Sensitive tests to measure certain antigens, antibodies, or viruses, using their ability to agglutinate certain erythrocytes. (From Stedman, 26th ed)
The aggregation of ERYTHROCYTES by AGGLUTININS, including antibodies, lectins, and viral proteins (HEMAGGLUTINATION, VIRAL).
Serologic tests in which a known quantity of antigen is added to the serum prior to the addition of a red cell suspension. Reaction result is expressed as the smallest amount of antigen which causes complete inhibition of hemagglutination.
Agglutination of ERYTHROCYTES by a virus.
Agents that cause agglutination of red blood cells. They include antibodies, blood group antigens, lectins, autoimmune factors, bacterial, viral, or parasitic blood agglutinins, etc.
Immunoglobulins produced in response to VIRAL ANTIGENS.
Serologic tests based on inactivation of complement by the antigen-antibody complex (stage 1). Binding of free complement can be visualized by addition of a second antigen-antibody system such as red cells and appropriate red cell antibody (hemolysin) requiring complement for its completion (stage 2). Failure of the red cells to lyse indicates that a specific antigen-antibody reaction has taken place in stage 1. If red cells lyse, free complement is present indicating no antigen-antibody reaction occurred in stage 1.
The type (and only) species of RUBIVIRUS causing acute infection in humans, primarily children and young adults. Humans are the only natural host. A live, attenuated vaccine is available for prophylaxis.
Red blood cells. Mature erythrocytes are non-nucleated, biconcave disks containing HEMOGLOBIN whose function is to transport OXYGEN.
Vaccines used to prevent infection by viruses in the family ORTHOMYXOVIRIDAE. It includes both killed and attenuated vaccines. The composition of the vaccines is changed each year in response to antigenic shifts and changes in prevalence of influenza virus strains. The vaccine is usually bivalent or trivalent, containing one or two INFLUENZAVIRUS A strains and one INFLUENZAVIRUS B strain.
Serum that contains antibodies. It is obtained from an animal that has been immunized either by ANTIGEN injection or infection with microorganisms containing the antigen.
Thin, hairlike appendages, 1 to 20 microns in length and often occurring in large numbers, present on the cells of gram-negative bacteria, particularly Enterobacteriaceae and Neisseria. Unlike flagella, they do not possess motility, but being protein (pilin) in nature, they possess antigenic and hemagglutinating properties. They are of medical importance because some fimbriae mediate the attachment of bacteria to cells via adhesins (ADHESINS, BACTERIAL). Bacterial fimbriae refer to common pili, to be distinguished from the preferred use of "pili", which is confined to sex pili (PILI, SEX).
Specific hemagglutinin subtypes encoded by VIRUSES.
The measurement of infection-blocking titer of ANTISERA by testing a series of dilutions for a given virus-antiserum interaction end-point, which is generally the dilution at which tissue cultures inoculated with the serum-virus mixtures demonstrate cytopathology (CPE) or the dilution at which 50% of test animals injected with serum-virus mixtures show infectivity (ID50) or die (LD50).
An acute infectious disease caused by the RUBELLA VIRUS. The virus enters the respiratory tract via airborne droplet and spreads to the LYMPHATIC SYSTEM.
A family of RNA viruses causing INFLUENZA and other diseases. There are five recognized genera: INFLUENZAVIRUS A; INFLUENZAVIRUS B; INFLUENZAVIRUS C; ISAVIRUS; and THOGOTOVIRUS.
Serological reactions in which an antiserum against one antigen reacts with a non-identical but closely related antigen.
Technique involving the diffusion of antigen or antibody through a semisolid medium, usually agar or agarose gel, with the result being a precipitin reaction.
Proteins that share the common characteristic of binding to carbohydrates. Some ANTIBODIES and carbohydrate-metabolizing proteins (ENZYMES) also bind to carbohydrates, however they are not considered lectins. PLANT LECTINS are carbohydrate-binding proteins that have been primarily identified by their hemagglutinating activity (HEMAGGLUTININS). However, a variety of lectins occur in animal species where they serve diverse array of functions through specific carbohydrate recognition.
The type species of the genus INFLUENZAVIRUS A that causes influenza and other diseases in humans and animals. Antigenic variation occurs frequently between strains, allowing classification into subtypes and variants. Transmission is usually by aerosol (human and most non-aquatic hosts) or waterborne (ducks). Infected birds shed the virus in their saliva, nasal secretions, and feces.
A subtype of INFLUENZA A VIRUS comprised of the surface proteins hemagglutinin 3 and neuraminidase 2. The H3N2 subtype was responsible for the Hong Kong flu pandemic of 1968.
Thin, filamentous protein structures, including proteinaceous capsular antigens (fimbrial antigens), that mediate adhesion of E. coli to surfaces and play a role in pathogenesis. They have a high affinity for various epithelial cells.
A hexose or fermentable monosaccharide and isomer of glucose from manna, the ash Fraxinus ornus and related plants. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed & Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)
An acute viral infection in humans involving the respiratory tract. It is marked by inflammation of the NASAL MUCOSA; the PHARYNX; and conjunctiva, and by headache and severe, often generalized, myalgia.
Substances elaborated by bacteria that have antigenic activity.
An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed.
Immunoglobulins produced in a response to BACTERIAL ANTIGENS.
Physicochemical property of fimbriated (FIMBRIAE, BACTERIAL) and non-fimbriated bacteria of attaching to cells, tissue, and nonbiological surfaces. It is a factor in bacterial colonization and pathogenicity.
A method for the detection of very small quantities of antibody in which the antigen-antibody-complement complex adheres to indicator cells, usually primate erythrocytes or nonprimate blood platelets. The reaction is dependent on the number of bound C3 molecules on the C3b receptor sites of the indicator cell.
A subtype of INFLUENZA A VIRUS with the surface proteins hemagglutinin 1 and neuraminidase 1. The H1N1 subtype was responsible for the Spanish flu pandemic of 1918.
An enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of alpha-2,3, alpha-2,6-, and alpha-2,8-glycosidic linkages (at a decreasing rate, respectively) of terminal sialic residues in oligosaccharides, glycoproteins, glycolipids, colominic acid, and synthetic substrate. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992)
Polyphenolic compounds with molecular weights of around 500-3000 daltons and containing enough hydroxyl groups (1-2 per 100 MW) for effective cross linking of other compounds (ASTRINGENTS). The two main types are HYDROLYZABLE TANNINS and CONDENSED TANNINS. Historically, the term has applied to many compounds and plant extracts able to render skin COLLAGEN impervious to degradation. The word tannin derives from the Celtic word for OAK TREE which was used for leather processing.
Any of the ruminant mammals with curved horns in the genus Ovis, family Bovidae. They possess lachrymal grooves and interdigital glands, which are absent in GOATS.
Substances elaborated by viruses that have antigenic activity.
Substances, usually of biological origin, that cause cells or other organic particles to aggregate and stick to each other. They include those ANTIBODIES which cause aggregation or agglutination of particulate or insoluble ANTIGENS.
The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.
Membrane glycoproteins from influenza viruses which are involved in hemagglutination, virus attachment, and envelope fusion. Fourteen distinct subtypes of HA glycoproteins and nine of NA glycoproteins have been identified from INFLUENZA A VIRUS; no subtypes have been identified for Influenza B or Influenza C viruses.
Studies determining the effectiveness or value of processes, personnel, and equipment, or the material on conducting such studies. For drugs and devices, CLINICAL TRIALS AS TOPIC; DRUG EVALUATION; and DRUG EVALUATION, PRECLINICAL are available.
Tests that are dependent on the clumping of cells, microorganisms, or particles when mixed with specific antiserum. (From Stedman, 26th ed)
A class of immunoglobulin bearing mu chains (IMMUNOGLOBULIN MU-CHAINS). IgM can fix COMPLEMENT. The name comes from its high molecular weight and originally being called a macroglobulin.
Vaccines in which the infectious microbial nucleic acid components have been destroyed by chemical or physical treatment (e.g., formalin, beta-propiolactone, gamma radiation) without affecting the antigenicity or immunogenicity of the viral coat or bacterial outer membrane proteins.
Common name for the species Gallus gallus, the domestic fowl, in the family Phasianidae, order GALLIFORMES. It is descended from the red jungle fowl of SOUTHEAST ASIA.
The clumping together of suspended material resulting from the action of AGGLUTININS.
Sets of cell surface antigens located on BLOOD CELLS. They are usually membrane GLYCOPROTEINS or GLYCOLIPIDS that are antigenically distinguished by their carbohydrate moieties.
The major immunoglobulin isotype class in normal human serum. There are several isotype subclasses of IgG, for example, IgG1, IgG2A, and IgG2B.
Diagnostic procedures involving immunoglobulin reactions.
The period of recovery following an illness.
A phenomenon manifested by an agent or substance adhering to or being adsorbed on the surface of a red blood cell, as tuberculin can be adsorbed on red blood cells under certain conditions. (Stedman, 25th ed)
Virus diseases caused by the ORTHOMYXOVIRIDAE.
The property of antibodies which enables them to react with some ANTIGENIC DETERMINANTS and not with others. Specificity is dependent on chemical composition, physical forces, and molecular structure at the binding site.
The production of ANTIBODIES by proliferating and differentiated B-LYMPHOCYTES under stimulation by ANTIGENS.
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.
Process of determining and distinguishing species of bacteria or viruses based on antigens they share.
Large, hoofed mammals of the family EQUIDAE. Horses are active day and night with most of the day spent seeking and consuming food. Feeding peaks occur in the early morning and late afternoon, and there are several daily periods of rest.
The most common mineral of a group of hydrated aluminum silicates, approximately H2Al2Si2O8-H2O. It is prepared for pharmaceutical and medicinal purposes by levigating with water to remove sand, etc. (From Merck Index, 11th ed) The name is derived from Kao-ling (Chinese: "high ridge"), the original site. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
A mobile, very volatile, highly flammable liquid used as an inhalation anesthetic and as a solvent for waxes, fats, oils, perfumes, alkaloids, and gums. It is mildly irritating to skin and mucous membranes.
Polysaccharides found in bacteria and in capsules thereof.
A common name used for the genus Cavia. The most common species is Cavia porcellus which is the domesticated guinea pig used for pets and biomedical research.
A series of steps taken in order to conduct research.
A genus of gram-negative, mostly facultatively anaerobic bacteria in the family MYCOPLASMATACEAE. The cells are bounded by a PLASMA MEMBRANE and lack a true CELL WALL. Its organisms are pathogens found on the MUCOUS MEMBRANES of humans, ANIMALS, and BIRDS.
Diseases of domestic swine and of the wild boar of the genus Sus.
Immunoelectrophoresis in which immunoprecipitation occurs when antigen at the cathode is caused to migrate in an electric field through a suitable medium of diffusion against a stream of antibody migrating from the anode as a result of endosmotic flow.
A genus of the family PARAMYXOVIRIDAE (subfamily PARAMYXOVIRINAE) where all the virions have both HEMAGGLUTININ and NEURAMINIDASE activities and encode a non-structural C protein. SENDAI VIRUS is the type species.
Passive agglutination tests in which antigen is adsorbed onto latex particles which then clump in the presence of antibody specific for the adsorbed antigen. (From Stedman, 26th ed)
Proteins that are structural components of bacterial fimbriae (FIMBRIAE, BACTERIAL) or sex pili (PILI, SEX).
The destruction of ERYTHROCYTES by many different causal agents such as antibodies, bacteria, chemicals, temperature, and changes in tonicity.
A subtype of INFLUENZA A VIRUS comprised of the surface proteins hemagglutinin 9 and neuraminidase 2. The H9N2 subtype usually infects domestic birds (POULTRY) but there have been some human infections reported.
Species of the genus INFLUENZAVIRUS B that cause HUMAN INFLUENZA and other diseases primarily in humans. Antigenic variation is less extensive than in type A viruses (INFLUENZA A VIRUS) and consequently there is no basis for distinct subtypes or variants. Epidemics are less likely than with INFLUENZA A VIRUS and there have been no pandemics. Previously only found in humans, Influenza B virus has been isolated from seals which may constitute the animal reservoir from which humans are exposed.
A suborder of PRIMATES consisting of six families: CEBIDAE (some New World monkeys), ATELIDAE (some New World monkeys), CERCOPITHECIDAE (Old World monkeys), HYLOBATIDAE (gibbons and siamangs), CALLITRICHINAE (marmosets and tamarins), and HOMINIDAE (humans and great apes).
Polymeric derivatives of GALLIC ACID that are esters of a sugar.
Immunoglobulin molecules having a specific amino acid sequence by virtue of which they interact only with the ANTIGEN (or a very similar shape) that induced their synthesis in cells of the lymphoid series (especially PLASMA CELLS).
Sites on an antigen that interact with specific antibodies.
Cell-surface components or appendages of bacteria that facilitate adhesion (BACTERIAL ADHESION) to other cells or to inanimate surfaces. Most fimbriae (FIMBRIAE, BACTERIAL) of gram-negative bacteria function as adhesins, but in many cases it is a minor subunit protein at the tip of the fimbriae that is the actual adhesin. In gram-positive bacteria, a protein or polysaccharide surface layer serves as the specific adhesin. What is sometimes called polymeric adhesin (BIOFILMS) is distinct from protein adhesin.
The largest class of organic compounds, including STARCH; GLYCOGEN; CELLULOSE; POLYSACCHARIDES; and simple MONOSACCHARIDES. Carbohydrates are composed of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen in a ratio of Cn(H2O)n.
A property of the surface of an object that makes it stick to another surface.
Protein or glycoprotein substances of plant origin that bind to sugar moieties in cell walls or membranes. Some carbohydrate-metabolizing proteins (ENZYMES) from PLANTS also bind to carbohydrates, however they are not considered lectins. Many plant lectins change the physiology of the membrane of BLOOD CELLS to cause agglutination, mitosis, or other biochemical changes. They may play a role in plant defense mechanisms.
Immunologic techniques based on the use of: (1) enzyme-antibody conjugates; (2) enzyme-antigen conjugates; (3) antienzyme antibody followed by its homologous enzyme; or (4) enzyme-antienzyme complexes. These are used histologically for visualizing or labeling tissue specimens.
Serologic tests for syphilis.
A systemic non-venereal infection of the tropics caused by TREPONEMA PALLIDUM subspecies pertenue.
Administration of vaccines to stimulate the host's immune response. This includes any preparation intended for active immunological prophylaxis.
Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.
The causative agent of venereal and non-venereal syphilis as well as yaws.
Test for tissue antigen using either a direct method, by conjugation of antibody with fluorescent dye (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, DIRECT) or an indirect method, by formation of antigen-antibody complex which is then labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, INDIRECT). The tissue is then examined by fluorescence microscopy.
The oldest recognized genus of the family PASTEURELLACEAE. It consists of several species. Its organisms occur most frequently as coccobacillus or rod-shaped and are gram-negative, nonmotile, facultative anaerobes. Species of this genus are found in both animals and humans.
Substances that are recognized by the immune system and induce an immune reaction.
A subtype of INFLUENZA A VIRUS comprised of the surface proteins hemagglutinin 5 and neuraminidase 1. The H5N1 subtype, frequently referred to as the bird flu virus, is endemic in wild birds and very contagious among both domestic (POULTRY) and wild birds. It does not usually infect humans, but some cases have been reported.
One of the protein CROSS-LINKING REAGENTS that is used as a disinfectant for sterilization of heat-sensitive equipment and as a laboratory reagent, especially as a fixative.
A strong oxidizing agent.
A subtype of INFLUENZA A VIRUS comprised of the surface proteins hemagglutinin 3 and neuraminidase 8. The H3N8 subtype has frequently been found in horses.
EPIDEMIOLOGIC STUDIES based on the detection through serological testing of characteristic change in the serum level of specific ANTIBODIES. Latent subclinical infections and carrier states can thus be detected in addition to clinically overt cases.
Inflammation of the KIDNEY involving the renal parenchyma (the NEPHRONS); KIDNEY PELVIS; and KIDNEY CALICES. It is characterized by ABDOMINAL PAIN; FEVER; NAUSEA; VOMITING; and occasionally DIARRHEA.
Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).
A disease of humans and animals that resembles GLANDERS. It is caused by BURKHOLDERIA PSEUDOMALLEI and may range from a dormant infection to a condition that causes multiple abscesses, pneumonia, and bacteremia.
Arthropod-borne viruses. A non-taxonomic designation for viruses that can replicate in both vertebrate hosts and arthropod vectors. Included are some members of the following families: ARENAVIRIDAE; BUNYAVIRIDAE; REOVIRIDAE; TOGAVIRIDAE; and FLAVIVIRIDAE. (From Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2nd ed)
The major human blood type system which depends on the presence or absence of two antigens A and B. Type O occurs when neither A nor B is present and AB when both are present. A and B are genetic factors that determine the presence of enzymes for the synthesis of certain glycoproteins mainly in the red cell membrane.
The processes triggered by interactions of ANTIBODIES with their ANTIGENS.
Deliberate stimulation of the host's immune response. ACTIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of ANTIGENS or IMMUNOLOGIC ADJUVANTS. PASSIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of IMMUNE SERA or LYMPHOCYTES or their extracts (e.g., transfer factor, immune RNA) or transplantation of immunocompetent cell producing tissue (thymus or bone marrow).
Sorbitan mono-9-octadecanoate poly(oxy-1,2-ethanediyl) derivatives; complex mixtures of polyoxyethylene ethers used as emulsifiers or dispersing agents in pharmaceuticals.
The type species of RUBULAVIRUS that causes an acute infectious disease in humans, affecting mainly children. Transmission occurs by droplet infection.
The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.
A heterogeneous mixture of glycoproteins responsible for the gel structure of egg white. It has trypsin-inhibiting activity.
