Lee/40 and B/Singapore/-222/79 virus. (MAB14108) - Products - Abnova
There are no specific protocols for Recombinant Influenza A Virus Hemagglutinin H5 protein (ab69748). Please download our general protocols booklet
Using the Octet RED system, Kd values for S139/1 Fab and IgG binding to various influenza HA strains were determined to assess enhanced virus neutralization effects due to avidity of full IgG vs. Fab. Biotinylated HA and Streptavidin biosensors were used for these measurements. The increased avidity of IgG binding was shown to reduce Kd values and improve ability of S139/1 to recognize different heterosubtypes of the virus. The Kd data correlated with neutralization data.
1HGD: Binding of influenza virus hemagglutinin to analogs of its cell-surface receptor, sialic acid: analysis by proton nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy and X-ray crystallography.
Recombinant H7N9 Hemagglutinin/HA Protein (Met1-Val524) HA1+HA2, cleavage 40104-V08H4 with a fusion His Tag, is expressed in HEK293 Cells. With high purity, high biological activity, high stability, and other superior features, you can use this H7N9 Hemagglutinin/HA protein for relevant bioassay and related research.
Recombinant H11N2 Hemagglutinin/HA Protein (Met1-Arg342) HA1 Subunit 11705-V08H1 with a fusion His Tag, is expressed in HEK293 Cells. With high purity, high biological activity, high stability, and other superior features, you can use this H11N2 Hemagglutinin/HA protein for relevant bioassay and related research.
Recombinant H7N8 Hemagglutinin/HA Protein (Met1-Arg339) HA1 Subunit 40172-V08H1 with a fusion His Tag, is expressed in HEK293 Cells. With high purity, high biological activity, high stability, and other superior features, you can use this H7N8 Hemagglutinin/HA protein for relevant bioassay and related research.
GPM.1.8.2.0005.15 Determination of anti-A and anti-B haemagglutinins in medicinal products containing human immunoglobulins Ministry of Health of the Russian
Over 22 years ago, the August 1995 issue of the Journal of Virology published a study very similar to the one being discussed today called Selection of a Single Amino Acid Substitution in the Hemagglutinin Molecule by Chicken Eggs Can Render Influenza A Virus (H3) Candidate Vaccine Ineffective. The study essentially concluded that thanks to mutations, (which are extremely common), growing these viruses in mutated eggs should be ended. Thus, it is recommended that in the selection of vaccine candidates, virus populations with the egg-adapted HA Lys-156 substitution be eliminated. Yes, I realize that this is a bit different mutation than the one we were discussing earlier, but the principles are the same. Said mutations caused a vaccine that was described with words such as nonprotective, poorly recognized, and that, egg-grown HA Lys-156 variant induced an AFC profile vastly different from that elicited by the other two reassortant vaccines. With this being the case, why should be be ...
The association between a particular mutation in the HA1 subunit of the influenza virus haemagglutinin, D222G, and severe and fatal disease in cases of influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 in Norway during the 2009 pandemic was investigated using pyrosequencing. The prevalence of the variant among fatal cases was 8/26 and among severe non-fatal cases 5/52. No D222G mutations were found among the 381 mild cases. This difference could not be attributed to sampling differences, such as body location of sampling, or duration of illness. In cases with mutant virus where clinical specimens from different days of illness were available, transition from wild-type to mutant virus was commonly observed (4/5), indicating that the mutant virus emerged sporadically in individual patients. In patients with paired samples from both the upper and lower respiratory tract (n=8), the same viral genotypes were detected in both locations. In most of the D222G cases (11/13), the mutant virus was found as a quasispecies.
mouse Anti-HA, conjugated to DyLight 550 antibodies, anti-HA conjugated to DyLight 550, directly conjugated anti-HA antibody, AS15 2920, Human influenza hemagglutinin (HA) tagged proteins
INFLUENZA HEMAGGLUTININ PROTEINS AND METHODS OF USE THEREOF | TOLL-LIKE RECEPTOR 2 AGONISTS AND VACCINES AND USES THEREOF | Multivalent VLP Conjugates | SALMONELLA CHOLERAESUIS-SALMONELLA TYPHIMURIUM VACCINES | EHRLICHIAL INVASIN FOR IMMUNIZTION, DIAGNOSIS, AND CELL DELIVERY |
The monoclonal anti‐HA Tag antibody, clone HA‐1A1, recognises HA, and HA tagged proteins. Human influenza hemagglutinin (HA) is a
HA Epitope Tag (YPYDVPDYA), 0.1 mg. Human influenza hemagglutinin (HA) is a surface glycoprotein required for the infectivity of the human virus.
HA Epitope Tag (YPYDVPDYA), 0.1 mg. Human influenza hemagglutinin (HA) is a surface glycoprotein required for the infectivity of the human virus.
SWISS-MODEL Template Library (SMTL) entry for 6q18.1. Human antibody H1244 in complex with the influenza hemagglutinin head domain of A/Beijing/262/95(H1N1)
Scientists have developed a universal cure for the flu 2016. The new drug is effective since it destroys the virus proteins, ie hemagglutinin and neuraminidase. American ...
Nishizuka, Y; Tanaka, Y; Sakakura, T; and Kojima, A, Frequent development of ovarian tumors from dysgenetic ovaries of neo- natally thymectomized mice. (1972). Subject Strain Bibliography 1972. 1525 ...
The avian influenza hemagglutinin binds alpha 2-3 sialic acid receptors, while human influenza hemagglutinins bind alpha 2-6 ... and consequently will cause viral pneumonia. There is as yet no human form of H5N1, so all humans who have caught it so far ... mutations in the hemagglutinin gene that cause single amino acid substitutions can significantly alter the ability of viral ...
They bind viral ligands such as hemagglutinins and hemagglutinin neuraminidases, some bacterial ligands and cellular ligands ... As these are stress molecules released by cells upon viral infection, they serve to signal to the NK cell the presence of viral ... MHC class I molecules are the main mechanism by which cells display viral or tumor antigens to cytotoxic T cells. A common ... Matosevic, S (2018). "Viral and Nonviral Engineering of Natural Killer Cells as Emerging Adoptive Cancer Immunotherapies". J ...
