Hemagglutinins: Agents that cause agglutination of red blood cells. They include antibodies, blood group antigens, lectins, autoimmune factors, bacterial, viral, or parasitic blood agglutinins, etc.Hemagglutinins, Viral: Specific hemagglutinin subtypes encoded by VIRUSES.Hemagglutinin Glycoproteins, Influenza Virus: Membrane glycoproteins from influenza viruses which are involved in hemagglutination, virus attachment, and envelope fusion. Fourteen distinct subtypes of HA glycoproteins and nine of NA glycoproteins have been identified from INFLUENZA A VIRUS; no subtypes have been identified for Influenza B or Influenza C viruses.Influenza A virus: The type species of the genus INFLUENZAVIRUS A that causes influenza and other diseases in humans and animals. Antigenic variation occurs frequently between strains, allowing classification into subtypes and variants. Transmission is usually by aerosol (human and most non-aquatic hosts) or waterborne (ducks). Infected birds shed the virus in their saliva, nasal secretions, and feces.Orthomyxoviridae: A family of RNA viruses causing INFLUENZA and other diseases. There are five recognized genera: INFLUENZAVIRUS A; INFLUENZAVIRUS B; INFLUENZAVIRUS C; ISAVIRUS; and THOGOTOVIRUS.Neuraminidase: An enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of alpha-2,3, alpha-2,6-, and alpha-2,8-glycosidic linkages (at a decreasing rate, respectively) of terminal sialic residues in oligosaccharides, glycoproteins, glycolipids, colominic acid, and synthetic substrate. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992)Hemagglutination Inhibition Tests: Serologic tests in which a known quantity of antigen is added to the serum prior to the addition of a red cell suspension. Reaction result is expressed as the smallest amount of antigen which causes complete inhibition of hemagglutination.Influenza A Virus, H5N1 Subtype: A subtype of INFLUENZA A VIRUS comprised of the surface proteins hemagglutinin 5 and neuraminidase 1. The H5N1 subtype, frequently referred to as the bird flu virus, is endemic in wild birds and very contagious among both domestic (POULTRY) and wild birds. It does not usually infect humans, but some cases have been reported.Orthomyxoviridae Infections: Virus diseases caused by the ORTHOMYXOVIRIDAE.Influenza Vaccines: Vaccines used to prevent infection by viruses in the family ORTHOMYXOVIRIDAE. It includes both killed and attenuated vaccines. The composition of the vaccines is changed each year in response to antigenic shifts and changes in prevalence of influenza virus strains. The vaccine is usually bivalent or trivalent, containing one or two INFLUENZAVIRUS A strains and one INFLUENZAVIRUS B strain.Hemagglutination: The aggregation of ERYTHROCYTES by AGGLUTININS, including antibodies, lectins, and viral proteins (HEMAGGLUTINATION, VIRAL).Influenza A Virus, H3N2 Subtype: A subtype of INFLUENZA A VIRUS comprised of the surface proteins hemagglutinin 3 and neuraminidase 2. The H3N2 subtype was responsible for the Hong Kong flu pandemic of 1968.Influenza, Human: An acute viral infection in humans involving the respiratory tract. It is marked by inflammation of the NASAL MUCOSA; the PHARYNX; and conjunctiva, and by headache and severe, often generalized, myalgia.Influenza in Birds: Infection of domestic and wild fowl and other BIRDS with INFLUENZA A VIRUS. Avian influenza usually does not sicken birds, but can be highly pathogenic and fatal in domestic POULTRY.Hemagglutination Tests: Sensitive tests to measure certain antigens, antibodies, or viruses, using their ability to agglutinate certain erythrocytes. (From Stedman, 26th ed)Measles virus: The type species of MORBILLIVIRUS and the cause of the highly infectious human disease MEASLES, which affects mostly children.Antibodies, Viral: Immunoglobulins produced in response to VIRAL ANTIGENS.Influenza A Virus, H1N1 Subtype: A subtype of INFLUENZA A VIRUS with the surface proteins hemagglutinin 1 and neuraminidase 1. The H1N1 subtype was responsible for the Spanish flu pandemic of 1918.Hemagglutination, Viral: Agglutination of ERYTHROCYTES by a virus.Bromelains: Protein-digesting and milk-clotting enzymes found in PINEAPPLE fruit juice and stem tissue. Enzymes from the two sources are distinguished as fruit bromelain and stem bromelain. This enzyme was formerly listed as EC 22.214.171.124.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Receptors, Virus: Specific molecular components of the cell capable of recognizing and interacting with a virus, and which, after binding it, are capable of generating some signal that initiates the chain of events leading to the biological response.Ferrets: Semidomesticated variety of European polecat much used for hunting RODENTS and/or RABBITS and as a laboratory animal. It is in the subfamily Mustelinae, family MUSTELIDAE.Agglutinins: Substances, usually of biological origin, that cause cells or other organic particles to aggregate and stick to each other. They include those ANTIBODIES which cause aggregation or agglutination of particulate or insoluble ANTIGENS.Membrane Fusion: The adherence and merging of cell membranes, intracellular membranes, or artificial membranes to each other or to viruses, parasites, or interstitial particles through a variety of chemical and physical processes.Influenza B virus: Species of the genus INFLUENZAVIRUS B that cause HUMAN INFLUENZA and other diseases primarily in humans. Antigenic variation is less extensive than in type A viruses (INFLUENZA A VIRUS) and consequently there is no basis for distinct subtypes or variants. Epidemics are less likely than with INFLUENZA A VIRUS and there have been no pandemics. Previously only found in humans, Influenza B virus has been isolated from seals which may constitute the animal reservoir from which humans are exposed.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Hemadsorption: A phenomenon manifested by an agent or substance adhering to or being adsorbed on the surface of a red blood cell, as tuberculin can be adsorbed on red blood cells under certain conditions. (Stedman, 25th ed)Viral Fusion Proteins: Proteins, usually glycoproteins, found in the viral envelopes of a variety of viruses. They promote cell membrane fusion and thereby may function in the uptake of the virus by cells.Reassortant Viruses: Viruses containing two or more pieces of nucleic acid (segmented genome) from different parents. Such viruses are produced in cells coinfected with different strains of a given virus.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Influenza A Virus, H2N2 Subtype: A subtype of INFLUENZA A VIRUS comprised of the surface proteins hemagglutinin 2 and neuraminidase 2. The H2N2 subtype was responsible for the Asian flu pandemic of 1957.Birds: Warm-blooded VERTEBRATES possessing FEATHERS and belonging to the class Aves.Dogs: The domestic dog, Canis familiaris, comprising about 400 breeds, of the carnivore family CANIDAE. They are worldwide in distribution and live in association with people. (Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, p1065)Madin Darby Canine Kidney Cells: An epithelial cell line derived from a kidney of a normal adult female dog.Antigens, Viral: Substances elaborated by viruses that have antigenic activity.Epitopes: Sites on an antigen that interact with specific antibodies.Influenza A Virus, H9N2 Subtype: A subtype of INFLUENZA A VIRUS comprised of the surface proteins hemagglutinin 9 and neuraminidase 2. The H9N2 subtype usually infects domestic birds (POULTRY) but there have been some human infections reported.Chickens: Common name for the species Gallus gallus, the domestic fowl, in the family Phasianidae, order GALLIFORMES. It is descended from the red jungle fowl of SOUTHEAST ASIA.N-Acetylneuraminic Acid: An N-acyl derivative of neuraminic acid. N-acetylneuraminic acid occurs in many polysaccharides, glycoproteins, and glycolipids in animals and bacteria. (From Dorland, 28th ed, p1518)Cross Reactions: Serological reactions in which an antiserum against one antigen reacts with a non-identical but closely related antigen.Mice, Inbred BALB CAntibodies, Neutralizing: Antibodies that reduce or abolish some biological activity of a soluble antigen or infectious agent, usually a virus.Influenza A Virus, H7N7 Subtype: A subtype of INFLUENZA A VIRUS comprised of the surface proteins hemagglutinin 7 and neuraminidase 7. The H7N7 subtype produced an epidemic in 2003 which was highly pathogenic among domestic birds (POULTRY). Some infections in humans were reported.Antigenic Variation: Change in the surface ANTIGEN of a microorganism. There are two different types. One is a phenomenon, especially associated with INFLUENZA VIRUSES, where they undergo spontaneous variation both as slow antigenic drift and sudden emergence of new strains (antigenic shift). The second type is when certain PARASITES, especially trypanosomes, PLASMODIUM, and BORRELIA, survive the immune response of the host by changing the surface coat (antigen switching). (From Herbert et al., The Dictionary of Immunology, 4th ed)Antigens, CD46: A ubiquitously expressed complement receptor that binds COMPLEMENT C3B and COMPLEMENT C4B and serves as a cofactor for their inactivation. CD46 also interacts with a wide variety of pathogens and mediates immune response.DucksInfluenza A Virus, H3N8 Subtype: A subtype of INFLUENZA A VIRUS comprised of the surface proteins hemagglutinin 3 and neuraminidase 8. The H3N8 subtype has frequently been found in horses.Neutralization Tests: The measurement of infection-blocking titer of ANTISERA by testing a series of dilutions for a given virus-antiserum interaction end-point, which is generally the dilution at which tissue cultures inoculated with the serum-virus mixtures demonstrate cytopathology (CPE) or the dilution at which 50% of test animals injected with serum-virus mixtures show infectivity (ID50) or die (LD50).Sialic Acids: A group of naturally occurring N-and O-acyl derivatives of the deoxyamino sugar neuraminic acid. They are ubiquitously distributed in many tissues.Influenza A Virus, H5N2 Subtype: A subtype of INFLUENZA A VIRUS comprised of the surface proteins hemagglutinin 5 and neuraminidase 2. The H5N2 subtype has been found to be highly pathogenic in chickens.Viral Proteins: Proteins found in any species of virus.Distemper Virus, Canine: A species of MORBILLIVIRUS causing distemper in dogs, wolves, foxes, raccoons, and ferrets. Pinnipeds have also been known to contract Canine distemper virus from contact with domestic dogs.Chick Embryo: The developmental entity of a fertilized chicken egg (ZYGOTE). The developmental process begins about 24 h before the egg is laid at the BLASTODISC, a small whitish spot on the surface of the EGG YOLK. After 21 days of incubation, the embryo is fully developed before hatching.Whooping Cough: A respiratory infection caused by BORDETELLA PERTUSSIS and characterized by paroxysmal coughing ending in a prolonged crowing intake of breath.Virulence: The degree of pathogenicity within a group or species of microorganisms or viruses as indicated by case fatality rates and/or the ability of the organism to invade the tissues of the host. The pathogenic capacity of an organism is determined by its VIRULENCE FACTORS.GeeseErythrocytes: Red blood cells. Mature erythrocytes are non-nucleated, biconcave disks containing HEMOGLOBIN whose function is to transport OXYGEN.Glycosylation: The chemical or biochemical addition of carbohydrate or glycosyl groups to other chemicals, especially peptides or proteins. Glycosyl transferases are used in this biochemical reaction.Vibrio cholerae: The etiologic agent of CHOLERA.Vaccines, Synthetic: Small synthetic peptides that mimic surface antigens of pathogens and are immunogenic, or vaccines manufactured with the aid of recombinant DNA techniques. The latter vaccines may also be whole viruses whose nucleic acids have been modified.