Infection of domestic and wild fowl and other BIRDS with INFLUENZA A VIRUS. Avian influenza usually does not sicken birds, but can be highly pathogenic and fatal in domestic POULTRY.
A family of viruses, mainly arboviruses, consisting of a single strand of RNA. Virions are enveloped particles 90-120 nm diameter. The complete family contains over 300 members arranged in five genera: ORTHOBUNYAVIRUS; HANTAVIRUS; NAIROVIRUS; PHLEBOVIRUS; and TOSPOVIRUS.
A genus of REOVIRIDAE, causing acute gastroenteritis in BIRDS and MAMMALS, including humans. Transmission is horizontal and by environmental contamination. Seven species (Rotaviruses A thru G) are recognized.
A species of FLAVIVIRUS, one of the Japanese encephalitis virus group (ENCEPHALITIS VIRUSES, JAPANESE), which is the etiological agent of Japanese encephalitis found in Asia, southeast Asia, and the Indian subcontinent.
Represents 15-20% of the human serum immunoglobulins, mostly as the 4-chain polymer in humans or dimer in other mammals. Secretory IgA (IMMUNOGLOBULIN A, SECRETORY) is the main immunoglobulin in secretions.
An epithelial cell line derived from a kidney of a normal adult female dog.
Diseases of birds which are raised as a source of meat or eggs for human consumption and are usually found in barnyards, hatcheries, etc. The concept is differentiated from BIRD DISEASES which is for diseases of birds not considered poultry and usually found in zoos, parks, and the wild.
A family of spherical viruses, of the order MONONEGAVIRALES, somewhat larger than the orthomyxoviruses, and containing single-stranded RNA. Subfamilies include PARAMYXOVIRINAE and PNEUMOVIRINAE.
The most well known avian paramyxovirus in the genus AVULAVIRUS and the cause of a highly infectious pneumoencephalitis in fowl. It is also reported to cause CONJUNCTIVITIS in humans. Transmission is by droplet inhalation or ingestion of contaminated water or food.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
Glycosides formed by the reaction of the hydroxyl group on the anomeric carbon atom of galactose with an alcohol to form an acetal. They include both alpha- and beta-galactosides.
Infections of the brain caused by arthropod-borne viruses (i.e., arboviruses) primarily from the families TOGAVIRIDAE; FLAVIVIRIDAE; BUNYAVIRIDAE; REOVIRIDAE; and RHABDOVIRIDAE. Life cycles of these viruses are characterized by ZOONOSES, with birds and lower mammals serving as intermediate hosts. The virus is transmitted to humans by the bite of mosquitoes (CULICIDAE) or TICKS. Clinical manifestations include fever, headache, alterations of mentation, focal neurologic deficits, and COMA. (From Clin Microbiol Rev 1994 Jan;7(1):89-116; Walton, Brain's Diseases of the Nervous System, 10th ed, p321)
Single or multiple areas of PUS due to infection by any ameboid protozoa (AMEBIASIS). A common form is caused by the ingestion of ENTAMOEBA HISTOLYTICA.
A group of naturally occurring N-and O-acyl derivatives of the deoxyamino sugar neuraminic acid. They are ubiquitously distributed in many tissues.
Antibodies, especially IGE, that bind to tissue of the same species so that ANTIGENS induce release of HISTAMINE and other vasoactive agents. HYPERSENSITIVITY is the clinical manifestation.
The major sialoglycoprotein of the human erythrocyte membrane. It consists of at least two sialoglycopeptides and is composed of 60% carbohydrate including sialic acid and 40% protein. It is involved in a number of different biological activities including the binding of MN blood groups, influenza viruses, kidney bean phytohemagglutinin, and wheat germ agglutinin.
Classic quantitative assay for detection of antigen-antibody reactions using a radioactively labeled substance (radioligand) either directly or indirectly to measure the binding of the unlabeled substance to a specific antibody or other receptor system. Non-immunogenic substances (e.g., haptens) can be measured if coupled to larger carrier proteins (e.g., bovine gamma-globulin or human serum albumin) capable of inducing antibody formation.
An acute febrile, contagious, viral disease of birds caused by an AVULAVIRUS called NEWCASTLE DISEASE VIRUS. It is characterized by respiratory and nervous symptoms in fowl and is transmissible to man causing a severe, but transient conjunctivitis.
A collection of single-stranded RNA viruses scattered across the Bunyaviridae, Flaviviridae, and Togaviridae families whose common property is the ability to induce encephalitic conditions in infected hosts.
Process of growing viruses in live animals, plants, or cultured cells.
Commercially prepared reagent sets, with accessory devices, containing all of the major components and literature necessary to perform one or more designated diagnostic tests or procedures. They may be for laboratory or personal use.
A technique that combines protein electrophoresis and double immunodiffusion. In this procedure proteins are first separated by gel electrophoresis (usually agarose), then made visible by immunodiffusion of specific antibodies. A distinct elliptical precipitin arc results for each protein detectable by the antisera.
Positive test results in subjects who do not possess the attribute for which the test is conducted. The labeling of healthy persons as diseased when screening in the detection of disease. (Last, A Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)
A family of very small DNA viruses containing a single molecule of single-stranded DNA and consisting of two subfamilies: PARVOVIRINAE and DENSOVIRINAE. They infect both vertebrates and invertebrates.
Proteins that form the CAPSID of VIRUSES.
A species of RESPIROVIRUS also called hemadsorption virus 2 (HA2), which causes laryngotracheitis in humans, especially children.
Infections with bacteria of the species ESCHERICHIA COLI.
A species of BORDETELLA isolated from the respiratory tracts of TURKEYS and other BIRDS. It causes a highly contagious bordetellosis.
Inflammatory responses of the epithelium of the URINARY TRACT to microbial invasions. They are often bacterial infections with associated BACTERIURIA and PYURIA.
Large woodland game BIRDS in the subfamily Meleagridinae, family Phasianidae, order GALLIFORMES. Formerly they were considered a distinct family, Melegrididae.
The sequence of carbohydrates within POLYSACCHARIDES; GLYCOPROTEINS; and GLYCOLIPIDS.
Carbohydrates covalently linked to a nonsugar moiety (lipids or proteins). The major glycoconjugates are glycoproteins, glycopeptides, peptidoglycans, glycolipids, and lipopolysaccharides. (From Biochemical Nomenclature and Related Documents, 2d ed; From Principles of Biochemistry, 2d ed)
Diseases of domestic cattle of the genus Bos. It includes diseases of cows, yaks, and zebus.
A genus of gram-positive, rod-shaped bacteria whose organisms are nonmotile. Filaments that may be present in certain species are either straight or wavy and may have swollen or clubbed heads.
A species in the ORTHOBUNYAVIRUS genus of the family BUNYAVIRIDAE. Serotypes are found in temperate and arctic regions and each is closely associated with a single species of vector mosquito. The vertebrate hosts are usually small mammals but several serotypes infect humans.
Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.
A species of gram-negative, anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria originally classified within the BACTEROIDES genus. This bacterium produces a cell-bound, oxygen-sensitive collagenase and is isolated from the human mouth.
The type species of MORBILLIVIRUS and the cause of the highly infectious human disease MEASLES, which affects mostly children.
A genus of gram-negative, anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria found in cavities of humans and other animals. No endospores are formed. Some species are pathogenic and occur in various purulent or gangrenous infections.
Semidomesticated variety of European polecat much used for hunting RODENTS and/or RABBITS and as a laboratory animal. It is in the subfamily Mustelinae, family MUSTELIDAE.
Epidemics of infectious disease that have spread to many countries, often more than one continent, and usually affecting a large number of people.
An N-acyl derivative of neuraminic acid. N-acetylneuraminic acid occurs in many polysaccharides, glycoproteins, and glycolipids in animals and bacteria. (From Dorland, 28th ed, p1518)
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)
A contagious venereal disease caused by the spirochete TREPONEMA PALLIDUM.
A species of RESPIROVIRUS frequently isolated from small children with pharyngitis, bronchitis, and pneumonia.
A highly reactive aldehyde gas formed by oxidation or incomplete combustion of hydrocarbons. In solution, it has a wide range of uses: in the manufacture of resins and textiles, as a disinfectant, and as a laboratory fixative or preservative. Formaldehyde solution (formalin) is considered a hazardous compound, and its vapor toxic. (From Reynolds, Martindale The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p717)
A blood group related to the ABO, Lewis and I systems. At least five different erythrocyte antigens are possible, some very rare, others almost universal. Multiple alleles are involved in this blood group.
The domestic dog, Canis familiaris, comprising about 400 breeds, of the carnivore family CANIDAE. They are worldwide in distribution and live in association with people. (Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, p1065)
Proteins found in any species of bacterium.
A species of parasitic protozoa causing ENTAMOEBIASIS and amebic dysentery (DYSENTERY, AMEBIC). Characteristics include a single nucleus containing a small central karyosome and peripheral chromatin that is finely and regularly beaded.
Glycosides formed by the reaction of the hydroxyl group on the anomeric carbon atom of mannose with an alcohol to form an acetal. They include both alpha- and beta-mannosides.
Method for measuring viral infectivity and multiplication in CULTURED CELLS. Clear lysed areas or plaques develop as the VIRAL PARTICLES are released from the infected cells during incubation. With some VIRUSES, the cells are killed by a cytopathic effect; with others, the infected cells are not killed but can be detected by their hemadsorptive ability. Sometimes the plaque cells contain VIRAL ANTIGENS which can be measured by IMMUNOFLUORESCENCE.
A species of CORONAVIRUS infecting neonatal calves, presenting as acute diarrhea, and frequently leading to death.
The formation of a solid in a solution as a result of a chemical reaction or the aggregation of soluble substances into complexes large enough to fall out of solution.
Minute infectious agents whose genomes are composed of DNA or RNA, but not both. They are characterized by a lack of independent metabolism and the inability to replicate outside living host cells.
A genus of PICORNAVIRIDAE causing infectious hepatitis naturally in humans and experimentally in other primates. It is transmitted through fecal contamination of food or water. HEPATITIS A VIRUS is the type species.
Substances that are toxic to the intestinal tract causing vomiting, diarrhea, etc.; most common enterotoxins are produced by bacteria.
Diseases of domestic and wild horses of the species Equus caballus.
The classic form of typhus, caused by RICKETTSIA PROWAZEKII, which is transmitted from man to man by the louse Pediculus humanus corporis. This disease is characterized by the sudden onset of intense headache, malaise, and generalized myalgia followed by the formation of a macular skin eruption and vascular and neurologic disturbances.
A family of calcium-binding alpha-globulins that are synthesized in the LIVER and play an essential role in maintaining the solubility of CALCIUM in the BLOOD. In addition the fetuins contain aminoterminal cystatin domains and are classified as type 3 cystatins.
Infection with the protozoan parasite TRYPANOSOMA CRUZI, a form of TRYPANOSOMIASIS endemic in Central and South America. It is named after the Brazilian physician Carlos Chagas, who discovered the parasite. Infection by the parasite (positive serologic result only) is distinguished from the clinical manifestations that develop years later, such as destruction of PARASYMPATHETIC GANGLIA; CHAGAS CARDIOMYOPATHY; and dysfunction of the ESOPHAGUS or COLON.
A system of universal human blood group isoantigens with many associated subgroups. The M and N traits are codominant and the S and s traits are probably very closely linked alleles, including the U antigen. This system is most frequently used in paternity studies.
The outer protein protective shell of a virus, which protects the viral nucleic acid.
A group of ALPHAVIRUS INFECTIONS which affect horses and man, transmitted via the bites of mosquitoes. Disorders in this category are endemic to regions of South America and North America. In humans, clinical manifestations vary with the type of infection, and range from a mild influenza-like syndrome to a fulminant encephalitis. (From Joynt, Clinical Neurology, 1996, Ch26, pp8-10)
A salt used to replenish calcium levels, as an acid-producing diuretic, and as an antidote for magnesium poisoning.
Antigens of the virion of the HEPATITIS B VIRUS or the Dane particle, its surface (HEPATITIS B SURFACE ANTIGENS), core (HEPATITIS B CORE ANTIGENS), and other associated antigens, including the HEPATITIS B E ANTIGENS.
Infections with species of the genus MYCOPLASMA.
A viral infection of the brain caused by serotypes of California encephalitis virus (ENCEPHALITIS VIRUS, CALIFORNIA) transmitted to humans by the mosquito AEDES triseriatus. The majority of cases are caused by the LA CROSSE VIRUS. This condition is endemic to the midwestern United States and primarily affects children between 5-10 years of age. Clinical manifestations include FEVER; VOMITING; HEADACHE; and abdominal pain followed by SEIZURES, altered mentation, and focal neurologic deficits. (From Joynt, Clinical Neurology, 1996, Ch26, p13)
A species of the genus PARVOVIRUS and a host range variant of FELINE PANLEUKOPENIA VIRUS. It causes a highly infectious fulminating ENTERITIS in dogs producing high mortality. It is distinct from CANINE MINUTE VIRUS, a species in the genus BOCAVIRUS. This virus can also infect cats and mink.
Excrement from the INTESTINES, containing unabsorbed solids, waste products, secretions, and BACTERIA of the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM.
Proteins from BACTERIA and FUNGI that are soluble enough to be secreted to target ERYTHROCYTES and insert into the membrane to form beta-barrel pores. Biosynthesis may be regulated by HEMOLYSIN FACTORS.
Specific molecular components of the cell capable of recognizing and interacting with a virus, and which, after binding it, are capable of generating some signal that initiates the chain of events leading to the biological response.
Conjugated protein-carbohydrate compounds including mucins, mucoid, and amyloid glycoproteins.
The degree of pathogenicity within a group or species of microorganisms or viruses as indicated by case fatality rates and/or the ability of the organism to invade the tissues of the host. The pathogenic capacity of an organism is determined by its VIRULENCE FACTORS.
Method of tissue preparation in which the tissue specimen is frozen and then dehydrated at low temperature in a high vacuum. This method is also used for dehydrating pharmaceutical and food products.
Antisera from immunized animals that is purified and used as a passive immunizing agent against specific BACTERIAL TOXINS.
A class of animal lectins that bind specifically to beta-galactoside in a calcium-independent manner. Members of this class are distiguished from other lectins by the presence of a conserved carbohydrate recognition domain. The majority of proteins in this class bind to sugar molecules in a sulfhydryl-dependent manner and are often referred to as S-type lectins, however this property is not required for membership in this class.
Warm-blooded VERTEBRATES possessing FEATHERS and belonging to the class Aves.
Forceful administration into a muscle of liquid medication, nutrient, or other fluid through a hollow needle piercing the muscle and any tissue covering it.
Liquids transforming into solids by the removal of heat.
Substances that augment, stimulate, activate, potentiate, or modulate the immune response at either the cellular or humoral level. The classical agents (Freund's adjuvant, BCG, Corynebacterium parvum, et al.) contain bacterial antigens. Some are endogenous (e.g., histamine, interferon, transfer factor, tuftsin, interleukin-1). Their mode of action is either non-specific, resulting in increased immune responsiveness to a wide variety of antigens, or antigen-specific, i.e., affecting a restricted type of immune response to a narrow group of antigens. The therapeutic efficacy of many biological response modifiers is related to their antigen-specific immunoadjuvanticity.
The functional hereditary units of BACTERIA.
A subtype of INFLUENZA A VIRUS comprised of the surface proteins hemagglutinin 7 and neuraminidase 7. The H7N7 subtype produced an epidemic in 2003 which was highly pathogenic among domestic birds (POULTRY). Some infections in humans were reported.
A highly contagious infectious disease caused by MORBILLIVIRUS, common among children but also seen in the nonimmune of any age, in which the virus enters the respiratory tract via droplet nuclei and multiplies in the epithelial cells, spreading throughout the MONONUCLEAR PHAGOCYTE SYSTEM.
Glycoprotein from Sendai, para-influenza, Newcastle Disease, and other viruses that participates in binding the virus to cell-surface receptors. The HN protein possesses both hemagglutinin and neuraminidase activity.
The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.
Carbohydrates consisting of between two (DISACCHARIDES) and ten MONOSACCHARIDES connected by either an alpha- or beta-glycosidic link. They are found throughout nature in both the free and bound form.
An aldohexose that occurs naturally in the D-form in lactose, cerebrosides, gangliosides, and mucoproteins. Deficiency of galactosyl-1-phosphate uridyltransferase (GALACTOSE-1-PHOSPHATE URIDYL-TRANSFERASE DEFICIENCY DISEASE) causes an error in galactose metabolism called GALACTOSEMIA, resulting in elevations of galactose in the blood.
A serotype of ORTHOREOVIRUS, MAMMALIAN causing serious pathology in laboratory rodents, characterized by diarrhea, oily coat, jaundice, and multiple organ involvement.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
DYSENTERY caused by intestinal amebic infection, chiefly with ENTAMOEBA HISTOLYTICA. This condition may be associated with amebic infection of the LIVER and other distant sites.
Any compound containing one or more monosaccharide residues bound by a glycosidic linkage to a hydrophobic moiety such as an acylglycerol (see GLYCERIDES), a sphingoid, a ceramide (CERAMIDES) (N-acylsphingoid) or a prenyl phosphate. (From IUPAC's webpage)
The etiologic agent of CHOLERA.
Microscopy using an electron beam, instead of light, to visualize the sample, thereby allowing much greater magnification. The interactions of ELECTRONS with specimens are used to provide information about the fine structure of that specimen. In TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen are imaged. In SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY an electron beam falls at a non-normal angle on the specimen and the image is derived from the reactions occurring above the plane of the specimen.

