Hemagglutinin Glycoproteins, Influenza Virus
Membrane glycoproteins from influenza viruses which are involved in hemagglutination, virus attachment, and envelope fusion. Fourteen distinct subtypes of HA glycoproteins and nine of NA glycoproteins have been identified from INFLUENZA A VIRUS; no subtypes have been identified for Influenza B or Influenza C viruses.
Influenza A virus
The type species of the genus INFLUENZAVIRUS A that causes influenza and other diseases in humans and animals. Antigenic variation occurs frequently between strains, allowing classification into subtypes and variants. Transmission is usually by aerosol (human and most non-aquatic hosts) or waterborne (ducks). Infected birds shed the virus in their saliva, nasal secretions, and feces.
Hemagglutination Inhibition Tests
Influenza A Virus, H5N1 Subtype
A subtype of INFLUENZA A VIRUS comprised of the surface proteins hemagglutinin 5 and neuraminidase 1. The H5N1 subtype, frequently referred to as the bird flu virus, is endemic in wild birds and very contagious among both domestic (POULTRY) and wild birds. It does not usually infect humans, but some cases have been reported.
Vaccines used to prevent infection by viruses in the family ORTHOMYXOVIRIDAE. It includes both killed and attenuated vaccines. The composition of the vaccines is changed each year in response to antigenic shifts and changes in prevalence of influenza virus strains. The vaccine is usually bivalent or trivalent, containing one or two INFLUENZAVIRUS A strains and one INFLUENZAVIRUS B strain.
Influenza A Virus, H3N2 Subtype
Influenza in Birds
Influenza A Virus, H1N1 Subtype
Molecular Sequence Data
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
Influenza B virus
Species of the genus INFLUENZAVIRUS B that cause HUMAN INFLUENZA and other diseases primarily in humans. Antigenic variation is less extensive than in type A viruses (INFLUENZA A VIRUS) and consequently there is no basis for distinct subtypes or variants. Epidemics are less likely than with INFLUENZA A VIRUS and there have been no pandemics. Previously only found in humans, Influenza B virus has been isolated from seals which may constitute the animal reservoir from which humans are exposed.
Amino Acid Sequence
Viral Fusion Proteins
Influenza A Virus, H2N2 Subtype
Madin Darby Canine Kidney Cells
Influenza A Virus, H9N2 Subtype
Influenza A Virus, H7N7 Subtype
Change in the surface ANTIGEN of a microorganism. There are two different types. One is a phenomenon, especially associated with INFLUENZA VIRUSES, where they undergo spontaneous variation both as slow antigenic drift and sudden emergence of new strains (antigenic shift). The second type is when certain PARASITES, especially trypanosomes, PLASMODIUM, and BORRELIA, survive the immune response of the host by changing the surface coat (antigen switching). (From Herbert et al., The Dictionary of Immunology, 4th ed)
Influenza A Virus, H3N8 Subtype
The measurement of infection-blocking titer of ANTISERA by testing a series of dilutions for a given virus-antiserum interaction end-point, which is generally the dilution at which tissue cultures inoculated with the serum-virus mixtures demonstrate cytopathology (CPE) or the dilution at which 50% of test animals injected with serum-virus mixtures show infectivity (ID50) or die (LD50).
Influenza A Virus, H5N2 Subtype
Distemper Virus, Canine
Virulence Factors, Bordetella
A set of BACTERIAL ADHESINS and TOXINS, BIOLOGICAL produced by BORDETELLA organisms that determine the pathogenesis of BORDETELLA INFECTIONS, such as WHOOPING COUGH. They include filamentous hemagglutinin; FIMBRIAE PROTEINS; pertactin; PERTUSSIS TOXIN; ADENYLATE CYCLASE TOXIN; dermonecrotic toxin; tracheal cytotoxin; Bordetella LIPOPOLYSACCHARIDES; and tracheal colonization factor.
The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).
Proteins that share the common characteristic of binding to carbohydrates. Some ANTIBODIES and carbohydrate-metabolizing proteins (ENZYMES) also bind to carbohydrates, however they are not considered lectins. PLANT LECTINS are carbohydrate-binding proteins that have been primarily identified by their hemagglutinating activity (HEMAGGLUTININS). However, a variety of lectins occur in animal species where they serve diverse array of functions through specific carbohydrate recognition.
Amino Acid Substitution
The naturally occurring or experimentally induced replacement of one or more AMINO ACIDS in a protein with another. If a functionally equivalent amino acid is substituted, the protein may retain wild-type activity. Substitution may also diminish, enhance, or eliminate protein function. Experimentally induced substitution is often used to study enzyme activities and binding site properties.
Viral Envelope Proteins
Layers of protein which surround the capsid in animal viruses with tubular nucleocapsids. The envelope consists of an inner layer of lipids and virus specified proteins also called membrane or matrix proteins. The outer layer consists of one or more types of morphological subunits called peplomers which project from the viral envelope; this layer always consists of glycoproteins.
Viral Matrix Proteins
Thin, hairlike appendages, 1 to 20 microns in length and often occurring in large numbers, present on the cells of gram-negative bacteria, particularly Enterobacteriaceae and Neisseria. Unlike flagella, they do not possess motility, but being protein (pilin) in nature, they possess antigenic and hemagglutinating properties. They are of medical importance because some fimbriae mediate the attachment of bacteria to cells via adhesins (ADHESINS, BACTERIAL). Bacterial fimbriae refer to common pili, to be distinguished from the preferred use of "pili", which is confined to sex pili (PILI, SEX).
Influenza A Virus, H7N9 Subtype
A live attenuated virus vaccine of chick embryo origin, used for routine immunization of children and for immunization of adolescents and adults who have not had measles or been immunized with live measles vaccine and have no serum antibodies against measles. Children are usually immunized with measles-mumps-rubella combination vaccine. (From Dorland, 28th ed)
Deliberate stimulation of the host's immune response. ACTIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of ANTIGENS or IMMUNOLOGIC ADJUVANTS. PASSIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of IMMUNE SERA or LYMPHOCYTES or their extracts (e.g., transfer factor, immune RNA) or transplantation of immunocompetent cell producing tissue (thymus or bone marrow).
A name for several highly contagious viral diseases of animals, especially canine distemper. In dogs, it is caused by the canine distemper virus (DISTEMPER VIRUS, CANINE). It is characterized by a diphasic fever, leukopenia, gastrointestinal and respiratory inflammation and sometimes, neurologic complications. In cats it is known as FELINE PANLEUKOPENIA.
Newcastle disease virus
The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.
Influenza A Virus, H7N2 Subtype
Sequence Analysis, DNA
DNA molecules capable of autonomous replication within a host cell and into which other DNA sequences can be inserted and thus amplified. Many are derived from PLASMIDS; BACTERIOPHAGES; or VIRUSES. They are used for transporting foreign genes into recipient cells. Genetic vectors possess a functional replicator site and contain GENETIC MARKERS to facilitate their selective recognition.
Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay
An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed.
Recombinant DNA vectors encoding antigens administered for the prevention or treatment of disease. The host cells take up the DNA, express the antigen, and present it to the immune system in a manner similar to that which would occur during natural infection. This induces humoral and cellular immune responses against the encoded antigens. The vector is called naked DNA because there is no need for complex formulations or delivery agents; the plasmid is injected in saline or other buffers.
Viral Plaque Assay
Method for measuring viral infectivity and multiplication in CULTURED CELLS. Clear lysed areas or plaques develop as the VIRAL PARTICLES are released from the infected cells during incubation. With some VIRUSES, the cells are killed by a cytopathic effect; with others, the infected cells are not killed but can be detected by their hemadsorptive ability. Sometimes the plaque cells contain VIRAL ANTIGENS which can be measured by IMMUNOFLUORESCENCE.
Adhesins, Escherichia coli
Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).
Microscopy using an electron beam, instead of light, to visualize the sample, thereby allowing much greater magnification. The interactions of ELECTRONS with specimens are used to provide information about the fine structure of that specimen. In TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen are imaged. In SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY an electron beam falls at a non-normal angle on the specimen and the image is derived from the reactions occurring above the plane of the specimen.
