Hemagglutination Inhibition Tests: Serologic tests in which a known quantity of antigen is added to the serum prior to the addition of a red cell suspension. Reaction result is expressed as the smallest amount of antigen which causes complete inhibition of hemagglutination.Hemagglutination Tests: Sensitive tests to measure certain antigens, antibodies, or viruses, using their ability to agglutinate certain erythrocytes. (From Stedman, 26th ed)Rubella virus: The type (and only) species of RUBIVIRUS causing acute infection in humans, primarily children and young adults. Humans are the only natural host. A live, attenuated vaccine is available for prophylaxis.Antibodies, Viral: Immunoglobulins produced in response to VIRAL ANTIGENS.Ether: A mobile, very volatile, highly flammable liquid used as an inhalation anesthetic and as a solvent for waxes, fats, oils, perfumes, alkaloids, and gums. It is mildly irritating to skin and mucous membranes.Hemagglutination: The aggregation of ERYTHROCYTES by AGGLUTININS, including antibodies, lectins, and viral proteins (HEMAGGLUTINATION, VIRAL).Rubella: An acute infectious disease caused by the RUBELLA VIRUS. The virus enters the respiratory tract via airborne droplet and spreads to the LYMPHATIC SYSTEM.Complement Fixation Tests: Serologic tests based on inactivation of complement by the antigen-antibody complex (stage 1). Binding of free complement can be visualized by addition of a second antigen-antibody system such as red cells and appropriate red cell antibody (hemolysin) requiring complement for its completion (stage 2). Failure of the red cells to lyse indicates that a specific antigen-antibody reaction has taken place in stage 1. If red cells lyse, free complement is present indicating no antigen-antibody reaction occurred in stage 1.Neutralization Tests: The measurement of infection-blocking titer of ANTISERA by testing a series of dilutions for a given virus-antiserum interaction end-point, which is generally the dilution at which tissue cultures inoculated with the serum-virus mixtures demonstrate cytopathology (CPE) or the dilution at which 50% of test animals injected with serum-virus mixtures show infectivity (ID50) or die (LD50).Influenza A virus: The type species of the genus INFLUENZAVIRUS A that causes influenza and other diseases in humans and animals. Antigenic variation occurs frequently between strains, allowing classification into subtypes and variants. Transmission is usually by aerosol (human and most non-aquatic hosts) or waterborne (ducks). Infected birds shed the virus in their saliva, nasal secretions, and feces.Orthomyxoviridae: A family of RNA viruses causing INFLUENZA and other diseases. There are five recognized genera: INFLUENZAVIRUS A; INFLUENZAVIRUS B; INFLUENZAVIRUS C; ISAVIRUS; and THOGOTOVIRUS.Antigens, Viral: Substances elaborated by viruses that have antigenic activity.Chickens: Common name for the species Gallus gallus, the domestic fowl, in the family Phasianidae, order GALLIFORMES. It is descended from the red jungle fowl of SOUTHEAST ASIA.Influenza Vaccines: Vaccines used to prevent infection by viruses in the family ORTHOMYXOVIRIDAE. It includes both killed and attenuated vaccines. The composition of the vaccines is changed each year in response to antigenic shifts and changes in prevalence of influenza virus strains. The vaccine is usually bivalent or trivalent, containing one or two INFLUENZAVIRUS A strains and one INFLUENZAVIRUS B strain.Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay: An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed.Hemagglutination, Viral: Agglutination of ERYTHROCYTES by a virus.Evaluation Studies as Topic: Studies determining the effectiveness or value of processes, personnel, and equipment, or the material on conducting such studies. For drugs and devices, CLINICAL TRIALS AS TOPIC; DRUG EVALUATION; and DRUG EVALUATION, PRECLINICAL are available.Immunoglobulin G: The major immunoglobulin isotype class in normal human serum. There are several isotype subclasses of IgG, for example, IgG1, IgG2A, and IgG2B.Cell Migration Inhibition: Phenomenon of cell-mediated immunity measured by in vitro inhibition of the migration or phagocytosis of antigen-stimulated LEUKOCYTES or MACROPHAGES. Specific CELL MIGRATION ASSAYS have been developed to estimate levels of migration inhibitory factors, immune reactivity against tumor-associated antigens, and immunosuppressive effects of infectious microorganisms.Leukocyte Adherence Inhibition Test: Test for cell-mediated antitumor immunity and related serum blocking factors