Genetic characterization of a new type IV-A pilus gene cluster found in both classical and El Tor biotypes of Vibrio cholerae. (1/925)

The Vibrio cholerae genome contains a 5.4-kb pil gene cluster that resembles the Aeromonas hydrophila tap gene cluster and other type IV-A pilus assembly operons. The region consists of five complete open reading frames designated pilABCD and yacE, based on the nomenclature of related genes from Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Escherichia coli K-12. This cluster is present in both classical and El Tor biotypes, and the pilA and pilD genes are 100% conserved. The pilA gene encodes a putative type IV pilus subunit. However, deletion of pilA had no effect on either colonization of infant mice or adherence to HEp-2 cells, demonstrating that pilA does not encode the primary subunit of a pilus essential for these processes. The pilD gene product is similar to other type IV prepilin peptidases, proteins that process type IV signal sequences. Mutational analysis of the pilD gene showed that pilD is essential for secretion of cholera toxin and hemagglutinin-protease, mannose-sensitive hemagglutination (MSHA), production of toxin-coregulated pili, and colonization of infant mice. Defects in these functions are likely due to the lack of processing of N termini of four Eps secretion proteins, four proteins of the MSHA cluster, and TcpB, all of which contain type IV-A leader sequences. Some pilD mutants also showed reduced adherence to HEp-2 cells, but this defect could not be complemented in trans, indicating that the defect may not be directly due to a loss of pilD. Taken together, these data demonstrate the effectiveness of the V. cholerae genome project for rapid identification and characterization of potential virulence factors.  (+info)