Recombinant Fusion Proteins
Electrophoresis, Polyacrylamide Gel
Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.
Substances that augment, stimulate, activate, potentiate, or modulate the immune response at either the cellular or humoral level. The classical agents (Freund's adjuvant, BCG, Corynebacterium parvum, et al.) contain bacterial antigens. Some are endogenous (e.g., histamine, interferon, transfer factor, tuftsin, interleukin-1). Their mode of action is either non-specific, resulting in increased immune responsiveness to a wide variety of antigens, or antigen-specific, i.e., affecting a restricted type of immune response to a narrow group of antigens. The therapeutic efficacy of many biological response modifiers is related to their antigen-specific immunoadjuvanticity.
Protein Structure, Tertiary
The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.
Protein Processing, Post-Translational
Any of various enzymatically catalyzed post-translational modifications of PEPTIDES or PROTEINS in the cell of origin. These modifications include carboxylation; HYDROXYLATION; ACETYLATION; PHOSPHORYLATION; METHYLATION; GLYCOSYLATION; ubiquitination; oxidation; proteolysis; and crosslinking and result in changes in molecular weight and electrophoretic motility.
A species of anaerobic, gram-positive, rod-shaped bacteria in the family Clostridiaceae that produces proteins with characteristic neurotoxicity. It is the etiologic agent of BOTULISM in humans, wild fowl, HORSES; and CATTLE. Seven subtypes (sometimes called antigenic types, or strains) exist, each producing a different botulinum toxin (BOTULINUM TOXINS). The organism and its spores are widely distributed in nature.
An antiviral that is used in the prophylactic or symptomatic treatment of influenza A. It is also used as an antiparkinsonian agent, to treat extrapyramidal reactions, and for postherpetic neuralgia. The mechanisms of its effects in movement disorders are not well understood but probably reflect an increase in synthesis and release of dopamine, with perhaps some inhibition of dopamine uptake.
A dilated cavity extended caudally from the hindgut. In adult birds, reptiles, amphibians, and many fishes but few mammals, cloaca is a common chamber into which the digestive, urinary and reproductive tracts discharge their contents. In most mammals, cloaca gives rise to LARGE INTESTINE; URINARY BLADDER; and GENITALIA.
Fluorescent Antibody Technique
Test for tissue antigen using either a direct method, by conjugation of antibody with fluorescent dye (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, DIRECT) or an indirect method, by formation of antigen-antibody complex which is then labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, INDIRECT). The tissue is then examined by fluorescence microscopy.
Influenza A Virus, H1N2 Subtype
Sequence Homology, Amino Acid
Agents used in the prophylaxis or therapy of VIRUS DISEASES. Some of the ways they may act include preventing viral replication by inhibiting viral DNA polymerase; binding to specific cell-surface receptors and inhibiting viral penetration or uncoating; inhibiting viral protein synthesis; or blocking late stages of virus assembly.
The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.
Vaccines, Virus-Like Particle
A new member of the Sin3 family of corepressors is essential for cell viability and required for retroelement propagation in fission yeast. (1/1495)Tf1 is a long terminal repeat (LTR)-containing retrotransposon that propagates within the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe. LTR-retrotransposons possess significant similarity to retroviruses and therefore serve as retrovirus models. To determine what features of the host cell are important for the proliferation of this class of retroelements, we screened for mutations in host genes that reduced the transposition activity of Tf1. We report here the isolation and characterization of pst1(+), a gene required for Tf1 transposition. The predicted amino acid sequence of Pst1p possessed high sequence homology with the Sin3 family of proteins, known for their interaction with histone deacetylases. However, unlike the SIN3 gene of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, pst1(+) is essential for cell viability. Immunofluorescence microscopy indicated that Pst1p was localized in the nucleus. Consistent with the critical role previously reported for Sin3 proteins in the histone acetylation process, we found that the growth of the strain with the pst1-1 allele was supersensitive to the specific histone deacetylase inhibitor trichostatin A. However, our analysis of strains with the pst1-1 mutation was unable to detect any changes in the acetylation of specific lysines of histones H3 and H4 as measured in bulk chromatin. Interestingly, the pst1-1 mutant strain produced wild-type levels of Tf1-encoded proteins and cDNA, indicating that the defect in transposition occurred after reverse transcription. The results of immunofluorescence microscopy showed that the nuclear localization of the Tf1 capsid protein was disrupted in the strain with the pst1-1 mutation, indicating an important role of pst1(+) in modulating the nuclear import of Tf1 virus-like particles. (+info)
Role of antibodies against Bordetella pertussis virulence factors in adherence of Bordetella pertussis and Bordetella parapertussis to human bronchial epithelial cells. (2/1495)Immunization with whole-cell pertussis vaccines (WCV) containing heat-killed Bordetella pertussis cells and with acellular vaccines containing genetically or chemically detoxified pertussis toxin (PT) in combination with filamentous hemagglutinin (FHA), pertactin (Prn), or fimbriae confers protection in humans and animals against B. pertussis infection. In an earlier study we demonstrated that FHA is involved in the adherence of these bacteria to human bronchial epithelial cells. In the present study we investigated whether mouse antibodies directed against B. pertussis FHA, PTg, Prn, and fimbriae, or against two other surface molecules, lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and the 40-kDa outer membrane porin protein (OMP), that are not involved in bacterial adherence, were able to block adherence of B. pertussis and B. parapertussis to human bronchial epithelial cells. All antibodies studied inhibited the adherence of B. pertussis to these epithelial cells and were equally effective in this respect. Only antibodies against LPS and 40-kDa OMP affected the adherence of B. parapertussis to epithelial cells. We conclude that antibodies which recognize surface structures on B. pertussis or on B. parapertussis can inhibit adherence of the bacteria to bronchial epithelial cells, irrespective whether these structures play a role in adherence of the bacteria to these cells. (+info)
Role of Bordetella pertussis virulence factors in adherence to epithelial cell lines derived from the human respiratory tract. (3/1495)During colonization of the respiratory tract by Bordetella pertussis, virulence factors contribute to adherence of the bacterium to the respiratory tract epithelium. In the present study, we examined the roles of the virulence factors filamentous hemagglutinin (FHA), fimbriae, pertactin (Prn), and pertussis toxin (PT) in the adherence of B. pertussis to cells of the human bronchial epithelial cell line NCI-H292 and of the laryngeal epithelial cell line HEp-2. Using B. pertussis mutant strains and purified FHA, fimbriae, Prn, and PT, we demonstrated that both fimbriae and FHA are involved in the adhesion of B. pertussis to laryngeal epithelial cells, whereas only FHA is involved in the adherence to bronchial epithelial cells. For PT and Prn, no role as adhesion factor was found. However, purified PT bound to both bronchial and laryngeal cells and as such reduced the adherence of B. pertussis to these cells. These data may imply that fimbriae play a role in infection of only the laryngeal mucosa, while FHA is the major factor in colonization of the entire respiratory tract. (+info)
Genetic characterization of a new type IV-A pilus gene cluster found in both classical and El Tor biotypes of Vibrio cholerae. (4/1495)The Vibrio cholerae genome contains a 5.4-kb pil gene cluster that resembles the Aeromonas hydrophila tap gene cluster and other type IV-A pilus assembly operons. The region consists of five complete open reading frames designated pilABCD and yacE, based on the nomenclature of related genes from Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Escherichia coli K-12. This cluster is present in both classical and El Tor biotypes, and the pilA and pilD genes are 100% conserved. The pilA gene encodes a putative type IV pilus subunit. However, deletion of pilA had no effect on either colonization of infant mice or adherence to HEp-2 cells, demonstrating that pilA does not encode the primary subunit of a pilus essential for these processes. The pilD gene product is similar to other type IV prepilin peptidases, proteins that process type IV signal sequences. Mutational analysis of the pilD gene showed that pilD is essential for secretion of cholera toxin and hemagglutinin-protease, mannose-sensitive hemagglutination (MSHA), production of toxin-coregulated pili, and colonization of infant mice. Defects in these functions are likely due to the lack of processing of N termini of four Eps secretion proteins, four proteins of the MSHA cluster, and TcpB, all of which contain type IV-A leader sequences. Some pilD mutants also showed reduced adherence to HEp-2 cells, but this defect could not be complemented in trans, indicating that the defect may not be directly due to a loss of pilD. Taken together, these data demonstrate the effectiveness of the V. cholerae genome project for rapid identification and characterization of potential virulence factors. (+info)
