Serologic tests in which a known quantity of antigen is added to the serum prior to the addition of a red cell suspension. Reaction result is expressed as the smallest amount of antigen which causes complete inhibition of hemagglutination.
Sensitive tests to measure certain antigens, antibodies, or viruses, using their ability to agglutinate certain erythrocytes. (From Stedman, 26th ed)
The type (and only) species of RUBIVIRUS causing acute infection in humans, primarily children and young adults. Humans are the only natural host. A live, attenuated vaccine is available for prophylaxis.
Immunoglobulins produced in response to VIRAL ANTIGENS.
A mobile, very volatile, highly flammable liquid used as an inhalation anesthetic and as a solvent for waxes, fats, oils, perfumes, alkaloids, and gums. It is mildly irritating to skin and mucous membranes.
A family of insect viruses isolated from endoparasitic hymenopteran insects belonging to the families Ichneumonidae and Braconidae. The two genera are Ichnovirus and Bracovirus.
An acute infectious disease caused by the RUBELLA VIRUS. The virus enters the respiratory tract via airborne droplet and spreads to the LYMPHATIC SYSTEM.
Serologic tests based on inactivation of complement by the antigen-antibody complex (stage 1). Binding of free complement can be visualized by addition of a second antigen-antibody system such as red cells and appropriate red cell antibody (hemolysin) requiring complement for its completion (stage 2). Failure of the red cells to lyse indicates that a specific antigen-antibody reaction has taken place in stage 1. If red cells lyse, free complement is present indicating no antigen-antibody reaction occurred in stage 1.
The measurement of infection-blocking titer of ANTISERA by testing a series of dilutions for a given virus-antiserum interaction end-point, which is generally the dilution at which tissue cultures inoculated with the serum-virus mixtures demonstrate cytopathology (CPE) or the dilution at which 50% of test animals injected with serum-virus mixtures show infectivity (ID50) or die (LD50).
The type species of the genus INFLUENZAVIRUS A that causes influenza and other diseases in humans and animals. Antigenic variation occurs frequently between strains, allowing classification into subtypes and variants. Transmission is usually by aerosol (human and most non-aquatic hosts) or waterborne (ducks). Infected birds shed the virus in their saliva, nasal secretions, and feces.
A family of RNA viruses causing INFLUENZA and other diseases. There are five recognized genera: INFLUENZAVIRUS A; INFLUENZAVIRUS B; INFLUENZAVIRUS C; ISAVIRUS; and THOGOTOVIRUS.
Substances elaborated by viruses that have antigenic activity.
Common name for the species Gallus gallus, the domestic fowl, in the family Phasianidae, order GALLIFORMES. It is descended from the red jungle fowl of SOUTHEAST ASIA.
Vaccines used to prevent infection by viruses in the family ORTHOMYXOVIRIDAE. It includes both killed and attenuated vaccines. The composition of the vaccines is changed each year in response to antigenic shifts and changes in prevalence of influenza virus strains. The vaccine is usually bivalent or trivalent, containing one or two INFLUENZAVIRUS A strains and one INFLUENZAVIRUS B strain.
An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed.
Agglutination of ERYTHROCYTES by a virus.
Studies determining the effectiveness or value of processes, personnel, and equipment, or the material on conducting such studies. For drugs and devices, CLINICAL TRIALS AS TOPIC; DRUG EVALUATION; and DRUG EVALUATION, PRECLINICAL are available.
The major immunoglobulin isotype class in normal human serum. There are several isotype subclasses of IgG, for example, IgG1, IgG2A, and IgG2B.
Phenomenon of cell-mediated immunity measured by in vitro inhibition of the migration or phagocytosis of antigen-stimulated LEUKOCYTES or MACROPHAGES. Specific CELL MIGRATION ASSAYS have been developed to estimate levels of migration inhibitory factors, immune reactivity against tumor-associated antigens, and immunosuppressive effects of infectious microorganisms.
Test for cell-mediated antitumor immunity and related serum blocking factors based on the finding that leukocytes from cancer patients, but not from controls, when mixed in vitro with antigenic extracts of tumors of the same histological type, undergo a diminution in their normal adherence to glass surfaces. Sera from tumor-bearing patients block the LAI reaction of their own leukocytes or those of other patients with the same type of tumor.
An acute viral infection in humans involving the respiratory tract. It is marked by inflammation of the NASAL MUCOSA; the PHARYNX; and conjunctiva, and by headache and severe, often generalized, myalgia.
A subtype of INFLUENZA A VIRUS with the surface proteins hemagglutinin 1 and neuraminidase 1. The H1N1 subtype was responsible for the Spanish flu pandemic of 1918.
Specific hemagglutinin subtypes encoded by VIRUSES.
Serological reactions in which an antiserum against one antigen reacts with a non-identical but closely related antigen.
A subtype of INFLUENZA A VIRUS comprised of the surface proteins hemagglutinin 3 and neuraminidase 2. The H3N2 subtype was responsible for the Hong Kong flu pandemic of 1968.
Unstable isotopes of carbon that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. C atoms with atomic weights 10, 11, and 14-16 are radioactive carbon isotopes.
Vaccines in which the infectious microbial nucleic acid components have been destroyed by chemical or physical treatment (e.g., formalin, beta-propiolactone, gamma radiation) without affecting the antigenicity or immunogenicity of the viral coat or bacterial outer membrane proteins.
Virus diseases caused by the ORTHOMYXOVIRIDAE.
Membrane glycoproteins from influenza viruses which are involved in hemagglutination, virus attachment, and envelope fusion. Fourteen distinct subtypes of HA glycoproteins and nine of NA glycoproteins have been identified from INFLUENZA A VIRUS; no subtypes have been identified for Influenza B or Influenza C viruses.
Agents that cause agglutination of red blood cells. They include antibodies, blood group antigens, lectins, autoimmune factors, bacterial, viral, or parasitic blood agglutinins, etc.
The most common mineral of a group of hydrated aluminum silicates, approximately H2Al2Si2O8-H2O. It is prepared for pharmaceutical and medicinal purposes by levigating with water to remove sand, etc. (From Merck Index, 11th ed) The name is derived from Kao-ling (Chinese: "high ridge"), the original site. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
Red blood cells. Mature erythrocytes are non-nucleated, biconcave disks containing HEMOGLOBIN whose function is to transport OXYGEN.
An enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of alpha-2,3, alpha-2,6-, and alpha-2,8-glycosidic linkages (at a decreasing rate, respectively) of terminal sialic residues in oligosaccharides, glycoproteins, glycolipids, colominic acid, and synthetic substrate. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992)
Administration of vaccines to stimulate the host's immune response. This includes any preparation intended for active immunological prophylaxis.
Technique involving the diffusion of antigen or antibody through a semisolid medium, usually agar or agarose gel, with the result being a precipitin reaction.
Species of the genus INFLUENZAVIRUS B that cause HUMAN INFLUENZA and other diseases primarily in humans. Antigenic variation is less extensive than in type A viruses (INFLUENZA A VIRUS) and consequently there is no basis for distinct subtypes or variants. Epidemics are less likely than with INFLUENZA A VIRUS and there have been no pandemics. Previously only found in humans, Influenza B virus has been isolated from seals which may constitute the animal reservoir from which humans are exposed.
A subtype of INFLUENZA A VIRUS comprised of the surface proteins hemagglutinin 3 and neuraminidase 8. The H3N8 subtype has frequently been found in horses.
A method for the detection of very small quantities of antibody in which the antigen-antibody-complement complex adheres to indicator cells, usually primate erythrocytes or nonprimate blood platelets. The reaction is dependent on the number of bound C3 molecules on the C3b receptor sites of the indicator cell.
An acute febrile, contagious, viral disease of birds caused by an AVULAVIRUS called NEWCASTLE DISEASE VIRUS. It is characterized by respiratory and nervous symptoms in fowl and is transmissible to man causing a severe, but transient conjunctivitis.
Sorbitan mono-9-octadecanoate poly(oxy-1,2-ethanediyl) derivatives; complex mixtures of polyoxyethylene ethers used as emulsifiers or dispersing agents in pharmaceuticals.
The production of ANTIBODIES by proliferating and differentiated B-LYMPHOCYTES under stimulation by ANTIGENS.
Diagnostic procedures involving immunoglobulin reactions.
A subtype of INFLUENZA A VIRUS comprised of the surface proteins hemagglutinin 5 and neuraminidase 1. The H5N1 subtype, frequently referred to as the bird flu virus, is endemic in wild birds and very contagious among both domestic (POULTRY) and wild birds. It does not usually infect humans, but some cases have been reported.
A class of immunoglobulin bearing mu chains (IMMUNOGLOBULIN MU-CHAINS). IgM can fix COMPLEMENT. The name comes from its high molecular weight and originally being called a macroglobulin.
Methods of detecting pregnancy by examining the levels of human chorionic gonadotropin (HCG) in plasma or urine.
The property of antibodies which enables them to react with some ANTIGENIC DETERMINANTS and not with others. Specificity is dependent on chemical composition, physical forces, and molecular structure at the binding site.
Infection of domestic and wild fowl and other BIRDS with INFLUENZA A VIRUS. Avian influenza usually does not sicken birds, but can be highly pathogenic and fatal in domestic POULTRY.
A genus of gram-negative, mostly facultatively anaerobic bacteria in the family MYCOPLASMATACEAE. The cells are bounded by a PLASMA MEMBRANE and lack a true CELL WALL. Its organisms are pathogens found on the MUCOUS MEMBRANES of humans, ANIMALS, and BIRDS.
A subtype of INFLUENZA A VIRUS comprised of the surface proteins hemagglutinin 9 and neuraminidase 2. The H9N2 subtype usually infects domestic birds (POULTRY) but there have been some human infections reported.
Passive agglutination tests in which antigen is adsorbed onto latex particles which then clump in the presence of antibody specific for the adsorbed antigen. (From Stedman, 26th ed)
The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.
Large, hoofed mammals of the family EQUIDAE. Horses are active day and night with most of the day spent seeking and consuming food. Feeding peaks occur in the early morning and late afternoon, and there are several daily periods of rest.
Sites on an antigen that interact with specific antibodies.
Immunologic techniques based on the use of: (1) enzyme-antibody conjugates; (2) enzyme-antigen conjugates; (3) antienzyme antibody followed by its homologous enzyme; or (4) enzyme-antienzyme complexes. These are used histologically for visualizing or labeling tissue specimens.
Diseases of birds which are raised as a source of meat or eggs for human consumption and are usually found in barnyards, hatcheries, etc. The concept is differentiated from BIRD DISEASES which is for diseases of birds not considered poultry and usually found in zoos, parks, and the wild.
The most well known avian paramyxovirus in the genus AVULAVIRUS and the cause of a highly infectious pneumoencephalitis in fowl. It is also reported to cause CONJUNCTIVITIS in humans. Transmission is by droplet inhalation or ingestion of contaminated water or food.
Any of the ruminant mammals with curved horns in the genus Ovis, family Bovidae. They possess lachrymal grooves and interdigital glands, which are absent in GOATS.
EPIDEMIOLOGIC STUDIES based on the detection through serological testing of characteristic change in the serum level of specific ANTIBODIES. Latent subclinical infections and carrier states can thus be detected in addition to clinically overt cases.
The period of recovery following an illness.
A lesion with cytological characteristics associated with invasive carcinoma but the tumor cells are confined to the epithelium of origin, without invasion of the basement membrane.
Proteins that share the common characteristic of binding to carbohydrates. Some ANTIBODIES and carbohydrate-metabolizing proteins (ENZYMES) also bind to carbohydrates, however they are not considered lectins. PLANT LECTINS are carbohydrate-binding proteins that have been primarily identified by their hemagglutinating activity (HEMAGGLUTININS). However, a variety of lectins occur in animal species where they serve diverse array of functions through specific carbohydrate recognition.
A series of steps taken in order to conduct research.
Manifestations of the immune response which are mediated by antigen-sensitized T-lymphocytes via lymphokines or direct cytotoxicity. This takes place in the absence of circulating antibody or where antibody plays a subordinate role.
A common name used for the genus Cavia. The most common species is Cavia porcellus which is the domesticated guinea pig used for pets and biomedical research.
Epidemics of infectious disease that have spread to many countries, often more than one continent, and usually affecting a large number of people.
A species in the ORTHOBUNYAVIRUS genus of the family BUNYAVIRIDAE. Serotypes are found in temperate and arctic regions and each is closely associated with a single species of vector mosquito. The vertebrate hosts are usually small mammals but several serotypes infect humans.
The type species of LYSSAVIRUS causing rabies in humans and other animals. Transmission is mostly by animal bites through saliva. The virus is neurotropic multiplying in neurons and myotubes of vertebrates.
Diseases of domestic swine and of the wild boar of the genus Sus.
Deliberate stimulation of the host's immune response. ACTIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of ANTIGENS or IMMUNOLOGIC ADJUVANTS. PASSIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of IMMUNE SERA or LYMPHOCYTES or their extracts (e.g., transfer factor, immune RNA) or transplantation of immunocompetent cell producing tissue (thymus or bone marrow).
A species of FLAVIVIRUS, one of the Japanese encephalitis virus group (ENCEPHALITIS VIRUSES, JAPANESE), which is the etiological agent of Japanese encephalitis found in Asia, southeast Asia, and the Indian subcontinent.
A viral infection of the brain caused by serotypes of California encephalitis virus (ENCEPHALITIS VIRUS, CALIFORNIA) transmitted to humans by the mosquito AEDES triseriatus. The majority of cases are caused by the LA CROSSE VIRUS. This condition is endemic to the midwestern United States and primarily affects children between 5-10 years of age. Clinical manifestations include FEVER; VOMITING; HEADACHE; and abdominal pain followed by SEIZURES, altered mentation, and focal neurologic deficits. (From Joynt, Clinical Neurology, 1996, Ch26, p13)
Semidomesticated variety of European polecat much used for hunting RODENTS and/or RABBITS and as a laboratory animal. It is in the subfamily Mustelinae, family MUSTELIDAE.
Substances that are recognized by the immune system and induce an immune reaction.
Infections of the brain caused by arthropod-borne viruses (i.e., arboviruses) primarily from the families TOGAVIRIDAE; FLAVIVIRIDAE; BUNYAVIRIDAE; REOVIRIDAE; and RHABDOVIRIDAE. Life cycles of these viruses are characterized by ZOONOSES, with birds and lower mammals serving as intermediate hosts. The virus is transmitted to humans by the bite of mosquitoes (CULICIDAE) or TICKS. Clinical manifestations include fever, headache, alterations of mentation, focal neurologic deficits, and COMA. (From Clin Microbiol Rev 1994 Jan;7(1):89-116; Walton, Brain's Diseases of the Nervous System, 10th ed, p321)
Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).
Arthropod-borne viruses. A non-taxonomic designation for viruses that can replicate in both vertebrate hosts and arthropod vectors. Included are some members of the following families: ARENAVIRIDAE; BUNYAVIRIDAE; REOVIRIDAE; TOGAVIRIDAE; and FLAVIVIRIDAE. (From Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2nd ed)
Test for tissue antigen using either a direct method, by conjugation of antibody with fluorescent dye (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, DIRECT) or an indirect method, by formation of antigen-antibody complex which is then labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, INDIRECT). The tissue is then examined by fluorescence microscopy.

