Sensitive tests to measure certain antigens, antibodies, or viruses, using their ability to agglutinate certain erythrocytes. (From Stedman, 26th ed)
The aggregation of ERYTHROCYTES by AGGLUTININS, including antibodies, lectins, and viral proteins (HEMAGGLUTINATION, VIRAL).
Serologic tests in which a known quantity of antigen is added to the serum prior to the addition of a red cell suspension. Reaction result is expressed as the smallest amount of antigen which causes complete inhibition of hemagglutination.
Agglutination of ERYTHROCYTES by a virus.
Agents that cause agglutination of red blood cells. They include antibodies, blood group antigens, lectins, autoimmune factors, bacterial, viral, or parasitic blood agglutinins, etc.
Immunoglobulins produced in response to VIRAL ANTIGENS.
Serologic tests based on inactivation of complement by the antigen-antibody complex (stage 1). Binding of free complement can be visualized by addition of a second antigen-antibody system such as red cells and appropriate red cell antibody (hemolysin) requiring complement for its completion (stage 2). Failure of the red cells to lyse indicates that a specific antigen-antibody reaction has taken place in stage 1. If red cells lyse, free complement is present indicating no antigen-antibody reaction occurred in stage 1.
The type (and only) species of RUBIVIRUS causing acute infection in humans, primarily children and young adults. Humans are the only natural host. A live, attenuated vaccine is available for prophylaxis.
Red blood cells. Mature erythrocytes are non-nucleated, biconcave disks containing HEMOGLOBIN whose function is to transport OXYGEN.
Vaccines used to prevent infection by viruses in the family ORTHOMYXOVIRIDAE. It includes both killed and attenuated vaccines. The composition of the vaccines is changed each year in response to antigenic shifts and changes in prevalence of influenza virus strains. The vaccine is usually bivalent or trivalent, containing one or two INFLUENZAVIRUS A strains and one INFLUENZAVIRUS B strain.
Serum that contains antibodies. It is obtained from an animal that has been immunized either by ANTIGEN injection or infection with microorganisms containing the antigen.
Thin, hairlike appendages, 1 to 20 microns in length and often occurring in large numbers, present on the cells of gram-negative bacteria, particularly Enterobacteriaceae and Neisseria. Unlike flagella, they do not possess motility, but being protein (pilin) in nature, they possess antigenic and hemagglutinating properties. They are of medical importance because some fimbriae mediate the attachment of bacteria to cells via adhesins (ADHESINS, BACTERIAL). Bacterial fimbriae refer to common pili, to be distinguished from the preferred use of "pili", which is confined to sex pili (PILI, SEX).
Specific hemagglutinin subtypes encoded by VIRUSES.
The measurement of infection-blocking titer of ANTISERA by testing a series of dilutions for a given virus-antiserum interaction end-point, which is generally the dilution at which tissue cultures inoculated with the serum-virus mixtures demonstrate cytopathology (CPE) or the dilution at which 50% of test animals injected with serum-virus mixtures show infectivity (ID50) or die (LD50).
I'm sorry for any confusion, but the term "geese" is a common name for certain species of waterfowl and doesn't have a medical definition. It is not related to medical terminology or healthcare.
An acute infectious disease caused by the RUBELLA VIRUS. The virus enters the respiratory tract via airborne droplet and spreads to the LYMPHATIC SYSTEM.
A family of RNA viruses causing INFLUENZA and other diseases. There are five recognized genera: INFLUENZAVIRUS A; INFLUENZAVIRUS B; INFLUENZAVIRUS C; ISAVIRUS; and THOGOTOVIRUS.
Serological reactions in which an antiserum against one antigen reacts with a non-identical but closely related antigen.
Technique involving the diffusion of antigen or antibody through a semisolid medium, usually agar or agarose gel, with the result being a precipitin reaction.
Proteins that share the common characteristic of binding to carbohydrates. Some ANTIBODIES and carbohydrate-metabolizing proteins (ENZYMES) also bind to carbohydrates, however they are not considered lectins. PLANT LECTINS are carbohydrate-binding proteins that have been primarily identified by their hemagglutinating activity (HEMAGGLUTININS). However, a variety of lectins occur in animal species where they serve diverse array of functions through specific carbohydrate recognition.
The type species of the genus INFLUENZAVIRUS A that causes influenza and other diseases in humans and animals. Antigenic variation occurs frequently between strains, allowing classification into subtypes and variants. Transmission is usually by aerosol (human and most non-aquatic hosts) or waterborne (ducks). Infected birds shed the virus in their saliva, nasal secretions, and feces.
A subtype of INFLUENZA A VIRUS comprised of the surface proteins hemagglutinin 3 and neuraminidase 2. The H3N2 subtype was responsible for the Hong Kong flu pandemic of 1968.
Thin, filamentous protein structures, including proteinaceous capsular antigens (fimbrial antigens), that mediate adhesion of E. coli to surfaces and play a role in pathogenesis. They have a high affinity for various epithelial cells.
A hexose or fermentable monosaccharide and isomer of glucose from manna, the ash Fraxinus ornus and related plants. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed & Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)
An acute viral infection in humans involving the respiratory tract. It is marked by inflammation of the NASAL MUCOSA; the PHARYNX; and conjunctiva, and by headache and severe, often generalized, myalgia.
Substances elaborated by bacteria that have antigenic activity.
An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed.
Immunoglobulins produced in a response to BACTERIAL ANTIGENS.
Physicochemical property of fimbriated (FIMBRIAE, BACTERIAL) and non-fimbriated bacteria of attaching to cells, tissue, and nonbiological surfaces. It is a factor in bacterial colonization and pathogenicity.
A method for the detection of very small quantities of antibody in which the antigen-antibody-complement complex adheres to indicator cells, usually primate erythrocytes or nonprimate blood platelets. The reaction is dependent on the number of bound C3 molecules on the C3b receptor sites of the indicator cell.
A subtype of INFLUENZA A VIRUS with the surface proteins hemagglutinin 1 and neuraminidase 1. The H1N1 subtype was responsible for the Spanish flu pandemic of 1918.
An enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of alpha-2,3, alpha-2,6-, and alpha-2,8-glycosidic linkages (at a decreasing rate, respectively) of terminal sialic residues in oligosaccharides, glycoproteins, glycolipids, colominic acid, and synthetic substrate. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992)
Polyphenolic compounds with molecular weights of around 500-3000 daltons and containing enough hydroxyl groups (1-2 per 100 MW) for effective cross linking of other compounds (ASTRINGENTS). The two main types are HYDROLYZABLE TANNINS and CONDENSED TANNINS. Historically, the term has applied to many compounds and plant extracts able to render skin COLLAGEN impervious to degradation. The word tannin derives from the Celtic word for OAK TREE which was used for leather processing.
Any of the ruminant mammals with curved horns in the genus Ovis, family Bovidae. They possess lachrymal grooves and interdigital glands, which are absent in GOATS.
Substances elaborated by viruses that have antigenic activity.
Substances, usually of biological origin, that cause cells or other organic particles to aggregate and stick to each other. They include those ANTIBODIES which cause aggregation or agglutination of particulate or insoluble ANTIGENS.
The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.
Membrane glycoproteins from influenza viruses which are involved in hemagglutination, virus attachment, and envelope fusion. Fourteen distinct subtypes of HA glycoproteins and nine of NA glycoproteins have been identified from INFLUENZA A VIRUS; no subtypes have been identified for Influenza B or Influenza C viruses.
Studies determining the effectiveness or value of processes, personnel, and equipment, or the material on conducting such studies. For drugs and devices, CLINICAL TRIALS AS TOPIC; DRUG EVALUATION; and DRUG EVALUATION, PRECLINICAL are available.
Tests that are dependent on the clumping of cells, microorganisms, or particles when mixed with specific antiserum. (From Stedman, 26th ed)
A class of immunoglobulin bearing mu chains (IMMUNOGLOBULIN MU-CHAINS). IgM can fix COMPLEMENT. The name comes from its high molecular weight and originally being called a macroglobulin.
Vaccines in which the infectious microbial nucleic acid components have been destroyed by chemical or physical treatment (e.g., formalin, beta-propiolactone, gamma radiation) without affecting the antigenicity or immunogenicity of the viral coat or bacterial outer membrane proteins.
Common name for the species Gallus gallus, the domestic fowl, in the family Phasianidae, order GALLIFORMES. It is descended from the red jungle fowl of SOUTHEAST ASIA.
The clumping together of suspended material resulting from the action of AGGLUTININS.
Sets of cell surface antigens located on BLOOD CELLS. They are usually membrane GLYCOPROTEINS or GLYCOLIPIDS that are antigenically distinguished by their carbohydrate moieties.
The major immunoglobulin isotype class in normal human serum. There are several isotype subclasses of IgG, for example, IgG1, IgG2A, and IgG2B.
Diagnostic procedures involving immunoglobulin reactions.
The period of recovery following an illness.
A phenomenon manifested by an agent or substance adhering to or being adsorbed on the surface of a red blood cell, as tuberculin can be adsorbed on red blood cells under certain conditions. (Stedman, 25th ed)
Virus diseases caused by the ORTHOMYXOVIRIDAE.
The property of antibodies which enables them to react with some ANTIGENIC DETERMINANTS and not with others. Specificity is dependent on chemical composition, physical forces, and molecular structure at the binding site.
The production of ANTIBODIES by proliferating and differentiated B-LYMPHOCYTES under stimulation by ANTIGENS.
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.
Process of determining and distinguishing species of bacteria or viruses based on antigens they share.
Large, hoofed mammals of the family EQUIDAE. Horses are active day and night with most of the day spent seeking and consuming food. Feeding peaks occur in the early morning and late afternoon, and there are several daily periods of rest.
The most common mineral of a group of hydrated aluminum silicates, approximately H2Al2Si2O8-H2O. It is prepared for pharmaceutical and medicinal purposes by levigating with water to remove sand, etc. (From Merck Index, 11th ed) The name is derived from Kao-ling (Chinese: "high ridge"), the original site. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
A mobile, very volatile, highly flammable liquid used as an inhalation anesthetic and as a solvent for waxes, fats, oils, perfumes, alkaloids, and gums. It is mildly irritating to skin and mucous membranes.
Polysaccharides found in bacteria and in capsules thereof.
A common name used for the genus Cavia. The most common species is Cavia porcellus which is the domesticated guinea pig used for pets and biomedical research.
A series of steps taken in order to conduct research.
A genus of gram-negative, mostly facultatively anaerobic bacteria in the family MYCOPLASMATACEAE. The cells are bounded by a PLASMA MEMBRANE and lack a true CELL WALL. Its organisms are pathogens found on the MUCOUS MEMBRANES of humans, ANIMALS, and BIRDS.
Diseases of domestic swine and of the wild boar of the genus Sus.
Immunoelectrophoresis in which immunoprecipitation occurs when antigen at the cathode is caused to migrate in an electric field through a suitable medium of diffusion against a stream of antibody migrating from the anode as a result of endosmotic flow.
A genus of the family PARAMYXOVIRIDAE (subfamily PARAMYXOVIRINAE) where all the virions have both HEMAGGLUTININ and NEURAMINIDASE activities and encode a non-structural C protein. SENDAI VIRUS is the type species.
Passive agglutination tests in which antigen is adsorbed onto latex particles which then clump in the presence of antibody specific for the adsorbed antigen. (From Stedman, 26th ed)
Proteins that are structural components of bacterial fimbriae (FIMBRIAE, BACTERIAL) or sex pili (PILI, SEX).
The destruction of ERYTHROCYTES by many different causal agents such as antibodies, bacteria, chemicals, temperature, and changes in tonicity.
A subtype of INFLUENZA A VIRUS comprised of the surface proteins hemagglutinin 9 and neuraminidase 2. The H9N2 subtype usually infects domestic birds (POULTRY) but there have been some human infections reported.
Species of the genus INFLUENZAVIRUS B that cause HUMAN INFLUENZA and other diseases primarily in humans. Antigenic variation is less extensive than in type A viruses (INFLUENZA A VIRUS) and consequently there is no basis for distinct subtypes or variants. Epidemics are less likely than with INFLUENZA A VIRUS and there have been no pandemics. Previously only found in humans, Influenza B virus has been isolated from seals which may constitute the animal reservoir from which humans are exposed.
A suborder of PRIMATES consisting of six families: CEBIDAE (some New World monkeys), ATELIDAE (some New World monkeys), CERCOPITHECIDAE (Old World monkeys), HYLOBATIDAE (gibbons and siamangs), CALLITRICHINAE (marmosets and tamarins), and HOMINIDAE (humans and great apes).
Polymeric derivatives of GALLIC ACID that are esters of a sugar.
Immunoglobulin molecules having a specific amino acid sequence by virtue of which they interact only with the ANTIGEN (or a very similar shape) that induced their synthesis in cells of the lymphoid series (especially PLASMA CELLS).
Sites on an antigen that interact with specific antibodies.
Cell-surface components or appendages of bacteria that facilitate adhesion (BACTERIAL ADHESION) to other cells or to inanimate surfaces. Most fimbriae (FIMBRIAE, BACTERIAL) of gram-negative bacteria function as adhesins, but in many cases it is a minor subunit protein at the tip of the fimbriae that is the actual adhesin. In gram-positive bacteria, a protein or polysaccharide surface layer serves as the specific adhesin. What is sometimes called polymeric adhesin (BIOFILMS) is distinct from protein adhesin.
The largest class of organic compounds, including STARCH; GLYCOGEN; CELLULOSE; POLYSACCHARIDES; and simple MONOSACCHARIDES. Carbohydrates are composed of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen in a ratio of Cn(H2O)n.
A property of the surface of an object that makes it stick to another surface.
Protein or glycoprotein substances of plant origin that bind to sugar moieties in cell walls or membranes. Some carbohydrate-metabolizing proteins (ENZYMES) from PLANTS also bind to carbohydrates, however they are not considered lectins. Many plant lectins change the physiology of the membrane of BLOOD CELLS to cause agglutination, mitosis, or other biochemical changes. They may play a role in plant defense mechanisms.
Immunologic techniques based on the use of: (1) enzyme-antibody conjugates; (2) enzyme-antigen conjugates; (3) antienzyme antibody followed by its homologous enzyme; or (4) enzyme-antienzyme complexes. These are used histologically for visualizing or labeling tissue specimens.
Serologic tests for syphilis.
A systemic non-venereal infection of the tropics caused by TREPONEMA PALLIDUM subspecies pertenue.
Administration of vaccines to stimulate the host's immune response. This includes any preparation intended for active immunological prophylaxis.
Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.
The causative agent of venereal and non-venereal syphilis as well as yaws.
Test for tissue antigen using either a direct method, by conjugation of antibody with fluorescent dye (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, DIRECT) or an indirect method, by formation of antigen-antibody complex which is then labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, INDIRECT). The tissue is then examined by fluorescence microscopy.
The oldest recognized genus of the family PASTEURELLACEAE. It consists of several species. Its organisms occur most frequently as coccobacillus or rod-shaped and are gram-negative, nonmotile, facultative anaerobes. Species of this genus are found in both animals and humans.
Substances that are recognized by the immune system and induce an immune reaction.
A subtype of INFLUENZA A VIRUS comprised of the surface proteins hemagglutinin 5 and neuraminidase 1. The H5N1 subtype, frequently referred to as the bird flu virus, is endemic in wild birds and very contagious among both domestic (POULTRY) and wild birds. It does not usually infect humans, but some cases have been reported.
One of the protein CROSS-LINKING REAGENTS that is used as a disinfectant for sterilization of heat-sensitive equipment and as a laboratory reagent, especially as a fixative.
A strong oxidizing agent.
A subtype of INFLUENZA A VIRUS comprised of the surface proteins hemagglutinin 3 and neuraminidase 8. The H3N8 subtype has frequently been found in horses.
Neuraminic acids are a family of nine-carbon sugars (sialic acids) that are commonly found as terminal residues on glycoproteins and gangliosides in animal tissues, playing crucial roles in various biological processes including cell recognition, inflammation, and bacterial/viral infectivity.
EPIDEMIOLOGIC STUDIES based on the detection through serological testing of characteristic change in the serum level of specific ANTIBODIES. Latent subclinical infections and carrier states can thus be detected in addition to clinically overt cases.
Inflammation of the KIDNEY involving the renal parenchyma (the NEPHRONS); KIDNEY PELVIS; and KIDNEY CALICES. It is characterized by ABDOMINAL PAIN; FEVER; NAUSEA; VOMITING; and occasionally DIARRHEA.
Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).
A disease of humans and animals that resembles GLANDERS. It is caused by BURKHOLDERIA PSEUDOMALLEI and may range from a dormant infection to a condition that causes multiple abscesses, pneumonia, and bacteremia.
Arthropod-borne viruses. A non-taxonomic designation for viruses that can replicate in both vertebrate hosts and arthropod vectors. Included are some members of the following families: ARENAVIRIDAE; BUNYAVIRIDAE; REOVIRIDAE; TOGAVIRIDAE; and FLAVIVIRIDAE. (From Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2nd ed)
The major human blood type system which depends on the presence or absence of two antigens A and B. Type O occurs when neither A nor B is present and AB when both are present. A and B are genetic factors that determine the presence of enzymes for the synthesis of certain glycoproteins mainly in the red cell membrane.
The processes triggered by interactions of ANTIBODIES with their ANTIGENS.
Deliberate stimulation of the host's immune response. ACTIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of ANTIGENS or IMMUNOLOGIC ADJUVANTS. PASSIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of IMMUNE SERA or LYMPHOCYTES or their extracts (e.g., transfer factor, immune RNA) or transplantation of immunocompetent cell producing tissue (thymus or bone marrow).
Sorbitan mono-9-octadecanoate poly(oxy-1,2-ethanediyl) derivatives; complex mixtures of polyoxyethylene ethers used as emulsifiers or dispersing agents in pharmaceuticals.
The type species of RUBULAVIRUS that causes an acute infectious disease in humans, affecting mainly children. Transmission occurs by droplet infection.
The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.
A heterogeneous mixture of glycoproteins responsible for the gel structure of egg white. It has trypsin-inhibiting activity.
Infection of domestic and wild fowl and other BIRDS with INFLUENZA A VIRUS. Avian influenza usually does not sicken birds, but can be highly pathogenic and fatal in domestic POULTRY.
A family of viruses, mainly arboviruses, consisting of a single strand of RNA. Virions are enveloped particles 90-120 nm diameter. The complete family contains over 300 members arranged in five genera: ORTHOBUNYAVIRUS; HANTAVIRUS; NAIROVIRUS; PHLEBOVIRUS; and TOSPOVIRUS.
A genus of REOVIRIDAE, causing acute gastroenteritis in BIRDS and MAMMALS, including humans. Transmission is horizontal and by environmental contamination. Seven species (Rotaviruses A thru G) are recognized.
A species of FLAVIVIRUS, one of the Japanese encephalitis virus group (ENCEPHALITIS VIRUSES, JAPANESE), which is the etiological agent of Japanese encephalitis found in Asia, southeast Asia, and the Indian subcontinent.
Represents 15-20% of the human serum immunoglobulins, mostly as the 4-chain polymer in humans or dimer in other mammals. Secretory IgA (IMMUNOGLOBULIN A, SECRETORY) is the main immunoglobulin in secretions.
An epithelial cell line derived from a kidney of a normal adult female dog.
Diseases of birds which are raised as a source of meat or eggs for human consumption and are usually found in barnyards, hatcheries, etc. The concept is differentiated from BIRD DISEASES which is for diseases of birds not considered poultry and usually found in zoos, parks, and the wild.
A family of spherical viruses, of the order MONONEGAVIRALES, somewhat larger than the orthomyxoviruses, and containing single-stranded RNA. Subfamilies include PARAMYXOVIRINAE and PNEUMOVIRINAE.
The most well known avian paramyxovirus in the genus AVULAVIRUS and the cause of a highly infectious pneumoencephalitis in fowl. It is also reported to cause CONJUNCTIVITIS in humans. Transmission is by droplet inhalation or ingestion of contaminated water or food.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
Glycosides formed by the reaction of the hydroxyl group on the anomeric carbon atom of galactose with an alcohol to form an acetal. They include both alpha- and beta-galactosides.
Infections of the brain caused by arthropod-borne viruses (i.e., arboviruses) primarily from the families TOGAVIRIDAE; FLAVIVIRIDAE; BUNYAVIRIDAE; REOVIRIDAE; and RHABDOVIRIDAE. Life cycles of these viruses are characterized by ZOONOSES, with birds and lower mammals serving as intermediate hosts. The virus is transmitted to humans by the bite of mosquitoes (CULICIDAE) or TICKS. Clinical manifestations include fever, headache, alterations of mentation, focal neurologic deficits, and COMA. (From Clin Microbiol Rev 1994 Jan;7(1):89-116; Walton, Brain's Diseases of the Nervous System, 10th ed, p321)
'Squalene' is a biologically occurring triterpene compound, naturally produced in humans, animals, and plants, that forms an essential part of the lipid-rich membranes in various tissues, including the skin surface and the liver, and has been studied for its potential benefits in skincare, dietary supplements, and vaccine adjuvant systems.
Single or multiple areas of PUS due to infection by any ameboid protozoa (AMEBIASIS). A common form is caused by the ingestion of ENTAMOEBA HISTOLYTICA.
A group of naturally occurring N-and O-acyl derivatives of the deoxyamino sugar neuraminic acid. They are ubiquitously distributed in many tissues.
Antibodies, especially IGE, that bind to tissue of the same species so that ANTIGENS induce release of HISTAMINE and other vasoactive agents. HYPERSENSITIVITY is the clinical manifestation.
The major sialoglycoprotein of the human erythrocyte membrane. It consists of at least two sialoglycopeptides and is composed of 60% carbohydrate including sialic acid and 40% protein. It is involved in a number of different biological activities including the binding of MN blood groups, influenza viruses, kidney bean phytohemagglutinin, and wheat germ agglutinin.
Classic quantitative assay for detection of antigen-antibody reactions using a radioactively labeled substance (radioligand) either directly or indirectly to measure the binding of the unlabeled substance to a specific antibody or other receptor system. Non-immunogenic substances (e.g., haptens) can be measured if coupled to larger carrier proteins (e.g., bovine gamma-globulin or human serum albumin) capable of inducing antibody formation.
An acute febrile, contagious, viral disease of birds caused by an AVULAVIRUS called NEWCASTLE DISEASE VIRUS. It is characterized by respiratory and nervous symptoms in fowl and is transmissible to man causing a severe, but transient conjunctivitis.
A collection of single-stranded RNA viruses scattered across the Bunyaviridae, Flaviviridae, and Togaviridae families whose common property is the ability to induce encephalitic conditions in infected hosts.
Process of growing viruses in live animals, plants, or cultured cells.
Commercially prepared reagent sets, with accessory devices, containing all of the major components and literature necessary to perform one or more designated diagnostic tests or procedures. They may be for laboratory or personal use.
A technique that combines protein electrophoresis and double immunodiffusion. In this procedure proteins are first separated by gel electrophoresis (usually agarose), then made visible by immunodiffusion of specific antibodies. A distinct elliptical precipitin arc results for each protein detectable by the antisera.
Positive test results in subjects who do not possess the attribute for which the test is conducted. The labeling of healthy persons as diseased when screening in the detection of disease. (Last, A Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)
A family of very small DNA viruses containing a single molecule of single-stranded DNA and consisting of two subfamilies: PARVOVIRINAE and DENSOVIRINAE. They infect both vertebrates and invertebrates.
Proteins that form the CAPSID of VIRUSES.
A species of RESPIROVIRUS also called hemadsorption virus 2 (HA2), which causes laryngotracheitis in humans, especially children.
**Mercaptoethanol, also known as β-mercaptoethanol or BME, is an organosulfur compound with the formula HOCH2CH2SH, functionally serving as a reducing agent and a sulfhydryl group protector in biochemical and molecular biology applications.**
Infections with bacteria of the species ESCHERICHIA COLI.
A species of BORDETELLA isolated from the respiratory tracts of TURKEYS and other BIRDS. It causes a highly contagious bordetellosis.
Inflammatory responses of the epithelium of the URINARY TRACT to microbial invasions. They are often bacterial infections with associated BACTERIURIA and PYURIA.
Large woodland game BIRDS in the subfamily Meleagridinae, family Phasianidae, order GALLIFORMES. Formerly they were considered a distinct family, Melegrididae.
The sequence of carbohydrates within POLYSACCHARIDES; GLYCOPROTEINS; and GLYCOLIPIDS.
Carbohydrates covalently linked to a nonsugar moiety (lipids or proteins). The major glycoconjugates are glycoproteins, glycopeptides, peptidoglycans, glycolipids, and lipopolysaccharides. (From Biochemical Nomenclature and Related Documents, 2d ed; From Principles of Biochemistry, 2d ed)
Diseases of domestic cattle of the genus Bos. It includes diseases of cows, yaks, and zebus.
A genus of gram-positive, rod-shaped bacteria whose organisms are nonmotile. Filaments that may be present in certain species are either straight or wavy and may have swollen or clubbed heads.
A species in the ORTHOBUNYAVIRUS genus of the family BUNYAVIRIDAE. Serotypes are found in temperate and arctic regions and each is closely associated with a single species of vector mosquito. The vertebrate hosts are usually small mammals but several serotypes infect humans.
Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.
A species of gram-negative, anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria originally classified within the BACTEROIDES genus. This bacterium produces a cell-bound, oxygen-sensitive collagenase and is isolated from the human mouth.
The type species of MORBILLIVIRUS and the cause of the highly infectious human disease MEASLES, which affects mostly children.
A genus of gram-negative, anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria found in cavities of humans and other animals. No endospores are formed. Some species are pathogenic and occur in various purulent or gangrenous infections.
Semidomesticated variety of European polecat much used for hunting RODENTS and/or RABBITS and as a laboratory animal. It is in the subfamily Mustelinae, family MUSTELIDAE.
Epidemics of infectious disease that have spread to many countries, often more than one continent, and usually affecting a large number of people.
An N-acyl derivative of neuraminic acid. N-acetylneuraminic acid occurs in many polysaccharides, glycoproteins, and glycolipids in animals and bacteria. (From Dorland, 28th ed, p1518)
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)
A contagious venereal disease caused by the spirochete TREPONEMA PALLIDUM.
A species of RESPIROVIRUS frequently isolated from small children with pharyngitis, bronchitis, and pneumonia.
A highly reactive aldehyde gas formed by oxidation or incomplete combustion of hydrocarbons. In solution, it has a wide range of uses: in the manufacture of resins and textiles, as a disinfectant, and as a laboratory fixative or preservative. Formaldehyde solution (formalin) is considered a hazardous compound, and its vapor toxic. (From Reynolds, Martindale The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p717)
A blood group related to the ABO, Lewis and I systems. At least five different erythrocyte antigens are possible, some very rare, others almost universal. Multiple alleles are involved in this blood group.
"Ducks" is not a recognized medical term or condition in human health; it may refer to various anatomical structures in animals, such as the ducks of the heart valves, but it does not have a standalone medical definition.
The domestic dog, Canis familiaris, comprising about 400 breeds, of the carnivore family CANIDAE. They are worldwide in distribution and live in association with people. (Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, p1065)
Proteins found in any species of bacterium.
A species of parasitic protozoa causing ENTAMOEBIASIS and amebic dysentery (DYSENTERY, AMEBIC). Characteristics include a single nucleus containing a small central karyosome and peripheral chromatin that is finely and regularly beaded.
Glycosides formed by the reaction of the hydroxyl group on the anomeric carbon atom of mannose with an alcohol to form an acetal. They include both alpha- and beta-mannosides.
Method for measuring viral infectivity and multiplication in CULTURED CELLS. Clear lysed areas or plaques develop as the VIRAL PARTICLES are released from the infected cells during incubation. With some VIRUSES, the cells are killed by a cytopathic effect; with others, the infected cells are not killed but can be detected by their hemadsorptive ability. Sometimes the plaque cells contain VIRAL ANTIGENS which can be measured by IMMUNOFLUORESCENCE.
A species of CORONAVIRUS infecting neonatal calves, presenting as acute diarrhea, and frequently leading to death.
The formation of a solid in a solution as a result of a chemical reaction or the aggregation of soluble substances into complexes large enough to fall out of solution.
Minute infectious agents whose genomes are composed of DNA or RNA, but not both. They are characterized by a lack of independent metabolism and the inability to replicate outside living host cells.
A genus of PICORNAVIRIDAE causing infectious hepatitis naturally in humans and experimentally in other primates. It is transmitted through fecal contamination of food or water. HEPATITIS A VIRUS is the type species.
Substances that are toxic to the intestinal tract causing vomiting, diarrhea, etc.; most common enterotoxins are produced by bacteria.
Diseases of domestic and wild horses of the species Equus caballus.
The classic form of typhus, caused by RICKETTSIA PROWAZEKII, which is transmitted from man to man by the louse Pediculus humanus corporis. This disease is characterized by the sudden onset of intense headache, malaise, and generalized myalgia followed by the formation of a macular skin eruption and vascular and neurologic disturbances.
A family of calcium-binding alpha-globulins that are synthesized in the LIVER and play an essential role in maintaining the solubility of CALCIUM in the BLOOD. In addition the fetuins contain aminoterminal cystatin domains and are classified as type 3 cystatins.
Infection with the protozoan parasite TRYPANOSOMA CRUZI, a form of TRYPANOSOMIASIS endemic in Central and South America. It is named after the Brazilian physician Carlos Chagas, who discovered the parasite. Infection by the parasite (positive serologic result only) is distinguished from the clinical manifestations that develop years later, such as destruction of PARASYMPATHETIC GANGLIA; CHAGAS CARDIOMYOPATHY; and dysfunction of the ESOPHAGUS or COLON.
A system of universal human blood group isoantigens with many associated subgroups. The M and N traits are codominant and the S and s traits are probably very closely linked alleles, including the U antigen. This system is most frequently used in paternity studies.
The outer protein protective shell of a virus, which protects the viral nucleic acid.
A group of ALPHAVIRUS INFECTIONS which affect horses and man, transmitted via the bites of mosquitoes. Disorders in this category are endemic to regions of South America and North America. In humans, clinical manifestations vary with the type of infection, and range from a mild influenza-like syndrome to a fulminant encephalitis. (From Joynt, Clinical Neurology, 1996, Ch26, pp8-10)
A salt used to replenish calcium levels, as an acid-producing diuretic, and as an antidote for magnesium poisoning.
Antigens of the virion of the HEPATITIS B VIRUS or the Dane particle, its surface (HEPATITIS B SURFACE ANTIGENS), core (HEPATITIS B CORE ANTIGENS), and other associated antigens, including the HEPATITIS B E ANTIGENS.
Infections with species of the genus MYCOPLASMA.
A viral infection of the brain caused by serotypes of California encephalitis virus (ENCEPHALITIS VIRUS, CALIFORNIA) transmitted to humans by the mosquito AEDES triseriatus. The majority of cases are caused by the LA CROSSE VIRUS. This condition is endemic to the midwestern United States and primarily affects children between 5-10 years of age. Clinical manifestations include FEVER; VOMITING; HEADACHE; and abdominal pain followed by SEIZURES, altered mentation, and focal neurologic deficits. (From Joynt, Clinical Neurology, 1996, Ch26, p13)
A species of the genus PARVOVIRUS and a host range variant of FELINE PANLEUKOPENIA VIRUS. It causes a highly infectious fulminating ENTERITIS in dogs producing high mortality. It is distinct from CANINE MINUTE VIRUS, a species in the genus BOCAVIRUS. This virus can also infect cats and mink.
Excrement from the INTESTINES, containing unabsorbed solids, waste products, secretions, and BACTERIA of the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM.
Proteins from BACTERIA and FUNGI that are soluble enough to be secreted to target ERYTHROCYTES and insert into the membrane to form beta-barrel pores. Biosynthesis may be regulated by HEMOLYSIN FACTORS.
Specific molecular components of the cell capable of recognizing and interacting with a virus, and which, after binding it, are capable of generating some signal that initiates the chain of events leading to the biological response.
Conjugated protein-carbohydrate compounds including mucins, mucoid, and amyloid glycoproteins.
The degree of pathogenicity within a group or species of microorganisms or viruses as indicated by case fatality rates and/or the ability of the organism to invade the tissues of the host. The pathogenic capacity of an organism is determined by its VIRULENCE FACTORS.
Method of tissue preparation in which the tissue specimen is frozen and then dehydrated at low temperature in a high vacuum. This method is also used for dehydrating pharmaceutical and food products.
Antisera from immunized animals that is purified and used as a passive immunizing agent against specific BACTERIAL TOXINS.
A class of animal lectins that bind specifically to beta-galactoside in a calcium-independent manner. Members of this class are distiguished from other lectins by the presence of a conserved carbohydrate recognition domain. The majority of proteins in this class bind to sugar molecules in a sulfhydryl-dependent manner and are often referred to as S-type lectins, however this property is not required for membership in this class.
Warm-blooded VERTEBRATES possessing FEATHERS and belonging to the class Aves.
Forceful administration into a muscle of liquid medication, nutrient, or other fluid through a hollow needle piercing the muscle and any tissue covering it.
Liquids transforming into solids by the removal of heat.
Substances that augment, stimulate, activate, potentiate, or modulate the immune response at either the cellular or humoral level. The classical agents (Freund's adjuvant, BCG, Corynebacterium parvum, et al.) contain bacterial antigens. Some are endogenous (e.g., histamine, interferon, transfer factor, tuftsin, interleukin-1). Their mode of action is either non-specific, resulting in increased immune responsiveness to a wide variety of antigens, or antigen-specific, i.e., affecting a restricted type of immune response to a narrow group of antigens. The therapeutic efficacy of many biological response modifiers is related to their antigen-specific immunoadjuvanticity.
The functional hereditary units of BACTERIA.
A subtype of INFLUENZA A VIRUS comprised of the surface proteins hemagglutinin 7 and neuraminidase 7. The H7N7 subtype produced an epidemic in 2003 which was highly pathogenic among domestic birds (POULTRY). Some infections in humans were reported.
A highly contagious infectious disease caused by MORBILLIVIRUS, common among children but also seen in the nonimmune of any age, in which the virus enters the respiratory tract via droplet nuclei and multiplies in the epithelial cells, spreading throughout the MONONUCLEAR PHAGOCYTE SYSTEM.
Glycoprotein from Sendai, para-influenza, Newcastle Disease, and other viruses that participates in binding the virus to cell-surface receptors. The HN protein possesses both hemagglutinin and neuraminidase activity.
'Blood donors' are individuals who voluntarily and safely donate a specific amount of their own blood, which can be further separated into components, to be used for transfusion purposes or for manufacturing medical products, without receiving remuneration that is intended to reward them financially.
The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.
Carbohydrates consisting of between two (DISACCHARIDES) and ten MONOSACCHARIDES connected by either an alpha- or beta-glycosidic link. They are found throughout nature in both the free and bound form.
An aldohexose that occurs naturally in the D-form in lactose, cerebrosides, gangliosides, and mucoproteins. Deficiency of galactosyl-1-phosphate uridyltransferase (GALACTOSE-1-PHOSPHATE URIDYL-TRANSFERASE DEFICIENCY DISEASE) causes an error in galactose metabolism called GALACTOSEMIA, resulting in elevations of galactose in the blood.
A serotype of ORTHOREOVIRUS, MAMMALIAN causing serious pathology in laboratory rodents, characterized by diarrhea, oily coat, jaundice, and multiple organ involvement.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
DYSENTERY caused by intestinal amebic infection, chiefly with ENTAMOEBA HISTOLYTICA. This condition may be associated with amebic infection of the LIVER and other distant sites.
Any compound containing one or more monosaccharide residues bound by a glycosidic linkage to a hydrophobic moiety such as an acylglycerol (see GLYCERIDES), a sphingoid, a ceramide (CERAMIDES) (N-acylsphingoid) or a prenyl phosphate. (From IUPAC's webpage)
The etiologic agent of CHOLERA.
Microscopy using an electron beam, instead of light, to visualize the sample, thereby allowing much greater magnification. The interactions of ELECTRONS with specimens are used to provide information about the fine structure of that specimen. In TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen are imaged. In SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY an electron beam falls at a non-normal angle on the specimen and the image is derived from the reactions occurring above the plane of the specimen.

