Serologic tests in which a known quantity of antigen is added to the serum prior to the addition of a red cell suspension. Reaction result is expressed as the smallest amount of antigen which causes complete inhibition of hemagglutination.
Sensitive tests to measure certain antigens, antibodies, or viruses, using their ability to agglutinate certain erythrocytes. (From Stedman, 26th ed)
The type (and only) species of RUBIVIRUS causing acute infection in humans, primarily children and young adults. Humans are the only natural host. A live, attenuated vaccine is available for prophylaxis.
Immunoglobulins produced in response to VIRAL ANTIGENS.
A mobile, very volatile, highly flammable liquid used as an inhalation anesthetic and as a solvent for waxes, fats, oils, perfumes, alkaloids, and gums. It is mildly irritating to skin and mucous membranes.
The aggregation of ERYTHROCYTES by AGGLUTININS, including antibodies, lectins, and viral proteins (HEMAGGLUTINATION, VIRAL).
An acute infectious disease caused by the RUBELLA VIRUS. The virus enters the respiratory tract via airborne droplet and spreads to the LYMPHATIC SYSTEM.
Serologic tests based on inactivation of complement by the antigen-antibody complex (stage 1). Binding of free complement can be visualized by addition of a second antigen-antibody system such as red cells and appropriate red cell antibody (hemolysin) requiring complement for its completion (stage 2). Failure of the red cells to lyse indicates that a specific antigen-antibody reaction has taken place in stage 1. If red cells lyse, free complement is present indicating no antigen-antibody reaction occurred in stage 1.
The measurement of infection-blocking titer of ANTISERA by testing a series of dilutions for a given virus-antiserum interaction end-point, which is generally the dilution at which tissue cultures inoculated with the serum-virus mixtures demonstrate cytopathology (CPE) or the dilution at which 50% of test animals injected with serum-virus mixtures show infectivity (ID50) or die (LD50).
The type species of the genus INFLUENZAVIRUS A that causes influenza and other diseases in humans and animals. Antigenic variation occurs frequently between strains, allowing classification into subtypes and variants. Transmission is usually by aerosol (human and most non-aquatic hosts) or waterborne (ducks). Infected birds shed the virus in their saliva, nasal secretions, and feces.
A family of RNA viruses causing INFLUENZA and other diseases. There are five recognized genera: INFLUENZAVIRUS A; INFLUENZAVIRUS B; INFLUENZAVIRUS C; ISAVIRUS; and THOGOTOVIRUS.
Substances elaborated by viruses that have antigenic activity.
Common name for the species Gallus gallus, the domestic fowl, in the family Phasianidae, order GALLIFORMES. It is descended from the red jungle fowl of SOUTHEAST ASIA.
Vaccines used to prevent infection by viruses in the family ORTHOMYXOVIRIDAE. It includes both killed and attenuated vaccines. The composition of the vaccines is changed each year in response to antigenic shifts and changes in prevalence of influenza virus strains. The vaccine is usually bivalent or trivalent, containing one or two INFLUENZAVIRUS A strains and one INFLUENZAVIRUS B strain.
An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed.
Agglutination of ERYTHROCYTES by a virus.
Studies determining the effectiveness or value of processes, personnel, and equipment, or the material on conducting such studies. For drugs and devices, CLINICAL TRIALS AS TOPIC; DRUG EVALUATION; and DRUG EVALUATION, PRECLINICAL are available.
The major immunoglobulin isotype class in normal human serum. There are several isotype subclasses of IgG, for example, IgG1, IgG2A, and IgG2B.
Phenomenon of cell-mediated immunity measured by in vitro inhibition of the migration or phagocytosis of antigen-stimulated LEUKOCYTES or MACROPHAGES. Specific CELL MIGRATION ASSAYS have been developed to estimate levels of migration inhibitory factors, immune reactivity against tumor-associated antigens, and immunosuppressive effects of infectious microorganisms.
Test for cell-mediated antitumor immunity and related serum blocking factors based on the finding that leukocytes from cancer patients, but not from controls, when mixed in vitro with antigenic extracts of tumors of the same histological type, undergo a diminution in their normal adherence to glass surfaces. Sera from tumor-bearing patients block the LAI reaction of their own leukocytes or those of other patients with the same type of tumor.
An acute viral infection in humans involving the respiratory tract. It is marked by inflammation of the NASAL MUCOSA; the PHARYNX; and conjunctiva, and by headache and severe, often generalized, myalgia.
A subtype of INFLUENZA A VIRUS with the surface proteins hemagglutinin 1 and neuraminidase 1. The H1N1 subtype was responsible for the Spanish flu pandemic of 1918.
Specific hemagglutinin subtypes encoded by VIRUSES.
Serological reactions in which an antiserum against one antigen reacts with a non-identical but closely related antigen.
A subtype of INFLUENZA A VIRUS comprised of the surface proteins hemagglutinin 3 and neuraminidase 2. The H3N2 subtype was responsible for the Hong Kong flu pandemic of 1968.
Serum that contains antibodies. It is obtained from an animal that has been immunized either by ANTIGEN injection or infection with microorganisms containing the antigen.
Vaccines in which the infectious microbial nucleic acid components have been destroyed by chemical or physical treatment (e.g., formalin, beta-propiolactone, gamma radiation) without affecting the antigenicity or immunogenicity of the viral coat or bacterial outer membrane proteins.
Virus diseases caused by the ORTHOMYXOVIRIDAE.
Membrane glycoproteins from influenza viruses which are involved in hemagglutination, virus attachment, and envelope fusion. Fourteen distinct subtypes of HA glycoproteins and nine of NA glycoproteins have been identified from INFLUENZA A VIRUS; no subtypes have been identified for Influenza B or Influenza C viruses.
Agents that cause agglutination of red blood cells. They include antibodies, blood group antigens, lectins, autoimmune factors, bacterial, viral, or parasitic blood agglutinins, etc.
The most common mineral of a group of hydrated aluminum silicates, approximately H2Al2Si2O8-H2O. It is prepared for pharmaceutical and medicinal purposes by levigating with water to remove sand, etc. (From Merck Index, 11th ed) The name is derived from Kao-ling (Chinese: "high ridge"), the original site. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
Red blood cells. Mature erythrocytes are non-nucleated, biconcave disks containing HEMOGLOBIN whose function is to transport OXYGEN.
An enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of alpha-2,3, alpha-2,6-, and alpha-2,8-glycosidic linkages (at a decreasing rate, respectively) of terminal sialic residues in oligosaccharides, glycoproteins, glycolipids, colominic acid, and synthetic substrate. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992)
Administration of vaccines to stimulate the host's immune response. This includes any preparation intended for active immunological prophylaxis.
Technique involving the diffusion of antigen or antibody through a semisolid medium, usually agar or agarose gel, with the result being a precipitin reaction.
Species of the genus INFLUENZAVIRUS B that cause HUMAN INFLUENZA and other diseases primarily in humans. Antigenic variation is less extensive than in type A viruses (INFLUENZA A VIRUS) and consequently there is no basis for distinct subtypes or variants. Epidemics are less likely than with INFLUENZA A VIRUS and there have been no pandemics. Previously only found in humans, Influenza B virus has been isolated from seals which may constitute the animal reservoir from which humans are exposed.
A subtype of INFLUENZA A VIRUS comprised of the surface proteins hemagglutinin 3 and neuraminidase 8. The H3N8 subtype has frequently been found in horses.
A method for the detection of very small quantities of antibody in which the antigen-antibody-complement complex adheres to indicator cells, usually primate erythrocytes or nonprimate blood platelets. The reaction is dependent on the number of bound C3 molecules on the C3b receptor sites of the indicator cell.