Serum dilution neutralization test for California group virus identification and serology. (1/1894)

The serum dilution neutralization test was evaluated for serological diagnosis of California group arbovirus infections and identification of virus isolates. The technical advantages and the degree of subtype specificity of the serum dilution neutralization test over the hemagglutination inhibition test and the complement fixation test were demonstrated with paired specimens from human cases, single human survey sera, and sentinel rabbit sera. Twenty-one virus isolates from various geographical areas of the United States were also used to evaluate the efficacy of the serum dilution neutralization test for specific virus identification.  (+info)

Removal of non-specific serum inhibitors of haemagglutination of rubella virus by treatment with dodecylamine-gel. (2/1894)

The suitability of using dodecylamine-gel for removing the serum non-antibody-like inhibitors of haemagglutination by rubella was studied. Compared with kaolin and MnCl2/heparin treatment this new procedure appears to have a higher specificity since it removes the non-antibody-like inhibitors from serum without affecting the immunoglobulin level significantly. The potential application of this procedure in routine serological analysis for rubella virus infection is discussed.  (+info)

Staphylococcal protein A; its preparation and an application to rubella serology. (3/1894)

Good yields of staphylococcal protein A are obtained by growing the staphylococcus Cowan type 1 on cellophane agar. The activity of these preparations in removing immunoglobulin G (IgG) from human serum can be readily measured by the Mancini radial-diffusion technique and the correct in-use dilution determined. Treatment with protein A of sera from women with a history of rubella may help in the identification of those having specific antibody in the IgM and IgA fractions. This relatively simple procedure may have worthwhile application in the diagnosis of rubella.  (+info)

Detection of antibody to avian influenza A (H5N1) virus in human serum by using a combination of serologic assays. (4/1894)

From May to December 1997, 18 cases of mild to severe respiratory illness caused by avian influenza A (H5N1) viruses were identified in Hong Kong. The emergence of an avian virus in the human population prompted an epidemiological investigation to determine the extent of human-to-human transmission of the virus and risk factors associated with infection. The hemagglutination inhibition (HI) assay, the standard method for serologic detection of influenza virus infection in humans, has been shown to be less sensitive for the detection of antibodies induced by avian influenza viruses. Therefore, we developed a more sensitive microneutralization assay to detect antibodies to avian influenza in humans. Direct comparison of an HI assay and the microneutralization assay demonstrated that the latter was substantially more sensitive in detecting human antibodies to H5N1 virus in infected individuals. An H5-specific indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was also established to test children's sera. The sensitivity and specificity of the microneutralization assay were compared with those of an H5-specific indirect ELISA. When combined with a confirmatory H5-specific Western blot test, the specificities of both assays were improved. Maximum sensitivity (80%) and specificity (96%) for the detection of anti-H5 antibody in adults aged 18 to 59 years were achieved by using the microneutralization assay combined with Western blotting. Maximum sensitivity (100%) and specificity (100%) in detecting anti-H5 antibody in sera obtained from children less than 15 years of age were achieved by using ELISA combined with Western blotting. This new test algorithm is being used for the seroepidemiologic investigations of the avian H5N1 influenza outbreak.  (+info)

A modified rubella HI test using prestandardized reagents. (5/1894)

A modified haemagglutination inhibition test for rubella antibodies using prestandardized freeze-dried reagents was compared to a "standard" method. Tests of 707 serum samples showed that the modified test was sensitive and reliable by both macrotitration and microtitration techniques. The minor disadvantages of some reduction in antibody level when rubella sera were tested within one week of the rash and of spontaneous sheep erythrocyte agglutination in 0-7% of sera were out-weighed by the increased speed of the new test and the fact that it was carried out at room temperature.  (+info)

Experimental production of respiratory tract disease in cebus monkeys after intratracheal or intranasal infection with influenza A/Victoria/3/75 or influenza A/New Jersey/76 virus. (6/1894)

A total of 28 cebus monkeys were inoculated intratracheally or intranasally with 10(6) 50% tissue culture infective doses of A/New Jersey/76 virus or 10(7) 50% tissue culture infective doses of A/Victoria/75 virus, and 8 additional monkeys received sterile allantoic fluid. Each of the animals became infected as evidenced by a serological response and/or shedding of the virus. Of the 10 animals inoculated intratracheally with A/Victoria/75 virus, 8 developed a systemic illness, and pulmonary infiltration was detected by X-ray in 7 of the 8. Administration of A/New Jersey/76 virus intratracheally to 10 monkeys produced a mild systemic illness in 2 animals and an upper respiratory tract illness in 6, but no illness developed in the remaining 2 monkeys; none of the animals developed X-ray evidence of lower respiratory tract disease. Intranasal administration of either virus failed to induce any illness or produced, at most, mild illness confined to the upper respiratory tract. These studies demonstrate that cebus monkeys are susceptible to respiratory tract infection with influenza A viruses and that the development of pulmonary disease is reflected in the appearance of easily recognizable radiological changes.  (+info)

Influenza vaccination of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected adults: impact on plasma levels of HIV type 1 RNA and determinants of antibody response. (7/1894)

We assessed the effect of influenza vaccination on plasma levels of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) RNA and the impact of age, plasma HIV-1 RNA level, CD4 cell count, and anti-HIV therapy on immune response. Forty-nine adults (mean age, 38.7 years; mean CD4 cell count +/- SD, 190 +/- 169/mL; mean plasma HIV-1 RNA level +/- SD, 154,616 +/- 317,192 copies/mL) were immunized. Elevations of > or = 0.48 log in plasma HIV-1 RNA levels occurred in two (4%) of 49 subjects within 4 weeks of vaccination. A fourfold or greater increase in antibody titer occurred in 13 (45%) of 29 subjects, correlating directly with CD4 cell count (P = .002) and inversely with plasma HIV-1 RNA level (P = .034). By multivariate analysis, CD4 cell count was a stronger predictor of antibody response than was plasma HIV-1 RNA level. We conclude that increases in plasma HIV-1 RNA levels following influenza vaccination are rare and transient and that antibody response is impaired with CD4 cell counts of < 100/mL and plasma HIV-1 RNA levels of > 100,000 copies/mL. Prospective trials are needed to evaluate the impact of highly active therapy on immune response after vaccination.  (+info)

Further characterization of IgA in chicken serum and secretions with evidence of a possible analogue of mammalian secretory component. (8/1894)

Immunochemical studies of the intestinal secretory immune system of the chicken have led to further characterization of IgA in bile, intestinal contents and serum. A component was detected in late Sephadex G-200 fractions of caecal and intestinal contents which showed partial identity with bile, intestinal and a high molecular weight fraction of serum IgA. This component showed similar sedimentation characteristics to bovine serum albumin in sucrose density gradients, a fast electrophoretic mobility on polyacrylamide gel and is a possible analogue of mammalian secretory component (SC). Fractionation of serum from birds affected with infectious synovitis revealed two moleculare classes of IgA. Comparative double diffusion studies produced a reaction of complete identity between bile IgA and high molecular weight serum IgA (15S) and partial identity with low molecular weight serum IgA (7S), suggesting a lack of an SC determinant on the latter. A spur of partial identity between 15S and 7S serum IgA was also observed. Although no direct structural homology with mammalian or human IgA could be demonstrated by immunological cross-reactivity, the similarities of molecular characteristics, particularly emphasized by the presence of a secretory component, favour a functional analogy between the secretory immune system of the fowl and mammalian species.  (+info)

