Hemagglutination Inhibition Tests
Complement Fixation Tests
Influenza A virus
Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay
Evaluation Studies as Topic
Cell Migration Inhibition
Leukocyte Adherence Inhibition Test
Influenza A Virus, H1N1 Subtype
Influenza A Virus, H3N2 Subtype
Hemagglutinin Glycoproteins, Influenza Virus
Influenza B virus
Influenza A Virus, H3N8 Subtype
Immune Adherence Reaction
Influenza A Virus, H5N1 Subtype
Pregnancy Tests, Immunologic
Influenza in Birds
Influenza A Virus, H9N2 Subtype
Latex Fixation Tests
Newcastle disease virus
Encephalitis Virus, California
Encephalitis Virus, Japanese
Fluorescent Antibody Technique
Serum dilution neutralization test for California group virus identification and serology. (1/1894)The serum dilution neutralization test was evaluated for serological diagnosis of California group arbovirus infections and identification of virus isolates. The technical advantages and the degree of subtype specificity of the serum dilution neutralization test over the hemagglutination inhibition test and the complement fixation test were demonstrated with paired specimens from human cases, single human survey sera, and sentinel rabbit sera. Twenty-one virus isolates from various geographical areas of the United States were also used to evaluate the efficacy of the serum dilution neutralization test for specific virus identification. (+info)
Removal of non-specific serum inhibitors of haemagglutination of rubella virus by treatment with dodecylamine-gel. (2/1894)The suitability of using dodecylamine-gel for removing the serum non-antibody-like inhibitors of haemagglutination by rubella was studied. Compared with kaolin and MnCl2/heparin treatment this new procedure appears to have a higher specificity since it removes the non-antibody-like inhibitors from serum without affecting the immunoglobulin level significantly. The potential application of this procedure in routine serological analysis for rubella virus infection is discussed. (+info)
Staphylococcal protein A; its preparation and an application to rubella serology. (3/1894)Good yields of staphylococcal protein A are obtained by growing the staphylococcus Cowan type 1 on cellophane agar. The activity of these preparations in removing immunoglobulin G (IgG) from human serum can be readily measured by the Mancini radial-diffusion technique and the correct in-use dilution determined. Treatment with protein A of sera from women with a history of rubella may help in the identification of those having specific antibody in the IgM and IgA fractions. This relatively simple procedure may have worthwhile application in the diagnosis of rubella. (+info)
Detection of antibody to avian influenza A (H5N1) virus in human serum by using a combination of serologic assays. (4/1894)From May to December 1997, 18 cases of mild to severe respiratory illness caused by avian influenza A (H5N1) viruses were identified in Hong Kong. The emergence of an avian virus in the human population prompted an epidemiological investigation to determine the extent of human-to-human transmission of the virus and risk factors associated with infection. The hemagglutination inhibition (HI) assay, the standard method for serologic detection of influenza virus infection in humans, has been shown to be less sensitive for the detection of antibodies induced by avian influenza viruses. Therefore, we developed a more sensitive microneutralization assay to detect antibodies to avian influenza in humans. Direct comparison of an HI assay and the microneutralization assay demonstrated that the latter was substantially more sensitive in detecting human antibodies to H5N1 virus in infected individuals. An H5-specific indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was also established to test children's sera. The sensitivity and specificity of the microneutralization assay were compared with those of an H5-specific indirect ELISA. When combined with a confirmatory H5-specific Western blot test, the specificities of both assays were improved. Maximum sensitivity (80%) and specificity (96%) for the detection of anti-H5 antibody in adults aged 18 to 59 years were achieved by using the microneutralization assay combined with Western blotting. Maximum sensitivity (100%) and specificity (100%) in detecting anti-H5 antibody in sera obtained from children less than 15 years of age were achieved by using ELISA combined with Western blotting. This new test algorithm is being used for the seroepidemiologic investigations of the avian H5N1 influenza outbreak. (+info)
A modified rubella HI test using prestandardized reagents. (5/1894)A modified haemagglutination inhibition test for rubella antibodies using prestandardized freeze-dried reagents was compared to a "standard" method. Tests of 707 serum samples showed that the modified test was sensitive and reliable by both macrotitration and microtitration techniques. The minor disadvantages of some reduction in antibody level when rubella sera were tested within one week of the rash and of spontaneous sheep erythrocyte agglutination in 0-7% of sera were out-weighed by the increased speed of the new test and the fact that it was carried out at room temperature. (+info)