Genetic characterization of a new type IV-A pilus gene cluster found in both classical and El Tor biotypes of Vibrio cholerae. (1/925)

The Vibrio cholerae genome contains a 5.4-kb pil gene cluster that resembles the Aeromonas hydrophila tap gene cluster and other type IV-A pilus assembly operons. The region consists of five complete open reading frames designated pilABCD and yacE, based on the nomenclature of related genes from Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Escherichia coli K-12. This cluster is present in both classical and El Tor biotypes, and the pilA and pilD genes are 100% conserved. The pilA gene encodes a putative type IV pilus subunit. However, deletion of pilA had no effect on either colonization of infant mice or adherence to HEp-2 cells, demonstrating that pilA does not encode the primary subunit of a pilus essential for these processes. The pilD gene product is similar to other type IV prepilin peptidases, proteins that process type IV signal sequences. Mutational analysis of the pilD gene showed that pilD is essential for secretion of cholera toxin and hemagglutinin-protease, mannose-sensitive hemagglutination (MSHA), production of toxin-coregulated pili, and colonization of infant mice. Defects in these functions are likely due to the lack of processing of N termini of four Eps secretion proteins, four proteins of the MSHA cluster, and TcpB, all of which contain type IV-A leader sequences. Some pilD mutants also showed reduced adherence to HEp-2 cells, but this defect could not be complemented in trans, indicating that the defect may not be directly due to a loss of pilD. Taken together, these data demonstrate the effectiveness of the V. cholerae genome project for rapid identification and characterization of potential virulence factors.  (+info)

Effect of temperature on growth, hemagglutination, and protease activity of Porphyromonas gingivalis. (2/925)

Bacteria persisting in periodontal pockets are exposed to elevated temperatures during periods of inflammation. Temperature is an environmental factor that can modulate gene expression. Consequently, in the present study we examined the effect of temperature on the expression of virulence determinants by the periodontopathogen, Porphyromonas gingivalis. P. gingivalis W50 was grown in a complex medium under hemin excess at pH 7.0 and at a constant temperature of either 37, 39, or 41 degrees C; cultures were monitored for protease and hemagglutinin activity. P. gingivalis grew well at all three temperatures. An increase in growth temperature from 37 to 39 degrees C resulted in a 65% reduction in both total arginine- and lysine-specific activities (P < 0.01). A further rise in growth temperature to 41 degrees C led to even greater reductions in arginine-specific (82%; P < 0.001) and lysine-specific (73%; P < 0. 01) activities. These reductions were also associated with an altered distribution of individual arginine-specific enzyme isoforms. At 41 degrees C, there was a disproportionate reduction in the level of the heterodimeric RI protease, which also contains adhesin domains. The reduction also correlated with a markedly diminished hemagglutination activity of cells, especially in those grown at 41 degrees C, and a reduced immunoreactivity with a monoclonal antibody which recognizes gene products involved in hemagglutination. Thus, as the environmental temperature increased, P. gingivalis adopted a less aggressive phenotype, while retaining cell population levels. The coordinate down-regulation of virulence gene expression in response to an environmental cue linked to the intensity of the host inflammatory response is consistent with the clinically observed cyclical nature of disease progression in periodontal diseases.  (+info)

Structural and functional studies of the measles virus hemagglutinin: identification of a novel site required for CD46 interaction. (3/925)

The entry of measles virus (MV) into human cells is mediated by the initial attachment of the viral hemagglutinin (HA) to the complement regulatory protein CD46. Two subdomains, one each within CD46 short consensus repeats (SCRs) 1 and 2, are responsible for this interaction. However, little is known about the regions within MV HA needed for a high-affinity CD46 interaction. To better define the HA-CD46 interaction, we took three approaches: chimeric domain swapping, peptide scanning, and alanine scanning mutagenesis. Chimeras of MV HA and the closely related rinderpest virus (RPV) HA were generated and tested for cell surface expression and the ability to hemadsorb CD46+ red blood cells (RBC). Exchanges with the N terminus of RPV were tolerated as MV HA could be replaced with RPV HA up to amino-acid position 154. However, both larger swaps with RPV and a small RPV HA replacement at the C terminus aborted cell-surface expression. Peptide scanning with 51 overlapping peptides derived from three MV HA regions showed one peptide, corresponding to MV HA amino acids 468-487, blocked hemagglutination of African green monkey (AGM) RBCs and inhibited MV infection of Chinese hamster ovary cells (CHO) expressing human CD46. Alanine scanning mutants mapped sites on the MV HA that were not required for trafficking to the cell surface or function in hemagglutination as well as a novel site required for CD46 interaction, amino acids 473-477.  (+info)

Characterization of nonenterotoxigenic Escherichia coli strains producing F17 fimbriae isolated from diarrheic lambs and goat kids. (4/925)

Forty-five ovine and caprine nonenterotoxigenic Escherichia coli strains producing F17-related fimbriae were characterized with respect to the fimbrial structural subunit and adhesin subtypes produced. In addition, several characteristics related to the virulence of strains producing F17 fimbriae were studied. Most of the strains (73%) possessed the f17cA structural subunit gene, whereas the f17aA and f17dA genes were detected only on three (6%) and two (4%) strains, respectively. The f17bA gene was not detected. All but one of these strains possessed the f17G genes of the adhesin subfamily II. The only strain having the f17G gene of subfamily I possessed the structural subunit gene f17dA. Sequencing of the f17A and f17G genes of four selected strains confirmed the association of f17cA and f17dA structural subunit genes with the f17G genes of the adhesin subfamily II. These results indicated that adhesins of the subfamily II are prominent among ovine and caprine isolates and that they are indistinctly associated with the F17 structural subunit subtypes on these field strains. CS31A- and CNF2-related genes were not detected. Most of the strains adhered in vitro to ovine intestinal brush borders (36 of 45) and agglutinated the erythrocytes of different species in the presence of D-mannose (39 of 45). F17-positive strains produced colicin V (57%) and were resistant to the bactericidal effect of serum (91%) in significantly higher percentages than F17-negative strains (34% produced colicin V, and 66% were serum resistant). Thus, most of the studied ovine and caprine strains showed phenotypic characteristics of septicemic strains.  (+info)

Characterization of the relationship between polysaccharide intercellular adhesin and hemagglutination in Staphylococcus epidermidis. (5/925)

To determine whether a relationship exists between biofilm formation and hemagglutination in Staphylococcus epidermidis, 20 skin isolates and 19 prosthetic valve endocarditis isolates were characterized for biofilm formation, hemagglutination, and the presence of a 357-bp polymerase chain reaction product within icaA. A strong association existed between biofilm formation, which has been linked to strains that produce polysaccharide intercellular adhesin (PIA), and hemagglutination. Strains that produced biofilm were significantly (P<.001) more likely to mediate hemagglutination (16 biofilm-positive/hemagglutination-positive strains and 19 biofilm-negative/hemagglutination-negative strains) within the 39 clinical strains tested. In addition, Staphylococcus carnosus TM300, a biofilm-negative, hemagglutination-negative strain, carrying the ica operon-containing plasmid pCN27, produced significant biofilm on glass and mediated hemagglutination (>/=1/128). It was concluded that production of PIA and hemagglutination are strongly associated and that PIA, at least in part, mediates hemagglutination in S. epidermidis.  (+info)

Growth, cellular differentiation and virulence factor expression by Proteus mirabilis in vitro and in vivo. (6/925)

A uropathogenic strain of Proteus mirabilis was grown in vitro in human and mouse urine and brain-heart infusion broth (BHIB) and in vivo in subcutaneous open chambers (SOC) in mice, intraperitoneal diffusion chambers (IPC) in rats and by ascending urinary tract infection in mice in order to compare growth pattern, cellular differentiation and expression of virulence factors. Although the growth rate was slower in vivo than in vitro, the extent of growth was similar after 24 h. PR mirabilis differentiated into filamentous swarmer cells in all in-vitro culture conditions, but no filamentous cells were observed in either of the in-vivo chamber models. Transurethrally infected mice showed a rapid release or loss of filamentous cells and these could not be seen in kidney or bladder homogenates 7 days after infection. Bacteria showed increasing haemagglutination titres for fresh and tanned red blood cells after subculturing in BHIB, but bacteria grown in vivo did not show haemagglutination. An increasing resistance to normal serum was found when bacteria were grown in vivo. Significant haemolytic activity was detected with bacteria grown in BHIB and IPC, but almost no activity was found when bacteria had grown in urine. These findings improve the understanding of the role of P. mirabilis uropathogenic virulence factors in vivo.  (+info)

Normal human serum contains natural antibodies reactive with autologous ABO blood group antigens. (7/925)

It is widely accepted that the serum of healthy individuals contains natural antibodies only against those blood group A or B antigens that are not expressed on the individual's red blood cells. The mechanisms involved in tolerance to autologous blood group antigens remain unclear. In the present study, we show that IgM and IgG antibodies reactive with autologous blood group antigens are present in the immunoglobulin fraction of normal human serum. Natural IgG anti-A antibodies purified by affinity chromatography from IgG of individuals of blood group A exhibited an affinity for A trisaccharide antigen in the micromolar range and agglutinated A red cells at sixfold higher concentrations than those required for agglutination with affinity-purified anti-A IgG of individuals of blood group B. Whereas autoantibodies reactive with self A and B antigens are readily detected in purified IgG and IgM fractions, their expression is restricted in whole serum as a result of complementary interactions between variable regions of antibodies. These observations suggest that tolerance to autologous ABO blood group antigens is dependent on peripheral control of antibody autoreactivity.  (+info)

Genetic analyses of proteolysis, hemoglobin binding, and hemagglutination of Porphyromonas gingivalis. Construction of mutants with a combination of rgpA, rgpB, kgp, and hagA. (8/925)

Porphyromonas gingivalis produces arginine-specific cysteine proteinase (Arg-gingipain, RGP) and lysine-specific cysteine proteinase (Lys-gingipain, KGP) in the extracellular and cell-associated forms. Two separate genes (rgpA and rgpB) and a single gene (kgp) have been found to encode RGP and KGP, respectively. We constructed rgpA rgpB kgp triple mutants by homologous recombination with cloned rgp and kgp DNA interrupted by drug resistance gene markers. The triple mutants showed no RGP or KGP activity in either cell extracts or culture supernatants. The culture supernatants of the triple mutants grown in a rich medium had no proteolytic activity toward bovine serum albumin or gelatin derived from human type I collagen. Moreover, the mutants did not grow in a defined medium containing bovine serum albumin as the sole carbon/energy source. These results indicate that the proteolytic activity of P. gingivalis toward bovine serum albumin and gelatin derived from human type I collagen appears to be attributable to RGP and KGP. The hemagglutinin gene hagA of P. gingivalis possesses the adhesin domain regions responsible for hemagglutination and hemoglobin binding that are also located in the C-terminal regions of rgpA and kgp. A rgpA kgp hagA triple mutant constructed in this study exhibited no hemagglutination using sheep erythrocytes or hemoglobin binding activity, as determined by a solid-phase binding assay with horseradish peroxidase-conjugated human hemoglobin, indicating that the adhesin domains seem to be particularly important for P. gingivalis cells to agglutinate erythrocytes and bind hemoglobin, leading to heme acquisition.  (+info)

Hemagglutination tests are laboratory procedures used to detect the presence of antibodies or antigens in a sample, typically in blood serum. These tests rely on the ability of certain substances, such as viruses or bacteria, to agglutinate (clump together) red blood cells.

In a hemagglutination test, a small amount of the patient's serum is mixed with a known quantity of red blood cells that have been treated with a specific antigen. If the patient has antibodies against that antigen in their serum, they will bind to the antigens on the red blood cells and cause them to agglutinate. This clumping can be observed visually, indicating a positive test result.

Hemagglutination tests are commonly used to diagnose infectious diseases caused by viruses or bacteria that have hemagglutinating properties, such as influenza, parainfluenza, and HIV. They can also be used in blood typing and cross-matching before transfusions.

Hemagglutination is a medical term that refers to the agglutination or clumping together of red blood cells (RBCs) in the presence of an agglutinin, which is typically a protein or a polysaccharide found on the surface of certain viruses, bacteria, or incompatible blood types.

In simpler terms, hemagglutination occurs when the agglutinin binds to specific antigens on the surface of RBCs, causing them to clump together and form visible clumps or aggregates. This reaction is often used in diagnostic tests to identify the presence of certain viruses or bacteria, such as influenza or HIV, by mixing a sample of blood or other bodily fluid with a known agglutinin and observing whether hemagglutination occurs.

Hemagglutination inhibition (HI) assays are also commonly used to measure the titer or concentration of antibodies in a serum sample, by adding serial dilutions of the serum to a fixed amount of agglutinin and observing the highest dilution that still prevents hemagglutination. This can help determine whether a person has been previously exposed to a particular pathogen and has developed immunity to it.

Hemagglutination inhibition (HI) tests are a type of serological assay used in medical laboratories to detect and measure the amount of antibodies present in a patient's serum. These tests are commonly used to diagnose viral infections, such as influenza or HIV, by identifying the presence of antibodies that bind to specific viral antigens and prevent hemagglutination (the agglutination or clumping together of red blood cells).

In an HI test, a small amount of the patient's serum is mixed with a known quantity of the viral antigen, which has been treated to attach to red blood cells. If the patient's serum contains antibodies that bind to the viral antigen, they will prevent the antigen from attaching to the red blood cells and inhibit hemagglutination. The degree of hemagglutination inhibition can be measured and used to estimate the amount of antibody present in the patient's serum.

HI tests are relatively simple and inexpensive to perform, but they have some limitations. For example, they may not detect early-stage infections before the body has had a chance to produce antibodies, and they may not be able to distinguish between different strains of the same virus. Nonetheless, HI tests remain an important tool for diagnosing viral infections and monitoring immune responses to vaccination or infection.

Hemagglutination is a process where red blood cells (RBCs) agglutinate or clump together. Viral hemagglutination refers to the ability of certain viruses to bind to and agglutinate RBCs. This is often due to viral surface proteins known as hemagglutinins, which can recognize and attach to specific receptors on the surface of RBCs.

In virology, viral hemagglutination assays are commonly used for virus identification and quantification. For example, the influenza virus is known to hemagglutinate chicken RBCs, and this property can be used to identify and titrate the virus in a sample. The hemagglutination titer is the highest dilution of a virus that still causes visible agglutination of RBCs. This information can be useful in understanding the viral load in a patient or during vaccine production.