The details of bibliography - Surveys of haemagglutination-inhibiting antibody to arboviruses in Aborigines and other population groups in Northern and Eastern Australia, 1966-1971
Definition of Haemagglutination inhibition test with photos and pictures, translations, sample usage, and additional links for more information.
Evaluation of a rubella hemagglutination inhibition test system.: Two systems for measurement of rubella hemagglutination inhibition antibodies were compared. O
The Comparison of Sensitivity and Specificity of ELISA-based Microneutralization Test with Hemagglutination Inhibition Test to Evaluate Neutralizing Antibody against Influenza Virus (H1N1)
Hemagglutination occurs when measles viruses and red blood cells are mixed (See image a). But, if the serum of a person infected with measles virus is mixed with RBC and measles virus, there wont be any agglutination of RBC. This phenomenon is known as hemagglutination inhibition. This arises because antibodies present in the serum of that infected person reacts with the measles viruses and neutralized them (positive result).. If the patients serum do not contain antibodies against surface proteins of test virus, there will be presence of hemagglutination as surface molecules are free to hemaaglutinate RBCs (negative result).. ...
Looking for hemagglutination inhibition (HI) test? Find out information about hemagglutination inhibition (HI) test. Agglutination of red blood cells. the agglutination and subsequent precipitation of red blood cells, caused by hemagglutinins, bacteria, viruses, and agents... Explanation of hemagglutination inhibition (HI) test
InDevR, Inc., an innovative life science company dedicated to improving biopharmaceutical and vaccine manufacturing, announced study results and a joint publication with the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) of Automated interpretation of influenza hemagglutination inhibition (HAI) assays: is plate tilting necessary? in the scientific journal PLOS ONE.. Serological screening is an important step in influenza monitoring and vaccine development. The hemagglutination inhibition assay (HAI) is widely used to evaluate vaccine-induced antibody responses as well as to antigenically characterize influenza viruses. HAI results are based on an endpoint titration where the titers are typically manually interpreted and recorded by a trained expert. For serological applications, the lack of a standardized endpoint interpretation and presence of interfering non-specific inhibitors can translate into a high degree of variability in the results. This variability along with the lack of a digital record ...
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention have determined that some adults have serum cross-reactive antibodies to the new influenza H1N1 virus. One of the techniques used to reach this conclusion is the hemagglutination inhibition (HI) assay. How does this assay work? To understand the HI assay, we must discuss the h
The primary objective of this study was to determine the proportion of subjects, seronegative to all three strains of influenza, as defined by a serum hemagglutination inhibition antibodies (HAI) antibody titer of ,1:10, who shed each vaccine virus strain following a single dose of CAIV-T ...
Background: We determined antibodies to the pandemic influenza A (H1N1) 2009 virus in children to assess: the incidence of (H1N1) 2009 infections in the 2009/2010 season in Germany, the proportion of subclinical infections and to compare titers in vaccinated and infected children. Methodology/Principal Findings: Eight pediatric hospitals distributed over Germany prospectively provided sera from in-or outpatients aged 1 to 17 years from April 1(st) to July 31(st) 2010. Vaccination history, recall of infections and sociodemographic factors were ascertained. Antibody titers were measured with a sensitive and specific in-house hemagglutination inhibition test (HIT) and compared to age-matched sera collected during 6 months before the onset of the pandemic in Germany. We analyzed 1420 post-pandemic and 300 pre-pandemic sera. Among unvaccinated children aged 1-4 and 5-17 years the prevalence of HI titers (,= 1:10) was 27.1% (95% CI: 23.5-31.3) and 53.5% (95% CI: 50.9-56.2) compared to 1.7% and 5.5%, ...
Figure 17.2 Quantitation of Immunologic Tests (a) Microtiter plates used to quantitate immunoassays. (b) Hemagglutination inhibition tests done in a microtiter
By no means be afraid to call and discuss something unusual. She is a former elementary school teacher and stay at home mom. We are so thankful afrer this precious boy. Widespread causes are Infections Hormonal Imbalance Vaginal Environments Adjustments and maybe its simply Regular Discharge. I have mainly been worried about the baby crying in a room that our next door neighbor shares a ater with, nipples size after pregnancy also to get out of the room thats above our snoring downstairs neighbor. Many pregnant girls report that their desires develop into more vivid than typical, and some even expertise nightmares. Ive pregnanxy reading your comments and reader emails and I thoroughly enjoy hearing hemagglutination inhibition test for pregnancy experiences, joys and challenges. Another failed due date. Additionally remember to hydrate following your routine. If nipples size after pregnancy are worried from where nipplex you get all that gas filled inside your tummy, you can blame prrgnancy to ...
The immunogenicity and protective efficacy of formalin-inactivated vaccines prepared from influenza A (H1N1) viruses grown in MDCK cells and in eggs was compared in animal models.. The A/Chr/157/83 virus grown in MDCK cells (157M) differed by two amino acid substitutions in the HA molecule from the corresponding virus grown in eggs (157E) and the two viruses could be distinguished antigenically by monoclonal and polyclonal antibodies. Following two intramuscular injections of vaccine in ferrets, guinea pigs, and hamsters, both vaccines were equally immunogenic when antibody was analyzed by hemagglutination inhibition using homologous virus. However, single radial hemolysis analysis following antibody cross-adsorption showed that antibody stimulated by 157E vaccine was exclusively strain specific whereas that produced by the 157M vaccine was more broadly reactive. When immunized hamsters were challenged with virus cultivated on mammalian (MDCK) cells, the homologous vaccine induced a higher ...
In 2006 an outbreak of avian influenza A(H5N1) in Turkey caused 12 human infections, including four deaths. We conducted a serological survey to determine the extent of subclinical infection caused by the outbreak. Single serum samples were collected from five individuals with avian influenza whose nasopharyngeal swabs tested positive for H5 RNA by polymerase chain reaction, 28 family contacts of the cases, 95 poultry cullers, 75 individuals known to have had contact with diseased chickens and 81 individuals living in the region with no known contact with infected chickens and/or patients. Paired serum samples were collected from 97 healthcare workers. All sera were tested for the presence of neutralizing antibodies by enzyme-linked immunoassay, haemagglutination inhibition and microneutralization assays. Only one serum sample, from a parent of an avian influenza patient, tested positive for H5N1 by microneutralization assay. This survey shows that there was minimal subclinical H5N1 infection ...
To determine the effect of HIV-infection, tuberculosis (TB) and HIV-TB co-infection on humoral antibody responses, measured by hemagglutinin inhibition assay (HAI), to each of three strains included in the seasonal non-adjuvanted trivalent influenza vaccine In this study we will use the following definitions to assess the humoral immune response to TIV: HAI titers ,1:10 = seronegative; HAI titers ≥1:10 = seropositive; HAI titers ≥1:40 = sero-protective; sero-response rate (primary outcome measure) will be defined as a titer of ≥1:40 in an individual with baseline titers of ,1:10, or ,4-fold increase of HAI titers if baseline titers were ≥1:10. Hemagglutination inhibition assays will be performed on serum as per recommended methods. Sera will be titrated against antigens from the influenza vaccine strains included in the 2013 seasonal TIV ...
Laboratory tests for the diagnosis of Infectious Bronchitis (IB) are Antigen determination and Antibody determination (serology) which includes Agar Gel Precipitation Test (AGP),Virus neutralization test (VN),Haemagglutination Inhibition Test (HI) and Enzyme linked Immuno Sorbent Assay (ELISA)
There are no specific protocols for Anti-Swine H1N1 Neuraminidase antibody (ab91643). Please download our general protocols booklet
Patients suffering from anorexia nervosa rarely appear to develop the common cold or influenza. This study examines the immunological response of fifteen female anorexia nervosa patients of both the vomiting and carbohydrate-abstaining type and compares them with a control population matched for age and occupation. Both anorectics and control populations received the admune influenza vaccine. Initially both groups had similar haemagglutination inhibition titres against the three different viral antigens: A/HK; A/PC; A/Eng. However, the anorectics showed over a 2-month period a higher titre of antibody especially to the Hong Kong virus: this was sigignificant. Cellular immune responses were measured using a tuberculin and a macrophage inhibition test, no significant difference between the two groups was obderved. These results which support the clinical findings are discussed.. ...
Nomenclature Applications BA Binding Assay ChIP Chromatin Immunoprecipitation DID Double Immunodiffusion DOT Dot Blot ELISA Enzyme-linked Immunosorbent Assay (EIA) EM Electron Microscopy ESI-MS Electronspray Ionization Mass Spectrometry (ES-MS) FACS Fluorescence-Activated Cell Sorting (FC Flow cytometry) HAI Hemagglutination Inhibition Assay (HI) HPLC High Pressure Liquid Chromatography IEP Immunoelectrophoresis IF/ICC Immunofluorescence/Immunocytochemistry (IFA) IHC-Fr Immunohistochemistry Frozen IHC-P Immunohistochemistry Paraffin IP Immunoprecipitation IRMA
BACKGROUND. Systems vaccinology allows cutting-edge analysis of innate biomarkers of vaccine efficacy. We explored a strategy to shape the adaptive immune response by targeting innate immune cells through novel immunization routes. METHODS. This randomized phase I/II clinical study (n = 60 healthy subjects aged 18-45 years old) used transcriptomic analysis to discover early biomarkers of immune response quality after transcutaneous (t.c.), intradermal (i.d.), and intramuscular (i.m.) administration of a trivalent influenza vaccine (TIV, season 2012-2013, 1:1:1 ratio). Safety and immunogenicity (hemagglutinin inhibition [HI], microneutralization [MN] antibodies, and CD4+ and CD8+ effector T cells) were measured at baseline day 0 (d0) and at d21. Blood transcriptome was analyzed at d0 and d1. RESULTS. TIV-specific CD8+ granzyme B+ (GRZ) T cells appeared in more individuals immunized by the t.c. and i.d. routes, whereas immunization by the i.d. and i.m. routes prompted high levels of HI antibody ...
The VaxArray® Influenza vaccine potency testing system is 24x faster and more sensitive than SRID. Cypher One is a new tool for automated HA and HAI assays.
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Hey guys! So this is a SS i got a zillion ideas for after yesterdays episode :) I wanted to put it up before todays episode because Ill lose momentum and get lost in the real happenings in the show instead of my version haha. So its basically my take on what shouldve happened with the ... | 3542078 | Qubool Hai Forum
Vi g ngum einhvern t man gegnum erfi a t ma, gegnum erfi ar a st ur og a er okkar h ndum a l ta j kv u hli arnar og l ta a sem g a hvatningu a gefa 100%. skrifa i Chicharito Instagram ...
Raccoon dog parvovirus (RDPV) causes acute infectious diseases in raccoon dogs and may cause death in severe cases. The current treatment strategy relies on the extensive usage of classical inactivated vaccine which is marred by large doses, short immunization cycles and safety concerns. The present study aimed at optimization of RDPV VP2 gene, subcloning the gene into plasmid pET30a, and its subsequent transfer to Escherichia coli with trigger factor 16 for co-expression. The protein thus expressed was purified with ammonium sulfate precipitation, hydrophobic chromatography, and endotoxin extraction procedures. VLPs were examined by transmission electron microscopy, dynamic light scattering, and the efficacy of VLPs vaccine was tested in vivo. Results indicated that RDPV VP2 protein could be expressed soluble. Transmission electron microscopy and dynamic light scattering results indicated that RDPV VP2 self-assembled into VLPs. Hemagglutination inhibition antibody titers elicited by Al(OH)3 adjuvanted
A collection of synovial fibroblasts from 19 patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and 12 patients with osteoarthrosis or other non-RA disease has been examined for rubella virus antigens by immunofluorescence and radioimmunoassay with negative results. Eluates of synovial membrane prepared under conditions likely to dissociate antigen-antibody complexes have shown no rubella antibody. A serological survey of RA patients and those with other forms of arthritis has shown no differences in the frequency or levels of rubella haemagglutination-inhibiting antibody. These results provide little support for various hypotheses that a persistent infection with rubella virus underlies or initiates the rheumatoid process. ...
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Tan, H. C, Tan, S. H, Balachandran, K & Chan, Y. C. (‎1985)‎. The Use of the single radial haemolysis technique in the serological diagnosis of dengue and Japanese encephalitis virus infections / Y. C. Chan ... [‎et al.]‎. Bulletin of the World Health Organization 1985 ; 63(‎6)‎ : 1043-1053 https://apps.who.int/iris/handle/10665/49891 ...
Influenza B Virus Neuraminidase antibody LS-C83326 is an unconjugated mouse monoclonal antibody to influenza virus Influenza B Virus Neuraminidase. Validated for Inhb.
We generated two adenovirus(Ad5)-based influenza vaccine candidates encoding the wildtype or a codon-optimized hemagglutinin antigen (HA) from the recently emerged swine influenza isolate A/California/04/2009 (H1N1)pdm. After verification of antigen expression, immunogenicity of the vaccine candidates were tested in a mouse model using dose escalations for subcutaneous immunization. Sera of immunized animals were tested in microneutalization and hemagglutination inhibition assays for the presence of HA-specific antibodies. HA-specific T-cells were measured in IFNγ Elispot assays. The efficiency of the influenza vaccine candidates were evaluated in a challenge model by measuring viral titer in lung and nasal turbinate 3 days after inoculation of a homologous H1N1 virus ...
Looking for hemagglutination (HA) test? Find out information about hemagglutination (HA) test. Agglutination of red blood cells. the agglutination and subsequent precipitation of red blood cells, caused by hemagglutinins, bacteria, viruses, and agents... Explanation of hemagglutination (HA) test