based on the finding that leukocytes from cancer patients, but not from controls, when mixed in vitro with antigenic extracts of tumors of the same histological type, undergo a diminution in their normal adherence to glass surfaces. Sera from tumor-bearing patients block the LAI reaction of their own leukocytes or those of other patients with the same type of tumor.Influenza, Human: An acute viral infection in humans involving the respiratory tract. It is marked by inflammation of the NASAL MUCOSA; the PHARYNX; and conjunctiva, and by headache and severe, often generalized, myalgia.Influenza A Virus, H1N1 Subtype: A subtype of INFLUENZA A VIRUS with the surface proteins hemagglutinin 1 and neuraminidase 1. The H1N1 subtype was responsible for the Spanish flu pandemic of 1918.Hemagglutinins, Viral: Specific hemagglutinin subtypes encoded by VIRUSES.Cross Reactions: Serological reactions in which an antiserum against one antigen reacts with a non-identical but closely related antigen.Influenza A Virus, H3N2 Subtype: A subtype of INFLUENZA A VIRUS comprised of the surface proteins hemagglutinin 3 and neuraminidase 2. The H3N2 subtype was responsible for the Hong Kong flu pandemic of 1968.Immune Sera: Serum that contains antibodies. It is obtained from an animal that has been immunized either by ANTIGEN injection or infection with microorganisms containing the antigen.Vaccines, Inactivated: Vaccines in which the infectious microbial nucleic acid components have been destroyed by chemical or physical treatment (e.g., formalin, beta-propiolactone, gamma radiation) without affecting the antigenicity or immunogenicity of the viral coat or bacterial outer membrane proteins.Orthomyxoviridae Infections: Virus diseases caused by the ORTHOMYXOVIRIDAE.Hemagglutinin Glycoproteins, Influenza Virus: Membrane glycoproteins from influenza viruses which are involved in hemagglutination, virus attachment, and envelope fusion. Fourteen distinct subtypes of HA glycoproteins and nine of NA glycoproteins have been identified from INFLUENZA A VIRUS; no subtypes have been identified for Influenza B or Influenza C viruses.Hemagglutinins: Agents that cause agglutination of red blood cells. They include antibodies, blood group antigens, lectins, autoimmune factors, bacterial, viral, or parasitic blood agglutinins, etc.Kaolin: The most common mineral of a group of hydrated aluminum silicates, approximately H2Al2Si2O8-H2O. It is prepared for pharmaceutical and medicinal purposes by levigating with water to remove sand, etc. (From Merck Index, 11th ed) The name is derived from Kao-ling (Chinese: "high ridge"), the original site. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Erythrocytes: Red blood cells. Mature erythrocytes are non-nucleated, biconcave disks containing HEMOGLOBIN whose function is to transport OXYGEN.Neuraminidase: An enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of alpha-2,3, alpha-2,6-, and alpha-2,8-glycosidic linkages (at a decreasing rate, respectively) of terminal sialic residues in oligosaccharides, glycoproteins, glycolipids, colominic acid, and synthetic substrate. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992)Vaccination: Administration of vaccines to stimulate the host's immune response. This includes any preparation intended for active immunological prophylaxis.Immunodiffusion: Technique involving the diffusion of antigen or antibody through a semisolid medium, usually agar or agarose gel, with the result being a precipitin reaction.Influenza B virus: Species of the genus INFLUENZAVIRUS B that cause HUMAN INFLUENZA and other diseases primarily in humans. Antigenic variation is less extensive than in type A viruses (INFLUENZA A VIRUS) and consequently there is no basis for distinct subtypes or variants. Epidemics are less likely than with INFLUENZA A VIRUS and there have been no pandemics. Previously only found in humans, Influenza B virus has been isolated from seals which may constitute the animal reservoir from which humans are exposed.Influenza A Virus, H3N8 Subtype: A subtype of INFLUENZA A VIRUS comprised of the surface proteins hemagglutinin 3 and neuraminidase 8. The H3N8 subtype has frequently been found in horses.Immune Adherence Reaction: A method for the detection of very small quantities of antibody in which the antigen-antibody-complement complex adheres to indicator cells, usually primate erythrocytes or nonprimate blood platelets. The reaction is dependent on the number of bound C3 molecules on the C3b receptor sites of the indicator cell.Newcastle Disease: An acute febrile, contagious, viral