... hemagglutinins, viral MeSH D12.776.964.970.880.345.500 - hemagglutinin glycoproteins, influenza virus MeSH D12.776.964.970. ... viral matrix proteins MeSH D12.776.964.970.880.940.580 - gene products, vpu The list continues at List of MeSH codes (D13).. ... viral core proteins MeSH D12.776.964.970.600.850.350 - gene products, gag MeSH D12.776.964.970.600.850.350.325 - fusion ... viral MeSH D12.776.377.715.548.114.254.150 - deltaretrovirus antibodies MeSH D12.776.377.715.548.114.254.150.440 - hiv ...
... hemagglutinins, viral MeSH D23.050.327.461.350 - hn protein MeSH D23.050.327.495 - hepatitis antigens MeSH D23.050.327.495.249 ... viral, tumor MeSH D23.050.285.062.045 - adenovirus e1a proteins MeSH D23.050.285.062.050 - adenovirus e1b proteins MeSH D23.050 ... viral, tumor MeSH D23.050.327.062.045 - adenovirus e1a proteins MeSH D23.050.327.062.050 - adenovirus e1b proteins MeSH D23.050 ...
They bind viral ligands such as hemagglutinins and hemagglutinin neuraminidases, some bacterial ligands and cellular ligands ... As these are stress molecules released by cells upon viral infection, they serve to signal to the NK cell the presence of viral ... Lodoen MB, Lanier LL (2005). "Viral modulation of NK cell immunity". Nature Reviews Microbiology. 3 (1): 59-69. doi:10.1038/ ... Notably, further insights into the biology of adaptive NK cells are hampered by the fact that a direct viral ligand for NKG2C ...
This is because during viral replication, the nucleic acid and viral proteins are not always produced in 1:1 ratio and viral ... "The Single Radial Immunodiffusion Assay Highlights Small Antigenic Differences Among Influenza Virus Hemagglutinins". Journal ... For example, the production of viral vaccines, recombinant proteins using viral vectors and viral antigens all require virus ... PCR amplifies all target nucleic acid, including ones originating from intact infectious viral particles, from defective viral ...
The first three hemagglutinins, H1, H2, and H3, are found in human influenza viruses. By phylogenic similarity, the HA proteins ... Once this has happened, the contents of the virus such as viral RNA are released in the host cell's cytoplasm and then ... Secondly, once bound it facilitates the entry of the viral genome into the target cells by causing the fusion of host endosomal ... Secondarily, HA is responsible for the fusion of the viral envelope with the late endosomal membrane once exposed to low pH ( ...
The first unequivocal evidence of viral replication is the appearance of nascent viral antigen in the nucleus (Fig. 2A). In at ... to remove naturally occurring hemagglutinins) and kaolin (to remove or reduce nonantibody inhibitors of HA). Trypsin also has ... Viral antigen is detected in the cytoplasm of cells soon after infection if the inoculum contains a high titer of virus and ... The viral genome is single-stranded deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) with a molecular weight of 1.4 × 106 (i.e., about 26.5% of the ...
Palese built "the first genetic maps for influenza A, B and C viruses, identified the function of several viral genes, ... ... Protective Monoclonal Antibodies against H3 Influenza Viruses following Sequential Immunization with Different Hemagglutinins ... Zamarin, D.; Ortigoza, M. B.; Palese, P. (2006). "Influenza a Virus PB1-F2 Protein Contributes to Viral Pathogenesis in Mice". ... He has been awarded multiple patents on viral vaccines and antivirals. In high school, Palese had a classical education, in ...
Arnon TI, Lev M, Katz G, Chernobrov Y, Porgador A, Mandelboim O (September 2001). "Recognition of viral hemagglutinins by NKp44 ... All these complexes are needed for the viral RNA replication. Two different sets of proteins are translated from viral mRNAs. ... Defective interfering (DI) genomes or defective viral genomes (DVGs) are replication defective viral RNA products generated ... or the viral ribonucleoproteins, promotes IFN production and response pathways. Viral genomic and protein components can bind ...
A stalk domain connects the head to the viral membrane and is responsible for fusing viral and host membranes so that the ... "A neutralizing antibody selected from plasma cells that binds to group 1 and group 2 influenza A hemagglutinins". Science ... Sitting atop the HA spike is a globular head domain that binds to cellular receptors during viral entry and contains the major ... thereby blocking HA from harpooning a sticky fusion peptide into the host membrane during viral entry. The FI6 provides ...
The research required every year to isolate a potential popular viral strain and create a vaccine to defend against it is a six ... By vaccinating twice with hemagglutinins that have different "heads" but the same membrane-proximal "stalk", the immune system ... Krammer F (May 2017). "Strategies to induce broadly protective antibody responses to viral glycoproteins". Expert Review of ... which mutates less often than the head of the viral HA. By 2010 some universal flu vaccines had started clinical trials. ...
At this point, the viruses have been weakened or killed and the viral antigen is purified and placed inside vials, syringes, or ... May 1993). "A common neutralizing epitope conserved between the hemagglutinins of influenza A virus H1 and H2 strains". Journal ... The vaccine comes in inactive and weakened viral forms. The live, weakened vaccine is generally not recommended in pregnant ... Izzat F (April 2012). "Viral Cultivation in Chicken Embryo". Youtube. Archived from the original on May 26, 2015. "How ...
The avian influenza hemagglutinin binds alpha 2-3 sialic acid receptors, while human influenza hemagglutinins bind alpha 2-6 ... and consequently will cause viral pneumonia.[23] There is as yet no human form of H5N1, so all humans who have caught it so far ... mutations in the hemagglutinin gene that cause single amino acid substitutions can significantly alter the ability of viral ...
Viral" by people in this website by year, and whether "Hemagglutinins, Viral" was a major or minor topic of these publications ... "Hemagglutinins, Viral" is a descriptor in the National Library of Medicines controlled vocabulary thesaurus, MeSH (Medical ... Below are the most recent publications written about "Hemagglutinins, Viral" by people in Profiles. ... Below are MeSH descriptors whose meaning is more general than "Hemagglutinins, Viral". ...