Effect of temperature on growth, hemagglutination, and protease activity of Porphyromonas gingivalis. (2/925)

Bacteria persisting in periodontal pockets are exposed to elevated temperatures during periods of inflammation. Temperature is an environmental factor that can modulate gene expression. Consequently, in the present study we examined the effect of temperature on the expression of virulence determinants by the periodontopathogen, Porphyromonas gingivalis. P. gingivalis W50 was grown in a complex medium under hemin excess at pH 7.0 and at a constant temperature of either 37, 39, or 41 degrees C; cultures were monitored for protease and hemagglutinin activity. P. gingivalis grew well at all three temperatures. An increase in growth temperature from 37 to 39 degrees C resulted in a 65% reduction in both total arginine- and lysine-specific activities (P < 0.01). A further rise in growth temperature to 41 degrees C led to even greater reductions in arginine-specific (82%; P < 0.001) and lysine-specific (73%; P < 0. 01) activities. These reductions were also associated with an altered distribution of individual arginine-specific enzyme isoforms. At 41 degrees C, there was a disproportionate reduction in the level of the heterodimeric RI protease, which also contains adhesin domains. The reduction also correlated with a markedly diminished hemagglutination activity of cells, especially in those grown at 41 degrees C, and a reduced immunoreactivity with a monoclonal antibody which recognizes gene products involved in hemagglutination. Thus, as the environmental temperature increased, P. gingivalis adopted a less aggressive phenotype, while retaining cell population levels. The coordinate down-regulation of virulence gene expression in response to an environmental cue linked to the intensity of the host inflammatory response is consistent with the clinically observed cyclical nature of disease progression in periodontal diseases.  (+info)

Structural and functional studies of the measles virus hemagglutinin: identification of a novel site required for CD46 interaction. (3/925)

The entry of measles virus (MV) into human cells is mediated by the initial attachment of the viral hemagglutinin (HA) to the complement regulatory protein CD46. Two subdomains, one each within CD46 short consensus repeats (SCRs) 1 and 2, are responsible for this interaction. However, little is known about the regions within MV HA needed for a high-affinity CD46 interaction. To better define the HA-CD46 interaction, we took three approaches: chimeric domain swapping, peptide scanning, and alanine scanning mutagenesis. Chimeras of MV HA and the closely related rinderpest virus (RPV) HA were generated and tested for cell surface expression and the ability to hemadsorb CD46+ red blood cells (RBC). Exchanges with the N terminus of RPV were tolerated as MV HA could be replaced with RPV HA up to amino-acid position 154. However, both larger swaps with RPV and a small RPV HA replacement at the C terminus aborted cell-surface expression. Peptide scanning with 51 overlapping peptides derived from three MV HA regions showed one peptide, corresponding to MV HA amino acids 468-487, blocked hemagglutination of African green monkey (AGM) RBCs and inhibited MV infection of Chinese hamster ovary cells (CHO) expressing human CD46. Alanine scanning mutants mapped sites on the MV HA that were not required for trafficking to the cell surface or function in hemagglutination as well as a novel site required for CD46 interaction, amino acids 473-477.  (+info)

Characterization of nonenterotoxigenic Escherichia coli strains producing F17 fimbriae isolated from diarrheic lambs and goat kids. (4/925)

Forty-five ovine and caprine nonenterotoxigenic Escherichia coli strains producing F17-related fimbriae were characterized with respect to the fimbrial structural subunit and adhesin subtypes produced. In addition, several characteristics related to the virulence of strains producing F17 fimbriae were studied. Most of the strains (73%) possessed the f17cA structural subunit gene, whereas the f17aA and f17dA genes were detected only on three (6%) and two (4%) strains, respectively. The f17bA gene was not detected. All but one of these strains possessed the f17G genes of the adhesin subfamily II. The only strain having the f17G gene of subfamily I possessed the structural subunit gene f17dA. Sequencing of the f17A and f17G genes of four selected strains confirmed the association of f17cA and f17dA structural subunit genes with the f17G genes of the adhesin subfamily II. These results indicated that adhesins of the subfamily II are prominent among ovine and caprine isolates and that they are indistinctly associated with the F17 structural subunit subtypes on these field strains. CS31A- and CNF2-related genes were not detected. Most of the strains adhered in vitro to ovine intestinal brush borders (36 of 45) and agglutinated the erythrocytes of different species in the presence of D-mannose (39 of 45). F17-positive strains produced colicin V (57%) and were resistant to the bactericidal effect of serum (91%) in significantly higher percentages than F17-negative strains (34% produced colicin V, and 66% were serum resistant). Thus, most of the studied ovine and caprine strains showed phenotypic characteristics of septicemic strains.  (+info)

Characterization of the relationship between polysaccharide intercellular adhesin and hemagglutination in Staphylococcus epidermidis. (5/925)

To determine whether a relationship exists between biofilm formation and hemagglutination in Staphylococcus epidermidis, 20 skin isolates and 19 prosthetic valve endocarditis isolates were characterized for biofilm formation, hemagglutination, and the presence of a 357-bp polymerase chain reaction product within icaA. A strong association existed between biofilm formation, which has been linked to strains that produce polysaccharide intercellular adhesin (PIA), and hemagglutination. Strains that produced biofilm were significantly (P<.001) more likely to mediate hemagglutination (16 biofilm-positive/hemagglutination-positive strains and 19 biofilm-negative/hemagglutination-negative strains) within the 39 clinical strains tested. In addition, Staphylococcus carnosus TM300, a biofilm-negative, hemagglutination-negative strain, carrying the ica operon-containing plasmid pCN27, produced significant biofilm on glass and mediated hemagglutination (>/=1/128). It was concluded that production of PIA and hemagglutination are strongly associated and that PIA, at least in part, mediates hemagglutination in S. epidermidis.  (+info)

Growth, cellular differentiation and virulence factor expression by Proteus mirabilis in vitro and in vivo. (6/925)

A uropathogenic strain of Proteus mirabilis was grown in vitro in human and mouse urine and brain-heart infusion broth (BHIB) and in vivo in subcutaneous open chambers (SOC) in mice, intraperitoneal diffusion chambers (IPC) in rats and by ascending urinary tract infection in mice in order to compare growth pattern, cellular differentiation and expression of virulence factors. Although the growth rate was slower in vivo than in vitro, the extent of growth was similar after 24 h. PR mirabilis differentiated into filamentous swarmer cells in all in-vitro culture conditions, but no filamentous cells were observed in either of the in-vivo chamber models. Transurethrally infected mice showed a rapid release or loss of filamentous cells and these could not be seen in kidney or bladder homogenates 7 days after infection. Bacteria showed increasing haemagglutination titres for fresh and tanned red blood cells after subculturing in BHIB, but bacteria grown in vivo did not show haemagglutination. An increasing resistance to normal serum was found when bacteria were grown in vivo. Significant haemolytic activity was detected with bacteria grown in BHIB and IPC, but almost no activity was found when bacteria had grown in urine. These findings improve the understanding of the role of P. mirabilis uropathogenic virulence factors in vivo.  (+info)

Normal human serum contains natural antibodies reactive with autologous ABO blood group antigens. (7/925)

It is widely accepted that the serum of healthy individuals contains natural antibodies only against those blood group A or B antigens that are not expressed on the individual's red blood cells. The mechanisms involved in tolerance to autologous blood group antigens remain unclear. In the present study, we show that IgM and IgG antibodies reactive with autologous blood group antigens are present in the immunoglobulin fraction of normal human serum. Natural IgG anti-A antibodies purified by affinity chromatography from IgG of individuals of blood group A exhibited an affinity for A trisaccharide antigen in the micromolar range and agglutinated A red cells at sixfold higher concentrations than those required for agglutination with affinity-purified anti-A IgG of individuals of blood group B. Whereas autoantibodies reactive with self A and B antigens are readily detected in purified IgG and IgM fractions, their expression is restricted in whole serum as a result of complementary interactions between variable regions of antibodies. These observations suggest that tolerance to autologous ABO blood group antigens is dependent on peripheral control of antibody autoreactivity.  (+info)

Genetic analyses of proteolysis, hemoglobin binding, and hemagglutination of Porphyromonas gingivalis. Construction of mutants with a combination of rgpA, rgpB, kgp, and hagA. (8/925)

Porphyromonas gingivalis produces arginine-specific cysteine proteinase (Arg-gingipain, RGP) and lysine-specific cysteine proteinase (Lys-gingipain, KGP) in the extracellular and cell-associated forms. Two separate genes (rgpA and rgpB) and a single gene (kgp) have been found to encode RGP and KGP, respectively. We constructed rgpA rgpB kgp triple mutants by homologous recombination with cloned rgp and kgp DNA interrupted by drug resistance gene markers. The triple mutants showed no RGP or KGP activity in either cell extracts or culture supernatants. The culture supernatants of the triple mutants grown in a rich medium had no proteolytic activity toward bovine serum albumin or gelatin derived from human type I collagen. Moreover, the mutants did not grow in a defined medium containing bovine serum albumin as the sole carbon/energy source. These results indicate that the proteolytic activity of P. gingivalis toward bovine serum albumin and gelatin derived from human type I collagen appears to be attributable to RGP and KGP. The hemagglutinin gene hagA of P. gingivalis possesses the adhesin domain regions responsible for hemagglutination and hemoglobin binding that are also located in the C-terminal regions of rgpA and kgp. A rgpA kgp hagA triple mutant constructed in this study exhibited no hemagglutination using sheep erythrocytes or hemoglobin binding activity, as determined by a solid-phase binding assay with horseradish peroxidase-conjugated human hemoglobin, indicating that the adhesin domains seem to be particularly important for P. gingivalis cells to agglutinate erythrocytes and bind hemoglobin, leading to heme acquisition.  (+info)

