Hemagglutination Tests: Sensitive tests to measure certain antigens, antibodies, or viruses, using their ability to agglutinate certain erythrocytes. (From Stedman, 26th ed)Hemagglutination: The aggregation of ERYTHROCYTES by AGGLUTININS, including antibodies, lectins, and viral proteins (HEMAGGLUTINATION, VIRAL).Hemagglutination Inhibition Tests: Serologic tests in which a known quantity of antigen is added to the serum prior to the addition of a red cell suspension. Reaction result is expressed as the smallest amount of antigen which causes complete inhibition of hemagglutination.Complement Fixation Tests: Serologic tests based on inactivation of complement by the antigen-antibody complex (stage 1). Binding of free complement can be visualized by addition of a second antigen-antibody system such as red cells and appropriate red cell antibody (hemolysin) requiring complement for its completion (stage 2). Failure of the red cells to lyse indicates that a specific antigen-antibody reaction has taken place in stage 1. If red cells lyse, free complement is present indicating no antigen-antibody reaction occurred in stage 1.Hemagglutination, Viral: Agglutination of ERYTHROCYTES by a virus.Hydrolyzable Tannins: Polymeric derivatives of GALLIC ACID that are esters of a sugar.Yaws: A systemic non-venereal infection of the tropics caused by TREPONEMA PALLIDUM subspecies pertenue.Tannins: Polyphenolic compounds with molecular weights of around 500-3000 daltons and containing enough hydroxyl groups (1-2 per 100 MW) for effective cross linking of other compounds (ASTRINGENTS). The two main types are HYDROLYZABLE TANNINS and CONDENSED TANNINS. Historically, the term has applied to many compounds and plant extracts able to render skin COLLAGEN impervious to degradation. The word tannin derives from the Celtic word for OAK TREE which was used for leather processing.Erythrocytes: Red blood cells. Mature erythrocytes are non-nucleated, biconcave disks containing HEMOGLOBIN whose function is to transport OXYGEN.Immune Sera: Serum that contains antibodies. It is obtained from an animal that has been immunized either by ANTIGEN injection or infection with microorganisms containing the antigen.Agglutination Tests: Tests that are dependent on the clumping of cells, microorganisms, or particles when mixed with specific antiserum. (From Stedman, 26th ed)Sheep: Any of the ruminant mammals with curved horns in the genus Ovis, family Bovidae. They possess lachrymal grooves and interdigital glands, which are absent in GOATS.Glutaral: One of the protein CROSS-LINKING REAGENTS that is used as a disinfectant for sterilization of heat-sensitive equipment and as a laboratory reagent, especially as a fixative.Immunodiffusion: Technique involving the diffusion of antigen or antibody through a semisolid medium, usually agar or agarose gel, with the result being a precipitin reaction.Antibodies, Viral: Immunoglobulins produced in response to VIRAL ANTIGENS.Evaluation Studies as Topic: Studies determining the effectiveness or value of processes, personnel, and equipment, or the material on conducting such studies. For drugs and devices, CLINICAL TRIALS AS TOPIC; DRUG EVALUATION; and DRUG EVALUATION, PRECLINICAL are available.Pasteurella: The oldest recognized genus of the family PASTEURELLACEAE. It consists of several species. Its organisms occur most frequently as coccobacillus or rod-shaped and are gram-negative, nonmotile, facultative anaerobes. Species of this genus are found in both animals and humans.Typhus, Epidemic Louse-Borne: The classic form of typhus, caused by RICKETTSIA PROWAZEKII, which is transmitted from man to man by the louse Pediculus humanus corporis. This disease is characterized by the sudden onset of intense headache, malaise, and generalized myalgia followed by the formation of a macular skin eruption and vascular and neurologic disturbances.Immune Adherence Reaction: A method for the detection of very small quantities of antibody in which the antigen-antibody-complement complex adheres to indicator cells, usually primate erythrocytes or nonprimate blood platelets. The reaction is dependent on the number of bound C3 molecules on the C3b receptor sites of the indicator cell.Antibodies, Bacterial: Immunoglobulins produced in a response to BACTERIAL ANTIGENS.Cross Reactions: Serological reactions in which an antiserum against one antigen reacts with a non-identical but closely related antigen.Antigens, Bacterial: Substances elaborated by bacteria that have antigenic activity.Methods: A series of steps taken in order to conduct research.Serologic Tests: Diagnostic procedures involving immunoglobulin reactions.Counterimmunoelectrophoresis: Immunoelectrophoresis in which immunoprecipitation occurs when antigen at the cathode is caused to migrate in an electric field through a suitable medium of diffusion against a stream of antibody migrating from the anode as a result of endosmotic flow.Treponema: A genus of microorganisms of the order