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Measles: A highly contagious infectious disease caused by MORBILLIVIRUS, common among children but also seen in the nonimmune of any age, in which the virus enters the respiratory tract via droplet nuclei and multiplies in the epithelial cells, spreading throughout the MONONUCLEAR PHAGOCYTE SYSTEM.Virulence Factors, Bordetella: A set of BACTERIAL ADHESINS and TOXINS, BIOLOGICAL produced by BORDETELLA organisms that determine the pathogenesis of BORDETELLA INFECTIONS, such as WHOOPING COUGH. They include filamentous hemagglutinin; FIMBRIAE PROTEINS; pertactin; PERTUSSIS TOXIN; ADENYLATE CYCLASE TOXIN; dermonecrotic toxin; tracheal cytotoxin; Bordetella LIPOPOLYSACCHARIDES; and tracheal colonization factor.Virus Attachment: The binding of virus particles to receptors on the host cell surface. For enveloped viruses, the virion ligand is usually a surface glycoprotein as is the cellular receptor. For non-enveloped viruses, the virus CAPSID serves as the ligand.Phylogeny: The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Protein Conformation: The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).Models, Molecular: Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.Lectins: Proteins that share the common characteristic of binding to carbohydrates. Some ANTIBODIES and carbohydrate-metabolizing proteins (ENZYMES) also bind to carbohydrates, however they are not considered lectins. PLANT LECTINS are carbohydrate-binding proteins that have been primarily identified by their hemagglutinating activity (HEMAGGLUTININS). However, a variety of lectins occur in animal species where they serve diverse array of functions through specific carbohydrate recognition.Cell Fusion: Fusion of somatic cells in vitro or in vivo, which results in somatic cell hybridization.Cross Protection: Protection conferred on a host by inoculation with one strain or component of a microorganism that prevents infection when later challenged with a similar strain. Most commonly the microorganism is a virus.Vaccines, Inactivated: Vaccines in which the infectious microbial nucleic acid components have been destroyed by chemical or physical treatment (e.g., formalin, beta-propiolactone, gamma radiation) without affecting the antigenicity or immunogenicity of the viral coat or bacterial outer membrane proteins.Hydrogen-Ion Concentration: The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Amino Acid Substitution: The naturally occurring or experimentally induced replacement of one or more AMINO ACIDS in a protein with another. If a functionally equivalent amino acid is substituted, the protein may retain wild-type activity. Substitution may also diminish, enhance, or eliminate protein function. Experimentally induced substitution is often used to study enzyme activities and binding site properties.Pandemics: Epidemics of infectious disease that have spread to many countries, often more than one continent, and usually affecting a large number of people.Genes, Viral: The functional hereditary units of VIRUSES.Viral Envelope Proteins: Layers of protein which surround the capsid in animal viruses with tubular nucleocapsids. The envelope consists of an inner layer of lipids and virus specified proteins also called membrane or matrix proteins. The outer layer consists of one or more types of morphological subunits called peplomers which project from the viral envelope; this layer always consists of glycoproteins.Cercopithecus aethiops: A species of CERCOPITHECUS containing three subspecies: C. tantalus, C. pygerythrus, and C. sabeus. They are found in the forests and savannah of Africa. The African green monkey (C. pygerythrus) is the natural host of SIMIAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS and is used in AIDS research.Viral Matrix Proteins: Proteins associated with the inner surface of the lipid bilayer of the viral envelope. These proteins have been implicated in control of viral transcription and may possibly serve as the "glue" that binds the nucleocapsid to the appropriate membrane site during viral budding from the host cell.Poultry: Domesticated birds raised for food. It typically includes CHICKENS; TURKEYS, DUCKS; GEESE; and others.Morbillivirus: A genus of the family PARAMYXOVIRIDAE (subfamily PARAMYXOVIRINAE) where the virions of most members have hemagglutinin but not neuraminidase activity. All members produce both cytoplasmic and intranuclear inclusion bodies. MEASLES VIRUS is the type species.Antibodies, Monoclonal: Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.Fimbriae, Bacterial: Thin, hairlike appendages, 1 to 20 microns in length and often occurring in large numbers, present on the cells of gram-negative bacteria, particularly Enterobacteriaceae and Neisseria. Unlike flagella, they do not possess motility, but being protein (pilin) in nature, they possess antigenic and hemagglutinating properties. They are of medical importance because some fimbriae mediate the attachment of bacteria to cells via adhesins (ADHESINS, BACTERIAL). Bacterial fimbriae refer to common pili, to be distinguished from the preferred use of "pili", which is confined to sex pili (PILI, SEX).Vaccination: Administration of vaccines to stimulate the host's immune response. This includes any preparation intended for active immunological prophylaxis.Influenza A Virus, H7N9 Subtype: A subtype of INFLUENZA A VIRUS with the surface proteins hemagglutinin 7 and neuraminidase 9. This avian origin virus was first identified in humans in 2013.Vaccinia virus: The type species of ORTHOPOXVIRUS, related to COWPOX VIRUS, but whose true origin is unknown. It has been used as a live vaccine against SMALLPOX. It is also used as a vector for inserting foreign DNA into animals. Rabbitpox virus is a subspecies of VACCINIA VIRUS.Antibody Specificity: The property of antibodies which enables them to react with some ANTIGENIC DETERMINANTS and not with others. Specificity is dependent on chemical composition, physical forces, and molecular structure at the binding site.Porphyromonas gingivalis: A species of gram-negative, anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria originally classified within the BACTEROIDES genus. This bacterium produces a cell-bound, oxygen-sensitive collagenase and is isolated from the human mouth.Hemolysis: The destruction of ERYTHROCYTES by many different causal agents such as antibodies, bacteria, chemicals, temperature, and changes in tonicity.Vero Cells: A CELL LINE derived from the kidney of the African green (vervet) monkey, (CERCOPITHECUS AETHIOPS) used primarily in virus replication studies and plaque assays.Virus Replication: The process of intracellular viral multiplication, consisting of the synthesis of PROTEINS; NUCLEIC ACIDS; and sometimes LIPIDS, and their assembly into a new infectious particle.Glycoproteins: Conjugated protein-carbohydrate compounds including mucins, mucoid, and amyloid glycoproteins.Reverse Genetics: The use of techniques that produce a functional MUTATION or an effect on GENE EXPRESSION of a specific gene of interest in order to identify the role or activity of the gene product of that gene.Rinderpest: A viral disease of cloven-hoofed animals caused by MORBILLIVIRUS. It may be acute, subacute, or chronic with the major lesions characterized by inflammation and ulceration of the entire digestive tract. The disease was declared successfully eradicated worldwide in 2010.Rinderpest virus: A species of MORBILLIVIRUS causing cattle plague, a disease with high mortality. Sheep, goats, pigs, and other animals of the order Artiodactyla can also be infected.Measles Vaccine: A live attenuated virus vaccine of chick embryo origin, used for routine immunization of children and for immunization of adolescents and adults who have not had measles or been immunized with live measles vaccine and have no serum antibodies against measles. Children are usually immunized with measles-mumps-rubella combination vaccine. (From Dorland, 28th ed)Immunization: Deliberate stimulation of the host's immune response. ACTIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of ANTIGENS or IMMUNOLOGIC ADJUVANTS. PASSIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of IMMUNE SERA or LYMPHOCYTES or their extracts (e.g., transfer factor, immune RNA) or transplantation of immunocompetent cell producing tissue (thymus or bone marrow).Distemper: A name for several highly contagious viral diseases of animals, especially canine distemper. In dogs, it is caused by the canine distemper virus (DISTEMPER VIRUS, CANINE). It is characterized by a diphasic fever, leukopenia, gastrointestinal and respiratory inflammation and sometimes, neurologic complications. In cats it is known as FELINE PANLEUKOPENIA.Paramyxoviridae: A family of spherical viruses, of the order MONONEGAVIRALES, somewhat larger than the orthomyxoviruses, and containing single-stranded RNA. Subfamilies include PARAMYXOVIRINAE and PNEUMOVIRINAE.Newcastle disease virus: The most well known avian paramyxovirus in the genus AVULAVIRUS and the cause of a highly infectious pneumoencephalitis in fowl. It is also reported to cause CONJUNCTIVITIS in humans. Transmission is by droplet inhalation or ingestion of contaminated water or food.Virus Internalization: The entering of cells by viruses following VIRUS ATTACHMENT. This is achieved by ENDOCYTOSIS, by direct MEMBRANE FUSION of the viral membrane with the CELL MEMBRANE, or by translocation of the whole virus across the cell membrane.Antibodies, Bacterial: Immunoglobulins produced in a response to BACTERIAL ANTIGENS.Protein Binding: The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.Host Specificity: The properties of a pathogen that makes it capable of infecting one or more specific hosts. The pathogen can include PARASITES as well as VIRUSES; BACTERIA; FUNGI; or PLANTS.Cell Membrane: The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.Immune Sera: Serum that contains antibodies. It is obtained from an animal that has been immunized either by ANTIGEN injection or infection with microorganisms containing the antigen.Species Specificity: The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.Influenza A Virus, H7N2 Subtype: A subtype of INFLUENZA A VIRUS comprised of the surface proteins hemagglutinin 7 and neuraminidase 2. It has been involved in a number of outbreaks in the 21st century on poultry farms and has been isolated a few times in humans.Zanamivir: A guanido-neuraminic acid that is used to inhibit NEURAMINIDASE.Virus Cultivation: Process of growing viruses in live animals, plants, or cultured cells.Cricetinae: A subfamily in the family MURIDAE, comprising the hamsters. Four of the more common genera are Cricetus, CRICETULUS; MESOCRICETUS; and PHODOPUS.Recombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.Nucleoproteins: Proteins conjugated with nucleic acids.Sequence Analysis, DNA: A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.Mannose: A hexose or fermentable monosaccharide and isomer of glucose from manna, the ash Fraxinus ornus and related plants. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed & Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)Vaccines, Attenuated: Live vaccines prepared from microorganisms which have undergone physical adaptation (e.g., by radiation or temperature conditioning) or serial passage in laboratory animal hosts or infected tissue/cell cultures, in order to produce avirulent mutant strains capable of inducing protective immunity.Antibody Formation: The production of ANTIBODIES by proliferating and differentiated B-LYMPHOCYTES under stimulation by ANTIGENS.Bordetella bronchiseptica: A species of BORDETELLA that is parasitic and pathogenic. It is found in the respiratory tract of domestic and wild mammalian animals and can be transmitted from animals to man. It is a common cause of bronchopneumonia in lower animals.Poultry Diseases: Diseases of birds which are raised as a source of meat or eggs for human consumption and are usually found in barnyards, hatcheries, etc. The concept is differentiated from BIRD DISEASES which is for diseases of birds not considered poultry and usually found in zoos, parks, and the wild.Genetic Vectors: DNA molecules capable of autonomous replication within a host cell and into which other DNA sequences can be inserted and thus amplified. Many are derived from PLASMIDS; BACTERIOPHAGES; or VIRUSES. They are used for transporting foreign genes into recipient cells. Genetic vectors possess a functional replicator site and contain GENETIC MARKERS to facilitate their selective recognition.Mycoplasma synoviae: A species of gram-negative bacteria pathogenic to CHICKENS; TURKEYS, and guinea fowls. It causes disease in a wide variety of organs and tissues including JOINTS, tendon sheaths and the RESPIRATORY TRACT.Binding Sites: The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay: An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed.Immunoglobulin G: The major immunoglobulin isotype class in normal human serum. There are several isotype subclasses of IgG, for example, IgG1, IgG2A, and IgG2B.RNA, Viral: Ribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.Agglutination: The clumping together of suspended material resulting from the action of AGGLUTININS.Epitope Mapping: Methods used for studying the interactions of antibodies with specific regions of protein antigens. Important applications of epitope mapping are found within the area of immunochemistry.Administration, Intranasal: Delivery of medications through the nasal mucosa.Serial Passage: Inoculation of a series of animals or in vitro tissue with an infectious bacterium or virus, as in VIRULENCE studies and the development of vaccines.Virus Shedding: The expelling of virus particles from the body. Important routes include the respiratory tract, genital tract, and intestinal tract. Virus shedding is an important means of vertical transmission (INFECTIOUS DISEASE TRANSMISSION, VERTICAL).Trypsin: A serine endopeptidase that is formed from TRYPSINOGEN in the pancreas. It is converted into its active form by