Background: In a 2012 Phase II clinical trial, 300 Bangladeshi children aged 24 to 59 months with no prior influenza vaccine exposure were randomized to receive a single intranasally-administered dose of either trivalent, Russian-backbone, live, attenuated influenza vaccine (LAIV) or placebo. Protocol-defined analyses, presented in the companion manuscript, demonstrate decreased viral detection and immunogenicity for A/H1N1pdm09, relative to the A/H3N2 and B strains. This post hoc analysis of the trial data aims to investigate the LAIV strain differences by testing the hypothesis that preexisting humoral and mucosal immunity may influence viral recovery and immune responses after LAIV receipt. Methods: We used logistic regressions to evaluate the relations between markers of preexisting immunity (ie, hemagglutination inhibition [HAI], microneutralization, and immunoglobulin G and immunoglobulin A (both serum and mucosal antibodies) and LAIV viral recovery in the week post-vaccination. We then ...
Hemagglutination Inspection Items, find complete details about Hemagglutination Inspection Items, Hemagglutination inspection items - BIOBASE
Definition of reverse passive hemagglutination. Provided by Stedmans medical dictionary and Drugs.com. Includes medical terms and definitions.
Upon immunization with LDH-III (subunit composition AABB) rabbits produce anti-A and anti-B antibodies in comparable amounts. These antibodies fit equally well to the hybrid enzyme and to LDH-V (AAAA) or LDH-I (BBBB) respectively, as tested by passive hemagglutination inhibition. No antibodies reacting with both LDH-I and LDH-V were detected. A minority of hybrid-specific antibodies was, however, present in the sera.. Animals primed with LDH-III respond regularly to a boosting injection of LDH-V with the production of large amounts of anti-A (but not anti-B) antibodies. A similar injection of LDH-I stimulates (if it has any effect at all) the production of anti-B antibodies only. Stimulation with one of the pure types does not impair a subsequent response to the other.. The majority of the animals primed with LDH-III responded not at all or weakly to a boosting injection of LDH-I, though antibodies to LDH-I were present in the sera at the time of stimulation. This effect can hardly be explained ...
Of serum that inhibited hemagglutination. HI antibody titers were summarized with the criteria conventionally used to assess the immunogenicity of influenza
Dosto, This is real story jo ki mere sath ghati hai. Mera name ritesh hai or me baroda guj ka handsome ladka hu. Meri age 25 yr hai…. Bat aj se 5 sal pahle ki hai jab me 20 sal ka tha. Un dino me engg me study karta tha or second year me tha. Hamari exam june or dec me hoti hai. To me dec me exam khatam kar k apne gav Bharatpur gaya huwa tha. Jo ki hamare rajkot se 40 km dur padta hai.1 ghante ka hi to rasta tha.. Waha hamare bade pitaji (jisko hum bapuji bolte hai) or unki family rahti hai. Mere bapuji ka ladka jiska name ramesh hai wo mere se 5 sal bada hai or kheti-badi dekhta hai. Uski sadi huye 3 sal ho gaye the. Use ek bachcha bhi hai…jo ki tab 1 sal ka tha. Meri bhabhi ki umar us time 22 sal thi or dekhne me medium ladki thi, Uska name roshni hai. Lekin uske sharir ke sabhi hisse me barabar charbi bhari hui thi….ekdum mansal 34 ke stan, Patli si 28 ki kamar or nichhe gaddedar bhare huye kulhe jo ki 35 ki size ke honge. Kul milakar ekdum mast fig tha.. Wo ghar me sadi blouse hi ...
Most of the farmers and industries rely on the microbial inhibition tests as a screening tool for a broad range of antibiotics because it is natural, intuitive, and simple enough to be operated by non-specialists outside laboratories. Unfortunately, it suffers from drawbacks such as long analysis time and sensitivity issues. To improve the on-site screening test, we introduce the pioneering idea to couple cost effective and sensitive ...
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Un cappotto bellisimo Rosanna, cumplimenti per le meravigliose vacanze che hai fatto e per tutti i regali che hai ricevuto e anche tutto il amore che hai portato con te. Un bacio ...
मैं उनके दिल में रहता हूँ, वो मेरे दिल में रहते हैं. ज़मीं पर पाँव नखवत से नहीं रखते परी- ...
Sera from 1000 women attending antenatal clinics were screened for the presence of rubella antibody by haemagglutination inhibition (HI), single radial haemolysis (SRH), and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). With 925 sera concordant results were obtained with all three tests. There were 46 false-negative HI tests due to the necessity of allowing for residual non-specific inhibitors. With SRH there was one false positive and three that were negative by SRH but HI- and ELISA-positive. By ELISA 14 sera gave a false-positive result (OD 405 nm greater than or equal to 0.2). Ten of these could be eliminated by taking an OD 405 nm of 0.5 as the threshold but then another 10 sera became false negatives.. ...
Haemagglutination and ELISA tests, and negative contrast electron microscopy, have been used to identify rabbit haemorrhagic disease virus in naturally occurring cases of the disease and in experimentally infected rabbits in the United Kingdom. Haemagglutination tests alone are not satisfactory for the diagnosis because non-haemagglutinating isolates of the virus, otherwise indistinguishable from others, have been found in some outbreaks. Haemagglutination inhibition tests have shown that a proportion of both commercial laboratory and wild rabbits in the UK are seropositive to the virus although they have not been associated with clinical disease. This observation, made previously in other parts of Europe, may indicate the longstanding circulation of a related but non-pathogenic strain of virus. Naturally occurring antibody appears to afford a high degree of protection against experimental challenge with virulent virus.. ...
BACKGROUND: Avian influenza viruses (AIV) cause huge economic losses in poultry industries and pose a substantial threat to human health. However, predicting AIV epizootics and emergence in humans is confounded by insufficient empirical data on the ecology and dynamics of AIV in poultry systems. To address this gap, we quantified incidence patterns for 13 hemagglutinin subtypes of AIV using 6 years of surveillance data that were collected from ten different species of poultry and three different types of poultry holdings (contexts) - retail, wholesale, or farms.METHODS: We collected 42 646 samples in Shantou, China between 2000 and 2006. We screened samples for hemagglutinin subtypes 1-13 of AIV and Avian Paramyxovirus-type-1 (APMV-1) using monospecific antisera in hemagglutination inhibition tests. We analyzed the data to determine seasonality patterns, subtype-host, and subtype-subtype interactions as well as subtype bias in incidence in different contexts.RESULTS: H3, H6, H9, and APMV-1 were ...
Video articles in JoVE about peanut agglutinin include Chemically-blocked Antibody Microarray for Multiplexed High-throughput Profiling of Specific Protein Glycosylation in Complex Samples, Measuring Influenza Neuraminidase Inhibition Antibody Titers by Enzyme-linked Lectin Assay, Preparation of Horizontal Slices of Adult Mouse Retina for Electrophysiological Studies, Using Unfixed, Frozen Tissues to Study Natural Mucin Distribution, A Submerged Filter Paper Sandwich for Long-term Ex Ovo Time-lapse Imaging of Early Chick Embryos, A Portal Vein Injection Model to Study Liver Metastasis of Breast Cancer, In vivo Imaging of Transgenic Leishmania Parasites in a Live Host, RNAi-mediated Control of Aflatoxins in Peanut: Method to Analyze Mycotoxin Production and Transgene Expression in the Peanut/Aspergillus Pathosystem, A Method for Culturing Embryonic C. elegans Cells, Simple and Computer-assisted Olfactory Testing for Mice, A Platform of Anti-biofilm Assays Suited to the Exploration
A gel filtration technique using Sephadex G-200 has been used for the detection of specific IgM in sera from (a) 45 cases of clinical rubella in which diagnostic rises of rubella haemagglutination-inhibiting (HAI) antibody could be demonstrated; (b) 70 cases with clinical evidence of rubella in which a rising titre could not be demonstrated because the first serum sample already had high titre HAI antibodies; and (c) 100 patients in whom rubella was not suspected. The results indicate that the high specificity and sensitivity of the method described make it an appropriate technique for use in the routine diagnosis of acquired rubella.. ...
Hemagglutinin (HA) is the receptor-binding and membrane fusion glycoprotein of influenza virus and the target for infectivity-neutralizing antibodies. The structures of three conformations of the ectodomain of the 1968 Hong Kong influenza virus HA have been determined by X-ray crystallography: the single-chain precursor, HA0; the metastable neutral-pH conformation found on virus, and the fusion pH-induced conformation. These structures provide a framework for designing and interpreting the results of experiments on the activity of HA in receptor binding, the generation of emerging and reemerging epidemics, and membrane fusion during viral entry. Structures of HA in complex with sialic acid receptor analogs, together with binding experiments, provide details of these low-affinity interactions in terms of the sialic acid substituents recognized and the HA residues involved in recognition. Neutralizing antibody-binding sites surround the receptor-binding pocket on the membrane-distal surface of HA, ...
Understanding host antibody response is crucial for predicting disease severity and for vaccine development. We investigated antibody responses against influenza A(H7N9) virus in 48 serum samples from 21 patients, including paired samples from 15 patients. IgG against subtype H7 and neutralizing antibodies (NAbs) were not detected in acute-phase samples, but ELISA geometric mean titers increased in convalescent-phase samples; NAb titers were 20&ndash;80 (geometric mean titer 40). Avidity to IgG against subtype H7 was significantly lower than that against H1 and H3. IgG against H3 was boosted after infection with influenza A(H7N9) virus, and its level in acute-phase samples correlated with that against H7 in convalescent-phase samples. A correlation was also found between hemagglutinin inhibition and NAb titers and between hemagglutinin inhibition and IgG titers against H7. Because of the relatively weak protective antibody response to influenza A(H7N9), multiple vaccinations might be needed to
Understanding host antibody response is crucial for predicting disease severity and for vaccine development. We investigated antibody responses against influenza A(H7N9) virus in 48 serum samples from 21 patients, including paired samples from 15 patients. IgG against subtype H7 and neutralizing antibodies (NAbs) were not detected in acute-phase samples, but ELISA geometric mean titers increased in convalescent-phase samples; NAb titers were 20&ndash;80 (geometric mean titer 40). Avidity to IgG against subtype H7 was significantly lower than that against H1 and H3. IgG against H3 was boosted after infection with influenza A(H7N9) virus, and its level in acute-phase samples correlated with that against H7 in convalescent-phase samples. A correlation was also found between hemagglutinin inhibition and NAb titers and between hemagglutinin inhibition and IgG titers against H7. Because of the relatively weak protective antibody response to influenza A(H7N9), multiple vaccinations might be needed to
I am looking for a source of Influenza virus haemagglutinin antigen. I need this to use as a positive control for westerns to check expression of a HA tagged protein. The antibody we are going to use is mAb 12CA5 (from Boehringer). I will appreciate if anyone in knowledge of the commercial availablility of the compatible HA antigen will give me the details of the source. Thanks very much Obaid Khan ...
Health officials are actively lifeguarding are not sick with anti depression medication celexa COVID-19, http://poroshpathorsc.live/can-you-get-celexa-over-the-counter/ do not know they have it. Our next question comes from Mike Stobbe (Associated Press): Hi. The Delphi group at diagnosis (localized, regional, distant, or unknown) was characterized using traditional anti depression medication celexa hemagglutination inhibition (HI), or neutralization based Focus Reduction assays (FRA).. Citation Everett Jones S, Guy GP Jr, Berkowitz Z, Yabroff KR, Roland K, Saraiya M. PubMedexternal icon State Tobacco Control Program, Program Year 1, July 2015 through June 2012. Strategies with differing levels of particulates in the past. Through agreements that anti depression medication celexa the NBCCEDP has served as the referent category at a funeral service.. Corn masa flour is a nationwide breast and cervical cancer screening use was seen in most states. Other significant findings included higher ...
DC-13 Sanitizing Wipes is a ready-to-use soft sanitizing wipe with foam formulation cleaner designed for cleaning and disinfecting of hard nonporous surfaces. Kills multiple viruses including HBV (Hepatitis B Virus), HIV-1 (AIDS Virus), Herpes simplex Type 2 and Influenza A3/Hong Kong viruses. DC-13 destroys germs fas
D:emant, P; Cherry, M; and Snell, G D., Hemagglutination and cytotoxic studies of H-2. II. Some new cytotoxic specificities. (1971). Faculty Research 1970 - 1979. 160 ...
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Seroconversion for A/England/42/72 (H3N2) virus occurred in a child in Calcutta in August 1971, one month after the virus was first isolated in India. During the following 5 months a small increase was observed in the geometric mean titres (GMT). In
Antibiotics like Cipro works best when there is a constant amount in the blood and urine. Hence, you must ensure that you do not miss any dose. If you miss a dose of Cipro, then take it if there is ample time before your second dose. But if it is nearly time for the next dose, then skip the missed dose and continue with your regular schedule. Do not take a double dose ever ...
Antibiotics like Cipro works best when there is a constant amount in the blood and urine. Hence, you must ensure that you do not miss any dose. If you miss a dose of Cipro, then take it if there is ample time before your second dose. But if it is nearly time for the next dose, then skip the missed dose and continue with your regular schedule. Do not take a double dose ever ...
Antibiotics like Cipro works best when there is a constant amount in the blood and urine. Hence, you must ensure that you do not miss any dose. If you miss a dose of Cipro, then take it if there is ample time before your second dose. But if it is nearly time for the next dose, then skip the missed dose and continue with your regular schedule. Do not take a double dose ever ...
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Other methods of diagnosis included hemagglutination inhibition (HI), complement fixation, neutralization tests. However, new ... A seroprevalence study in Andaman and Nicobar islands in 2002 revealed a high prevalence of hemagglutination inhibition (HI) ... This study also found using immune response tests that birds and humans in the region appeared to have been exposed to the ...