disease of birds caused by an AVULAVIRUS called NEWCASTLE DISEASE VIRUS. It is characterized by respiratory and nervous symptoms in fowl and is transmissible to man causing a severe, but transient conjunctivitis.Polysorbates: Sorbitan mono-9-octadecanoate poly(oxy-1,2-ethanediyl) derivatives; complex mixtures of polyoxyethylene ethers used as emulsifiers or dispersing agents in pharmaceuticals.Antibody Formation: The production of ANTIBODIES by proliferating and differentiated B-LYMPHOCYTES under stimulation by ANTIGENS.Serologic Tests: Diagnostic procedures involving immunoglobulin reactions.Influenza A Virus, H5N1 Subtype: A subtype of INFLUENZA A VIRUS comprised of the surface proteins hemagglutinin 5 and neuraminidase 1. The H5N1 subtype, frequently referred to as the bird flu virus, is endemic in wild birds and very contagious among both domestic (POULTRY) and wild birds. It does not usually infect humans, but some cases have been reported.Immunoglobulin M: A class of immunoglobulin bearing mu chains (IMMUNOGLOBULIN MU-CHAINS). IgM can fix COMPLEMENT. The name comes from its high molecular weight and originally being called a macroglobulin.GeesePregnancy Tests, Immunologic: Methods of detecting pregnancy by examining the levels of human chorionic gonadotropin (HCG) in plasma or urine.Antibody Specificity: The property of antibodies which enables them to react with some ANTIGENIC DETERMINANTS and not with others. Specificity is dependent on chemical composition, physical forces, and molecular structure at the binding site.Influenza in Birds: Infection of domestic and wild fowl and other BIRDS with INFLUENZA A VIRUS. Avian influenza usually does not sicken birds, but can be highly pathogenic and fatal in domestic POULTRY.SqualeneMycoplasma: A genus of gram-negative, mostly facultatively anaerobic bacteria in the family MYCOPLASMATACEAE. The cells are bounded by a PLASMA MEMBRANE and lack a true CELL WALL. Its organisms are pathogens found on the MUCOUS MEMBRANES of humans, ANIMALS, and BIRDS.Influenza A Virus, H9N2 Subtype: A subtype of INFLUENZA A VIRUS comprised of the surface proteins hemagglutinin 9 and neuraminidase 2. The H9N2 subtype usually infects domestic birds (POULTRY) but there have been some human infections reported.Latex Fixation Tests: Passive agglutination tests in which antigen is adsorbed onto latex particles which then clump in the presence of antibody specific for the adsorbed antigen. (From Stedman, 26th ed)Rabbits: The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.Horses: Large, hoofed mammals of the family EQUIDAE. Horses are active day and night with most of the day spent seeking and consuming food. Feeding peaks occur in the early morning and late afternoon, and there are several daily periods of rest.Epitopes: Sites on an antigen that interact with specific antibodies.Immunoenzyme Techniques: Immunologic techniques based on the use of: (1) enzyme-antibody conjugates; (2) enzyme-antigen conjugates; (3) antienzyme antibody followed by its homologous enzyme; or (4) enzyme-antienzyme complexes. These are used histologically for visualizing or labeling tissue specimens.Poultry Diseases: Diseases of birds which are raised as a source of meat or eggs for human consumption and are usually found in barnyards, hatcheries, etc. The concept is differentiated from BIRD DISEASES which is for diseases of birds not considered poultry and usually found in zoos, parks, and the wild.Newcastle disease virus: The most well known avian paramyxovirus in the genus AVULAVIRUS and the cause of a highly infectious pneumoencephalitis in fowl. It is also reported to cause CONJUNCTIVITIS in humans. Transmission is by droplet inhalation or ingestion of contaminated water or food.Sheep: Any of the ruminant mammals with curved horns in the genus Ovis, family Bovidae. They possess lachrymal grooves and interdigital glands, which are absent in GOATS.Seroepidemiologic Studies: EPIDEMIOLOGIC STUDIES based on the detection through serological testing of characteristic change in the serum level of specific ANTIBODIES. Latent subclinical infections and carrier states can thus be detected in addition to clinically overt cases.Convalescence: The period of recovery following an illness.Bunyaviridae: A family of viruses, mainly arboviruses, consisting of a single strand of RNA. Virions are enveloped particles 90-120 nm diameter. The complete family contains over 300 members arranged in five genera: ORTHOBUNYAVIRUS; HANTAVIRUS; NAIROVIRUS; PHLEBOVIRUS; and TOSPOVIRUS.Lectins: Proteins that share the common