SPIROCHAETALES, many of which are pathogenic and parasitic for man and animals.Immunoglobulin M: A class of immunoglobulin bearing mu chains (IMMUNOGLOBULIN MU-CHAINS). IgM can fix COMPLEMENT. The name comes from its high molecular weight and originally being called a macroglobulin.Neutralization Tests: The measurement of infection-blocking titer of ANTISERA by testing a series of dilutions for a given virus-antiserum interaction end-point, which is generally the dilution at which tissue cultures inoculated with the serum-virus mixtures demonstrate cytopathology (CPE) or the dilution at which 50% of test animals injected with serum-virus mixtures show infectivity (ID50) or die (LD50).Hemagglutinins: Agents that cause agglutination of red blood cells. They include antibodies, blood group antigens, lectins, autoimmune factors, bacterial, viral, or parasitic blood agglutinins, etc.Rabbits: The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.Antibodies: Immunoglobulin molecules having a specific amino acid sequence by virtue of which they interact only with the ANTIGEN (or a very similar shape) that induced their synthesis in cells of the lymphoid series (especially PLASMA CELLS).Serotyping: Process of determining and distinguishing species of bacteria or viruses based on antigens they share.Antigens, Viral: Substances elaborated by viruses that have antigenic activity.Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay: An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed.Antigens: Substances that are recognized by the immune system and induce an immune reaction.Immunoglobulin G: The major immunoglobulin isotype class in normal human serum. There are several isotype subclasses of IgG, for example, IgG1, IgG2A, and IgG2B.Antibody Specificity: The property of antibodies which enables them to react with some ANTIGENIC DETERMINANTS and not with others. Specificity is dependent on chemical composition, physical forces, and molecular structure at the binding site.Rubella virus: The type (and only) species of RUBIVIRUS causing acute infection in humans, primarily children and young adults. Humans are the only natural host. A live, attenuated vaccine is available for prophylaxis.Guinea Pigs: A common name used for the genus Cavia. The most common species is Cavia porcellus which is the domesticated guinea pig used for pets and biomedical research.Swine: Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).Immunoenzyme Techniques: Immunologic techniques based on the use of: (1) enzyme-antibody conjugates; (2) enzyme-antigen conjugates; (3) antienzyme antibody followed by its homologous enzyme; or (4) enzyme-antienzyme complexes. These are used histologically for visualizing or labeling tissue specimens.Cattle: Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.Fluorescent Antibody Technique: Test for tissue antigen using either a direct method, by conjugation of antibody with fluorescent dye (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, DIRECT) or an indirect method, by formation of antigen-antibody complex which is then labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, INDIRECT). The tissue is then examined by fluorescence microscopy.Influenza Vaccines: Vaccines used to prevent infection by viruses in the family ORTHOMYXOVIRIDAE. It includes both killed and attenuated vaccines. The composition of the vaccines is changed each year in response to antigenic shifts and changes in prevalence of influenza virus strains. The vaccine is usually bivalent or trivalent, containing one or two INFLUENZAVIRUS A strains and one INFLUENZAVIRUS B strain.Fimbriae, Bacterial: Thin, hairlike appendages, 1 to 20 microns in length and often occurring in large numbers, present on the cells of gram-negative bacteria, particularly Enterobacteriaceae and Neisseria. Unlike flagella, they do not possess motility, but being protein (pilin) in nature, they possess antigenic and hemagglutinating properties. They are of medical importance because some fimbriae mediate the attachment of bacteria to cells via adhesins (ADHESINS, BACTERIAL). Bacterial fimbriae refer to common pili, to be distinguished from the preferred use of "pili", which is confined to sex pili (PILI, SEX).Hemagglutinins, Viral: Specific hemagglutinin subtypes encoded by VIRUSES.GeeseRubella: An acute infectious disease caused by the RUBELLA VIRUS. The virus enters the respiratory tract via airborne droplet and spreads to the LYMPHATIC SYSTEM.Sensitivity and Specificity: Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Orthomyxoviridae: A family of RNA viruses causing INFLUENZA and other diseases. There are five recognized genera: INFLUENZAVIRUS A; INFLUENZAVIRUS B; INFLUENZAVIRUS C; ISAVIRUS; and THOGOTOVIRUS.Dictionaries, MedicalTreponema pallidum: The causative agent of venereal and non-venereal syphilis as well as yaws.Syphilis: A contagious venereal disease caused by the spirochete TREPONEMA PALLIDUM.Syphilis Serodiagnosis: Serologic tests for syphilis.