An acute febrile, contagious, viral disease of birds caused by an AVULAVIRUS called NEWCASTLE DISEASE VIRUS. It is characterized by respiratory and nervous symptoms in fowl and is transmissible to man causing a severe, but transient conjunctivitis.
Sorbitan mono-9-octadecanoate poly(oxy-1,2-ethanediyl) derivatives; complex mixtures of polyoxyethylene ethers used as emulsifiers or dispersing agents in pharmaceuticals.
The production of ANTIBODIES by proliferating and differentiated B-LYMPHOCYTES under stimulation by ANTIGENS.
Diagnostic procedures involving immunoglobulin reactions.
A subtype of INFLUENZA A VIRUS comprised of the surface proteins hemagglutinin 5 and neuraminidase 1. The H5N1 subtype, frequently referred to as the bird flu virus, is endemic in wild birds and very contagious among both domestic (POULTRY) and wild birds. It does not usually infect humans, but some cases have been reported.
A class of immunoglobulin bearing mu chains (IMMUNOGLOBULIN MU-CHAINS). IgM can fix COMPLEMENT. The name comes from its high molecular weight and originally being called a macroglobulin.
Methods of detecting pregnancy by examining the levels of human chorionic gonadotropin (HCG) in plasma or urine.
The property of antibodies which enables them to react with some ANTIGENIC DETERMINANTS and not with others. Specificity is dependent on chemical composition, physical forces, and molecular structure at the binding site.
Infection of domestic and wild fowl and other BIRDS with INFLUENZA A VIRUS. Avian influenza usually does not sicken birds, but can be highly pathogenic and fatal in domestic POULTRY.
A genus of gram-negative, mostly facultatively anaerobic bacteria in the family MYCOPLASMATACEAE. The cells are bounded by a PLASMA MEMBRANE and lack a true CELL WALL. Its organisms are pathogens found on the MUCOUS MEMBRANES of humans, ANIMALS, and BIRDS.
A subtype of INFLUENZA A VIRUS comprised of the surface proteins hemagglutinin 9 and neuraminidase 2. The H9N2 subtype usually infects domestic birds (POULTRY) but there have been some human infections reported.
Passive agglutination tests in which antigen is adsorbed onto latex particles which then clump in the presence of antibody specific for the adsorbed antigen. (From Stedman, 26th ed)
The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.
Large, hoofed mammals of the family EQUIDAE. Horses are active day and night with most of the day spent seeking and consuming food. Feeding peaks occur in the early morning and late afternoon, and there are several daily periods of rest.
Sites on an antigen that interact with specific antibodies.
Immunologic techniques based on the use of: (1) enzyme-antibody conjugates; (2) enzyme-antigen conjugates; (3) antienzyme antibody followed by its homologous enzyme; or (4) enzyme-antienzyme complexes. These are used histologically for visualizing or labeling tissue specimens.
Diseases of birds which are raised as a source of meat or eggs for human consumption and are usually found in barnyards, hatcheries, etc. The concept is differentiated from BIRD DISEASES which is for diseases of birds not considered poultry and usually found in zoos, parks, and the wild.
The most well known avian paramyxovirus in the genus AVULAVIRUS and the cause of a highly infectious pneumoencephalitis in fowl. It is also reported to cause CONJUNCTIVITIS in humans. Transmission is by droplet inhalation or ingestion of contaminated water or food.
Any of the ruminant mammals with curved horns in the genus Ovis, family Bovidae. They possess lachrymal grooves and interdigital glands, which are absent in GOATS.
EPIDEMIOLOGIC STUDIES based on the detection through serological testing of characteristic change in the serum level of specific ANTIBODIES. Latent subclinical infections and carrier states can thus be detected in addition to clinically overt cases.
The period of recovery following an illness.
A family of viruses, mainly arboviruses, consisting of a single strand of RNA. Virions are enveloped particles 90-120 nm diameter. The complete family contains over 300 members arranged in five genera: ORTHOBUNYAVIRUS; HANTAVIRUS; NAIROVIRUS; PHLEBOVIRUS; and TOSPOVIRUS.
Proteins that share the common characteristic of binding to carbohydrates. Some ANTIBODIES and carbohydrate-metabolizing proteins (ENZYMES) also bind to carbohydrates, however they are not considered lectins. PLANT LECTINS are carbohydrate-binding proteins that have been primarily identified by their hemagglutinating activity (HEMAGGLUTININS). However, a variety of lectins occur in animal species where they serve diverse array of functions through specific carbohydrate recognition.
A series of steps taken in order to conduct research.
Manifestations of the immune response which are mediated by antigen-sensitized T-lymphocytes via lymphokines or direct cytotoxicity. This takes place in the absence of circulating antibody or where antibody plays a subordinate role.
A common name used for the genus Cavia. The most common species is Cavia porcellus which is the domesticated guinea pig used for pets and biomedical research.
Epidemics of infectious disease that have spread to many countries, often more than one continent, and usually affecting a large number of people.
A species in the ORTHOBUNYAVIRUS genus of the family BUNYAVIRIDAE. Serotypes are found in temperate and arctic regions and each is closely associated with a single species of vector mosquito. The vertebrate hosts are usually small mammals but several serotypes infect humans.
The type species of LYSSAVIRUS causing rabies in humans and other animals. Transmission is mostly by animal bites through saliva. The virus is neurotropic multiplying in neurons and myotubes of vertebrates.
Diseases of domestic swine and of the wild boar of the genus Sus.
Deliberate stimulation of the host's immune response. ACTIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of ANTIGENS or IMMUNOLOGIC ADJUVANTS. PASSIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of IMMUNE SERA or LYMPHOCYTES or their extracts (e.g., transfer factor, immune RNA) or transplantation of immunocompetent cell producing tissue (thymus or bone marrow).
A species of FLAVIVIRUS, one of the Japanese encephalitis virus group (ENCEPHALITIS VIRUSES, JAPANESE), which is the etiological agent of Japanese encephalitis found in Asia, southeast Asia, and the Indian subcontinent.
A viral infection of the brain caused by serotypes of California encephalitis virus (ENCEPHALITIS VIRUS, CALIFORNIA) transmitted to humans by the mosquito AEDES triseriatus. The majority of cases are caused by the LA CROSSE VIRUS. This condition is endemic to the midwestern United States and primarily affects children between 5-10 years of age. Clinical manifestations include FEVER; VOMITING; HEADACHE; and abdominal pain followed by SEIZURES, altered mentation, and focal neurologic deficits. (From Joynt, Clinical Neurology, 1996, Ch26, p13)
Semidomesticated variety of European polecat much used for hunting RODENTS and/or RABBITS and as a laboratory animal. It is in the subfamily Mustelinae, family MUSTELIDAE.
Substances that are recognized by the immune system and induce an immune reaction.
Infections of the brain caused by arthropod-borne viruses (i.e., arboviruses) primarily from the families TOGAVIRIDAE; FLAVIVIRIDAE; BUNYAVIRIDAE; REOVIRIDAE; and RHABDOVIRIDAE. Life cycles of these viruses are characterized by ZOONOSES, with birds and lower mammals serving as intermediate hosts. The virus is transmitted to humans by the bite of mosquitoes (CULICIDAE) or TICKS. Clinical manifestations include fever, headache, alterations of mentation, focal neurologic deficits, and COMA. (From Clin Microbiol Rev 1994 Jan;7(1):89-116; Walton, Brain's Diseases of the Nervous System, 10th ed, p321)
Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).
Arthropod-borne viruses. A non-taxonomic designation for viruses that can replicate in both vertebrate hosts and arthropod vectors. Included are some members of the following families: ARENAVIRIDAE; BUNYAVIRIDAE; REOVIRIDAE; TOGAVIRIDAE; and FLAVIVIRIDAE. (From Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2nd ed)
Test for tissue antigen using either a direct method, by conjugation of antibody with fluorescent dye (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, DIRECT) or an indirect method, by formation of antigen-antibody complex which is then labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, INDIRECT). The tissue is then examined by fluorescence microscopy.