Diagnosis is by virus isolation, serology, and other tests. Hemagglutination inhibition (HI) is one method of serology that ... ELISA was shown to have higher sensitivity to the HEF than the HI test. Because only Influenza viruses C and D produce esterase ... No samples of influenza D virus were detected in serum samples from humans; however, hemagglutination-inhibiting antibodies ...
Diagnosis is by virus isolation, serology, and other tests. Hemagglutination inhibition (HI) is one method of serology that ... ELISA was shown to have higher sensitivity to the HEF than the HI test. Because only Influenza viruses C and D produce esterase ... If more individuals were tested for Influenza virus C as well as the other three types, infections not previously associated ...
... are the targets of numerous serologic reactions and tests including neutralization and hemagglutination inhibition. The ...
Several parameters of the hemagglutination (HA) test-such as the temperature of incubation, the species of erythrocyte used, ... and hemagglutination inhibition (HI). The biophysical and biochemical properties of PPV have been extensively studied and are ... The SN test has been reported to be more sensitive than the HI test. A microtechnique for application of the SN test has been ... Tests The HI test is frequently used for detection and quantitation of humoral antibody for PPV. Antibody sometimes can be ...
... close contacts of the infected patients did not become ill and they all tested negative for haemagglutination inhibition ... Adjuvants are being tested with the vaccine to determine if an adequate immune response can be produced. In addition, during a ... A health department notice suggested that a 4-year-old boy had no clinical symptoms and was tested during surveillance of high- ... Chinese National Influenza Center director Shu Yuelong said the vaccine passed tests on ferrets and had been approved for ...
In 1960 Gemzell and Leif Wide presented a pregnancy test based on in-vitro hemagglutination inhibition, a first step away from ... This test initiated a series of improvements in pregnancy testing leading to the contemporary at-home testing. Gemzell was a ... ISBN 978-0-470-16927-8. Wide L (2005). "Inventions leading to the development of the diagnostic test kit industry--from the ... Wide, L; Gemzell, C. A. (1960). "An immunological pregnancy test". Acta Endocrinologica. 35: 261-7. doi:10.1530/acta.0.xxxv0261 ...
... test, hemagglutination inhibition test (HI), or enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The SPA test is more commonly used ... Tests can be performed on serum samples as well as tissue samples. However, it has been stated that serological tests cannot be ... Many serology tests can be performed to diagnose M. gallisepticum: serum plate agglutination (SPA) ... found that antibody responses change in the early and advanced stages of the disease and the results vary according to the test ...
The common tests of choice include Haemaglutination-Inhibition, Enzyme-linked Immunosorbent Assay and Serum Neutralisation. The ... in the flocks is also useful for early detection and tested for haemagglutination. It is common practice for poultry viruses' ... However, proper laboratory testing is still needed to eliminate doubts for a definitive diagnosis. Serological testing can ... Identification of the virus can also be detected by Polymerase Chain Reaction-based test. There is no treatment for EDS '76, ...
... neutralization test, and hemagglutination-inhibition test. In the past, arboviruses were organized into one of four groups: A, ... Mettler, N. E.; Clarke, D. H.; Casals, J. (1971). "Hemagglutination Inhibition with Arboviruses: Relationship Between Titers ... "Arbovirus Antibodies Test". Medical Health Tests. March 27, 2012. Retrieved April 17, 2013. Huang, C.; Slater, B.; Campbell, W ... "Arboviral Diagnostic Testing". Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Retrieved April 17, 2013. " ...
Common serological assays include hemagglutination inhibition assays that detect HA-specific antibodies, virus neutralization ... Nucleic acid-based tests (NATs) amplify and detect viral nucleic acid. Most of these tests take a few hours, but rapid ... Rapid influenza diagnostic tests (RIDTs) are a simple way of obtaining assay results, are low cost, and produce results quickly ... Influenza testing is recommended for anyone hospitalized with symptoms resembling influenza during flu season or who is ...
... antigen can be detected in urine using hemagglutination inhibition testing: anti-Sd(a) is added to the urine, followed by Sd(a ... antibodies by inhibition testing.:406 The antigen was named for Sid, an employee at the Lister Institute whose red blood cells ... test positive through urine testing.:224 The Sd(a++) phenotype is rare, especially in Europe, but may be more common in East ... Urine testing is considered the most reliable method for determining a person's Sid blood type.:505-6 Antibodies against the Sd ...
... hemagglutination inhibition), NT (neutralization test), and CF (complement fixation test) tests and in-house-enzyme linked ... Nevertheless, clinics in Brazil may not have adequate testing reliability as they rely on symptoms rather than PCR viral ...
... based on hemagglutination inhibition assay (HAI) at all doses tested. The unadjuvanted vaccine at the 45-microgram dose yielded ... Still, such a vaccine is years away from full testing, approval, and use." As of July 2007, phase I clinical trials on humans ... That exceeds the European Union's requirement of an acceptable response (a hemagglutinin-inhibition titer of 40 or more) in 70 ... Study start: October 2005; Study completion: January 2007 This Australian study will test the safety and immunogenicity of an ...
... hemagglutination-inhibition tests (HA/HI), and nucleic acid hybridization. Mostly torovirus infecting humans are probably ... Diagnosis of the viral infection involves electron microscopy, ELISA or haemagglutination inhibition. Supportive treatment may ... Many diagnostic techniques for torovirus infection in clinical specimens are now available such as hemagglutination (HA), ...
Immunogenicity was assessed by microneutralization and hemagglutination-inhibition assays with the use of the vaccine virus, ... MedImmune Press release MedImmune and National Institutes of Health Begin Clinical Testing of a Live, Attenuated Intranasal ... has evidence of inhibition of multiple subtypes of influenza A virus in cell culture with Morpholino oligomers from the results ... Ge, Q; Pastey, M; Kobasa, D; Puthavathana, P; Lupfer, C; Bestwick, RK; Iversen, PL; Chen, J; Stein, DA (2006). "Inhibition of ...
... infections performed by most state diagnostic laboratories were complement-fixation test and hemagglutination inhibition tests ... The test is automatically done on all samples testing positive or equivocal for La Crosse Virus IgM antibodies by ELISA. In ... JCV-antibody testing has only been available at the CDC and the New York State Department of Health. The CDC has used plaque ... Increasing awareness and more testing In the latest US review covering 2000-2013, more than half of cases were identified in ...
Antigenic analysis of recombinant viruses possessing the 1918 HA and NA by hemagglutination inhibition tests using ferret and ... Avian influenza viruses that the World Organisation for Animal Health and others test for to control poultry disease include ...
Immunogenicity was assessed by microneutralization and hemagglutination-inhibition assays with the use of the vaccine virus, ... Some vaccines also exist for use in humans, and others are in testing, but none have been made available to civilian ... although a subgroup of samples were tested with the use of the wild-type influenza A/Vietnam/1203/2004 (H5N1) virus." The ... are being refined and tested; and do have some promise both in furthering research and preparedness for the next pandemic. ...
... prevent them from crosslinking red blood cells and so inhibit hemagglutination. This hemagglutination inhibition assay (HIA) ... Hannah Hoag, writing in Nature Medicine in 2013, describes the assay as "the gold-standard serologic test to type influenza ... J Virol 73: 3520-3523 (text) Racaniello V. Influenza hemagglutination inhibition assay (27 May 2009) (accessed February 19, ... and adapting it into the hemagglutination inhibition assay, which measures virus-specific antibodies in serum. He was the first ...
"Laboratory diagnosis of psittacine beak and feather disease by haemagglutination and haemagglutination inhibition". Australian ... Testing regimes currently rely on a combination of viral DNA testing using PCR methods, and excreted antigen detection in ... feather dander using haemagglutination assay (HA) alongside serology using haemagglutination inhibition (HI). The results can ... Khalesi, B.; Bonne, N.; Stewart, M.; Sharp, M.; Raidal, S.R. (2005). "A comparison of haemagglutination, haemagglutination ...
... direct and indirect fluorescent antibody tests, complement fixation tests (CFT), indirect haemagglutination test (IHA), ELISA ... Other procedures used for diagnosis include growth inhibition disc tests (GI), ...
Antibodies to IBV may be detected by indirect immunofluorescent antibody test, ELISA and Haemagglutination inhibition ( ...
... pregnancy tests were introduced in 1960 when Wide and Gemzell presented a test based on in-vitro hemagglutination inhibition. ... Therefore, a blood test can be positive while the urine test is still negative. Qualitative tests (yes/no or positive/negative ... Qualitative urine tests available for home use are typically designed as lateral flow tests. Quantitative tests measure the ... such as agglutination-inhibition-based assays and sandwich ELISA, used in modern home pregnancy tests. Tests are now so cheap ...
In these cases, hemagglutination inhibition can be used, wherein a neutralizing substance cancels out a specific antigen. ... A direct antiglobulin test (Coombs test) is also performed as part of the antibody investigation. There is also testing for ... If routine serologic testing for RhD results in a score of 2+ or less, the antiglobulin test can be used to demonstrate the ... The indirect antiglobulin test, which is used for weak D testing and typing of some red blood cell antigens, detects IgG bound ...
On the contrary, if hemagglutination occurs, the test will result negative. Hemagglutination blood typing detection: this ... HIA (Hemagglutination Inhibition Assay): is a serologic assay which can be used either to screen for antibodies using RBCs with ... Agglutination of red blood cells is used in the Coombs test. Cold agglutinin disease Hemagglutination assay Neuraminidase ... meaning that a test's positive result due to hemagglutination has been inhibited. ...
... hemagglutination inhibition tests MeSH E01.450.495.735.550 - neutralization tests MeSH E01.450.495.735.550.750 - skin test end- ... hemagglutination tests MeSH E01.450.495.735.050.375.150 - coombs test MeSH E01.450.495.735.050.450 - latex fixation tests MeSH ... schilling test MeSH E01.450.495.100 - basophil degranulation test MeSH E01.450.495.150 - cell migration inhibition MeSH E01.450 ... leukocyte adherence inhibition test MeSH E01.450.495.505 - monitoring, immunologic MeSH E01.450.495.620 - pregnancy tests, ...
"Influenza hemagglutination inhibition assay". www.virology.ws. Retrieved 19 October 2020.. ... In the past nucleic acid tests have mainly been used as a secondary test to confirm positive serological results. However, as ... Both types of antibodies are measured when tests for immunity are carried out. Antibody testing has become widely available. It ... it remains the gold standard for identifying viruses that do not show up on routine diagnostic tests or for which routine tests ...
These possess both haemagglutination and neuraminidase activity, which cleaves sialic acid on the cell surface, preventing ... If the viral genome follows a multiple promoter model, the level inhibition of transcription should correlate with the length ... observed as an ability to cause red blood cells to clump in laboratory tests. HN (Hemagglutinin-neuraminidase) attachment ... When paramyxovirus genome was exposed to UV light, the level of inhibition of transcription was proportional to the distance ...
"Inhibition of IgE binding to cross-reactive carbohydrate determinants enhances diagnostic selectivity". Allergy. 68 (10): 1269 ... A radioallergosorbent test (RAST) is a blood test using radioimmunoassay test to detect specific IgE antibodies, to determine ... Allergy Blood Testing - Lab Tests Online. *Radioallergosorbent+Test at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject ... However, skin testing techniques have improved. Most skin testing does not involve needles and typically skin testing results ...
There are commercially available immunohistochemical tests, Dako HercepTest, Leica Biosystems Oracle[16] and Ventana Pathway.[ ... "Epidermal growth factor receptor inhibition strategies in oncology". Endocrine-Related Cancer. 11 (4): 689-708. doi:10.1677/ ... as well as the test tissue probed in the same way with omission of the primary antibody (or better, absorption of the primary ... "Diagnostic evaluation of HER-2 as a molecular target: an assessment of accuracy and reproducibility of laboratory testing in ...
... the HA test is less reliable than the EID50 or PFU tests because it does not always indicate the presence of a viable virus in ... and hemagglutination assays, with particular emphasis on use of the ELISA for its high sensitivity (unlike the hemagglutination ... April 2000). "Inhibition of angiogenesis and vascular tumor growth by interferon-producing cells: A gene therapy approach". The ... It is also reported that the Moscow strain of SeV was tested by Dr. V. Senin and his team as an anticancer agent in a few dozen ...
... the indirect hemagglutination assay, the indirect fluorescent antibody assay (IFA), the direct agglutination test, the latex ... Thus, chronic cocaine, or prolonged HDAC inhibition, induces several GABAA receptor subunits in NAc, which is associated with ... The most commonly used tests for the measurement of IgM antibody are double-sandwich IgM-ELISA, the IFA test, and the ... Diagnosis is typically by testing blood for antibodies or by testing the amniotic fluid in pregnant women for the parasite's ...
Equine Herpesvirus 1 (EHV-1) Serum Neutralization Test Data. *Equine Influenza Virus H3N8 Hemagglutination Inhibition Test Data ... Equine Influenza Virus H3N8 Hemagglutination Inhibition Test Data. Equine influenza virus (EIV) is in the family ... The typical manner in which antibodies to influenza viruses are measured is the Hemagglutination inhibition (HI) assay. For ... As there are almost no reports of Florida clade 2 virus in the US, the testing at the AHDC uses exclusively Florida clade 1 ...
1999)‎. Searo-Diagnosis of Dengue Infections by Haemagglutination Inhibition Test (‎HI)‎ in Suspected Cases in Chittagong, ...