Experimental production of respiratory tract disease in cebus monkeys after intratracheal or intranasal infection with influenza A/Victoria/3/75 or influenza A/New Jersey/76 virus. (6/1894)A total of 28 cebus monkeys were inoculated intratracheally or intranasally with 10(6) 50% tissue culture infective doses of A/New Jersey/76 virus or 10(7) 50% tissue culture infective doses of A/Victoria/75 virus, and 8 additional monkeys received sterile allantoic fluid. Each of the animals became infected as evidenced by a serological response and/or shedding of the virus. Of the 10 animals inoculated intratracheally with A/Victoria/75 virus, 8 developed a systemic illness, and pulmonary infiltration was detected by X-ray in 7 of the 8. Administration of A/New Jersey/76 virus intratracheally to 10 monkeys produced a mild systemic illness in 2 animals and an upper respiratory tract illness in 6, but no illness developed in the remaining 2 monkeys; none of the animals developed X-ray evidence of lower respiratory tract disease. Intranasal administration of either virus failed to induce any illness or produced, at most, mild illness confined to the upper respiratory tract. These studies demonstrate that cebus monkeys are susceptible to respiratory tract infection with influenza A viruses and that the development of pulmonary disease is reflected in the appearance of easily recognizable radiological changes. (+info)
Influenza vaccination of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected adults: impact on plasma levels of HIV type 1 RNA and determinants of antibody response. (7/1894)We assessed the effect of influenza vaccination on plasma levels of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) RNA and the impact of age, plasma HIV-1 RNA level, CD4 cell count, and anti-HIV therapy on immune response. Forty-nine adults (mean age, 38.7 years; mean CD4 cell count +/- SD, 190 +/- 169/mL; mean plasma HIV-1 RNA level +/- SD, 154,616 +/- 317,192 copies/mL) were immunized. Elevations of > or = 0.48 log in plasma HIV-1 RNA levels occurred in two (4%) of 49 subjects within 4 weeks of vaccination. A fourfold or greater increase in antibody titer occurred in 13 (45%) of 29 subjects, correlating directly with CD4 cell count (P = .002) and inversely with plasma HIV-1 RNA level (P = .034). By multivariate analysis, CD4 cell count was a stronger predictor of antibody response than was plasma HIV-1 RNA level. We conclude that increases in plasma HIV-1 RNA levels following influenza vaccination are rare and transient and that antibody response is impaired with CD4 cell counts of < 100/mL and plasma HIV-1 RNA levels of > 100,000 copies/mL. Prospective trials are needed to evaluate the impact of highly active therapy on immune response after vaccination. (+info)
Further characterization of IgA in chicken serum and secretions with evidence of a possible analogue of mammalian secretory component. (8/1894)Immunochemical studies of the intestinal secretory immune system of the chicken have led to further characterization of IgA in bile, intestinal contents and serum. A component was detected in late Sephadex G-200 fractions of caecal and intestinal contents which showed partial identity with bile, intestinal and a high molecular weight fraction of serum IgA. This component showed similar sedimentation characteristics to bovine serum albumin in sucrose density gradients, a fast electrophoretic mobility on polyacrylamide gel and is a possible analogue of mammalian secretory component (SC). Fractionation of serum from birds affected with infectious synovitis revealed two moleculare classes of IgA. Comparative double diffusion studies produced a reaction of complete identity between bile IgA and high molecular weight serum IgA (15S) and partial identity with low molecular weight serum IgA (7S), suggesting a lack of an SC determinant on the latter. A spur of partial identity between 15S and 7S serum IgA was also observed. Although no direct structural homology with mammalian or human IgA could be demonstrated by immunological cross-reactivity, the similarities of molecular characteristics, particularly emphasized by the presence of a secretory component, favour a functional analogy between the secretory immune system of the fowl and mammalian species. (+info)
Source: 'Rubella' in Duane Gubler (ed.), up-to-date online clinical reference, retrieved on March 14, 2023 from
Symptoms of influenza include:
* Fever (usually high)
* Sore throat
* Runny or stuffy nose
* Muscle or body aches
* Fatigue (tiredness)
* Diarrhea and nausea (more common in children than adults)
Influenza can lead to serious complications, such as pneumonia, bronchitis, and sinus and ear infections. These complications are more likely to occur in people who have a weakened immune system, such as the elderly, young children, and people with certain chronic health conditions (like heart disease, diabetes, and lung disease).