Hemagglutinins are proteins found on the surface of some viruses, including influenza viruses. They have the ability to bind to specific receptors on the surface of red blood cells, causing them to clump together (a process known as hemagglutination). This property is what allows certain viruses to infect host cells and cause disease. Hemagglutinins play a crucial role in the infection process of influenza viruses, as they facilitate the virus's entry into host cells by binding to sialic acid receptors on the surface of respiratory epithelial cells. There are 18 different subtypes of hemagglutinin (H1-H18) found in various influenza A viruses, and they are a major target of the immune response to influenza infection. Vaccines against influenza contain hemagglutinins from the specific strains of virus that are predicted to be most prevalent in a given season, and induce immunity by stimulating the production of antibodies that can neutralize the virus.

Antibodies, viral are proteins produced by the immune system in response to an infection with a virus. These antibodies are capable of recognizing and binding to specific antigens on the surface of the virus, which helps to neutralize or destroy the virus and prevent its replication. Once produced, these antibodies can provide immunity against future infections with the same virus.

Viral antibodies are typically composed of four polypeptide chains - two heavy chains and two light chains - that are held together by disulfide bonds. The binding site for the antigen is located at the tip of the Y-shaped structure, formed by the variable regions of the heavy and light chains.

There are five classes of antibodies in humans: IgA, IgD, IgE, IgG, and IgM. Each class has a different function and is distributed differently throughout the body. For example, IgG is the most common type of antibody found in the bloodstream and provides long-term immunity against viruses, while IgA is found primarily in mucous membranes and helps to protect against respiratory and gastrointestinal infections.

In addition to their role in the immune response, viral antibodies can also be used as diagnostic tools to detect the presence of a specific virus in a patient's blood or other bodily fluids.

Complement fixation tests are a type of laboratory test used in immunology and serology to detect the presence of antibodies in a patient's serum. These tests are based on the principle of complement activation, which is a part of the immune response. The complement system consists of a group of proteins that work together to help eliminate pathogens from the body.

In a complement fixation test, the patient's serum is mixed with a known antigen and complement proteins. If the patient has antibodies against the antigen, they will bind to it and activate the complement system. This results in the consumption or "fixation" of the complement proteins, which are no longer available to participate in a secondary reaction.

A second step involves adding a fresh source of complement proteins and a dye-labeled antibody that recognizes a specific component of the complement system. If complement was fixed during the first step, it will not be available for this secondary reaction, and the dye-labeled antibody will remain unbound. Conversely, if no antibodies were present in the patient's serum, the complement proteins would still be available for the second reaction, leading to the binding of the dye-labeled antibody.

The mixture is then examined under a microscope or using a spectrophotometer to determine whether the dye-labeled antibody has bound. If it has not, this indicates that the patient's serum contains antibodies specific to the antigen used in the test, and a positive result is recorded.

Complement fixation tests have been widely used for the diagnosis of various infectious diseases, such as syphilis, measles, and influenza. However, they have largely been replaced by more modern serological techniques, like enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) and nucleic acid amplification tests (NAATs), due to their increased sensitivity, specificity, and ease of use.

Rubella virus is the sole member of the genus Rubivirus, within the family Togaviridae. It is a positive-sense single-stranded RNA virus that causes the disease rubella (German measles) in humans. The virus is typically transmitted through respiratory droplets and has an incubation period of 12-23 days.

Rubella virus infection during pregnancy, particularly during the first trimester, can lead to serious birth defects known as congenital rubella syndrome (CRS) in the developing fetus. The symptoms of CRS may include hearing impairment, eye abnormalities, heart defects, and developmental delays.

The virus was eradicated from the Americas in 2015 due to widespread vaccination programs. However, it still circulates in other parts of the world, and travelers can bring the virus back to regions where it has been eliminated. Therefore, maintaining high vaccination rates is crucial for preventing the spread of rubella and protecting vulnerable populations from CRS.

Erythrocytes, also known as red blood cells (RBCs), are the most common type of blood cell in circulating blood in mammals. They are responsible for transporting oxygen from the lungs to the body's tissues and carbon dioxide from the tissues to the lungs.

Erythrocytes are formed in the bone marrow and have a biconcave shape, which allows them to fold and bend easily as they pass through narrow blood vessels. They do not have a nucleus or mitochondria, which makes them more flexible but also limits their ability to reproduce or repair themselves.

In humans, erythrocytes are typically disc-shaped and measure about 7 micrometers in diameter. They contain the protein hemoglobin, which binds to oxygen and gives blood its red color. The lifespan of an erythrocyte is approximately 120 days, after which it is broken down in the liver and spleen.

Abnormalities in erythrocyte count or function can lead to various medical conditions, such as anemia, polycythemia, and sickle cell disease.

Influenza vaccines, also known as flu shots, are vaccines that protect against the influenza virus. Influenza is a highly contagious respiratory illness that can cause severe symptoms and complications, particularly in young children, older adults, pregnant women, and people with certain underlying health conditions.

Influenza vaccines contain inactivated or weakened viruses or pieces of the virus, which stimulate the immune system to produce antibodies that recognize and fight off the virus. The vaccine is typically given as an injection into the muscle, usually in the upper arm.

There are several different types of influenza vaccines available, including:

* Trivalent vaccines, which protect against three strains of the virus (two A strains and one B strain)
* Quadrivalent vaccines, which protect against four strains of the virus (two A strains and two B strains)
* High-dose vaccines, which contain a higher amount of antigen and are recommended for people aged 65 and older
* Adjuvanted vaccines, which contain an additional ingredient to boost the immune response and are also recommended for people aged 65 and older
* Cell-based vaccines, which are produced using cultured cells rather than eggs and may be recommended for people with egg allergies

It's important to note that influenza viruses are constantly changing, so the vaccine is updated each year to match the circulating strains. It's recommended that most people get vaccinated against influenza every year to stay protected.

'Immune sera' refers to the serum fraction of blood that contains antibodies produced in response to an antigenic stimulus, such as a vaccine or an infection. These antibodies are proteins known as immunoglobulins, which are secreted by B cells (a type of white blood cell) and can recognize and bind to specific antigens. Immune sera can be collected from an immunized individual and used as a source of passive immunity to protect against infection or disease. It is often used in research and diagnostic settings to identify or measure the presence of specific antigens or antibodies.

Bacterial fimbriae are thin, hair-like protein appendages that extend from the surface of many types of bacteria. They are involved in the attachment of bacteria to surfaces, other cells, or extracellular structures. Fimbriae enable bacteria to adhere to host tissues and form biofilms, which contribute to bacterial pathogenicity and survival in various environments. These protein structures are composed of several thousand subunits of a specific protein called pilin. Some fimbriae can recognize and bind to specific receptors on host cells, initiating the process of infection and colonization.

Hemagglutinins are glycoprotein spikes found on the surface of influenza viruses. They play a crucial role in the viral infection process by binding to sialic acid receptors on host cells, primarily in the respiratory tract. After attachment, hemagglutinins mediate the fusion of the viral and host cell membranes, allowing the viral genome to enter the host cell and initiate replication.

There are 18 different subtypes of hemagglutinin (H1-H18) identified in influenza A viruses, which naturally infect various animal species, including birds, pigs, and humans. The specificity of hemagglutinins for particular sialic acid receptors can influence host range and tissue tropism, contributing to the zoonotic potential of certain influenza A virus subtypes.

Hemagglutination inhibition (HI) assays are commonly used in virology and epidemiology to measure the antibody response to influenza viruses and determine vaccine effectiveness. In these assays, hemagglutinins bind to red blood cells coated with sialic acid receptors, forming a diffuse mat of cells that can be observed visually. The addition of specific antisera containing antibodies against the hemagglutinin prevents this binding and results in the formation of discrete buttons of red blood cells, indicating a positive HI titer and the presence of neutralizing antibodies.

Neutralization tests are a type of laboratory assay used in microbiology and immunology to measure the ability of a substance, such as an antibody or antitoxin, to neutralize the activity of a toxin or infectious agent. In these tests, the substance to be tested is mixed with a known quantity of the toxin or infectious agent, and the mixture is then incubated under controlled conditions. After incubation, the mixture is tested for residual toxicity or infectivity using a variety of methods, such as cell culture assays, animal models, or biochemical assays.

The neutralization titer is then calculated based on the highest dilution of the test substance that completely neutralizes the toxin or infectious agent. Neutralization tests are commonly used in the diagnosis and evaluation of immune responses to vaccines, as well as in the detection and quantification of toxins and other harmful substances.

Examples of neutralization tests include the serum neutralization test for measles antibodies, the plaque reduction neutralization test (PRNT) for dengue virus antibodies, and the cytotoxicity neutralization assay for botulinum neurotoxins.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "geese" is not a medical term. It refers to various waterbirds constituting the family Anatidae and the genus Branta, characterized by a long neck, wide wings, and a honking call. They are not related to human health or medicine. If you have any medical concerns or questions, I'd be happy to help you with those!

Rubella, also known as German measles, is a viral infection that primarily affects the skin and lymphatic system. It is caused by the rubella virus. The disease is typically mild with symptoms such as low-grade fever, sore throat, swollen glands (especially around the ears and back of the neck), and a rash that starts on the face and spreads to the rest of the body.

Rubella is preventable through vaccination, and it's part of the MMR (measles, mumps, and rubella) vaccine. It's crucial to get vaccinated against rubella because if a pregnant woman gets infected with the virus, it can cause serious birth defects in her unborn baby, including hearing impairment, eye abnormalities, heart problems, and developmental delays. This condition is called congenital rubella syndrome (CRS).

It's worth noting that rubella has been largely eliminated from many parts of the world due to widespread vaccination programs, but it still remains a public health concern in areas with low vaccination rates or where access to healthcare is limited.

Orthomyxoviridae is a family of viruses that includes influenza A, B, and C viruses, which are the causative agents of flu in humans and animals. These viruses are enveloped, meaning they have a lipid membrane derived from the host cell, and have a single-stranded, negative-sense RNA genome. The genome is segmented, meaning it consists of several separate pieces of RNA, which allows for genetic reassortment or "shuffling" when two different strains infect the same cell, leading to the emergence of new strains.

The viral envelope contains two major glycoproteins: hemagglutinin (HA) and neuraminidase (NA). The HA protein is responsible for binding to host cells and facilitating entry into the cell, while NA helps release newly formed virus particles from infected cells by cleaving sialic acid residues on the host cell surface.

Orthomyxoviruses are known to cause respiratory infections in humans and animals, with influenza A viruses being the most virulent and capable of causing pandemics. Influenza B viruses typically cause less severe illness and are primarily found in humans, while influenza C viruses generally cause mild upper respiratory symptoms and are also mainly restricted to humans.

Cross reactions, in the context of medical diagnostics and immunology, refer to a situation where an antibody or a immune response directed against one antigen also reacts with a different antigen due to similarities in their molecular structure. This can occur in allergy testing, where a person who is allergic to a particular substance may have a positive test result for a different but related substance because of cross-reactivity between them. For example, some individuals who are allergic to birch pollen may also have symptoms when eating certain fruits, such as apples, due to cross-reactive proteins present in both.

Immunodiffusion is a laboratory technique used in immunology to detect and measure the presence of specific antibodies or antigens in a sample. It is based on the principle of diffusion, where molecules move from an area of high concentration to an area of low concentration until they reach equilibrium. In this technique, a sample containing an unknown quantity of antigen or antibody is placed in a gel or agar medium that contains a known quantity of antibody or antigen, respectively.

The two substances then diffuse towards each other and form a visible precipitate at the point where they meet and reach equivalence, which indicates the presence and quantity of the specific antigen or antibody in the sample. There are several types of immunodiffusion techniques, including radial immunodiffusion (RID) and double immunodiffusion (Ouchterlony technique). These techniques are widely used in diagnostic laboratories to identify and measure various antigens and antibodies, such as those found in infectious diseases, autoimmune disorders, and allergic reactions.

Lectins are a type of proteins that bind specifically to carbohydrates and have been found in various plant and animal sources. They play important roles in biological recognition events, such as cell-cell adhesion, and can also be involved in the immune response. Some lectins can agglutinate certain types of cells or precipitate glycoproteins, while others may have a more direct effect on cellular processes. In some cases, lectins from plants can cause adverse effects in humans if ingested, such as digestive discomfort or allergic reactions.

Influenza A virus is defined as a negative-sense, single-stranded, segmented RNA virus belonging to the family Orthomyxoviridae. It is responsible for causing epidemic and pandemic influenza in humans and is also known to infect various animal species, such as birds, pigs, horses, and seals. The viral surface proteins, hemagglutinin (HA) and neuraminidase (NA), are the primary targets for antiviral drugs and vaccines. There are 18 different HA subtypes and 11 known NA subtypes, which contribute to the diversity and antigenic drift of Influenza A viruses. The zoonotic nature of this virus allows for genetic reassortment between human and animal strains, leading to the emergence of novel variants with pandemic potential.

"Influenza A Virus, H3N2 Subtype" is a specific subtype of the influenza A virus that causes respiratory illness and is known to circulate in humans and animals, including birds and pigs. The "H3N2" refers to the two proteins on the surface of the virus: hemagglutinin (H) and neuraminidase (N). In this subtype, the H protein is of the H3 variety and the N protein is of the N2 variety. This subtype has been responsible for several influenza epidemics and pandemics in humans, including the 1968 Hong Kong flu pandemic. It is one of the influenza viruses that are monitored closely by public health authorities due to its potential to cause significant illness and death, particularly in high-risk populations such as older adults, young children, and people with certain underlying medical conditions.

Adhesins in Escherichia coli (E. coli) refer to proteins or structures on the surface of E. coli bacteria that allow them to adhere to host cells or surfaces. These adhesins play a crucial role in the initial attachment and colonization of the bacterium to the host, which can lead to infection and disease.

There are several types of adhesins found in E. coli, including fimbrial and non-fimbrial adhesins. Fimbrial adhesins, also known as pili, are hair-like structures that extend from the surface of the bacterium and can bind to specific receptors on host cells. Non-fimbrial adhesins, on the other hand, are proteins located on the outer membrane of the bacterium that can mediate adherence to host cells or surfaces.

One well-known example of an E. coli adhesin is the P fimbriae, which is associated with urinary tract infections (UTIs). The P fimbriae bind to galabiose receptors on the surface of uroepithelial cells, allowing the bacterium to colonize and infect the urinary tract. Other types of E. coli adhesins have been implicated in various extraintestinal infections, such as meningitis, sepsis, and neonatal meningitis.

Understanding the mechanisms of E. coli adhesion is important for developing strategies to prevent and treat infections caused by this bacterium.

Mannose is a simple sugar (monosaccharide) that is similar in structure to glucose. It is a hexose, meaning it contains six carbon atoms. Mannose is a stereoisomer of glucose, meaning it has the same chemical formula but a different structural arrangement of its atoms.

Mannose is not as commonly found in foods as other simple sugars, but it can be found in some fruits, such as cranberries, blueberries, and peaches, as well as in certain vegetables, like sweet potatoes and turnips. It is also found in some dietary fibers, such as those found in beans and whole grains.

In the body, mannose can be metabolized and used for energy, but it is also an important component of various glycoproteins and glycolipids, which are molecules that play critical roles in many biological processes, including cell recognition, signaling, and adhesion.

Mannose has been studied as a potential therapeutic agent for various medical conditions, including urinary tract infections (UTIs), because it can inhibit the attachment of certain bacteria to the cells lining the urinary tract. Additionally, mannose-binding lectins have been investigated for their potential role in the immune response to viral and bacterial infections.

Influenza, also known as the flu, is a highly contagious viral infection that attacks the respiratory system of humans. It is caused by influenza viruses A, B, or C and is characterized by the sudden onset of fever, chills, headache, muscle pain, sore throat, cough, runny nose, and fatigue. Influenza can lead to complications such as pneumonia, bronchitis, and ear infections, and can be particularly dangerous for young children, older adults, pregnant women, and people with weakened immune systems or chronic medical conditions. The virus is spread through respiratory droplets produced when an infected person coughs, sneezes, or talks, and can also survive on surfaces for a period of time. Influenza viruses are constantly changing, which makes it necessary to get vaccinated annually to protect against the most recent and prevalent strains.

Bacterial antigens are substances found on the surface or produced by bacteria that can stimulate an immune response in a host organism. These antigens can be proteins, polysaccharides, teichoic acids, lipopolysaccharides, or other molecules that are recognized as foreign by the host's immune system.

When a bacterial antigen is encountered by the host's immune system, it triggers a series of responses aimed at eliminating the bacteria and preventing infection. The host's immune system recognizes the antigen as foreign through the use of specialized receptors called pattern recognition receptors (PRRs), which are found on various immune cells such as macrophages, dendritic cells, and neutrophils.

Once a bacterial antigen is recognized by the host's immune system, it can stimulate both the innate and adaptive immune responses. The innate immune response involves the activation of inflammatory pathways, the recruitment of immune cells to the site of infection, and the production of antimicrobial peptides.

The adaptive immune response, on the other hand, involves the activation of T cells and B cells, which are specific to the bacterial antigen. These cells can recognize and remember the antigen, allowing for a more rapid and effective response upon subsequent exposures.

Bacterial antigens are important in the development of vaccines, as they can be used to stimulate an immune response without causing disease. By identifying specific bacterial antigens that are associated with virulence or pathogenicity, researchers can develop vaccines that target these antigens and provide protection against infection.

An Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA) is a type of analytical biochemistry assay used to detect and quantify the presence of a substance, typically a protein or peptide, in a liquid sample. It takes its name from the enzyme-linked antibodies used in the assay.

In an ELISA, the sample is added to a well containing a surface that has been treated to capture the target substance. If the target substance is present in the sample, it will bind to the surface. Next, an enzyme-linked antibody specific to the target substance is added. This antibody will bind to the captured target substance if it is present. After washing away any unbound material, a substrate for the enzyme is added. If the enzyme is present due to its linkage to the antibody, it will catalyze a reaction that produces a detectable signal, such as a color change or fluorescence. The intensity of this signal is proportional to the amount of target substance present in the sample, allowing for quantification.

ELISAs are widely used in research and clinical settings to detect and measure various substances, including hormones, viruses, and bacteria. They offer high sensitivity, specificity, and reproducibility, making them a reliable choice for many applications.

Bacterial antibodies are a type of antibodies produced by the immune system in response to an infection caused by bacteria. These antibodies are proteins that recognize and bind to specific antigens on the surface of the bacterial cells, marking them for destruction by other immune cells. Bacterial antibodies can be classified into several types based on their structure and function, including IgG, IgM, IgA, and IgE. They play a crucial role in the body's defense against bacterial infections and provide immunity to future infections with the same bacteria.

Bacterial adhesion is the initial and crucial step in the process of bacterial colonization, where bacteria attach themselves to a surface or tissue. This process involves specific interactions between bacterial adhesins (proteins, fimbriae, or pili) and host receptors (glycoproteins, glycolipids, or extracellular matrix components). The attachment can be either reversible or irreversible, depending on the strength of interaction. Bacterial adhesion is a significant factor in initiating biofilm formation, which can lead to various infectious diseases and medical device-associated infections.

The term "Immune Adherence Reaction" is not widely used in modern immunology or medicine. It appears to be an outdated concept that refers to the attachment of immune complexes (consisting of antigens, antibodies, and complement components) to Fc receptors on phagocytic cells, such as neutrophils and monocytes. This interaction facilitates the clearance of immune complexes from circulation and helps to prevent tissue damage caused by their deposition.

However, it is important to note that this term is not commonly used in current scientific literature or clinical settings. Instead, the processes it describes are typically discussed within the broader context of immune complex-mediated inflammation, complement activation, and phagocytosis.

'Influenza A Virus, H1N1 Subtype' is a specific subtype of the influenza A virus that causes flu in humans and animals. It contains certain proteins called hemagglutinin (H) and neuraminidase (N) on its surface, with this subtype specifically having H1 and N1 antigens. The H1N1 strain is well-known for causing the 2009 swine flu pandemic, which was a global outbreak of flu that resulted in significant morbidity and mortality. This subtype can also cause seasonal flu, although the severity and symptoms may vary. It is important to note that influenza viruses are constantly changing, and new strains or subtypes can emerge over time, requiring regular updates to vaccines to protect against them.

Neuraminidase is an enzyme that occurs on the surface of influenza viruses. It plays a crucial role in the life cycle of the virus by helping it to infect host cells and to spread from cell to cell within the body. Neuraminidase works by cleaving sialic acid residues from glycoproteins, allowing the virus to detach from infected cells and to move through mucus and other bodily fluids. This enzyme is a major target of antiviral drugs used to treat influenza, such as oseltamivir (Tamiflu) and zanamivir (Relenza). Inhibiting the activity of neuraminidase can help to prevent the spread of the virus within the body and reduce the severity of symptoms.

Tannins, also known as tannic acid or gallotannins, are a type of polyphenolic biomolecule found in plants. They are most commonly known for their ability to bind to proteins and other organic compounds, forming insoluble complexes. This property is what gives tannins their characteristic astringent taste and is also the basis for their use in traditional medicine and industry.

In the context of human health, tannins have been studied for their potential beneficial effects on various physiological processes, such as antioxidant activity, anti-inflammatory effects, and inhibition of enzymes involved in cancer development. However, excessive consumption of tannins can also have negative health effects, including stomach irritation, nausea, and liver damage.

Tannins are found in a wide variety of plants, including fruits, vegetables, grains, nuts, bark, leaves, and roots. They are particularly abundant in certain types of food and beverages, such as red wine, tea, coffee, chocolate, and some herbs and spices. In the medical field, tannins have been used topically for their astringent properties to treat wounds, burns, and skin irritations. However, it is important to note that the evidence supporting the health benefits of tannins is still limited and more research is needed to fully understand their effects on human health.

I apologize, but "sheep" is not a term that has a medical definition. It is a common animal with the scientific name Ovis aries. If you have any medical or health-related questions, I would be happy to try and help answer those for you.

An antigen is any substance that can stimulate an immune response, particularly the production of antibodies. Viral antigens are antigens that are found on or produced by viruses. They can be proteins, glycoproteins, or carbohydrates present on the surface or inside the viral particle.

Viral antigens play a crucial role in the immune system's recognition and response to viral infections. When a virus infects a host cell, it may display its antigens on the surface of the infected cell. This allows the immune system to recognize and target the infected cells for destruction, thereby limiting the spread of the virus.

Viral antigens are also important targets for vaccines. Vaccines typically work by introducing a harmless form of a viral antigen to the body, which then stimulates the production of antibodies and memory T-cells that can recognize and respond quickly and effectively to future infections with the actual virus.

It's worth noting that different types of viruses have different antigens, and these antigens can vary between strains of the same virus. This is why there are often different vaccines available for different viral diseases, and why flu vaccines need to be updated every year to account for changes in the circulating influenza virus strains.

Agglutinins are antibodies that cause the particles (such as red blood cells, bacteria, or viruses) to clump together. They recognize and bind to specific antigens on the surface of these particles, forming a bridge between them and causing them to agglutinate or clump. Agglutinins are an important part of the immune system's response to infection and help to eliminate pathogens from the body.

There are two main types of agglutinins:

1. Naturally occurring agglutinins: These are present in the blood serum of most individuals, even before exposure to an antigen. They can agglutinate some bacteria and red blood cells without prior sensitization. For example, anti-A and anti-B agglutinins are naturally occurring antibodies found in people with different blood groups (A, B, AB, or O).
2. Immune agglutinins: These are produced by the immune system after exposure to an antigen. They develop as part of the adaptive immune response and target specific antigens that the body has encountered before. Immunization with vaccines often leads to the production of immune agglutinins, which can provide protection against future infections.

Agglutination reactions are widely used in laboratory tests for various diagnostic purposes, such as blood typing, detecting bacterial or viral infections, and monitoring immune responses.

I believe there may be some confusion in your question. "Rabbits" is a common name used to refer to the Lagomorpha species, particularly members of the family Leporidae. They are small mammals known for their long ears, strong legs, and quick reproduction.

However, if you're referring to "rabbits" in a medical context, there is a term called "rabbit syndrome," which is a rare movement disorder characterized by repetitive, involuntary movements of the fingers, resembling those of a rabbit chewing. It is also known as "finger-chewing chorea." This condition is usually associated with certain medications, particularly antipsychotics, and typically resolves when the medication is stopped or adjusted.

Hemagglutinin (HA) glycoproteins are surface proteins found on influenza viruses. They play a crucial role in the virus's ability to infect and spread within host organisms.

The HAs are responsible for binding to sialic acid receptors on the host cell's surface, allowing the virus to attach and enter the cell. After endocytosis, the viral and endosomal membranes fuse, releasing the viral genome into the host cell's cytoplasm.

There are several subtypes of hemagglutinin (H1-H18) identified so far, with H1, H2, and H3 being common in human infections. The significant antigenic differences among these subtypes make them important targets for the development of influenza vaccines. However, due to their high mutation rate, new vaccine formulations are often required to match the circulating virus strains.

In summary, hemagglutinin glycoproteins on influenza viruses are essential for host cell recognition and entry, making them important targets for diagnosis, prevention, and treatment of influenza infections.