ENTEROPEPTIDASE in the small intestine. It catalyzes hydrolysis of the carboxyl group of either arginine or lysine. EC 126.96.36.199.Vaccines, DNA: Recombinant DNA vectors encoding antigens administered for the prevention or treatment of disease. The host cells take up the DNA, express the antigen, and present it to the immune system in a manner similar to that which would occur during natural infection. This induces humoral and cellular immune responses against the encoded antigens. The vector is called naked DNA because there is no need for complex formulations or delivery agents; the plasmid is injected in saline or other buffers.Recombination, Genetic: Production of new arrangements of DNA by various mechanisms such as assortment and segregation, CROSSING OVER; GENE CONVERSION; GENETIC TRANSFORMATION; GENETIC CONJUGATION; GENETIC TRANSDUCTION; or mixed infection of viruses.PyransViral Plaque Assay: Method for measuring viral infectivity and multiplication in CULTURED CELLS. Clear lysed areas or plaques develop as the VIRAL PARTICLES are released from the infected cells during incubation. With some VIRUSES, the cells are killed by a cytopathic effect; with others, the infected cells are not killed but can be detected by their hemadsorptive ability. Sometimes the plaque cells contain VIRAL ANTIGENS which can be measured by IMMUNOFLUORESCENCE.Adhesins, Escherichia coli: Thin, filamentous protein structures, including proteinaceous capsular antigens (fimbrial antigens), that mediate adhesion of E. coli to surfaces and play a role in pathogenesis. They have a high affinity for various epithelial cells.Sf9 Cells: Cell line derived from SF21 CELLS which are a cell line isolated from primary explants of SPODOPTERA FRUGIPERDA pupal tissue.Disease Outbreaks: Sudden increase in the incidence of a disease. The concept includes EPIDEMICS and PANDEMICS.Oligosaccharides: Carbohydrates consisting of between two (DISACCHARIDES) and ten MONOSACCHARIDES connected by either an alpha- or beta-glycosidic link. They are found throughout nature in both the free and bound form.Swine: Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).PolysaccharidesAntigens, Bacterial: Substances elaborated by bacteria that have antigenic activity.Cloning, Molecular: The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.Microscopy, Electron: Microscopy using an electron beam, instead of light, to visualize the sample, thereby allowing much greater magnification. The interactions of ELECTRONS with specimens are used to provide information about the fine structure of that specimen. In TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen are imaged. In SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY an electron beam falls at a non-normal angle on the specimen and the image is derived from the reactions occurring above the plane of the specimen.Recombinant Fusion Proteins: Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.Electrophoresis, Polyacrylamide Gel: Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.Lung: Either of the pair of organs occupying the cavity of the thorax that effect the aeration of the blood.Peptides: Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.Adjuvants, Immunologic: Substances that augment, stimulate, activate, potentiate, or modulate the immune response at either the cellular or humoral level. The classical agents (Freund's adjuvant, BCG, Corynebacterium parvum, et al.) contain bacterial antigens. Some are endogenous (e.g., histamine, interferon, transfer factor, tuftsin, interleukin-1). Their mode of action is either non-specific, resulting in increased immune responsiveness to a wide variety of antigens, or antigen-specific, i.e., affecting a restricted type of immune response to a narrow group of antigens. The therapeutic efficacy of many biological response modifiers is related to their antigen-specific immunoadjuvanticity.Polysorbates: Sorbitan mono-9-octadecanoate poly(oxy-1,2-ethanediyl) derivatives; complex mixtures of polyoxyethylene ethers used as emulsifiers or dispersing agents in pharmaceuticals.Viral Vaccines: Suspensions of attenuated or killed viruses administered for the prevention or treatment of infectious viral disease.Liposomes: Artificial, single or multilaminar vesicles (made from lecithins or other lipids) that are used for the delivery of a variety of biological molecules or molecular complexes to cells, for example, drug delivery and gene transfer. They are also used to study membranes and membrane proteins.Vaccines, Virosome: Vaccines using VIROSOMES as the antigen delivery system that stimulates the desired immune response.Protein Structure, Tertiary: The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.Protein Processing, Post-Translational: Any of various enzymatically catalyzed post-translational modifications of PEPTIDES or PROTEINS in the cell of origin. These modifications include carboxylation; HYDROXYLATION; ACETYLATION; PHOSPHORYLATION; METHYLATION; GLYCOSYLATION; ubiquitination; oxidation; proteolysis; and crosslinking and result in changes in molecular weight and electrophoretic motility.Evolution, Molecular: The process of cumulative change at the level of DNA; RNA; and PROTEINS, over successive generations.Clostridium botulinum: A species of anaerobic, gram-positive, rod-shaped bacteria in the family Clostridiaceae that produces proteins with characteristic neurotoxicity. It is the etiologic agent of BOTULISM in humans, wild fowl, HORSES; and CATTLE. Seven subtypes (sometimes called antigenic types, or strains) exist, each producing a different botulinum toxin (BOTULINUM TOXINS). The organism and its spores are widely distributed in nature.Rabbits: The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.Amantadine: An antiviral that is used in the prophylactic or symptomatic treatment of influenza A. It is also used as an antiparkinsonian agent, to treat extrapyramidal reactions, and for postherpetic neuralgia. The mechanisms of its effects in movement disorders are not well understood but probably reflect an increase in synthesis and release of dopamine, with perhaps some inhibition of dopamine uptake.Cloaca: A dilated cavity extended caudally from the hindgut. In adult birds, reptiles, amphibians, and many fishes but few mammals, cloaca is a common chamber into which the digestive, urinary and reproductive tracts discharge their contents. In most mammals, cloaca gives rise to LARGE INTESTINE; URINARY BLADDER; and GENITALIA.Virion: The infective system of a virus, composed of the viral genome, a protein core, and a protein coat called a capsid, which may be naked or enclosed in a lipoprotein envelope called the peplos.Fluorescent Antibody Technique: Test for tissue antigen using either a direct method, by conjugation of antibody with fluorescent dye (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, DIRECT) or an indirect method, by formation of antigen-antibody complex which is then labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, INDIRECT). The tissue is then examined by fluorescence microscopy.Bacterial Proteins: Proteins found in any species of bacterium.Respirovirus: A genus of the family PARAMYXOVIRIDAE (subfamily PARAMYXOVIRINAE) where all the virions have both HEMAGGLUTININ and NEURAMINIDASE activities and encode a non-structural C protein. SENDAI VIRUS is the type species.CHO Cells: CELL LINE derived from the ovary of the Chinese hamster, Cricetulus griseus (CRICETULUS). The species is a favorite for cytogenetic studies because of its small chromosome number. The cell line has provided model systems for the study of genetic alterations in cultured mammalian cells.Bordetella Infections: Infections with bacteria of the genus BORDETELLA.Genetic Variation: Genotypic differences observed among individuals in a population.Immunization, Secondary: Any immunization following a primary immunization and involving exposure to the same or a closely related antigen.Immunoglobulin A: Represents 15-20% of the human serum immunoglobulins, mostly as the 4-chain polymer in humans or dimer in other mammals. Secretory IgA (IMMUNOGLOBULIN A, SECRETORY) is the main immunoglobulin in secretions.Injections, Intramuscular: Forceful administration into a muscle of liquid medication, nutrient, or other fluid through a hollow needle piercing the muscle and any tissue covering it.Swine Diseases: Diseases of domestic swine and of the wild boar of the genus Sus.HN Protein: Glycoprotein from Sendai, para-influenza, Newcastle Disease, and other viruses that participates in binding the virus to cell-surface receptors. The HN protein possesses both hemagglutinin and neuraminidase activity.Influenza A Virus, H1N2 Subtype: A subtype of INFLUENZA A VIRUS comprised of the surface proteins hemagglutinin 1 and neuraminidase 2. It is endemic in both human and pig populations.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Oseltamivir: An acetamido cyclohexene that is a structural homolog of SIALIC ACID and inhibits NEURAMINIDASE.Sequence Homology, Amino Acid: The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.Mutagenesis, Site-Directed: Genetically engineered MUTAGENESIS at a specific site in the DNA molecule that introduces a base substitution, or an insertion or deletion.Bacteroidaceae Infections: Infections with bacteria of the family BACTEROIDACEAE.Biological Transport: The movement of materials (including biochemical substances and drugs) through a biological system at the cellular level. The transport can be across cell membranes and epithelial layers. It also can occur within intracellular compartments and extracellular compartments.Solubility: The ability of a substance to be dissolved, i.e. to form a solution with another substance. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Membrane Glycoproteins: Glycoproteins found on the membrane or surface of cells.Physarum polycephalum: A protozoan, previously also considered a fungus. Characteristics include sporangia that are stalked and multilobed. It is widely used in biomedical research.Mutation, Missense: A mutation in which a codon is mutated to one directing the incorporation of a different amino acid. This substitution may result in an inactive or unstable product. (From A Dictionary of Genetics, King & Stansfield, 5th ed)Sigmodontinae: A subfamily of the family MURIDAE comprised of 69 genera. New World mice and rats are included in this subfamily.SqualeneAntiviral Agents: Agents used in the prophylaxis or therapy of VIRUS DISEASES. Some of the ways they may act include preventing viral replication by inhibiting viral DNA polymerase; binding to specific cell-surface receptors and inhibiting viral penetration or uncoating; inhibiting viral protein synthesis; or blocking late stages of virus assembly.Sequence Alignment: The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Immunodiffusion: Technique involving the diffusion of antigen or antibody through a semisolid medium, usually agar or agarose gel, with the result being a precipitin reaction.Antigens: Substances that are recognized by the immune system and induce an immune reaction.Plasmids: Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.Influenzavirus C: A genus of the family ORTHOMYXOVIRIDAE comprising viruses similar to types A and B but less common, more stable, more homogeneous, and lacking the neuraminidase protein. They have not been associated with epidemics but may cause mild influenza. Influenza C virus is the type species.Respiratory System: The tubular and cavernous organs and structures, by means of which pulmonary ventilation and gas exchange between ambient air and the blood are brought about.Structure-Activity Relationship: The relationship between the chemical structure of a compound and its biological or pharmacological activity. Compounds are often classed together because they have structural characteristics in common including shape, size, stereochemical arrangement, and distribution of functional groups.Immunization, Passive: Transfer of immunity from immunized to non-immune host by administration of serum antibodies, or transplantation of lymphocytes (ADOPTIVE TRANSFER).Vaccines, Virus-Like Particle: Vaccines using supra-molecular structures composed of multiple copies of recombinantly expressed viral structural proteins. They are often antigentically indistinguishable from the virus from which they were derived.Temperature: The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.Centrifugation, Zonal: Centrifugation using a rotating chamber of large capacity in which to separate cell organelles by density-gradient centrifugation. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)DNA, Recombinant: Biologically active DNA which has been formed by the in vitro joining of segments of DNA from different sources. It includes the recombination joint or edge of a heteroduplex region where two recombining DNA molecules are connected.Kidney: Body organ that filters blood for the secretion of URINE and that regulates ion concentrations.