Influenza is diagnosed based on a physical examination and medical history. A healthcare provider may also use a rapid influenza test (RIT) or a polymerase chain reaction (PCR) test to confirm the diagnosis.
Treatment for influenza typically involves rest, hydration, and over-the-counter medications such as acetaminophen (Tylenol) or ibuprofen (Advil, Motrin) to relieve fever and body aches. Antiviral medications, such as oseltamivir (Tamiflu) or zanamivir (Relenza), may also be prescribed to help shorten the duration and severity of the illness. However, these medications are most effective when started within 48 hours of the onset of symptoms.
Prevention is key in avoiding influenza. Vaccination is the most effective way to prevent influenza, as well as practicing good hygiene such as washing your hands frequently, avoiding close contact with people who are sick, and staying home when you are sick.
Orthomyxoviridae infections are a group of viral infections caused by the Orthomyxoviridae family of viruses, which includes influenza A and B viruses, as well as other related viruses. These infections can affect both humans and animals and can cause a range of symptoms, from mild to severe.
The most common type of Orthomyxoviridae infection is seasonal influenza, which occurs when the virus is transmitted from person to person through the air or by contact with infected surfaces. Other types of Orthomyxoviridae infections include:
1. Pandemic influenza: This occurs when a new strain of the virus emerges and spreads quickly around the world, causing widespread illness and death. Examples of pandemic influenza include the Spanish flu of 1918 and the Asian flu of 1957.
2. Avian influenza: This occurs when birds are infected with the virus and can be transmitted to humans through close contact with infected birds or their droppings.
3. Swine influenza: This occurs when pigs are infected with the virus and can be transmitted to humans through close contact with infected pigs or their droppings.
4. H5N1 and H7N9: These are two specific types of bird flu viruses that have caused serious outbreaks in humans in recent years.
Symptoms of Orthomyxoviridae infections can include fever, cough, sore throat, runny nose, muscle aches, and fatigue. In severe cases, these infections can lead to pneumonia, bronchitis, and other respiratory complications, as well as hospitalization and even death.
Diagnosis of Orthomyxoviridae infections is typically made through a combination of physical examination, medical history, and laboratory tests, such as PCR (polymerase chain reaction) or viral culture. Treatment is generally focused on relieving symptoms and supporting the immune system, with antiviral medications may be used in severe cases.
Prevention of Orthomyxoviridae infections can include avoiding close contact with infected birds or pigs, wearing protective clothing and gear when handling animals, and practicing good hygiene such as washing hands frequently. Vaccines are also available for some species of birds and pigs to protect against these viruses.
Overall, Orthomyxoviridae is a family of viruses that can cause serious illness in humans and other animals, and it's important to take precautions to prevent exposure and spread of these viruses.
Symptoms of ND include:
* Respiratory problems such as coughing, sneezing, and difficulty breathing
* Decreased egg production or weight loss in laying hens
* Weakness, lethargy, and difficulty standing or walking
* Diarrhea, vomiting, and dehydration
* Swollen eyes, sinuses, and neck
Newcastle disease is transmitted through the air via droplets from infected birds, as well as through contaminated fomites such as feed, bedding, and other objects. It can also be spread by wild birds that have become carriers of the virus.
There are several forms of ND, including:
* Classical ND: This is the most common form of the disease and is characterized by rapid onset and high mortality rates in infected flocks.
* LaSota strain: This is a less virulent form of ND that is often used as a vaccine to protect against classical ND.
* Mesogenic ND: This form of the disease is characterized by slower onset and lower mortality rates than classical ND.
Diagnosis of ND typically involves a combination of clinical signs, laboratory tests such as PCR or ELISA, and postmortem examination of infected birds.
Control and prevention of ND primarily involve vaccination, sanitation, and biosecurity measures to reduce the risk of virus introduction and spread. In areas where the disease is endemic, strict controls on the movement of poultry and poultry products can help to minimize the risk of transmission.
In birds, the virus can cause respiratory, gastrointestinal, and nervous system disorders. It is transmitted through contact with infected birds or contaminated feces or water. Wild birds and domestic poultry are susceptible to influenza infection. The H5N1 subtype of the virus has caused widespread outbreaks in poultry and wild birds, leading to significant economic losses and public health concerns.