Serum dilution neutralization test for California group virus identification and serology. (1/1894)

The serum dilution neutralization test was evaluated for serological diagnosis of California group arbovirus infections and identification of virus isolates. The technical advantages and the degree of subtype specificity of the serum dilution neutralization test over the hemagglutination inhibition test and the complement fixation test were demonstrated with paired specimens from human cases, single human survey sera, and sentinel rabbit sera. Twenty-one virus isolates from various geographical areas of the United States were also used to evaluate the efficacy of the serum dilution neutralization test for specific virus identification.  (+info)

Removal of non-specific serum inhibitors of haemagglutination of rubella virus by treatment with dodecylamine-gel. (2/1894)

The suitability of using dodecylamine-gel for removing the serum non-antibody-like inhibitors of haemagglutination by rubella was studied. Compared with kaolin and MnCl2/heparin treatment this new procedure appears to have a higher specificity since it removes the non-antibody-like inhibitors from serum without affecting the immunoglobulin level significantly. The potential application of this procedure in routine serological analysis for rubella virus infection is discussed.  (+info)

Staphylococcal protein A; its preparation and an application to rubella serology. (3/1894)

Good yields of staphylococcal protein A are obtained by growing the staphylococcus Cowan type 1 on cellophane agar. The activity of these preparations in removing immunoglobulin G (IgG) from human serum can be readily measured by the Mancini radial-diffusion technique and the correct in-use dilution determined. Treatment with protein A of sera from women with a history of rubella may help in the identification of those having specific antibody in the IgM and IgA fractions. This relatively simple procedure may have worthwhile application in the diagnosis of rubella.  (+info)

Detection of antibody to avian influenza A (H5N1) virus in human serum by using a combination of serologic assays. (4/1894)

From May to December 1997, 18 cases of mild to severe respiratory illness caused by avian influenza A (H5N1) viruses were identified in Hong Kong. The emergence of an avian virus in the human population prompted an epidemiological investigation to determine the extent of human-to-human transmission of the virus and risk factors associated with infection. The hemagglutination inhibition (HI) assay, the standard method for serologic detection of influenza virus infection in humans, has been shown to be less sensitive for the detection of antibodies induced by avian influenza viruses. Therefore, we developed a more sensitive microneutralization assay to detect antibodies to avian influenza in humans. Direct comparison of an HI assay and the microneutralization assay demonstrated that the latter was substantially more sensitive in detecting human antibodies to H5N1 virus in infected individuals. An H5-specific indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was also established to test children's sera. The sensitivity and specificity of the microneutralization assay were compared with those of an H5-specific indirect ELISA. When combined with a confirmatory H5-specific Western blot test, the specificities of both assays were improved. Maximum sensitivity (80%) and specificity (96%) for the detection of anti-H5 antibody in adults aged 18 to 59 years were achieved by using the microneutralization assay combined with Western blotting. Maximum sensitivity (100%) and specificity (100%) in detecting anti-H5 antibody in sera obtained from children less than 15 years of age were achieved by using ELISA combined with Western blotting. This new test algorithm is being used for the seroepidemiologic investigations of the avian H5N1 influenza outbreak.  (+info)

A modified rubella HI test using prestandardized reagents. (5/1894)

A modified haemagglutination inhibition test for rubella antibodies using prestandardized freeze-dried reagents was compared to a "standard" method. Tests of 707 serum samples showed that the modified test was sensitive and reliable by both macrotitration and microtitration techniques. The minor disadvantages of some reduction in antibody level when rubella sera were tested within one week of the rash and of spontaneous sheep erythrocyte agglutination in 0-7% of sera were out-weighed by the increased speed of the new test and the fact that it was carried out at room temperature.  (+info)

Experimental production of respiratory tract disease in cebus monkeys after intratracheal or intranasal infection with influenza A/Victoria/3/75 or influenza A/New Jersey/76 virus. (6/1894)

A total of 28 cebus monkeys were inoculated intratracheally or intranasally with 10(6) 50% tissue culture infective doses of A/New Jersey/76 virus or 10(7) 50% tissue culture infective doses of A/Victoria/75 virus, and 8 additional monkeys received sterile allantoic fluid. Each of the animals became infected as evidenced by a serological response and/or shedding of the virus. Of the 10 animals inoculated intratracheally with A/Victoria/75 virus, 8 developed a systemic illness, and pulmonary infiltration was detected by X-ray in 7 of the 8. Administration of A/New Jersey/76 virus intratracheally to 10 monkeys produced a mild systemic illness in 2 animals and an upper respiratory tract illness in 6, but no illness developed in the remaining 2 monkeys; none of the animals developed X-ray evidence of lower respiratory tract disease. Intranasal administration of either virus failed to induce any illness or produced, at most, mild illness confined to the upper respiratory tract. These studies demonstrate that cebus monkeys are susceptible to respiratory tract infection with influenza A viruses and that the development of pulmonary disease is reflected in the appearance of easily recognizable radiological changes.  (+info)

Influenza vaccination of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected adults: impact on plasma levels of HIV type 1 RNA and determinants of antibody response. (7/1894)

We assessed the effect of influenza vaccination on plasma levels of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) RNA and the impact of age, plasma HIV-1 RNA level, CD4 cell count, and anti-HIV therapy on immune response. Forty-nine adults (mean age, 38.7 years; mean CD4 cell count +/- SD, 190 +/- 169/mL; mean plasma HIV-1 RNA level +/- SD, 154,616 +/- 317,192 copies/mL) were immunized. Elevations of > or = 0.48 log in plasma HIV-1 RNA levels occurred in two (4%) of 49 subjects within 4 weeks of vaccination. A fourfold or greater increase in antibody titer occurred in 13 (45%) of 29 subjects, correlating directly with CD4 cell count (P = .002) and inversely with plasma HIV-1 RNA level (P = .034). By multivariate analysis, CD4 cell count was a stronger predictor of antibody response than was plasma HIV-1 RNA level. We conclude that increases in plasma HIV-1 RNA levels following influenza vaccination are rare and transient and that antibody response is impaired with CD4 cell counts of < 100/mL and plasma HIV-1 RNA levels of > 100,000 copies/mL. Prospective trials are needed to evaluate the impact of highly active therapy on immune response after vaccination.  (+info)

Further characterization of IgA in chicken serum and secretions with evidence of a possible analogue of mammalian secretory component. (8/1894)

Immunochemical studies of the intestinal secretory immune system of the chicken have led to further characterization of IgA in bile, intestinal contents and serum. A component was detected in late Sephadex G-200 fractions of caecal and intestinal contents which showed partial identity with bile, intestinal and a high molecular weight fraction of serum IgA. This component showed similar sedimentation characteristics to bovine serum albumin in sucrose density gradients, a fast electrophoretic mobility on polyacrylamide gel and is a possible analogue of mammalian secretory component (SC). Fractionation of serum from birds affected with infectious synovitis revealed two moleculare classes of IgA. Comparative double diffusion studies produced a reaction of complete identity between bile IgA and high molecular weight serum IgA (15S) and partial identity with low molecular weight serum IgA (7S), suggesting a lack of an SC determinant on the latter. A spur of partial identity between 15S and 7S serum IgA was also observed. Although no direct structural homology with mammalian or human IgA could be demonstrated by immunological cross-reactivity, the similarities of molecular characteristics, particularly emphasized by the presence of a secretory component, favour a functional analogy between the secretory immune system of the fowl and mammalian species.  (+info)

Source: 'Rubella' in Duane Gubler (ed.), up-to-date online clinical reference, retrieved on March 14, 2023 from

Symptoms of influenza include:

* Fever (usually high)
* Cough
* Sore throat
* Runny or stuffy nose
* Headache
* Muscle or body aches
* Fatigue (tiredness)
* Diarrhea and nausea (more common in children than adults)

Influenza can lead to serious complications, such as pneumonia, bronchitis, and sinus and ear infections. These complications are more likely to occur in people who have a weakened immune system, such as the elderly, young children, and people with certain chronic health conditions (like heart disease, diabetes, and lung disease).

Influenza is diagnosed based on a physical examination and medical history. A healthcare provider may also use a rapid influenza test (RIT) or a polymerase chain reaction (PCR) test to confirm the diagnosis.

Treatment for influenza typically involves rest, hydration, and over-the-counter medications such as acetaminophen (Tylenol) or ibuprofen (Advil, Motrin) to relieve fever and body aches. Antiviral medications, such as oseltamivir (Tamiflu) or zanamivir (Relenza), may also be prescribed to help shorten the duration and severity of the illness. However, these medications are most effective when started within 48 hours of the onset of symptoms.

Prevention is key in avoiding influenza. Vaccination is the most effective way to prevent influenza, as well as practicing good hygiene such as washing your hands frequently, avoiding close contact with people who are sick, and staying home when you are sick.

Orthomyxoviridae infections are a group of viral infections caused by the Orthomyxoviridae family of viruses, which includes influenza A and B viruses, as well as other related viruses. These infections can affect both humans and animals and can cause a range of symptoms, from mild to severe.

The most common type of Orthomyxoviridae infection is seasonal influenza, which occurs when the virus is transmitted from person to person through the air or by contact with infected surfaces. Other types of Orthomyxoviridae infections include:

1. Pandemic influenza: This occurs when a new strain of the virus emerges and spreads quickly around the world, causing widespread illness and death. Examples of pandemic influenza include the Spanish flu of 1918 and the Asian flu of 1957.
2. Avian influenza: This occurs when birds are infected with the virus and can be transmitted to humans through close contact with infected birds or their droppings.
3. Swine influenza: This occurs when pigs are infected with the virus and can be transmitted to humans through close contact with infected pigs or their droppings.
4. H5N1 and H7N9: These are two specific types of bird flu viruses that have caused serious outbreaks in humans in recent years.