Viral Envelope Proteins / genetics Substances * Amino Acids * Hemagglutinin Glycoproteins, Influenza Virus * Hemagglutinins, ...
Hemagglutinins, Viral / immunology* * Hydrogen-Ion Concentration * Influenza A virus / classification * Influenza A virus / ...
Recognition of viral hemagglutinins by NKp44 but not by NKp30. Eur. J. Immunol. 31, 2680-2689 (2001). ... the density of HA/NA on the viral envelope and viral morphology (Table 1). The oropharynx is usually the first site of ... and these are thought to capture viral particles and thereby restrict viral dissemination63. However, NETosis can also ... Mansfield, K. G. Viral tropism and the pathogenesis of influenza in the mammalian host. Am. J. Pathol. 171, 1089-1092 (2007). ...
0 (Antibodies, Viral); 0 (Hemagglutinins, Viral); 0 (Receptors, Chemokine); 0 (Receptors, G-Protein-Coupled); 0 (Vaccines, ... DNA Viral/qu mica. DNA Viral/isolamento & purifica o. Ectima Contagioso/epidemiologia. Egito/epidemiologia. V rus do Orf/ ... DNA Viral/gen tica. Feminino. Doen as das Cabras/diagn stico. Doen as das Cabras/virologia. Cabras. Infec es por Poxviridae/ ... DNA Viral. Fal ncia Hep tica/sangue. Fal ncia Hep tica/metabolismo. Fal ncia Hep tica/virologia. Doen a Nodular Cut nea/ ...
Hemagglutinins, Viral / chemistry*, physiology*. Humans. Hydrogen-Ion Concentration. Kinetics. Membrane Fusion / physiology*. ... 0/Hemagglutinin Glycoproteins, Influenza Virus; 0/Hemagglutinins, Viral; 73-22-3/Tryptophan ...
Chemicals/CAS: Antibodies, Monoclonal; Antibodies, Viral; Hemagglutinin Glycoproteins, Influenza Virus; Hemagglutinins, Viral; ... Hemagglutinins, Viral · Immunization, Secondary · Immunoglobulin Class Switching · Immunoglobulin E · Immunoglobulin G · ... Viral · Antibody Formation · CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes · Comparative Study · Female · Hemagglutinin Glycoproteins, Influenza ...
Currently 16 different hemagglutinins and 9 neuraminidases have been identified. The majority of these viral subtypes are found ...
Viral hemagglutinins, ?. CD337 (NKp30). pp65, BAT-3, ?. CD352 (NTB-A). CD352 (NTB-A). ... NK cells are a vital arm of innate immunity and participate in surveillance against viral infection and tumor cells.. ... In this manner, NK cells help to monitor for viral infection and tumor cells. ...
Categories: Hemagglutinins, Viral Image Types: Photo, Illustrations, Video, Color, Black&White, PublicDomain, ...
Extensive research has been performed to understand the molecular viral mechanisms involved in the H5N1 pathogenesis in humans ... Arnon, T.I.; Lev, M.; Katz, G.; Chernobrov, Y.; Porgador, A.; Mandelboim, O. Recognition of viral hemagglutinins by nkp44 but ... which allows for subsequent endocytosis of the viral particle. It also mediates fusion of the endosomal and viral membrane ( ... Mok, K.P.; Wong, C.H.; Cheung, C.Y.; Chan, M.C.; Lee, S.M.; Nicholls, J.M.; Guan, Y.; Peiris, J.S. Viral genetic determinants ...
Viral Structural Proteins [D12.776.964.970]. *Viral Envelope Proteins [D12.776.964.970.880]. *Hemagglutinins, Viral [D12.776. ... Influenza Antigen Engineering Focuses Immune Responses to a Subdominant but Broadly Protective Viral Epitope. Cell Host Microbe ...
Recognition of viral hemagglutinins by NKp44 but not by NKp30. Eur. J. Immunol. 31:2680.-2689. ... viral hemagglutinins were recently identified as ligands that bind NKp46 and NKp44 (21, 22), triggering lysis of infected cells ... NK cells play a central role in the innate immune response to viral infection, and many elegant studies have delineated the ... The NKp46 ligand on M. tuberculosis-infected macrophages may be structurally similar to viral hemagglutinin, which binds to ...
Recognition of viral hemagglutinins by NKp44 but not by NKp30. Eur. J. Immunol. 31:2680. ... 3⇓B). Interestingly, cell-free aggregates of KIR2DL1-Ig-coated beads were observed after the viral infection (Fig. 3⇓, C and E ... After incubation for 48 h at 37°C and 16 h at 4°C, ∼8 ml of virus-rich allantoic fluid was removed and checked for viral ... We have previously shown that the binding of NKp46 and NKp44 to class I MHC-negative cells is increased after viral infection, ...
Quantitative Analyses of all Influenza Type A Viral Hemagglutinins and Neuraminidases using Universal Antibodies in Simple Slot ... Using a Pan-Viral Microarray Assay (Virochip) to Screen Clinical Samples for Viral Pathogens, Combining X-Ray Crystallography ... Early Viral Entry Assays for the Identification and Evaluation of Antiviral Compounds, Rescue of Recombinant Newcastle ... Purification and Visualization of Influenza A Viral Ribonucleoprotein Complexes, Phenotyping Mouse Pulmonary Function In Vivo ...
Quantitative Analyses of all Influenza Type A Viral Hemagglutinins and Neuraminidases using Universal Antibodies in Simple Slot ... Using a Pan-Viral Microarray Assay (Virochip) to Screen Clinical Samples for Viral Pathogens, Purification of the Cystic ... Physiological Approaches to Characterize Novel Viral Proteins, Assessment of DNA Contamination in RNA Samples Based on ... Using a Pan-Viral Microarray Assay (Virochip) to Screen Clinical Samples for Viral Pathogens. Eunice C. Chen1, Steve A. Miller1 ...
As the study shows, for bird viruses to infect people, their hemagglutinins must change so that they can attach to the human ... The results reveal that the 1918 viral HA has structural features previously seen primarily in avian influenza viruses. In ... Attachment involves spike-like molecules called hemagglutinins (HA) that project from the viruses and bind to particular ... Bird viruses usually dont infect humans because human and bird virus hemagglutinins interact with different cell receptors. ...