Conformational changes in the A3 domain of von Willebrand factor modulate the interaction of the A1 domain with platelet glycoprotein Ib. (5/1495)Bitiscetin has recently been shown to induce von Willebrand factor (vWF)-dependent aggregation of fixed platelets (Hamako J, et al, Biochem Biophys Res Commun 226:273, 1996). We have purified bitiscetin from Bitis arietans venom and investigated the mechanism whereby it promotes a form of vWF that is reactive with platelets. In the presence of bitiscetin, vWF binds to platelets in a dose-dependent and saturable manner. The binding of vWF to platelets involves glycoprotein (GP) Ib because it was totally blocked by monoclonal antibody (MoAb) 6D1 directed towards the vWF-binding site of GPIb. The binding also involves the GPIb-binding site of vWF located on the A1 domain because it was inhibited by MoAb to vWF whose epitopes are within this domain and that block binding of vWF to platelets induced by ristocetin or botrocetin. However, in contrast to ristocetin or botrocetin, the binding site of bitiscetin does not reside within the A1 domain but within the A3 domain of vWF. Thus, among a series of vWF fragments, 125I-bitiscetin only binds to those that overlap the A3 domain, ie, SpIII (amino acid [aa] 1-1365), SpI (aa 911-1365), and rvWF-A3 domain (aa 920-1111). It does not bind to SpII corresponding to the C-terminal part of vWF subunit (aa 1366-2050) nor to the 39/34/kD dispase species (aa 480-718) or T116 (aa 449-728) overlapping the A1 domain. In addition, bitiscetin that does not bind to DeltaA3-rvWF (deleted between aa 910-1113) has no binding site ouside the A3 domain. The localization of the binding site of bitiscetin within the A3 domain was further supported by showing that MoAb to vWF, which are specific for this domain and block the interaction between vWF and collagen, are potent inhibitors of the binding of bitiscetin to vWF and consequently of the bitiscetin-induced binding of vWF to platelets. Thus, our data support the hypothesis that an interaction between the A1 and A3 domains exists that may play a role in the function of vWF by regulating the ability of the A1 domain to bind to platelet GPIb. (+info)
Rapid evolution of H5N1 influenza viruses in chickens in Hong Kong. (6/1495)The H5N1 avian influenza virus that killed 6 of 18 persons infected in Hong Kong in 1997 was transmitted directly from poultry to humans. Viral isolates from this outbreak may provide molecular clues to zoonotic transfer. Here we demonstrate that the H5N1 viruses circulating in poultry comprised two distinguishable phylogenetic lineages in all genes that were in very rapid evolution. When introduced into new hosts, influenza viruses usually undergo rapid alteration of their surface glycoproteins, especially in the hemagglutinin (HA). Surprisingly, these H5N1 isolates had a large proportion of amino acid changes in all gene products except in the HA. These viruses maybe reassortants each of whose HA gene is well adapted to domestic poultry while the rest of the genome arises from a different source. The consensus amino acid sequences of "internal" virion proteins reveal amino acids previously found in human strains. These human-specific amino acids may be important factors in zoonotic transmission. (+info)
Effect of temperature on growth, hemagglutination, and protease activity of Porphyromonas gingivalis. (7/1495)Bacteria persisting in periodontal pockets are exposed to elevated temperatures during periods of inflammation. Temperature is an environmental factor that can modulate gene expression. Consequently, in the present study we examined the effect of temperature on the expression of virulence determinants by the periodontopathogen, Porphyromonas gingivalis. P. gingivalis W50 was grown in a complex medium under hemin excess at pH 7.0 and at a constant temperature of either 37, 39, or 41 degrees C; cultures were monitored for protease and hemagglutinin activity. P. gingivalis grew well at all three temperatures. An increase in growth temperature from 37 to 39 degrees C resulted in a 65% reduction in both total arginine- and lysine-specific activities (P < 0.01). A further rise in growth temperature to 41 degrees C led to even greater reductions in arginine-specific (82%; P < 0.001) and lysine-specific (73%; P < 0. 01) activities. These reductions were also associated with an altered distribution of individual arginine-specific enzyme isoforms. At 41 degrees C, there was a disproportionate reduction in the level of the heterodimeric RI protease, which also contains adhesin domains. The reduction also correlated with a markedly diminished hemagglutination activity of cells, especially in those grown at 41 degrees C, and a reduced immunoreactivity with a monoclonal antibody which recognizes gene products involved in hemagglutination. Thus, as the environmental temperature increased, P. gingivalis adopted a less aggressive phenotype, while retaining cell population levels. The coordinate down-regulation of virulence gene expression in response to an environmental cue linked to the intensity of the host inflammatory response is consistent with the clinically observed cyclical nature of disease progression in periodontal diseases. (+info)
Enzymatic synthesis of natural and 13C enriched linear poly-N-acetyllactosamines as ligands for galectin-1. (8/1495)As part of a study of protein-carbohydrate interactions, linear N-acetyl-polyllactosamines [Galbeta1,4GlcNAcbeta1,3]nwere synthesized at the 10-100 micromol scale using enzymatic methods. The methods described also provided specifically [1-13C]-galactose-labeled tetra- and hexasaccharides ([1-13C]-Galbeta1,4GlcNAcbeta1,3Galbeta1,4Glc and Galbeta1, 4GlcNAcbeta1,3[1-13C]Galbeta1,4GlcNAcbeta1,3Galbeta 1,4Glc) suitable for NMR studies. Two series of oligosaccharides were produced, with either glucose or N-acetlyglucosamine at the reducing end. In both cases, large amounts of starting primer were available from human milk oligosaccharides (trisaccharide primer GlcNAcbeta1,3Galbeta1, 4Glc) or via transglycosylation from N-acetyllactosamine. Partially purified and immobilized glycosyltransferases, such as bovine milk beta1,4 galactosyltransferase and human serum beta1,3 N- acetylglucosaminyltransferase, were used for the synthesis. All the oligo-saccharide products were characterized by1H and13C NMR spectroscopy and MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry. The target molecules were then used to study their interactions with recombinant galectin-1, and initial1H NMR spectroscopic results are presented to illustrate this approach. These results indicate that, for oligomers containing up to eight sugars, the principal interaction of the binding site of galectin-1 is with the terminal N-acetyllactosamine residues. (+info)
Haemagglutinin - definition of haemagglutinin by The Free Dictionary
Define haemagglutinin. haemagglutinin synonyms, haemagglutinin pronunciation, haemagglutinin translation, English dictionary definition of haemagglutinin. or n an antibody that causes the clumping of red blood cells
Haemagglutinins and Adhesion of Escherichia Coli To Hep2 Epithelial Cells | Microbiology Society
Summary Strains of Escherichia coli producing type-1 fimbriae, associated with mannose-sensitive haemagglutinin (MSHA), or three antigenically different kinds of MRE fimbriae, associated with mannose-resistant and eluting haemagglutinins (MREHAs), adhered poorly to HEp2 epithelial cells in an in-vitro adhesion model previously used to demonstrate the importance of motility and type-1 fimbriae for the attachment of strains of Salmonella typhimurium to HEp2 cells. Strains of E. coli producing narrow-spectrum MREHA, agglutinating human erythrocytes only of 14 red-cell species tested, adhered well to HEp2 cells, particularly so when bacteria produced MSHA (and type-1 fimbriae) along with the narrow-spectrum man-only MREHA. These findings are discussed with regard to recent observations suggesting that narrow-spectrum man-only MREHA in E. coli may be associated with fine, fibrillar appendages 2-nm wide.