The writer (Becker, 1952) has recently reported on the varied responses among both chicks and ducklings to blood-induced infection with Plasmodium lophurae. The present paper is concerned with hemagglutination reactions involving the plasmas of individual chickens and duck erythrocytes, on the one hand, and the plasmas of individual ducks and chicken erythrocytes, on the other. The agglutinations observed were the result of exposing the erythrocytes to diluted plasmas containing natural or innate agglutinins; i.e., agglutinins not formed as the result of active immunization through exposure to the antigens of the erythrocytes.
Looking for hemagglutination (HA) test? Find out information about hemagglutination (HA) test. Agglutination of red blood cells. the agglutination and subsequent precipitation of red blood cells, caused by hemagglutinins, bacteria, viruses, and agents... Explanation of hemagglutination (HA) test
Cicer arietinum lectin or agglutinin (CAL/CPA) is a homodimer composed of two subunits.This lectin is a glycoprotein that contains 4.5% neutral sugars and is basic in nature (pI: 9.0). Its haemagglutination activity is inhibited by fetuin and desialylated fetuin with a carbohydrate specificity for fetuin and p-Nitroph
haemagglutination test meaning in Hindi with examples: रक्‍तसमूहन परीक्षण ... click for more detailed meaning of haemagglutination test in Hindi with examples, definition, pronunciation and example sentences.
Buy and view Colistin sodium methanesulfonate, to permeabilize membranes/mannose-resistant haemagglutination, 1264-72-8, MSDS. Click to view prices an
Hemagglutination Inspection Items, find complete details about Hemagglutination Inspection Items, Hemagglutination inspection items - BIOBASE
Of serum that inhibited hemagglutination. HI antibody titers were summarized with the criteria conventionally used to assess the immunogenicity of influenza
Hemagglutination occurs when measles viruses and red blood cells are mixed (See image a). But, if the serum of a person infected with measles virus is mixed with RBC and measles virus, there wont be any agglutination of RBC. This phenomenon is known as hemagglutination inhibition. This arises because antibodies present in the serum of that infected person reacts with the measles viruses and neutralized them (positive result).. If the patients serum do not contain antibodies against surface proteins of test virus, there will be presence of hemagglutination as surface molecules are free to hemaaglutinate RBCs (negative result).. ...
Looking for hemagglutination inhibition (HI) test? Find out information about hemagglutination inhibition (HI) test. Agglutination of red blood cells. the agglutination and subsequent precipitation of red blood cells, caused by hemagglutinins, bacteria, viruses, and agents... Explanation of hemagglutination inhibition (HI) test
Polyagglutination refers to red blood cells that agglutinate upon exposure to almost all human sera, but not to autologous serum or the sera of newborns. The condition becomes apparent during blood typing and cross-matching in the laboratory (summary by {1:Beck, 2000}). Tn polyagglutination syndrome is an acquired clonal disorder characterized by the polyagglutination of red blood cells by naturally occurring anti-Tn antibodies following exposure of the Tn antigen on the surface of erythrocytes. Only a subset of red cells express the antigen, which can also be expressed on platelets and leukocytes. This condition may occur in healthy individuals who manifest asymptomatic anemia, leukopenia, or thrombocytopenia; however, there is also an association between the Tn antigen and leukemia or myelodysplastic disorders. The Tn antigen is an incompletely glycosylated membrane glycoprotein with an exposed N-acetylgalactosamine residue. The Tn antigen results from inactivation of C1GALT1C1, which encodes ...
3S18: Crystal structure of a plant albumin from Cicer arietinum (chickpea) possessing hemopexin fold and hemagglutination activity
Immunohematology work-up for incompatible cross-match was performed in the serology lab utilizing commercially procured antisera and column agglutination gel card (Tulip Diagnostics India Pvt. Ltd, Goa, India). The three cell-screening panel was procured commercially (ID Dia cell I, II, III; Bio-Rad, Switzerland), and in-house lectin was ready as per the usual methodology.We have come throughout a case of incompatible cross-match with damaging antibody display screen, auto-control, and Negative direct coombs take a look at. Cross-match with a number of grownup serum and twine serum offers us a clue in the direction of polyagglutination. Further, Polyagglutination was confirmed serologically utilizing anti-A1 lectin and later concludes of Tn kind by lectin ready in-house from Salvia Sclarea ...
Nonspecific agglutination of red cells in the presence of human serum, not related to blood group specificity. Often infection-related in children.
D:emant, P; Cherry, M; and Snell, G D., Hemagglutination and cytotoxic studies of H-2. II. Some new cytotoxic specificities. (1971). Faculty Research 1970 - 1979. 160 ...
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Agaricus bisporus agglutinin/lectin (ABA/ABL) is isolated from white button mushrooms. It has a molecular weight of 58, 500 as determined by gel filtration that corresponds to a tetramer, and has an isoelectric point that ranges between pH 5.0 and pH 6.0. ABA is a mixture of two phytohemagglutinins (PHA) with similar specificities for carbohydrate (PHA-A and PHA-B). Each monomer has 2 distinct carbohydrate binding sites, one for galactose-1, 3-N-acetylgalactosamine and another for galactose-1, 3-N-acetylglucosamine, but does not bind monosaccharides.ABA has a non-specific blood group recognition since PHA-A and PHA-B agglutinate erythrocytes independent of their blood group type. The O-linked glycopeptide released by trypsin is a potent inhibitor of both the isolectins. Removal of the terminal sialic acid residue from the glycopeptide increases its inhibitory potency by 8-fold. Periodate or -galactosidase treatment of the trypsin released glycopeptide destroys all inhibitory activity. Simple ...
Agaricus bisporus agglutinin/lectin (ABA/ABL) is isolated from white button mushrooms. It has a molecular weight of 58, 500 as determined by gel filtration that corresponds to a tetramer, and has an isoelectric point that ranges between pH 5.0 and pH 6.0. ABA is a mixture of two phytohemagglutinins (PHA) with similar specificities for carbohydrate (PHA-A and PHA-B). Each monomer has 2 distinct carbohydrate binding sites, one for galactose-1, 3-N-acetylgalactosamine and another for galactose-1, 3-N-acetylglucosamine, but does not bind monosaccharides.ABA has a non-specific blood group recognition since PHA-A and PHA-B agglutinate erythrocytes independent of their blood group type. The O-linked glycopeptide released by trypsin is a potent inhibitor of both the isolectins. Removal of the terminal sialic acid residue from the glycopeptide increases its inhibitory potency by 8-fold. Periodate or -galactosidase treatment of the trypsin released glycopeptide destroys all inhibitory activity. Simple ...
Human and animal (avian and equine) influenza A virus isolates of the H3 serotype exhibit marked differences in their ability to bind specific sialyloligosaccharide sequences that serve as cell surface receptor determinants (G. Rogers and J. Paulson, 1983, Virology 127, 361-373). Whereas human isolates of this subtype strongly agglutinate enzymatically modified human erythrocytes containing the terminal SA alpha 2,6Gal sequence, avian and equine isolates preferentially agglutinate erythrocytes bearing the SA alpha 2, 3Gal sequence. As shown in this report, a glycoprotein found in horse serum, alpha 2-macroglobulin, is a potent inhibitor of viral adsorption to the cell surface for human H3 isolates. In contrast, avian and equine isolates are poorly inhibited suggesting a correlation between receptor specificity and inhibitor sensitivity. Growth of a human H3 isolate (A/Memphis/102/72) on MDCK cells in the presence of horse serum resulted in an overall shift in the virus receptor specificity from
Recent studies from our laboratory and others demonstrated the feasibility of using HuMAbs for preexposure prophylaxis against infectious diseases (22). A similar strategy could be used to prevent diarrhea disease caused by enteric pathogens such as ETEC. ETEC fimbrial adhesin subunits mediate adherence of the bacteria to the small intestine as the first step of a cascade of events leading to diarrhea. Studies in animal models and in human vaccine clinical trials have demonstrated that immunity against adhesion is sufficient to elicit effective protection against ETEC infection (16, 17). In the present study, we produced and characterized HuMAbs that recognize the N-terminal portion of CfaE (CfaE-N), the adhesin subunit involved in bacterial adhesion to host cells. Among the 300 isolated HuMAbs, 10 lead candidates were selected based on their ability to block mannose-resistant hemagglutination (MRHA) and to inhibit adhesion of ETEC to Caco-2 cells. When administered orally to mice by premixing ...
Definition of reverse passive hemagglutination. Provided by Stedmans medical dictionary and Includes medical terms and definitions.
Ishida A, Akita K, Mori Y, Tanida S, Toda M, Inoue M, Nakada H. Negative regulation of Toll-like receptor-4 signaling through the binding of glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored glycoprotein, CD14, with the sialic acid-binding lectin, CD33 ...
Title: A Sialic Acid-Specific Lectin from the Mushroom Paecilomyces Japonica that Exhibits Hemagglutination Activity and Cytotoxicity. VOLUME: 11 ISSUE: 6. Author(s):Jee Hun Park, Chang Soo Ryu, Ha Na Kim, Young Jun Na, Hyun Joo Park and HaHyung Kim. Affiliation:Physical Pharmacy Laboratory, College of Pharmacy, Chung-Ang University, 221 Huksuk-dong, Dongjakku, Seoul 156-756, Korea Correspondence To: HaHyung Kim.. Keywords:sialic acid, lectin, mushroom, paecilomyces japonica, hemagglutination, cytotoxicity. Abstract: The mushroom Paecilomyces japonica, grown on the silkworm larvae, has been used in Asia as a nutraceutical, tea, and Chinese medicine. In the present study, a sialic acid-specific lectin has been purified from the mushroom P. japonica using affinity chromatography on a fetuin-agarose column. Electrophoretical analyses indicated that this lectin, designated P. japon ica agglu tinin (PJA), is an acidic protein with a molecular mass of 16 kDa, and has no intermolecular disulfide bonds. ...
Serological assays based on hemagglutination inhibition (HI) are historically the most common way to determine antigenic characteristics of influenza A viruses, and the HI test also serves as a functional assay for detection of anti-influenza antibodies in sera.11 The HI test exploits the ability of influenza viruses to agglutinate red blood cells (RBCs), a characteristic for which the HA gene was named. Thus, an influenza virus can be identified as to its subtype in an HI assay. A standard concentration of influenza virus (antigen) and serial dilutions of HA-subtype-specific antiserum are mixed, and after a short incubation period, RBCs are added to the antigen-antibody mixture.12 If the serum antibodies bind to the viral hemagglutinin, hemagglutination is inhibited, and the RBCs settle to the bottom of the test well. Hemagglutination reactions are compared among the sets of antisera and viral antigens in a test panel, and assumptions are made concerning the antigenic relatedness of the viruses ...
Summary Strains of Escherichia coli from sporadic cases of diarrhoea and belonging to serotypes O44:H18, O55:H7, O111ab:H21 O111ab:H25 or O126:H25 or O126:H27 were examined for virulence properties. With the exception of O111ab:H25 these are considered to be classical enteropathogenic E. coli (EPEC) serotypes. The strains had been isolated in Britain from the faeces of children |3 years old. Of the serotypes examined, 7 of 13 O44:H18 strains, all of 10 O111ab:H21 strains and 13 of 21 O126:H27 strains belonged to the enteroaggregative class of E. coli (EAggEC) that attached to HEp-2 cells in the characteristic aggregative pattern and hybridised with the EAggEC probe. They also caused mannose-resistant haemagglutination of rat erythrocytes, a property which may be a useful marker for their identification. Strains of O44:H18 with similar properties were also isolated from three small outbreaks in Britain, one of which involved elderly patients. EAggEC have not been considered previously as aetiological
Modified indirect hemagglutination test for detection of treponemal antibodies in finger-prick blood.: A modified indirect hemagglutination test for the detecti