"Evaluation studies" is a broad term that refers to the systematic assessment or examination of a program, project, policy, intervention, or product. The goal of an evaluation study is to determine its merits, worth, and value by measuring its effects, efficiency, and impact. There are different types of evaluation studies, including formative evaluations (conducted during the development or implementation of a program to provide feedback for improvement), summative evaluations (conducted at the end of a program to determine its overall effectiveness), process evaluations (focusing on how a program is implemented and delivered), outcome evaluations (assessing the short-term and intermediate effects of a program), and impact evaluations (measuring the long-term and broad consequences of a program).

In medical contexts, evaluation studies are often used to assess the safety, efficacy, and cost-effectiveness of new treatments, interventions, or technologies. These studies can help healthcare providers make informed decisions about patient care, guide policymakers in developing evidence-based policies, and promote accountability and transparency in healthcare systems. Examples of evaluation studies in medicine include randomized controlled trials (RCTs) that compare the outcomes of a new treatment to those of a standard or placebo treatment, observational studies that examine the real-world effectiveness and safety of interventions, and economic evaluations that assess the costs and benefits of different healthcare options.

Agglutination tests are laboratory diagnostic procedures used to detect the presence of antibodies or antigens in a sample, such as blood or serum. These tests work by observing the clumping (agglutination) of particles, like red blood cells or bacteriophages, coated with specific antigens or antibodies when mixed with a patient's sample.

In an agglutination test, the sample is typically combined with a reagent containing known antigens or antibodies on the surface of particles, such as latex beads, red blood cells, or bacteriophages. If the sample contains the corresponding antibodies or antigens, they will bind to the particles, forming visible clumps or agglutinates. The presence and strength of agglutination are then assessed visually or with automated equipment to determine the presence and quantity of the target antigen or antibody in the sample.

Agglutination tests are widely used in medical diagnostics for various applications, including:

1. Bacterial and viral infections: To identify specific bacterial or viral antigens in a patient's sample, such as group A Streptococcus, Legionella pneumophila, or HIV.
2. Blood typing: To determine the ABO blood group and Rh type of a donor or recipient before a blood transfusion or organ transplantation.
3. Autoimmune diseases: To detect autoantibodies in patients with suspected autoimmune disorders, such as rheumatoid arthritis, systemic lupus erythematosus, or Hashimoto's thyroiditis.
4. Allergies: To identify specific IgE antibodies in a patient's sample to determine allergic reactions to various substances, such as pollen, food, or venom.
5. Drug monitoring: To detect and quantify the presence of drug-induced antibodies, such as those developed in response to penicillin or hydralazine therapy.

Agglutination tests are simple, rapid, and cost-effective diagnostic tools that provide valuable information for clinical decision-making and patient management. However, they may have limitations, including potential cross-reactivity with other antigens, false-positive results due to rheumatoid factors or heterophile antibodies, and false-negative results due to the prozone effect or insufficient sensitivity. Therefore, it is essential to interpret agglutination test results in conjunction with clinical findings and other laboratory data.

Immunoglobulin M (IgM) is a type of antibody that is primarily found in the blood and lymph fluid. It is the first antibody to be produced in response to an initial exposure to an antigen, making it an important part of the body's primary immune response. IgM antibodies are large molecules that are composed of five basic units, giving them a pentameric structure. They are primarily found on the surface of B cells as membrane-bound immunoglobulins (mlgM), where they function as receptors for antigens. Once an mlgM receptor binds to an antigen, it triggers the activation and differentiation of the B cell into a plasma cell that produces and secretes large amounts of soluble IgM antibodies.

IgM antibodies are particularly effective at agglutination (clumping) and complement activation, which makes them important in the early stages of an immune response to help clear pathogens from the bloodstream. However, they are not as stable or long-lived as other types of antibodies, such as IgG, and their levels tend to decline after the initial immune response has occurred.

In summary, Immunoglobulin M (IgM) is a type of antibody that plays a crucial role in the primary immune response to antigens by agglutination and complement activation. It is primarily found in the blood and lymph fluid, and it is produced by B cells after they are activated by an antigen.

Inactivated vaccines, also known as killed or non-live vaccines, are created by using a version of the virus or bacteria that has been grown in a laboratory and then killed or inactivated with chemicals, heat, or radiation. This process renders the organism unable to cause disease, but still capable of stimulating an immune response when introduced into the body.

Inactivated vaccines are generally considered safer than live attenuated vaccines since they cannot revert back to a virulent form and cause illness. However, they may require multiple doses or booster shots to maintain immunity because the immune response generated by inactivated vaccines is not as robust as that produced by live vaccines. Examples of inactivated vaccines include those for hepatitis A, rabies, and influenza (inactivated flu vaccine).

"Chickens" is a common term used to refer to the domesticated bird, Gallus gallus domesticus, which is widely raised for its eggs and meat. However, in medical terms, "chickens" is not a standard term with a specific definition. If you have any specific medical concern or question related to chickens, such as food safety or allergies, please provide more details so I can give a more accurate answer.

Agglutination is a medical term that refers to the clumping together of particles, such as cells, bacteria, or precipitates, in a liquid medium. It most commonly occurs due to the presence of antibodies in the fluid that bind to specific antigens on the surface of the particles, causing them to adhere to one another and form visible clumps.

In clinical laboratory testing, agglutination is often used as a diagnostic tool to identify the presence of certain antibodies or antigens in a patient's sample. For example, a common application of agglutination is in blood typing, where the presence of specific antigens on the surface of red blood cells causes them to clump together when mixed with corresponding antibodies.

Agglutination can also occur in response to certain infectious agents, such as bacteria or viruses, that display antigens on their surface. In these cases, the agglutination reaction can help diagnose an infection and guide appropriate treatment.

Blood group antigens are molecular markers found on the surface of red blood cells (RBCs) and sometimes other types of cells in the body. These antigens are proteins, carbohydrates, or glycoproteins that can stimulate an immune response when foreign antigens are introduced into the body.

There are several different blood group systems, but the most well-known is the ABO system, which includes A, B, AB, and O blood groups. The antigens in this system are called ABO antigens. Individuals with type A blood have A antigens on their RBCs, those with type B blood have B antigens, those with type AB blood have both A and B antigens, and those with type O blood have neither A nor B antigens.

Another important blood group system is the Rh system, which includes the D antigen. Individuals who have this antigen are considered Rh-positive, while those who do not have it are considered Rh-negative.

Blood group antigens can cause complications during blood transfusions and pregnancy if there is a mismatch between the donor's or fetus's antigens and the recipient's antibodies. For example, if a person with type A blood receives type B blood, their anti-B antibodies will attack the foreign B antigens on the donated RBCs, causing a potentially life-threatening transfusion reaction. Similarly, if an Rh-negative woman becomes pregnant with an Rh-positive fetus, her immune system may produce anti-D antibodies that can cross the placenta and attack the fetal RBCs, leading to hemolytic disease of the newborn.

It is important for medical professionals to determine a patient's blood group before performing a transfusion or pregnancy-related procedures to avoid these complications.

Immunoglobulin G (IgG) is a type of antibody, which is a protective protein produced by the immune system in response to foreign substances like bacteria or viruses. IgG is the most abundant type of antibody in human blood, making up about 75-80% of all antibodies. It is found in all body fluids and plays a crucial role in fighting infections caused by bacteria, viruses, and toxins.

IgG has several important functions:

1. Neutralization: IgG can bind to the surface of bacteria or viruses, preventing them from attaching to and infecting human cells.
2. Opsonization: IgG coats the surface of pathogens, making them more recognizable and easier for immune cells like neutrophils and macrophages to phagocytose (engulf and destroy) them.
3. Complement activation: IgG can activate the complement system, a group of proteins that work together to help eliminate pathogens from the body. Activation of the complement system leads to the formation of the membrane attack complex, which creates holes in the cell membranes of bacteria, leading to their lysis (destruction).
4. Antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC): IgG can bind to immune cells like natural killer (NK) cells and trigger them to release substances that cause target cells (such as virus-infected or cancerous cells) to undergo apoptosis (programmed cell death).
5. Immune complex formation: IgG can form immune complexes with antigens, which can then be removed from the body through various mechanisms, such as phagocytosis by immune cells or excretion in urine.

IgG is a critical component of adaptive immunity and provides long-lasting protection against reinfection with many pathogens. It has four subclasses (IgG1, IgG2, IgG3, and IgG4) that differ in their structure, function, and distribution in the body.

Serologic tests are laboratory tests that detect the presence or absence of antibodies or antigens in a patient's serum (the clear liquid that separates from clotted blood). These tests are commonly used to diagnose infectious diseases, as well as autoimmune disorders and other medical conditions.

In serologic testing for infectious diseases, a sample of the patient's blood is collected and allowed to clot. The serum is then separated from the clot and tested for the presence of antibodies that the body has produced in response to an infection. The test may be used to identify the specific type of infection or to determine whether the infection is active or has resolved.

Serologic tests can also be used to diagnose autoimmune disorders, such as rheumatoid arthritis and lupus, by detecting the presence of antibodies that are directed against the body's own tissues. These tests can help doctors confirm a diagnosis and monitor the progression of the disease.

It is important to note that serologic tests are not always 100% accurate and may produce false positive or false negative results. Therefore, they should be interpreted in conjunction with other clinical findings and laboratory test results.

Convalescence is the period of recovery following a serious illness, injury, or medical treatment. During this time, the body gradually returns to its normal state of health and functioning. The length and intensity of the convalescent period can vary widely depending on the individual and the severity of the condition that required treatment.

During convalescence, it is important for individuals to take care of themselves and allow their bodies to heal properly. This may involve getting plenty of rest, eating a healthy diet, engaging in gentle exercise or physical therapy as recommended by a healthcare provider, and avoiding strenuous activities or stressors that could hinder recovery.

Convalescence is an essential part of the healing process, and it is important to allow oneself enough time to fully recover before returning to normal activities. Rushing the convalescent period can lead to setbacks, complications, or a prolonged recovery time. By taking the time to focus on self-care and healing during convalescence, individuals can help ensure a full and speedy recovery.

Hemadsorption is a medical procedure that involves the use of a device to remove certain substances, such as toxic byproducts or excess amounts of cytokines (proteins involved in immune responses), from the bloodstream. This is accomplished by passing the patient's blood through an external filter or adsorbent column, which contains materials that selectively bind to the target molecules. The clean blood is then returned to the patient's circulation.

Hemadsorption can be used as a supportive treatment in various clinical scenarios, such as poisoning, sepsis, and other critical illnesses, where rapid removal of harmful substances from the bloodstream may help improve the patient's condition and outcomes. However, its effectiveness and safety are still subjects of ongoing research and debate.

Orthomyxoviridae is a family of viruses that includes influenza A, B, and C viruses, which can cause respiratory infections in humans. Orthomyxoviridae infections are typically characterized by symptoms such as fever, cough, sore throat, runny or stuffy nose, muscle or body aches, headaches, and fatigue.

Influenza A and B viruses can cause seasonal epidemics of respiratory illness that occur mainly during the winter months in temperate climates. Influenza A viruses can also cause pandemics, which are global outbreaks of disease that occur when a new strain of the virus emerges to which there is little or no immunity in the human population.

Influenza C viruses are less common and typically cause milder illness than influenza A and B viruses. They do not cause epidemics and are not usually included in seasonal flu vaccines.

Orthomyxoviridae infections can be prevented through vaccination, good respiratory hygiene (such as covering the mouth and nose when coughing or sneezing), hand washing, and avoiding close contact with sick individuals. Antiviral medications may be prescribed to treat influenza A and B infections, particularly for people at high risk of complications, such as older adults, young children, pregnant women, and people with certain underlying medical conditions.

Antibody specificity refers to the ability of an antibody to bind to a specific epitope or antigenic determinant on an antigen. Each antibody has a unique structure that allows it to recognize and bind to a specific region of an antigen, typically a small portion of the antigen's surface made up of amino acids or sugar residues. This highly specific binding is mediated by the variable regions of the antibody's heavy and light chains, which form a pocket that recognizes and binds to the epitope.

The specificity of an antibody is determined by its unique complementarity-determining regions (CDRs), which are loops of amino acids located in the variable domains of both the heavy and light chains. The CDRs form a binding site that recognizes and interacts with the epitope on the antigen. The precise fit between the antibody's binding site and the epitope is critical for specificity, as even small changes in the structure of either can prevent binding.

Antibody specificity is important in immune responses because it allows the immune system to distinguish between self and non-self antigens. This helps to prevent autoimmune reactions where the immune system attacks the body's own cells and tissues. Antibody specificity also plays a crucial role in diagnostic tests, such as ELISA assays, where antibodies are used to detect the presence of specific antigens in biological samples.

Antibody formation, also known as humoral immune response, is the process by which the immune system produces proteins called antibodies in response to the presence of a foreign substance (antigen) in the body. This process involves several steps:

1. Recognition: The antigen is recognized and bound by a type of white blood cell called a B lymphocyte or B cell, which then becomes activated.
2. Differentiation: The activated B cell undergoes differentiation to become a plasma cell, which is a type of cell that produces and secretes large amounts of antibodies.
3. Antibody production: The plasma cells produce and release antibodies, which are proteins made up of four polypeptide chains (two heavy chains and two light chains) arranged in a Y-shape. Each antibody has two binding sites that can recognize and bind to specific regions on the antigen called epitopes.
4. Neutralization or elimination: The antibodies bind to the antigens, neutralizing them or marking them for destruction by other immune cells. This helps to prevent the spread of infection and protect the body from harmful substances.

Antibody formation is an important part of the adaptive immune response, which allows the body to specifically recognize and respond to a wide variety of pathogens and foreign substances.

'Escherichia coli' (E. coli) is a type of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacterium that commonly inhabits the intestinal tract of humans and warm-blooded animals. It is a member of the family Enterobacteriaceae and one of the most well-studied prokaryotic model organisms in molecular biology.

While most E. coli strains are harmless and even beneficial to their hosts, some serotypes can cause various forms of gastrointestinal and extraintestinal illnesses in humans and animals. These pathogenic strains possess virulence factors that enable them to colonize and damage host tissues, leading to diseases such as diarrhea, urinary tract infections, pneumonia, and sepsis.

E. coli is a versatile organism with remarkable genetic diversity, which allows it to adapt to various environmental niches. It can be found in water, soil, food, and various man-made environments, making it an essential indicator of fecal contamination and a common cause of foodborne illnesses. The study of E. coli has contributed significantly to our understanding of fundamental biological processes, including DNA replication, gene regulation, and protein synthesis.

Serotyping is a laboratory technique used to classify microorganisms, such as bacteria and viruses, based on the specific antigens or proteins present on their surface. It involves treating the microorganism with different types of antibodies and observing which ones bind to its surface. Each distinct set of antigens corresponds to a specific serotype, allowing for precise identification and characterization of the microorganism. This technique is particularly useful in epidemiology, vaccine development, and infection control.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "horses" is not a medical term. It is the common name given to the species *Equus ferus caballus*, which are large domesticated mammals used for transportation, work, and recreation. If you have any questions about horses or a related topic that you would like a medical perspective on, please let me know and I'd be happy to help!

Kaolin is not a medical term per se, but it is a mineral that has various applications in the medical field. Medically, kaolin is used as an ingredient in some over-the-counter (OTC) medications and clinical products, particularly in oral and topical formulations.

Medical definition: Kaolin is a natural hydrated aluminum silicate clay mineral (with the chemical formula Al2Si2O5(OH)4) used in medical applications as an antidiarrheal agent and as a component in various dermatological products for its absorbent, protective, and soothing properties.

In medical terms, "ether" is an outdated term that was used to refer to a group of compounds known as diethyl ethers. The most common member of this group, and the one most frequently referred to as "ether," is diethyl ether, also known as sulfuric ether or simply ether.

Diethyl ether is a highly volatile, flammable liquid that was once widely used as an anesthetic agent in surgical procedures. It has a characteristic odor and produces a state of unconsciousness when inhaled, allowing patients to undergo surgery without experiencing pain. However, due to its numerous side effects, such as nausea, vomiting, and respiratory depression, as well as the risk of explosion or fire during use, it has largely been replaced by safer and more effective anesthetic agents.

It's worth noting that "ether" also has other meanings in different contexts, including a term used to describe a substance that produces a feeling of detachment from reality or a sense of unreality, as well as a class of organic compounds characterized by the presence of an ether group (-O-, a functional group consisting of an oxygen atom bonded to two alkyl or aryl groups).

Bacterial polysaccharides are complex carbohydrates that consist of long chains of sugar molecules (monosaccharides) linked together by glycosidic bonds. They are produced and used by bacteria for various purposes such as:

1. Structural components: Bacterial polysaccharides, such as peptidoglycan and lipopolysaccharide (LPS), play a crucial role in maintaining the structural integrity of bacterial cells. Peptidoglycan is a major component of the bacterial cell wall, while LPS forms the outer layer of the outer membrane in gram-negative bacteria.
2. Nutrient storage: Some bacteria synthesize and store polysaccharides as an energy reserve, similar to how plants store starch. These polysaccharides can be broken down and utilized by the bacterium when needed.
3. Virulence factors: Bacterial polysaccharides can also function as virulence factors, contributing to the pathogenesis of bacterial infections. For example, certain bacteria produce capsular polysaccharides (CPS) that surround and protect the bacterial cells from host immune defenses, allowing them to evade phagocytosis and persist within the host.
4. Adhesins: Some polysaccharides act as adhesins, facilitating the attachment of bacteria to surfaces or host cells. This is important for biofilm formation, which helps bacteria resist environmental stresses and antibiotic treatments.
5. Antigenic properties: Bacterial polysaccharides can be highly antigenic, eliciting an immune response in the host. The antigenicity of these molecules can vary between different bacterial species or even strains within a species, making them useful as targets for vaccines and diagnostic tests.

In summary, bacterial polysaccharides are complex carbohydrates that serve various functions in bacteria, including structural support, nutrient storage, virulence factor production, adhesion, and antigenicity.

I must clarify that the term "Guinea Pigs" is not typically used in medical definitions. However, in colloquial or informal language, it may refer to people who are used as the first to try out a new medical treatment or drug. This is known as being a "test subject" or "in a clinical trial."

In the field of scientific research, particularly in studies involving animals, guinea pigs are small rodents that are often used as experimental subjects due to their size, cost-effectiveness, and ease of handling. They are not actually pigs from Guinea, despite their name's origins being unclear. However, they do not exactly fit the description of being used in human medical experiments.

In the context of medical research, "methods" refers to the specific procedures or techniques used in conducting a study or experiment. This includes details on how data was collected, what measurements were taken, and what statistical analyses were performed. The methods section of a medical paper allows other researchers to replicate the study if they choose to do so. It is considered one of the key components of a well-written research article, as it provides transparency and helps establish the validity of the findings.

Mycoplasma: A type of bacteria that lack a cell wall and are among the smallest organisms capable of self-replication. They can cause various infections in humans, animals, and plants. In humans, they are associated with respiratory tract infections (such as pneumonia), urogenital infections (like pelvic inflammatory disease), and some sexually transmitted diseases. Mycoplasma species are also known to contaminate cell cultures and can interfere with research experiments. Due to their small size and lack of a cell wall, they are resistant to many common antibiotics, making them difficult to treat.

Swine diseases refer to a wide range of infectious and non-infectious conditions that affect pigs. These diseases can be caused by viruses, bacteria, fungi, parasites, or environmental factors. Some common swine diseases include:

1. Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome (PRRS): a viral disease that causes reproductive failure in sows and respiratory problems in piglets and grower pigs.
2. Classical Swine Fever (CSF): also known as hog cholera, is a highly contagious viral disease that affects pigs of all ages.
3. Porcine Circovirus Disease (PCVD): a group of diseases caused by porcine circoviruses, including Porcine CircoVirus Associated Disease (PCVAD) and Postweaning Multisystemic Wasting Syndrome (PMWS).
4. Swine Influenza: a respiratory disease caused by type A influenza viruses that can infect pigs and humans.
5. Mycoplasma Hyopneumoniae: a bacterial disease that causes pneumonia in pigs.
6. Actinobacillus Pleuropneumoniae: a bacterial disease that causes severe pneumonia in pigs.
7. Salmonella: a group of bacteria that can cause food poisoning in humans and a variety of diseases in pigs, including septicemia, meningitis, and abortion.
8. Brachyspira Hyodysenteriae: a bacterial disease that causes dysentery in pigs.
9. Erysipelothrix Rhusiopathiae: a bacterial disease that causes erysipelas in pigs.
10. External and internal parasites, such as lice, mites, worms, and flukes, can also cause diseases in swine.

Prevention and control of swine diseases rely on good biosecurity practices, vaccination programs, proper nutrition, and management practices. Regular veterinary check-ups and monitoring are essential to detect and treat diseases early.

Counterimmunoelectrophoresis (CIEP) is a laboratory technique used in the field of immunology and serology for the identification and detection of antigens or antibodies in a sample. It is a type of electrophoretic technique that involves the migration of antigens and antibodies in an electric field towards each other, resulting in the formation of a precipitin line at the point where they meet and react.

In CIEP, the antigen is placed in the gel matrix in a trough or well, while the antibody is placed in a separate trough located perpendicularly to the antigen trough. An electric current is then applied, causing both the antigens and antibodies to migrate towards each other through the gel matrix. When they meet, they form a precipitin line, which can be visualized as a white band or line in the gel.

CIEP is a rapid and sensitive technique that can be used to detect and identify specific antigens or antibodies in a sample. It is often used in the diagnosis of infectious diseases, autoimmune disorders, and other medical conditions where the presence of specific antigens or antibodies needs to be detected.

It's important to note that CIEP has been largely replaced by more modern techniques such as ELISA and Western blotting, which offer greater sensitivity and specificity. However, it is still used in some research and diagnostic settings due to its simplicity and cost-effectiveness.

Respirovirus is not typically used as a formal medical term in modern taxonomy. However, historically, it was used to refer to a genus of viruses within the family Paramyxoviridae, order Mononegavirales. This genus included several important human and animal pathogens that cause respiratory infections.

Human respiroviruses include:
1. Human parainfluenza virus (HPIV) types 1, 2, and 3: These viruses are a common cause of upper and lower respiratory tract infections, such as croup, bronchitis, and pneumonia, particularly in young children.
2. Sendai virus (also known as murine respirovirus): This virus primarily infects rodents but can occasionally cause mild respiratory illness in humans, especially those who work closely with these animals.

The term "respirovirus" is not officially recognized by the International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses (ICTV) anymore, and these viruses are now classified under different genera within the subfamily Pneumovirinae: Human parainfluenza viruses 1 and 3 belong to the genus Orthorubulavirus, while Human parainfluenza virus 2 is placed in the genus Metapneumovirus.

Latex fixation tests are diagnostic procedures used to detect the presence of certain antigens or antibodies in a patient's sample, such as blood or serum. These tests use latex particles that are coated with specific antigens or antibodies that can bind to complementary antigens or antibodies present in the sample. When the sample is added to the latex reagent, if the specific antigen or antibody is present, they will bind to the latex particles, forming an agglutination reaction that can be seen as a visible clumping or agglutination of the latex particles.

Latex fixation tests are commonly used in the diagnosis of infectious diseases, autoimmune disorders, and genetic disorders. For example, a latex fixation test may be used to detect the presence of Streptococcus pneumoniae antigens in a patient's sputum sample or to identify the presence of rheumatoid factor (RF) antibodies in a patient's blood sample. These tests are known for their simplicity, speed, and sensitivity, making them a valuable tool in clinical laboratories.

Fimbriae proteins are specialized protein structures found on the surface of certain bacteria, including some pathogenic species. Fimbriae, also known as pili, are thin, hair-like appendages that extend from the bacterial cell wall and play a role in the attachment of the bacterium to host cells or surfaces.

Fimbrial proteins are responsible for the assembly and structure of these fimbriae. They are produced by the bacterial cell and then self-assemble into long, thin fibers that extend from the surface of the bacterium. The proteins have a highly conserved sequence at their carboxy-terminal end, which is important for their polymerization and assembly into fimbriae.

Fimbrial proteins can vary widely between different species of bacteria, and even between strains of the same species. Some fimbrial proteins are adhesins, meaning they bind to specific receptors on host cells, allowing the bacterium to attach to and colonize tissues. Other fimbrial proteins may play a role in biofilm formation or other aspects of bacterial pathogenesis.

Understanding the structure and function of fimbrial proteins is important for developing new strategies to prevent or treat bacterial infections, as these proteins can be potential targets for vaccines or therapeutic agents.

Hemolysis is the destruction or breakdown of red blood cells, resulting in the release of hemoglobin into the surrounding fluid (plasma). This process can occur due to various reasons such as chemical agents, infections, autoimmune disorders, mechanical trauma, or genetic abnormalities. Hemolysis may lead to anemia and jaundice, among other complications. It is essential to monitor hemolysis levels in patients undergoing medical treatments that might cause this condition.

'Influenza A Virus, H9N2 Subtype' is a type of influenza virus that causes respiratory illness in birds and occasionally in humans. It has been found to infect various animal species, including pigs, dogs, and horses. The H9N2 subtype has eight negative-sense RNA segments, encoding several proteins, such as hemagglutinin (H), neuraminidase (N), matrix protein (M), nucleoprotein (NP), nonstructural protein (NS), and three polymerase proteins (PA, PB1, and PB2).