A new member of the Sin3 family of corepressors is essential for cell viability and required for retroelement propagation in fission yeast. (1/1495)Tf1 is a long terminal repeat (LTR)-containing retrotransposon that propagates within the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe. LTR-retrotransposons possess significant similarity to retroviruses and therefore serve as retrovirus models. To determine what features of the host cell are important for the proliferation of this class of retroelements, we screened for mutations in host genes that reduced the transposition activity of Tf1. We report here the isolation and characterization of pst1(+), a gene required for Tf1 transposition. The predicted amino acid sequence of Pst1p possessed high sequence homology with the Sin3 family of proteins, known for their interaction with histone deacetylases. However, unlike the SIN3 gene of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, pst1(+) is essential for cell viability. Immunofluorescence microscopy indicated that Pst1p was localized in the nucleus. Consistent with the critical role previously reported for Sin3 proteins in the histone acetylation process, we found that the growth of the strain with the pst1-1 allele was supersensitive to the specific histone deacetylase inhibitor trichostatin A. However, our analysis of strains with the pst1-1 mutation was unable to detect any changes in the acetylation of specific lysines of histones H3 and H4 as measured in bulk chromatin. Interestingly, the pst1-1 mutant strain produced wild-type levels of Tf1-encoded proteins and cDNA, indicating that the defect in transposition occurred after reverse transcription. The results of immunofluorescence microscopy showed that the nuclear localization of the Tf1 capsid protein was disrupted in the strain with the pst1-1 mutation, indicating an important role of pst1(+) in modulating the nuclear import of Tf1 virus-like particles. (+info)
Role of antibodies against Bordetella pertussis virulence factors in adherence of Bordetella pertussis and Bordetella parapertussis to human bronchial epithelial cells. (2/1495)Immunization with whole-cell pertussis vaccines (WCV) containing heat-killed Bordetella pertussis cells and with acellular vaccines containing genetically or chemically detoxified pertussis toxin (PT) in combination with filamentous hemagglutinin (FHA), pertactin (Prn), or fimbriae confers protection in humans and animals against B. pertussis infection. In an earlier study we demonstrated that FHA is involved in the adherence of these bacteria to human bronchial epithelial cells. In the present study we investigated whether mouse antibodies directed against B. pertussis FHA, PTg, Prn, and fimbriae, or against two other surface molecules, lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and the 40-kDa outer membrane porin protein (OMP), that are not involved in bacterial adherence, were able to block adherence of B. pertussis and B. parapertussis to human bronchial epithelial cells. All antibodies studied inhibited the adherence of B. pertussis to these epithelial cells and were equally effective in this respect. Only antibodies against LPS and 40-kDa OMP affected the adherence of B. parapertussis to epithelial cells. We conclude that antibodies which recognize surface structures on B. pertussis or on B. parapertussis can inhibit adherence of the bacteria to bronchial epithelial cells, irrespective whether these structures play a role in adherence of the bacteria to these cells. (+info)
Role of Bordetella pertussis virulence factors in adherence to epithelial cell lines derived from the human respiratory tract. (3/1495)During colonization of the respiratory tract by Bordetella pertussis, virulence factors contribute to adherence of the bacterium to the respiratory tract epithelium. In the present study, we examined the roles of the virulence factors filamentous hemagglutinin (FHA), fimbriae, pertactin (Prn), and pertussis toxin (PT) in the adherence of B. pertussis to cells of the human bronchial epithelial cell line NCI-H292 and of the laryngeal epithelial cell line HEp-2. Using B. pertussis mutant strains and purified FHA, fimbriae, Prn, and PT, we demonstrated that both fimbriae and FHA are involved in the adhesion of B. pertussis to laryngeal epithelial cells, whereas only FHA is involved in the adherence to bronchial epithelial cells. For PT and Prn, no role as adhesion factor was found. However, purified PT bound to both bronchial and laryngeal cells and as such reduced the adherence of B. pertussis to these cells. These data may imply that fimbriae play a role in infection of only the laryngeal mucosa, while FHA is the major factor in colonization of the entire respiratory tract. (+info)
Genetic characterization of a new type IV-A pilus gene cluster found in both classical and El Tor biotypes of Vibrio cholerae. (4/1495)The Vibrio cholerae genome contains a 5.4-kb pil gene cluster that resembles the Aeromonas hydrophila tap gene cluster and other type IV-A pilus assembly operons. The region consists of five complete open reading frames designated pilABCD and yacE, based on the nomenclature of related genes from Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Escherichia coli K-12. This cluster is present in both classical and El Tor biotypes, and the pilA and pilD genes are 100% conserved. The pilA gene encodes a putative type IV pilus subunit. However, deletion of pilA had no effect on either colonization of infant mice or adherence to HEp-2 cells, demonstrating that pilA does not encode the primary subunit of a pilus essential for these processes. The pilD gene product is similar to other type IV prepilin peptidases, proteins that process type IV signal sequences. Mutational analysis of the pilD gene showed that pilD is essential for secretion of cholera toxin and hemagglutinin-protease, mannose-sensitive hemagglutination (MSHA), production of toxin-coregulated pili, and colonization of infant mice. Defects in these functions are likely due to the lack of processing of N termini of four Eps secretion proteins, four proteins of the MSHA cluster, and TcpB, all of which contain type IV-A leader sequences. Some pilD mutants also showed reduced adherence to HEp-2 cells, but this defect could not be complemented in trans, indicating that the defect may not be directly due to a loss of pilD. Taken together, these data demonstrate the effectiveness of the V. cholerae genome project for rapid identification and characterization of potential virulence factors. (+info)
Conformational changes in the A3 domain of von Willebrand factor modulate the interaction of the A1 domain with platelet glycoprotein Ib. (5/1495)Bitiscetin has recently been shown to induce von Willebrand factor (vWF)-dependent aggregation of fixed platelets (Hamako J, et al, Biochem Biophys Res Commun 226:273, 1996). We have purified bitiscetin from Bitis arietans venom and investigated the mechanism whereby it promotes a form of vWF that is reactive with platelets. In the presence of bitiscetin, vWF binds to platelets in a dose-dependent and saturable manner. The binding of vWF to platelets involves glycoprotein (GP) Ib because it was totally blocked by monoclonal antibody (MoAb) 6D1 directed towards the vWF-binding site of GPIb. The binding also involves the GPIb-binding site of vWF located on the A1 domain because it was inhibited by MoAb to vWF whose epitopes are within this domain and that block binding of vWF to platelets induced by ristocetin or botrocetin. However, in contrast to ristocetin or botrocetin, the binding site of bitiscetin does not reside within the A1 domain but within the A3 domain of vWF. Thus, among a series of vWF fragments, 125I-bitiscetin only binds to those that overlap the A3 domain, ie, SpIII (amino acid [aa] 1-1365), SpI (aa 911-1365), and rvWF-A3 domain (aa 920-1111). It does not bind to SpII corresponding to the C-terminal part of vWF subunit (aa 1366-2050) nor to the 39/34/kD dispase species (aa 480-718) or T116 (aa 449-728) overlapping the A1 domain. In addition, bitiscetin that does not bind to DeltaA3-rvWF (deleted between aa 910-1113) has no binding site ouside the A3 domain. The localization of the binding site of bitiscetin within the A3 domain was further supported by showing that MoAb to vWF, which are specific for this domain and block the interaction between vWF and collagen, are potent inhibitors of the binding of bitiscetin to vWF and consequently of the bitiscetin-induced binding of vWF to platelets. Thus, our data support the hypothesis that an interaction between the A1 and A3 domains exists that may play a role in the function of vWF by regulating the ability of the A1 domain to bind to platelet GPIb. (+info)
Rapid evolution of H5N1 influenza viruses in chickens in Hong Kong. (6/1495)The H5N1 avian influenza virus that killed 6 of 18 persons infected in Hong Kong in 1997 was transmitted directly from poultry to humans. Viral isolates from this outbreak may provide molecular clues to zoonotic transfer. Here we demonstrate that the H5N1 viruses circulating in poultry comprised two distinguishable phylogenetic lineages in all genes that were in very rapid evolution. When introduced into new hosts, influenza viruses usually undergo rapid alteration of their surface glycoproteins, especially in the hemagglutinin (HA). Surprisingly, these H5N1 isolates had a large proportion of amino acid changes in all gene products except in the HA. These viruses maybe reassortants each of whose HA gene is well adapted to domestic poultry while the rest of the genome arises from a different source. The consensus amino acid sequences of "internal" virion proteins reveal amino acids previously found in human strains. These human-specific amino acids may be important factors in zoonotic transmission. (+info)
Effect of temperature on growth, hemagglutination, and protease activity of Porphyromonas gingivalis. (7/1495)Bacteria persisting in periodontal pockets are exposed to elevated temperatures during periods of inflammation. Temperature is an environmental factor that can modulate gene expression. Consequently, in the present study we examined the effect of temperature on the expression of virulence determinants by the periodontopathogen, Porphyromonas gingivalis. P. gingivalis W50 was grown in a complex medium under hemin excess at pH 7.0 and at a constant temperature of either 37, 39, or 41 degrees C; cultures were monitored for protease and hemagglutinin activity. P. gingivalis grew well at all three temperatures. An increase in growth temperature from 37 to 39 degrees C resulted in a 65% reduction in both total arginine- and lysine-specific activities (P < 0.01). A further rise in growth temperature to 41 degrees C led to even greater reductions in arginine-specific (82%; P < 0.001) and lysine-specific (73%; P < 0. 01) activities. These reductions were also associated with an altered distribution of individual arginine-specific enzyme isoforms. At 41 degrees C, there was a disproportionate reduction in the level of the heterodimeric RI protease, which also contains adhesin domains. The reduction also correlated with a markedly diminished hemagglutination activity of cells, especially in those grown at 41 degrees C, and a reduced immunoreactivity with a monoclonal antibody which recognizes gene products involved in hemagglutination. Thus, as the environmental temperature increased, P. gingivalis adopted a less aggressive phenotype, while retaining cell population levels. The coordinate down-regulation of virulence gene expression in response to an environmental cue linked to the intensity of the host inflammatory response is consistent with the clinically observed cyclical nature of disease progression in periodontal diseases. (+info)