The indirect hemagglutination test for the detection of antibodies in cattle naturally infected mycoplasmas. (1/2009)

Stable mycoplasma antigens for the indirect hemagglutination test (IHA) were prepared employing glutaraldehyde treated sheep erythrocytes sensitized with Mycoplasma agalactiae subsp. bovis and Mycoplasma bovigenitalium antigens. Employing these antigens mycoplasma antibodies were detected in sera from cattle which had mastitic symptoms due to natural infection with either M. agalactiae subsp. bovis or M. bovigenitalium. A total of 200 cows from four herds were examined at varying intervals for the presence of M. agalactiae subsp. bovis and for the detection of antibody using growth inhibition and IHA tests. Mycoplasmas were isolated from 37 animals. Growth inhibiting antibody was detected from 56 of the 200 animals. In the IHA tests, antibody titer greater than or equal to 1:80 were detected in 148 animals, 76 of these having antibody titers greater than or equal to 1:160, while sera of 116 normal control animals had no growth inhibiting antibody and none had IHA antibody titers greater than 1:40. M. bovigenitalium was isolated from the milk of three of 26 animals in a fifth herd during an outbreak of mastitis. Growth inhibiting antibodies were demonstrated in the sera of ten of the 26 animals. However, the IHA test detected antibody titers of greater than or equal to 1:160 in 13 animals and of 1:80 in one of the 26 animals. To determine the specificity of the IHA tests, M. agalactiae subsp. bovis and M. bovigenitalium antigens were reacted with rabbit hyperimmune typing sera produced against 12 species of bovine mycoplasmatales. Homologous antisera showed IHA antibody titers of 1:1280 and 1:2560 against M. agalactiae subsp. bovis and M. bovigenitalium respectively, whereas heterologous antisera showed IHA antibody titers of less than or equal to 1:20. Also eight type-specific bovine antisera were reacted with M agalactiae subsp. bovis and M. bovigenitalium antigens in homologous and heterologous tests. Homoogous reactions showed IHA antibody titers greater than or equal to 1:320, whereas heterologous reactions showed IHA titers of less than or equal to 1:20. This IHA test promises to be useful for the detection of bovine mycoplasma antibodies in sera from cattle infected with M. agalactiae subsp. bovis or M. bovigenitalium. Thes test is sensitive, reproducible and specific and the technique is relatively simple and rapid. The antigens were stable for at least seven months.  (+info)

Immunological comparison of the proteins of chicken and rat liver ribosomes. (2/2009)