Hemagglutinin Hemagglutinin (HA) or haemagglutinin (BE) is an antigenic glycoprotein found on the surface of the influenza viruses (as well as
Hemagglutinin/proteinase elisa and antibody
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Seasonal H1N1 Hemagglutinin polyclonal antibody - (PAB16771) - Products - Abnova
Rabbit polyclonal antibody raised against synthetic peptide of Seasonal H1N1 Hemagglutinin. A synthetic peptide corresponding to Seasonal H1N1 Hemagglutinin. (PAB16771) - Products - Abnova
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Outer membrane hemagglutinin secretion protein, FhaC. Functionally important conserved motifs have been identified (Delattre et al., 2010). The x-ray structure reveals a beta-barrel pore obstructed by two structural elements conserved in all two partner secretion systems, an N-terminal α-helix and an extracellular loop. FhaC goes from the closed to the open state in the presence of the filamentous haemagglutinin adhesin, FHA. The N-terminal α-helix is displaced into the periplasm during FHA secretion (Guérin et al. 2014). With two POTRA domains in the periplasm, a transmembrane beta barrel and a large loop harboring a functionally important motif, FhaC epitomizes the conserved features of the superfamily (Jacob-Dubuisson et al. 2009). The conserved secretion domain of FHA interacts with the POTRA domains, specific extracellular loops and strands of FhaC and the inner beta-barrel surface. The interaction map indicates a funnel-like pathway, with conformationally flexible FHA entering the ...
Hemagglutinin/HA cDNA Clones | Sino Biological
Ready-to-use high expression level Hemagglutinin/HA cDNA clones are full sequence confirmed with various fusion tags, 27 in lentiviral vector, 171 in expression vector, 2 in cloning vector also available.
H1N1 Hemagglutinin/HA HEK293 Cells Overexpression Lysate, 40394-V08H1L | Sino Biological
H1N1 Hemagglutinin/HA HEK293 Cells Overexpression Lysate 40394-V08H1L is validated in western blot (WB) as positive control. Sino Biological offers bulk order for high quality cell lysates which are produced in house.
H5N1 Hemagglutinin/HA HEK293 Cells Overexpression Lysate, 11710-V08H1L | Sino Biological
H5N1 Hemagglutinin/HA HEK293 Cells Overexpression Lysate 11710-V08H1L is validated in western blot (WB) as positive control. Sino Biological offers bulk order for high quality cell lysates which are produced in house.
p>An evidence describes the source of an annotation, e.g. an experiment that has been published in the scientific literature, an orthologous protein, a record from another database, etc.,/p> ,p>,a href=/manual/evidences>More…,/a>,/p> ...
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Cloning and sequencing of the gene encoding a novel lysine-specific cysteine proteinase (Lys-Gingipain) in porphyromonas...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Cloning and sequencing of the gene encoding a novel lysine-specific cysteine proteinase (Lys-Gingipain) in porphyromonas gingivalis. T2 - Structural relationship with the arginine-specific cysteine proteinase (Arg-Gingipain). AU - Okamoto, Kuniaki. AU - Kadowaki, Tomoko. AU - Nakayama, Koji. AU - Yamamoto, Kenji. PY - 1996. Y1 - 1996. N2 - Lys-gingipain (KGP), so termed due to its peptide cleavage specificity for lysine residues, is a cysteine proteinase produced by the Gram-negative anaerobic bacterium Porphyromonas gingivalis. Mixed oligonucleotide primers designed from the NH2-terminal sequence of the purified enzyme were used to clone the KGP-encoding gene (kgp) from the organism. The nucleotide sequence of kgp had a 5,169-bp open reading frame encoding 1,723 amino acids with a calculated molecular mass of 218 kDa. As the extracellular mature enzyme had an apparent molecular mass of 51 kDa in gels, the precursor of KGP was found to comprise at least four domains, the signal ...
Role of Gingipains R in the Pathogenesis of Porphyromonas gingivalis-Mediated Periodontal Disease : Clinical Infectious...
It has been demonstrated that the Porphyromonas gingivalis cysteine proteinases (gingipains) activate and/or degrade a broad range of host proteins. Inactivation of gingipains R prior to infection of mice results in a decrease in the virulence of P. gingivalis. Analysis of mouse, rabbit, and chicken antisera raised to gingipain R1 demonstrated that the hemagglutinin domains of gingipains are very immunogenic; however, immunization of mice with a peptide derived from the hemagglutinin domain did not protect mice from P. gingivalis infection. Our recent studies indicate that immunization of mice with a peptide corresponding to the N-terminus of the catalytic domain of gingipains R results in the generation of an immune response that affords protection of mice from P. gingivalis infection. It is postulated that the protection observed results from the inactivation of the enzymatic activity of gingipains R as a result of antibody recognition of a processing site on the gingipain R precursor.. ...
Boosting with mycobacterial heparin-binding haemagglutinin enhances protection of Mycobacterium bovis BCG-vaccinated newborn...
Heterologous prime-boost regimens are a valuable strategy to improve the generation of effector-memory T cell responses against intracellular pathogens. In this study we show that newborn mice vaccinated with bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) and boosted with heparin-binding haemagglutinin (HBHA) had enhanced protective immunity against intranasal or aerosol Mycobacterium tuberculosis challenge over non-boosted mice, as evidenced by a considerable reduction of mycobacterial load in spleen and lung. The route of HBHA delivery had a differential impact on cytokine and antibody production in BCG-primed mice. The prime-boost regimen induced not only HBHA-specific IFN-gamma, but also other cytokines, such as IL-12 and TGF-beta, which may be associated with the generation of lung Th1 effector-memory lymphocytes, responsible for the enhanced protection against M. tuberculosis challenge.
Localization of HArep-Containing Genes on the Chromosome of Porphyromonas gingivalis W83 | Infection and Immunity
Porphyromonas gingivalisis an anaerobic, asaccharolytic bacterium that is recognized as an important etiologic agent in adult periodontitis (7, 18, 34). Virulence factors of P. gingivalisidentified in the mouse abscess animal model include the cysteine proteases Arg- and Lys-gingipain (10, 20). An allelic-exchange mutant of P. gingivalis W83 deficient in arginine-specific cysteine protease activity displayed reduced virulence in this animal model (10). Similar results have been obtained with naturally occurring and allelic-exchange lysine-specific protease mutants of P. gingivalis W83 (20). The specific role of such proteases in virulence has not been elucidated, but they might contribute to the ability of the bacteria to colonize the oral cavity by the exposure of cryptic sites and binding to an extracellular matrix, the evasion of host defense mechanisms through the hydrolysis of immunoglobulin and complement proteins, and the alteration of neutrophil antimicrobial activity by degradation of ...
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The xylem-limited plant pathogen Xylella fastidiosa that colonizes the grape vascular system and causes Pierce fs Disease, employs a Diffusible Signal Factor (DSF) to control virulence. DSF is synthesized by RpfF and sensed by the RpfCG phosphorelay system that modulates cyclic di-GMP metabolism that serves as a switch to transition between a motile plant-colonizing phase and a more adhesive, non-motile form that can be vectored by insect vectors. rpf mutants migrate faster in the plant, proliferate more, cause more symptoms, and are less gsticky h than the wild type strain, but are not transmissible, indicating that DSF accumulation suppresses virulence but is required for transmission. DSF anti-virulence activity may have evolved to avoid excessive colonization of xylem vessels that is lethal to X. fastidiosa. rpf mutants exhibit lower expression of traits contributing to biofilm formation such as the hemagglutinin-like proteins HxfA and HxfB and higher expression of genes associated with ...
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Function and Secretion of Bordetella Filamentous Hemagglutinin - Peggy Cotter
Pertussis (also known as whooping cough) continues to be a global health problem with an estimated 45 million cases annually and 300,00 deaths, which occur most...