characteristic of binding to carbohydrates. Some ANTIBODIES and carbohydrate-metabolizing proteins (ENZYMES) also bind to carbohydrates, however they are not considered lectins. PLANT LECTINS are carbohydrate-binding proteins that have been primarily identified by their hemagglutinating activity (HEMAGGLUTININS). However, a variety of lectins occur in animal species where they serve diverse array of functions through specific carbohydrate recognition.Methods: A series of steps taken in order to conduct research.Immunity, Cellular: Manifestations of the immune response which are mediated by antigen-sensitized T-lymphocytes via lymphokines or direct cytotoxicity. This takes place in the absence of circulating antibody or where antibody plays a subordinate role.Guinea Pigs: A common name used for the genus Cavia. The most common species is Cavia porcellus which is the domesticated guinea pig used for pets and biomedical research.Pandemics: Epidemics of infectious disease that have spread to many countries, often more than one continent, and usually affecting a large number of people.Encephalitis Virus, California: A species in the ORTHOBUNYAVIRUS genus of the family BUNYAVIRIDAE. Serotypes are found in temperate and arctic regions and each is closely associated with a single species of vector mosquito. The vertebrate hosts are usually small mammals but several serotypes infect humans.Rabies virus: The type species of LYSSAVIRUS causing rabies in humans and other animals. Transmission is mostly by animal bites through saliva. The virus is neurotropic multiplying in neurons and myotubes of vertebrates.Swine Diseases: Diseases of domestic swine and of the wild boar of the genus Sus.Immunization: Deliberate stimulation of the host's immune response. ACTIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of ANTIGENS or IMMUNOLOGIC ADJUVANTS. PASSIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of IMMUNE SERA or LYMPHOCYTES or their extracts (e.g., transfer factor, immune RNA) or transplantation of immunocompetent cell producing tissue (thymus or bone marrow).Encephalitis Virus, Japanese: A species of FLAVIVIRUS, one of the Japanese encephalitis virus group (ENCEPHALITIS VIRUSES, JAPANESE), which is the etiological agent of Japanese encephalitis found in Asia, southeast Asia, and the Indian subcontinent.Encephalitis, California: A viral infection of the brain caused by serotypes of California encephalitis virus (ENCEPHALITIS VIRUS, CALIFORNIA) transmitted to humans by the mosquito AEDES triseriatus. The majority of cases are caused by the LA CROSSE VIRUS. This condition is endemic to the midwestern United States and primarily affects children between 5-10 years of age. Clinical manifestations include FEVER; VOMITING; HEADACHE; and abdominal pain followed by SEIZURES, altered mentation, and focal neurologic deficits. (From Joynt, Clinical Neurology, 1996, Ch26, p13)Ferrets: Semidomesticated variety of European polecat much used for hunting RODENTS and/or RABBITS and as a laboratory animal. It is in the subfamily Mustelinae, family MUSTELIDAE.Antigens: Substances that are recognized by the immune system and induce an immune reaction.Encephalitis, Arbovirus: Infections of the brain caused by arthropod-borne viruses (i.e., arboviruses) primarily from the families TOGAVIRIDAE; FLAVIVIRIDAE; BUNYAVIRIDAE; REOVIRIDAE; and RHABDOVIRIDAE. Life cycles of these viruses are characterized by ZOONOSES, with birds and lower mammals serving as intermediate hosts. The virus is transmitted to humans by the bite of mosquitoes (CULICIDAE) or TICKS. Clinical manifestations include fever, headache, alterations of mentation, focal neurologic deficits, and COMA. (From Clin Microbiol Rev 1994 Jan;7(1):89-116; Walton, Brain's Diseases of the Nervous System, 10th ed, p321)Swine: Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).Arboviruses: Arthropod-borne viruses. A non-taxonomic designation for viruses that can replicate in both vertebrate hosts and arthropod vectors. Included are some members of the following families: ARENAVIRIDAE; BUNYAVIRIDAE; REOVIRIDAE; TOGAVIRIDAE; and FLAVIVIRIDAE. (From Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2nd ed)Fluorescent Antibody Technique: Test for tissue antigen using either a direct method, by conjugation of antibody with fluorescent dye (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, DIRECT) or an indirect method, by formation of antigen-antibody complex which is then labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, INDIRECT). The tissue is then examined by fluorescence microscopy.