"When bird flu turns into human flu, a viral protein changes its binding specificity from bird to human glycans." ... These included plant lectins and influenza virus hemagglutinins.". The article points out that glycan structure, particularly ... The methodology could be used as a discovery tool in viral recognition. ... his lab will be able to study processes such as fertilization and viral infection, which ultimately can lead to new types of ...
Viral RNA quantification using TaqMan RT-qPCR was performed in BAL. Viral RNA was extracted with QIAamp Viral Mini kit (Qiagen ... Virus and Purified Hemagglutinins. Viruses used were pH1N1 virus (the pandemic swine-origin A/Catalonia/63/2009 H1N1 IV) [ ... However, in contrast with control pigs, 2 out of 4 VIN1-peptide vaccinated pigs showed no or less viral RNA in their BAL (Fig. ... IV hemagglutinin (HA) is a viral surface polypeptide that mediates both, the binding of IV to the host cell surface and the ...
2001) Recognition of viral hemagglutinins by NKp44 but not by NKp30. European Journal of Immunology 31: 2680-2689. ... 2014) Viral MHC class I‐like molecule allows evasion of NK cell effector responses in vivo. Journal of Immunology 193 (12): ... Li Y and Mariuzza RA (2014) Structural basis for recognition of cellular and viral ligands by NK cell receptors. Frontiers in ... viral infection and other pertinent diseases. More understanding of the nature of interaction of NK cell receptors and their ...
As mentioned previously, has hemagglutinin on the viral surface. The viral hemagglutinins have at least 18 types, but these ... but almost every influenza A viral strain can go through these processes that changes the viral RNA. A recent flu epidemic in ... This killed viral preparation is supposed to be about as effective as the IM shot but claims to produce less pain and fewer ... Depending on the viral type, the infections can range from mild influenza to severe respiratory problems or death. Human ...
... influenza vaccines generate an immune response focused disproportionately on viral surface proteins called hemagglutinins. This ... Also, influenza virus hemagglutinins can mutate over time so that previously made antibodies no longer recognize them. ... Evidence from the study of viral genes suggests the 1918 flu virus originated from an avian source and then somehow adapted to ... Likely explanations for the lesser severity of the last three pandemics compared with that of 1918 include lower viral ...
They bind viral ligands such as hemagglutinins and hemagglutinin neuraminidases, some bacterial ligands and cellular ligands ... As these are stress molecules released by cells upon viral infection, they serve to signal to the NK cell the presence of viral ... Lodoen MB, Lanier LL (2005). "Viral modulation of NK cell immunity". Nature Reviews Microbiology. 3 (1): 59-69. doi:10.1038/ ... Notably, further insights into the biology of adaptive NK cells are hampered by the fact that a direct viral ligand for NKG2C ...
Description: Structure and receptor binding preferences of recombinant human A(H3N2) virus hemagglutinins. Class: viral protein ...
Recognition of viral hemagglutinins by NKp44 but not by NKp30. Eur J Immunol. 2001;31:2680-2689. [PubMed] ... Previous studies demonstrated that the direct recognition of tumor cells [21], [43], viral infected cells [17], [43] and beta ... The ligands recognized by these receptors are either induced by stress (ligands for NKG2D, see [11], [16]), are viral proteins ... We have previously showed that NKp46 and NCR1 recognize influenza virus hemagglutinins [17], [21], [43]. To compare the ...
An epitope shared by the hemagglutinins of H1, H2, H5, and H6 subtypes of influenza A virus. Acta Virol. 43, 237-244 (1999).. ... A common neutralizing epitope conserved between the hemagglutinins of influenza A virus H1 and H2 strains. J. Virol. 67, 2552- ... Both the wild-type and the mutant 1918 SC and 2009 CA HAs were able to mediate viral entry into cells comparably with a ... B and C) Comparable activity of 1918 SC and 2009 CA, and glycosylation mutants [1918 (2G) and 2009 (2G)] for viral entry using ...
For example, viral hemagglutinins have been identified as ligands that bind NKp46 and NKp44 (1, 19), while the main tegument ... Viral hemagglutinins (1) and, very recently, heparan sulfate epitope(s) (16) have been described as ligands/coligands of NKp44 ... Recognition of viral hemagglutinins by NKp44 but not by NKp30. Eur. J. Immunol. 31:2680-2689. ...
Molecular analysis of the viral hemagglutinins showed a proteolytic cleavage site of the type found in highly pathogenic avian ... Oligonucleotide mapping of viral ribonucleic acid as an aid in identifying laboratory contaminants of influenza virus. Diagn ... Molecular biologic analysis of viral nucleic acid supports the hypothesis that animals (particularly birds and pigs) may have ...
This study was trying to predict the mutations in H1 hemagglutinins of influenza A virus from North America including the ... nature of viral genome evolution. Nature, 437, 1162-1166. [3] J. C. Obenauer, J. Denson, P. K. Mehta, X. Su, S. Mukatira, D. B ... Figure 2. Evolution of 448 hemagglutinins of North America H1 influenza viruses. The data ...
Learn about the veterinary topic of Duck Viral Hepatitis. Find specific details on this topic and related topics from the Merck ... and they do not produce hemagglutinins. Field experience with DHAV-1 indicates that egg transmission does not occur. The ... Etiology of Duck Viral Hepatitis The originally described, most widespread, and most virulent subtype of duck viral hepatitis, ... Duck viral hepatitis (DVH) is an acute, highly contagious, viral disease typically affecting ducklings less than six weeks of ...