Enzymatic synthesis of natural and 13C enriched linear poly-N-acetyllactosamines as ligands for galectin-1. (8/1495)As part of a study of protein-carbohydrate interactions, linear N-acetyl-polyllactosamines [Galbeta1,4GlcNAcbeta1,3]nwere synthesized at the 10-100 micromol scale using enzymatic methods. The methods described also provided specifically [1-13C]-galactose-labeled tetra- and hexasaccharides ([1-13C]-Galbeta1,4GlcNAcbeta1,3Galbeta1,4Glc and Galbeta1, 4GlcNAcbeta1,3[1-13C]Galbeta1,4GlcNAcbeta1,3Galbeta 1,4Glc) suitable for NMR studies. Two series of oligosaccharides were produced, with either glucose or N-acetlyglucosamine at the reducing end. In both cases, large amounts of starting primer were available from human milk oligosaccharides (trisaccharide primer GlcNAcbeta1,3Galbeta1, 4Glc) or via transglycosylation from N-acetyllactosamine. Partially purified and immobilized glycosyltransferases, such as bovine milk beta1,4 galactosyltransferase and human serum beta1,3 N- acetylglucosaminyltransferase, were used for the synthesis. All the oligo-saccharide products were characterized by1H and13C NMR spectroscopy and MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry. The target molecules were then used to study their interactions with recombinant galectin-1, and initial1H NMR spectroscopic results are presented to illustrate this approach. These results indicate that, for oligomers containing up to eight sugars, the principal interaction of the binding site of galectin-1 is with the terminal N-acetyllactosamine residues. (+info)
Haemagglutinin - definition of haemagglutinin by The Free Dictionary
Haemagglutinins and Adhesion of Escherichia Coli To Hep2 Epithelial Cells | Microbiology Society
Summary Strains of Escherichia coli producing type-1 fimbriae, associated with mannose-sensitive haemagglutinin (MSHA), or three antigenically different kinds of MRE fimbriae, associated with mannose-resistant and eluting haemagglutinins (MREHAs), adhered poorly to HEp2 epithelial cells in an in-vitro adhesion model previously used to demonstrate the importance of motility and type-1 fimbriae for the attachment of strains of Salmonella typhimurium to HEp2 cells. Strains of E. coli producing narrow-spectrum MREHA, agglutinating human erythrocytes only of 14 red-cell species tested, adhered well to HEp2 cells, particularly so when bacteria produced MSHA (and type-1 fimbriae) along with the narrow-spectrum man-only MREHA. These findings are discussed with regard to recent observations suggesting that narrow-spectrum man-only MREHA in E. coli may be associated with fine, fibrillar appendages 2-nm wide.
Hemagglutinin/proteinase elisa and antibody
Seasonal H1N1 Hemagglutinin polyclonal antibody - (PAB16771) - Products - Abnova
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Outer membrane hemagglutinin secretion protein, FhaC. Functionally important conserved motifs have been identified (Delattre et al., 2010). The x-ray structure reveals a beta-barrel pore obstructed by two structural elements conserved in all two partner secretion systems, an N-terminal α-helix and an extracellular loop. FhaC goes from the closed to the open state in the presence of the filamentous haemagglutinin adhesin, FHA. The N-terminal α-helix is displaced into the periplasm during FHA secretion (Guérin et al. 2014). With two POTRA domains in the periplasm, a transmembrane beta barrel and a large loop harboring a functionally important motif, FhaC epitomizes the conserved features of the superfamily (Jacob-Dubuisson et al. 2009). The conserved secretion domain of FHA interacts with the POTRA domains, specific extracellular loops and strands of FhaC and the inner beta-barrel surface. The interaction map indicates a funnel-like pathway, with conformationally flexible FHA entering the ...
Hemagglutinin/HA cDNA Clones | Sino Biological
H1N1 Hemagglutinin/HA HEK293 Cells Overexpression Lysate, 40567-H08HL | Sino Biological
H5N1 Hemagglutinin/HA HEK293 Cells Overexpression Lysate, 11710-V08H1L | Sino Biological
Cloning and sequencing of the gene encoding a novel lysine-specific cysteine proteinase (Lys-Gingipain) in porphyromonas...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Cloning and sequencing of the gene encoding a novel lysine-specific cysteine proteinase (Lys-Gingipain) in porphyromonas gingivalis. T2 - Structural relationship with the arginine-specific cysteine proteinase (Arg-Gingipain). AU - Okamoto, Kuniaki. AU - Kadowaki, Tomoko. AU - Nakayama, Koji. AU - Yamamoto, Kenji. PY - 1996. Y1 - 1996. N2 - Lys-gingipain (KGP), so termed due to its peptide cleavage specificity for lysine residues, is a cysteine proteinase produced by the Gram-negative anaerobic bacterium Porphyromonas gingivalis. Mixed oligonucleotide primers designed from the NH2-terminal sequence of the purified enzyme were used to clone the KGP-encoding gene (kgp) from the organism. The nucleotide sequence of kgp had a 5,169-bp open reading frame encoding 1,723 amino acids with a calculated molecular mass of 218 kDa. As the extracellular mature enzyme had an apparent molecular mass of 51 kDa in gels, the precursor of KGP was found to comprise at least four domains, the signal ...
Role of Gingipains R in the Pathogenesis of Porphyromonas gingivalis-Mediated Periodontal Disease : Clinical Infectious...
It has been demonstrated that the Porphyromonas gingivalis cysteine proteinases (gingipains) activate and/or degrade a broad range of host proteins. Inactivation of gingipains R prior to infection of mice results in a decrease in the virulence of P. gingivalis. Analysis of mouse, rabbit, and chicken antisera raised to gingipain R1 demonstrated that the hemagglutinin domains of gingipains are very immunogenic; however, immunization of mice with a peptide derived from the hemagglutinin domain did not protect mice from P. gingivalis infection. Our recent studies indicate that immunization of mice with a peptide corresponding to the N-terminus of the catalytic domain of gingipains R results in the generation of an immune response that affords protection of mice from P. gingivalis infection. It is postulated that the protection observed results from the inactivation of the enzymatic activity of gingipains R as a result of antibody recognition of a processing site on the gingipain R precursor.. ...
Boosting with mycobacterial heparin-binding haemagglutinin enhances protection of Mycobacterium bovis BCG-vaccinated newborn...
Heterologous prime-boost regimens are a valuable strategy to improve the generation of effector-memory T cell responses against intracellular pathogens. In this study we show that newborn mice vaccinated with bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) and boosted with heparin-binding haemagglutinin (HBHA) had enhanced protective immunity against intranasal or aerosol Mycobacterium tuberculosis challenge over non-boosted mice, as evidenced by a considerable reduction of mycobacterial load in spleen and lung. The route of HBHA delivery had a differential impact on cytokine and antibody production in BCG-primed mice. The prime-boost regimen induced not only HBHA-specific IFN-gamma, but also other cytokines, such as IL-12 and TGF-beta, which may be associated with the generation of lung Th1 effector-memory lymphocytes, responsible for the enhanced protection against M. tuberculosis challenge.
Localization of HArep-Containing Genes on the Chromosome of Porphyromonas gingivalis W83 | Infection and Immunity
Porphyromonas gingivalisis an anaerobic, asaccharolytic bacterium that is recognized as an important etiologic agent in adult periodontitis (7, 18, 34). Virulence factors of P. gingivalisidentified in the mouse abscess animal model include the cysteine proteases Arg- and Lys-gingipain (10, 20). An allelic-exchange mutant of P. gingivalis W83 deficient in arginine-specific cysteine protease activity displayed reduced virulence in this animal model (10). Similar results have been obtained with naturally occurring and allelic-exchange lysine-specific protease mutants of P. gingivalis W83 (20). The specific role of such proteases in virulence has not been elucidated, but they might contribute to the ability of the bacteria to colonize the oral cavity by the exposure of cryptic sites and binding to an extracellular matrix, the evasion of host defense mechanisms through the hydrolysis of immunoglobulin and complement proteins, and the alteration of neutrophil antimicrobial activity by degradation of ...
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The xylem-limited plant pathogen Xylella fastidiosa that colonizes the grape vascular system and causes Pierce fs Disease, employs a Diffusible Signal Factor (DSF) to control virulence. DSF is synthesized by RpfF and sensed by the RpfCG phosphorelay system that modulates cyclic di-GMP metabolism that serves as a switch to transition between a motile plant-colonizing phase and a more adhesive, non-motile form that can be vectored by insect vectors. rpf mutants migrate faster in the plant, proliferate more, cause more symptoms, and are less gsticky h than the wild type strain, but are not transmissible, indicating that DSF accumulation suppresses virulence but is required for transmission. DSF anti-virulence activity may have evolved to avoid excessive colonization of xylem vessels that is lethal to X. fastidiosa. rpf mutants exhibit lower expression of traits contributing to biofilm formation such as the hemagglutinin-like proteins HxfA and HxfB and higher expression of genes associated with ...
kgp recombinant protein | Lys-gingipain Recombinant Protein-YP 001929844.1
Function and Secretion of Bordetella Filamentous Hemagglutinin - Peggy Cotter
Recombinant H11N2 Hemagglutinin/HA Protein, HEK293 Cells, His Tag, 11705-V08H1 | Sino Biological
Recombinant H11N2 Hemagglutinin/HA Protein (Met1-Arg342) HA1 Subunit 11705-V08H1 with a fusion His Tag, is expressed in HEK293 Cells. With high purity, high biological activity, high stability, and other superior features, you can use this H11N2 Hemagglutinin/HA protein for relevant bioassay and related research.