Serum dilution neutralization test for California group virus identification and serology. (1/1894)

The serum dilution neutralization test was evaluated for serological diagnosis of California group arbovirus infections and identification of virus isolates. The technical advantages and the degree of subtype specificity of the serum dilution neutralization test over the hemagglutination inhibition test and the complement fixation test were demonstrated with paired specimens from human cases, single human survey sera, and sentinel rabbit sera. Twenty-one virus isolates from various geographical areas of the United States were also used to evaluate the efficacy of the serum dilution neutralization test for specific virus identification.  (+info)

Removal of non-specific serum inhibitors of haemagglutination of rubella virus by treatment with dodecylamine-gel. (2/1894)

The suitability of using dodecylamine-gel for removing the serum non-antibody-like inhibitors of haemagglutination by rubella was studied. Compared with kaolin and MnCl2/heparin treatment this new procedure appears to have a higher specificity since it removes the non-antibody-like inhibitors from serum without affecting the immunoglobulin level significantly. The potential application of this procedure in routine serological analysis for rubella virus infection is discussed.  (+info)

Staphylococcal protein A; its preparation and an application to rubella serology. (3/1894)

Good yields of staphylococcal protein A are obtained by growing the staphylococcus Cowan type 1 on cellophane agar. The activity of these preparations in removing immunoglobulin G (IgG) from human serum can be readily measured by the Mancini radial-diffusion technique and the correct in-use dilution determined. Treatment with protein A of sera from women with a history of rubella may help in the identification of those having specific antibody in the IgM and IgA fractions. This relatively simple procedure may have worthwhile application in the diagnosis of rubella.  (+info)

Detection of antibody to avian influenza A (H5N1) virus in human serum by using a combination of serologic assays. (4/1894)

From May to December 1997, 18 cases of mild to severe respiratory illness caused by avian influenza A (H5N1) viruses were identified in Hong Kong. The emergence of an avian virus in the human population prompted an epidemiological investigation to determine the extent of human-to-human transmission of the virus and risk factors associated with infection. The hemagglutination inhibition (HI) assay, the standard method for serologic detection of influenza virus infection in humans, has been shown to be less sensitive for the detection of antibodies induced by avian influenza viruses. Therefore, we developed a more sensitive microneutralization assay to detect antibodies to avian influenza in humans. Direct comparison of an HI assay and the microneutralization assay demonstrated that the latter was substantially more sensitive in detecting human antibodies to H5N1 virus in infected individuals. An H5-specific indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was also established to test children's sera. The sensitivity and specificity of the microneutralization assay were compared with those of an H5-specific indirect ELISA. When combined with a confirmatory H5-specific Western blot test, the specificities of both assays were improved. Maximum sensitivity (80%) and specificity (96%) for the detection of anti-H5 antibody in adults aged 18 to 59 years were achieved by using the microneutralization assay combined with Western blotting. Maximum sensitivity (100%) and specificity (100%) in detecting anti-H5 antibody in sera obtained from children less than 15 years of age were achieved by using ELISA combined with Western blotting. This new test algorithm is being used for the seroepidemiologic investigations of the avian H5N1 influenza outbreak.  (+info)

A modified rubella HI test using prestandardized reagents. (5/1894)

A modified haemagglutination inhibition test for rubella antibodies using prestandardized freeze-dried reagents was compared to a "standard" method. Tests of 707 serum samples showed that the modified test was sensitive and reliable by both macrotitration and microtitration techniques. The minor disadvantages of some reduction in antibody level when rubella sera were tested within one week of the rash and of spontaneous sheep erythrocyte agglutination in 0-7% of sera were out-weighed by the increased speed of the new test and the fact that it was carried out at room temperature.  (+info)

Experimental production of respiratory tract disease in cebus monkeys after intratracheal or intranasal infection with influenza A/Victoria/3/75 or influenza A/New Jersey/76 virus. (6/1894)

A total of 28 cebus monkeys were inoculated intratracheally or intranasally with 10(6) 50% tissue culture infective doses of A/New Jersey/76 virus or 10(7) 50% tissue culture infective doses of A/Victoria/75 virus, and 8 additional monkeys received sterile allantoic fluid. Each of the animals became infected as evidenced by a serological response and/or shedding of the virus. Of the 10 animals inoculated intratracheally with A/Victoria/75 virus, 8 developed a systemic illness, and pulmonary infiltration was detected by X-ray in 7 of the 8. Administration of A/New Jersey/76 virus intratracheally to 10 monkeys produced a mild systemic illness in 2 animals and an upper respiratory tract illness in 6, but no illness developed in the remaining 2 monkeys; none of the animals developed X-ray evidence of lower respiratory tract disease. Intranasal administration of either virus failed to induce any illness or produced, at most, mild illness confined to the upper respiratory tract. These studies demonstrate that cebus monkeys are susceptible to respiratory tract infection with influenza A viruses and that the development of pulmonary disease is reflected in the appearance of easily recognizable radiological changes.  (+info)