  • The increased binding was functional, was not dependent on the interaction with viral hemagglutinin-neuraminidase, was not dependent on the glycosylation site, and was not abolished after mutating the transmembrane or cytosolic portions of the class I MHC proteins. (jimmunol.org)
  • Our data indicate that NA alone among viral proteins limits influenza A virus superinfection. (asm.org)
  • In addition, the budding virion includes the M1 matrix protein and eight ribonucleoprotein (RNP) complexes, comprising each of the eight RNA segments associated with viral proteins, including the viral nucleocapsid and the three components of the transcriptase complex (PA, PB1, and PB2). (asm.org)
  • Enveloped viruses can prevent the entry of additional virions into infected cells, usually by expressing proteins that interfere with expression of the viral receptor. (asm.org)
  • Within the host cell the genetic material of a DNA virus is replicated and transcribed into messenger RNA by host cell enzymes, and proteins coded for by viral genes are synthesized by host cell ribosomes. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • there may also be a few enzymes or regulatory proteins involved in assembling the capsid around newly synthesized viral nucleic acid, in controlling the biochemical mechanisms of the host cell, and in lysing the host cell when new virions have been assembled. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • In viruses that have membranes, membrane-bound viral proteins are synthesized by the host cell and move, like host cell membrane proteins, to the cell surface. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Some envelope proteins facilitate viral entry into the cell, and others have directly pathogenic effects. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Three viral surface proteins are embedded in the cell-derived virion membrane: HA, neuraminidase (NA) and the M2 proton channel protein. (deepdyve.com)
  • For example, the proportion of hemagglutinins on a virus particle that insert into the cell membrane affects how fast fusion occurs and how sensitive the virus is to attack by host immune-system proteins called antibodies. (elifesciences.org)
  • The influenza hemagglutin (HA) is the best studied and most thoroughly characterized of the viral fusion proteins. (elifesciences.org)
  • Viral Neuraminidase is one of two major glycoproteins found on the surface of influenza viral membranes, the other being hemagglutinin . (proteopedia.org)
  • Like many other viral glycoproteins, the hemagglutinin (HA) of influenza viruses is activated by proteolytic cleavage. (springer.com)
  • Extensive research has been performed to understand the molecular viral mechanisms involved in the H5N1 pathogenesis in humans, providing interesting insights about the virus-host interaction and the regulation of the innate immune response by these highly pathogenic viruses. (mdpi.com)
  • Attachment involves spike-like molecules called hemagglutinins (HA) that project from the viruses and bind to particular receptors on the surface of cells in the body. (nationalgeographic.com)
  • The results reveal that the 1918 viral HA has structural features previously seen primarily in avian influenza viruses. (nationalgeographic.com)
  • Bird viruses usually don't infect humans because human and bird virus hemagglutinins interact with different cell receptors. (nationalgeographic.com)
  • As the study shows, for bird viruses to infect people, their hemagglutinins must change so that they can attach to the human receptors in the cell. (nationalgeographic.com)
  • Likely explanations for the lesser severity of the last three pandemics compared with that of 1918 include lower viral pathogenicity, partial preexisting immunity to the new viruses and improvements in public health infrastructure and medical treatment. (scientificamerican.com)
  • Molecular biologic analysis of viral nucleic acid supports the hypothesis that animals (particularly birds and pigs) may have been the source for (and possibly are a continuing reservoir of) the hemagglutinin and other genes found in viruses from the above pandemics (16) . (cdc.gov)
  • Here, with a focus on influenza A viruses (IAVs), we first review experimental studies that have shed light on the mechanisms and spatial dynamics of viral spread within hosts. (mdpi.com)
  • In the case of epidemic pathogens, both surveillance data and viral genetic data often point to the occurrence of spatial spread, for example, in seasonal epidemics of influenza viruses in the U.S. [ 3 , 4 ]. (mdpi.com)
  • These mechanisms may be of particular importance for the evolution of segmented viruses, because superinfection exclusion may limit the frequency of reassortment of viral genes. (asm.org)
  • The RBS is a key functional site on flu viruses and is relatively exposed to the immune system compared to other viral regions. (infectioncontroltoday.com)
  • The importance of viral receptor-binding hemagglutinins and host sialic acid distribution in species-restricted binding of viruses is underscored. (springer.com)
  • These results suggest that this unique, highly-conserved linear sequence in viral hemagglutinin is exposed sufficiently to be attacked by the antibodies during the course of infection and merits further investigation because of potential importance in the protection against diverse strains of influenza viruses. (nih.gov)
  • Interestingly, these H5 viruses, with increased affinity to α2,6 SA, emerged during viral diversification in bird populations and subsequently spread to humans. (nih.gov)
  • Effect of HA mutations in sublineage BII viruses on receptor specificity of EG/D1 HA.The mutations found in sublineage BΙΙ viral HAs were introduced as single and multiple mutations into the HA of EG/D1 virus. (nih.gov)
  • These data demonstrate that the viral pseudotype system is a powerful method for serological surveillance of a wide range of influenza viruses. (omicsonline.org)
  • The antigenicity of the hemagglutinins (HA) of five influenza viruses of the A0 and A1 subtypes has been analyzed by means of monoclonal antibodies of murine origin produced in vitro. (rupress.org)
  • When a complete virus particle ( virion ) comes in contact with a host cell, only the viral nucleic acid and, in some viruses, a few enzymes are injected into the host cell. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Because host cells do not have the ability to replicate "viral RNA" but are able to transcribe messenger RNA, RNA viruses must contain enzymes to produce genetic material for new virions. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • For certain viruses the RNA is replicated by a viral enzyme ( transcriptase ) contained in the virion, or produced by the host cell using the viral RNA as a messenger. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • In other viruses a reverse transcriptase contained in the virion transcribes the genetic message on the viral RNA into DNA, which is then replicated by the host cell. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • The drop in pH changes the shape of the viral hemagglutinin, thereby allowing the virus to fuse to the cell and open an entry for the virus' RNA to come in and start making fresh viruses. (phys.org)