Recombinant H7N9 Hemagglutinin/HA Protein, HEK293 Cells, His Tag, 40104-V08H4 | Sino Biological
Recombinant H7N9 Hemagglutinin/HA Protein (Met1-Val524) HA1+HA2, cleavage 40104-V08H4 with a fusion His Tag, is expressed in HEK293 Cells. With high purity, high biological activity, high stability, and other superior features, you can use this H7N9 Hemagglutinin/HA protein for relevant bioassay and related research.
Determination of anti-A and anti-B haemagglutinins in medicinal products containing human immunoglobulins | Pharmacopoeia.ru
Anti-HA AlphaLISA Acceptor Beads, 25 mg | PerkinElmer
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SFW10S-2STME1LF Amphenol FCI | Conectores, interconectores | DigiKey
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Frequency of Serological Evidence of Bordetella Infections and Mixed Infections with other Respiratory Pathogens in University...
Banked acute-phase and convalescent-phase serum samples from a previous study of respiratory illness in university students were examined for significant (≥2-fold) increases in ELISA titers of IgA and IgG antibody to Bordetella pertussis filamentous hemagglutinin, pertactin, and fimbriae-2 and ≥4-fold titer increases to agglutinogens by agglutination. ELISA titers of antibody to pertussis toxin could not be determined because of technical problems. Chlamydia pneumoniae infections were diagnosed by culture or by a ≥4-fold increase in immunofluorescence assay titer or a single high titer (≥512). Mycoplasma pneumoniae, influenza A and B, adenovirus, and respiratory syncytial virus infections were diagnosed by ≥4-fold increases in complement fixation titer or a single high titer (≥64). There were 319 subjects with cough of ≥5 days duration, and of these, 47 (15%) had significant increases in antibody to B. pertussis antigens; 26 (8%) had significant increases to fimbriae-2 or ...
Cloning, expression, and sequencing of a protease gene (tpr) from Porphyromonas gingivalis W83 in Escherichia coli. | Infection...
Porphyromonas gingivalis is a highly proteolytic organism which metabolizes small peptides and amino acids. Indirect evidence suggests that the proteases produced by this microorganism constitute an important virulence factor. In this study, a gene bank of P. gingivalis W83 DNA was constructed by cloning 0.5- to 20-kb HindIII-cut DNA fragments into Escherichia coli DH5 alpha by using the plasmid vector pUC19. A clone expressing a protease from P. gingivalis was isolated on LB agar containing 1% skim milk. The clone contained a 3.0-kb insert that coded for a protease with an apparent molecular mass of 64 kDa. Sequencing part of the 3.0-kb DNA fragment revealed an open reading frame encoding a protein of 482 amino acids with a molecular mass of 62.5 kDa. Putative promoter and termination elements flanking the open reading frame were identified. The activity expressed in E. coli was extensively characterized by using various substrates and protease inhibitors, and the results suggest that it is ...
anti-Influenza A virus H1N1 HA (Hemagglutinin) antibody [GT521] | GeneTex
anti-Influenza A virus H1 HA (Hemagglutinin) antibody [B219M] | GeneTex
Swine Flu Hemagglutinin - Stock Image C004/8948 - Science Photo Library
Haemagglutinin antigen supplier
I am looking for a source of Influenza virus haemagglutinin antigen. I need this to use as a positive control for westerns to check expression of a HA tagged protein. The antibody we are going to use is mAb 12CA5 (from Boehringer). I will appreciate if anyone in knowledge of the commercial availablility of the compatible HA antigen will give me the details of the source. Thanks very much Obaid Khan ...
Monoclonal Anti-Influenza A virus (H5N1) H5 Hemagglutinin (HA), A/Hong
nfluenza A virus (H5N1) ATCC ® VR-1609™ Designation: Application: 6D5 is useful for western blotting, ELISA and immunofluorescence. Monoclonal antibody 6D5 (ATCC VR-1609) is broadly reactive against H5N1 HPAI hemagglutinins by ELISA against recombinant proteins. Emerging infectious disease research Respiratory research Influenza Research
hemagglutinin precursor( 114-122 ) amide [Influenza A virus] 1mg A1142-1 | Gentaursearch
Gentaur Molecular :AIC \ Influenza A haemagglutinin H1, antibody \ 5-IAH1
"An antigen-binding cell tumor. Heterophile cold hemagglutinin as a me" by H Hiai, H Shisa et al.
Sequential autolytic processing activates the zymogen of Arg-gingipain. - PubMed - NCBI
Anti-HA AlphaPlex 545 (Tb) Acceptor Beads, 250 µg | PerkinElmer
HA tag抗体|Abcam中国|Anti-HA tag抗体(ab75640)
Toxins | Free Full-Text | Porphyromonas gingivalis Gingipains Trigger a Proinflammatory Response in Human Monocyte-derived...
Porphyromonas gingivalis, the major etiologic agent of chronic periodontitis, produces a broad spectrum of virulence factors, including Arg- and Lys-gingipain cysteine proteinases. In this study, we investigated the capacity of P. gingivalis gingipains to trigger a proinflammatory response in human monocyte-derived macrophages. Both Arg- and Lys-gingipain preparations induced the secretion of TNF-α and IL-8 by macrophages. Stimulation of macrophages with Arg-gingipain A/B preparation at the highest concentration was associated with lower amounts of cytokines detected, a phenomenon likely related to proteolytic degradation. The inflammatory response induced by gingipains was not dependent of their catalytic activity since heat-inactivated preparations were still effective. Stimulating macrophages with gingipain preparations was associated with increased levels of phosphorylated p38α MAPK suggesting its involvement in cell activation. In conclusion, our study brought clear evidence that P. gingivalis
Evidence for independent molecular identity and functional interaction of the haemagglutinin and cysteine proteinase (gingivain...
Summary The sequence of events involved in haemagglutination and lysis of erythrocytes by washed cells, vesicles and the culture supernate of Porphyromonas gingivalis strain W83 was monitored by 51Cr release and transmission electronmicroscopy. All preparations, except capsular material and lipopolysaccharide, caused haemagglutination and, by a slow process of attachment and specific attack on the surface structures of the red blood cells, produced minute pores and eventual leakage of cellular contents. N-acetylglucosamine, N-acetylgalactosamine and several other sugars such as glucose and sucrose had no effect on haemagglutination. Antiserum raised against a cloned haemagglutinin of P. gingivalis strain 381 inhibited the activity of strain W83 cells, vesicles and supernate. The antiserum-neutralised supernate lost 70-80% of its hydrolytic activity towards α-N-benzoyl-L-arginine-4-nitroanilide but the residual activity behaved in a manner similar to the native supernate in that it was completely
Frontiers | Induction of Robust B Cell Responses after Influenza mRNA Vaccination Is Accompanied by Circulating Hemagglutinin...
Modified mRNA vaccines have developed into an effective and well-tolerated vaccine platform that offers scalable and precise antigen production. Nevertheless, the immunological events leading to strong antibody responses elicited by mRNA vaccines are largely unknown. In this study, we demonstrate that protective levels of antibodies to hemagglutinin (HA) were induced after two immunizations of modified non-replicating mRNA encoding Influenza H10 encapsulated in lipid nanoparticles (LNP) in non-human primates. While both intradermal (ID) and intramuscular (IM) administration induced protective titers, ID delivery generated this response more rapidly. Circulating H10-specific memory B cells expanded after each immunization, along with a transient appearance of plasmablasts. The memory B cell pool waned over time but remained detectable throughout the 25-week study. Following prime immunization, H10-specific plasma cells were found in the bone marrow and persisted over time. Germinal centers were formed in
hemagglutinin | Stephan Zielinski: Dwa
Swine flu has been sequenced. More out of curiosity than anything else, I wrote code to translate a key gene into a piece of ambient music:. "Swine Flu Hemagglutinin" (MP3). The algorithm I used is a bit complicated, but just in case youre curious: since the gene is expressed as a surface protein antibodies can sense, its considered as a string of amino acids. Each beat corresponds to one amino acid, and the piece is in 3/4 time, so each six measures would correspond to five turns around the alpha structure. (Im weaseling because I havent the foggiest idea how the protein actually gets folded.) Amino acids with side chains that are neither aromatic not aliphatic control the piano and organ: the nine non-hydrophobics the piano, and the four hydrophobics the organ. The three amino acids with aliphatic side chains control the low synthesizer, while the four with aromatics control the percussion. ש. Update 2009-04-30: For folks coming in from the cnn.com article Making music out of swine flu ...
Porphyromonas gingivalis porphypain protein Summary Report | CureHunter
Lectin, Galactoside-Binding, Soluble, 4 (LGALS4) ELISA Kits
Lectin, Galactoside-Binding, Soluble, 8 (LGALS8) Antikörper
Anti-HA, conjugated to DyLight 550 antibodies
Gentaur Molecular :ICL \ anti-HA FITC A.P. Host Rabbit \ RHGT-45F-Z
Beta-galactoside-binding lectin L-14-II | definition of Beta-galactoside-binding lectin L-14-II by Medical dictionary
Looking for online definition of Beta-galactoside-binding lectin L-14-II in the Medical Dictionary? Beta-galactoside-binding lectin L-14-II explanation free. What is Beta-galactoside-binding lectin L-14-II? Meaning of Beta-galactoside-binding lectin L-14-II medical term. What does Beta-galactoside-binding lectin L-14-II mean?
http | Vaccination News
A 2.5 year-old girl was found to have congenital rubella syndrome. She presented with microcephaly, mild developmental delay, partial sensorineural deafness and cerebellar atrophy. Blood titers of rubella hemagglutinin were 1/256 and 1/512 (exclusively IgG). She had not had rubella, nor had she been immunized against it. The mother had been immunized against rubella 4 years before her pregnancy with this girl and 2 years later blood hemagglutinin titers were 1/32 and 1/64. She was neither exposed to nor suffered from rubella during the pregnancy. Reinfection with rubella, extremely rare during pregnancy, may occur in women whose hemagglutinin titers are lower than 1/64. Rubella also occurs in women who have been immunized but whose titers, similarly, are lower than 1/64. In some of these women the disease is asymptomatic. In general, reinfection does not result in fetal injury, but cases have been described in which babies of mothers infected in pregnancy were born suffering from various degrees ...