A comparison of the proteins of chicken and rat liver ribosomes using immunochemical techniques was undertaken. The procedures included quantitative precipitation, passive hemagglutination, and immunodiffusion on Ouchterlony plates. The results indicate that antisera specific for chicken or rat liver ribosomes recognize only about 20% of common determinants. While there are important reservations, the results suggest extensive differences in the proteins of rat and chicken liver ribosomes. Despite those differences, rat and chicken liver ribosomal proteins maintain some homologous sequences present in bacterial ribosomal proteins. An enriched antibody preparation against chicken 80 S ribosomes inhibited the poly(U)-directed synthesis of polyphenylalanine and the elongation factor G (EF-G)-catalyzed binding of [3H]GDP to Escherichia coli ribosomes. Thus, chicken liver ribosomes, like ribosomes from rat liver and yeast, must have proteins homologous with those of E. coli ribosomes.  (+info)

Enterobacterial common antigen: isolation from Shigella sonnei, purification and immunochemical characterization. (3/2009)

In the studies presented the effective procedure of isolation and purification of enterobacterial common antigen from Shigella sonnei has been elaborated. The method is based on sonification of bacterial suspension in the presence of lysozyme and EDTA and subsequent extraction of the pellet with boiling water. The crude extract of common antigen was purified by fractionation with ethanol and chromatography on silica gel and Sephadex LH-20. The comparison of several extraction procedures of enterobacterial common antigen from Shigella sonnei proved that the method described above is most effective. The purified enterobacterial common antigen preparation obtained preserved full biological activity: antigenicity (precipitation and activity in enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay), immunogenicity in rabbits, ability to coat erythrocytes (passive hemagglutination) and inhibitory activity in passive hemagglutination. The pure enterobacterial common antigen was identified to 90% as a polymer of N-acetyl-D-mannosaminuronic acid and N-acetyl-D-glucosamine (2:1, molar ratio), O-acetylated and containing 3.2% fatty acids (C16:0 and C18:1, not oleic). It contains 5.3% nitrogen, less than 4% protein, less than 0.5% phosphorus and less than 1.6% neutral sugar; glycerol and RNA were not found in the preparation.  (+info)

Specific suppression of delayed hypersensitivity skin reactions to collagen in guinea-pigs after immunization with collagen and Freund's incomplete adjuvant. (4/2009)

Partial suppression of cutaneous delayed hypersensitivity reactions to collagen in guinea-pigs was induced by pre-immunization with collagen and FIA. This suppression is specific since: (a) pretreatment with OA and FIA or FIA alone did not cause suppression of skin reactions to collagen; (b) suppression was observed only if the collagen used for pretreatment was from the same species as that employed for sensitization for delayed hypersensitivity reactions; and (c) animals with depressed skin reactivity to collagen reacted normally to PPD. The suppression is not mediated by inducible, circulating antibodies to collagen since: (a) antibody titres measured by passive haemagglutination did not correlate with the degree of suppression; (b) suppression was observed with collagen in random coil conformation which sensitizes guinea-pigs for delayed hypersensitivity skin reaction but does not induce antibodies to denatured collagen; (c) best suppression was obtained if the animals were pretreated with collagen and FIA 3 days before the sensitizing injection; and (d) passively transferred antibody from animals with suppressed skin reactivity did not suppress skin reactivity of animals made hypersensitive to collagen by injection of collagen and FCA.  (+info)

PCR detection of Yersinia pestis in fleas: comparison with mouse inoculation. (5/2009)

The "gold standard" for identifying Yersinia pestis-infected fleas has been inoculation of mice with pooled flea material. Inoculated mice are monitored for 21 days, and those that die are further analyzed for Y. pestis infection by fluorescent-antibody assay and/or culture. PCR may provide a more rapid and sensitive alternative for identifying Y. pestis in fleas. To compare these assays, samples were prepared from 381 field-collected fleas. Each flea was analyzed individually by both PCR and mouse inoculation. Sixty of the 381 flea samples were positive for Y. pestis by PCR; 48 of these PCR-positive samples caused death in mice (80.0% agreement). None of the 321 PCR-negative samples caused death. Among the 12 mice that survived inoculation with PCR-positive samples, 10 were later demonstrated by serology or culture to have been infected with Y. pestis. This suggests that death of inoculated mice is less reliable than PCR as an indicator of the presence of Y. pestis in flea samples. Mouse inoculation assays produce results that are comparable to PCR only when surviving as well as dead mice are analyzed for infection. The rapidity and sensitivity (10 to 100 CFU of Y. pestis) of PCR suggest that it could serve as a useful alternative to mouse inoculation for routine plague surveillance and outbreak investigations.  (+info)