Symptoms of Orthomyxoviridae infections can include fever, cough, sore throat, runny nose, muscle aches, and fatigue. In severe cases, these infections can lead to pneumonia, bronchitis, and other respiratory complications, as well as hospitalization and even death.

Diagnosis of Orthomyxoviridae infections is typically made through a combination of physical examination, medical history, and laboratory tests, such as PCR (polymerase chain reaction) or viral culture. Treatment is generally focused on relieving symptoms and supporting the immune system, with antiviral medications may be used in severe cases.

Prevention of Orthomyxoviridae infections can include avoiding close contact with infected birds or pigs, wearing protective clothing and gear when handling animals, and practicing good hygiene such as washing hands frequently. Vaccines are also available for some species of birds and pigs to protect against these viruses.

Overall, Orthomyxoviridae is a family of viruses that can cause serious illness in humans and other animals, and it's important to take precautions to prevent exposure and spread of these viruses.

Symptoms of ND include:

* Respiratory problems such as coughing, sneezing, and difficulty breathing
* Decreased egg production or weight loss in laying hens
* Weakness, lethargy, and difficulty standing or walking
* Diarrhea, vomiting, and dehydration
* Swollen eyes, sinuses, and neck

Newcastle disease is transmitted through the air via droplets from infected birds, as well as through contaminated fomites such as feed, bedding, and other objects. It can also be spread by wild birds that have become carriers of the virus.

There are several forms of ND, including:

* Classical ND: This is the most common form of the disease and is characterized by rapid onset and high mortality rates in infected flocks.
* LaSota strain: This is a less virulent form of ND that is often used as a vaccine to protect against classical ND.
* Mesogenic ND: This form of the disease is characterized by slower onset and lower mortality rates than classical ND.

Diagnosis of ND typically involves a combination of clinical signs, laboratory tests such as PCR or ELISA, and postmortem examination of infected birds.

Control and prevention of ND primarily involve vaccination, sanitation, and biosecurity measures to reduce the risk of virus introduction and spread. In areas where the disease is endemic, strict controls on the movement of poultry and poultry products can help to minimize the risk of transmission.

In birds, the virus can cause respiratory, gastrointestinal, and nervous system disorders. It is transmitted through contact with infected birds or contaminated feces or water. Wild birds and domestic poultry are susceptible to influenza infection. The H5N1 subtype of the virus has caused widespread outbreaks in poultry and wild birds, leading to significant economic losses and public health concerns.

Prevention methods include vaccination, biosecurity measures, and surveillance programs. Vaccines are available for chickens, turkeys, ducks, and other domesticated birds, but the effectiveness of these vaccines can be limited in protecting against certain subtypes of the virus. Biosecurity measures such as sanitation, isolation, and disinfection can help prevent the spread of the disease in poultry flocks. Surveillance programs monitor the presence of the virus in wild and domestic bird populations to detect outbreaks early and prevent the spread of the disease.

The impact of avian influenza on human health is generally minimal, but it can be severe in certain cases. Direct transmission of the virus from birds to humans is rare, but it can occur through close contact with infected birds or contaminated surfaces. Indirect transmission may occur through the handling of contaminated poultry products. People with weakened immune systems, such as young children, the elderly, and those with chronic diseases, are at a higher risk of developing severe symptoms from avian influenza.

Overall, avian influenza is an important disease in birds that can have significant economic and public health implications. Prevention and control measures are essential to minimize the impact of the disease on both bird populations and human health.

Some common poultry diseases include:

1. Avian influenza (bird flu): A highly contagious viral disease that affects birds and can be transmitted to humans.
2. Newcastle disease: A viral disease that causes respiratory and gastrointestinal symptoms in birds.
3. Infectious bronchitis: A viral disease that causes respiratory symptoms in birds.
4. Marek's disease: A viral disease that affects the nervous system of birds.
5. Coccidiosis: A parasitic disease caused by the Eimeria protozoa, which can cause diarrhea and weight loss in birds.
6. Chicken anemia virus: A viral disease that causes anemia and weakened immune systems in chickens.
7. Fowl pox: A viral disease that causes skin lesions and other symptoms in birds.
8. Avian encephalomyelitis (AE): A viral disease that affects the brain and spinal cord of birds, causing neurological symptoms such as paralysis and death.
9. Mycoplasmosis: A bacterial disease caused by the Mycoplasma bacteria, which can cause respiratory and other symptoms in birds.
10. Aspergillosis: A fungal disease that affects the respiratory system of birds, causing symptoms such as coughing and difficulty breathing.

Poultry diseases can have a significant impact on bird health and productivity, and can also be transmitted to humans in some cases. It is important for poultry farmers and owners to monitor their flocks closely and take steps to prevent the spread of disease, such as providing clean water and feed, maintaining good hygiene, and vaccinating birds against certain diseases.

During convalescence, patients may be advised to follow specific dietary restrictions, engage in gentle exercise, and avoid strenuous activities that can exacerbate their condition or slow down the healing process. They may also receive medical treatment, such as physical therapy, medication, or other forms of supportive care, to aid in their recovery.

The duration of convalescence varies depending on the individual and the nature of their illness or injury. In general, convalescence can last anywhere from a few days to several weeks or even months, depending on the severity and complexity of the condition being treated.

Overall, the goal of convalescence is to allow the body to heal and recover fully, while also minimizing the risk of complications and promoting optimal functional outcomes.

A disease that affects pigs, including viral, bacterial, and parasitic infections, as well as genetic disorders and nutritional deficiencies. Some common swine diseases include:

1. Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome (PRRS): A highly contagious viral disease that can cause reproductive failure, respiratory problems, and death.
2. Swine Influenza: A viral infection similar to human influenza, which can cause fever, coughing, and pneumonia in pigs.
3. Erysipelas: A bacterial infection that causes high fever, loss of appetite, and skin lesions in pigs.
4. Actinobacillosis: A bacterial infection that can cause pneumonia, arthritis, and abscesses in pigs.
5. Parasitic infections: Such as gastrointestinal parasites like roundworms and tapeworms, which can cause diarrhea, anemia, and weight loss in pigs.
6. Scrapie: A degenerative neurological disorder that affects pigs and other animals, causing confusion, aggression, and eventually death.
7. Nutritional deficiencies: Such as a lack of vitamin E or selenium, which can cause a range of health problems in pigs, including muscular dystrophy and anemia.
8. Genetic disorders: Such as achondroplasia, a condition that causes dwarfism and deformities in pigs.
9. Environmental diseases: Such as heat stress, which can cause a range of health problems in pigs, including respiratory distress and death.

It's important to note that many swine diseases have similar symptoms, making accurate diagnosis by a veterinarian essential for effective treatment and control.

1. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). (2022). Encephalitis. Retrieved from
2. Mayo Clinic. (2022). Encephalitis. Retrieved from
3. MedlinePlus. (2022). Encephalitis. Retrieved from
4. UC Davis Health System. (2022). Encephalitis. Retrieved from
5. California Department of Public Health. (2022). Encephalitis. Retrieved from

In the medical field, "Encephalitis, California" refers to a type of inflammatory disease that affects the brain and is caused by a viral or bacterial infection. The term specifically refers to cases of encephalitis that occur in the state of California.

Encephalitis is a serious condition that can cause a range of symptoms, including fever, headache, confusion, seizures, and loss of consciousness. In severe cases, it can lead to long-term complications, such as brain damage, or even be fatal.

The causes of encephalitis in California are typically viral or bacterial infections that are transmitted through mosquitoes, ticks, or other vectors. The most common viruses that cause encephalitis in the state include West Nile virus, Japanese encephalitis virus, and St. Louis encephalitis virus.

The diagnosis of encephalitis is typically made based on a combination of clinical symptoms, laboratory tests, and imaging studies such as CT or MRI scans. Treatment for encephalitis typically involves supportive care, such as intravenous fluids, oxygen therapy, and medication to manage fever and pain. In severe cases, antiviral or antibacterial medications may be administered to help reduce the severity of the infection.

Prevention of encephalitis in California is focused on reducing the risk of mosquito-borne and tick-borne infections. This includes using insect repellents, wearing protective clothing, and avoiding areas with high mosquito or tick activity. Vaccines are also available for some of the viruses that cause encephalitis, such as West Nile virus.

In summary, "Encephalitis, California" refers to a serious inflammatory disease that affects the brain and is caused by viral or bacterial infections in the state of California. The diagnosis and treatment of encephalitis are based on clinical symptoms and laboratory tests, and prevention strategies focus on reducing the risk of mosquito-borne and tick-borne infections.