InDevR, Inc., an innovative life science company dedicated to improving biopharmaceutical and vaccine manufacturing, announced study results and a joint publication with the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) of Automated interpretation of influenza hemagglutination inhibition (HAI) assays: is plate tilting necessary? in the scientific journal PLOS ONE.. Serological screening is an important step in influenza monitoring and vaccine development. The hemagglutination inhibition assay (HAI) is widely used to evaluate vaccine-induced antibody responses as well as to antigenically characterize influenza viruses. HAI results are based on an endpoint titration where the titers are typically manually interpreted and recorded by a trained expert. For serological applications, the lack of a standardized endpoint interpretation and presence of interfering non-specific inhibitors can translate into a high degree of variability in the results. This variability along with the lack of a digital record ...
Studies of the inheritance of C3 types and partial deficiency of C3 in over 100 relatives of a previously reported Afrikaner child with virtually no serum C3 revealed that she was homozygous for a C3 gene producing little or no C3, C3-. Metabolic studies with purified radiolabeled C3 in this patient showed a mildly elevated fractional catabolic rate and a markedly reduced synthesis rate for C3. There was also a mild increase in the rate of conversion in vitro of labeled C3 added to her serum and incubated at 37°C for 1 hr. The intradermal injection of C1̄s, which produces a marked increase in vasopermeability in the skin of normal subjects, produced no definite change in the patient, possibly implicating C3 or a protein in the alternative pathway as the normal mediator of this response. On incubating the patients serum with purified cobra venom factor in the presence of unsensitized guinea pig erythrocytes, C5 inactivation and normal lysis of the red cells occurred, consistent with the venom ...
Hemadsorption is similar to hemagglutination; it can refer to: The clumping together of red blood cells to other cells or particles, or to substrates. T...
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whats a Eucaryotic cell? thanx, you guys are awesome!!. Any time!. eucaryote= no nucleu...
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Definition of Treponema pallidum hemagglutination assay in the Legal Dictionary - by Free online English dictionary and encyclopedia. What is Treponema pallidum hemagglutination assay? Meaning of Treponema pallidum hemagglutination assay as a legal term. What does Treponema pallidum hemagglutination assay mean in law?
Chemical signaling between cells in multicellular organisms is frequently mediated by cell-surface receptors. The receptors for neurotransmitters, protein hormones, growth factors, and plant lectins are a few of the many known examples of these important membrane components. In this exercise, students examine the cell location and properties of the receptor for the lectin concanavalin A. In the first experiment of the series, students use a concanavalin A-peroxidase complex in a microscopic assay to show that the specific receptor is found on the surface of their own cheek epithelial cells. In the second part of the exercise, students study the characteristic hemagglutination reaction that is elicited by concanavalin A and learn that the reaction is due to multiple sites for receptor binding on the concanavalin A molecule. It is known that concanavalin A binds selectively to mannose residues on the cell-surface glycoprotein receptor. This specificity is confirmed in the final experiment of the ...
Rat monoclonal Macrophage specific lectin antibody [ER-MP23]. Validated in IHC, Flow Cyt and tested in Mouse. Cited in 6 publication(s). Independently reviewed in 1 review(s). Immunogen corresponding…
Sie sind hier: Glycopolymer Brushes for Specific Lectin Binding by Controlled Multivalent Presentation of N-acetyllactosamine Glycan Oligomers. ...
Abramson, Harold Alexander, Furchgott, Robert F., Ponder, Eric (March 1939) The electrophoretic mobility of rabbit erythrocytes and ghosts. J Gen Physiol., 22 (4). pp. 545-553. ...
A simple and rapid method of quantifying the amount of virus in a sample. Haemagglutination is the agglutination of red blood cells. Viruses with envelops or surface proteins ...
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Malignant mesothelioma is an aggressive cancer with limited therapeutic options. Sialic acid-binding lectin isolated from Rana catesbeiana oocytes (cSBL) is a multifunctional protein with anti-cancer activity. The effects of pemetrexed, cisplatin, and cSBL were evaluated in mesothelioma and normal mesothelial cell lines. We evaluated cytotoxicity, apoptosis, caspase-3 cleavage and activation, cell proliferation, cell cycle arrest, and levels of cell cycle proteins in H28 cells treated with pemetrexed, cisplatin, and cSBL alone or in combination. Treatment with cSBL alone was cytotoxic to mesothelioma cells. The anti-cancer effect of cSBL was observed in a broader range of cell lines and exhibited greater cancer cell selectivity than pemetrexed or cisplatin. Combination treatment with pemetrexed + cSBL resulted in greater dose-dependent cytotoxicity than pemetrexed + cisplatin, the standard of care in mesothelioma. The synergistic effect of pemetrexed + cSBL was mediated by the cytostatic effect ...
Evaluation of a rubella hemagglutination inhibition test system.: Two systems for measurement of rubella hemagglutination inhibition antibodies were compared. O
Enteroaggregative Escherichia coli (EAggEC) is one of the pathogenic E. coli strains which may cause diarrhoea. In vitro studies have shown that EAggEC strains could establish a stacked-brick like adherence pattern on the surface of tissue culture cells and such a pattern is termed as aggregative adherence (AA). The purpose of this study is to compare the methods of polymerase chain reaction (PCR), HeLa cell adhesion, hemagglutination, and bacteria clumping tests for the specific detection of EAggEC suspected strains. This study isolated 340 E. coli strains from clinical samples of diarrhea cases which were firstly screened with the PCR method for the presence of suspected EaggEC strains. Strains of negative PCR results were also confirmed with HeLa cell adhesion and bacteria clumping tests for the EAggEC activity. Results showed that of these 340 clinical isolates, only three are EAggEC strains. Thus, EAggEC strains accounted for 0.88% in total strains. Also, for the above described methods, the in
Definition of Treponema pallidum hemagglutination test. Provided by Stedmans medical dictionary and Includes medical terms and definitions.
Summary The hemagglutination method, as suggested by Neter et al. for enteric infections producing low serum agglutinin titers, was applied to V. comma antigens and antisera. Both serial tube dilution and slide tests were employed and gave satisfactory results.
This invention provides particles for agglutination reaction measurement with high antigen potency. They were characterized by revealing the antigen, which has polylysine from recombinant DNA, and have combined this with the particles for agglutination reaction measurement. The particles for agglutination reaction measurement do not carry the antigen (which is infectious) and are safe. The particles for agglutination reaction measurement can be manufactured easily and in large quantities ...
The aim of this work was to study synthetic polycation effects on erythrocyte agglutination mediated by anti-glycophorin using image digital analysis. Polycations are oligomers or polymers of natural or synthetic origin, which bear a great number of positive charges at pH 7.4. Several of these polycations are nowadays used in clinic for human and veterinary purposes. New applications of polycations to the development of new drug delivery systems are investigated, in order to promote the drug absorption through the gastro-intestinal and blood brain barriers. However, up to now, there are no clear relationships between macromolecular features of polycations (molecular weight, mean charge density, charge repartition, etc.) and their interactions with blood elements (which bear superficial negative charges). The interaction on the red blood cell membrane with synthetic polycations having well-controlled macromolecular features and functionalized with pendent polyethylene glycol segments was ...
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Parallel testing of 895 sera by indirect hemagglutination and indirect fluorescent-antibody techniques showed 97.3% agreement. Although the indirect hemagglutination technique usually showed more cross-reactivity among serogroups than the indirect fluorescent-antibody technique with Formalin-fixed antigens and a conjugate which detected primarily immunoglobulin G antibodies, heterologous serogroup reactions were significantly lower than homologous serogroup titers and the etiological serogroup could be easily defined. The indirect hemagglutination techniques showed no cross-reactivity with a crude extract of Escherichia coli O13:K92:H4. Since the indirect hemagglutination technique was shown to detect both immunoglobulin M and immunoglobulin G antibodies and was found to be rapid, simple, and inexpensive, it appears to be an excellent alternative to the indirect fluorescent-antibody test for serodiagnosis of legionellosis. ...
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention have determined that some adults have serum cross-reactive antibodies to the new influenza H1N1 virus. One of the techniques used to reach this conclusion is the hemagglutination inhibition (HI) assay. How does this assay work? To understand the HI assay, we must discuss the h
An immunodiagnostic test card includes a plurality of transparent chambers wherein each chamber includes a quantity of testing material that combines with a patient sample, when mixed, to produce an agglutination reaction. A plurality of indicia are disposed to aid in the manufacture and determining the usability of the cards prior to test and also in objectively grading the agglutination reactions that are formed or lack of agglutination.
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Did you know that pressure cooking-while it works with many foods to destroy or drastically reduce lectin protein content-actually functions to enhance and strengthen it in others? ...
... , or haemagglutination, is a specific form of agglutination that involves red blood cells (RBCs). It has two ... Hemagglutination at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) (All articles with unsourced statements ... the greatest dilution which inhibits hemagglutination). Muramatsu M, Gonzalez HD, Cacciola R, Aikawa A, Yaqoob MM, Puliatti C ( ... common uses in the laboratory: blood typing and the quantification of virus dilutions in a haemagglutination assay. Blood type ...
The hemagglutination assay or haemagglutination assay (HA) and the hemagglutination inhibition assay (HI or HAI) were developed ... HA and HI apply the process of hemagglutination, in which sialic acid receptors on the surface of red blood cells (RBCs) bind ... Hemagglutination is observed in the presence of staphylococci, vibrios, and other bacterial species, similar to the mechanism ... Hemagglutination Virus quantification Hirst, GK (1942). "The quantitative determination of Influenza virus and antibodies by ...
In molecular biology, the haemagglutination activity domain is a conserved protein domain found near the N terminus of a number ... This domain is suggested to be a carbohydrate-dependent haemagglutination activity site. In Bordetella pertussis, the ...
Hemagglutination assay. In generating an immune response to an antigen, the B-cells go through a process of maturation, from ... The IgM can be used directly in hemagglutination assays, depicted on the right. IgM has 10 antigen binding regions per molecule ...
"Influenza hemagglutination inhibition assay". Retrieved 19 October 2020. (Articles with short description, ...
The hemagglutination inhibition assay is a common variation of the HA assay used to measure flu-specific antibody levels in ... The hemagglutination assay (HA) is a common non-fluorescence protein quantification assay specific for influenza. It relies on ... "Influenza hemagglutination inhibition assay". "Pierce Protein Biology". Rodda, S.J.; Gallichio, H.A.; Hampson, A.W (1981). "The ... The assay produces a result of hemagglutination units (HAU), with typical pfu to HAU ratios in the 106 range. This assay takes ...
... and hemagglutination assays, with particular emphasis on use of the ELISA for its high sensitivity (unlike the hemagglutination ... Killian ML (2008). "Hemagglutination assay for the avian influenza virus". Avian Influenza Virus. Methods in Molecular Biology ... Fukumi H, Nishikawa F, Kitayama T (August 1954). "A pneumotropic virus from mice causing hemagglutination". Japanese Journal of ... Hemagglutinin-neuraminidase (HN) is a single protein that induces hemagglutination and possesses neuraminidase (sialidase) ...
Hemagglutination is the process by which red blood cells agglutinate, meaning clump or clog. The agglutin involved in ... hemagglutination is called hemagglutinin. In cross-matching, donor red blood cells and the recipient's serum or plasma are ...
Jindayok T, Piromsontikorn S, Srimuang S, Khupulsup K, Krajaejun T (July 2009). "Hemagglutination Test for Rapid Serodiagnosis ...
This lectin exists as a disulfide-linked homodimer of two subunits; the dimeric form is essential for hemagglutination activity ...