Influenza vaccination of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected adults: impact on plasma levels of HIV type 1 RNA and determinants of antibody response. (7/1894)

We assessed the effect of influenza vaccination on plasma levels of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) RNA and the impact of age, plasma HIV-1 RNA level, CD4 cell count, and anti-HIV therapy on immune response. Forty-nine adults (mean age, 38.7 years; mean CD4 cell count +/- SD, 190 +/- 169/mL; mean plasma HIV-1 RNA level +/- SD, 154,616 +/- 317,192 copies/mL) were immunized. Elevations of > or = 0.48 log in plasma HIV-1 RNA levels occurred in two (4%) of 49 subjects within 4 weeks of vaccination. A fourfold or greater increase in antibody titer occurred in 13 (45%) of 29 subjects, correlating directly with CD4 cell count (P = .002) and inversely with plasma HIV-1 RNA level (P = .034). By multivariate analysis, CD4 cell count was a stronger predictor of antibody response than was plasma HIV-1 RNA level. We conclude that increases in plasma HIV-1 RNA levels following influenza vaccination are rare and transient and that antibody response is impaired with CD4 cell counts of < 100/mL and plasma HIV-1 RNA levels of > 100,000 copies/mL. Prospective trials are needed to evaluate the impact of highly active therapy on immune response after vaccination.  (+info)

Further characterization of IgA in chicken serum and secretions with evidence of a possible analogue of mammalian secretory component. (8/1894)

Immunochemical studies of the intestinal secretory immune system of the chicken have led to further characterization of IgA in bile, intestinal contents and serum. A component was detected in late Sephadex G-200 fractions of caecal and intestinal contents which showed partial identity with bile, intestinal and a high molecular weight fraction of serum IgA. This component showed similar sedimentation characteristics to bovine serum albumin in sucrose density gradients, a fast electrophoretic mobility on polyacrylamide gel and is a possible analogue of mammalian secretory component (SC). Fractionation of serum from birds affected with infectious synovitis revealed two moleculare classes of IgA. Comparative double diffusion studies produced a reaction of complete identity between bile IgA and high molecular weight serum IgA (15S) and partial identity with low molecular weight serum IgA (7S), suggesting a lack of an SC determinant on the latter. A spur of partial identity between 15S and 7S serum IgA was also observed. Although no direct structural homology with mammalian or human IgA could be demonstrated by immunological cross-reactivity, the similarities of molecular characteristics, particularly emphasized by the presence of a secretory component, favour a functional analogy between the secretory immune system of the fowl and mammalian species.  (+info)