  • Specifically, viruses that have hemagglutinins of the H2 subtype are responsible for the deadly pandemic of 1957 and continued to circulate until 1968. (phys.org)
  • anti-viral drug discovery, influenza-virus hemagglutinin, ligand-protein interaction, STD-NMR spectroscopy, transfected cells Introduction Influenza viruses are important respiratory pathogens causing significant morbidity, mortality and considerable economic losses in the recurrent yearly epidemics and much more devastatingly in the sporadic pandemic spreads. (deepdyve.com)
  • We compared the viral hemagglutinin, phosphoprotein, and fusion (F) and matrix (M) protein gene sequences with those of viruses from the 1988 and 2002 PDV epizootics. (qub.ac.uk)
  • The mammalian influenza viruses, including the human ones, resemble the apathogenic avian strains in possessing also hemagglutinins of restricted cleavability and in causing usually local infection of the respiratory tract. (springer.com)
  • For the natural cytotoxicity receptors, viral hemagglutinins were recently identified as ligands that bind NKp46 and NKp44 ( 21 , 22 ), triggering lysis of infected cells. (jimmunol.org)
  • We have recently demonstrated that the viral hemagglutinin (HA) 3 protein of influenza virus and the HA-neuraminidase (HN) protein of Sendai virus (SV) can interact with both the NKp44 and NKp46 receptors and that this interaction leads to increased killing that can overcome the class I MHC-mediated inhibition ( 4 , 5 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • These regions confer specificity to different receptors and this specific interaction is the major determinant of the tropism of retroviruses as cells lacking the receptor are nonpermissive for viral entry. (hubpages.com)
  • Retrovirus infection is initiated by the binding of the surface (SU) portion of the viral envelope glycoprotein to specific cellular receptors expressed on the cell surface. (hubpages.com)
  • Neuraminidase is a viral enzyme that cleaves the neuraminic acid component of sialic acid in the respiratory epithelial cell hemagglutinin receptors. (cmaj.ca)
  • The majority of these viral subtypes are found in waterfowl, with only a few combinations being found in humans and swine. (usda.gov)
  • Although the virus was not as pathogenic to humans as expected, severe disease cases associated with pH1N1 have been more recently reported in England ( http://www.who.int/influenza/surveillance_monitoring/updates/2010_12_30_GIP_surveillance/en/ ). (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Evidence from the study of viral genes suggests the 1918 flu virus originated from an avian source and then somehow adapted to circulate efficiently in humans. (scientificamerican.com)
  • When bird flu turns into human flu, a viral protein changes its binding specificity from bird to human glycans. (phys.org)
  • Known as the "receptor binding site" (RBS), this viral site is located on the heads of viral hemagglutinins, spiky structures of sugar and protein that coat the viral envelope. (infectioncontroltoday.com)
  • The matrix protein layer encloses the viral genome that is composed of eight segments of nucleoprotein-enwrapped single-stranded RNA in the negative sense. (springer.com)
  • Certain parts of the fast-evolving viral protein hemagglutinin are unusually tolerant of change, Bloom and Bargavi Thyagarajan, who was a postdoctoral researcher in Bloom's lab, reported in 2014 in eLife. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Viral protein purified from 293 cell culture. (mybiosource.com)
  • The entry of measles virus (MV) into human cells is mediated by the initial attachment of the viral hemagglutinin (HA) to the complement regulatory protein CD46. (elsevier.com)
  • With use of x-ray data from the protein data bank (PDB), these two metrics are shown to highlight, in a manner different from before, the structural changes that are induced in the overall domains as well as in the H3 loops of the complementarity-determining regions (CDR) upon FAB antibody binding to a truncated and to a synthetic hemagglutinin viral antigenic target. (nih.gov)
  • Capripoxviruses (CaPVs) have been shown to be ideal viral vectors for the development of recombinant multivalent vaccines to enable delivery of immunogenic genes from ruminant pathogens. (bireme.br)
  • This membrane fusion step releases all eight segments of the RNA genome into the nucleus where the initiation of transcription of viral genes and the later viral replication takes place. (springer.com)
  • Using vaccinia virus (VACV), which has been used as the vaccine to rid the world of smallpox and is proposed as a vector for many other vaccines, we show that DP is the main mechanism for the priming of an anti-viral T CD8+ response. (prolekare.cz)
  • These findings provide important insights to our understanding of how one of the most effective anti-viral vaccines induces immunity and should contribute to the development of novel vaccines. (prolekare.cz)
  • We previously reported that antibodies targeting the first 14 amino acids of the N-terminus of the fusion peptide could bind to virtually all influenza virus strains and quantify hemagglutinins in vaccines produced in embryonated eggs. (nih.gov)
  • DNA vaccines expressing plasma membrane and secreted forms of the influenza and measles virus hemagglutinins (HAs) have been used to evaluate the effect of secretion on DNA-raised antibody responses. (umassmed.edu)
  • The SU portion of the viral glycoprotein harbors the determinants of the specificity of the virus for its cognate cellular receptor and therefore is vital to viral tropism. (hubpages.com)
  • It has specificity for VIRAL HEMAGGLUTININS that are expressed on infected cells. (umassmed.edu)
  • Germinal center (GC) B cells at viral replication sites acquire specificity to poorly immunogenic but conserved influenza hemagglutinin (HA) epitopes. (nature.com)
  • In pathological condition, some strategies have been developed to tilt the balance of NK cell receptor signalling, which are involved in the onset and progress of malignant tumour, viral infection and other pertinent diseases. (els.net)
  • Therapeutic strategies targeting regulation of NK cell receptor and ligand system have shown great promise for treatment of cancer and viral infectious diseases. (els.net)
  • A change in receptor binding affinity of the viral hemagglutinin (HA) from α2,3- to α2,6-linked sialic acid (SA) is thought to be necessary for H5N1 virus to become pandemic. (nih.gov)
  • Varghese JN, McKimm-Breschkin JL, Caldwell JB, Kortt AA, Colman PM. The structure of the complex between influenza virus neuraminidase and sialic acid, the viral receptor. (proteopedia.org)
  • Structure and receptor binding preferences of recombinant hemagglutinins from avian and human H6 and H10 influenza A virus subtypes. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • DNA immunization: effect of secretion of DNA-expressed hemagglutinins " by Celia Aurora Tiglao Torres, Kejian Yang et al. (umassmed.edu)