A new method for rapid identification of influenza virus isolates. (6/2009)

With the use of bacteria sensitized by influenza virus strain-specific antisera, virus isolates can be identified rapidly. One drop of virus suspension is mixed with one drop of sensitized bacteria on a slide that is then agitated; reaction occurs within 10 minutes. The test is subtype-specific. The mehod is based on the fact that the cell wall of the Cowan type 1 strain of Staphylococcus aureus contains abundant quantities of an antigen, known as protein A, that reacts with the IgG molecule by binding it in such a manner that the antibody-combining sites remain free. If an antigen homologous to the antibody coated on the surface of the bacteria is added to the suspension of sensitized staphylococci, agglutination occurs.  (+info)

Enzymically inactive members of the trans-sialidase family from Trypanosoma cruzi display beta-galactose binding activity. (7/2009)

trans-sialidase is a unique sialidase in that, instead of hydrolizing sialic acid, it preferentially transfers the monosaccharide to a terminal beta-galactose in glycoproteins and glycolipids. This enzyme, originally identified in Trypanosoma cruzi, belongs to a large family of proteins. Some members of the family lack the enzymatic activity. No function has been yet assigned to them. In this work, the gene copy number and the possible function of inactive members of the trans -sialidase family was studied. It is shown that genes encoding inactive members are not a few, but rather, are present in the same copy number (60-80 per haploid genome) as those encoding active trans -sialidases. Recombinant inactive proteins were purified and assayed for sialic acid and galactose binding activity in agglutination tests. The enzymatically inactive trans -sialidases were found to agglutinate de-sialylated erythrocytes but not untreated red blood cells. Assays made with mouse and rabbit red blood cells suggest that inactive trans -sialidases bind to beta, rather than alpha, terminal galactoses, the same specificity required by active trans -sialidases. A recombinant molecule that was made enzymatically inactive through a mutation in a single amino acid also retained the galactose binding activity. The binding was competed by lactose and was dependent on conservation of the protein native conformation. Therefore, at least some molecules in the trans -sialidase family that have lost their enzymatic function still retain their Gal-binding properties and might have a function as lectins in the parasite-host interaction.  (+info)

Processing, targeting, and antifungal activity of stinging nettle agglutinin in transgenic tobacco. (8/2009)

The gene encoding the precursor to stinging nettle (Urtica dioica L. ) isolectin I was introduced into tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum). In transgenic plants this precursor was processed to mature-sized lectin. The mature isolectin is deposited intracellularly, most likely in the vacuoles. A gene construct lacking the C-terminal 25 amino acids was also introduced in tobacco to study the role of the C terminus in subcellular trafficking. In tobacco plants that expressed this construct, the mutant precursor was correctly processed and the mature isolectin was targeted to the intercellular space. These results indicate the presence of a C-terminal signal for intracellular retention of stinging nettle lectin and most likely for sorting of the lectin to the vacuoles. In addition, correct processing of this lectin did not depend on vacuolar deposition. Isolectin I purified from tobacco displayed identical biological activities as isolectin I isolated from stinging nettle. In vitro antifungal assays on germinated spores of the fungi Botrytis cinerea, Trichoderma viride, and Colletotrichum lindemuthianum revealed that growth inhibition by stinging nettle isolectin I occurs at a specific phase of fungal growth and is temporal, suggesting that the fungi had an adaptation mechanism.  (+info)