The H9 hemagglutinin and N2 neuraminidase surface glycoproteins define the subtype of this influenza virus. The H9N2 viruses are known to have low pathogenicity in birds but can cause mild to moderate respiratory symptoms in humans, particularly those with occupational exposure to poultry or live bird markets.

H9N2 viruses have sporadically infected humans since their first identification in the 1960s and pose a pandemic threat due to their ability to reassort genetic material with other influenza A viruses, potentially creating new strains with increased transmissibility and pathogenicity for humans.

Influenza B virus is one of the primary types of influenza viruses that cause seasonal flu in humans. It's an enveloped, negative-sense, single-stranded RNA virus belonging to the family Orthomyxoviridae.

Influenza B viruses are typically found only in humans and circulate widely during the annual flu season. They mutate at a slower rate than Influenza A viruses, which means that immunity developed against one strain tends to provide protection against similar strains in subsequent seasons. However, they can still cause significant illness, especially among young children, older adults, and people with certain chronic medical conditions.

Influenza B viruses are divided into two lineages: Victoria and Yamagata. Vaccines are developed each year to target the most likely strains of Influenza A and B viruses that will circulate in the upcoming flu season.

Haplorhini is a term used in the field of primatology and physical anthropology to refer to a parvorder of simian primates, which includes humans, apes (both great and small), and Old World monkeys. The name "Haplorhini" comes from the Greek words "haploos," meaning single or simple, and "rhinos," meaning nose.

The defining characteristic of Haplorhini is the presence of a simple, dry nose, as opposed to the wet, fleshy noses found in other primates, such as New World monkeys and strepsirrhines (which include lemurs and lorises). The nostrils of haplorhines are located close together at the tip of the snout, and they lack the rhinarium or "wet nose" that is present in other primates.

Haplorhini is further divided into two infraorders: Simiiformes (which includes apes and Old World monkeys) and Tarsioidea (which includes tarsiers). These groups are distinguished by various anatomical and behavioral differences, such as the presence or absence of a tail, the structure of the hand and foot, and the degree of sociality.

Overall, Haplorhini is a group of primates that share a number of distinctive features related to their sensory systems, locomotion, and social behavior. Understanding the evolutionary history and diversity of this group is an important area of research in anthropology, biology, and psychology.

Hydrolyzable tannins are a type of tannin that can be broken down or hydrolyzed by water or weak acids into simpler components. They are polyphenolic compounds that can be found in various plants, including fruits, nuts, bark, and leaves. Hydrolyzable tannins are made up of a central core of glucose or other sugars, which are esterified with phenolic acids such as gallic acid or ellagic acid.

When hydrolyzable tannins come into contact with water or weak acids, they undergo hydrolysis, breaking down the ester bonds that link the phenolic acids to the sugar core. This results in the formation of various phenolic compounds, including gallic acid and ellagic acid, as well as sugars.

Hydrolyzable tannins have a wide range of biological activities, including antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and antimicrobial properties. They are also known to have potential health benefits, such as reducing the risk of cardiovascular disease and cancer. However, they can also have negative effects on human health, particularly when consumed in large quantities, as they can interfere with the absorption of nutrients and cause digestive problems.

Antibodies are proteins produced by the immune system in response to the presence of a foreign substance, such as a bacterium or virus. They are capable of identifying and binding to specific antigens (foreign substances) on the surface of these invaders, marking them for destruction by other immune cells. Antibodies are also known as immunoglobulins and come in several different types, including IgA, IgD, IgE, IgG, and IgM, each with a unique function in the immune response. They are composed of four polypeptide chains, two heavy chains and two light chains, that are held together by disulfide bonds. The variable regions of the heavy and light chains form the antigen-binding site, which is specific to a particular antigen.

An epitope is a specific region on the surface of an antigen (a molecule that can trigger an immune response) that is recognized by an antibody, B-cell receptor, or T-cell receptor. It is also commonly referred to as an antigenic determinant. Epitopes are typically composed of linear amino acid sequences or conformational structures made up of discontinuous amino acids in the antigen. They play a crucial role in the immune system's ability to differentiate between self and non-self molecules, leading to the targeted destruction of foreign substances like viruses and bacteria. Understanding epitopes is essential for developing vaccines, diagnostic tests, and immunotherapies.

Bacterial adhesins are proteins or structures on the surface of bacterial cells that allow them to attach to other cells or surfaces. This ability to adhere to host tissues is an important first step in the process of bacterial infection and colonization. Adhesins can recognize and bind to specific receptors on host cells, such as proteins or sugars, enabling the bacteria to establish a close relationship with the host and evade immune responses.

There are several types of bacterial adhesins, including fimbriae, pili, and non-fimbrial adhesins. Fimbriae and pili are thin, hair-like structures that extend from the bacterial surface and can bind to a variety of host cell receptors. Non-fimbrial adhesins are proteins that are directly embedded in the bacterial cell wall and can also mediate attachment to host cells.

Bacterial adhesins play a crucial role in the pathogenesis of many bacterial infections, including urinary tract infections, respiratory tract infections, and gastrointestinal infections. Understanding the mechanisms of bacterial adhesion is important for developing new strategies to prevent and treat bacterial infections.

Carbohydrates are a major nutrient class consisting of organic compounds that primarily contain carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen atoms. They are classified as saccharides, which include monosaccharides (simple sugars), disaccharides (double sugars), oligosaccharides (short-chain sugars), and polysaccharides (complex carbohydrates).

Monosaccharides, such as glucose, fructose, and galactose, are the simplest form of carbohydrates. They consist of a single sugar molecule that cannot be broken down further by hydrolysis. Disaccharides, like sucrose (table sugar), lactose (milk sugar), and maltose (malt sugar), are formed from two monosaccharide units joined together.

Oligosaccharides contain a small number of monosaccharide units, typically less than 20, while polysaccharides consist of long chains of hundreds to thousands of monosaccharide units. Polysaccharides can be further classified into starch (found in plants), glycogen (found in animals), and non-starchy polysaccharides like cellulose, chitin, and pectin.

Carbohydrates play a crucial role in providing energy to the body, with glucose being the primary source of energy for most cells. They also serve as structural components in plants (cellulose) and animals (chitin), participate in various metabolic processes, and contribute to the taste, texture, and preservation of foods.

'Adhesiveness' is a term used in medicine and biology to describe the ability of two surfaces to stick or adhere to each other. In medical terms, it often refers to the property of tissues or cells to adhere to one another, as in the case of scar tissue formation where healing tissue adheres to adjacent structures.

In the context of microbiology, adhesiveness can refer to the ability of bacteria or other microorganisms to attach themselves to surfaces, such as medical devices or human tissues, which can lead to infection and other health problems. Adhesives used in medical devices, such as bandages or wound dressings, also have adhesiveness properties that allow them to stick to the skin or other surfaces.

Overall, adhesiveness is an important property in many areas of medicine and biology, with implications for wound healing, infection control, and the design and function of medical devices.

Plant lectins are proteins or glycoproteins that are abundantly found in various plant parts such as seeds, leaves, stems, and roots. They have the ability to bind specifically to carbohydrate structures present on cell membranes, known as glycoconjugates. This binding property of lectins is reversible and non-catalytic, meaning it does not involve any enzymatic activity.

Lectins play several roles in plants, including defense against predators, pathogens, and herbivores. They can agglutinate red blood cells, stimulate the immune system, and have been implicated in various biological processes such as cell growth, differentiation, and apoptosis (programmed cell death). Some lectins also exhibit mitogenic activity, which means they can stimulate the proliferation of certain types of cells.

In the medical field, plant lectins have gained attention due to their potential therapeutic applications. For instance, some lectins have been shown to possess anti-cancer properties and are being investigated as potential cancer treatments. However, it is important to note that some lectins can be toxic or allergenic to humans and animals, so they must be used with caution.

Immunoenzyme techniques are a group of laboratory methods used in immunology and clinical chemistry that combine the specificity of antibody-antigen reactions with the sensitivity and amplification capabilities of enzyme reactions. These techniques are primarily used for the detection, quantitation, or identification of various analytes (such as proteins, hormones, drugs, viruses, or bacteria) in biological samples.

In immunoenzyme techniques, an enzyme is linked to an antibody or antigen, creating a conjugate. This conjugate then interacts with the target analyte in the sample, forming an immune complex. The presence and amount of this immune complex can be visualized or measured by detecting the enzymatic activity associated with it.

There are several types of immunoenzyme techniques, including:

1. Enzyme-linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA): A widely used method for detecting and quantifying various analytes in a sample. In ELISA, an enzyme is attached to either the capture antibody or the detection antibody. After the immune complex formation, a substrate is added that reacts with the enzyme, producing a colored product that can be measured spectrophotometrically.
2. Immunoblotting (Western blot): A method used for detecting specific proteins in a complex mixture, such as a protein extract from cells or tissues. In this technique, proteins are separated by gel electrophoresis and transferred to a membrane, where they are probed with an enzyme-conjugated antibody directed against the target protein.
3. Immunohistochemistry (IHC): A method used for detecting specific antigens in tissue sections or cells. In IHC, an enzyme-conjugated primary or secondary antibody is applied to the sample, and the presence of the antigen is visualized using a chromogenic substrate that produces a colored product at the site of the antigen-antibody interaction.
4. Immunofluorescence (IF): A method used for detecting specific antigens in cells or tissues by employing fluorophore-conjugated antibodies. The presence of the antigen is visualized using a fluorescence microscope.
5. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA): A method used for detecting and quantifying specific antigens or antibodies in liquid samples, such as serum or culture supernatants. In ELISA, an enzyme-conjugated detection antibody is added after the immune complex formation, and a substrate is added that reacts with the enzyme to produce a colored product that can be measured spectrophotometrically.

These techniques are widely used in research and diagnostic laboratories for various applications, including protein characterization, disease diagnosis, and monitoring treatment responses.

Syphilis serodiagnosis is a laboratory testing method used to diagnose syphilis, a sexually transmitted infection caused by the bacterium Treponema pallidum. It involves detecting specific antibodies produced by the immune system in response to the infection, rather than directly detecting the bacteria itself.

There are two main types of serological tests used for syphilis serodiagnosis: treponemal and nontreponemal tests.

1. Treponemal tests: These tests detect antibodies that specifically target Treponema pallidum. Examples include the fluorescent treponemal antibody absorption (FTA-ABS) test, T. pallidum particle agglutination (TP-PA) assay, and enzyme immunoassays (EIAs) or chemiluminescence immunoassays (CIAs) for Treponema pallidum antibodies. These tests are highly specific but may remain reactive even after successful treatment, indicating past exposure or infection rather than a current active infection.

2. Nontreponemal tests: These tests detect antibodies produced against cardiolipin, a lipid found in the membranes of Treponema pallidum and other bacteria. Examples include the Venereal Disease Research Laboratory (VDRL) test and the Rapid Plasma Reagin (RPR) test. These tests are less specific than treponemal tests but can be used to monitor disease progression and treatment response, as their results often correlate with disease activity. Nontreponemal test titers usually decrease or become nonreactive after successful treatment.

Syphilis serodiagnosis typically involves a two-step process, starting with a nontreponemal test followed by a treponemal test for confirmation. This approach helps distinguish between current and past infections while minimizing false positives. It is essential to interpret serological test results in conjunction with the patient's clinical history, physical examination findings, and any additional diagnostic tests.

Yaws is a chronic, infectious disease caused by the spirochete bacterium Treponema pallidum pertenue. It primarily affects the skin, bones, and cartilage. The initial symptom is a small, hard bump (called a papule or mother yaw) that develops into an ulcer with a raised, red border and a yellow-crusted center. This lesion can be painful and pruritic (itchy). Yaws is usually contracted through direct contact with an infected person's lesion, typically during childhood. The disease is common in rural areas of tropical regions with poor sanitation and limited access to healthcare, particularly in West and Central Africa, the Pacific Islands, and parts of South America and Asia.

Yaws is treatable with antibiotics, such as penicillin, which can kill the bacteria and halt the progression of the disease. In most cases, a single injection of long-acting penicillin is sufficient to cure the infection. However, it's essential to identify and treat yaws early to prevent severe complications, including disfigurement and disability.

It's important to note that yaws should not be confused with other treponemal diseases, such as syphilis (caused by Treponema pallidum subspecies pallidum) or pinta (caused by Treponema carateum). While these conditions share some similarities in their clinical presentation and transmission, they are distinct diseases with different geographic distributions and treatment approaches.

Vaccination is a simple, safe, and effective way to protect people against harmful diseases, before they come into contact with them. It uses your body's natural defenses to build protection to specific infections and makes your immune system stronger.

A vaccination usually contains a small, harmless piece of a virus or bacteria (or toxins produced by these germs) that has been made inactive or weakened so it won't cause the disease itself. This piece of the germ is known as an antigen. When the vaccine is introduced into the body, the immune system recognizes the antigen as foreign and produces antibodies to fight it.

If a person then comes into contact with the actual disease-causing germ, their immune system will recognize it and immediately produce antibodies to destroy it. The person is therefore protected against that disease. This is known as active immunity.

Vaccinations are important for both individual and public health. They prevent the spread of contagious diseases and protect vulnerable members of the population, such as young children, the elderly, and people with weakened immune systems who cannot be vaccinated or for whom vaccination is not effective.

"Cattle" is a term used in the agricultural and veterinary fields to refer to domesticated animals of the genus *Bos*, primarily *Bos taurus* (European cattle) and *Bos indicus* (Zebu). These animals are often raised for meat, milk, leather, and labor. They are also known as bovines or cows (for females), bulls (intact males), and steers/bullocks (castrated males). However, in a strict medical definition, "cattle" does not apply to humans or other animals.

"Treponema pallidum" is a species of spiral-shaped bacteria (a spirochete) that is the causative agent of syphilis, a sexually transmitted infection. The bacterium is very thin and difficult to culture in the laboratory, which has made it challenging for researchers to study its biology and develop new treatments for syphilis.

The bacterium can infect various tissues and organs in the body, leading to a wide range of symptoms that can affect multiple systems, including the skin, bones, joints, cardiovascular system, and nervous system. The infection can be transmitted through sexual contact, from mother to fetus during pregnancy or childbirth, or through blood transfusions or shared needles.

Syphilis is a serious disease that can have long-term health consequences if left untreated. However, it is also curable with appropriate antibiotic therapy, such as penicillin. It is important to diagnose and treat syphilis early to prevent the spread of the infection and avoid potential complications.

The Fluorescent Antibody Technique (FAT) is a type of immunofluorescence assay used in laboratory medicine and pathology for the detection and localization of specific antigens or antibodies in tissues, cells, or microorganisms. In this technique, a fluorescein-labeled antibody is used to selectively bind to the target antigen or antibody, forming an immune complex. When excited by light of a specific wavelength, the fluorescein label emits light at a longer wavelength, typically visualized as green fluorescence under a fluorescence microscope.

The FAT is widely used in diagnostic microbiology for the identification and characterization of various bacteria, viruses, fungi, and parasites. It has also been applied in the diagnosis of autoimmune diseases and certain cancers by detecting specific antibodies or antigens in patient samples. The main advantage of FAT is its high sensitivity and specificity, allowing for accurate detection and differentiation of various pathogens and disease markers. However, it requires specialized equipment and trained personnel to perform and interpret the results.

"Pasteurella" is a genus of Gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic coccobacilli that are part of the family Pasteurellaceae. These bacteria are commonly found as normal flora in the upper respiratory tracts of animals, including cats, dogs, and livestock. They can cause a variety of infections in humans, such as wound infections, pneumonia, and septicemia, often following animal bites or scratches. Two notable species are Pasteurella multocida and Pasteurella canis. Proper identification and antibiotic susceptibility testing are essential for appropriate treatment.

An antigen is a substance (usually a protein) that is recognized as foreign by the immune system and stimulates an immune response, leading to the production of antibodies or activation of T-cells. Antigens can be derived from various sources, including bacteria, viruses, fungi, parasites, and tumor cells. They can also come from non-living substances such as pollen, dust mites, or chemicals.

Antigens contain epitopes, which are specific regions on the antigen molecule that are recognized by the immune system. The immune system's response to an antigen depends on several factors, including the type of antigen, its size, and its location in the body.

In general, antigens can be classified into two main categories:

1. T-dependent antigens: These require the help of T-cells to stimulate an immune response. They are typically larger, more complex molecules that contain multiple epitopes capable of binding to both MHC class II molecules on antigen-presenting cells and T-cell receptors on CD4+ T-cells.
2. T-independent antigens: These do not require the help of T-cells to stimulate an immune response. They are usually smaller, simpler molecules that contain repetitive epitopes capable of cross-linking B-cell receptors and activating them directly.

Understanding antigens and their properties is crucial for developing vaccines, diagnostic tests, and immunotherapies.

"Influenza A Virus, H5N1 Subtype" is a specific subtype of the Influenza A virus that is often found in avian species (birds) and can occasionally infect humans. The "H5N1" refers to the specific proteins (hemagglutinin and neuraminidase) found on the surface of the virus. This subtype has caused serious infections in humans, with high mortality rates, especially in cases where people have had close contact with infected birds. It does not commonly spread from person to person, but there is concern that it could mutate and adapt to efficiently transmit between humans, which would potentially cause a pandemic.

I believe there might be a misunderstanding in your question. "Glutaral" does not seem to be a recognized medical term or abbreviation in healthcare and biomedical sciences. It is possible that you may be looking for information on "glutaraldehyde," which is a disinfectant and sterilizing agent used in medical settings.

Glutaraldehyde is a chemical compound with the formula C5H8O2, and it's often used as a 2% solution. It's an effective agent against bacteria, viruses, and fungi, making it useful for sterilizing medical equipment. However, glutaraldehyde can cause respiratory issues and skin irritation in some individuals, so proper handling and use are essential to minimize exposure.

If you meant to ask about a different term or if this answer does not address your question, please provide more context or clarify your request, and I will be happy to help further.

Periodic acid is not a medical term per se, but it is a chemical reagent that is used in some laboratory tests and staining procedures in the field of pathology, which is a medical specialty.

Periodic acid is an oxidizing agent with the chemical formula HIO4 or H5IO6. It is often used in histology (the study of the microscopic structure of tissues) to perform a special staining technique called the periodic acid-Schiff (PAS) reaction. This reaction is used to identify certain types of carbohydrates, such as glycogen and some types of mucins, in tissues.

The periodic acid first oxidizes the carbohydrate molecules, creating aldehydes. These aldehydes then react with a Schiff reagent, which results in a pink or magenta color. This reaction can help pathologists identify and diagnose various medical conditions, such as cancer, infection, and inflammation.

'Influenza A Virus, H3N8 Subtype' is a type of influenza virus that causes respiratory illness in animals, particularly horses and dogs. It is one of the many subtypes of Influenza A viruses, which are classified based on two proteins found on the surface of the virus: hemagglutinin (H) and neuraminidase (N). The H3N8 subtype has hemagglutinin protein type 3 and neuraminidase protein type 8.

While H3N8 is not typically known to cause illness in humans, it can occasionally infect people who have close contact with infected animals. However, human-to-human transmission of this subtype is rare. It's important to note that influenza viruses are constantly changing and evolving, so the potential for new strains to emerge and pose a threat to human health cannot be ruled out.

Regular surveillance and monitoring of animal populations for influenza viruses, as well as ongoing research into their transmission dynamics and genetic changes, are crucial for early detection and response to potential pandemic threats.

Neuraminic acids, also known as sialic acids, are a family of nine-carbon sugars that are commonly found on the outermost layer of many cell surfaces in animals. They play important roles in various biological processes, such as cell recognition, immune response, and viral and bacterial infection. Neuraminic acids can exist in several forms, with N-acetylneuraminic acid (NANA) being the most common one in mammals. They are often found attached to other sugars to form complex carbohydrates called glycoconjugates, which are involved in many cellular functions and interactions.

Seroepidemiologic studies are a type of epidemiological study that measures the presence and levels of antibodies in a population's blood serum to investigate the prevalence, distribution, and transmission of infectious diseases. These studies help to identify patterns of infection and immunity within a population, which can inform public health policies and interventions.

Seroepidemiologic studies typically involve collecting blood samples from a representative sample of individuals in a population and testing them for the presence of antibodies against specific pathogens. The results are then analyzed to estimate the prevalence of infection and immunity within the population, as well as any factors associated with increased or decreased risk of infection.

These studies can provide valuable insights into the spread of infectious diseases, including emerging and re-emerging infections, and help to monitor the effectiveness of vaccination programs. Additionally, seroepidemiologic studies can also be used to investigate the transmission dynamics of infectious agents, such as identifying sources of infection or tracking the spread of antibiotic resistance.

Pyelonephritis is a type of urinary tract infection (UTI) that involves the renal pelvis and the kidney parenchyma. It's typically caused by bacterial invasion, often via the ascending route from the lower urinary tract. The most common causative agent is Escherichia coli (E. coli), but other bacteria such as Klebsiella, Proteus, and Pseudomonas can also be responsible.

Acute pyelonephritis can lead to symptoms like fever, chills, flank pain, nausea, vomiting, and frequent or painful urination. If left untreated, it can potentially cause permanent kidney damage, sepsis, or other complications. Chronic pyelonephritis, on the other hand, is usually associated with underlying structural or functional abnormalities of the urinary tract.

Diagnosis typically involves a combination of clinical evaluation, urinalysis, and imaging studies, while treatment often consists of antibiotics tailored to the identified pathogen and the patient's overall health status.

"Swine" is a common term used to refer to even-toed ungulates of the family Suidae, including domestic pigs and wild boars. However, in a medical context, "swine" often appears in the phrase "swine flu," which is a strain of influenza virus that typically infects pigs but can also cause illness in humans. The 2009 H1N1 pandemic was caused by a new strain of swine-origin influenza A virus, which was commonly referred to as "swine flu." It's important to note that this virus is not transmitted through eating cooked pork products; it spreads from person to person, mainly through respiratory droplets produced when an infected person coughs or sneezes.

Melioidosis is a bacterial infection caused by the soil-dwelling gram-negative bacillus, Burkholderia pseudomallei. The disease primarily occurs in tropical areas such as Southeast Asia and northern Australia. It can present with a wide range of clinical manifestations including acute septicemia, pneumonia, and chronic suppurative infection. Risk factors for melioidosis include diabetes mellitus, renal disease, alcoholism, and lung disease. The diagnosis is confirmed by culturing B. pseudomallei from clinical specimens such as blood, sputum, or pus. Treatment typically involves a prolonged course of antibiotics, including intravenous ceftazidime followed by oral trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole.

Arboviruses are a group of viruses that are primarily transmitted to humans and animals through the bites of infected arthropods, such as mosquitoes, ticks, and sandflies. The term "arbovirus" is short for "arthropod-borne virus."

Arboviruses can cause a wide range of symptoms, depending on the specific virus and the individual host's immune response. Some common symptoms associated with arboviral infections include fever, headache, muscle and joint pain, rash, and fatigue. In severe cases, arboviral infections can lead to serious complications such as encephalitis (inflammation of the brain), meningitis (inflammation of the membranes surrounding the brain and spinal cord), or hemorrhagic fever (bleeding disorders).

There are hundreds of different arboviruses, and they are found in many parts of the world. Some of the most well-known arboviral diseases include dengue fever, chikungunya, Zika virus infection, West Nile virus infection, yellow fever, and Japanese encephalitis.

Prevention of arboviral infections typically involves avoiding mosquito bites and other arthropod vectors through the use of insect repellent, wearing long sleeves and pants, and staying indoors during peak mosquito feeding times. Public health efforts also focus on reducing vector populations through environmental management and the use of larvicides. Vaccines are available for some arboviral diseases, such as yellow fever and Japanese encephalitis.

The ABO blood-group system is a classification system used in blood transfusion medicine to determine the compatibility of donated blood with a recipient's blood. It is based on the presence or absence of two antigens, A and B, on the surface of red blood cells (RBCs), as well as the corresponding antibodies present in the plasma.

There are four main blood types in the ABO system:

1. Type A: These individuals have A antigens on their RBCs and anti-B antibodies in their plasma.
2. Type B: They have B antigens on their RBCs and anti-A antibodies in their plasma.
3. Type AB: They have both A and B antigens on their RBCs but no natural antibodies against either A or B antigens.
4. Type O: They do not have any A or B antigens on their RBCs, but they have both anti-A and anti-B antibodies in their plasma.

Transfusing blood from a donor with incompatible ABO antigens can lead to an immune response, causing the destruction of donated RBCs and potentially life-threatening complications such as acute hemolytic transfusion reaction. Therefore, it is crucial to match the ABO blood type between donors and recipients before performing a blood transfusion.

An antigen-antibody reaction is a specific immune response that occurs when an antigen (a foreign substance, such as a protein or polysaccharide on the surface of a bacterium or virus) comes into contact with a corresponding antibody (a protective protein produced by the immune system in response to the antigen). The antigen and antibody bind together, forming an antigen-antibody complex. This interaction can neutralize the harmful effects of the antigen, mark it for destruction by other immune cells, or activate complement proteins to help eliminate the antigen from the body. Antigen-antibody reactions are a crucial part of the adaptive immune response and play a key role in the body's defense against infection and disease.

Immunization is defined medically as the process where an individual is made immune or resistant to an infectious disease, typically through the administration of a vaccine. The vaccine stimulates the body's own immune system to recognize and fight off the specific disease-causing organism, thereby preventing or reducing the severity of future infections with that organism.