  • Events triggered by viral infection of the airway epithelial compartment (left) and of the alveolar epithelial compartment that constitute the lung parenchyma (right). (nature.com)
  • Viral infection of both types of epithelial compartments triggers the release of inflammatory cytokines. (nature.com)
  • NK cells are a vital arm of innate immunity and participate in surveillance against viral infection and tumor cells. (biolegend.com)
  • In this manner, NK cells help to monitor for viral infection and tumor cells. (biolegend.com)
  • In the last decades, several cases of human infection with the highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (HPAIV) H5N1 have been reported by the World Health Organization http://www.who.int/influenza/human_animal_interface/avian_influenza/en/ ). (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Sion ML, Hatzitolios AI, Toulis EN, Mikoudi KD, Ziakas GN (2001) Toxic shock syndrome complicating influenza A infection: A two-case report with one case of bacteremia and endocarditis. (springer.com)
  • NK cells also mediate anti-viral protection, in particular against cytomegalovirus (CMV), an infection that causes significant morbidity and mortality following transplant. (jcancer.org)
  • By monitoring B cell responses targeting conserved HA epitopes in mice, we previously demonstrated that influenza virus infection induces ectopic formation of lung GCs at the viral replication site, where cross-reactive B cells are selected at increased frequencies 12 . (nature.com)
  • In response to influenza virus infection of A549 cells, oligonol treatment significantly up-regulated SIRT1 expression and down-regulated viral hemagglutinin expression. (bvsalud.org)
  • Between December 2014 and June 2015, North America experienced the largest recorded foreign animal disease outbreak with over 47 million poultry dead or euthanized from viral exposure to a clade 2.3.4.4 H5 highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) epizootic. (usda.gov)
  • We surveyed the genetic diversity among avian influenza virus (AIV) in wild birds, comprising 167 complete viral genomes from 14 bird species sampled in four locations across the United States. (nyu.edu)
  • The SU portion of the glycoprotein is entirely located on the outside of the viral membrane. (hubpages.com)
  • The low pH of the endosome induces conformational changes in HA that promote mixing of viral and endosomal lipids, membrane fusion, and entry of the RNP complexes ( 3 , 44 , 55 ). (asm.org)
  • The fusion peptide of influenza viral hemagglutinin plays a critical role in virus entry by facilitating membrane fusion between the virus and target cells. (nih.gov)
  • When the influenza virus infects a host cell, it attaches itself to the host via hemagglutinin interactions with host glycans, facilitating the fusion of host endosomal membrane with the viral membrane. (proteopedia.org)
  • Gene gun delivery resulted in predominantly IgG1 antibody responses for both secreted and membrane bound forms of the hemagglutinins. (umassmed.edu)
  • The membrane envelope forms a barrier inside of which are the viral components protected from the environment when the virus particle is in circulation. (springer.com)
  • The fourth step is to fuse the viral membrane with the host membrane that forms the endosome, which is mediated by the HA glycoprotein embedded in the virus surface. (springer.com)
  • During this process, hemagglutinin molecules insert into the target cell membrane to bring together the viral and cellular membranes. (elifesciences.org)
  • Therefore, an ability to control how often hemagglutinins insert into the membrane could allow the virus to adapt to host immune responses. (elifesciences.org)
  • Inhibitors of influenza virus neuraminidase, an enzyme that releases viral particles from the plasma membrane of infected cells, reduce release of the virus and its spread. (medscape.com)
  • The TM subunit functions to anchor the complex into the viral envelope and is critical for fusion between cellular and viral membranes. (hubpages.com)
  • Here we demonstrate that these universal antibodies bind to the viral hemagglutinins in native conformation presented in infected mammalian cell cultures and neutralize multiple subtypes of virus by inhibiting the pH-dependant fusion of viral and cellular membranes. (nih.gov)
  • The resulting acidification of the virus is necessary for viral uncoating, another essential step in viral replication. (cmaj.ca)
  • This prevents neuraminidase from cleaving the hemmaglutinin-glycan tethers and releasing the viral cargo after viral replication. (proteopedia.org)
  • 1998 ). The outcome of the influenza virus entry into the host cell is to release the eight viral genome segments into the nucleus to initiate virus transcription and replication. (springer.com)
  • A distinct feature of this epitope is an occlusion in the naive trimeric HA structure that is exposed in the post-fusion HA structure to occur under low pH conditions during viral replication. (nature.com)
  • Our results identify a class of cross-protective antibodies that are selected at the viral replication site, and provide insights into vaccine strategies using the occluded epitope. (nature.com)
  • Hence, while CP in the absence of DP has been clearly demonstrated, induction of an anti-viral T CD8+ response that excludes CP has never been purposely shown. (prolekare.cz)
  • Several years ago we showed that when a virus cannot infect BMD APC, CP can still prime anti-viral T CD8+ [6] . (prolekare.cz)
  • This most likely resulted from the difficulty in establishing appropriate experimental models that can exclude CP during an anti-viral response while maintaining similar levels of peptide-MHC complexes at the cell surface. (prolekare.cz)
  • 2014). Unfortunately they suffer from subtype-dependent anti-viral activity and a low barrier for resistance selection (Tang et al. (deepdyve.com)
  • NK cell anti-viral functions were preserved in GZ patients. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Currently 16 different hemagglutinins and 9 neuraminidases have been identified. (usda.gov)
  • They bind viral ligands such as hemagglutinins and hemagglutinin neuraminidases, some bacterial ligands and cellular ligands related with tumour growth such as PCNA . (wikipedia.org)
  • Li C, Jaentschke B, Song Y, Wang J,Cyr TD, Van Domselaar G, He R, Li X (2009) A simple slot blot for the detection of virtually all subtypes of the influenza A viral hemagglutinins using universal antibodies targeting the fusion peptide. (umanitoba.ca)
  • Chun S, Li C, Van Domselaar G, Wang J, Farnsworth A , Cui X, Rode H, . Cyr TD, He R. and Li X. (2008) Universal antibodies and their applications to the quantitative determination of virtually all subtypes of the influenza A viral hemagglutinins. (umanitoba.ca)
  • a 16 amino acid sequence at the C-terminal end that is cleaved off by the viral protease (PR) after the virion has been released from the cell. (hubpages.com)
  • These drugs may be of great value in the event of a major viral antigenic shift that causes pandemic influenza, if an adequate supply can be sustained. (cmaj.ca)