  • Fünf Seren beider Patientengruppen führten in beiden Tests zu Agglutinationen und ein Serum (sDIgA) reagierte mit einem Titer von 1:1 in der PHA aber nicht im PaGIA. (hu-berlin.de)
  • This test needed to be easily performed, fast, accurate, reproducible and accessible to many practitioners in many laboratories. (hu-berlin.de)
  • The Middlebrook-DuBos test for measurement of circulating hemagglutinins in the sera of tuberculous humans was initially described as a useful tool to aid the clinician in the diagnosis and management of the disease. (annals.org)
  • Searo-Diagnosis of Dengue Infections by Haemagglutination Inhibition Test (‎HI)‎ in Suspected Cases in Chittagong, Bangladesh. (who.int)
  • The present study was undertaken to increase the shelf life of CRBC by fixation using aldehydes for successful use of CRBC in HA and HI test in diagnosis of ND. (egranth.ac.in)
  • An EIA membrane test used for the qualitative detection of Borrelia burgdorferi IgA, IgG, IgM and Anti-P39 antibodies for the diagnosis of Lyme disease. (thermofisher.com)
  • Nontreponemal flocculation test for detection of reagin in human serum when used in conjunction with a treponemal test for presumptive diagnosis of syphilis. (thermofisher.com)
  • In particular, diagnosis of eperythrozoonosis is complicated by lack of readily identifiable parasitemia in latent and chronic infections, rapid loss of parasitemia at the time of onset of clinical signs in acutely ill pigs and the lack of sensitive and specific laboratory tests for the organism. (google.com)
  • Serologic testing is the most widely used method of diagnosis for amebic liver abscess. (medscape.com)
  • A disease status for an individual in a population can be either disease positive (D+) or disease negative (D-). Similarly, when a test is used on an individual in the population, the test results can be a positive result (T+) or negative result (T-). However, and due to inherent flaws in the testing assays, the result is almost never 100% accurate. (osu.edu)
  • Serum samples were obtained on 0, 4, 7, and 21 dpi and stored at -20°C until tested for HI antibodies against pandemic (H1N1) 2009 virus ( 8 ). (cdc.gov)
  • All 15 serovar reference strains, 72 Australian field isolates, nine Chinese field isolates, and seven isolates from seven experimentally infected pigs were evaluated with both tests. (qld.gov.au)
  • Direct testing pinpoints the strains, and for this I submit bird samples for virus isolation and reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). (thepoultrysite.com)
  • Eleven days after the onset of symptoms (15 days after likely exposure), anti-PA IgG was detected in 16 of 17 patients with confirmed or suspected clinical anthrax who were tested. (cdc.gov)
  • During the test, clinical signs, mortality and nervous sequelae were evaluated. (thepoultrysite.com)
  • Since the condition is managed with supportive care rather than cured, it is not always necessary to run diagnostic tests. (wikihow.com)
  • Because flaviviruses are known to serologically cross-react with other close flaviviruses ( 8 ), we tested serum against JEV, the only other endemic flavivirus in Japan, and successfully excluded its possibility. (cdc.gov)
  • Two hundred and fifty five serum samples from people vaccinated with different rabies vaccines , 16 paired serum and CSF samples from autopsy confirmed cases of paralytic rabies , and serum samples from 65 normal healthy controls were tested and evaluated in comparison to standard MNT. (bvsalud.org)
  • To evaluate the usefulness of the test result the following population groups were studied: 1376 patients undergoing medical examination for gonorrhoea (386 had gonorrhoea), 1384 healthy people aged 15-65, 54 patients with meningococcal disease, 30 children with respiratory tract infection, and 254 patients with evidence of various diseases other than neisserial infections that might be associated with symptoms of arthritis. (bmj.com)
  • These investigations showed that (1) non-specific positive gonococcal antibody test results occur rarely, (2) at least half the people who have had gonorrhoea remain seropositive (with titres of 1/40 to 1/160), and (3) a positive test result is more significant the younger the patient and the higher the titre. (bmj.com)