Identification of a new membrane-associated protein that influences transport/maturation of gingipains and adhesins of...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Identification of a new membrane-associated protein that influences transport/maturation of gingipains and adhesins of Porphyromonas gingivalis. AU - Sato, Keiko. AU - Sakai, Eiko. AU - Veith, Paul D.. AU - Shoji, Mikio. AU - Kikuchi, Yuichiro. AU - Yukitake, Hideharu. AU - Ohara, Naoya. AU - Naito, Mariko. AU - Okamoto, Kuniaki. AU - Reynolds, Eric C.. AU - Nakayama, Koji. PY - 2005/3/11. Y1 - 2005/3/11. N2 - The dual membrane envelopes of Gram-negative bacteria provide two barriers of unlike nature that regulate the transport of molecules into and out of organisms. Organisms have developed several systems for transport across the inner and outer membranes. The Gram-negative periodontopathogenic bacterium Porphyromonas gingivalis produces proteinase and adhesin complexes, gingipains/adhesins, on the cell surface and in the extracellular milieu as one of the major virulence factors. Gingipains and/or adhesins are encoded by kgp, rgpA, rgpB, and hagA on the chromosome. In this ...
JCVI: Defining Influenza A Virus Hemagglutinin Antigenic Drift by Sequential Monoclonal Antibody Selection.
Citation. Das SR, Hensley SE, Ince WL, Brooke CB, Subba A, Delboy MG, Russ G, Gibbs JS, Bennink JR, Yewdell JW. Defining Influenza A Virus Hemagglutinin Antigenic Drift by Sequential Monoclonal Antibody Selection.. Cell Host & Microbe. 2013 Mar 13; 13: 314-23.. External Citation. Abstract. Human influenza A virus (IAV) vaccination is limited by antigenic drift, rapid antibody-driven escape reflecting amino acid substitutions in the globular domain of hemagglutinin (HA), the viral attachment protein. To better understand drift, we used anti-hemagglutinin monoclonal Abs (mAbs) to sequentially select IAV escape mutants. Twelve selection steps, each resulting in a single amino acid substitution in the hemagglutinin globular domain, were required to eliminate antigenicity defined by monoclonal or polyclonal Abs. Sequential mutants grow robustly, showing the structural plasticity of HA, although several hemagglutinin substitutions required an epistatic substitution in the neuraminidase glycoprotein ...
JCVI: Influenza a Virus Hemagglutinin Trimerization Completes Monomer Folding and Antigenicity.
Citation. Magadán JG, Khurana S, Das SR, Frank GM, Stevens J, Golding H, Bennink JR, Yewdell JW. Influenza a Virus Hemagglutinin Trimerization Completes Monomer Folding and Antigenicity.. Journal of Virology. 2013 Sep 01; 87: 9742-53.. External Citation. Abstract. Influenza A virus (IAV) remains an important human pathogen largely because of antigenic drift, the rapid emergence of antibody escape mutants that precludes durable vaccination. The most potent neutralizing antibodies interact with cognate epitopes in the globular head domain of hemagglutinin (HA), a homotrimeric glycoprotein. The H1 HA possesses five distinct regions defined by a large number of mouse monoclonal antibodies (MAbs), i.e., Ca1, Ca2, Cb, Sa, and Sb. Ca1-Ca2 sites require HA trimerization to attain full antigenicity, consistent with their locations on opposite sides of the trimer interface. Here, we show that full antigenicity of Cb and Sa sites also requires HA trimerization, as revealed by immunofluorescence ...
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Recombinant Influenza A Virus Hemagglutinin H5 protein (ab69748) Protocols
Preparation of influenza virus subviral particles lacking the HA1 subunit of hemagglutinin: unmasking of cross-reactive HA2...
Acid treatment of influenza A and B virus preparations followed by addition of dithiothreitol (DTT) and centrifugation through a sucrose cushion removes the HA1 subunit of hemagglutinin from virus. Rabbit sera made against these subviral particles and untreated virus were tested in a radioimmune pre …
Influenza A H3N2 (A/Moscow/10/1999) Hemagglutinin / HA1 HEK293 Cell Lysate (WB positive control) | SinoBiological
Influenza A H12N1 (A/mallard duck/Alberta/342/1983) Hemagglutinin / HA HEK293 Cell Lysate (WB positive control) | SinoBiological
H6N2 Hemagglutinin/HA Baculovirus-Insect Cells Overexpression Lysate, 40166-V08BL | Sino Biological
H3N2 Hemagglutinin/HA Baculovirus-Insect Cells Overexpression Lysate | Sino Biological
H3N2 Hemagglutinin/HA Baculovirus-Insect Cells Overexpression Lysate | Sino Biological
Inhibition of trypsin-like cysteine proteinases (gingipains) from Porphyromonas gingivalis by tetracycline and its analogues
Projekt „Repozytorium otwartego dostępu do dorobku naukowego i dydaktycznego UJ" współfinansowany w ramach poddziałania 2.3.1 „Cyfrowe udostępnianie zasobów nauki" Programu Operacyjnego Polska Cyfrowa z Europejskiego Funduszu Rozwoju Regionalnego i budżetu państwa na podstawie umowy o dofinansowanie nr POPC.02.03.01-00-0030/17-00 ...
RCSB PDB - Protein Feature View - Lys-gingipain W83 - Q51817 (KGP83 PORGN)
The PDB archive contains information about experimentally-determined structures of proteins, nucleic acids, and complex assemblies. As a member of the wwPDB, the RCSB PDB curates and annotates PDB data according to agreed upon standards. The RCSB PDB also provides a variety of tools and resources. Users can perform simple and advanced searches based on annotations relating to sequence, structure and function. These molecules are visualized, downloaded, and analyzed by users who range from students to specialized scientists.
RCSB PDB for 3S18
Search Articles | University of Toronto Libraries
The surprising finding.
A simple "yes / no" PCR result for the presence of AIV in clinical specimens is provided by the highly sensitive and specific M gene real-time PCR protocol, essentially as described by Spackman (see references). This test can detect viruses of all haemagglutinin (HA) subtypes (1-16) since it targets the matrix gene that is conserved amongst all influenza A viruses.. ...
Galectin 3 293T transfected lysate (ab94225) | Abcam
Galectin genes: Regulation of expression | SpringerLink
Portal de Obligaciones de Transparencia
Antibodies and lectins are commonly known hemagglutinins. Examples include: Influenza hemagglutinin Measles hemagglutinin ... Cold agglutinin disease Hemagglutination assay Phytohaemagglutinins, hemagglutinins produced by plants Hemagglutinin (influenza ... "hemagglutinin" at Dorland's Medical Dictionary Hemagglutinins at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings ( ...
Brazilian purpuric fever
Influenza A virus subtype H5N1
Natural killer cell
When erythrocytes are exposed to hemagglutinins (anti-A and Anti-B antibodies), those expressing antigen A or B coagulate upon ... Agglutination, using blood agglutinins known as hemagglutinins, is used diagnostically to identify blood types of human beings ... Erythrocytes expressing both antigens coagulate upon contacting either anti-A or anti-B hemagglutinins while those not ... contacting anti-A and anti-B hemagglutinins respectively. ...
List of MeSH codes (D12.776)
List of MeSH codes (D16)
List of MeSH codes (D23)
Mannose-binding hemagglutinins in extracts of Pseudomonas aeruginosa. - PubMed - NCBI
... these two types of bacterial hemagglutinins are like most of the plant, contrasted with the animal, hemagglutinins. The ... The mannose-specific hemagglutinins were shown to be similar to the galactophilic ones in (a) being glycoproteins of very low ... Mannose-binding hemagglutinins in extracts of Pseudomonas aeruginosa.. Gilboa-Garber N, Mizrahi L, Garber N. ... Mannose-binding hemagglutinins were found in the extracts of a pyocyanin-forming Pseudomonas aeruginosa, which contain ...
Molecular Docking of Broad-Spectrum Antibodies on Hemagglutinins of Influenza A Virus - FluTrackers News and Information
Molecular Docking of Broad-Spectrum Antibodies on Hemagglutinins of Influenza A Virus. Le KP ... Molecular Docking of Broad-Spectrum Antibodies on Hemagglutinins of Influenza A Virus.. Le KP1, Do PC1, Amaro RE2, Le L1,2.. ... Molecular Docking of Broad-Spectrum Antibodies on Hemagglutinins of Influenza A Virus. Evol Bioinform Online. 2019 Sep 16;15: ... In silico studies on broad-reactive antibodies and their interactions with hemagglutinins might shed light on the rational ...
A Neutralizing Antibody Selected from Plasma Cells That Binds to Group 1 and Group 2 Influenza A Hemagglutinins | Science
A common neutralizing epitope conserved between the hemagglutinins of influenza A virus H1 and H2 strains. J. Virol. 67, 2552 ( ... A Neutralizing Antibody Selected from Plasma Cells That Binds to Group 1 and Group 2 Influenza A Hemagglutinins ... Comparison of complete amino acid sequences and receptor-binding properties among 13 serotypes of hemagglutinins of influenza A ... Establishment of retroviral pseudotypes with influenza hemagglutinins from H1, H3, and H5 subtypes for sensitive and specific ...
Structure, Receptor Binding, and Antigenicity of Influenza Virus Hemagglutinins from the 1957 H2N2 Pandemic | Journal of...
An epitope shared by the hemagglutinins of H1, H2, H5, and H6 subtypes of influenza A virus. Acta Virol.43:237-244. ... A common neutralizing epitope conserved between the hemagglutinins of influenza A virus H1 and H2 strains. J. Virol.67:2552- ... Structure, Receptor Binding, and Antigenicity of Influenza Virus Hemagglutinins from the 1957 H2N2 Pandemic. Rui Xu, Ryan ... Hemagglutinins from two influenza virus variants bind to sialic acid derivatives with millimolar dissociation constants: a 500- ...
A common neutralizing epitope conserved between the hemagglutinins of influenza A virus H1 and H2 strains. | Journal of Virology
A common neutralizing epitope conserved between the hemagglutinins of influenza A virus H1 and H2 strains.. Y Okuno, Y Isegawa ... A common neutralizing epitope conserved between the hemagglutinins of influenza A virus H1 and H2 strains. ... A common neutralizing epitope conserved between the hemagglutinins of influenza A virus H1 and H2 strains. ... A common neutralizing epitope conserved between the hemagglutinins of influenza A virus H1 and H2 strains. ...
Prediction of mutations engineered by randomness in H5N1 hemagglutinins of influenza A virus | Springer for Research &...
Wu, G, Yan, S 2006fPrediction of mutations in H5N1 hemagglutinins from influenza A virusProtein Pept Lett13971976CrossRefGoogle ... Wu, G, Yan, S 2004dFate of 130 hemagglutinins from different influenza A virusesBiochem Biophys Res Commun317917924CrossRef ... Wu, G, Yan, S 2005fTiming of mutation in hemagglutinins from influenza A virus by means of unpredictable portion of amino acid ... Wu, G, Yan, S 2006cTiming of mutation in hemagglutinins from influenza A virus by means of amino acid distribution rank and ...