  • Despite prevalent non-specific inhibition, high overall agreement (95%) and good correlation were observed between the results from an expert human reader and the Cypher One system. (indevr.com)
  • Figure 17.2 Quantitation of Immunologic Tests (a) Microtiter plates used to quantitate immunoassays. (alpfmedical.info)
  • The specifity of this immunological system and the crossreactivity between the peptide and intact CEA were investigated both by the passive hemagglutination technique and by modified bacteriophage inactivation. (google.es)
  • Among the test compounds, the EGCG and ECG were found to be potent inhibitors of influenza virus replication in MDCK cell culture and this effect was observed in all influenza virus subtypes tested, including A/H1N1, A/H3N2 and B virus. (medindia.net)
  • According to the National Institute of Infectious Diseases in Japan ( http://www.nih.go.jp/niid/en/ ), although the traditional seasonal influenza H1N1 virus caused the epidemic in 2008, this virus disappeared after the 2009 pandemic of H1N1 virus (H1N1pdm09), and H1N1pdm09 appears to have replaced the traditional H1N1 virus. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Using a patient's buffy coat and tick-bite site crust samples, we performed polymerase chain reaction (PCR) testing using Ehrlichia - or Anaplasma -specific primers. (ajtmh.org)
  • Direct testing pinpoints the strains, and for this I submit bird samples for virus isolation and reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). (thepoultrysite.com)
  • Each study child had 2 nasal swabs obtained-1 for influenzavirus culture and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and the other for the QuickVue Influenza Test. (aappublications.org)
  • Three confirmed cases, their close contacts, and relevant environments samples were tested by real-time reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), viral culture, and sequencing. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The characteristics of any laboratory test dictate how it can be used in a surveillance program. (osu.edu)
  • Before we review the surveillance programs, let's first discuss some basic concepts about laboratory tests and their characteristics. (osu.edu)
  • During their general health screening in February and March 2017, participants were asked to provide an additional 2 mL of serum for laboratory testing and to answer a questionnaire about the frequency of tick bites. (cdc.gov)
  • Main outcomes measures Clinical data, history of exposure before the onset of illnesses, and results of laboratory testing of pathogens and further analysis of sequences and phylogenetic tree to isolated strains. (bmj.com)
  • At the end of the presentation, participants should: Understand what the laboratory does with samples that arrive Have an understanding of the range of test methods used to analyse samples. (slideserve.com)
  • Given the often non-specific clinical picture of rubella, laboratory diagnosis should be attempted in suspected cases (testing for some of the differential diagnoses as mentioned above eg measles and parvovirus B19 should also be considered). (health.gov.au)
  • Drug susceptibility testing on these organisms not available at TDSHS laboratory. (texas.gov)
  • The various vaccine combinations were tested by blending monovalent recombinant adenovirus vaccines, each expressing hemagglutinin from a single strain. (springer.com)
  • We have recently demonstrated that the viral hemagglutinin (HA) 3 protein of influenza virus and the HA-neuraminidase (HN) protein of Sendai virus (SV) can interact with both the NKp44 and NKp46 receptors and that this interaction leads to increased killing that can overcome the class I MHC-mediated inhibition ( 4 , 5 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • The virus used in the HI test is the canine H3N2 strain. (umn.edu)
  • To investigate whether these NGSs are associated with re-emergence of H3N2 within the subtype, we tested the effect of amino acid substitutions on neutralizing activity by using the antisera raised against H3N2 strains with or without additional NGSs. (biomedcentral.com)
  • automated reagin test (ART) a modification of the rapid plasma reagin (RPR) test for use with automated analyzers used in clinical chemistry. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • During the test, clinical signs, mortality and nervous sequelae were evaluated. (thepoultrysite.com)
  • Clinical variables were investigated, specific tests were performed and aspartate-aminotransferase assayed, during a period considered both endemic and epidemic for the disease. (scielo.br)
  • Your provider may do other tests to make sure you don't have other infections. (rochester.edu)
  • Rapid influenza tests not only would help to minimize nosocomial influenzavirus infections during the winter 16 but also would provide physicians the opportunity to use targeted antiviral therapy, which is reported to be effective if initiated within 48 hours of the onset of symptoms. (aappublications.org)
  • The FN and the FP rates for a certain test are influenced by test parameters, sensitivity and specificity. (osu.edu)
  • Sensitivity and specificity are often inversely correlated for a given test. (osu.edu)
  • Sera of a number of cancer patients were tested for their capacity to inhibit the inactivation of CEA(1-11)-coated phage by means of anti-CEA(1-11) antiserum. (google.es)
  • There is an increasing demand for novel antiviral and antimicrobial compounds for the treatment of infectious disease, and Charles River can support in vitro testing of these compounds to determine potential efficacy in an in vivo model, and provide important data to determine optimal dosing regimen. (criver.com)