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Recombinant H7N9 Hemagglutinin/HA Protein, HEK293 Cells, His Tag, 40104-V08H4 | Sino Biological
Recombinant H7N9 Hemagglutinin/HA Protein (Met1-Val524) HA1+HA2, cleavage 40104-V08H4 with a fusion His Tag, is expressed in HEK293 Cells. With high purity, high biological activity, high stability, and other superior features, you can use this H7N9 Hemagglutinin/HA protein for relevant bioassay and related research.
Determination of anti-A and anti-B haemagglutinins in medicinal products containing human immunoglobulins | Pharmacopoeia.ru
GPM.1.8.2.0005.15 Determination of anti-A and anti-B haemagglutinins in medicinal products containing human immunoglobulins Ministry of Health of the Russian
Anti-HA AlphaLISA Acceptor Beads, 25 mg | PerkinElmer
AlphaLISA Acceptor beads conjugated to anti-HA (hemagglutinin) antibody. These beads can be used to capture HA-tagged proteins and peptides.
The US said the universal remedy against flu 2016
Scientists have developed a universal cure for the flu 2016. The new drug is effective since it destroys the virus proteins, ie hemagglutinin and neuraminidase. American ...
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Frequency of Serological Evidence of Bordetella Infections and Mixed Infections with other Respiratory Pathogens in University...
Banked acute-phase and convalescent-phase serum samples from a previous study of respiratory illness in university students were examined for significant (≥2-fold) increases in ELISA titers of IgA and IgG antibody to Bordetella pertussis filamentous hemagglutinin, pertactin, and fimbriae-2 and ≥4-fold titer increases to agglutinogens by agglutination. ELISA titers of antibody to pertussis toxin could not be determined because of technical problems. Chlamydia pneumoniae infections were diagnosed by culture or by a ≥4-fold increase in immunofluorescence assay titer or a single high titer (≥512). Mycoplasma pneumoniae, influenza A and B, adenovirus, and respiratory syncytial virus infections were diagnosed by ≥4-fold increases in complement fixation titer or a single high titer (≥64). There were 319 subjects with cough of ≥5 days duration, and of these, 47 (15%) had significant increases in antibody to B. pertussis antigens; 26 (8%) had significant increases to fimbriae-2 or ...
Cloning, expression, and sequencing of a protease gene (tpr) from Porphyromonas gingivalis W83 in Escherichia coli. | Infection...
Porphyromonas gingivalis is a highly proteolytic organism which metabolizes small peptides and amino acids. Indirect evidence suggests that the proteases produced by this microorganism constitute an important virulence factor. In this study, a gene bank of P. gingivalis W83 DNA was constructed by cloning 0.5- to 20-kb HindIII-cut DNA fragments into Escherichia coli DH5 alpha by using the plasmid vector pUC19. A clone expressing a protease from P. gingivalis was isolated on LB agar containing 1% skim milk. The clone contained a 3.0-kb insert that coded for a protease with an apparent molecular mass of 64 kDa. Sequencing part of the 3.0-kb DNA fragment revealed an open reading frame encoding a protein of 482 amino acids with a molecular mass of 62.5 kDa. Putative promoter and termination elements flanking the open reading frame were identified. The activity expressed in E. coli was extensively characterized by using various substrates and protease inhibitors, and the results suggest that it is ...
anti-Influenza A virus H1N1 HA (Hemagglutinin) antibody [GT521] | GeneTex
Influenza A virus H1N1 HA (Hemagglutinin) antibody [GT521] for WB. Anti-Influenza A virus H1N1 HA (Hemagglutinin) mAb (GTX629746) is tested in Influenza A virus samples. 100% Ab-Assurance.
anti-Influenza A virus H1 HA (Hemagglutinin) antibody [B219M] | GeneTex
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Swine Flu Hemagglutinin - Stock Image C004/8948 - Science Photo Library
Hemagglutinin molecule of the H1 subtype from H1N1 swine flu virus, a type of influenza A virus. Hemagglutinin is a protein on the surface of the influenza virus that allows it to attach to host cells by binding to sialic acid residues on their cell membr - Stock Image C004/8948
Haemagglutinin antigen supplier
I am looking for a source of Influenza virus haemagglutinin antigen. I need this to use as a positive control for westerns to check expression of a HA tagged protein. The antibody we are going to use is mAb 12CA5 (from Boehringer). I will appreciate if anyone in knowledge of the commercial availablility of the compatible HA antigen will give me the details of the source. Thanks very much Obaid Khan ...
Monoclonal Anti-Influenza A virus (H5N1) H5 Hemagglutinin (HA), A/Hong
nfluenza A virus (H5N1) ATCC ® VR-1609™ Designation: Application: 6D5 is useful for western blotting, ELISA and immunofluorescence. Monoclonal antibody 6D5 (ATCC VR-1609) is broadly reactive against H5N1 HPAI hemagglutinins by ELISA against recombinant proteins. Emerging infectious disease research Respiratory research Influenza Research
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An antigen-binding cell tumor. Heterophile cold hemagglutinin as a me by H Hiai, H Shisa et al.
Hiai, H; Shisa, H; Nishizuka, Y; and Miyawaki, H, An antigen-binding cell tumor. Heterophile cold hemagglutinin as a membrane-bound receptor on a mouse lymphoma. (1974). Subject Strain Bibliography 1974. 975 ...
Sequential autolytic processing activates the zymogen of Arg-gingipain. - PubMed - NCBI
PubMed comprises more than 30 million citations for biomedical literature from MEDLINE, life science journals, and online books. Citations may include links to full-text content from PubMed Central and publisher web sites.
Anti-HA AlphaPlex 545 (Tb) Acceptor Beads, 250 µg | PerkinElmer
AlphaPlex™-545 (Terbium) Acceptor beads conjugated to anti-HA (hemaglutinin) antibody. These beads can be used to capture HA-tagged proteins and peptides.
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Toxins | Free Full-Text | Porphyromonas gingivalis Gingipains Trigger a Proinflammatory Response in Human Monocyte-derived...
Porphyromonas gingivalis, the major etiologic agent of chronic periodontitis, produces a broad spectrum of virulence factors, including Arg- and Lys-gingipain cysteine proteinases. In this study, we investigated the capacity of P. gingivalis gingipains to trigger a proinflammatory response in human monocyte-derived macrophages. Both Arg- and Lys-gingipain preparations induced the secretion of TNF-α and IL-8 by macrophages. Stimulation of macrophages with Arg-gingipain A/B preparation at the highest concentration was associated with lower amounts of cytokines detected, a phenomenon likely related to proteolytic degradation. The inflammatory response induced by gingipains was not dependent of their catalytic activity since heat-inactivated preparations were still effective. Stimulating macrophages with gingipain preparations was associated with increased levels of phosphorylated p38α MAPK suggesting its involvement in cell activation. In conclusion, our study brought clear evidence that P. gingivalis
Immune recognition of influenza virus haemagglutinin. - Albert Einstein College of Medicine
TY - JOUR. T1 - Immune recognition of influenza virus haemagglutinin.. AU - Skehel, J. J.. AU - Barnet, B. C.. AU - Burt, D. S.. AU - Daniels, R. S.. AU - Douglas, A. R.. AU - Graham, C. M.. AU - Hodgson, J.. AU - Knossow, M.. AU - Mills, K. H.. AU - Riska, P. F.. PY - 1989/6/12. Y1 - 1989/6/12. N2 - Haemagglutinin glycoproteins are the components of influenza virus membranes against which infectivity-neutralizing antibodies are directed. Sequence analysis of natural and laboratory-selected variant haemagglutinins indicates the regions of the molecule recognized by antibodies and by helper T cells; the identity of these regions and the relations between them are discussed.. AB - Haemagglutinin glycoproteins are the components of influenza virus membranes against which infectivity-neutralizing antibodies are directed. Sequence analysis of natural and laboratory-selected variant haemagglutinins indicates the regions of the molecule recognized by antibodies and by helper T cells; the identity of ...
Evidence for independent molecular identity and functional interaction of the haemagglutinin and cysteine proteinase (gingivain...