Symptoms of arbovirus encephalitis can include fever, headache, confusion, seizures, and coma. In severe cases, the infection can be fatal.

Diagnosis of arbovirus encephalitis is typically made through a combination of physical examination, laboratory tests, and imaging studies such as CT or MRI scans. Laboratory tests may include blood tests to detect the presence of antibodies against the virus or PCR (polymerase chain reaction) to detect the virus itself in the blood or cerebrospinal fluid.

Treatment of arbovirus encephalitis typically involves supportive care, such as intravenous fluids, oxygen therapy, and pain management. Antiviral medications may be used in some cases to help reduce the severity of the infection. In severe cases, hospitalization may be necessary to provide more intensive care.

Prevention of arbovirus encephalitis primarily involves protecting against mosquito bites, such as using insect repellents, wearing protective clothing, and avoiding areas with high mosquito activity. Eliminating standing water around homes and communities can also help reduce the risk of mosquito breeding and transmission of the virus. Vaccines are not available for most arboviruses, but research is ongoing to develop effective vaccines against these viruses.

Older methods included complement fixation tests, hemagglutination inhibition and virus neutralisation. Newer methods us enzyme ... The so-called "home" or "self"-testing gadgets are usually lateral flow tests, which detect the virus using a tagged monoclonal ... The invention of microfluidic tests as allowed for most of these tests to be automated, Despite its specificity and sensitivity ... Viral load tests are an important in the control of infections by HIV. This versatile method can be used for plant viruses. ...
Other methods of diagnosis included hemagglutination inhibition (HI), complement fixation, neutralization tests. However, new ... A seroprevalence study in Andaman and Nicobar islands in 2002 revealed a high prevalence of hemagglutination inhibition (HI) ... This study also found using immune response tests that birds and humans in the region appeared to have been exposed to the ...
Diagnosis is by virus isolation, serology, and other tests. Hemagglutination inhibition (HI) is one method of serology that ... ELISA was shown to have higher sensitivity to the HEF than the HI test. Because only Influenza viruses C and D produce esterase ... No samples of influenza D virus were detected in serum samples from humans; however, hemagglutination-inhibiting antibodies ...
Diagnosis is by virus isolation, serology, and other tests. Hemagglutination inhibition (HI) is one method of serology that ... ELISA was shown to have higher sensitivity to the HEF than the HI test. Because only Influenza viruses C and D produce esterase ... If more individuals were tested for Influenza virus C as well as the other three types, infections not previously associated ...
The haemagglutination inhibition test can be used to establish the strain of coronavirus. Animals should be treated ... In respiratory disease, diagnosis is confirmed by performing a direct fluorescent antibody test on nasal washes - which ...
In these cases, hemagglutination inhibition can be used, wherein a neutralizing substance cancels out a specific antigen. ... If routine serologic testing for RhD results in a score of 2+ or less, the antiglobulin test can be used to demonstrate the ... The indirect antiglobulin test, which is used for weak D testing and typing of some red blood cell antigens, detects IgG bound ... A direct antiglobulin test (Coombs test) is also performed as part of the antibody investigation. Donor blood is generally ...
... are the targets of numerous serologic reactions and tests including neutralization and hemagglutination inhibition. The ...
Serological testing via virus neutralization and haemagglutination inhibition testing can be performed to diagnose the disease ... General biosecurity protocols including adequate quarantine, testing, and disinfection can help prevent the entry or spread of ...
... pregnancy tests were introduced in 1960 when Wide and Gemzell presented a test based on in-vitro hemagglutination inhibition. ... Therefore, a blood test can be positive while the urine test is still negative. Qualitative tests (yes/no or positive/negative ... Qualitative urine tests available for home use are typically designed as lateral flow tests. Quantitative tests measure the ... such as agglutination-inhibition-based assays and sandwich ELISA, used in modern home pregnancy tests. Tests are now so cheap ...
Several parameters of the hemagglutination (HA) test-such as the temperature of incubation, the species of erythrocyte used, ... and hemagglutination inhibition (HI). The biophysical and biochemical properties of PPV have been extensively studied and are ... The SN test has been reported to be more sensitive than the HI test. A microtechnique for application of the SN test has been ... Tests The HI test is frequently used for detection and quantitation of humoral antibody for PPV. Antibody sometimes can be ...
... close contacts of the infected patients did not become ill and they all tested negative for haemagglutination inhibition ... Adjuvants are being tested with the vaccine to determine if an adequate immune response can be produced. In addition, during a ... A health department notice suggested that a 4-year-old boy had no clinical symptoms and was tested during surveillance of high- ... Chinese National Influenza Center director Shu Yuelong said the vaccine passed tests on ferrets and had been approved for ...
In 1960 Gemzell and Leif Wide presented a pregnancy test based on in-vitro hemagglutination inhibition, a first step away from ... This test initiated a series of improvements in pregnancy testing leading to the contemporary at-home testing. Gemzell was a ... ISBN 978-0-470-16927-8. Wide L (2005). "Inventions leading to the development of the diagnostic test kit industry--from the ... Wide, L; Gemzell, C. A. (1960). "An immunological pregnancy test". Acta Endocrinologica. 35: 261-7. doi:10.1530/acta.0.xxxv0261 ...
... test, hemagglutination inhibition test (HI), or enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The SPA test is more commonly used ... Tests can be performed on serum samples as well as tissue samples. However, it has been stated that serological tests cannot be ... Many serology tests can be performed to diagnose M. gallisepticum: serum plate agglutination (SPA) ... found that antibody responses change in the early and advanced stages of the disease and the results vary according to the test ...
The common tests of choice include Haemaglutination-Inhibition, Enzyme-linked Immunosorbent Assay and Serum Neutralisation. The ... in the flocks is also useful for early detection and tested for haemagglutination. It is common practice for poultry viruses' ... However, proper laboratory testing is still needed to eliminate doubts for a definitive diagnosis. Serological testing can ... Identification of the virus can also be detected by Polymerase Chain Reaction-based test. There is no treatment for EDS '76, ...
Her main research areas include influenza vaccination and influenza hemagglutination inhibition. Her thesis on 1 - ... Maria Zambon and her PHE colleague Joanna Ellis contributed to the development of the first real-time RT-PCR test for SARS-CoV- ... In 1984, Zambon earned a PhD from the University of London (Imperial College) with a thesis titeled "Inhibition of influenza ...
Common serological assays include hemagglutination inhibition assays that detect HA-specific antibodies, virus neutralization ... Nucleic acid-based tests (NATs) amplify and detect viral nucleic acid. Most of these tests take a few hours, but rapid ... Rapid influenza diagnostic tests (RIDTs) are a simple way of obtaining assay results, are low cost, and produce results quickly ... Influenza testing is recommended for anyone hospitalized with symptoms resembling influenza during flu season or who is ...
... neutralization test, and hemagglutination-inhibition test. In the past, arboviruses were organized into one of four groups: A, ... Mettler, N. E.; Clarke, D. H.; Casals, J. (1971). "Hemagglutination Inhibition with Arboviruses: Relationship Between Titers ... "Arbovirus Antibodies Test". Medical Health Tests. March 27, 2012. Retrieved April 17, 2013. Huang, C.; Slater, B.; Campbell, W ... "Arboviral Diagnostic Testing". Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Retrieved April 17, 2013. " ...
... antigen can be detected in urine using hemagglutination inhibition testing: anti-Sd(a) is added to the urine, followed by Sd(a ... antibodies by inhibition testing.: 406 The antigen was named for Sid, an employee at the Lister Institute whose red blood cells ... test positive through urine testing.: 224 The Sd(a++) phenotype is rare, especially in Europe, but may be more common in East ... Urine testing is considered the most reliable method for determining a person's Sid blood type.: 505-6 Antibodies against the ...
... hemagglutination inhibition), NT (neutralization test), and CF (complement fixation test) tests and in-house-enzyme linked ... Nevertheless, clinics in Brazil may not have adequate testing reliability as they rely on symptoms rather than PCR viral ...