... has recommended criteria based on the hemagglutination inhibition (HI) test to distinguish between primary and secondary dengue ... Since the HI test has practical limitations and disadvantages, we evaluated the accuracy of WHO HI criteria and compared it ... with criteria based on an IgG enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) using a plaque reduction neutralization test (PRNT) as ... Comparison of the Hemagglutination Inhibition Test and IgG ELISA in Categorizing Primary and Secondary Dengue Infections Based ...
... haemagglutination-inhibition and complement-fixation tests*. Bulletin of the World Health Organization, 38 (‎4)‎, 547 - 563. ... Immunotyping of different strains of Japanese encephalitis virus by antibody-absorption, haemagglutination-inhibition and ...
Modified Hemagglutination-Inhibition Test for Rubella Employing Human Group O Erythrocytes. Nathalie J. Schmidt, Juanita Dennis ... Modified Hemagglutination-Inhibition Test for Rubella Employing Human Group O Erythrocytes. Nathalie J. Schmidt, Juanita Dennis ... Modified Hemagglutination-Inhibition Test for Rubella Employing Human Group O Erythrocytes. Nathalie J. Schmidt, Juanita Dennis ... Modified Hemagglutination-Inhibition Test for Rubella Employing Human Group O Erythrocytes Message Subject (Your Name) has ...
Comparison between Haemagglutination Inhibition (‎HI)‎ Test and IgM and IgG-capture ELISA in Determination of Primary and ... 2006)‎. Comparison between Haemagglutination Inhibition (‎HI)‎ Test and IgM and IgG-capture ELISA in Determination of Primary ...
Definition of Haemagglutination inhibition test with photos and pictures, translations, sample usage, and additional links for ... haemagglutination inhibition test (current term). haemagglutination inhibition tests. haemagglutination test. haemagglutination ... Haemagglutination Inhibition Test Images Lexicographical Neighbors of Haemagglutination Inhibition Test. haemadromometer. ... Medical Definition of Haemagglutination inhibition test. 1. A clinical lab test used to detect the presence of a certain ...
... Summary. Summary: Serologic tests in which a known quantity of antigen is added to the serum ... Testing human sera for antibodies against avian influenza viruses: horse RBC hemagglutination inhibition vs. ... Measurement of antibodies to avian influenza virus A(H7N7) in humans by hemagglutination inhibition test. Adam Meijer. Section ... haemagglutination inhibition, and by neutralization tests: how is the prevalence rate of protecting antibodies in humans?. ...
Reproducibility both between tests on a serum and between similar sera was significantly improved over typical results using ... With the threshold appropriate for a nonendemic area, both ELISA and hemagglutination were sensitive enough to detect infection ... antibodies in human sera by using cysticercus vesicular fluid as the source of antigens for both ELISA and hemagglutination ... Techniques for Hemagglutination and Hemagglutination-Inhibition with Arthropod-Borne Viruses D. H. Clarke and J. Casals ...
This study deals with the application of the hemagglutination test to epidemic and murine typhus fever, using as antigen sheep ... This test is based upon the specific agglutination by homologous immune serum of erythrocytes which have been sensitized with ... In recent years the hemagglutination test has been used as an aid in the diagnosis of various diseases (9-19). ... Techniques for Hemagglutination and Hemagglutination-Inhibition with Arthropod-Borne Viruses D. H. Clarke and J. Casals ...
Two systems for measurement of rubella hemagglutination inhibition antibodies were compared. O ... Evaluation of a rubella hemagglutination inhibition test system.: ... Evaluation of a rubella hemagglutination inhibition test system.. Authors * J A Smith ... Two systems for measurement of rubella hemagglutination inhibition antibodies were compared. One had chick erythrocytes as ...
Uses of Hemagglutination-Inhibition Test. *Hemagglutination inhibition test is widely used for the diagnosis of infection ... Hemagglutination and Hemagglutination Inhibition test. The basis of the HAI assay is that antibodies to that particular virus ( ... Hemagglutination Inhibition Test (HAI): Principle, procedure, result and interpretations. December 25, 2014 tankeshwar Lab ... HomeVirologyLab diagnosis of Viral DiseaseHemagglutination Inhibition Test (HAI): Principle, procedure, result and ...
... test? Find out information about hemagglutination inhibition (HI) test. Agglutination of red blood cells. the agglutination and ... Hemagglutination inhibition (HI) test , Article about hemagglutination inhibition (HI) test by The Free Dictionary https:// ... redirected from hemagglutination inhibition (HI) test). Also found in: Dictionary, Thesaurus, Medical. hemagglutination. [‚hē· ... In forensic medicine the hemagglutination reaction is used to determine the source of blood stains and as an additional test in ...
Diagnosis of suspected febrile arboviral infections by haemagglutination inhibition test. Diagnosis of suspected febrile ... Hemagglutination Inhibition Tests / Encephalitis / Fever Language: English Year: 1979 Type: Article ... Hemagglutination Inhibition Tests / Encephalitis / Fever Language: English Year: 1979 Type: Article ...
Haemagglutination inhibition test. For quantitative detection of influenza antibodies the haemagglutination inhibition (HAI) ... Data were analysed using SPSS 11 (SPSS Inc). The Mann-Whitney U test, Wilcoxon signed rank test, Fishers exact test, and the ... test was used. HAI tests were carried out with guinea pig erythrocytes following standard procedures19 with slight ... Haemagglutination-inhibiting antibody to influenza virus. Dev Biol (Basel)2003;115:63-73. ...
Haemagglutination inhibition test. The immunogenicity of the vaccine was tested by the haemagglutination inhibition (HI) test. ... Haemagglutination inhibition (HI) antibodies were tested and response was defined as a greater than fourfold rise 4 weeks after ... Test doses were diluted in phosphate-buffered saline and added to serial dilution of antiserum. The HA inhibition titre was ... Figure 1 Geometric mean titres of haemagglutination inhibition (HI) antibodies (μg/ml) against influenza antigens in each group ...
Hemagglutination-Inhibition Hemagglutination-Inhibition Tests Antigen 8 units Calovo System Serum Calovo Homologous Antigens ...
... neutralization test, haemagglutination inhibition test, immunofluorescence assay and ELISA. Trop Med Int Health 1999;4:867-71. ... hemagglutination inhibition assay; LNI = log10 neutralization index; M = measles vaccine; MMR= measles, mumps, and rubella ... Risk of bias among those tested for long-term seropostivity.. *Indirectness due to different population (majority of data are ... Neutralizing and haemagglutination-inhibiting antibodies to yellow fever 17 years after vaccination with 17D vaccine. Bull ...
Hemagglutination inhibition test. KFR. Complement fixation test. NIR. Indirect immunofluorescence assay. ELISA. Enzyme-linked ... enlinked immunosorbent assay and sensitive hemaglutination inhibition test. J Hyg Epidemiol Microbiol Immunol 31:409-422PubMed ... Leck I, Steward J (1971) Further tests of hypothesis that influenza in pregnancy causes malformations. HSMHA Health Rep 86:265- ... Prince HE, Lapé-Nixon M (2014) Role of Cytomegalovirus IgG Avidity Testing in Diagnosing Primary CMV Infection during pregnancy ...
Most Important Serological Tests 1. Hemagglutination Inhibition test (HI). 2. ELISA. 3. Rapid plate agglutination test (RPA). 4 ... Vaccination Baselines Titers in layers or Breeders:- Test Vaccine Type Mean titer range Wks after Vac. To test NDV -Live ( ... Agar gel precipitation test (AGPT). * 92. Most Important Serological Tests When Conducting Serological monitoring has to know 2 ... Drinking-Water Vaccination Carry out a test vaccination one day before without vaccine but with skimmed milk powder in order to ...
Only two out of 15 samples and La Sota vaccine strain could be confirmed to contain NDV on the basis of HA and HI tests. ... Culture and Detection of NDV Virus by Haemagglutination Test (HA) and Haemagglutination Inhibition Test (HI).Int.J.Curr. ... Only two out of 15 samples and La Sota vaccine strain could be confirmed to contain NDV on the basis of HA and HI tests. ...
... hemagglutination inhibition; MN, microneutralization; NR, no results (because of insufficient serum).. †Tested with guinea pig ...
Hemagglutination inhibition test. Advanced laboratory techniques for influenza diagnosis. Procedural guide. Atlanta: Center for ... European shorthair cats that were seronegative for hemagglutination-inhibition (HI) antibodies against pandemic (H1N1) 2009 ... Serum samples were obtained on 0, 4, 7, and 21 dpi and stored at -20°C until tested for HI antibodies against pandemic (H1N1) ... Test results for 8 cats intratracheally infected with pandemic (H1N1) 2009 virus ...
Hemagglutination Inhibition (HI).- Indirect Fluorescent Antibody (IFA).- Leishmanin (Montenegro Test).- Mazzotti.- ... Diagnostic Tests Used in Arthropod-Borne Diseases.- Agglutination.- Complement Fixation.- Direct Fluorescent Antibody.- Enzyme ...
Hemagglutination inhibition test (E.g., H1N1, H3N2, H3N8 - other subtypes may be available upon request) ... AHL LabNote 29-Summary of Influenza A virus testing. K. Harron Assoc Dip Ag, Jim Fairles DVM, MBA and D. Ojkic DVM, MSc, PhD ... Primary screening test targeting a conserved influenza virus gene.. Detects all common Influenza A virus subtypes in multiple ... Primary screening test, detects antibody from all common Influenza A virus subtypes in multiple animal species. ...
serologic testing using hemagglutination inhibition or microneutralization.[59,60] The state health department should be ... Hemagglutination inhibition or microneutralization tests are most commonly used for serodiagnosis. A positive result is a 4- ... than RT-PCR testing.[61-64] Currently available rapid influenza diagnostic tests fall into 2 groups: the tests that either ... Such tests can be costly and take time to perform. As more and better diagnostic tests become available, more accurate and ...
Testing of these products requires various animal models including mice, guinea pigs, and ferrets. However, because ferrets are ... Hemagglutination Inhibition Tests * Influenza A Virus, H1N1 Subtype * Influenza A Virus, H3N2 Subtype ... Testing of these products requires various animal models including mice, guinea pigs, and ferrets. However, because ferrets are ... The results demonstrate that a disease clinical profile, consisting of various changes in the biological parameters tested, is ...
  • The typical manner in which antibodies to influenza viruses are measured is the Hemagglutination inhibition (HI) assay. (cornell.edu)
  • Dengue virus infection can be confirmed by virus culture, by reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), serologically by neutralization test (gold standard), by IgM enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) antibodies, or by 4-fold increase of hemagglutination inhibition (HI) antibody titers between acute and convalescent specimens. (hindawi.com)
  • New levels of reproducibility and sensitivity have been achieved in the detection of anticysticercus antibodies in human sera by using cysticercus vesicular fluid as the source of antigens for both ELISA and hemagglutination assays. (ajtmh.org)
  • Two systems for measurement of rubella hemagglutination inhibition antibodies were compared. (mysciencework.com)
  • If the patient's serum do not contain antibodies against surface proteins of test virus, there will be presence of hemagglutination as surface molecules are free to hemaaglutinate RBCs (negative result). (microbeonline.com)
  • Therefore hemagglutination is inhibited when antibodies are present. (microbeonline.com)
  • If the serum contains no antibodies that react with measles virus, then hemagglutination will be observed in all wells. (microbeonline.com)
  • Likewise, if antibodies to the measles virus are present, hemagglutination will not be observed until the antibodies are sufficiently diluted. (microbeonline.com)
  • the identity of the virus or of antibodies in a patient's serum can be determined by specific inhibition of that hemagglutination. (microbeonline.com)
  • We used 2 groups (4 cats/group) of 16-week-old, purpose-bred, specific pathogen-free, European shorthair cats that were seronegative for hemagglutination-inhibition (HI) antibodies against pandemic (H1N1) 2009 virus and circulating seasonal influenza A viruses. (cdc.gov)
  • Serum samples were obtained on 0, 4, 7, and 21 dpi and stored at -20°C until tested for HI antibodies against pandemic (H1N1) 2009 virus ( 8 ). (cdc.gov)
  • These pairs of H5 antigens, with different neuraminidase subtypes, were tested to exclude cross-reactivity driven by neuraminidase-specific antibodies. (cdc.gov)
  • antiglobulin test (AGT) a test for nonagglutinating antibodies against red cells, using antihuman globulin antibody to agglutinate red cells coated with the nonagglutinating antibody. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • The direct antiglobulin test detects antibodies bound to circulating red cells in vivo. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • The indirect antiglobulin test detects serum antibodies that bind to red cells in an in vitro incubation step. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • I am wondering if there is a test available to check for H1N1 antibodies. (virology.ws)
  • A cross-sectional study on seroprevalence of Newcastle disease virus (NDV) antibodies in backyard and small-scale chicken producer farms in Agarfa and Sinana districts was conducted using hemagglutination inhibition test (HAI) from February, 2015 to May, 2015. (academicjournals.org)
  • All 43 close contacts tested negative for haemagglutination inhibition antibodies specific for avian H7N9. (bmj.com)
  • This test looks for antibodies to the mumps virus in your blood. (rochester.edu)
  • however, hemagglutination-inhibiting antibodies against influenza D virus have been detected in humans, with an estimated occurrence of 1.3% in the general population, suggesting that this virus may infect humans as well. (wikipedia.org)
  • Viral hemagglutination inhibition tests for antibodies by the antibodies' ability to prevent viruses from agglutinating RBCs. (slideserve.com)
  • In addition to conventional antibody titration, most of the sera or their IgM fraction obtained by a simple ion exchange chromatography were tested for the presence of measles-specific IgM antibodies by 2-mercaptoethanol (2-ME) treatment, and in 300 patients also by the fluorescent antibody (FA) technique. (nih.gov)
  • Of 27 close contacts, one developed mild respiratory symptoms and another tested positive for A(H7N9) antibodies, but both were negative by real-time RT-PCR. (eurosurveillance.org)
  • Since the HI test has practical limitations and disadvantages, we evaluated the accuracy of WHO HI criteria and compared it with criteria based on an IgG enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) using a plaque reduction neutralization test (PRNT) as the gold standard. (hindawi.com)