  • In vitro testing of antimicrobial compounds can determine potential efficacy in an in vivo anti-infective model and provide important data to determine optimal dosing regimen and combination ratios. (criver.com)
  • In their study to be published in the journal Antiviral Research (available online 9 August 2005), the authors conclude that ECG and EGCG were found to be much more effective than EGC, and besides the known inhibition of hemagglutination, the compounds also exerted inhibitory effect on neuraminidase and affects viral RNA synthesis at high concentration. (medindia.net)
Info - Causative Agent - ALPF Medical Research
Info - Causative Agent - ALPF Medical Research (alpfmedical.info)
Hemagglutination Inhibition Test (HAI): Principle, procedure, result and interpretations - Microbeonline
Hemagglutination Inhibition Test (HAI): Principle, procedure, result and interpretations - Microbeonline (microbeonline.com)
Hemagglutination Inhibition Archives | InDevR
Hemagglutination Inhibition Archives | InDevR (indevr.com)
Influenza hemagglutination inhibition assay
Influenza hemagglutination inhibition assay (virology.ws)
Orofacial clefts and infections during pregnancy | SpringerLink
Orofacial clefts and infections during pregnancy | SpringerLink (link.springer.com)
Dossier Vaccination: what causes poultry vaccination to fail - English
Dossier Vaccination: what causes poultry vaccination to fail - English (slideshare.net)
Experimental Pandemic (H1N1) 2009 Virus Infection of Cats - Volume 16, Number 11-November 2010 - Emerging Infectious Diseases...
Experimental Pandemic (H1N1) 2009 Virus Infection of Cats - Volume 16, Number 11-November 2010 - Emerging Infectious Diseases... (wwwnc.cdc.gov)
Acute Spotted Fever Rickettsiosis among Febrile Patients, Cameroon - Volume 10, Number 3-March 2004 - Emerging Infectious...
Acute Spotted Fever Rickettsiosis among Febrile Patients, Cameroon - Volume 10, Number 3-March 2004 - Emerging Infectious... (wwwnc.cdc.gov)
Modified Hemagglutination-Inhibition Test for Rubella Employing Human Group O Erythrocytes | Applied and Environmental...
Modified Hemagglutination-Inhibition Test for Rubella Employing Human Group O Erythrocytes | Applied and Environmental... (aem.asm.org)
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Immunotyping of different strains of Japanese encephalitis virus by antibody-absorption, haemagglutination-inhibition and...
Immunotyping of different strains of Japanese encephalitis virus by antibody-absorption, haemagglutination-inhibition and... (apps.who.int)
Browsing  by Subject Rabies virus
Browsing by Subject "Rabies virus" (apps.who.int)
Oseltamivir-Resistant Influenza Viruses A (H1N1) during 2007-2009 Influenza Seasons, Japan - Volume 16, Number 6-June 2010 -...
Oseltamivir-Resistant Influenza Viruses A (H1N1) during 2007-2009 Influenza Seasons, Japan - Volume 16, Number 6-June 2010 -... (wwwnc.cdc.gov)
Survey of Tickborne Infections in Denmark - Volume 11, Number 7-July 2005 - Emerging Infectious Diseases journal - CDC
Survey of Tickborne Infections in Denmark - Volume 11, Number 7-July 2005 - Emerging Infectious Diseases journal - CDC (wwwnc.cdc.gov)
Transmission of Hemagglutinin D222G Mutant Strain of Pandemic (H1N1) 2009 Virus - Volume 16, Number 5-May 2010 - Emerging...
Transmission of Hemagglutinin D222G Mutant Strain of Pandemic (H1N1) 2009 Virus - Volume 16, Number 5-May 2010 - Emerging... (wwwnc.cdc.gov)
Characterization of virulent Newcastle disease viruses from vaccinated chicken flocks in Eastern China | BMC Veterinary...
Characterization of virulent Newcastle disease viruses from vaccinated chicken flocks in Eastern China | BMC Veterinary... (bmcvetres.biomedcentral.com)
Newcastle disease in France | The Poultry Site
Newcastle disease in France | The Poultry Site (thepoultrysite.com)
Oral Modeling of an Adenovirus-Based Quadrivalent Influenza Vaccine in Ferrets and Mice | SpringerLink
Oral Modeling of an Adenovirus-Based Quadrivalent Influenza Vaccine in Ferrets and Mice | SpringerLink (link.springer.com)
Relenza (Zanamivir): Side Effects, Interactions, Warning, Dosage & Uses
Relenza (Zanamivir): Side Effects, Interactions, Warning, Dosage & Uses (rxlist.com)
Browsing Dengue Bulletin by Author Sa-ngasang, Areerat
Browsing Dengue Bulletin by Author "Sa-ngasang, Areerat" (apps.who.int)
Detection of antibodies to alphaviruses by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. | Journal of Clinical Microbiology
Detection of antibodies to alphaviruses by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. | Journal of Clinical Microbiology (jcm.asm.org)
Surveillance Manual | Lab Support | Vaccine Preventable Diseases | CDC
Surveillance Manual | Lab Support | Vaccine Preventable Diseases | CDC (cdc.gov)
Cloned vaccines against Newcastle disease virus, heterologous protection against genotypes VII a XII | The Poultry Site
Cloned vaccines against Newcastle disease virus, heterologous protection against genotypes VII a XII | The Poultry Site (thepoultrysite.com)
Interim Within-Season Estimate of the Effectiveness of 
Trivalent Inactivated Influenza Vaccine --- Marshfield, Wisconsin, 
...
Interim Within-Season Estimate of the Effectiveness of Trivalent Inactivated Influenza Vaccine --- Marshfield, Wisconsin, ... (cdc.gov)
Erysipelas: Why is it Still a Problem after 100 Years? | The Pig Site
Erysipelas: Why is it Still a Problem after 100 Years? | The Pig Site (thepigsite.com)
Japanese Encephalitis Immunization in South Korea: Past, Present, and Future - Volume 6, Number 1-February 2000 - Emerging...
Japanese Encephalitis Immunization in South Korea: Past, Present, and Future - Volume 6, Number 1-February 2000 - Emerging... (wwwnc.cdc.gov)