... based on hemagglutination inhibition assay (HAI) at all doses tested. The unadjuvanted vaccine at the 45-microgram dose yielded ... Still, such a vaccine is years away from full testing, approval, and use." As of July 2007, phase I clinical trials on humans ... That exceeds the European Union's requirement of an acceptable response (a hemagglutinin-inhibition titer of 40 or more) in 70 ... Study start: October 2005; Study completion: January 2007 This Australian study will test the safety and immunogenicity of an ...
... hemagglutination-inhibition tests (HA/HI), and nucleic acid hybridization. Mostly torovirus infecting humans are probably ... Diagnosis of the viral infection involves electron microscopy, ELISA or haemagglutination inhibition. Supportive treatment may ... Many diagnostic techniques for torovirus infection in clinical specimens are now available such as hemagglutination (HA), ... severity of illness and mortality was not much affected in the patients with torovirus as compared to the patients who tested ...
... infections performed by most state diagnostic laboratories were complement-fixation test and hemagglutination inhibition tests ... The test is automatically done on all samples testing positive or equivocal for La Crosse Virus IgM antibodies by ELISA. In ... JCV-antibody testing has only been available at the CDC and the New York State Department of Health. The CDC has used plaque ... Increasing awareness and more testing In the latest US review covering 2000-2013, more than half of cases were identified in ...
Antigenic analysis of recombinant viruses possessing the 1918 HA and NA by hemagglutination inhibition tests using ferret and ... Avian influenza viruses that the World Organisation for Animal Health and others test for to control poultry disease include ...
Immunogenicity was assessed by microneutralization and hemagglutination-inhibition assays with the use of the vaccine virus, ... Some vaccines also exist for use in humans, and others are in testing, but none have been made available to civilian ... although a subgroup of samples were tested with the use of the wild-type influenza A/Vietnam/1203/2004 (H5N1) virus." The ... are being refined and tested; and do have some promise both in furthering research and preparedness for the next pandemic. ...
... prevent them from crosslinking red blood cells and so inhibit hemagglutination. This hemagglutination inhibition assay (HIA) ... Hannah Hoag, writing in Nature Medicine in 2013, describes the assay as "the gold-standard serologic test to type influenza ... J Virol 73: 3520-3523 (text) Racaniello V. Influenza hemagglutination inhibition assay (27 May 2009) (accessed February 19, ... and adapting it into the hemagglutination inhibition assay, which measures virus-specific antibodies in serum. He was the first ...
... direct and indirect fluorescent antibody tests, complement fixation tests (CFT), indirect haemagglutination test (IHA), ELISA ... Other procedures used for diagnosis include growth inhibition disc tests (GI), ...
"Laboratory diagnosis of psittacine beak and feather disease by haemagglutination and haemagglutination inhibition". Australian ... Testing regimes currently rely on a combination of viral DNA testing using PCR methods, and excreted antigen detection in ... feather dander using haemagglutination assay (HA) alongside serology using haemagglutination inhibition (HI). The results can ... Khalesi, B.; Bonne, N.; Stewart, M.; Sharp, M.; Raidal, S.R. (2005). "A comparison of haemagglutination, haemagglutination ...
Antibodies to IBV may be detected by indirect immunofluorescent antibody test, ELISA and Haemagglutination inhibition ( ...
On the contrary, if hemagglutination occurs, the test will result negative. Hemagglutination blood typing detection: this ... HIA (Hemagglutination Inhibition Assay): is a serologic assay which can be used either to screen for antibodies using RBCs with ... The agglutination of red blood cells is used in the Coombs test in diagnostic immunohematology to test for autoimmune hemolytic ... meaning that a test's positive result due to hemagglutination has been inhibited. ...
... hemagglutination inhibition tests MeSH E01.450.495.735.550 - neutralization tests MeSH E01.450.495.735.550.750 - skin test end- ... hemagglutination tests MeSH E01.450.495.735.050.375.150 - coombs test MeSH E01.450.495.735.050.450 - latex fixation tests MeSH ... schilling test MeSH E01.450.495.100 - basophil degranulation test MeSH E01.450.495.150 - cell migration inhibition MeSH E01.450 ... leukocyte adherence inhibition test MeSH E01.450.495.505 - monitoring, immunologic MeSH E01.450.495.620 - pregnancy tests, ...
"Influenza hemagglutination inhibition assay". Retrieved 19 October 2020. (Articles with short description, ... In the past nucleic acid tests have mainly been used as a secondary test to confirm positive serological results. However, as ... Both types of antibodies are measured when tests for immunity are carried out. Antibody testing has become widely available. It ... it remains the gold standard for identifying viruses that do not show up on routine diagnostic tests or for which routine tests ...
... the HA test is less reliable than the EID50 or PFU tests because it does not always indicate the presence of a viable virus in ... and hemagglutination assays, with particular emphasis on use of the ELISA for its high sensitivity (unlike the hemagglutination ... April 2000). "Inhibition of angiogenesis and vascular tumor growth by interferon-producing cells: A gene therapy approach". The ... It is also reported that the Moscow strain of SeV was tested by Dr. V. Senin and his team as an anticancer agent in a few dozen ...
These possess both haemagglutination and neuraminidase activity, which cleaves sialic acid on the cell surface, preventing ... If the viral genome follows a multiple promoter model, the level inhibition of transcription should correlate with the length ... observed as an ability to cause red blood cells to clump in laboratory tests. HN (Hemagglutinin-neuraminidase) attachment ... When paramyxovirus genome was exposed to UV light, the level of inhibition of transcription was proportional to the distance ...
The second domain is an N-glycosidase that cleaves nucleobases from ribosomal RNA, resulting in inhibition of protein synthesis ... Many legume seeds have been proven to contain high lectin activity, termed hemagglutination. Soybean is the most important ... and used in biomedicine for blood cell testing and in biochemistry for fractionation.[citation needed] Although they were first ... "Sialidase-Enhanced Lectin-Like Mechanism for Actinomyces viscosus and Actinomyces naeslundii Hemagglutination". Infection and ...
Eddy tested Army flu vaccines for 16 years until she was promoted to chief of flu virus vaccine testing in 1944. In parallel to ... This includes inhibition in animals that received RMKC extracts combined with anti-SV40 rabbit serum. Given the preponderance ... The virus can be absorbed onto guinea pig, hamster, or human 0 erythrocytes in the cold-causing hemag- glutination. They also ... Stewart and Eddy continued to test the theory that viral components are able to induce tumors. They tested tumor extracts from ...
... the indirect hemagglutination assay, the indirect fluorescent antibody assay (IFA), the direct agglutination test, the latex ... Thus, chronic cocaine, or prolonged HDAC inhibition, induces several GABAA receptor subunits in NAc, which is associated with ... The most commonly used tests for the measurement of IgM antibody are double-sandwich IgM-ELISA, the IFA test, and the ... Diagnosis is typically by testing blood for antibodies or by testing the amniotic fluid in pregnant women for the parasite's ...
1999)‎. Searo-Diagnosis of Dengue Infections by Haemagglutination Inhibition Test (‎HI)‎ in Suspected Cases in Chittagong, ...
... ... Methods of increasing the sensitivity of the haemagglutination inhibition test for rabies virus antibody. Bulletin of the World ...
... Center for Disease Control "CDC standard rubella hemagglutination- ... inhibition test" (1970). Center for Disease Control "CDC standard rubella hemagglutination-inhibition test" , 1970. Export RIS ... Title : CDC standard rubella hemagglutination-inhibition test Corporate Authors(s) : Center for Disease Control Published Date ... 2014 CDC infectious diseases laboratory test directory, version 4.0 Cite CITE. Title : 2014 CDC infectious diseases laboratory ...
Hemagglutination Inhibition Tests ✖Remove constraint Subjects: Hemagglutination Inhibition Tests ... 1. Rubella testing in the small hospital laboratory Publication: Buffalo, N.Y. : Mark-Maris, [1983] Subject(s): ...
Hemagglutination-Inhibition Hemagglutination-Inhibition Tests Antigen 8 units Calovo System Serum Calovo Homologous Antigens ...
The Hemagglutination Inhibition Assay (HI Test). Scientists use a test called the hemagglutination inhibition assay (HI test) ... In the HI test, this will cause hemagglutination to occur (see Figure 2B). Circulating influenza viruses tested via the HI test ... "hemagglutination inhibition (HI) test." Hemagglutination (as depicted in Figure 2B) occurs when antibodies do not recognize and ... hemagglutination inhibition). The picture below provides an example of hemagglutination inhibition. The rightmost section of ...
Hemagglutination inhibition test. Pt1a. 0. 0. NT. 5,120. 2,560. 640. 2,560. 2,560. 5,120. 2,560. 1,280. NT. 0. NT. NT. ... not tested. Hemagglutination test, numbers are reciprocal of serum dilution inhibiting 4 units of antigen; 0 = negative ... Plaque-reduction neutralization test, numbers refer to neutralizing antibody titers with a 90% cutoff value: titers , positive ... Complement fixation tests, numbers refer to reciprocal of serum titer/reciprocal of antigen titer; 0, negative reaction at ,8/, ...