Prevention methods include vaccination, biosecurity measures, and surveillance programs. Vaccines are available for chickens, turkeys, ducks, and other domesticated birds, but the effectiveness of these vaccines can be limited in protecting against certain subtypes of the virus. Biosecurity measures such as sanitation, isolation, and disinfection can help prevent the spread of the disease in poultry flocks. Surveillance programs monitor the presence of the virus in wild and domestic bird populations to detect outbreaks early and prevent the spread of the disease.
The impact of avian influenza on human health is generally minimal, but it can be severe in certain cases. Direct transmission of the virus from birds to humans is rare, but it can occur through close contact with infected birds or contaminated surfaces. Indirect transmission may occur through the handling of contaminated poultry products. People with weakened immune systems, such as young children, the elderly, and those with chronic diseases, are at a higher risk of developing severe symptoms from avian influenza.
Overall, avian influenza is an important disease in birds that can have significant economic and public health implications. Prevention and control measures are essential to minimize the impact of the disease on both bird populations and human health.
Some common poultry diseases include:
1. Avian influenza (bird flu): A highly contagious viral disease that affects birds and can be transmitted to humans.
2. Newcastle disease: A viral disease that causes respiratory and gastrointestinal symptoms in birds.
3. Infectious bronchitis: A viral disease that causes respiratory symptoms in birds.
4. Marek's disease: A viral disease that affects the nervous system of birds.
5. Coccidiosis: A parasitic disease caused by the Eimeria protozoa, which can cause diarrhea and weight loss in birds.
6. Chicken anemia virus: A viral disease that causes anemia and weakened immune systems in chickens.
7. Fowl pox: A viral disease that causes skin lesions and other symptoms in birds.
8. Avian encephalomyelitis (AE): A viral disease that affects the brain and spinal cord of birds, causing neurological symptoms such as paralysis and death.
9. Mycoplasmosis: A bacterial disease caused by the Mycoplasma bacteria, which can cause respiratory and other symptoms in birds.
10. Aspergillosis: A fungal disease that affects the respiratory system of birds, causing symptoms such as coughing and difficulty breathing.
Poultry diseases can have a significant impact on bird health and productivity, and can also be transmitted to humans in some cases. It is important for poultry farmers and owners to monitor their flocks closely and take steps to prevent the spread of disease, such as providing clean water and feed, maintaining good hygiene, and vaccinating birds against certain diseases.
During convalescence, patients may be advised to follow specific dietary restrictions, engage in gentle exercise, and avoid strenuous activities that can exacerbate their condition or slow down the healing process. They may also receive medical treatment, such as physical therapy, medication, or other forms of supportive care, to aid in their recovery.
The duration of convalescence varies depending on the individual and the nature of their illness or injury. In general, convalescence can last anywhere from a few days to several weeks or even months, depending on the severity and complexity of the condition being treated.
Overall, the goal of convalescence is to allow the body to heal and recover fully, while also minimizing the risk of complications and promoting optimal functional outcomes.
A disease that affects pigs, including viral, bacterial, and parasitic infections, as well as genetic disorders and nutritional deficiencies. Some common swine diseases include:
1. Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome (PRRS): A highly contagious viral disease that can cause reproductive failure, respiratory problems, and death.
2. Swine Influenza: A viral infection similar to human influenza, which can cause fever, coughing, and pneumonia in pigs.
3. Erysipelas: A bacterial infection that causes high fever, loss of appetite, and skin lesions in pigs.
4. Actinobacillosis: A bacterial infection that can cause pneumonia, arthritis, and abscesses in pigs.
5. Parasitic infections: Such as gastrointestinal parasites like roundworms and tapeworms, which can cause diarrhea, anemia, and weight loss in pigs.
6. Scrapie: A degenerative neurological disorder that affects pigs and other animals, causing confusion, aggression, and eventually death.
7. Nutritional deficiencies: Such as a lack of vitamin E or selenium, which can cause a range of health problems in pigs, including muscular dystrophy and anemia.
8. Genetic disorders: Such as achondroplasia, a condition that causes dwarfism and deformities in pigs.
9. Environmental diseases: Such as heat stress, which can cause a range of health problems in pigs, including respiratory distress and death.
It's important to note that many swine diseases have similar symptoms, making accurate diagnosis by a veterinarian essential for effective treatment and control.
1. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). (2022). Encephalitis. Retrieved from
2. Mayo Clinic. (2022). Encephalitis. Retrieved from
3. MedlinePlus. (2022). Encephalitis. Retrieved from
4. UC Davis Health System. (2022). Encephalitis. Retrieved from
5. California Department of Public Health. (2022). Encephalitis. Retrieved from
In the medical field, "Encephalitis, California" refers to a type of inflammatory disease that affects the brain and is caused by a viral or bacterial infection. The term specifically refers to cases of encephalitis that occur in the state of California.
Encephalitis is a serious condition that can cause a range of symptoms, including fever, headache, confusion, seizures, and loss of consciousness. In severe cases, it can lead to long-term complications, such as brain damage, or even be fatal.
The causes of encephalitis in California are typically viral or bacterial infections that are transmitted through mosquitoes, ticks, or other vectors. The most common viruses that cause encephalitis in the state include West Nile virus, Japanese encephalitis virus, and St. Louis encephalitis virus.
The diagnosis of encephalitis is typically made based on a combination of clinical symptoms, laboratory tests, and imaging studies such as CT or MRI scans. Treatment for encephalitis typically involves supportive care, such as intravenous fluids, oxygen therapy, and medication to manage fever and pain. In severe cases, antiviral or antibacterial medications may be administered to help reduce the severity of the infection.
Prevention of encephalitis in California is focused on reducing the risk of mosquito-borne and tick-borne infections. This includes using insect repellents, wearing protective clothing, and avoiding areas with high mosquito or tick activity. Vaccines are also available for some of the viruses that cause encephalitis, such as West Nile virus.
In summary, "Encephalitis, California" refers to a serious inflammatory disease that affects the brain and is caused by viral or bacterial infections in the state of California. The diagnosis and treatment of encephalitis are based on clinical symptoms and laboratory tests, and prevention strategies focus on reducing the risk of mosquito-borne and tick-borne infections.
Symptoms of arbovirus encephalitis can include fever, headache, confusion, seizures, and coma. In severe cases, the infection can be fatal.
Diagnosis of arbovirus encephalitis is typically made through a combination of physical examination, laboratory tests, and imaging studies such as CT or MRI scans. Laboratory tests may include blood tests to detect the presence of antibodies against the virus or PCR (polymerase chain reaction) to detect the virus itself in the blood or cerebrospinal fluid.
Treatment of arbovirus encephalitis typically involves supportive care, such as intravenous fluids, oxygen therapy, and pain management. Antiviral medications may be used in some cases to help reduce the severity of the infection. In severe cases, hospitalization may be necessary to provide more intensive care.
Prevention of arbovirus encephalitis primarily involves protecting against mosquito bites, such as using insect repellents, wearing protective clothing, and avoiding areas with high mosquito activity. Eliminating standing water around homes and communities can also help reduce the risk of mosquito breeding and transmission of the virus. Vaccines are not available for most arboviruses, but research is ongoing to develop effective vaccines against these viruses.
Kyasanur Forest disease
Influenza D virus
Influenza C virus
Blood compatibility testing
Blue eye disease
Ungulate protoparvovirus 1
Influenza A virus subtype H7N9
Carl Axel Gemzell
Egg drop syndrome
Sid blood group system
H5N1 vaccine clinical trials
Jamestown Canyon encephalitis
Influenza A virus
George Hirst (virologist)
Contagious caprine pleuropneumonia
Psittacine beak and feather disease
Avian infectious bronchitis
List of MeSH codes (E01)
Laboratory diagnosis of viral infections
Searo-Diagnosis of Dengue Infections by Haemagglutination Inhibition Test (HI) in Suspected Cases in Chittagong, Bangladesh.