Immunization can be achieved actively, where the person is given a vaccine to trigger an immune response, or passively, where antibodies are transferred to the person through immunoglobulin therapy. Immunizations are an important part of preventive healthcare and have been successful in controlling and eliminating many infectious diseases worldwide.

Polysorbates are a type of nonionic surfactant (a compound that lowers the surface tension between two substances, such as oil and water) commonly used in pharmaceuticals, foods, and cosmetics. They are derived from sorbitol and reacted with ethylene oxide to create a polyoxyethylene structure. The most common types of polysorbates used in medicine are polysorbate 20, polysorbate 40, and polysorbate 60, which differ in the number of oxyethylene groups in their molecular structure.

Polysorbates are often added to pharmaceutical formulations as emulsifiers, solubilizers, or stabilizers. They help to improve the solubility and stability of drugs that are otherwise insoluble in water, allowing for better absorption and bioavailability. Polysorbates can also prevent the aggregation and precipitation of proteins in injectable formulations.

In addition to their use in pharmaceuticals, polysorbates are also used as emulsifiers in food products such as ice cream, salad dressings, and baked goods. They help to mix oil and water-based ingredients together and prevent them from separating. In cosmetics, polysorbates are used as surfactants, solubilizers, and stabilizers in a variety of personal care products.

It is important to note that some people may have allergic reactions to polysorbates, particularly those with sensitivities to sorbitol or other ingredients used in their production. Therefore, it is essential to carefully consider the potential risks and benefits of using products containing polysorbates in individuals who may be at risk for adverse reactions.

The Mumps virus is a single-stranded, negative-sense RNA virus that belongs to the Paramyxoviridae family and Rubulavirus genus. It is the causative agent of mumps, an acute infectious disease characterized by painful swelling of the salivary glands, particularly the parotid glands.

The Mumps virus has a spherical or pleomorphic shape with a diameter of approximately 150-250 nanometers. It is surrounded by a lipid bilayer membrane derived from the host cell, which contains viral glycoproteins that facilitate attachment and entry into host cells.

The M protein, located beneath the envelope, plays a crucial role in virus assembly and budding. The genome of the Mumps virus consists of eight genes encoding nine proteins, including two major structural proteins (nucleocapsid protein and matrix protein) and several non-structural proteins involved in viral replication and pathogenesis.

Transmission of the Mumps virus occurs through respiratory droplets or direct contact with infected saliva. After infection, the incubation period ranges from 12 to 25 days, followed by a prodromal phase characterized by fever, headache, malaise, and muscle pain. The characteristic swelling of the parotid glands usually appears 1-3 days after the onset of symptoms.

Complications of mumps can include meningitis, encephalitis, orchitis, oophoritis, pancreatitis, and deafness. Prevention relies on vaccination with the measles-mumps-rubella (MMR) vaccine, which is highly effective in preventing mumps and its complications.

Species specificity is a term used in the field of biology, including medicine, to refer to the characteristic of a biological entity (such as a virus, bacterium, or other microorganism) that allows it to interact exclusively or preferentially with a particular species. This means that the biological entity has a strong affinity for, or is only able to infect, a specific host species.

For example, HIV is specifically adapted to infect human cells and does not typically infect other animal species. Similarly, some bacterial toxins are species-specific and can only affect certain types of animals or humans. This concept is important in understanding the transmission dynamics and host range of various pathogens, as well as in developing targeted therapies and vaccines.

Ovomucin is a glycoprotein found in the egg white (albumen) of birds. It is one of the major proteins in egg white, making up about 10-15% of its total protein content. Ovomucin is known for its ability to form a gel-like structure when egg whites are beaten, which helps to protect the developing embryo inside the egg.

Ovomucin has several unique properties that make it medically interesting. For example, it has been shown to have antibacterial and antiviral activities, and may help to prevent microbial growth in the egg. Additionally, ovomucin is a complex mixture of proteins with varying molecular weights and structures, which makes it a subject of interest for researchers studying protein structure and function.

In recent years, there has been some research into the potential medical uses of ovomucin, including its possible role in wound healing and as a potential treatment for respiratory infections. However, more research is needed to fully understand the potential therapeutic applications of this interesting protein.

'Avian influenza' refers to the infection caused by avian (bird) influenza A viruses. These viruses occur naturally among wild aquatic birds worldwide and can infect domestic poultry and other bird and animal species. Avian influenza viruses do not normally infect humans, but rare cases of human infection have occurred mainly after close contact with infected birds or heavily contaminated environments.

There are many different subtypes of avian influenza viruses based on two proteins on the surface of the virus: hemagglutinin (HA) and neuraminidase (NA). There are 16 known HA subtypes and 9 known NA subtypes, creating a vast number of possible combinations. Some of these combinations cause severe disease and death in birds (e.g., H5N1, H7N9), while others only cause mild illness (e.g., H9N2).

Most avian influenza viruses do not infect humans. However, some forms are zoonotic, meaning they can infect animals and humans. The risk to human health is generally low. When human infections with avian influenza viruses have occurred, most have resulted from direct contact with infected poultry or surfaces contaminated by their feces.

Avian influenza viruses have caused several pandemics in the past, including the 1918 Spanish flu (H1N1), which was an H1N1 virus containing genes of avian origin. The concern is that a highly pathogenic avian influenza virus could mutate to become easily transmissible from human to human, leading to another pandemic. This is one of the reasons why avian influenza viruses are closely monitored by public health authorities worldwide.

Bunyaviridae is a family of enveloped, single-stranded RNA viruses that includes more than 350 different species. These viruses are named after the type species, Bunyamwera virus, which was first isolated in 1943 from mosquitoes in Uganda.

The genome of Bunyaviridae viruses is divided into three segments: large (L), medium (M), and small (S). The L segment encodes the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase, which is responsible for replication and transcription of the viral genome. The M segment encodes two glycoproteins that form the viral envelope and are involved in attachment and fusion to host cells. The S segment encodes the nucleocapsid protein, which packages the viral RNA, and a non-structural protein that is involved in modulation of the host immune response.

Bunyaviridae viruses are transmitted to humans and animals through arthropod vectors such as mosquitoes, ticks, and sandflies. Some members of this family can cause severe disease in humans, including Hantavirus pulmonary syndrome, Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever, and Rift Valley fever.

Prevention and control measures for Bunyaviridae viruses include avoiding contact with vectors, using insect repellent and wearing protective clothing, and implementing vector control programs. There are no specific antiviral treatments available for most Bunyaviridae infections, although ribavirin has been shown to be effective against some members of the family. Vaccines are available for a few Bunyaviridae viruses, such as Hantavirus and Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus, but they are not widely used due to limitations in production and distribution.

Rotavirus is a genus of double-stranded RNA virus in the Reoviridae family, which is a leading cause of severe diarrhea and gastroenteritis in young children and infants worldwide. The virus infects and damages the cells lining the small intestine, resulting in symptoms such as vomiting, watery diarrhea, abdominal cramps, and fever.

Rotavirus is highly contagious and can be spread through contact with infected individuals or contaminated surfaces, food, or water. The virus is typically transmitted via the fecal-oral route, meaning that it enters the body through the mouth after coming into contact with contaminated hands, objects, or food.

Rotavirus infections are often self-limiting and resolve within a few days to a week, but severe cases can lead to dehydration, hospitalization, and even death, particularly in developing countries where access to medical care and rehydration therapy may be limited. Fortunately, there are effective vaccines available that can prevent rotavirus infection and reduce the severity of symptoms in those who do become infected.

Japanese Encephalitis Virus (JEV) is a type of flavivirus that is the causative agent of Japanese encephalitis, a mosquito-borne viral infection of the brain. The virus is primarily transmitted to humans through the bite of infected Culex species mosquitoes, particularly Culex tritaeniorhynchus and Culex gelidus.

JEV is endemic in many parts of Asia, including China, Japan, Korea, India, Nepal, Thailand, and Vietnam. It is estimated to cause around 68,000 clinical cases and 13,000-20,000 deaths each year. The virus is maintained in a transmission cycle between mosquitoes and vertebrate hosts, primarily pigs and wading birds.

Most JEV infections are asymptomatic or result in mild symptoms such as fever, headache, and muscle aches. However, in some cases, the infection can progress to severe encephalitis, which is characterized by inflammation of the brain, leading to neurological symptoms such as seizures, tremors, paralysis, and coma. The case fatality rate for Japanese encephalitis is estimated to be 20-30%, and around half of those who survive have significant long-term neurological sequelae.

Prevention of JEV infection includes the use of insect repellent, wearing protective clothing, and avoiding outdoor activities during peak mosquito feeding times. Vaccination is also an effective means of preventing Japanese encephalitis, and vaccines are available for travelers to endemic areas as well as for residents of those areas.

Immunoglobulin A (IgA) is a type of antibody that plays a crucial role in the immune function of the human body. It is primarily found in external secretions, such as saliva, tears, breast milk, and sweat, as well as in mucous membranes lining the respiratory and gastrointestinal tracts. IgA exists in two forms: a monomeric form found in serum and a polymeric form found in secretions.

The primary function of IgA is to provide immune protection at mucosal surfaces, which are exposed to various environmental antigens, such as bacteria, viruses, parasites, and allergens. By doing so, it helps prevent the entry and colonization of pathogens into the body, reducing the risk of infections and inflammation.

IgA functions by binding to antigens present on the surface of pathogens or allergens, forming immune complexes that can neutralize their activity. These complexes are then transported across the epithelial cells lining mucosal surfaces and released into the lumen, where they prevent the adherence and invasion of pathogens.

In summary, Immunoglobulin A (IgA) is a vital antibody that provides immune defense at mucosal surfaces by neutralizing and preventing the entry of harmful antigens into the body.

Madin-Darby Canine Kidney (MDCK) cells are a type of cell line that is derived from the kidney of a normal, healthy female cocker spaniel. They were first established in 1958 by researchers Madin and Darby. These cells are epithelial in origin and have the ability to form tight junctions, which makes them a popular choice for studying the transport of molecules across biological barriers.

MDCK cells are widely used in scientific research, particularly in the fields of cell biology, virology, and toxicology. They can be used to study various aspects of cell behavior, including cell adhesion, migration, differentiation, and polarization. Additionally, MDCK cells are susceptible to a variety of viruses, making them useful for studying viral replication and host-virus interactions.

In recent years, MDCK cells have also become an important tool in the development and production of vaccines. They can be used to produce large quantities of virus particles that can then be purified and used as vaccine antigens. Overall, Madin-Darby Canine Kidney cells are a valuable resource for researchers studying a wide range of biological phenomena.

Poultry diseases refer to a wide range of infectious and non-infectious disorders that affect domesticated birds, particularly those raised for meat, egg, or feather production. These diseases can be caused by various factors including viruses, bacteria, fungi, parasites, genetic predisposition, environmental conditions, and management practices.

Infectious poultry diseases are often highly contagious and can lead to significant economic losses in the poultry industry due to decreased production, increased mortality, and reduced quality of products. Some examples of infectious poultry diseases include avian influenza, Newcastle disease, salmonellosis, colibacillosis, mycoplasmosis, aspergillosis, and coccidiosis.

Non-infectious poultry diseases can be caused by factors such as poor nutrition, environmental stressors, and management issues. Examples of non-infectious poultry diseases include ascites, fatty liver syndrome, sudden death syndrome, and various nutritional deficiencies.

Prevention and control of poultry diseases typically involve a combination of biosecurity measures, vaccination programs, proper nutrition, good management practices, and monitoring for early detection and intervention. Rapid and accurate diagnosis of poultry diseases is crucial to implementing effective treatment and prevention strategies, and can help minimize the impact of disease outbreaks on both individual flocks and the broader poultry industry.

Paramyxoviridae is a family of negative-sense, single-stranded RNA viruses that include several medically important pathogens. These viruses are characterized by their enveloped particles and helical symmetry. The paramyxoviruses can cause respiratory infections, neurological disorders, and other systemic diseases in humans, animals, and birds.

Some notable members of the Paramyxoviridae family include:

* Human respirovirus (also known as human parainfluenza virus): causes upper and lower respiratory tract infections in children and adults.
* Human orthopneumovirus (also known as respiratory syncytial virus, or RSV): a major cause of bronchiolitis and pneumonia in infants and young children.
* Measles morbillivirus: causes measles, a highly contagious viral disease characterized by fever, rash, and cough.
* Mumps virus: causes mumps, an acute infectious disease that primarily affects the salivary glands.
* Hendra virus and Nipah virus: zoonotic paramyxoviruses that can cause severe respiratory and neurological disease in humans and animals.

Effective vaccines are available for some paramyxoviruses, such as measles and mumps, but there are currently no approved vaccines for others, such as RSV and Nipah virus. Antiviral therapies are also limited, with only a few options available for the treatment of severe paramyxovirus infections.

Newcastle disease virus (NDV) is a single-stranded, negative-sense RNA virus that belongs to the genus Avulavirus in the family Paramyxoviridae. It is the causative agent of Newcastle disease, a highly contagious and often fatal viral infection affecting birds and poultry worldwide. The virus can cause various clinical signs, including respiratory distress, neurological disorders, and decreased egg production, depending on the strain's virulence. NDV has zoonotic potential, but human infections are rare and typically result in mild, flu-like symptoms.

Molecular sequence data refers to the specific arrangement of molecules, most commonly nucleotides in DNA or RNA, or amino acids in proteins, that make up a biological macromolecule. This data is generated through laboratory techniques such as sequencing, and provides information about the exact order of the constituent molecules. This data is crucial in various fields of biology, including genetics, evolution, and molecular biology, allowing for comparisons between different organisms, identification of genetic variations, and studies of gene function and regulation.

Galactosides are compounds that contain a galactose molecule. Galactose is a monosaccharide, or simple sugar, that is similar in structure to glucose but has a different chemical formula (C~6~H~10~O~5~). It is found in nature and is a component of lactose, the primary sugar in milk.

Galactosides are formed when a galactose molecule is linked to another molecule through a glycosidic bond. This type of bond is formed between a hydroxyl group (-OH) on the galactose molecule and a functional group on the other molecule. Galactosides can be found in various substances, including some plants and microorganisms, as well as in certain medications and medical supplements.

One common example of a galactoside is lactose, which is a disaccharide consisting of a glucose molecule linked to a galactose molecule through a glycosidic bond. Lactose is the primary sugar found in milk and dairy products, and it is broken down into its component monosaccharides (glucose and galactose) by an enzyme called lactase during digestion.

Other examples of galactosides include various glycoproteins, which are proteins that have one or more galactose molecules attached to them. These types of compounds play important roles in the body, including in cell-cell recognition and communication, as well as in the immune response.

Arbovirus encephalitis is a type of encephalitis (inflammation of the brain) caused by a group of viruses that are transmitted through the bite of infected arthropods, such as mosquitoes or ticks. The term "arbovirus" stands for "arthropod-borne virus."

There are many different types of arboviruses that can cause encephalitis, including:

* La Crosse virus
* St. Louis encephalitis virus
* West Nile virus
* Eastern equine encephalitis virus
* Western equine encephalitis virus
* Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus

The symptoms of arbovirus encephalitis can vary, but may include fever, headache, stiff neck, seizures, confusion, and weakness. In severe cases, it can lead to coma or death. Treatment typically involves supportive care to manage symptoms, as there is no specific antiviral treatment for most types of arbovirus encephalitis. Prevention measures include avoiding mosquito and tick bites, using insect repellent, and eliminating standing water where mosquitoes breed.

Squalene is a organic compound that is a polyunsaturated triterpene. It is a natural component of human skin surface lipids and sebum, where it plays a role in maintaining the integrity and permeability barrier of the stratum corneum. Squalene is also found in various plant and animal tissues, including olive oil, wheat germ oil, and shark liver oil.

In the body, squalene is an intermediate in the biosynthesis of cholesterol and other sterols. It is produced in the liver and transported to other tissues via low-density lipoproteins (LDLs). Squalene has been studied for its potential health benefits due to its antioxidant properties, as well as its ability to modulate immune function and reduce the risk of certain types of cancer. However, more research is needed to confirm these potential benefits.

Amebic liver abscess is a medical condition characterized by the presence of a pus-filled cavity (abscess) in the liver caused by the infection of the amoeba Entamoeba histolytica. This parasite typically enters the body through contaminated food or water and makes its way to the liver, where it can cause tissue damage and abscess formation. The abscess is usually solitary and contains necrotic debris and inflammatory cells, primarily composed of neutrophils. Symptoms may include fever, right upper quadrant pain, and tender hepatomegaly (enlarged liver). If left untreated, amebic liver abscess can lead to serious complications such as perforation of the liver, bacterial superinfection, or spread of the infection to other organs.

Sialic acids are a family of nine-carbon sugars that are commonly found on the outermost surface of many cell types, particularly on the glycoconjugates of mucins in various secretions and on the glycoproteins and glycolipids of cell membranes. They play important roles in a variety of biological processes, including cell recognition, immune response, and viral and bacterial infectivity. Sialic acids can exist in different forms, with N-acetylneuraminic acid being the most common one in humans.

"Reagin" is an outdated term that was used to describe a type of antibody found in the blood serum of some individuals, particularly those who have had certain infectious diseases or who have allergies. These antibodies were known as "reaginic antibodies" and were characterized by their ability to cause a positive reaction in a test called the "Reagin test" or "Wassermann test."

The Reagin test was developed in the early 20th century and was used as a diagnostic tool for syphilis, a sexually transmitted infection caused by the bacterium Treponema pallidum. The test involved mixing a patient's serum with a suspension of cardiolipin, lecithin, and cholesterol - components derived from heart tissue. If reaginic antibodies were present in the patient's serum, they would bind to the cardiolipin component and form a complex that could be detected through a series of chemical reactions.

However, it was later discovered that reaginic antibodies were not specific to syphilis and could be found in individuals with other infectious diseases or allergies. As a result, the term "reagin" fell out of favor, and the test is no longer used as a diagnostic tool for syphilis. Instead, more specific and accurate tests, such as the Venereal Disease Research Laboratory (VDRL) test and the Treponema pallidum particle agglutination (TP-PA) assay, are now used to diagnose syphilis.

Glycophorin is a type of protein found on the surface of red blood cells, also known as erythrocytes. These proteins are heavily glycosylated, meaning they have many carbohydrate chains attached to them. Glycophorins play a crucial role in maintaining the structure and flexibility of the red blood cell membrane, and they also help to mediate interactions between the red blood cells and other cells or molecules in the body.

There are several different types of glycophorin proteins, including glycophorin A, B, C, and D. Glycophorin A is the most abundant type and is often used as a marker for identifying the ABO blood group. Mutations in the genes that encode glycophorin proteins can lead to various blood disorders, such as hereditary spherocytosis and hemolytic anemia.

Radioimmunoassay (RIA) is a highly sensitive analytical technique used in clinical and research laboratories to measure concentrations of various substances, such as hormones, vitamins, drugs, or tumor markers, in biological samples like blood, urine, or tissues. The method relies on the specific interaction between an antibody and its corresponding antigen, combined with the use of radioisotopes to quantify the amount of bound antigen.

In a typical RIA procedure, a known quantity of a radiolabeled antigen (also called tracer) is added to a sample containing an unknown concentration of the same unlabeled antigen. The mixture is then incubated with a specific antibody that binds to the antigen. During the incubation period, the antibody forms complexes with both the radiolabeled and unlabeled antigens.

After the incubation, the unbound (free) radiolabeled antigen is separated from the antibody-antigen complexes, usually through a precipitation or separation step involving centrifugation, filtration, or chromatography. The amount of radioactivity in the pellet (containing the antibody-antigen complexes) is then measured using a gamma counter or other suitable radiation detection device.

The concentration of the unlabeled antigen in the sample can be determined by comparing the ratio of bound to free radiolabeled antigen in the sample to a standard curve generated from known concentrations of unlabeled antigen and their corresponding bound/free ratios. The higher the concentration of unlabeled antigen in the sample, the lower the amount of radiolabeled antigen that will bind to the antibody, resulting in a lower bound/free ratio.

Radioimmunoassays offer high sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy, making them valuable tools for detecting and quantifying low levels of various substances in biological samples. However, due to concerns about radiation safety and waste disposal, alternative non-isotopic immunoassay techniques like enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) have become more popular in recent years.

Newcastle Disease is a highly contagious viral disease caused by the Newcastle Disease Virus (NDV). It primarily affects birds and poultry, causing severe respiratory, neurological, and gastrointestinal symptoms. The virus can also infect mammals, including humans, but human cases are relatively rare and usually result in mild or asymptomatic infections.

In birds, the disease can cause significant mortality, especially in young chickens. Symptoms may include respiratory distress, depression, greenish diarrhea, muscle tremors, twisting of the neck (torticollis), paralysis, and decreased egg production. The virus is transmitted through direct contact with infected birds or their feces, as well as through contaminated food, water, and equipment.

In humans, Newcastle Disease typically results in conjunctivitis, mild respiratory symptoms, or influenza-like illness. It is not considered a significant public health concern, but proper biosecurity measures should be taken to prevent transmission between birds and humans. Vaccination programs are widely used to control the disease in poultry populations.

Encephalitis viruses are a group of viruses that can cause encephalitis, which is an inflammation of the brain. Some of the most common encephalitis viruses include:

1. Herpes simplex virus (HSV) type 1 and 2: These viruses are best known for causing cold sores and genital herpes, but they can also cause encephalitis, particularly in newborns and individuals with weakened immune systems.
2. Varicella-zoster virus (VZV): This virus causes chickenpox and shingles, and it can also lead to encephalitis, especially in people who have had chickenpox.
3. Enteroviruses: These viruses are often responsible for summertime meningitis outbreaks and can occasionally cause encephalitis.
4. Arboviruses: These viruses are transmitted through the bites of infected mosquitoes, ticks, or other insects. Examples include West Nile virus, St. Louis encephalitis virus, Eastern equine encephalitis virus, and Western equine encephalitis virus.
5. Rabies virus: This virus is transmitted through the bite of an infected animal and can cause encephalitis in its later stages.
6. Measles virus: Although rare in developed countries due to vaccination, measles can still cause encephalitis as a complication of the infection.
7. Mumps virus: Like measles, mumps is preventable through vaccination, but it can also lead to encephalitis as a rare complication.
8. Cytomegalovirus (CMV): This virus is a member of the herpesvirus family and can cause encephalitis in people with weakened immune systems, such as those with HIV/AIDS or organ transplant recipients.
9. La Crosse virus: This arbovirus is primarily transmitted through the bites of infected eastern treehole mosquitoes and mainly affects children.
10. Powassan virus: Another arbovirus, Powassan virus is transmitted through the bites of infected black-legged ticks (also known as deer ticks) and can cause severe encephalitis.

It's important to note that many of these viruses are preventable through vaccination or by avoiding exposure to infected animals or mosquitoes. If you suspect you may have been exposed to one of these viruses, consult a healthcare professional for proper diagnosis and treatment.

Virus cultivation, also known as virus isolation or viral culture, is a laboratory method used to propagate and detect viruses by introducing them to host cells and allowing them to replicate. This process helps in identifying the specific virus causing an infection and studying its characteristics, such as morphology, growth pattern, and sensitivity to antiviral agents.

The steps involved in virus cultivation typically include:

1. Collection of a clinical sample (e.g., throat swab, blood, sputum) from the patient.
2. Preparation of the sample by centrifugation or filtration to remove cellular debris and other contaminants.
3. Inoculation of the prepared sample into susceptible host cells, which can be primary cell cultures, continuous cell lines, or embryonated eggs, depending on the type of virus.
4. Incubation of the inoculated cells under appropriate conditions to allow viral replication.
5. Observation for cytopathic effects (CPE), which are changes in the host cells caused by viral replication, such as cell rounding, shrinkage, or lysis.
6. Confirmation of viral presence through additional tests, like immunofluorescence assays, polymerase chain reaction (PCR), or electron microscopy.

Virus cultivation is a valuable tool in diagnostic virology, vaccine development, and research on viral pathogenesis and host-virus interactions. However, it requires specialized equipment, trained personnel, and biosafety measures due to the potential infectivity of the viruses being cultured.

Reagent kits, diagnostic are prepackaged sets of chemical reagents and other components designed for performing specific diagnostic tests or assays. These kits are often used in clinical laboratories to detect and measure the presence or absence of various biomarkers, such as proteins, antibodies, antigens, nucleic acids, or small molecules, in biological samples like blood, urine, or tissues.

Diagnostic reagent kits typically contain detailed instructions for their use, along with the necessary reagents, controls, and sometimes specialized equipment or supplies. They are designed to simplify the testing process, reduce human error, and increase standardization, ensuring accurate and reliable results. Examples of diagnostic reagent kits include those used for pregnancy tests, infectious disease screening, drug testing, genetic testing, and cancer biomarker detection.

Immunoelectrophoresis (IEP) is a laboratory technique used in the field of clinical pathology and immunology. It is a method for separating and identifying proteins, particularly immunoglobulins or antibodies, in a sample. This technique combines the principles of electrophoresis, which separates proteins based on their electric charge and size, with immunological reactions, which detect specific proteins using antigen-antibody interactions.