All tests were carried to endpoint dilutions a minimum of five times in each direction to give accurate values … ... of human adenoviruses presently described have been prepared and evaluated by reciprocal neutralization and hemagglutination- ... presently described have been prepared and evaluated by reciprocal neutralization and hemagglutination-inhibition tests. All ... averaging 12 heterologous reactions per type when summing both tests in both directions. Types 20, 30, 32, and 45 exhibit ...
Antigenic analysis, as measured by hemagglutination inhibition tests, is being used to determine antigenic variability. Because ...
Hemadsorption Inhibition Tests E5.478.594.760.360. Hemagglutination Inhibition Tests E5.478.594.760.370. Hemagglutination Tests ... Leukocyte Adherence Inhibition Test E5.478.640 E5.478.594.500. Leukocyte Migration-Inhibitory Factors D23.125.477. Limb Bud ... Skin Test End-Point Titration E5.478.594.760.550.750. E5.478.594.800.300.750. Skin Tests E5.478.594.800. Smith-Lemli-Opitz ... Kveim Test E5.478.594.800.300.540. Labetalol D2.65.793.324. Labyrinthitis C9.218.568.315 C9.218.568.558. C9.218.705.371. ...
Hemagglutination Inhibition Tests Actions. * Search in PubMed * Search in MeSH * Add to Search ... developed robust levels of hemagglutination-inhibiting antibodies, enhanced germinal center reaction, and T follicular helper ...
Hemagglutination Inhibition Tests Actions. * Search in PubMed * Search in MeSH * Add to Search ... Serological status prior to vaccination and 28 days following vaccination was assessed using the hemagglutination inhibition ...
Categories: Hemagglutination Inhibition Tests Image Types: Photo, Illustrations, Video, Color, Black&White, PublicDomain, ...
... hemagglutination inhibition, and neutralization tests after vaccination against tick-borne encephalitis. J Med Virol. 1996;48: ... We conducted neutralizing antibody testing using the virus isolated from Hokkaido in 1993 (4). We determined a serum sample to ... Because flaviviruses are known to serologically cross-react with other close flaviviruses (8), we tested serum against JEV, the ... Two (0.7%) tested positive. Neither had clinically apparent symptoms after removing ticks. ...
Serology tests available include IgM, ELISA, indirect FA, hemagglutination inhibition, compliment fixation, and IgG. PCR is not ... Serum testing always should include dilution to at least 1:320. The tube agglutination test does not detect antibodies to B ... The tube agglutination test remains the criterion standard. This test reflects the presence of anti-O-polysaccharide antibody. ... testing and can be utilized on blood and body fluid specimens. Currently, these tests are utilized throughout the reference ...
Influenza was confirmed by culture, hemagglutination inhibition antibodies, or investigational direct tests. Of 1,164 patients ... as measured by hemagglutination inhibition titers. There was no difference in hemagglutination inhibition antibody titers at 2 ... Under standardized in vitro testing, RELENZA ROTADISK delivers 4 mg of zanamivir from the DISKHALER device when tested at a ... The relationship between the cell culture inhibition of influenza virus by zanamivir and the inhibition of influenza virus ...
None of the tested AMC/DCBA or HR containing lozenges shows any antiviral effectiveness against HRV8 at the tested ... The lozenges were tested head to head with Coldamaris® lozenges (#1), which contain the patented antiviral iota-carrageenan. ... Only lozenge #5 shows any activity against hCoV OC43 and Coxsackievirus A10 at the tested concentrations. Similarly, only ... In contrast, carrageenan-containing lozenges are highly active against all viruses tested. In another experiment, we showed ...
The rubella hemagglutination-inhibition immunity test was patented in 1971. The test employs the biological principle of ... Hamilton were part of the team who developed a better blood test (rubella hemagglutination-inhibition immunity test) to screen ... The rubella hemagglutination-inhibition immunity test was used to ascertain whether expectant mothers who have been exposed to ... Thus, the inhibition of agglutination demonstrates the presence of antibody and immunity. ...
Complement fixation and neutralization antibody tests are more specific than hemagglutination inhibition.(35) Most serologic ... and detection of hemagglutination inhibition antibody. Dengue-induced hemagglutination inhibition antibody cross-reacts broadly ... Results of coagulation tests may be abnormal; prolonged partial thromboplastin and thrombin times are noted more frequently ... unpublished data). A study of the performance of IgM ELISA in Thailand showed the sensitivity of this test in convalescent ...
Values of 40,960 are equivalent to the hemagglutination inhibition (HI) titer of 2,560, which the World Health Organization ... negative control serum samples to test on the ELISA kits (Panbio) before testing the serum specimens. CDC also tested a random ... and CDC Test Results. The IgG capture ELISA (Panbio) calculates a positive result based in units. This test determines the ... All samples that tested positive for IgG antibodies by Panbio test kits were confirmed by CDC (3,17). ...
On hemagglutination inhibition test, antiserum against APMV/Shimane67 revealed low reactivity with other APMV serotypes and ... This could be caused by inhibition of P-gp or MRP at the BBB. Therefore, CysA can be a useful tool to achieve an appropriate ... All 33 isolates were subjected to antimicrobial susceptibility testing using broth microdilution methods, which showed ... testing. Isolates obtained from milk, processed manure and bedding materials had identical DNA fragment patterns. Antimicrobial ...
HEMAGGLUTINATION INHIB TESTS. Entry Term(s). Hemagglutination Inhibition Test Date Established. 1966/01/01. Date of Entry. 1999 ... Hemagglutination Inhibition Tests Preferred Concept UI. M0010023. Scope Note. Serologic tests in which a known quantity of ... Hemagglutination Inhibition Tests Preferred Term Term UI T019312. Date01/01/1999. LexicalTag NON. ThesaurusID NLM (1966). ... Hemagglutination Inhibition Test Term UI T019311. Date09/05/1989. LexicalTag NON. ThesaurusID NLM (1990). ...
Adult; Antibodies, Viral; Cold Temperature; Female; Hemagglutination Inhibition Tests; HIV Infections; HIV-1; Humans; Influenza ...
... viruses were done with the hemagglutination inhibition test technique. Differential blood cells counts were performed using a ... multiple range test (1995) and differences among treatments were considered significant at P ,0.05. ...
No inhibition of hemagglutination was detected in HI tests employing HIAF for AG80-226 and antigens of viruses belonging to ... NT tests were performed with five of these six isolates (AG80-785 = AG80-1545). The results (shown below) demonstrate that, ... Six strains were shown to be identical by cross-CF tests: AG80-226, AG80-517, AG80-785, AG80-1545, AG80-381, and AG80-504. AG80 ... sucrose-acetone antigen) tested by CF with a battery of HIAF containing antibodies to more than 300 arboviruses and other ...
In a subset of participants, antibody titers by hemagglutination inhibition assays to influenza vaccine antigens at baseline ... INVESTED will test the hypothesize that high dose vaccine will reduce the composite of all cause death or cardiopulmonary ... INVESTED will test the hypothesis that high dose trivalent influenza vaccine will reduce cardiopulmonary events to a greater ... INVESTED is an outcomes study in patients with recent acute myocardial infarction (AMI) or heart failure (HF) to test whether a ...
Hemagglutination-inhibition tests for flavivirus Rocio, Ilheus and St. Louis were performed on the 33 patients who had at least ... Alphavirus VEE, EEE and Mucambo were tested for in 4 of the 33 patients, with negative results. The distribution of cases ...
Typically, scientists use a test, called the hemagglutination inhibition assay (HI test), to see if a vaccine candidate impedes ... The addition of the engineered glycans enabled the A/H3N2 flu strain to be responsive to the HI test. Using this technology, ... This tool may be adapted for use in clinical tests, with the potential to identify diagnostic biomarkers for diseases such as ... However, the current leading strain of flu, influenza A/H3N2, has characteristics that render the HI test ineffective. ...
  • All tests were carried to endpoint dilutions a minimum of five times in each direction to give accurate values for homologous and heterologous antibody titers. (
  • We conducted neutralizing antibody testing using the virus isolated from Hokkaido in 1993 ( 4 ). (
  • Thus, the inhibition of agglutination demonstrates the presence of antibody and immunity. (
  • The aim of this study was to determine serum antibody levels against the Newcastle disease virus in vaccinated chicken flocks in addition to experimental animals by hemagglutination inhibition (HI)test and enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and compare the results. (
  • Immunogenicity was evaluated by changes in hemagglutination inhibition (HAI) antibody titer, and by comparing geometric mean titers (GMTs), seroconversion, and seroprotection rates between the study groups. (