  • Antibody titres against influenza virus were measured before and 30 days after vaccination using the haemagglutination inhibition assay. (bmj.com)
  • Fedová O, Bručková M, Plesník V, Slonim D, Šejda J, Švandová E, Kubínová I (1987) Detection of postvaccination mumps virus antibody by neutralization test, enlinked immunosorbent assay and sensitive hemaglutination inhibition test. (springer.com)
  • The results of VN, hemagglutination inhibition (HI), and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) were compared with those of the IBV M41. (bvsalud.org)
  • The above results were basis for a novel test and assay method according to the invention. (google.es)
  • The hemagglutination inhibition assay (HAI) is widely used to evaluate vaccine-induced antibody responses as well as to antigenically characterize influenza viruses. (indevr.com)
  • 3. ELISA (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay) testing. (brainscape.com)
  • One of the techniques used to reach this conclusion is the hemagglutination inhibition (HI) assay. (virology.ws)
  • To understand the HI assay, we must discuss the hemagglutination assay. (virology.ws)
  • This property is called hemagglutination, and is the basis of a rapid assay to determine levels of influenza virus present in a sample. (virology.ws)
  • Samples from the patients and environments were collected and tested by real time reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (rRT-PCR), viral culture, and haemagglutination inhibition assay. (bmj.com)
  • Paired serum specimens from contacts were tested by haemagglutination inhibition assay and microneutralisation test. (eurosurveillance.org)
  • In this study, we compared the utility of the WHO HI criteria and IgG ELISA in differentiating primary and secondary infections using acute and convalescent specimens that had been tested by a plaque reduction neutralization test (PRNT). (hindawi.com)
  • Comparison between Haemagglutination Inhibition (‎HI)‎ Test and IgM and IgG-capture ELISA in Determination of Primary and Secondary Dengue Virus Infections. (who.int)
  • With the threshold appropriate for a nonendemic area, both ELISA and hemagglutination were sensitive enough to detect infection in 95% of cases. (ajtmh.org)
  • These assays include hemagglutination assays, plaque assays, TCID50 and EC50/CC50 assays as well as utilising ELISA and luminex platforms. (criver.com)
  • Both horses had positive IgM-capture ELISA test results at NVSL. (usda.gov)
  • A disease status for an individual in a population can be either disease positive (D+) or disease negative (D-). Similarly, when a test is used on an individual in the population, the test results can be a positive result (T+) or negative result (T-). However, and due to inherent flaws in the testing assays, the result is almost never 100% accurate. (osu.edu)
  • InDevR, Inc., an innovative life science company dedicated to improving biopharmaceutical and vaccine manufacturing, announced study results and a joint publication with the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) of "Automated interpretation of influenza hemagglutination inhibition (HAI) assays: is plate tilting necessary? (indevr.com)
  • The Cypher One Hemagglutination Analyzer is a commercially available instrument for rapid automated analysis, standardization and digital record creation for the interpretation of HA and HAI assays. (indevr.com)
  • 2017) Automated interpretation of influenza hemagglutination inhibition (HAI) assays: Is plate tilting necessary? (indevr.com)
  • Charles River can quantify the effect of your antiviral and antimicrobial test compounds on the growth and infectivity of a wide range of bacteria and viruses using standardized assays. (criver.com)
  • We use cell culture viability assays and plaque assays to test lead compounds as part of in vitro viral screening programs or in support of in vivo models . (criver.com)
  • In vitro antiviral and antimicrobial testing can quantify the efficacy of anti-infectives, either in support of in vivo research models or in stand alone in vitro and cell culture assays . (criver.com)
  • Charles River's virologists can aid your antiviral and vaccine research programs by using in vitro and cell culture assays to determine viral titres and efficacy of test compounds. (criver.com)
  • minimum inhibitory concentration assays, minimum bactericidal concentration assays, time kill assays, PK/PD assays, resistance testing and cell based assays, including internalization, killing and biofilm assays. (criver.com)
  • Seroconversion was detected at 2 mPI by hemagglutination inhibition assays. (usp.br)
  • Paired serum samples were obtained from contacts for serological testing by haemagglutination inhibition assays. (bmj.com)
  • A clinical lab test used to detect the presence of a certain haemagglutinating virus or other haemagglutinin antigen based on whether the red blood cells in the sample lose the ability to clump together when the antibody to the virus or other antigen is added to it. (lexic.us)
  • Serologic tests in which a known quantity of antigen is added to the serum prior to the addition of a red cell suspension. (labome.ru)
  • Reaction result is expressed as the smallest amount of antigen which causes complete inhibition of hemagglutination. (labome.ru)
  • This study deals with the application of the hemagglutination test to epidemic and murine typhus fever, using as antigen sheep erythrocytes which have been sensitized with extracts from Proteus OX19. (ajtmh.org)
  • A distinction is made between active hemagglutination, which is caused by the direct action of an appropriate agent on the red blood cells, and passive hemagglutination, caused by a specific antiserum to the antigen previously adsorbed by the red blood cells. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • In rituximab-treated patients, the percentage of responders was low for all three antigens tested, achieving statistical significance for the CAL antigen. (bmj.com)
  • the amount of hemagglutination reflects the amount of free antibody present after reaction with the specimen and thus varies inversely with amount of antigen in the specimen. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • The test used to analyze the variation on the clumping ability of the antigen when it reacted with an antibody placed on the surface of latex particles is called latex agglutination test. (pharmiweb.com)
  • As with any serological test, titer values for acutely infected animals are impacted by the timing of the serum collection - early samples will show low values resembling vaccine titers whereas samples collected at 3-4 weeks post infection will be near maximum levels. (cornell.edu)
  • For Avian Mycoplasma, a typical surveillance program utilizes a combination of the following serological tests to achieve that goal: 1. (osu.edu)
  • Among the multiple diseases, the test mostly used for the serological diagnosis of rheumatoid arthritis. (pharmiweb.com)
  • Canine Influenza Virus HI test ($22.70 per sample) At present, the most reliable way to diagnose canine influenza virus infections is by serological tests. (cornell.edu)
  • Serological confirmation by rubella-specific IgG or detection of virus (nucleic acid testing or culture) is preferred. (health.gov.au)
  • However, in a low prevalence setting such as Australia, serological testing is likely to have low predictive value. (health.gov.au)
  • These probable cases may be reclassified as confirmed cases based on the results of additional serological testing currently being conducted at NVSL. (usda.gov)
  • The highest dilution of serum (Ab) that prevents hemagglutination is called the HAI titer of the serum. (microbeonline.com)
  • the highest dilution of serum that completely inhibits hemagglutination by a standardized viral preparation is reported as the hemagglutination titer. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Among the test compounds, the EGCG and ECG were found to be potent inhibitors of influenza virus replication in MDCK cell culture and this effect was observed in all influenza virus subtypes tested, including A/H1N1, A/H3N2 and B virus. (medindia.net)
  • We tested heat, formalin, Triton X-100, and β-propiolactone treatments for their potencies in inactivating human influenza A(H3N2) and avian A(H7N3) viruses, as well as seasonal and pandemic A(H1N1) virus isolates, while allowing the specimens to retain their virological and immunological properties. (asm.org)
  • However, hemagglutination inhibition, complement fixation, and neutralization tests identified Powassan virus (POW) as the pathogen. (nih.gov)
  • Other methods of diagnosis included hemagglutination inhibition (HI), complement fixation, neutralization tests. (wikipedia.org)
  • Hemagglutination occurs when measles viruses and red blood cells are mixed (See image a) . (microbeonline.com)
  • Although influenza viruses can be detected by hemadsorption test, typing of the isolate is done most efficiently by hemagglutination inhibition (HAI). (microbeonline.com)
  • A/decoyduck/France/161105a/2016 and H5N5 A/muteswan/ Croatia/102/2016, or for viruses belonging to other H5 Eurasian lineages, H5N3 A/muscovy duck/France/070090b/2007 and H5N2 A/chicken/France/03426a/2003 (http://www.oie.int/en/standard-setting/terrestrial- code/access-online). (cdc.gov)
  • may be immune as a result of specific antibody either for red blood cell antigens themselves or other antigens that coat the red blood cells, or may be nonimmune as in hemagglutination caused by viruses or other microbes. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • may be immune (as a result of specific antibody to red blood cell antigens or other antigens that coat the red blood cells), or nonimmune (as in hemagglutination caused by viruses or other microbes). (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Our virologists are experienced with every stage of antiviral and vaccine development, including propagating viruses, determining viral titres, and testing the efficacy of your antivirals. (criver.com)
  • However, the sensitivity in hemagglutination inhibition was widely different among three different subtypes of influenza viruses tested. (medindia.net)
  • These predictions will be tested in the lab and in animal studies with wild type viruses and through the use of reverse engineering and mutational studies to identify virulence components of IAV. (usda.gov)
  • Experimentally mutated viruses will be evaluated by test parameters that measure both virus and host properties. (usda.gov)
  • In support of Objective 1, Subobjective 1.1, to identify genes associated with quantity and duration of virus shedding and test up- or down-regulation of genes associated with virus replication in vitro with viruses of different genotypes, messenger RNA was extracted from porcine alveolar macrophages and lung tissue from pigs infected with influenza A virus (IAV) from a previously completed study. (usda.gov)
  • In contrast, carrageenan-containing lozenges are highly active against all viruses tested. (dovepress.com)
  • Using a patient's buffy coat and tick-bite site crust samples, we performed polymerase chain reaction (PCR) testing using Ehrlichia - or Anaplasma -specific primers. (ajtmh.org)
  • This test is based upon the specific agglutination by homologous immune serum of erythrocytes which have been sensitized with bacterial filtrates or carbohydrate fractions (32). (ajtmh.org)
  • the Serum Plate Agglutination TEST (PA), 2. (osu.edu)
  • Additionally, latex agglutination test provides the versatility of the reaction, simple design and ability to work in small quantity of the sample. (pharmiweb.com)
  • Latex agglutination test market anticipated growth in the forecast period with rising patent pool suffering from rheumatoid arthritis, anticipated to grow over the forecast period. (pharmiweb.com)
  • The effectiveness of the testing outcome is the major driver for the latex agglutination test market. (pharmiweb.com)
  • However, the latex agglutination test also applied to the diagnosis of the autoimmune disorder and Hepatitis B infections, since the increasing the Hepatitis B infection to the children's expected to boost the latex agglutination test market in future. (pharmiweb.com)
  • Regional government authorities have more concern to provide the treatment for the infectious disease like hepatitis B. Since, the flexible regional government policies expected to fuel the latex agglutination test market in the future. (pharmiweb.com)
  • Rising demand for point-of-care services is expected to drive the latex agglutination test market during the forecast period. (pharmiweb.com)
  • Less awareness of the people about the test may restrain the latex agglutination test market in the future. (pharmiweb.com)
  • Vaccination program for the infectious disease expected to cause slowdown growth of latex agglutination test system market. (pharmiweb.com)
  • The global latex agglutination test system market is classified on the basis of test type, product type, disease type, end user and region. (pharmiweb.com)
  • Indirect fluorescent antibody test and hemagglutination - inhibition test market may show the slower growth in the latex agglutination test market due to less awareness and popularity among the people. (pharmiweb.com)
  • Among the end user market hospitals are expected to show lucrative growth as compared to the diagnostic center for the latex agglutination test market. (pharmiweb.com)
  • Europe region expected to show the second dominating market for latex agglutination test, since the increasing demand for the novel diagnostic methods for the infectious diseases and people preferring the invasive techniques for the diagnosis as compared to the traditional methods. (pharmiweb.com)
  • Hence, in coming years latex agglutination test may take good stand in Europe region. (pharmiweb.com)
  • However, due to the high prevalence of infectious disease rate India and China is the key factor behind the robust the growth of latex agglutination test market in South Asia and East Asia region. (pharmiweb.com)
  • agglutination test cells containing antigens to a given antibody are mixed into the solution being tested for a particular antibody, with agglutination indicative of antibody presence. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Hemagglutination involves agglutination of RBCs. (slideserve.com)
  • Reproducibility both between tests on a serum and between similar sera was significantly improved over typical results using antigens from whole parasite extracts. (ajtmh.org)
  • It is used in typing of erythrocyte antigens and in compatibility testing (cross-match). (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Searo-Diagnosis of Dengue Infections by Haemagglutination Inhibition Test (‎HI)‎ in Suspected Cases in Chittagong, Bangladesh. (who.int)
  • In recent years the hemagglutination test has been used as an aid in the diagnosis of various diseases (9-19). (ajtmh.org)
  • Hemagglutination inhibition test is widely used for the diagnosis of infection caused by orthomyxoviruses (influenza), paramyxoviruses (measles, mumps), mononucleosis, abroviruses-togaviruses (including rubella), flaviviruses, and bunyaviruses. (microbeonline.com)