In IEP, a protein sample is first separated by electrophoresis in an agarose or agar gel matrix on a glass slide or in a test tube. After separation, an antibody specific to the protein of interest is layered on top of the gel and allowed to diffuse towards the separated proteins. This creates a reaction between the antigen (protein) and the antibody, forming a visible precipitate at the point where they meet. The precipitate line's position and intensity can then be analyzed to identify and quantify the protein of interest.

Immunoelectrophoresis is particularly useful in diagnosing various medical conditions, such as immunodeficiency disorders, monoclonal gammopathies (like multiple myeloma), and other plasma cell dyscrasias. It can help detect abnormal protein patterns, quantify specific immunoglobulins, and identify the presence of M-proteins or Bence Jones proteins, which are indicative of monoclonal gammopathies.

A "false positive reaction" in medical testing refers to a situation where a diagnostic test incorrectly indicates the presence of a specific condition or disease in an individual who does not actually have it. This occurs when the test results give a positive outcome, while the true health status of the person is negative or free from the condition being tested for.

False positive reactions can be caused by various factors including:

1. Presence of unrelated substances that interfere with the test result (e.g., cross-reactivity between similar molecules).
2. Low specificity of the test, which means it may detect other conditions or irrelevant factors as positive.
3. Contamination during sample collection, storage, or analysis.
4. Human errors in performing or interpreting the test results.

False positive reactions can have significant consequences, such as unnecessary treatments, anxiety, and increased healthcare costs. Therefore, it is essential to confirm any positive test result with additional tests or clinical evaluations before making a definitive diagnosis.

Parvoviridae is a family of small, non-enveloped viruses that infect a wide range of hosts, including humans, animals, and birds. These viruses have a single-stranded DNA genome and replicate in the nucleus of infected cells. They are resistant to heat, acid, and organic solvents, making them difficult to inactivate.

The family Parvoviridae is divided into two subfamilies: Parvovirinae and Densovirinae. Parvovirinae infect vertebrates, while Densovirinae infect invertebrates. The subfamily Parvovirinae includes several genera that infect various hosts, such as humans, dogs, cats, and primates.

Parvovirus B19 is a well-known member of this family that causes a variety of clinical manifestations in humans, including fifth disease (slapped cheek syndrome), arthralgia, and occasionally more severe diseases in immunocompromised individuals or those with certain hematological disorders.

In animals, parvoviruses can cause serious diseases such as canine parvovirus infection in dogs and feline panleukopenia in cats, which can be fatal if left untreated.

Capsid proteins are the structural proteins that make up the capsid, which is the protective shell of a virus. The capsid encloses the viral genome and helps to protect it from degradation and detection by the host's immune system. Capsid proteins are typically arranged in a symmetrical pattern and can self-assemble into the capsid structure when exposed to the viral genome.

The specific arrangement and composition of capsid proteins vary between different types of viruses, and they play important roles in the virus's life cycle, including recognition and binding to host cells, entry into the cell, and release of the viral genome into the host cytoplasm. Capsid proteins can also serve as targets for antiviral therapies and vaccines.

Parainfluenza Virus 1, Human (HPIV-1) is a type of respiratory virus that belongs to the family Paramyxoviridae and genus Respirovirus. It is one of the four serotypes of human parainfluenza viruses (HPIVs), which are important causes of acute respiratory infections in children, immunocompromised individuals, and the elderly.

HPIV-1 primarily infects the upper respiratory tract, causing symptoms such as cough, runny nose, sore throat, and fever. However, it can also cause lower respiratory tract infections, including bronchitis, bronchiolitis, and pneumonia, particularly in young children and infants.

HPIV-1 is transmitted through respiratory droplets or direct contact with infected individuals. The incubation period for HPIV-1 infection ranges from 2 to 7 days, after which symptoms can last for up to 10 days. There is no specific antiviral treatment available for HPIV-1 infections, and management typically involves supportive care such as hydration, fever reduction, and respiratory support if necessary.

Prevention measures include good hand hygiene, avoiding close contact with infected individuals, and practicing cough etiquette. Vaccines are not currently available for HPIV-1 infections, but research is ongoing to develop effective vaccines against these viruses.

Mercaptoethanol, also known as β-mercaptoethanol or BME, is not a medical term itself but is commonly used in laboratories including medical research. It is a reducing agent and a powerful antioxidant with the chemical formula HOCH2CH2SH.

Medical Definition:
Mercaptoethanol (β-mercaptoethanol) is a colorless liquid with an unpleasant odor, used as a reducing agent in biochemical research and laboratory experiments. It functions by breaking disulfide bonds between cysteine residues in proteins, allowing them to unfold and denature. This property makes it useful for various applications such as protein purification, enzyme assays, and cell culture.

However, it is important to note that Mercaptoethanol has a high toxicity level and should be handled with caution in the laboratory setting.

Escherichia coli (E. coli) infections refer to illnesses caused by the bacterium E. coli, which can cause a range of symptoms depending on the specific strain and site of infection. The majority of E. coli strains are harmless and live in the intestines of healthy humans and animals. However, some strains, particularly those that produce Shiga toxins, can cause severe illness.

E. coli infections can occur through various routes, including contaminated food or water, person-to-person contact, or direct contact with animals or their environments. Common symptoms of E. coli infections include diarrhea (often bloody), abdominal cramps, nausea, and vomiting. In severe cases, complications such as hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS) can occur, which may lead to kidney failure and other long-term health problems.

Preventing E. coli infections involves practicing good hygiene, cooking meats thoroughly, avoiding cross-contamination of food during preparation, washing fruits and vegetables before eating, and avoiding unpasteurized dairy products and juices. Prompt medical attention is necessary if symptoms of an E. coli infection are suspected to prevent potential complications.

"Bordetella avium" is a gram-negative, rod-shaped bacterium that belongs to the family Alcaligenaceae. It is a respiratory pathogen that primarily affects birds, particularly pigeons and other Columbiformes. The bacterium can cause upper respiratory tract infections, pneumonia, and other respiratory diseases in these birds.

In humans, "Bordetella avium" has been rarely reported as a causative agent of respiratory infections, particularly in individuals with compromised immune systems or underlying lung conditions. However, its clinical significance in human disease is not well established, and further research is needed to determine the true extent of its pathogenicity in humans.

Urinary Tract Infections (UTIs) are defined as the presence of pathogenic microorganisms, typically bacteria, in any part of the urinary system, which includes the kidneys, ureters, bladder, and urethra, resulting in infection and inflammation. The majority of UTIs are caused by Escherichia coli (E. coli) bacteria, but other organisms such as Klebsiella, Proteus, Staphylococcus saprophyticus, and Enterococcus can also cause UTIs.

UTIs can be classified into two types based on the location of the infection:

1. Lower UTI or bladder infection (cystitis): This type of UTI affects the bladder and urethra. Symptoms may include a frequent and urgent need to urinate, pain or burning during urination, cloudy or strong-smelling urine, and discomfort in the lower abdomen or back.

2. Upper UTI or kidney infection (pyelonephritis): This type of UTI affects the kidneys and can be more severe than a bladder infection. Symptoms may include fever, chills, nausea, vomiting, and pain in the flanks or back.

UTIs are more common in women than men due to their shorter urethra, which makes it easier for bacteria to reach the bladder. Other risk factors for UTIs include sexual activity, use of diaphragms or spermicides, urinary catheterization, diabetes, and weakened immune systems.

UTIs are typically diagnosed through a urinalysis and urine culture to identify the causative organism and determine the appropriate antibiotic treatment. In some cases, imaging studies such as ultrasound or CT scan may be necessary to evaluate for any underlying abnormalities in the urinary tract.

I'm not aware of any recognized medical term or condition specifically referred to as "turkeys." The term "turkey" is most commonly used in a non-medical context to refer to the large, bird-like domesticated fowl native to North America, scientifically known as Meleagris gallopavo.

However, if you are referring to a medical condition called "turkey neck," it is a colloquial term used to describe sagging or loose skin around the neck area, which can resemble a turkey's wattle. This condition is not a formal medical diagnosis but rather a descriptive term for an aesthetic concern some people may have about their appearance.

If you meant something else by "turkeys," please provide more context so I can give you a more accurate answer.

A "carbohydrate sequence" refers to the specific arrangement or order of monosaccharides (simple sugars) that make up a carbohydrate molecule, such as a polysaccharide or an oligosaccharide. Carbohydrates are often composed of repeating units of monosaccharides, and the sequence in which these units are arranged can have important implications for the function and properties of the carbohydrate.

For example, in glycoproteins (proteins that contain carbohydrate chains), the specific carbohydrate sequence can affect how the protein is processed and targeted within the cell, as well as its stability and activity. Similarly, in complex carbohydrates like starch or cellulose, the sequence of glucose units can determine whether the molecule is branched or unbranched, which can have implications for its digestibility and other properties.

Therefore, understanding the carbohydrate sequence is an important aspect of studying carbohydrate structure and function in biology and medicine.

Glycoconjugates are a type of complex molecule that form when a carbohydrate (sugar) becomes chemically linked to a protein or lipid (fat) molecule. This linkage, known as a glycosidic bond, results in the formation of a new molecule that combines the properties and functions of both the carbohydrate and the protein or lipid component.

Glycoconjugates can be classified into several categories based on the type of linkage and the nature of the components involved. For example, glycoproteins are glycoconjugates that consist of a protein backbone with one or more carbohydrate chains attached to it. Similarly, glycolipids are molecules that contain a lipid anchor linked to one or more carbohydrate residues.

Glycoconjugates play important roles in various biological processes, including cell recognition, signaling, and communication. They are also involved in the immune response, inflammation, and the development of certain diseases such as cancer and infectious disorders. As a result, understanding the structure and function of glycoconjugates is an active area of research in biochemistry, cell biology, and medical science.

Cattle diseases are a range of health conditions that affect cattle, which include but are not limited to:

1. Bovine Respiratory Disease (BRD): Also known as "shipping fever," BRD is a common respiratory illness in feedlot cattle that can be caused by several viruses and bacteria.
2. Bovine Viral Diarrhea (BVD): A viral disease that can cause a variety of symptoms, including diarrhea, fever, and reproductive issues.
3. Johne's Disease: A chronic wasting disease caused by the bacterium Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis. It primarily affects the intestines and can cause severe diarrhea and weight loss.
4. Digital Dermatitis: Also known as "hairy heel warts," this is a highly contagious skin disease that affects the feet of cattle, causing lameness and decreased productivity.
5. Infectious Bovine Keratoconjunctivitis (IBK): Also known as "pinkeye," IBK is a common and contagious eye infection in cattle that can cause blindness if left untreated.
6. Salmonella: A group of bacteria that can cause severe gastrointestinal illness in cattle, including diarrhea, dehydration, and septicemia.
7. Leptospirosis: A bacterial disease that can cause a wide range of symptoms in cattle, including abortion, stillbirths, and kidney damage.
8. Blackleg: A highly fatal bacterial disease that causes rapid death in young cattle. It is caused by Clostridium chauvoei and vaccination is recommended for prevention.
9. Anthrax: A serious infectious disease caused by the bacterium Bacillus anthracis. Cattle can become infected by ingesting spores found in contaminated soil, feed or water.
10. Foot-and-Mouth Disease (FMD): A highly contagious viral disease that affects cloven-hooved animals, including cattle. It is characterized by fever and blisters on the feet, mouth, and teats. FMD is not a threat to human health but can have serious economic consequences for the livestock industry.

It's important to note that many of these diseases can be prevented or controlled through good management practices, such as vaccination, biosecurity measures, and proper nutrition. Regular veterinary care and monitoring are also crucial for early detection and treatment of any potential health issues in your herd.

Actinomyces is a genus of gram-positive, rod-shaped bacteria that are normal inhabitants of the human mouth, colon, and urogenital tract. Under certain conditions, such as poor oral hygiene or tissue trauma, these bacteria can cause infections known as actinomycosis. These infections often involve the formation of abscesses or granulomas and can affect various tissues, including the lungs, mouth, and female reproductive organs. Actinomyces species are also known to form complex communities called biofilms, which can contribute to their ability to cause infection.

There is no medical definition or specific virus named "Encephalitis Virus, California." However, there are several viruses that can cause encephalitis (inflammation of the brain) and some of them have been identified in California. Some examples include:

1. West Nile Virus: A mosquito-borne virus that is the most common cause of encephalitis in the United States, including California.
2. St. Louis Encephalitis Virus: Another mosquito-borne virus that is less common but can cause encephalitis, particularly in older adults. It has been identified in California.
3. Californian serogroup viruses (La Crosse, Jamestown Canyon, Snowshoe Hare): These are transmitted through the bite of infected mosquitoes and have been known to cause encephalitis, particularly in children. They are named after California because they were first identified there.
4. Tick-borne encephalitis viruses: There are several tick-borne viruses that can cause encephalitis, including Powassan virus and deer tick virus. These have been reported in California but are rare.

It's important to note that any virus that causes an infection in the body has the potential to spread to the brain and cause encephalitis, so there are many other viruses that could potentially be associated with encephalitis in California or any other location.

Monoclonal antibodies are a type of antibody that are identical because they are produced by a single clone of cells. They are laboratory-produced molecules that act like human antibodies in the immune system. They can be designed to attach to specific proteins found on the surface of cancer cells, making them useful for targeting and treating cancer. Monoclonal antibodies can also be used as a therapy for other diseases, such as autoimmune disorders and inflammatory conditions.

Monoclonal antibodies are produced by fusing a single type of immune cell, called a B cell, with a tumor cell to create a hybrid cell, or hybridoma. This hybrid cell is then able to replicate indefinitely, producing a large number of identical copies of the original antibody. These antibodies can be further modified and engineered to enhance their ability to bind to specific targets, increase their stability, and improve their effectiveness as therapeutic agents.

Monoclonal antibodies have several mechanisms of action in cancer therapy. They can directly kill cancer cells by binding to them and triggering an immune response. They can also block the signals that promote cancer growth and survival. Additionally, monoclonal antibodies can be used to deliver drugs or radiation directly to cancer cells, increasing the effectiveness of these treatments while minimizing their side effects on healthy tissues.

Monoclonal antibodies have become an important tool in modern medicine, with several approved for use in cancer therapy and other diseases. They are continuing to be studied and developed as a promising approach to treating a wide range of medical conditions.

"Porphyromonas gingivalis" is a gram-negative, anaerobic, rod-shaped bacterium that is commonly found in the oral cavity and is associated with periodontal disease. It is a major pathogen in chronic periodontitis, which is a severe form of gum disease that can lead to destruction of the tissues supporting the teeth, including the gums, periodontal ligament, and alveolar bone.

The bacterium produces several virulence factors, such as proteases and endotoxins, which contribute to its pathogenicity. It has been shown to evade the host's immune response and cause tissue destruction through various mechanisms, including inducing the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines and matrix metalloproteinases.

P. gingivalis has also been linked to several systemic diseases, such as atherosclerosis, rheumatoid arthritis, and Alzheimer's disease, although the exact mechanisms of these associations are not fully understood. Effective oral hygiene practices, including regular brushing, flossing, and professional dental cleanings, can help prevent the overgrowth of P. gingivalis and reduce the risk of periodontal disease.

Measles virus is a single-stranded, negative-sense RNA virus belonging to the genus Morbillivirus in the family Paramyxoviridae. It is the causative agent of measles, a highly contagious infectious disease characterized by fever, cough, runny nose, and a red, blotchy rash. The virus primarily infects the respiratory tract and then spreads throughout the body via the bloodstream.

The genome of the measles virus is approximately 16 kilobases in length and encodes for eight proteins: nucleocapsid (N), phosphoprotein (P), matrix protein (M), fusion protein (F), hemagglutinin (H), large protein (L), and two non-structural proteins, V and C. The H protein is responsible for binding to the host cell receptor CD150 (SLAM) and mediating viral entry, while the F protein facilitates fusion of the viral and host cell membranes.

Measles virus is transmitted through respiratory droplets and direct contact with infected individuals. The virus can remain airborne for up to two hours in a closed space, making it highly contagious. Measles is preventable through vaccination, which has led to significant reductions in the incidence of the disease worldwide.

Fusobacterium is a genus of obligate anaerobic, gram-negative, non-spore forming bacilli that are commonly found as normal flora in the human oral cavity, gastrointestinal tract, and female genital tract. Some species of Fusobacterium have been associated with various clinical infections and diseases, such as periodontal disease, abscesses, bacteremia, endocarditis, and inflammatory bowel disease.

Fusobacterium nucleatum is the most well-known species in this genus and has been extensively studied for its role in various diseases. It is a opportunistic pathogen that can cause severe infections in immunocompromised individuals or when it invades damaged tissues. Fusobacterium necrophorum, another important species, is a leading cause of Lemierre's syndrome, a rare but serious condition characterized by septic thrombophlebitis of the internal jugular vein and metastatic infections.

Fusobacteria are known to have a complex relationship with other microorganisms and host cells, and they can form biofilms that contribute to their virulence and persistence in the host. Further research is needed to fully understand the pathogenic mechanisms of Fusobacterium species and to develop effective strategies for prevention and treatment of Fusobacterium-associated diseases.

A ferret is a domesticated mammal that belongs to the weasel family, Mustelidae. The scientific name for the common ferret is Mustela putorius furo. Ferrets are native to Europe and have been kept as pets for thousands of years due to their playful and curious nature. They are small animals, typically measuring between 13-20 inches in length, including their tail, and weighing between 1.5-4 pounds.

Ferrets have a slender body with short legs, a long neck, and a pointed snout. They have a thick coat of fur that can vary in color from white to black, with many different patterns in between. Ferrets are known for their high level of activity and intelligence, and they require regular exercise and mental stimulation to stay healthy and happy.

Ferrets are obligate carnivores, which means that they require a diet that is high in protein and low in carbohydrates. They have a unique digestive system that allows them to absorb nutrients efficiently from their food, but it also means that they are prone to certain health problems if they do not receive proper nutrition.

Ferrets are social animals and typically live in groups. They communicate with each other using a variety of vocalizations, including barks, chirps, and purrs. Ferrets can be trained to use a litter box and can learn to perform simple tricks. With proper care and attention, ferrets can make loving and entertaining pets.

A pandemic is a global outbreak of a disease that spreads easily from person to person across a large region, such as multiple continents or worldwide. It is declared by the World Health Organization (WHO) when the spread of a disease poses a significant threat to the global population due to its severity and transmissibility.

Pandemics typically occur when a new strain of virus emerges that has not been previously seen in humans, for which there is little or no pre-existing immunity. This makes it difficult to control the spread of the disease, as people do not have natural protection against it. Examples of pandemics include the 1918 Spanish flu pandemic and the more recent COVID-19 pandemic caused by the SARS-CoV-2 virus.

During a pandemic, healthcare systems can become overwhelmed, and there may be significant social and economic disruption as governments take measures to slow the spread of the disease, such as travel restrictions, quarantines, and lockdowns. Effective vaccines and treatments are critical in controlling the spread of pandemics and reducing their impact on public health.

N-Acetylneuraminic Acid (Neu5Ac) is an organic compound that belongs to the family of sialic acids. It is a common terminal sugar found on many glycoproteins and glycolipids on the surface of animal cells. Neu5Ac plays crucial roles in various biological processes, including cell recognition, signaling, and intercellular interactions. It is also involved in the protection against pathogens by serving as a barrier to prevent their attachment to host cells. Additionally, Neu5Ac has been implicated in several disease conditions, such as cancer and inflammation, due to its altered expression and metabolism.

An amino acid sequence is the specific order of amino acids in a protein or peptide molecule, formed by the linking of the amino group (-NH2) of one amino acid to the carboxyl group (-COOH) of another amino acid through a peptide bond. The sequence is determined by the genetic code and is unique to each type of protein or peptide. It plays a crucial role in determining the three-dimensional structure and function of proteins.

Sensitivity and specificity are statistical measures used to describe the performance of a diagnostic test or screening tool in identifying true positive and true negative results.

* Sensitivity refers to the proportion of people who have a particular condition (true positives) who are correctly identified by the test. It is also known as the "true positive rate" or "recall." A highly sensitive test will identify most or all of the people with the condition, but may also produce more false positives.
* Specificity refers to the proportion of people who do not have a particular condition (true negatives) who are correctly identified by the test. It is also known as the "true negative rate." A highly specific test will identify most or all of the people without the condition, but may also produce more false negatives.

In medical testing, both sensitivity and specificity are important considerations when evaluating a diagnostic test. High sensitivity is desirable for screening tests that aim to identify as many cases of a condition as possible, while high specificity is desirable for confirmatory tests that aim to rule out the condition in people who do not have it.

It's worth noting that sensitivity and specificity are often influenced by factors such as the prevalence of the condition in the population being tested, the threshold used to define a positive result, and the reliability and validity of the test itself. Therefore, it's important to consider these factors when interpreting the results of a diagnostic test.

Syphilis is a sexually transmitted infection (STI) caused by the bacterium Treponema pallidum. It progresses in several stages if left untreated, with symptoms varying in each stage. The primary stage involves the appearance of a single, painless sore or multiple sores at the site where the bacteria entered the body, often on the genitals or around the mouth. During the secondary stage, individuals may experience rashes, fever, swollen lymph nodes, and other flu-like symptoms. In later stages, syphilis can lead to severe complications affecting the heart, brain, and other organs, known as tertiary syphilis. Neurosyphilis is a form of tertiary syphilis that affects the nervous system, causing various neurological problems. Congenital syphilis occurs when a pregnant woman with syphilis transmits the infection to her unborn child, which can result in serious birth defects and health issues for the infant. Early detection and appropriate antibiotic treatment can cure syphilis and prevent further complications.

Parainfluenza Virus 3, Human (HPIV-3) is an enveloped, single-stranded RNA virus that belongs to the family Paramyxoviridae and genus Respirovirus. It is one of the four serotypes of human parainfluenza viruses (HPIVs), which are important causes of acute respiratory tract infections in infants, young children, and immunocompromised individuals.

HPIV-3 primarily infects the upper and lower respiratory tract, causing a wide range of clinical manifestations, from mild to severe respiratory illnesses. The incubation period for HPIV-3 infection is typically 3-7 days. In infants and young children, HPIV-3 can cause croup (laryngotracheobronchitis), bronchiolitis, and pneumonia, while in adults, it usually results in mild upper respiratory tract infections, such as the common cold.

The virus is transmitted through direct contact with infected respiratory secretions or contaminated surfaces, and infection can occur throughout the year but tends to peak during fall and winter months. Currently, there are no approved vaccines for HPIV-3; treatment is primarily supportive and focuses on managing symptoms and complications.

Formaldehyde is a colorless, pungent, and volatile chemical compound with the formula CH2O. It is a naturally occurring substance that is found in certain fruits like apples and vegetables, as well as in animals. However, the majority of formaldehyde used in industry is synthetically produced.

In the medical field, formaldehyde is commonly used as a preservative for biological specimens such as organs, tissues, and cells. It works by killing bacteria and inhibiting the decaying process. Formaldehyde is also used in the production of various industrial products, including adhesives, resins, textiles, and paper products.

However, formaldehyde can be harmful to human health if inhaled or ingested in large quantities. It can cause irritation to the eyes, nose, throat, and skin, and prolonged exposure has been linked to respiratory problems and cancer. Therefore, it is essential to handle formaldehyde with care and use appropriate safety measures when working with this chemical compound.

The P blood group system is one of the rarest blood group systems in humans, with only a few antigens discovered so far. The main antigens in this system are P1 and P, which can be either present or absent on red blood cells (RBCs). The presence or absence of these antigens determines an individual's P blood group type.

The P1 antigen is a carbohydrate structure found on the surface of RBCs in individuals with the P1 phenotype, while those with the p phenotype lack this antigen. The P antigen is a protein found on the surface of RBCs in both P1 and p individuals.

Individuals with the P1 phenotype can develop antibodies against the P antigen if they are exposed to RBCs that lack the P1 antigen, such as those from a person with the p phenotype. Similarly, individuals with the p phenotype can develop antibodies against the P1 antigen if they are exposed to RBCs that have the P1 antigen.

Transfusion reactions can occur if an individual receives blood from a donor with a different P blood group type, leading to the destruction of RBCs and potentially life-threatening complications. Therefore, it is essential to determine an individual's P blood group type before transfusing blood or performing other medical procedures that involve RBCs.

Overall, the P blood group system is a complex and relatively rare system that requires careful consideration in medical settings to ensure safe and effective treatment.

"Ducks" is not a medical term. It is a common name used to refer to a group of birds that belong to the family Anatidae, which also includes swans and geese. Some ducks are hunted for their meat, feathers, or down, but they do not have any specific medical relevance. If you have any questions about a specific medical term or concept, I would be happy to help if you could provide more information!

I believe there might be a misunderstanding in your question. "Dogs" is not a medical term or condition. It is the common name for a domesticated carnivore of the family Canidae, specifically the genus Canis, which includes wolves, foxes, and other extant and extinct species of mammals. Dogs are often kept as pets and companions, and they have been bred in a wide variety of forms and sizes for different purposes, such as hunting, herding, guarding, assisting police and military forces, and providing companionship and emotional support.

If you meant to ask about a specific medical condition or term related to dogs, please provide more context so I can give you an accurate answer.

Bacterial proteins are a type of protein that are produced by bacteria as part of their structural or functional components. These proteins can be involved in various cellular processes, such as metabolism, DNA replication, transcription, and translation. They can also play a role in bacterial pathogenesis, helping the bacteria to evade the host's immune system, acquire nutrients, and multiply within the host.