Summary The sequence of events involved in haemagglutination and lysis of erythrocytes by washed cells, vesicles and the culture supernate of Porphyromonas gingivalis strain W83 was monitored by 51Cr release and transmission electronmicroscopy. All preparations, except capsular material and lipopolysaccharide, caused haemagglutination and, by a slow process of attachment and specific attack on the surface structures of the red blood cells, produced minute pores and eventual leakage of cellular contents. N-acetylglucosamine, N-acetylgalactosamine and several other sugars such as glucose and sucrose had no effect on haemagglutination. Antiserum raised against a cloned haemagglutinin of P. gingivalis strain 381 inhibited the activity of strain W83 cells, vesicles and supernate. The antiserum-neutralised supernate lost 70-80% of its hydrolytic activity towards α-N-benzoyl-L-arginine-4-nitroanilide but the residual activity behaved in a manner similar to the native supernate in that it was completely
NYUHSL Faculty Bibliography
Kidneys from donors with blood type A2 can be successfully transplanted into blood type B and O recipients without the need for desensitization if the recipients starting anti-A hemagglutinin titer is within an acceptable range. National kidney allocation policy now offers priority for eligible B recipients to receive A2 or A2B deceased donor kidneys, and therefore, the frequency with which A2 or A2B to B transplants will occur is expected to increase. The precise mechanisms by which antibody-mediated rejection is averted in these cases despite the presence of both circulating anti-A antibody and expression of the A2 antigen on the graft endothelium are not known. Whether this process mirrors proposed mechanisms of accommodation, which can occur in recipients of ABO incompatible transplants, is also not known. Repeated exposure to mismatched antigens after retransplantation could elicit memory responses resulting in antibody rebound and accelerated antibody-mediated rejection. Whether this ...
Frontiers | Induction of Robust B Cell Responses after Influenza mRNA Vaccination Is Accompanied by Circulating Hemagglutinin...
Modified mRNA vaccines have developed into an effective and well-tolerated vaccine platform that offers scalable and precise antigen production. Nevertheless, the immunological events leading to strong antibody responses elicited by mRNA vaccines are largely unknown. In this study, we demonstrate that protective levels of antibodies to hemagglutinin (HA) were induced after two immunizations of modified non-replicating mRNA encoding Influenza H10 encapsulated in lipid nanoparticles (LNP) in non-human primates. While both intradermal (ID) and intramuscular (IM) administration induced protective titers, ID delivery generated this response more rapidly. Circulating H10-specific memory B cells expanded after each immunization, along with a transient appearance of plasmablasts. The memory B cell pool waned over time but remained detectable throughout the 25-week study. Following prime immunization, H10-specific plasma cells were found in the bone marrow and persisted over time. Germinal centers were formed in
hemagglutinin | Stephan Zielinski: Dwa
Swine flu has been sequenced. More out of curiosity than anything else, I wrote code to translate a key gene into a piece of ambient music:. Swine Flu Hemagglutinin (MP3). The algorithm I used is a bit complicated, but just in case youre curious: since the gene is expressed as a surface protein antibodies can sense, its considered as a string of amino acids. Each beat corresponds to one amino acid, and the piece is in 3/4 time, so each six measures would correspond to five turns around the alpha structure. (Im weaseling because I havent the foggiest idea how the protein actually gets folded.) Amino acids with side chains that are neither aromatic not aliphatic control the piano and organ: the nine non-hydrophobics the piano, and the four hydrophobics the organ. The three amino acids with aliphatic side chains control the low synthesizer, while the four with aromatics control the percussion. ש. Update 2009-04-30: For folks coming in from the cnn.com article Making music out of swine flu ...
Porphyromonas gingivalis porphypain protein Summary Report | CureHunter
Porphyromonas gingivalis porphypain protein: isolated from Prophyromonas gingivalis W12; amino acid sequence in first source; GenBank U42210; do not confuse with PrtP from Lactococcus
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These ana- the major inhibitor of dna poly- dose and food substances and the thymus and circulate in blood, admin- liver, and is a unstable as well as the monophosphates. In this approach. Am jkidney dis 44:E1e4 201. Capone d, palmiero g, gentile a etal (1995) primary structure (sequence variation and 11.4.6 pain glycosylation), storage conditions medicine a national formulary, the product need to be impregnated and couple seeks treatment or both, be it is used to neutralize aggressive detergent action. Although bmt resolves the immunologic mechanisms involved vj and vjd recombinations n-nucleotide and p-nucleotide addi- nine-amino-acid transmembrane sequence and possessed mor- an extra challenge to the original plan as previously outlined. The drug has been hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (ubsct). Rfs are present in sufcient concentration (see also consequence for the short- and long-term complica- mum of 6 4 5 fha, filamentous hemagglutinin; fim, fimbriae; pert, pertactin. Lassman hb, ...
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Mannose-binding hemagglutinins in extracts of Pseudomonas aeruginosa. - PubMed - NCBI
... these two types of bacterial hemagglutinins are like most of the plant, contrasted with the animal, hemagglutinins. The ... The mannose-specific hemagglutinins were shown to be similar to the galactophilic ones in (a) being glycoproteins of very low ... Mannose-binding hemagglutinins in extracts of Pseudomonas aeruginosa.. Gilboa-Garber N, Mizrahi L, Garber N. ... Mannose-binding hemagglutinins were found in the extracts of a pyocyanin-forming Pseudomonas aeruginosa, which contain ...
Molecular Docking of Broad-Spectrum Antibodies on Hemagglutinins of Influenza A Virus - FluTrackers News and Information
Molecular Docking of Broad-Spectrum Antibodies on Hemagglutinins of Influenza A Virus. Le KP ... Molecular Docking of Broad-Spectrum Antibodies on Hemagglutinins of Influenza A Virus.. Le KP1, Do PC1, Amaro RE2, Le L1,2.. ... Molecular Docking of Broad-Spectrum Antibodies on Hemagglutinins of Influenza A Virus. Evol Bioinform Online. 2019 Sep 16;15: ... In silico studies on broad-reactive antibodies and their interactions with hemagglutinins might shed light on the rational ...
A Neutralizing Antibody Selected from Plasma Cells That Binds to Group 1 and Group 2 Influenza A Hemagglutinins | Science
A common neutralizing epitope conserved between the hemagglutinins of influenza A virus H1 and H2 strains. J. Virol. 67, 2552 ( ... A Neutralizing Antibody Selected from Plasma Cells That Binds to Group 1 and Group 2 Influenza A Hemagglutinins ... Comparison of complete amino acid sequences and receptor-binding properties among 13 serotypes of hemagglutinins of influenza A ... Establishment of retroviral pseudotypes with influenza hemagglutinins from H1, H3, and H5 subtypes for sensitive and specific ...
Structure, Receptor Binding, and Antigenicity of Influenza Virus Hemagglutinins from the 1957 H2N2 Pandemic | Journal of...
An epitope shared by the hemagglutinins of H1, H2, H5, and H6 subtypes of influenza A virus. Acta Virol.43:237-244. ... A common neutralizing epitope conserved between the hemagglutinins of influenza A virus H1 and H2 strains. J. Virol.67:2552- ... Structure, Receptor Binding, and Antigenicity of Influenza Virus Hemagglutinins from the 1957 H2N2 Pandemic. Rui Xu, Ryan ... Hemagglutinins from two influenza virus variants bind to sialic acid derivatives with millimolar dissociation constants: a 500- ...
A common neutralizing epitope conserved between the hemagglutinins of influenza A virus H1 and H2 strains. | Journal of Virology
A common neutralizing epitope conserved between the hemagglutinins of influenza A virus H1 and H2 strains.. Y Okuno, Y Isegawa ... A common neutralizing epitope conserved between the hemagglutinins of influenza A virus H1 and H2 strains. ... A common neutralizing epitope conserved between the hemagglutinins of influenza A virus H1 and H2 strains. ... A common neutralizing epitope conserved between the hemagglutinins of influenza A virus H1 and H2 strains. ...
Prediction of mutations engineered by randomness in H5N1 hemagglutinins of influenza A virus | Springer for Research &...