Methods of increasing the sensitivity of the haemagglutination inhibition test for rabies virus antibody
CDC standard rubella hemagglutination-inhibition test
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- All tests were carried to endpoint dilutions a minimum of five times in each direction to give accurate values for homologous and heterologous antibody titers. (nih.gov)
- We conducted neutralizing antibody testing using the virus isolated from Hokkaido in 1993 ( 4 ). (cdc.gov)
- Thus, the inhibition of agglutination demonstrates the presence of antibody and immunity. (nih.gov)
- The aim of this study was to determine serum antibody levels against the Newcastle disease virus in vaccinated chicken flocks in addition to experimental animals by hemagglutination inhibition (HI)test and enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and compare the results. (tubitak.gov.tr)
- Immunogenicity was evaluated by changes in hemagglutination inhibition (HAI) antibody titer, and by comparing geometric mean titers (GMTs), seroconversion, and seroprotection rates between the study groups. (unboundmedicine.com)
- 2010). Antibody response to Vectormune® ND can be detected using the Haemagglutination Inhibition (HI) test, or ND "F" ELISA tests. (ceva.com)
- The HI test works by measuring how well antibodies bind to the HA proteins and prevent them from "gluing" red blood cells together (i.e., hemagglutination inhibition). (cdc.gov)
- HI test results can tell us whether antibodies developed after vaccination (or infection) with one virus can recognize and bind to other viruses, which means these other viruses are similar to the vaccine virus. (cdc.gov)
- Scientists also use the HI test to compare the antigenic properties (i.e., the virus' ability to be recognized by antibodies) of currently circulating influenza viruses with those of influenza viruses that have circulated in the past. (cdc.gov)
- The HI test involves three main components: antibodies, influenza virus, and red blood cells that are mixed together in the wells (i.e., cups) of a microtiter plate. (cdc.gov)
- The rows of the plate can be used to test different influenza viruses against the same set of antibodies. (cdc.gov)
- These pairs of H5 antigens, with different neuraminidase subtypes, were tested to exclude cross-reactivity driven by neuraminidase-specific antibodies. (cdc.gov)
- Drs. Parkman, Meyer, and George L. Stewart, and Hope Hopps , Barbara Meyer, Robert D. Douglas, and Judith P. Hamilton were part of the team who developed a better blood test (rubella hemagglutination-inhibition immunity test) to screen people for rubella antibodies in 1967. (nih.gov)
- 2. [Distribution of hemagglutination-inhibiting antibodies against rubella virus in samples of the population of the Province of Macerata]. (nih.gov)
- Results of the tests for hemagglutination--inhibiting antibodies in a sample of the female population]. (nih.gov)
- 10. [On the presence of hemagglutination-inhibiting antibodies against rubella virus in a sample of the population of Campania]. (nih.gov)
- Open in a separate window Number 2 Geometric imply titers of hemagglutination inhibition (HI) and neutralization (NT) antibodies over 6 months. (irjs.info)
- Open in a separate window Number 3 Geometric mean titers (GMT) of antibodies among different age groups.A) GMT of hemagglutination inhibition antibodies (HI-GMT) and B) GMT of neutralization antibodies (NT-GMT) among three age groups (Age 15, 15-59 and 60) of 59 individuals infected with influenza A (H1N1) pdm09 disease. (irjs.info)
- Methods: We invited participant laboratories from industry, contract research organizations (CROs), academia and public health institutions who regularly conduct hemagglutination inhibition (HAI) and microneutralization (MN) assays and have an interest in serology standardization. (bvsalud.org)
- Table 3 Demographics and characteristics of individuals with and without seroconversion determined by hemagglutination Inhibition (HI) and microneutralization (mNT) assays. (irjs.info)
- In many of these cases, the serotype could not be determined because of cross-reactions in serologic tests. (cdc.gov)
- Six strains were shown to be identical by cross-CF tests: AG80-226, AG80-517, AG80-785, AG80-1545, AG80-381, and AG80-504. (cdc.gov)
- Between run analysis showed laboratory and strain specific issues, particularly with B strains for HAI, whilst MN testing was consistently good across labs and strains. (bvsalud.org)
- Searo-Diagnosis of Dengue Infections by Haemagglutination Inhibition Test (HI) in Suspected Cases in Chittagong, Bangladesh. (who.int)
- Serologic Status of Newcastle Disease in Native Chickens by Hemagglutination Inhibition Test. (philair.ph)
- Genetic sequencing and Serology tests using human sera and genetic sequencing provide additional information about how similar circulating flu viruses are to vaccine viruses or other influenza viruses. (cdc.gov)
- Scientists use a test called the hemagglutination inhibition assay (HI test) to antigenically characterize influenza viruses. (cdc.gov)
- Scientists use the HI test to assess the antigenic similarity between different influenza viruses. (cdc.gov)