... erecta was reported to have strong hemagglutination activity. In addition, the chloroform fraction of a methanol ...
On the contrary, if hemagglutination occurs, the test will result negative. Hemagglutination blood typing detection: this ... HIA (Hemagglutination Inhibition Assay): is a serologic assay which can be used either to screen for antibodies using RBCs with ... Cold agglutinin disease Hemagglutination assay Neuraminidase Influenza hemagglutinin (HA) Agglutination Bangaru, Sandhya; Lang ... "Hemagglutination detection for blood typing based on waveguide-mode sensors". Sensing and Bio-Sensing Research. 3: 59-64. doi: ...
Cold hemagglutination was first reported by Landsteiner in 1903 and found to occur in human beings in 1918. The association of ... The auto antibodies responsible for hemagglutination at low temperatures, cold agglutinins (CA), may be found in the sera of ... RØRVIK, K (1954). "The syndrome of high-titre cold haemagglutination; a survey and a case report". Acta Medica Scandinavica. ... cold hemagglutination with hemolysis was described in 1937 by Rosenthal and Corten. During the 1960s, Dacie and Schubothe ...
Mettler, N. E.; Clarke, D. H.; Casals, J. (1971). "Hemagglutination Inhibition with Arboviruses: Relationship Between Titers ... and hemagglutination-inhibition test. In the past, arboviruses were organized into one of four groups: A, B, C, and D. Group A ...
Older methods included complement fixation tests, hemagglutination inhibition and virus neutralisation. Newer methods us enzyme ...
Her main research areas include influenza vaccination and influenza hemagglutination inhibition. Her thesis on 1 - ...
Many legume seeds have been proven to contain high lectin activity, termed hemagglutination. Soybean is the most important ... "Sialidase-Enhanced Lectin-Like Mechanism for Actinomyces viscosus and Actinomyces naeslundii Hemagglutination". Infection and ...
Other tests include various fluorescence assays, indirect hemagglutination, (PCR) and latex agglutination. An ELISA technique ...
A seroprevalence study in Andaman and Nicobar islands in 2002 revealed a high prevalence of hemagglutination inhibition (HI) ... Other methods of diagnosis included hemagglutination inhibition (HI), complement fixation, neutralization tests. However, new ...
Royal, Jr., George C.; Sampson, Calvin C.; Faggett, Timothy (1981). "A Rapid Passive Hemagglutination Method For Demonstrating ...
... including hemagglutination assays. He worked on a live vaccine against influenza, but the vaccine was unsuccessful when tested ...
Sampaio, A. A. C. (1952). "Inhibitors of influenza virus haemagglutination in normal animal sera". Bulletin of the World Health ...
1966: Launch of HA Ag (TPHA), the world's first hemagglutination test for syphilis. 1978: Launch of the syphilis SERODIA®-TP•PA ...
Brand, K. G.; Syverton, J. T. (1962). "Results of Species-Specific Hemagglutination Tests on "Transformed," Nontransformed, and ...
Hutson, A. M.; Atmar, R. L.; Marcus, D. M.; Estes, M. K. (2003). "Norwalk virus-like particle hemagglutination by binding to h ...
Cooper, M. D.; Hollingdale, M. R.; Vinson, J. W.; Costa, J. (1976). "A Passive Hemagglutination Test for Diagnosis of Trench ...
Many traditional serological tests such as hemagglutination or complement fixation employ this principle. Such tests can ...
Khalesi, B.; Bonne, N.; Stewart, M.; Sharp, M.; Raidal, S.R. (2005). "A comparison of haemagglutination, haemagglutination ... and excreted antigen detection in feather dander using haemagglutination assay (HA) alongside serology using haemagglutination ... "Laboratory diagnosis of psittacine beak and feather disease by haemagglutination and haemagglutination inhibition". Australian ... Raidal, S.R.; Cross, M.G. (1994). "The haemagglutination spectrum of psittacine beak and feather disease virus". Avian ...
They cause apoptosis, hemagglutination, inhibition of protein synthesis, and depurination of ribosomes and DNA. Mouse ...
Hemagglutination inhibition (HI) is one method of serology that detects antibodies for diagnostic purposes. Western blot ( ... No samples of influenza D virus were detected in serum samples from humans; however, hemagglutination-inhibiting antibodies ...
The measurement of antibody in human malaria infections by a formolized tanned sheep cell haemagglutination test / by B. Stein ...
Hemagglutination inhibition antibody titers to influenza A/ H1N1 viruses (Surplus) (SSHN10_R) RDC Only Data File: SSHN10_R.xpt ... SSH1N1CA: Geometric mean hemagglutination inhibition (HI) titer against the influenza A/H1N1 virus A/California/7/2009. ... SSH3N2PR: Geometric mean hemagglutination inhibition (HI) titer against the influenza AH3N2 virus A/Perth16/2009 Continuous ... SSH3N2BR: Geometric mean hemagglutination inhibition (HI) titer against the influenza A/H3N2 virus B/Brisbane/60/2008. ...
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N. (‎1974)‎. Diagnosis of human and animal brucellosis by the indirect haemagglutination test. Bulletin of the World Health ...
Malarial Antibodies Measured by the Indirect Hemagglutination Test in West African Children published on Mar 1976 by The ... The indirect hemagglutination test with Plasmodium falciparum antigen was used to measure malarial antibodies in filter paper ... Malarial Antibodies Measured by the Indirect Hemagglutination Test in West African Children ...
Shah, K. V. ; Valis, J. D. ; Daniel, R. W. / Hemagglutination with simian papovavirus SA12. In: Journal of clinical ... Shah, KV, Valis, JD & Daniel, RW 1978, Hemagglutination with simian papovavirus SA12, Journal of clinical microbiology, vol. ... Hemagglutination with simian papovavirus SA12. Journal of clinical microbiology. 1978 Dec 1;7(4):396-398. ... Shah, K. V., Valis, J. D., & Daniel, R. W. (1978). Hemagglutination with simian papovavirus SA12. Journal of clinical ...
Cigarette smoking and hemagglutination inhibition response to influenza after natural disease and immunization. ... Cigarette smoking and hemagglutination inhibition response to influenza after natural disease and immunization. Journal Article ...
From 4 equine groups, the antibody protection levels against influenza were evaluted through the hemagglutination inhibition ... 1996). Equine influenza: evaluation of the humoral immune response through the hemagglutination inhibition and single radial ... Equine influenza: evaluation of the humoral immune response through the hemagglutination inhibition and single radial ... Equine Influenza: evaluation of the humoral immune response through the hemagglutination inhibition and single radial ...
Co MD, Cruz J, Takeda A, Ennis FA, Terajima M. Comparison of complement dependent lytic, hemagglutination inhibition and ... Comparison of complement dependent lytic, hemagglutination inhibition and microneutralization antibody responses in influenza ... Comparison of complement dependent lytic, hemagglutination inhibition and microneutralization antibody responses in influenza ...
Hemagglutination Tests Humans Research Article Syphilis Serodiagnosis Treponema Immobilization Test Treponema Pallidum ... Evaluation of the automated micro-hemagglutination assay for antibodies to Treponema pallidum.. ... Title : Evaluation of the automated micro-hemagglutination assay for antibodies to Treponema pallidum. Personal Author(s) : ... Evaluation of the automated micro-hemagglutination assay for antibodies to Treponema pallidum. ...
Hemagglutination test. The indirect hemagglutination test is easy to perform. However, it usually does not detect antibodies ...
Kinetics of Hemagglutination-Inhibiting Antibodies Following Maternal Influenza Vaccination Among Mothers With and Those ... Kinetics of Hemagglutination-Inhibiting Antibodies Following Maternal Influenza Vaccination Among Mothers With and Those ...
... :. type of agglutination reaction is routinely performed to type red blood cells (RBCs), wherein RBCs are mixed ... Hemagglutination, immunology, Kuby Immunology - 5thEdition, microbial lexicon, Types of agglutination reactionsLeave a comment ... Posts about Hemagglutination written by MicroScopia IWM ...
"Hemagglutination" is a descriptor in the National Library of Medicines controlled vocabulary thesaurus, MeSH (Medical Subject ... This graph shows the total number of publications written about "Hemagglutination" by people in this website by year, and ... Rapid phenotyping of HPA-1a using either diabody-based hemagglutination or recombinant IgG1-based assays. Transfusion. 1999 Jul ... The aggregation of ERYTHROCYTES by AGGLUTININS, including antibodies, lectins, and viral proteins (HEMAGGLUTINATION, VIRAL). ...
Principle of Hemagglutination Inhibition Test. HAI Titer: The maximum dilution of serum (Ab) that inhibits hemagglutination is ... Principle of Hemagglutination Inhibition Test. *When measles viruses and red blood cells come together, hemagglutination occurs ... Hemagglutination can detect the presence of the virus in infected cell cultures; particular suppression of hemagglutination can ... Hemagglutination is the process by which viral hemagglutinins react with red blood cells to form a lattice of agglutinated ...
Purification of toxoplasma haemagglutination antigen. Indian Journal of Medical Research. 1978 Jul; 68(): 44-51. en_US. ...
... hemagglutination differences alter hemagglutination inhibition responses against influenza A/H1N1. Viral. Immunol. 27, 174-178 ... The impact of egg adaptation/s in the HA protein on the antigenicity of A(H3N2) viruses was assessed by the haemagglutination ... Haemagglutination inhibition assay. Pre- and post-vaccination sera were used to analyse antibody responses. Subjects were ... Amniotic or allantoic fluid was harvested and the presence of virus was assessed by Haemagglutination (HA) Assay using 1% ...
Reagents and test kits for the detection of rheumatic factors and infectious diseases
Sheep Disease virus using Passive Haemagglutination and Haemagglutination inhibition test. Veterinary Record. Vol. 39. No 77 p ... Sheep Disease virus using Passive Haemagglutination and Haemagglutination inhibition test. Veterinary Record. Vol. 39. No 77 p ...
Methods: Firstly, we developed a receptor-binding domain-specific haemagglutination test (HAT) to Wuhan and VOC (alpha, beta, ... A rapid antibody screening haemagglutination test for predicting immunity to SARS-CoV-2 variants of concern. Share Share Share ... Methods: Firstly, we developed a receptor-binding domain-specific haemagglutination test (HAT) to Wuhan and VOC (alpha, beta, ... A rapid antibody screening haemagglutination test for predicting immunity to SARS-CoV-2 variants of concern. ...
Haemagglutination in RBC- when people sneeze, cough or speak - Indirect - Up to 1 metre• Inhaling droplets through direct ... Assignment: Haemagglutination in RBC. Assignment: Haemagglutination in RBC. ORDER NOW FOR AN ORIGINAL PAPER:Assignment: ... Haemagglutinin • HA named because it causes haemagglutination in RBC. • Binds to sialic acid on epithelial cells to initiated ...
tanned red cell hemagglutination inhibition immunoassay answers are found in the Tabers Medical Dictionary powered by Unbound ... Tanned red cell hemagglutination inhibition immunoassay. In: Venes DD, ed. Tabers Medical Dictionary. F.A. Davis Company; 2021 ... Tanned red cell hemagglutination inhibition immunoassay. (2021). In Venes, D. (Ed.), Tabers Medical Dictionary (24th ed.). F.A ... "Tanned Red Cell Hemagglutination Inhibition Immunoassay." Tabers Medical Dictionary, 24th ed., F.A. Davis Company, 2021. ...
Hemagglutination. Hemaggiutination. No Antigen Source. SMB, blood ext. by sucrose-acetone Erythrocytes (species used). Goose ...
Hemagglutination. Hemaggiutination. Yes Antigen Source. SMB ext. by acetone-ether or sucrose-acetone Erythrocytes (species used ...
Hemagglutination. Hemaggiutination. No Antigen Source. SMB ext. by acetone-ether Erythrocytes (species used). Goose ...
Although the hemagglutination (HA) assay has been routinely employed for in vitro quantitation of JCV, its sensitivity is ... From: Comparison of real-time PCR and hemagglutination assay for quantitation of human polyomavirus JC ...
Hemagglutination. NA. 1,280 (,160). 640. NT. Neg. NT. NT. 320. 160. 160. ...
Haemagglutination and cytotoxic studies of H-2. V. T-e anti-27, 28, 29 family of antibodies.. scientific article published in ... Haemagglutination and cytotoxic studies of H-2. V. T-e anti-27, 28, 29 family of antibodies. (English) ...
  • This data release contains the hemagglutination inhibition assay titers to 2009 H1N1 and three contemporary influenza viruses. (
  • Antibody titers against 2009 H1N1 and three contemporary influenza viruses were measured with the hemagglutination inhibition (HI) assay following standard procedures by Focus Diagnositcs, Inc., Cypress, CA. (
  • Evaluation of the automated micro-hemagglutination assay for antibodies to Treponema pallidum. (
  • 1:10 by hemagglutination inhibition assay). (
  • and B Malaysia) were determined by the Hemagglutination inhibition assay method. (
  • Thus, we performed crystallization and structure determination assays of mGal-1, and determined the carbohydrate binding specificy of mGal-1 and hGal-1 using a glycan array and using hemagglutination assay. (