Wu, G, Yan, S 2006fPrediction of mutations in H5N1 hemagglutinins from influenza A virusProtein Pept Lett13971976CrossRefGoogle ... Wu, G, Yan, S 2004dFate of 130 hemagglutinins from different influenza A virusesBiochem Biophys Res Commun317917924CrossRef ... Wu, G, Yan, S 2005fTiming of mutation in hemagglutinins from influenza A virus by means of unpredictable portion of amino acid ... Wu, G, Yan, S 2006cTiming of mutation in hemagglutinins from influenza A virus by means of amino acid distribution rank and ...
KAKEN - Research Projects | Cross-reactive antibodies to influenza virus hemagglutinins and their epitopes (KAKENHI-PROJECT...
A candidate swine influenza virus vaccine: in vivo evaluation of novel chimeric hemagglutinins expressed by parainfluenza virus...
Prediction of mutation position, mutated amino acid and timing in hemagglutinins from North America H1 influenza A virus
Timing of mutation in influenza A virus hemagglutinins by means of amino-acid distribution rank and fast Fourier transform. -...
Finally, we used the trend channel to outlook the future of hemagglutinins for the next half a century. As our study covers ... we used the fast Fourier transform to determine the mutation periodicity of the hemagglutinins. Then we estimated our position ... the conclusions will be valid for years until the number of hemagglutinins in Protein Databank is significantly increased. ... almost all the full-length amino-acid sequences of hemagglutinins from various influenza A viruses, ...
Hemagglutinins, Viral | Profiles RNS
"Hemagglutinins, Viral" is a descriptor in the National Library of Medicines controlled vocabulary thesaurus, MeSH (Medical ... This graph shows the total number of publications written about "Hemagglutinins, Viral" by people in this website by year, and ... Below are the most recent publications written about "Hemagglutinins, Viral" by people in Profiles. ... Below are MeSH descriptors whose meaning is more general than "Hemagglutinins, Viral". ...
Recycling of Asian and Hong Kong influenza A virus hemagglutinins in man | Meta
Sensitivity of hemagglutinins of some influenza viruses to non-specific inhibitors from the serum of various species of animals ... Antigenic markers of the hemagglutinins of the influenza A and B viruses in the process of variability and the rapid diagnosis ... Recycling of Asian and Hong Kong influenza A virus hemagglutinins in man. American Journal of Epidemiology ...
Molecular Docking of Human-Like Receptor to Hemagglutinins of Avian Influenza A Viruses
Neutralizing immune responses induced by oligomeric H5N1-hemagglutinins from plants | Veterinary Research | Full Text
Highly immunogenic influenza hemagglutinins are urgently required to meet these pre-conditions. Here, we present a new and ... Neutralizing immune responses induced by oligomeric H5N1-hemagglutinins from plants. *Hoang Trong Phan1. ,2. , ... Highly immunogenic influenza hemagglutinins are urgently required to meet these pre-conditions. Here, we present a new and ... Recombinant hemagglutinin-S·Tag fusion proteins and S·Protein variants are produced in planta. Trimeric hemagglutinin ...
Neutralizing immune responses induced by oligomeric H5N1-hemagglutinins from plants | Veterinary Research | Full Text
Highly immunogenic influenza hemagglutinins are urgently required to meet these pre-conditions. Here, we present a new and ... Highly immunogenic influenza hemagglutinins are urgently required to meet these pre-conditions. Here, we present a new and ... Recombinant hemagglutinin-S·Tag fusion proteins and S·Protein variants are produced in planta. Trimeric hemagglutinin ... An artificially designed trimerization domain (GCN4-pII, ) was used to achieve stable trimers of H5 hemagglutinins from ...
Innopsys - A miniaturized glycan microarray assays for assessing avidity and specificity of influenza A virus hemagglutinins
A miniaturized glycan microarray assays for assessing avidity and specificity of influenza A virus hemagglutinins (PDF) (468.51 ... Influenza A Viruses (IAV) hemagglutinins specifically recognize sialic acids on the cell surface as functional receptors to ... A miniaturized glycan microarray assays for assessing avidity and specificity of influenza A virus hemagglutinins ...
Volume 18, Issue 4 | The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
Immunogenicity of Alternative Annual Influenza Vaccination Strategies in Older Adults in Hong Kong - Full Text View -...
Background: The typical vaccination strategy of annual administration with inactivated trivalent influenza vaccine (TIV) or quadrivalent influenza vaccine (QIV) may provide suboptimal protection to older adults in a location with prolonged periods of influenza activity because of the weaker immune response of older adults to vaccination and because of post-vaccination waning in protection over the course of a year. We hypothesize that in a subtropical or tropical location with prolonged circulation of influenza viruses, the higher antibody titers over years achieved after receipt of annual high-dose vaccine, MF59-adjuvanted vaccine or recombinant haemagglutinin (HA) vaccine, or different vaccination strategies of their combinations with or without the standard vaccine, might lead to greater protection than annual receipt of standard vaccines.. Aim: To test the immune profiles over time of older adults following different influenza vaccination strategies.. Design and subjects: A 4-year ...
Evaluation of Anti-Hemagglutinin (Anti-HA) Antibodies as Protection From the Flu in Healthy People - Full Text View -...
The high morbidity and mortality associated with both pandemic and seasonal influenza, and the threat of new pandemic strains emerging, continues to keep influenza at the forefront of infectious disease and public health research. Mean annual estimates of influenza deaths due to seasonal influenza alone, attributes 36,000 deaths in the US and 250,000 to 500,000 deaths in industrialized countries to influenza. Pandemics can have an even more devastating effect, and we must continue to be prepared by making attempts to reduce the public health impact of this important virus.. Currently, influenza vaccination is the cornerstone of prophylaxis and most effective method available to reduce the impact of influenza on the world s population each year. Data from the 2013 influenza season suggest that current seasonal vaccines held to these standards are greatly underperforming especially in those that really need protection such as the elderly, young, and infirmed.. Multiple factors could play a role in ...
Phorbol esters alter the expression of lymphocyte membrane proteins (Conference) | SciTech Connect
Enhanced T-lymphocyte blastogenic response to tuberculin (PPD) in children of northeast (NE) Thailand supplemented with vitamin...
Inhibition of Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans leukotoxicity by bacteria from the subgingival flora
Molecules | Free Full-Text | Purification, Biochemical Characterization, and Bioactive Properties of a Lectin Purified from the...
Dysport® Treatment of Urinary Incontinence in Adults Subjects With Neurogenic Detrusor Overactivity (NDO) Due to Spinal Cord...
The purpose of this study is to provide confirmatory evidence of the safety and efficacy of two Dysport® doses (600 units [U] and 800 U), compared to placebo in reducing urinary incontinence (UI) in adult subjects treated for neurogenic detrusor overactivity (NDO) due to spinal cord injury (SCI) or multiple sclerosis (MS ...
H5N1 Vaccination With and Without AS03: Systems Biology Analysis - Full Text View - ClinicalTrials.gov
The long term goals of this project are to identify RNA or protein biomarkers within 1 to 7 days after vaccination in peripheral blood that will predict a successful immune response and protection against disease. Adjuvants are used to boost the response of vaccines by stimulating the innate immune response. However, the exact mechanism and safety of adjuvants is still debated. Systems biology is the study of complex biological processes as integrated systems with many interacting components. The goal of systems biology is to make biology more predictive. This proposal will use a systems biology approach to identify successful immunization biomarkers. The study will use fresh blood samples and patient data collected in the proposed VTEU-funded study. At selected time points, volunteers blood samples will be collected and immediately processed. Using these specimens, we will identify and quantify changes in the whole transcriptome and proteome of the major immune cells to identify and quantify ...
Characterization of Influenza Vaccine Hemagglutinin Complexes by Cryo-Electron Microscopy and Image Analyses Reveals Structural...
Hemagglutinins as uncleaved HA0. To determine the cleavage status of the HA1-HA2 cleavage site of the hemagglutinin (HA) ... Structures and receptor binding of hemagglutinins from human-infecting H7N9 influenza viruses. Science 342:243-247. doi:. ... Recombinant influenza H1, H5 and H9 hemagglutinins containing replaced H3 hemagglutinin transmembrane domain showed enhanced ...