- This test helps to select candidate vaccine viruses (CVVs), which can then be included in seasonal flu vaccines. (cdc.gov)
- A/decoyduck/France/161105a/2016 and H5N5 A/muteswan/ Croatia/102/2016, or for viruses belonging to other H5 Eurasian lineages, H5N3 A/muscovy duck/France/070090b/2007 and H5N2 A/chicken/France/03426a/2003 (http://www.oie.int/en/standard-setting/terrestrial- code/access-online). (cdc.gov)
- In contrast, carrageenan-containing lozenges are highly active against all viruses tested. (dovepress.com)
- Hemagglutination is a reaction that causes clumping of red blood cells in presence of some enveloped viruses, such as the influenza virus. (vidque.com)
- The negative threshold was found to be an optical density of 0.19 (OD)at a 490-nm wavelength.In addition to the 50 experimental animals, a total of 504 chicken sera (broiler,layer and breeder flocks)collected from 21 farms were tested (both HI and ELISA). (tubitak.gov.tr)
- A serological survey based on haemagglutination inhibition test confirmed our findings. (who.int)
- The test employs the biological principle of hemagglutination, or red blood cell clumping. (nih.gov)
- Discussion: This study has received positive feedback from participants, highlighting the benefit such an EQA scheme would have on improving laboratory performance, reducing inter laboratory variation and raising awareness of both harmonized protocol use and the benefit of biological standards for seasonal influenza serology testing. (bvsalud.org)
- During their general health screening in February and March 2017, participants were asked to provide an additional 2 mL of serum for laboratory testing and to answer a questionnaire about the frequency of tick bites. (cdc.gov)
- Because flaviviruses are known to serologically cross-react with other close flaviviruses ( 8 ), we tested serum against JEV, the only other endemic flavivirus in Japan, and successfully excluded its possibility. (cdc.gov)
- Antigenic analysis, as measured by hemagglutination inhibition tests, is being used to determine antigenic variability. (usda.gov)
- Reference equine antisera to all 47 serotypes of human adenoviruses presently described have been prepared and evaluated by reciprocal neutralization and hemagglutination-inhibition tests. (nih.gov)
- Currently there are no international EQA schemes for seasonal influenza serology testing. (bvsalud.org)
- The results of two-sample K-S test showed that there were no variations in distributions of data between two organizations. (irjs.info)
- To differentiate TBEV infection from Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) infection, which occurs in southwestern Japan, we also conducted neutralization testing for JEV on all TBEV-positive samples. (cdc.gov)
- Typically, scientists use a test, called the hemagglutination inhibition assay (HI test), to see if a vaccine candidate impedes the binding between a flu strain and red blood cells. (nih.gov)
- They then engineered the absent glycans and installed them on chicken and turkey blood cells, which are commonly used in tests of red blood cells' ability to bind. (nih.gov)
- Introduction: External Quality Assessment (EQA) schemes are designed to provide a snapshot of laboratory proficiency, identifying issues and providing feedback to improve laboratory performance and inter-laboratory agreement in testing. (bvsalud.org)
- Patients with mild symptoms should recover completely, and do not require any specific medication or laboratory testing. (dentoncounty.gov)
- INVESTED will test the hypothesis that high dose trivalent influenza vaccine will reduce cardiopulmonary events to a greater extent than standard dose quadrivalent influenza vaccine in high-risk cardiovascular patients with a recent history of myocardial infarction or heart failure. (clinicaltrials.gov)
- With the two-sample K-S test, no differences were found in distributions of data between two organizations. (irjs.info)
- Testing and quarantine protocols of animals designated for release programs are being reviewed. (vin.com)
- 317 and then typed by HI test following WHO tibody titre (titre 40) against influenza protocols [ 3 ]. (who.int)
- The rightmost section of the image shows what hemagglutination looks like in the well of a microtiter plate (this is explained in greater detail further below). (cdc.gov)
- None of the tested AMC/DCBA or HR containing lozenges shows any antiviral effectiveness against HRV8 at the tested concentrations, whereas all are moderately active against HRV1a. (dovepress.com)
- Only lozenge #5 shows any activity against hCoV OC43 and Coxsackievirus A10 at the tested concentrations. (dovepress.com)
- He/she will do a clinical exam and will run blood tests or spinal fluid tap if necessary. (dentoncounty.gov)
- RESUME Afin de mieux comprendre la distribution annuelle du virus de la grippe dans notre pays, nous avons procédé à l'isolement et au typage de 45 virus provenant de 1043 patients atteints de maladies respiratoires aiguës au cours d'une étude sur 10 ans réalisée par le Centre national de la grippe en Iran. (who.int)
- Should I be tested for West Nile Virus? (dentoncounty.gov)