A candidate swine influenza virus vaccine: in vivo evaluation of novel chimeric hemagglutinins expressed by parainfluenza virus...
Prediction of mutation position, mutated amino acid and timing in hemagglutinins from North America H1 influenza A virus
Timing of mutation in influenza A virus hemagglutinins by means of amino-acid distribution rank and fast Fourier transform. -...
Finally, we used the trend channel to outlook the future of hemagglutinins for the next half a century. As our study covers ... we used the fast Fourier transform to determine the mutation periodicity of the hemagglutinins. Then we estimated our position ... the conclusions will be valid for years until the number of hemagglutinins in Protein Databank is significantly increased. ... almost all the full-length amino-acid sequences of hemagglutinins from various influenza A viruses, ...
Molecular Docking of Human-Like Receptor to Hemagglutinins of Avian Influenza A Viruses
Neutralizing immune responses induced by oligomeric H5N1-hemagglutinins from plants | Veterinary Research | Full Text
Highly immunogenic influenza hemagglutinins are urgently required to meet these pre-conditions. Here, we present a new and ... Neutralizing immune responses induced by oligomeric H5N1-hemagglutinins from plants. *Hoang Trong Phan1. ,2. , ... Highly immunogenic influenza hemagglutinins are urgently required to meet these pre-conditions. Here, we present a new and ... Recombinant hemagglutinin-S·Tag fusion proteins and S·Protein variants are produced in planta. Trimeric hemagglutinin ...
Neutralizing immune responses induced by oligomeric H5N1-hemagglutinins from plants | Veterinary Research | Full Text
Highly immunogenic influenza hemagglutinins are urgently required to meet these pre-conditions. Here, we present a new and ... Highly immunogenic influenza hemagglutinins are urgently required to meet these pre-conditions. Here, we present a new and ... Recombinant hemagglutinin-S·Tag fusion proteins and S·Protein variants are produced in planta. Trimeric hemagglutinin ... An artificially designed trimerization domain (GCN4-pII, ) was used to achieve stable trimers of H5 hemagglutinins from ...
Innopsys - A miniaturized glycan microarray assays for assessing avidity and specificity of influenza A virus hemagglutinins
A miniaturized glycan microarray assays for assessing avidity and specificity of influenza A virus hemagglutinins (PDF) (468.51 ... Influenza A Viruses (IAV) hemagglutinins specifically recognize sialic acids on the cell surface as functional receptors to ... A miniaturized glycan microarray assays for assessing avidity and specificity of influenza A virus hemagglutinins ...
Volume 18, Issue 4 | The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
Immunogenicity of Alternative Annual Influenza Vaccination Strategies in Older Adults in Hong Kong - Full Text View -...
Background: The typical vaccination strategy of annual administration with inactivated trivalent influenza vaccine (TIV) or quadrivalent influenza vaccine (QIV) may provide suboptimal protection to older adults in a location with prolonged periods of influenza activity because of the weaker immune response of older adults to vaccination and because of post-vaccination waning in protection over the course of a year. We hypothesize that in a subtropical or tropical location with prolonged circulation of influenza viruses, the higher antibody titers over years achieved after receipt of annual high-dose vaccine, MF59-adjuvanted vaccine or recombinant haemagglutinin (HA) vaccine, or different vaccination strategies of their combinations with or without the standard vaccine, might lead to greater protection than annual receipt of standard vaccines.. Aim: To test the immune profiles over time of older adults following different influenza vaccination strategies.. Design and subjects: A 4-year ...
Evaluation of Anti-Hemagglutinin (Anti-HA) Antibodies as Protection From the Flu in Healthy People - Full Text View -...
The high morbidity and mortality associated with both pandemic and seasonal influenza, and the threat of new pandemic strains emerging, continues to keep influenza at the forefront of infectious disease and public health research. Mean annual estimates of influenza deaths due to seasonal influenza alone, attributes 36,000 deaths in the US and 250,000 to 500,000 deaths in industrialized countries to influenza. Pandemics can have an even more devastating effect, and we must continue to be prepared by making attempts to reduce the public health impact of this important virus.. Currently, influenza vaccination is the cornerstone of prophylaxis and most effective method available to reduce the impact of influenza on the world s population each year. Data from the 2013 influenza season suggest that current seasonal vaccines held to these standards are greatly underperforming especially in those that really need protection such as the elderly, young, and infirmed.. Multiple factors could play a role in ...
Phorbol esters alter the expression of lymphocyte membrane proteins (Conference) | SciTech Connect
Enhanced T-lymphocyte blastogenic response to tuberculin (PPD) in children of northeast (NE) Thailand supplemented with vitamin...
Inhibition of Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans leukotoxicity by bacteria from the subgingival flora
Molecules | Free Full-Text | Purification, Biochemical Characterization, and Bioactive Properties of a Lectin Purified from the...
Dysport® Treatment of Urinary Incontinence in Adults Subjects With Neurogenic Detrusor Overactivity (NDO) Due to Spinal Cord...
The purpose of this study is to provide confirmatory evidence of the safety and efficacy of two Dysport® doses (600 units [U] and 800 U), compared to placebo in reducing urinary incontinence (UI) in adult subjects treated for neurogenic detrusor overactivity (NDO) due to spinal cord injury (SCI) or multiple sclerosis (MS ...
H5N1 Vaccination With and Without AS03: Systems Biology Analysis - Full Text View - ClinicalTrials.gov
The long term goals of this project are to identify RNA or protein biomarkers within 1 to 7 days after vaccination in peripheral blood that will predict a successful immune response and protection against disease. Adjuvants are used to boost the response of vaccines by stimulating the innate immune response. However, the exact mechanism and safety of adjuvants is still debated. Systems biology is the study of complex biological processes as integrated systems with many interacting components. The goal of systems biology is to make biology more predictive. This proposal will use a systems biology approach to identify successful immunization biomarkers. The study will use fresh blood samples and patient data collected in the proposed VTEU-funded study. At selected time points, volunteers blood samples will be collected and immediately processed. Using these specimens, we will identify and quantify changes in the whole transcriptome and proteome of the major immune cells to identify and quantify ...
Characterization of Influenza Vaccine Hemagglutinin Complexes by Cryo-Electron Microscopy and Image Analyses Reveals Structural...
Hemagglutinins as uncleaved HA0. To determine the cleavage status of the HA1-HA2 cleavage site of the hemagglutinin (HA) ... Structures and receptor binding of hemagglutinins from human-infecting H7N9 influenza viruses. Science 342:243-247. doi:. ... Recombinant influenza H1, H5 and H9 hemagglutinins containing replaced H3 hemagglutinin transmembrane domain showed enhanced ...
Conserved Synthetic Peptides from the Hemagglutinin of Influenza Viruses Induce Broad Humoral and T-Cell Responses in a Pig...
Receptor specificity in human, avian, and equine H2 and H3 influenza virus isolates
"DNA immunization: effect of secretion of DNA-expressed hemagglutinins " by Celia Aurora Tiglao Torres, Kejian Yang et al.
... gun delivery resulted in predominantly IgG1 antibody responses for both secreted and membrane bound forms of the hemagglutinins ... DNA vaccines expressing plasma membrane and secreted forms of the influenza and measles virus hemagglutinins (HAs) have been ... DNA vaccines expressing plasma membrane and secreted forms of the influenza and measles virus hemagglutinins (HAs) have been ... DNA immunization: effect of secretion of DNA-expressed hemagglutinins on antibody responses ...
Chemical Germplasm Investigations in Soybeans: The Flotsam Hypothesis | SpringerLink
Die Immunglobuline beim Embryo, Neugeborenen und Säugling | SpringerLink
Molecular Characterization and Three-Dimensional Structures of Avian H8, H11, H14, H15 and Swine H4 Influenza Virus...
- In silico studies on broad-reactive antibodies and their interactions with hemagglutinins might shed light on the rational design of a universal vaccine. (flutrackers.com)
- In this study, 11 broad-spectrum antibodies (or antigen-binding fragments) and 14 hemagglutinins of H3N2 and H5N1 strains were docked and analyzed to provide information about the construction of the scaffold for using universal antibodies against the influenza A virus. (flutrackers.com)
- Using parainfluenza virus 5 (PIV5) as a vector, we now show that each of our two influenza virus hemagglutinins (HAs) can induce antibodies against multiple influenza viruses within the H1N1 subtype, and that both can protect pigs against infection with the A/swine/Alberta/25/2009-H1N1 influenza virus. (pork.org)
- Antibodies and lectins are commonly known hemagglutinins. (wikipedia.org)
- IMSEAR at SEARO: IgM capture ELISA for detection of IgM antibodies to dengue virus: comparison of 2 formats using hemagglutinins and cell culture derived antigens. (who.int)
- Cardosa MJ, Tio PH, Nimmannitya S, Nisalak A, Innis B. IgM capture ELISA for detection of IgM antibodies to dengue virus: comparison of 2 formats using hemagglutinins and cell culture derived antigens. (who.int)
- The mannose-specific hemagglutinins were shown to be similar to the galactophilic ones in (a) being glycoproteins of very low molecular weight (about 11 000 by SDS gel electrophoresis), (b) their tendency to aggregate, and (c) their ability to effect stronger agglutination of erythrocytes treated with papain than of untreated ones. (nih.gov)
- These reagents are not always easily available and we have thus compared the AFRIMS format with another published format which uses cell culture derived antigens (culture fluid, CF, format) in order to determine if it is reasonable to use cell culture derived antigens in situations where hemagglutinins and normal human serum are difficult to obtain. (who.int)
- In density gradient at least two separable hemagglutinins, CF antigens and precipitins (3). (cdc.gov)
- A common neutralizing epitope conserved between the hemagglutinins of influenza A virus H1 and H2 strains. (asm.org)
- Here, we demonstrate that the hemagglutinins of LPAIV strains do not have the required high-mannose glycans and do not interact with SP-D, and that sequence analysis can predict glycan subtype, thus predicting the presence or absence of this virulence marker. (bvsalud.org)
- 1982. Characterization and distribution of the hemagglutinins produced by Vibrio cholerae. (csuchico.edu)
- 1981. Characterization of the hemagglutinins produced by Vibrio cholerae. (csuchico.edu)
- Two hemagglutinins (HAs) mediating the agglutinability to rabbit erythrocytes were isolated from 32-h culture supernatant of enterotoxigenic strain E-33 of Vibrio mimicus by ultrafiltration followed by gel filtration and anion-exchange column chromatography. (elsevier.com)
- 1982. Hemagglutinins (Colonization Factors? (csuchico.edu)