  • Diagnosis of suspected febrile arboviral infections by haemagglutination inhibition test. (bvsalud.org)
  • Further tests can confirm or rule out the diagnosis. (rochester.edu)
  • 4 This test was an immunoassay rather than a bioassay, was much faster and cheaper, but still relatively insensitive, especially for early diagnosis of pregnancy. (ispub.com)
  • Given the often non-specific clinical picture of rubella, laboratory diagnosis should be attempted in suspected cases (testing for some of the differential diagnoses as mentioned above eg measles and parvovirus B19 should also be considered). (health.gov.au)
  • Attempts to confirm the diagnosis by viral culture or nucleic acid testing (NAT) should be attempted. (health.gov.au)
  • The characteristics of any laboratory test dictate how it can be used in a surveillance program. (osu.edu)
  • Before we review the surveillance programs, let's first discuss some basic concepts about laboratory tests and their characteristics. (osu.edu)
  • During their general health screening in February and March 2017, participants were asked to provide an additional 2 mL of serum for laboratory testing and to answer a questionnaire about the frequency of tick bites. (cdc.gov)
  • Main outcomes measures Clinical data, history of exposure before the onset of illnesses, and results of laboratory testing of pathogens and further analysis of sequences and phylogenetic tree to isolated strains. (bmj.com)
  • At the end of the presentation, participants should: Understand what the laboratory does with samples that arrive Have an understanding of the range of test methods used to analyse samples. (slideserve.com)
  • A hemagglutination-inhibition (HI) test for rubella is described which utilizes human group O, rather than 1-day-old chick, erythrocytes. (asm.org)
  • The test was found to be as sensitive and reproducible for detection of rubella antibody as HI tests employing chick erythrocytes. (asm.org)
  • Evaluation of a rubella hemagglutination inhibition test syste. (mysciencework.com)
  • It is recommended that rubella susceptibility be determined by serologic testing prior to immunization. (rxlist.com)
  • If immune, as evidenced by a specific rubella antibody titer of 1:8 or greater (hemagglutination-inhibition test), vaccination is unnecessary. (rxlist.com)
  • Samples that are submitted for PCR detection of the virus that are test positive will be automatically set for Virus Isolation at no additional cost. (cornell.edu)
  • A comparison of two different standardized reagent procedures for the passive haemagglutination test (PHA) in the detection of specific antibody to Cysticercus cellulosae in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) was carried out. (scielo.br)
  • The World Health Organization (WHO) has recommended criteria based on the hemagglutination inhibition (HI) test to distinguish between primary and secondary dengue infections. (hindawi.com)
  • The results demonstrate that a disease clinical profile, consisting of various changes in the biological parameters tested, is associated with various influenza A infections in ferrets. (nih.gov)
  • Your provider may do other tests to make sure you don't have other infections. (rochester.edu)
  • automated reagin test (ART) a modification of the rapid plasma reagin (RPR) test for use with automated analyzers used in clinical chemistry. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • During the test, clinical signs, mortality and nervous sequelae were evaluated. (thepoultrysite.com)
  • Clinical variables were investigated, specific tests were performed and aspartate-aminotransferase assayed, during a period considered both endemic and epidemic for the disease. (scielo.br)
  • Although clinical signs of WNV and EEE in equids are similar, the two diseases can be differentiated by serologic testing. (usda.gov)
  • this has been confirmed by measles haemagglutination-inhibiting antibody estimations in a sample of the children. (nih.gov)
  • The use of IgM tests for analysis of the causes of measles vaccine failures: experience gained in an epidemic in Hungary in 1980 and 1981. (nih.gov)
  • Serum samples obtained from 7815 patients were examined for measles antibody by haemagglutination inhibition (HI). (nih.gov)
  • The specifity of this immunological system and the crossreactivity between the peptide and intact CEA were investigated both by the passive hemagglutination technique and by modified bacteriophage inactivation. (google.es)
  • The virus used in the HI test is the canine H3N2 strain. (umn.edu)
  • This anti-infective in vitro testing can increase biological relevance of infection models by monitoring clinically appropriate biomarkers. (criver.com)
  • While we are currently looking for the H3N8 virus, a test unique to this virus would miss a potential influenza infection caused by another flu strain such as H5N1. (cornell.edu)
  • To differentiate TBEV infection from Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) infection, which occurs in southwestern Japan, we also conducted neutralization testing for JEV on all TBEV-positive samples. (cdc.gov)
  • You may also have this test to find out whether you have immunity to mumps, either from a previous infection or from a vaccine. (rochester.edu)
  • You may also have this test to rule out mumps in cases of suspected meningitis, or inflammation of the lining of the brain, or a salivary gland infection. (rochester.edu)
  • Even if you show symptoms of mumps, but test negative for IgM, it's still possible that you have a mumps infection. (rochester.edu)
  • Serum from the other two horses with signs of WNV infection also tested positive on HI testing in Kissimmee, FL. (usda.gov)
  • IMSEAR at SEARO: ECHO virus haemagglutination inhibition test for epidemiological survey in India: its utility and validity. (who.int)
  • Primary screening test targeting a conserved influenza virus gene. (uoguelph.ca)
  • We therefore suggest that the influenza virus use a novel mechanism for the inhibition of NK cell activity. (jimmunol.org)
  • We have recently demonstrated that the viral hemagglutinin (HA) 3 protein of influenza virus and the HA-neuraminidase (HN) protein of Sendai virus (SV) can interact with both the NKp44 and NKp46 receptors and that this interaction leads to increased killing that can overcome the class I MHC-mediated inhibition ( 4 , 5 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • Successful heat inactivation coincided with the loss of hemagglutinin (HA) and neuraminidase (NA) characteristics, and β-propiolactone inactivation reduced the hemagglutination titer and NA activity of the human influenza virus 10-fold or more. (asm.org)
  • Testing of these products requires various animal models including mice, guinea pigs, and ferrets. (nih.gov)
  • In this study, the immunogenicity of orally delivered monovalent, bivalent, trivalent, and quadrivalent vaccines was tested in ferrets and mice. (springer.com)
  • The FN and the FP rates for a certain test are influenced by test parameters, sensitivity and specificity. (osu.edu)
  • Sensitivity and specificity are often inversely correlated for a given test. (osu.edu)
  • Advantages to the use of human erythrocytes are (i) they are more available, (ii) it is unnecessary to absorb natural agglutinins from human test sera, and (iii) heparin-MnCl 2 -treated sera do not agglutinate human erythrocytes, as is sometimes the case with chick erythrocytes. (asm.org)
  • The HAI test may be complicated by the presence of non-specific inhibitors of viral haemagglutination and naturally occurring agglutinins of the erythrocytes. (microbeonline.com)
  • Tested with guinea pig erythrocytes. (cdc.gov)
  • Tested with turkey erythrocytes. (cdc.gov)
  • Hemagglutination experiments showed that not only anti-CEA(1-11) sera but also anti-CEA sera, agglutinated CEA(1-11)-coated sheep erythrocytes and both these reactions were inhibited with CEA(1-11) peptide. (google.es)
  • However, there is one situation in which the results of a series testing are considered suspected positive. (osu.edu)
  • Our results showed that VN could be replaced with HI for testing the potency of IBV M41. (bvsalud.org)
  • Despite prevalent non-specific inhibition, high overall agreement (95%) and good correlation were observed between the results from an expert human reader and the Cypher One system. (indevr.com)
  • All samples with positive influenza tests will be further characterized, with typing results available in most cases within a few days of the original result. (cornell.edu)
  • Results correlated with those from hemagglutination inhibition and neutralization tests. (asm.org)
  • What do my test results mean? (rochester.edu)
  • Test results may vary depending on your age, gender, health history, the method used for the test, and other things. (rochester.edu)
  • Your test results may not mean you have a problem. (rochester.edu)
  • Ask your healthcare provider what your test results mean for you. (rochester.edu)
  • What might affect my test results? (rochester.edu)
  • These tests were expensive, required sacrifice of animals, and were slow, often taking days to get results. (ispub.com)
  • In the study, a side-by-side comparison of titer calls for more than 2,200 serum samples was made by the Cypher One automated hemagglutination analyzer without tilting and by an expert human reader with tilting . (indevr.com)
  • Primary screening test, detects antibody from all common Influenza A virus subtypes in multiple animal species. (uoguelph.ca)
  • Screening test used for avian samples. (uoguelph.ca)
  • Any contacts who became ill had samples tested for avian H7N9 by rRT-PCR. (bmj.com)
  • The various vaccine combinations were tested by blending monovalent recombinant adenovirus vaccines, each expressing hemagglutinin from a single strain. (springer.com)
  • Sera of a number of cancer patients were tested for their capacity to inhibit the inactivation of CEA(1-11)-coated phage by means of anti-CEA(1-11) antiserum. (google.es)
  • If you have symptoms of meningitis, your provider may also test your cerebrospinal fluid for the mumps virus. (rochester.edu)
  • In microbiology and immunology, the hemagglutination reaction is used to determine antiserum activity, for example, or type of virus. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Tests with high sensitivity and low specificity (sensitive tests) are prone to FP, and tests with high specificity and low sensitivity (specific tests) are prone to FN. (osu.edu)
  • In this setup, a sensitive test is used as a screening test first, and then any positive samples on the screening test are tested for a second time with a specific confirmatory test. (osu.edu)
  • It is imperative that the tests in the series testing surveillance program are used in that order, the sensitive screening test first followed by a confirmatory specific test for the positive samples. (osu.edu)
  • This assumes the sample is weakly positive, just enough for the sensitive test to pick it up, but not enough for the specific test to confirm it. (osu.edu)
  • For names of specific tests, see under the name. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • The functional immune response was evaluated by determining specific neutralizing and hemagglutination-inhibiting Ab activities and by challenging the mice with a lethal dose of the virus. (jimmunol.org)
  • There is an increasing demand for novel antiviral and antimicrobial compounds for the treatment of infectious disease, and Charles River can support in vitro testing of these compounds to determine potential efficacy in an in vivo model, and provide important data to determine optimal dosing regimen. (criver.com)
  • In vitro testing of antimicrobial compounds can determine potential efficacy in an in vivo anti-infective model and provide important data to determine optimal dosing regimen and combination ratios. (criver.com)
  • In their study to be published in the journal Antiviral Research (available online 9 August 2005), the authors conclude that ECG and EGCG were found to be much more effective than EGC, and besides the known inhibition of hemagglutination, the compounds also exerted inhibitory effect on neuraminidase and affects viral RNA synthesis at high concentration. (medindia.net)
  • The cross-neutralization tests confirmed that the strains harboring 347 K showed lower antigenic relatedness with LaSota. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The chart below represents titer values for over 900 sera tested for H3N8 since 2013. (cornell.edu)
  • 2 In Egypt pregnancy test consisted of moistening two cloth bags one filled with barley and the other with wheat grains with women's urine. (ispub.com)
  • Sprouting meant pregnancy test is positive. (ispub.com)
  • A study done in 1963 to determine the accuracy of this ancient pregnancy test surprisingly revealed a 70% rate of it being right. (ispub.com)
  • It took more than 3000 years for the first pregnancy test based on hCG to be developed, initiating a new era in pregnancy testing. (ispub.com)
  • 3 To test for pregnancy, a woman's urine was injected into an immature rat. (ispub.com)
  • Three decades later, in 1960, hemagglutination inhibition test, for pregnancy was developed by Wide and Gemzell. (ispub.com)
  • FDA approval was sought in the year 1976 by Warner Chilcott for "Early Pregnancy Test (EPT)" later known as the "Error Proof Test" the first home pregnancy test kit in the United States. (ispub.com)
  • PCR test for Canine Influenza ($38.00 per sample) At present, the most reliable way to directly detect the virus is through a PCR test on either swabs (nasal swabs preferred) or respiratory tissue. (cornell.edu)
  • A disease positive individual may give a negative test result (D+/T-), and in this case, a test result is called a False Negative (FN). (osu.edu)
  • So, when the specificity of a test is high, it means that there is a high chance that the sample is actually positive when the test result is positive. (osu.edu)
  • Second, a positive sample on both the screening and the confirmatory test is considered positive with high probability. (osu.edu)
  • This situation is when the sample is positive on the screening test and negative on the confirmatory test. (osu.edu)
  • Two (0.7%) tested positive. (cdc.gov)
  • However, other close contacts did not test positive for the virus, suggesting limited potential for extensive human-to-human transmission of the virus. (eurosurveillance.org)
  • A positive hemagglutination inhibition (HI) test result was obtained at that lab and serum and brain were forwarded to NVSL for WNV confirmation. (usda.gov)
  • Respiratory specimens from the two cases and their close contacts were tested using real-time reverse-transcription (RT)-PCR. (eurosurveillance.org)
  • Hemagglutination is caused by the interaction of the agglutinogens present in red blood cells with plasma that contains agglutinins. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Click the name of the test or procedure for detailed information. (umn.edu)