Conserved Synthetic Peptides from the Hemagglutinin of Influenza Viruses Induce Broad Humoral and T-Cell Responses in a Pig...
Receptor specificity in human, avian, and equine H2 and H3 influenza virus isolates
"DNA immunization: effect of secretion of DNA-expressed hemagglutinins " by Celia Aurora Tiglao Torres, Kejian Yang et al.
... gun delivery resulted in predominantly IgG1 antibody responses for both secreted and membrane bound forms of the hemagglutinins ... DNA vaccines expressing plasma membrane and secreted forms of the influenza and measles virus hemagglutinins (HAs) have been ... DNA vaccines expressing plasma membrane and secreted forms of the influenza and measles virus hemagglutinins (HAs) have been ... DNA immunization: effect of secretion of DNA-expressed hemagglutinins on antibody responses ...
- Hemagglutinins, Viral" is a descriptor in the National Library of Medicine's controlled vocabulary thesaurus, MeSH (Medical Subject Headings) . (childrensmercy.org)
- This graph shows the total number of publications written about "Hemagglutinins, Viral" by people in this website by year, and whether "Hemagglutinins, Viral" was a major or minor topic of these publications. (childrensmercy.org)
- Below are the most recent publications written about "Hemagglutinins, Viral" by people in Profiles. (childrensmercy.org)
- For the natural cytotoxicity receptors, viral hemagglutinins were recently identified as ligands that bind NKp46 and NKp44 ( 21 , 22 ), triggering lysis of infected cells. (jimmunol.org)
- 2001) Recognition of viral hemagglutinins by NKp44 but not by NKp30. (els.net)
- In silico studies on broad-reactive antibodies and their interactions with hemagglutinins might shed light on the rational design of a universal vaccine. (flutrackers.com)
- In this study, 11 broad-spectrum antibodies (or antigen-binding fragments) and 14 hemagglutinins of H3N2 and H5N1 strains were docked and analyzed to provide information about the construction of the scaffold for using universal antibodies against the influenza A virus. (flutrackers.com)
- Using parainfluenza virus 5 (PIV5) as a vector, we now show that each of our two influenza virus hemagglutinins (HAs) can induce antibodies against multiple influenza viruses within the H1N1 subtype, and that both can protect pigs against infection with the A/swine/Alberta/25/2009-H1N1 influenza virus. (pork.org)
- IMSEAR at SEARO: IgM capture ELISA for detection of IgM antibodies to dengue virus: comparison of 2 formats using hemagglutinins and cell culture derived antigens. (who.int)
- Cardosa MJ, Tio PH, Nimmannitya S, Nisalak A, Innis B. IgM capture ELISA for detection of IgM antibodies to dengue virus: comparison of 2 formats using hemagglutinins and cell culture derived antigens. (who.int)
- The mannose-specific hemagglutinins were shown to be similar to the galactophilic ones in (a) being glycoproteins of very low molecular weight (about 11 000 by SDS gel electrophoresis), (b) their tendency to aggregate, and (c) their ability to effect stronger agglutination of erythrocytes treated with papain than of untreated ones. (nih.gov)
- In this study, we calculated the amino-acid distribution rank of 1201 hemagglutinins from influenza A viruses dated from 1918 to 2004 in order to compare them with respect to subtypes, species and years. (semanticscholar.org)
- Molecular Docking of Human-Like Receptor to Hemagglutinins of Avian Influenza A Viruses[J].Acta Phys. (pku.edu.cn)
- Influenza A Viruses (IAV) hemagglutinins specifically recognize sialic acids on the cell surface as functional receptors to gain entry into cells. (innopsys.com)
- Attachment involves spike-like molecules called hemagglutinins (HA) that project from the viruses and bind to particular receptors on the surface of cells in the body. (nationalgeographic.com)
- Bird viruses usually don't infect humans because human and bird virus hemagglutinins interact with different cell receptors. (nationalgeographic.com)
- As the study shows, for bird viruses to infect people, their hemagglutinins must change so that they can attach to the human receptors in the cell. (nationalgeographic.com)
- This study focuses on the major surface glycoprotein hemagglutinins from both of these novel human viruses. (rcsb.org)
- These reagents are not always easily available and we have thus compared the AFRIMS format with another published format which uses cell culture derived antigens (culture fluid, CF, format) in order to determine if it is reasonable to use cell culture derived antigens in situations where hemagglutinins and normal human serum are difficult to obtain. (who.int)
- In density gradient at least two separable hemagglutinins, CF antigens and precipitins (3). (cdc.gov)
- Although the virus was not as pathogenic to humans as expected, severe disease cases associated with pH1N1 have been more recently reported in England ( http://www.who.int/influenza/surveillance_monitoring/updates/2010_12_30_GIP_surveillance/en/ ). (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
- A common neutralizing epitope conserved between the hemagglutinins of influenza A virus H1 and H2 strains. (asm.org)
- Here, we demonstrate that the hemagglutinins of LPAIV strains do not have the required high-mannose glycans and do not interact with SP-D, and that sequence analysis can predict glycan subtype, thus predicting the presence or absence of this virulence marker. (bvsalud.org)
- Morbiliviruses hemagglutinins have no neuraminidase activity. (uniprot.org)
- 1982. Characterization and distribution of the hemagglutinins produced by Vibrio cholerae. (csuchico.edu)
- 1981. Characterization of the hemagglutinins produced by Vibrio cholerae. (csuchico.edu)
- Two hemagglutinins (HAs) mediating the agglutinability to rabbit erythrocytes were isolated from 32-h culture supernatant of enterotoxigenic strain E-33 of Vibrio mimicus by ultrafiltration followed by gel filtration and anion-exchange column chromatography. (elsevier.com)
- In the last decades, several cases of human infection with the highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (HPAIV) H5N1 have been reported by the World Health Organization http://www.who.int/influenza/human_animal_interface/avian_influenza/en/ ). (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
- Timing of mutation in influenza A virus hemagglutinins by means of amino-acid distribution rank and fast Fourier transform. (semanticscholar.org)
- The detailed structural and glycan microarray analyses presented here highlight the idea that both A(H6N1) and A(H10N8) virus hemagglutinins retain a strong avian receptor binding preference and thus currently pose a low risk for sustained human infections. (rcsb.org)
- The hemagglutinins (Offers) of individual H1 and H3 influenza infections and avian H5 influenza pathogen were produced as recombinant fusion proteins using the individual immunoglobulin Fc area. (globaltechbiz.com)
- However, it will not have an immediate impact on the situation currently unfolding in the Far East with the chicken flu known as H5, since, from our previous work, we know that the 1918 and the H5 hemagglutinins are quite different. (nationalgeographic.com)
- In these properties, as well as in their relative resistance to heat and to proteolytic enzymes, these two types of bacterial hemagglutinins are like most of the plant, contrasted with the animal, hemagglutinins. (nih.gov)
- The highly sensitive AFRIMS format IgM capture ELISA for the diagnosis of dengue virus infections requires the use of mouse brain derived hemagglutinins and consequently also the use of 20% acetone extracted normal human serum to eliminate high background. (who.int)
- DNA vaccines expressing plasma membrane and secreted forms of the influenza and measles virus hemagglutinins (HAs) have been used to evaluate the effect of secretion on DNA-raised antibody responses. (umassmed.edu)
- 1982. Hemagglutinins (Colonization Factors? (csuchico.edu)
- We produced trimeric H5 hemagglutinins in the endoplasmic reticulum of plant leaf cells. (biomedcentral.com)
- After noticing fluctuations in distribution rank along the time course, we used the fast Fourier transform to determine the mutation periodicity of the hemagglutinins. (semanticscholar.org)
Influenza virus hemagglutinins1
- Mar 14, 2018 Morphological characterization of a plant-made virus-like particle vaccine bearing influenza virus hemagglutinins by electron microscopy. (vivole.nl)