  • 2010). Antibody response to Vectormune® ND can be detected using the Haemagglutination Inhibition (HI) test, or ND "F" ELISA tests. (
  • The HI test works by measuring how well antibodies bind to the HA proteins and prevent them from "gluing" red blood cells together (i.e., hemagglutination inhibition). (
  • HI test results can tell us whether antibodies developed after vaccination (or infection) with one virus can recognize and bind to other viruses, which means these other viruses are similar to the vaccine virus. (
  • Scientists also use the HI test to compare the antigenic properties (i.e., the virus' ability to be recognized by antibodies) of currently circulating influenza viruses with those of influenza viruses that have circulated in the past. (
  • The HI test involves three main components: antibodies, influenza virus, and red blood cells that are mixed together in the wells (i.e., cups) of a microtiter plate. (
  • The rows of the plate can be used to test different influenza viruses against the same set of antibodies. (
  • These pairs of H5 antigens, with different neuraminidase subtypes, were tested to exclude cross-reactivity driven by neuraminidase-specific antibodies. (
  • Drs. Parkman, Meyer, and George L. Stewart, and Hope Hopps , Barbara Meyer, Robert D. Douglas, and Judith P. Hamilton were part of the team who developed a better blood test (rubella hemagglutination-inhibition immunity test) to screen people for rubella antibodies in 1967. (
  • 2. [Distribution of hemagglutination-inhibiting antibodies against rubella virus in samples of the population of the Province of Macerata]. (
  • Results of the tests for hemagglutination--inhibiting antibodies in a sample of the female population]. (
  • 10. [On the presence of hemagglutination-inhibiting antibodies against rubella virus in a sample of the population of Campania]. (
  • Open in a separate window Number 2 Geometric imply titers of hemagglutination inhibition (HI) and neutralization (NT) antibodies over 6 months. (
  • Open in a separate window Number 3 Geometric mean titers (GMT) of antibodies among different age groups.A) GMT of hemagglutination inhibition antibodies (HI-GMT) and B) GMT of neutralization antibodies (NT-GMT) among three age groups (Age 15, 15-59 and 60) of 59 individuals infected with influenza A (H1N1) pdm09 disease. (
  • Methods: We invited participant laboratories from industry, contract research organizations (CROs), academia and public health institutions who regularly conduct hemagglutination inhibition (HAI) and microneutralization (MN) assays and have an interest in serology standardization. (
  • Table 3 Demographics and characteristics of individuals with and without seroconversion determined by hemagglutination Inhibition (HI) and microneutralization (mNT) assays. (
  • Serologic tests in which a known quantity of antigen is added to the serum prior to the addition of a red cell suspension. (
  • Reaction result is expressed as the smallest amount of antigen which causes complete inhibition of hemagglutination. (
  • In many of these cases, the serotype could not be determined because of cross-reactions in serologic tests. (
  • Six strains were shown to be identical by cross-CF tests: AG80-226, AG80-517, AG80-785, AG80-1545, AG80-381, and AG80-504. (
  • Between run analysis showed laboratory and strain specific issues, particularly with B strains for HAI, whilst MN testing was consistently good across labs and strains. (
  • The rubella hemagglutination-inhibition immunity test was patented in 1971. (
  • The rubella hemagglutination-inhibition immunity test was used to ascertain whether expectant mothers who have been exposed to rubella have cause for concern or are immune and at no risk. (
  • Searo-Diagnosis of Dengue Infections by Haemagglutination Inhibition Test (‎HI)‎ in Suspected Cases in Chittagong, Bangladesh. (
  • Serologic Status of Newcastle Disease in Native Chickens by Hemagglutination Inhibition Test. (
  • Genetic sequencing and Serology tests using human sera and genetic sequencing provide additional information about how similar circulating flu viruses are to vaccine viruses or other influenza viruses. (
  • Scientists use a test called the hemagglutination inhibition assay (HI test) to antigenically characterize influenza viruses. (
  • Scientists use the HI test to assess the antigenic similarity between different influenza viruses. (
  • This test helps to select candidate vaccine viruses (CVVs), which can then be included in seasonal flu vaccines. (
  • A/decoyduck/France/161105a/2016 and H5N5 A/muteswan/ Croatia/102/2016, or for viruses belonging to other H5 Eurasian lineages, H5N3 A/muscovy duck/France/070090b/2007 and H5N2 A/chicken/France/03426a/2003 ( code/access-online). (
  • In contrast, carrageenan-containing lozenges are highly active against all viruses tested. (
  • Hemagglutination is a reaction that causes clumping of red blood cells in presence of some enveloped viruses, such as the influenza virus. (
  • The negative threshold was found to be an optical density of 0.19 (OD)at a 490-nm wavelength.In addition to the 50 experimental animals, a total of 504 chicken sera (broiler,layer and breeder flocks)collected from 21 farms were tested (both HI and ELISA). (
  • A serological survey based on haemagglutination inhibition test confirmed our findings. (
  • A study of 1026 serums by hemagglutination inhibition reaction]. (
  • c In most cases, the serotype was determined only by serologic testing unless we indicate otherwise that virus isolation or polymerase chain reaction was also used. (
  • What is hemagglutination reaction? (
  • The test employs the biological principle of hemagglutination, or red blood cell clumping. (
  • Discussion: This study has received positive feedback from participants, highlighting the benefit such an EQA scheme would have on improving laboratory performance, reducing inter laboratory variation and raising awareness of both harmonized protocol use and the benefit of biological standards for seasonal influenza serology testing. (
  • During their general health screening in February and March 2017, participants were asked to provide an additional 2 mL of serum for laboratory testing and to answer a questionnaire about the frequency of tick bites. (
  • Because flaviviruses are known to serologically cross-react with other close flaviviruses ( 8 ), we tested serum against JEV, the only other endemic flavivirus in Japan, and successfully excluded its possibility. (
  • Antigenic analysis, as measured by hemagglutination inhibition tests, is being used to determine antigenic variability. (
  • Reference equine antisera to all 47 serotypes of human adenoviruses presently described have been prepared and evaluated by reciprocal neutralization and hemagglutination-inhibition tests. (
  • Currently there are no international EQA schemes for seasonal influenza serology testing. (
  • The results of two-sample K-S test showed that there were no variations in distributions of data between two organizations. (
  • To differentiate TBEV infection from Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) infection, which occurs in southwestern Japan, we also conducted neutralization testing for JEV on all TBEV-positive samples. (
  • Typically, scientists use a test, called the hemagglutination inhibition assay (HI test), to see if a vaccine candidate impedes the binding between a flu strain and red blood cells. (
  • They then engineered the absent glycans and installed them on chicken and turkey blood cells, which are commonly used in tests of red blood cells' ability to bind. (
  • Introduction: External Quality Assessment (EQA) schemes are designed to provide a snapshot of laboratory proficiency, identifying issues and providing feedback to improve laboratory performance and inter-laboratory agreement in testing. (
  • Patients with mild symptoms should recover completely, and do not require any specific medication or laboratory testing. (
  • INVESTED will test the hypothesis that high dose trivalent influenza vaccine will reduce cardiopulmonary events to a greater extent than standard dose quadrivalent influenza vaccine in high-risk cardiovascular patients with a recent history of myocardial infarction or heart failure. (
  • With the two-sample K-S test, no differences were found in distributions of data between two organizations. (
  • Testing and quarantine protocols of animals designated for release programs are being reviewed. (
  • 317 and then typed by HI test following WHO tibody titre (titre 40) against influenza protocols [ 3 ]. (
  • The rightmost section of the image shows what hemagglutination looks like in the well of a microtiter plate (this is explained in greater detail further below). (
  • None of the tested AMC/DCBA or HR containing lozenges shows any antiviral effectiveness against HRV8 at the tested concentrations, whereas all are moderately active against HRV1a. (
  • Only lozenge #5 shows any activity against hCoV OC43 and Coxsackievirus A10 at the tested concentrations. (
  • He/she will do a clinical exam and will run blood tests or spinal fluid tap if necessary. (
  • RESUME Afin de mieux comprendre la distribution annuelle du virus de la grippe dans notre pays, nous avons procédé à l'isolement et au typage de 45 virus provenant de 1043 patients atteints de maladies respiratoires aiguës au cours d'une étude sur 10 ans réalisée par le Centre national de la grippe en Iran. (
  • Should I be tested for West Nile Virus? (