  • Selected piglets from the litters were sampled multiple days post vaccination (DPV) by collecting nasal swabs and blood, and were tested using a LAIV vaccine specific RT-PCR assay and hemagglutination inhibition assay against the LAIV strains respectively. (
  • Although repeated exposure to influenza H3 induced the so-called "original antigenic sin" phenomena in hemagglutination inhibition assay titers against exposure to viruses later on, the ferret antibodies showed gradually enhanced avidity for different H3/hemagglutinin. (
  • The indirect hemagglutination test with Plasmodium falciparum antigen was used to measure malarial antibodies in filter paper blood specimens from 527 West African children. (
  • Kinetics of Hemagglutination-Inhibiting Antibodies Following Maternal Influenza Vaccination Among Mothers With and Those Without HIV Infection and Their Infants. (
  • If the patient's serum lacks antibodies against the surface proteins of the test virus, hemagglutination will occur because surface molecules are free to hemagglutinate red blood cells (negative result). (
  • Therefore, hemagglutination is suppressed in the presence of antibodies. (
  • If the serum contains no antibodies that react with the measles virus, then all wells will display hemagglutination. (
  • Similarly, if measles virus-specific antibodies are present, hemagglutination will not occur until the antibodies are sufficiently diluted. (
  • Background: The association of hemagglutination inhibition (HAI) antibodies with protection from influenza among healthcare personnel (HCP) with occupational exposure to influenza viruses has not been well-described. (
  • Hemagglutination-inhibition test was performed to detect specific antibodies against Omsk hemorrhagic fever virus. (
  • Rapid phenotyping of HPA-1a using either diabody-based hemagglutination or recombinant IgG1-based assays. (
  • Methods: Firstly, we developed a receptor-binding domain-specific haemagglutination test (HAT) to Wuhan and VOC (alpha, beta, gamma and delta) and compared to pseudotype, microneutralisation and virus neutralisation assays in 835 convalescent sera. (
  • Diverse modifications to the biaryl ring to improve druglike physical and pharmacokinetic properties of mannosides were assessed for FimH binding affinity based on their effects on hemagglutination and biofilm formation along with direct FimH binding assays. (
  • This study was conducted to isolate and identify the EDS virus in the chicken layer that was diagnosed as a disease of EDS by hemagglutination (HA) and hemagglutination inhibition (HI) assays. (
  • Serologic tests include agglutination tests, indirect hemagglutination, complement fixation, immunofluorescence assays and enzyme immunoassays. (
  • The maximum dilution of serum (Ab) that inhibits hemagglutination is known as the serum's HAI titer. (
  • Geometric Mean Titers (GMTs) of Hemagglutination Inhibition Antibody Titers Pre- and Post-vaccination With Fluzone® High Dose or Standard Fluzone® Vaccines. (
  • Hemagglutination is the process by which viral hemagglutinins react with red blood cells to form a lattice of agglutinated cells that settle unevenly in a tube or microtiter well. (
  • The presence of non-specific inhibitors of viral haemagglutination and naturally occurring agglutinins of the erythrocytes may complicate the HAI test. (
  • Despite the wide distribution of SINV, symptomatic and enzyme immunoassays and hemagglutination-inhibition infections in humans have been reported in only a few for the human samples. (
  • IMSEAR at SEARO: Purification of toxoplasma haemagglutination antigen. (
  • Kumar PS, Kumar R, Mohapatra LN. Purification of toxoplasma haemagglutination antigen. (
  • It carries the antigen determinants for the MNS blood groups and has been proposed to be an inhibitor of hemagglutination and hemolysis. (
  • Hemagglutination" is a descriptor in the National Library of Medicine's controlled vocabulary thesaurus, MeSH (Medical Subject Headings) . (
  • Searo-Diagnosis of Dengue Infections by Haemagglutination Inhibition Test (‏HI)‏ in Suspected Cases in Chittagong, Bangladesh. (
  • Piglet sera were tested by ELISA and hemagglutination inhibition. (
  • A rapid antibody screening haemagglutination test for predicting immunity to SARS-CoV-2 variants of concern. (
  • Impact of hemagglutination activity and M2e immunity on conferring protection against influenza viruses. (
  • Sheep Disease virus using Passive Haemagglutination and Haemagglutination inhibition test. (
  • When measles viruses and red blood cells come together, hemagglutination occurs (see image a). (
  • Back titration of the antigen's hemagglutination activity (to verify that four hemagglutinating viruses (HAU) were examined). (
  • Consequently, rLSL-N exhibits a weak hemagglutination activity to a rabbit reticulocyte through the glycan binding to subsites of the lectin. (
  • Cigarette smoking and hemagglutination inhibition response to influenza after natural disease and immunization. (
  • Crystal Structure of A Plant Albumin From Cicer Arietinum (Chickpea) Possessing Hemopexin Fold and Hemagglutination Activity Planta 2015 . (
  • From 4 equine groups, the antibody protection levels against influenza were evaluted through the hemagglutination inhibition and single radial haemolysis. (
  • Comparison of complement dependent lytic, hemagglutination inhibition and microneutralization antibody responses in influenza vaccinated individuals. (
  • Co MD, Cruz J, Takeda A, Ennis FA, Terajima M. Comparison of complement dependent lytic, hemagglutination inhibition and microneutralization antibody responses in influenza vaccinated individuals. (
  • tanned red cell hemagglutination inhibition immunoassay is a topic covered in the Taber's Medical Dictionary . (
  • Nursing Central Redesign , (
  • Hemagglutination inhibition data was used to visualize the antigenic relatedness of the isolates. (
  • Sequencing of the haemagglutination gene (HA) in nine representative H5N1 isolates revealed a multi-basic amino acid motif at the cleavage site (321-PQGEKRRKKR/GLF-333), which is characteristic of highly pathogenic AIV, in five of our isolates, while the other four isolates showed an amino acid substitution (Q322K) at this cleavage site to make it (321-P K GEKRRKKR/GLF-333). (
  • This graph shows the total number of publications written about "Hemagglutination" by people in this website by year, and whether "Hemagglutination" was a major or minor topic of these publications. (
  • CypherOne reads, analyzes, and creates a digital record of hemagglutination and hemagglutination inhibition assays. (
  • Hemagglutination inhibition (HI) and microneutralization (MN) assays were performed following standard procedures * using A/Minnesota/11/2010 (H3N2)v and seasonal influenza viruses, A/Wisconsin/67/2005 (H3N2), and A/Perth/16/2009 (H3N2). (
  • Methods: Firstly, we developed a receptor-binding domain-specific haemagglutination test (HAT) to Wuhan and VOC (alpha, beta, gamma and delta) and compared to pseudotype, microneutralisation and virus neutralisation assays in 835 convalescent sera. (
  • With the expanded number of longitudinal studies examining natural influenza infections in different population groups, as well as the expanded number of clinical trials investigating the efficacy of next-generation influenza vaccines, the development of improved immunological assays to measure correlates other than hemagglutination inhibition (HAI), microneutralization (MN) or neuraminidase inhibition (NAI) is timely and needed. (
  • This is the hemagglutination inhibition (HI) or neutralization buy cosopt eye drops assays. (
  • Laboratory-based methods assessing antibody function (e.g. haemagglutination inhibition assays, serum neutralisation assays) are considered the gold standard. (
  • The mAbs were characterized in ELISA, hemagglutination inhibition, western and neutralization assays. (
  • These proteins, which can be detected through hemagglutination assays, interact with different carbohydrates present in cell and viral surfaces. (
  • What are the benefits of TREPONEMA PALLIDUM HAEMAGGLUTINATION Full Body Checkup? (
  • They found a positive Treponema pallidum haemagglutination test in 6.4% of girls and 1.1% of boys. (
  • Ectopic pth secretion may due to hemagglutination and hemolysis. (
  • Glycophorins A carries the antigen determinants for the MNS blood groups and has been proposed to be an inhibitor of hemagglutination and hemolysis. (
  • By 7 d post vaccination, the vaccine fulfilled the licensing criteria for antibody responses to the HA detected by haemagglutination inhibition and single radial hemolysis. (
  • A positive result may be in the form of agglutinating or lysing red cells referred to as hemagglutination and/or hemolysis, respectively. (
  • Hemagglutination inhibition antibody titers were measured against influenza A and B strains included in the formulation of the vaccines and against mismatched strains. (
  • Both, the adenoviral vector AdHACD and the recombinant protein rHACD, induced hemagglutination-inhibiting antibody titers significantly higher than their counterparts carrying HA alone. (
  • Serum hemagglutination inhibition titers were measured on days 0 (prevaccination), 8, 21, 29 and 42. (
  • Whereas with viral hemagglutination there is a clumping ( agglutination ) of red blood cells ( hemagglutination ), and this occurs specifically as a consequence of binding of individual virions to more than one red blood cell, with viral hemagglutination inhibition that virus- cell interaction is blocked by antibody binding. (
  • Rapoza classified monkey adenoviruses into 4 hemagglutination subgroups on the basis of their differential agglutination properties with respect to their ability to agglutinate rat, rhesus, and guinea pig erythrocytes ( 6 ). (
  • Specificity mapping of bacterial lectins by inhibition of hemagglutination using deoxy and deoxyfluoro analogs of receptor-active saccharides. (
  • All participants had hemagglutination-inhibition (HAI) titers measured to all four vaccine- specific influenza antigens (A/H1N1, A/H3N2, B/Victoria, and B/Yamagata) before each vaccine dose and 28 to 42 days after the second dose. (
  • Hemagglutination tests were used at doctor's offices to diagnose pregnancy in the 1960s and 1970s. (
  • Hemagglutination inhibition and neutralization tests indicated that 8KS0813 was antigenically related to a prototype strain, APMV-6/duck/Hong Kong/18/199/77, but with an 8- and 16-fold difference, respectively, in their titers. (
  • Tests of Hemagglutination, Hemagglutination Inhibition, Complement Fixation, Neutralization in suckling mice and sensitivity to Sodium Deoxycholate were employed for identification of the isolate. (
  • According to tests of Complement Fixation, Hemagglutination Inhibition and Neutralization in mice, the virus was identified as the same as Iguape virus. (
  • Hemagglutination by adenoviruses. (
  • Since hemagglutination (HA) by human adenoviruses was first demonstrated by Rosén in 1958 (34), it has been shown that members of the six subgenera (A to F) display different HA properties (2, 26). (
  • Prevalence of pandemic (H1N1) 2009 haemagglutination inhibition (HAI) antibody titres ≥ 1:40 (putative protective level) in pre-pandemic sera. (
  • Few children but a greater proportion of adults showed pre-immunisation haemagglutination inhibition titres ≥40 to either virus. (
  • HBsAg and anti-HBs were tested by reversed passive hemagglutination and passive hemagglutination, respectively. (
  • Lipids extracted from both inagglutinable and agglutinable erythrocytes inhibited arbovirus haemagglutination. (
  • Mode of action of an inhibitor from agar on growth and hemagglutination of group A arboviruses. (
  • Results SRF231 binds CD47 and disrupts the CD47/SIRPα interaction without causing hemagglutination or RBC phagocytosis. (
  • Further laboratory investigation is required with indirect hemagglutination (sensitivity of 85%), which remains positive for several years, or immunoelectrophoresis (sensitivity of 95%), which remains positive for only 1 year after eradication. (
  • The 15 μg dosage elicited a seroprotective hemagglutination inhibition (≥1:40) in 20%, 47% and 93% of children in the 6-35 month, 3-9 year and 10-17 year age strata 21 days after dose 1 and in 78%, 82% and 98% of children 21 days after dose 2, respectively. (
  • The protein was found to be an endogenous platelet participant in the haemagglutination process through its interactions with platelet bound fibrinogen. (
  • Use these 96-well microplates for micro-volume applications such as storage, sample or reagent transfer, serial dilution, hemagglutination, blood typing and compliment fixation. (
  • BFDV VLPs also possessed haemagglutinating activity which provides further evidence that self-assembled BFDV VLPs retain receptor mediated biological activity and that the determinants for BFDV haemagglutination activity rely solely on the capsid protein. (
  • E. ochreata treatment showed increased haemagglutination titre compared to negative control, thereby providing evidence that D. bulbifera and E. ochreata possessed immunomodulatory activity. (
  • 65 kDa) that causes hemagglutination and has acetylesterase activity. (