  • HA is an antigenic glycoprotein, like all other hemagglutinins, it causes red blood cells to agglutinate. (mybiosource.com)
  • Our results also showed some mutation position residing outside the previously reported antigenic site that may involve in an alteration of the viral antigenicity. (biomedcentral.com)
  • However, it will not have an immediate impact on the situation currently unfolding in the Far East with the chicken flu known as H5, since, from our previous work, we know that the 1918 and the H5 hemagglutinins are quite different. (nationalgeographic.com)
  • Collectively, these findings define critical determinants of H1N1 viral evolution and have implications for vaccine design. (sciencemag.org)
  • In this paper, we generated influenza virus vaccine constructs that express chimeric hemagglutinins consisting of exotic, avian head domains and a consistent stalk domain of a seasonal virus. (mdpi.com)
  • M2 proton channel maintains pH across the viral envelope during cell entry and viral maturation. (deepdyve.com)
  • A new recombinant CaPV expressing the viral attachment hemagglutinin (H) of the PPR virus (PPRV) in the GPCR insertion site (rKS1-HPPR-GPCR) was generated in the backbone North African isolate KS1 strain of lumpy skin disease virus (LSDV). (bireme.br)
  • These included plant lectins and influenza virus hemagglutinins. (phys.org)
  • An acute febrile, contagious, viral disease of birds caused by an AVULAVIRUS called NEWCASTLE DISEASE VIRUS. (curehunter.com)
  • The originally described, most widespread, and most virulent subtype of duck viral hepatitis, traditionally referred to as DVH Type I, has been renamed duck hepatitis A virus type 1 (DHAV-1) and is now classified in the genus Avihepatovirus in the Picornaviridae family. (merckvetmanual.com)
  • Together they form a knob or knobbed spike on the surface of the virus and both are required for viral entry. (hubpages.com)
  • Almost uniquely among broadly neutralizing antibodies against influenza A, it specifically recognizes and blocks the part of the flu virus that mediates viral attachment to host cells. (infectioncontroltoday.com)
  • After the virus has successfully infected the host and replicated extensively, the viral cargo is released from the cell via budding. (proteopedia.org)
  • We conclude that viral HA can be used in conjunction with cell surface and intracytoplasmic stains in multicolor flow cytometry to provide detailed phenotypic and functional information on virus HA-specific B cells. (elsevier.com)
  • Some of these may already have been present within the initial virus, and others may be coded for by the viral genome for production within the host cell. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • H stands for hemagglutinins, which are the molecules on the flu virus that enable it to invade the cells of respiratory passages. (phys.org)
  • Both groups showed a reduction in viral titers in the upper respiratory tract after the A(H1N1)pdm09 virus challenge. (mdpi.com)
  • en] With improved measles virus (MV) control, the genetic variability of the MV-nucleoprotein hypervariable region (NP-HVR) decreases. (uni.lu)
  • Influenza A virus mRNAs are transcribed by the viral RNA-dependent RNA polymerase in the cell nucleus before being exported to the cytoplasm for translation. (hw.ac.uk)
  • Rabbit viral haemorrhagic disease [RVHD] is a highly contagious, peracute and acute viral disease of both wild and domestic rabbits caused by rabbit haemorrhagic disease virus [RHDV]. (bvsalud.org)
  • Wilson's laboratory specializes in the use of X-ray crystallography and other techniques to determine precisely where and how such antibodies bind to their viral targets. (infectioncontroltoday.com)
  • Antibody breadth or cross-reactivity is achieved by two different pathways: germline-encoded cross-reactivity for variable viral epitopes or somatic evolution in germinal centers (GCs) for conserved viral epitopes 2 . (nature.com)
  • Protective cross-reactivity is also acquired by targeting conserved viral epitopes that are often immunosubdominant and poorly immunogenic. (nature.com)
  • Influenza Antigen Engineering Focuses Immune Responses to a Subdominant but Broadly Protective Viral Epitope. (harvard.edu)
  • Such pseudotypes represent powerful and safe tools to study viral entry and immune responses. (omicsonline.org)
  • Inhibition of influenza viral glycoprotein synthesis by sugars. (elsevier.com)
  • Both the SU and TM domains are encoded by the viral env gene and are translated from spliced mRNA as a single polyprotein precursor that must be proteolytically cleaved by host proteases during transport to the cell surface. (hubpages.com)
  • Hence, T CD8+ play an essential role in the clearance of many primary viral infections. (prolekare.cz)
  • The main reason for this ongoing discussion is a dearth of direct data supporting DP or CP as the main mechanism of T CD8+ priming in viral infections [15] . (prolekare.cz)
  • preventing the viral particle from being released from the infected cell, thus limiting the severity and spread of viral infections . (proteopedia.org)
  • Hemagglutinins, Viral" is a descriptor in the National Library of Medicine's controlled vocabulary thesaurus, MeSH (Medical Subject Headings) . (childrensmercy.org)
  • Duck viral hepatitis (DVH) is an acute, highly contagious, viral disease typically affecting ducklings less than six weeks of age. (merckvetmanual.com)
  • Once the viral particle is formed, Neuraminidase cleaves the terminal sialic (neuraminic) acid residues from the glycan structures on the surface of the infected cell, breaking the hemmaglutinin-glycan interaction and promoting release of the viral particle to infect other cells. (proteopedia.org)
  • Highly immunogenic influenza hemagglutinins are urgently required to meet these pre-conditions. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Thus, we propose that NS1 facilitates late viral gene expression by acting as an adaptor between viral mRNAs and the cellular nuclear export machinery to promote their nuclear export. (hw.ac.uk)
  • Both HA-mediated entry and viral superinfection were rescued by the neuraminidase inhibitors oseltamivir carboxylate and zanamivir. (asm.org)
  • The second class of agents consists of the viral neuraminidase inhibitors (NAIs), zanamivir (Relenza) and oseltamivir (Tamiflu). (cmaj.ca)
  • The antigenicity of the viral hemagglutinin. (rupress.org)
  • Considering the RNA nature of the influenza viral genome, a mutation in hemagglutinin (HA) gene which led to change in antigenicity of the strains circulating during those epidemic periods is anticipated. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The spread of viral pathogens both between and within hosts is inherently a spatial process. (mdpi.com)
  • The lethality of this disease may reflect systemic viral dissemination, cytokine storm, or alveolar flooding due to inhibition of cellular sodium channels. (hkmj.org)
  • Duck viral hepatitis is an acute infectious disease affecting young ducklings. (merckvetmanual.com)