Bacterial proteins can be classified into different categories based on their function, such as:

1. Enzymes: Proteins that catalyze chemical reactions in the bacterial cell.
2. Structural proteins: Proteins that provide structural support and maintain the shape of the bacterial cell.
3. Signaling proteins: Proteins that help bacteria to communicate with each other and coordinate their behavior.
4. Transport proteins: Proteins that facilitate the movement of molecules across the bacterial cell membrane.
5. Toxins: Proteins that are produced by pathogenic bacteria to damage host cells and promote infection.
6. Surface proteins: Proteins that are located on the surface of the bacterial cell and interact with the environment or host cells.

Understanding the structure and function of bacterial proteins is important for developing new antibiotics, vaccines, and other therapeutic strategies to combat bacterial infections.

'Entamoeba histolytica' is a species of microscopic, single-celled protozoan parasites that can cause a range of human health problems, primarily in the form of intestinal and extra-intestinal infections. The medical definition of 'Entamoeba histolytica' is as follows:

Entamoeba histolytica: A species of pathogenic protozoan parasites belonging to the family Entamoebidae, order Amoebida, and phylum Sarcomastigophora. These microorganisms are typically found in the form of cysts or trophozoites and can infect humans through the ingestion of contaminated food, water, or feces.

Once inside the human body, 'Entamoeba histolytica' parasites can colonize the large intestine, where they may cause a range of symptoms, from mild diarrhea to severe dysentery, depending on the individual's immune response and the location of the infection. In some cases, these parasites can also invade other organs, such as the liver, lungs, or brain, leading to more serious health complications.

The life cycle of 'Entamoeba histolytica' involves two main stages: the cyst stage and the trophozoite stage. The cysts are the infective form, which can be transmitted from person to person through fecal-oral contact or by ingesting contaminated food or water. Once inside the human body, these cysts excyst in the small intestine, releasing the motile and feeding trophozoites.

The trophozoites then migrate to the large intestine, where they can multiply by binary fission and cause tissue damage through their ability to phagocytize host cells and release cytotoxic substances. Some of these trophozoites may transform back into cysts, which are excreted in feces and can then infect other individuals.

Diagnosis of 'Entamoeba histolytica' infection typically involves the examination of stool samples for the presence of cysts or trophozoites, as well as serological tests to detect antibodies against the parasite. Treatment usually involves the use of antiparasitic drugs such as metronidazole or tinidazole, which can kill the trophozoites and help to control the infection. However, it is important to note that these drugs do not affect the cysts, so proper sanitation and hygiene measures are crucial to prevent the spread of the parasite.

Mannosides are glycosylated compounds that consist of a mannose sugar molecule (a type of monosaccharide) linked to another compound, often a protein or lipid. They are formed when an enzyme called a glycosyltransferase transfers a mannose molecule from a donor substrate, such as a nucleotide sugar (like GDP-mannose), to an acceptor molecule.

Mannosides can be found on the surface of many types of cells and play important roles in various biological processes, including cell recognition, signaling, and protein folding. They are also involved in the immune response and have been studied as potential therapeutic targets for a variety of diseases, including infectious diseases and cancer.

It's worth noting that mannosides can be further classified based on the specific linkage between the mannose molecule and the acceptor compound. For example, an N-linked mannoside is one in which the mannose is linked to a nitrogen atom on the acceptor protein, while an O-linked mannoside is one in which the mannose is linked to an oxygen atom on the acceptor protein.

A viral plaque assay is a laboratory technique used to measure the infectivity and concentration of viruses in a sample. This method involves infecting a monolayer of cells (usually in a petri dish or multi-well plate) with a known volume of a virus-containing sample, followed by overlaying the cells with a nutrient-agar medium to restrict viral spread and enable individual plaques to form.

After an incubation period that allows for viral replication and cell death, the cells are stained, and clear areas or "plaques" become visible in the monolayer. Each plaque represents a localized region of infected and lysed cells, caused by the progeny of a single infectious virus particle. The number of plaques is then counted, and the viral titer (infectious units per milliliter or PFU/mL) is calculated based on the dilution factor and volume of the original inoculum.

Viral plaque assays are essential for determining viral titers, assessing virus-host interactions, evaluating antiviral agents, and studying viral pathogenesis.

Bovine coronavirus (BCoV) is a species of coronavirus that infects cattle and other animals such as yaks, deer, and occasionally humans. It is an enveloped, single-stranded, positive-sense RNA virus belonging to the genus Betacoronavirus in the family Coronaviridae.

BCoV primarily causes respiratory and enteric diseases in cattle, resulting in symptoms such as pneumonia, coughing, diarrhea, and decreased appetite. The virus is transmitted through direct contact with infected animals or their feces, contaminated food, water, or fomites.

In humans, BCoV infection is rare but has been associated with respiratory illnesses in people working closely with cattle, such as farmers, abattoir workers, and veterinarians. The symptoms of human BCoV infection are similar to those caused by other coronaviruses, including fever, cough, and shortness of breath.

Prevention measures for BCoV include good hygiene practices, wearing personal protective equipment when working with cattle, and vaccination of animals against the virus. There is currently no specific treatment or vaccine available for human BCoV infection.

Chemical precipitation is a process in which a chemical compound becomes a solid, insoluble form, known as a precipitate, from a liquid solution. This occurs when the concentration of the compound in the solution exceeds its solubility limit and forms a separate phase. The reaction that causes the formation of the precipitate can be a result of various factors such as changes in temperature, pH, or the addition of another chemical reagent.

In the medical field, chemical precipitation is used in diagnostic tests to detect and measure the presence of certain substances in body fluids, such as blood or urine. For example, a common test for kidney function involves adding a chemical reagent to a urine sample, which causes the excess protein in the urine to precipitate out of solution. The amount of precipitate formed can then be measured and used to diagnose and monitor kidney disease.

Chemical precipitation is also used in the treatment of certain medical conditions, such as heavy metal poisoning. In this case, a chelating agent is administered to bind with the toxic metal ions in the body, forming an insoluble compound that can be excreted through the urine or feces. This process helps to reduce the amount of toxic metals in the body and alleviate symptoms associated with poisoning.

A virus is a small infectious agent that replicates inside the living cells of an organism. It is not considered to be a living organism itself, as it lacks the necessary components to independently maintain its own metabolic functions. Viruses are typically composed of genetic material, either DNA or RNA, surrounded by a protein coat called a capsid. Some viruses also have an outer lipid membrane known as an envelope.

Viruses can infect all types of organisms, from animals and plants to bacteria and archaea. They cause various diseases by invading the host cell, hijacking its machinery, and using it to produce numerous copies of themselves, which can then infect other cells. The resulting infection and the immune response it triggers can lead to a range of symptoms, depending on the virus and the host organism.

Viruses are transmitted through various means, such as respiratory droplets, bodily fluids, contaminated food or water, and vectors like insects. Prevention methods include vaccination, practicing good hygiene, using personal protective equipment, and implementing public health measures to control their spread.

Hepatovirus is a genus of viruses in the Picornaviridae family, and it's most notably represented by the Human Hepatitis A Virus (HAV). These viruses are non-enveloped, with a single-stranded, positive-sense RNA genome. They primarily infect hepatocytes, causing liver inflammation and disease, such as hepatitis. Transmission of hepatoviruses typically occurs through the fecal-oral route, often via contaminated food or water. The virus causes an acute infection that does not usually become chronic, and recovery is usually complete within a few weeks. Immunity after infection is solid and lifelong.

Enterotoxins are types of toxic substances that are produced by certain microorganisms, such as bacteria. These toxins are specifically designed to target and affect the cells in the intestines, leading to symptoms such as diarrhea, vomiting, and abdominal cramps. One well-known example of an enterotoxin is the toxin produced by Staphylococcus aureus bacteria, which can cause food poisoning. Another example is the cholera toxin produced by Vibrio cholerae, which can cause severe diarrhea and dehydration. Enterotoxins work by interfering with the normal functioning of intestinal cells, leading to fluid accumulation in the intestines and subsequent symptoms.

I understand you are asking for a medical definition of "Horse Diseases." However, it's important to note that there isn't a specific medical field dedicated to horse diseases as we typically categorize medical fields by human diseases and conditions. Veterinary medicine is the field responsible for studying, diagnosing, and treating diseases in animals, including horses.

Here's a general definition of 'Horse Diseases':

Horse diseases are health issues or medical conditions that affect equine species, particularly horses. These diseases can be caused by various factors such as bacterial, viral, fungal, or parasitic infections; genetic predispositions; environmental factors; and metabolic disorders. Examples of horse diseases include Strangles (Streptococcus equi), Equine Influenza, Equine Herpesvirus, West Nile Virus, Rabies, Potomac Horse Fever, Lyme Disease, and internal or external parasites like worms and ticks. Additionally, horses can suffer from musculoskeletal disorders such as arthritis, laminitis, and various injuries. Regular veterinary care, preventative measures, and proper management are crucial for maintaining horse health and preventing diseases.

Epidemic Typhus, also known as Louse-Born Typhus, is a severe, infectious disease caused by the bacterium Rickettsia prowazekii. The disease is primarily transmitted to humans through the infected body lice (Pediculus humanus corporis) or their feces.

The typical symptoms of Epidemic Typhus include sudden onset of fever, severe headache, muscle pain, and a rash that usually appears around day 5 of illness. The rash starts on the trunk and then spreads to the arms and legs, but it does not typically affect the face, palms, or soles. Other possible symptoms are cough, nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain, and diarrhea. Complications can be severe and include delirium, seizures, pneumonia, and inflammation of the heart, lungs, or brain.

Epidemic Typhus is a serious disease that requires prompt medical attention and treatment with antibiotics, such as doxycycline or tetracycline. If left untreated, Epidemic Typhus can be fatal in up to 30% of cases. It is more common in areas of poor hygiene, overcrowding, and where there is a lack of access to medical care. Outbreaks of Epidemic Typhus have occurred during wars, natural disasters, and other situations that lead to large-scale population displacement.

Fetuins are a group of proteins that are produced by the liver and found in circulation in the blood. The most well-known fetuin, fetuin-A, is a 64 kDa glycoprotein that is synthesized in the liver and secreted into the bloodstream. Fetuin-A plays a role in several physiological processes, including inhibition of tissue calcification, regulation of insulin sensitivity, and modulation of immune responses.

Fetuin-B is another member of the fetuin family that shares some structural similarities with fetuin-A but has distinct functions. Fetuin-B is also produced by the liver and secreted into the bloodstream, where it plays a role in regulating lipid metabolism and insulin sensitivity.

It's worth noting that while both fetuins have been studied for their roles in various physiological processes, there is still much to be learned about their functions and regulation.

Chagas disease, also known as American trypanosomiasis, is a tropical parasitic disease caused by the protozoan *Trypanosoma cruzi*. It is primarily transmitted to humans through the feces of triatomine bugs (also called "kissing bugs"), which defecate on the skin of people while they are sleeping. The disease can also be spread through contaminated food or drink, during blood transfusions, from mother to baby during pregnancy or childbirth, and through organ transplantation.

The acute phase of Chagas disease can cause symptoms such as fever, fatigue, body aches, headache, rash, loss of appetite, diarrhea, and vomiting. However, many people do not experience any symptoms during the acute phase. After several weeks or months, most people enter the chronic phase of the disease, which can last for decades or even a lifetime. During this phase, many people do not have any symptoms, but about 20-30% of infected individuals will develop serious cardiac or digestive complications, such as heart failure, arrhythmias, or difficulty swallowing.

Chagas disease is primarily found in Latin America, where it is estimated that around 6-7 million people are infected with the parasite. However, due to increased travel and migration, cases of Chagas disease have been reported in other parts of the world, including North America, Europe, and Asia. There is no vaccine for Chagas disease, but medications are available to treat the infection during the acute phase and to manage symptoms during the chronic phase.

The MNSs blood group system is one of the human blood group systems, which is a classification of blood types based on the presence or absence of specific antigens on the surface of red blood cells (RBCs). This system is named after the first two letters of the surnames of the discoverers, Landsteiner and Levine, and the "s" stands for "slight."

The MNSs system includes three main antigens: M, N, and S. The M and N antigens are found on nearly all individuals, except for those who are genetically predisposed to lack both M and N antigens (M+N- or M-N-). These individuals have the "null" phenotype, also known as the "Ms" phenotype.

The S antigen is present in about 80% of people, while the s antigen is found in approximately 20% of people. The presence or absence of these antigens determines an individual's MNSs blood type. There are eight main MNSs blood types: M, N, MN, MS, NS, M+m, N+s, and M+N+S+s+.

The clinical significance of the MNSs system is relatively low compared to other blood group systems like ABO and Rh. However, it can still play a role in transfusion medicine, as antibodies against MNSs antigens may cause hemolytic transfusion reactions or hemolytic disease of the newborn (HDN) in rare cases. Therefore, it is essential to consider the MNSs blood group when performing pretransfusion testing and during pregnancy to ensure compatible blood products and prevent complications.

A capsid is the protein shell that encloses and protects the genetic material of a virus. It is composed of multiple copies of one or more proteins that are arranged in a specific structure, which can vary in shape and symmetry depending on the type of virus. The capsid plays a crucial role in the viral life cycle, including protecting the viral genome from host cell defenses, mediating attachment to and entry into host cells, and assisting with the assembly of new virus particles during replication.

Equine encephalomyelitis is a viral disease that affects the central nervous system (CNS) of horses and other equids such as donkeys and mules. The term "encephalomyelitis" refers to inflammation of both the brain (encephalitis) and spinal cord (myelitis). There are three main types of equine encephalomyelitis found in North America, each caused by a different virus: Eastern equine encephalomyelitis (EEE), Western equine encephalomyelitis (WEE), and Venezuelan equine encephalomyelitis (VEE).

EEE is the most severe form of the disease. It is transmitted to horses through the bite of infected mosquitoes, primarily Culiseta melanura and Coquillettidia perturbans. The virus multiplies in the horse's bloodstream and then spreads to the brain and spinal cord, causing inflammation and damage to nerve cells. Clinical signs of EEE include high fever, depression, loss of appetite, weakness, unsteady gait, muscle twitching, paralysis, and potentially death within 2-3 days after the onset of symptoms. The mortality rate for horses with EEE is approximately 75-90%.

WEE is less severe than EEE but can still cause significant illness in horses. It is also transmitted to horses through mosquito bites, primarily Culex tarsalis. Clinical signs of WEE include fever, depression, loss of appetite, muscle twitching, weakness, and unsteady gait. The mortality rate for horses with WEE is around 20-50%.

VEE is the least severe form of equine encephalomyelitis in horses, but it can still cause significant illness. It is primarily transmitted to horses through mosquito bites, mainly Culex (Melanoconion) spp., and also by direct contact with infected animals or their secretions. Clinical signs of VEE include fever, depression, loss of appetite, muscle twitching, weakness, and unsteady gait. The mortality rate for horses with VEE is around 5-20%.

Prevention measures for equine encephalomyelitis include vaccination, mosquito control, and avoiding exposure to infected animals or their secretions. There are vaccines available for EEE and WEE, which can provide protection against these diseases in horses. Mosquito control measures such as removing standing water, using insect repellents, and installing screens on windows and doors can help reduce the risk of mosquito-borne illnesses. Additionally, avoiding contact with infected animals or their secretions can help prevent the spread of VEE.

Calcium chloride is an inorganic compound with the chemical formula CaCl2. It is a white, odorless, and tasteless solid that is highly soluble in water. Calcium chloride is commonly used as a de-icing agent, a desiccant (drying agent), and a food additive to enhance texture and flavor.

In medical terms, calcium chloride can be used as a medication to treat hypocalcemia (low levels of calcium in the blood) or hyperkalemia (high levels of potassium in the blood). It is administered intravenously and works by increasing the concentration of calcium ions in the blood, which helps to regulate various physiological processes such as muscle contraction, nerve impulse transmission, and blood clotting.

However, it is important to note that calcium chloride can have adverse effects if not used properly or in excessive amounts. It can cause tissue irritation, cardiac arrhythmias, and other serious complications. Therefore, its use should be monitored carefully by healthcare professionals.

Hepatitis B antigens are proteins or particles present on the surface (HBsAg) or inside (HBcAg, HBeAg) the hepatitis B virus.

1. HBsAg (Hepatitis B surface antigen): This is a protein found on the outer surface of the hepatitis B virus. Its presence in the blood indicates an active infection with hepatitis B virus. It's also used as a marker to diagnose hepatitis B infection and monitor treatment response.

2. HBcAg (Hepatitis B core antigen): This is a protein found inside the hepatitis B virus core. It's not usually detected in the blood, but its antibodies (anti-HBc) are used to diagnose past or present hepatitis B infection.

3. HBeAg (Hepatitis B e antigen): This is a protein found inside the hepatitis B virus core and is associated with viral replication. Its presence in the blood indicates high levels of viral replication, increased infectivity, and higher risk of liver damage. It's used to monitor disease progression and treatment response.

These antigens play a crucial role in the diagnosis, management, and prevention of hepatitis B infection.

Mycoplasma infections refer to illnesses caused by bacteria belonging to the genus Mycoplasma. These are among the smallest free-living organisms, lacking a cell wall and possessing a unique molecular structure. They can cause various respiratory tract infections (like pneumonia, bronchitis), urogenital infections, and other systemic diseases in humans, animals, and birds.

The most common Mycoplasma species that infect humans include M. pneumoniae, M. genitalium, M. hominis, and Ureaplasma urealyticum. Transmission usually occurs through respiratory droplets or sexual contact. Symptoms can vary widely depending on the site of infection but may include cough, chest pain, difficulty breathing, fatigue, joint pain, rash, and genital discharge or pelvic pain in women. Diagnosis often requires specific laboratory tests due to their unique growth requirements and resistance to many common antibiotics. Treatment typically involves macrolide or fluoroquinolone antibiotics.

"California encephalitis" is not a medical term used to describe a specific type of encephalitis. Instead, it refers to a group of related viral infections that are common in California and other western states. These viruses are transmitted to humans through the bite of infected mosquitoes.

The most common cause of California encephalitis is the California serogroup of viruses, which includes the La Crosse virus, Jamestown Canyon virus, and Snowshoe Hare virus. These viruses can cause inflammation of the brain (encephalitis) and can lead to symptoms such as fever, headache, vomiting, confusion, seizures, and coma.

California encephalitis is typically a mild illness, but in some cases, it can be severe or even life-threatening. Treatment usually involves supportive care, such as fluids and medication to manage symptoms. There is no specific antiviral treatment for California encephalitis. Prevention measures include avoiding mosquito bites, using insect repellent, and eliminating standing water where mosquitoes breed.

Canine Parvovirus (CPV) is a small, non-enveloped, single-stranded DNA virus that belongs to the family Parvoviridae and genus Parvovirus. It is highly contagious and can cause severe gastrointestinal illness in dogs, particularly in puppies between 6 weeks and 6 months old.

The virus primarily attacks rapidly dividing cells in the body, such as those found in the intestinal lining, leading to symptoms like vomiting, diarrhea (often bloody), lethargy, loss of appetite, and fever. CPV can also cause damage to the bone marrow, which can result in a decrease in white blood cell counts and make the dog more susceptible to secondary infections.

Canine parvovirus is highly resistant to environmental factors and can survive for long periods of time on surfaces, making it easy to transmit from one dog to another through direct contact with infected dogs or their feces. Fortunately, there are effective vaccines available to prevent CPV infection in dogs.

Feces are the solid or semisolid remains of food that could not be digested or absorbed in the small intestine, along with bacteria and other waste products. After being stored in the colon, feces are eliminated from the body through the rectum and anus during defecation. Feces can vary in color, consistency, and odor depending on a person's diet, health status, and other factors.

Hemolysins are a type of protein toxin produced by certain bacteria, fungi, and plants that have the ability to damage and destroy red blood cells (erythrocytes), leading to their lysis or hemolysis. This results in the release of hemoglobin into the surrounding environment. Hemolysins can be classified into two main categories:

1. Exotoxins: These are secreted by bacteria and directly damage host cells. They can be further divided into two types:
* Membrane attack complex/perforin-like proteins (MACPF): These hemolysins create pores in the membrane of red blood cells, disrupting their integrity and causing lysis. Examples include alpha-hemolysin from Staphylococcus aureus and streptolysin O from Streptococcus pyogenes.
* Enzymatic hemolysins: These hemolysins are enzymes that degrade specific components of the red blood cell membrane, ultimately leading to lysis. An example is streptolysin S from Streptococcus pyogenes, which is a thiol-activated, oxygen-labile hemolysin.
2. Endotoxins: These are part of the outer membrane of Gram-negative bacteria and can cause indirect hemolysis by activating the complement system or by stimulating the release of inflammatory mediators from host cells.

Hemolysins play a significant role in bacterial pathogenesis, contributing to tissue damage, impaired immune responses, and disease progression.

Virus receptors are specific molecules (commonly proteins) on the surface of host cells that viruses bind to in order to enter and infect those cells. This interaction between the virus and its receptor is a critical step in the infection process. Different types of viruses have different receptor requirements, and identifying these receptors can provide important insights into the biology of the virus and potential targets for antiviral therapies.

Glycoproteins are complex proteins that contain oligosaccharide chains (glycans) covalently attached to their polypeptide backbone. These glycans are linked to the protein through asparagine residues (N-linked) or serine/threonine residues (O-linked). Glycoproteins play crucial roles in various biological processes, including cell recognition, cell-cell interactions, cell adhesion, and signal transduction. They are widely distributed in nature and can be found on the outer surface of cell membranes, in extracellular fluids, and as components of the extracellular matrix. The structure and composition of glycoproteins can vary significantly depending on their function and location within an organism.

Virulence, in the context of medicine and microbiology, refers to the degree or severity of damage or harm that a pathogen (like a bacterium, virus, fungus, or parasite) can cause to its host. It is often associated with the ability of the pathogen to invade and damage host tissues, evade or suppress the host's immune response, replicate within the host, and spread between hosts.

Virulence factors are the specific components or mechanisms that contribute to a pathogen's virulence, such as toxins, enzymes, adhesins, and capsules. These factors enable the pathogen to establish an infection, cause tissue damage, and facilitate its transmission between hosts. The overall virulence of a pathogen can be influenced by various factors, including host susceptibility, environmental conditions, and the specific strain or species of the pathogen.

Freeze-drying, also known as lyophilization, is a method of preservation that involves the removal of water from a frozen product by sublimation, which is the direct transition of a solid to a gas. This process allows for the preservation of the original shape and structure of the material while significantly extending its shelf life. In medical contexts, freeze-drying can be used for various purposes, including the long-term storage of pharmaceuticals, vaccines, and diagnostic samples. The process helps maintain the efficacy and integrity of these materials until they are ready to be reconstituted with water and used.

Antitoxins are substances, typically antibodies, that neutralize toxins produced by bacteria or other harmful organisms. They work by binding to the toxin molecules and rendering them inactive, preventing them from causing harm to the body. Antitoxins can be produced naturally by the immune system during an infection, or they can be administered artificially through immunization or passive immunotherapy. In a medical context, antitoxins are often used as a treatment for certain types of bacterial infections, such as diphtheria and botulism, to help counteract the effects of the toxins produced by the bacteria.

Galectins are a family of animal lectins (carbohydrate-binding proteins) that bind specifically to beta-galactosides. They play important roles in various biological processes, including inflammation, immune response, cancer progression, and development. Galectins are widely distributed in various tissues and organ systems, and they can be found both intracellularly and extracellularly.

There are 15 known mammalian galectins, which are classified into three groups based on their structure: prototype (Gal-1, -2, -5, -7, -10, -13, -14, and -16), chimera-type (Gal-3), and tandem-repeat type (Gal-4, -6, -8, -9, and -12). Each galectin has a unique set of functions, but they often work together to regulate cellular processes.

Abnormal expression or function of galectins has been implicated in various diseases, including cancer, fibrosis, and autoimmune disorders. Therefore, galectins are considered potential targets for the development of new therapeutic strategies.

I am not aware of a medical definition for the term "birds." Birds are a group of warm-blooded vertebrates constituting the class Aves, characterized by feathers, toothless beaked jaws, the laying of hard-shelled eggs, and lightweight but strong skeletons. Some birds, such as pigeons and chickens, have been used in medical research, but the term "birds" itself does not have a specific medical definition.

"Intramuscular injections" refer to a medical procedure where a medication or vaccine is administered directly into the muscle tissue. This is typically done using a hypodermic needle and syringe, and the injection is usually given into one of the large muscles in the body, such as the deltoid (shoulder), vastus lateralis (thigh), or ventrogluteal (buttock) muscles.

Intramuscular injections are used for a variety of reasons, including to deliver medications that need to be absorbed slowly over time, to bypass stomach acid and improve absorption, or to ensure that the medication reaches the bloodstream quickly and directly. Common examples of medications delivered via intramuscular injection include certain vaccines, antibiotics, and pain relievers.

It is important to follow proper technique when administering intramuscular injections to minimize pain and reduce the risk of complications such as infection or injury to surrounding tissues. Proper site selection, needle length and gauge, and injection technique are all critical factors in ensuring a safe and effective intramuscular injection.

"Freezing" is a term used in the medical field to describe a phenomenon that can occur in certain neurological conditions, most notably in Parkinson's disease. It refers to a sudden and temporary inability to move or initiate movement, often triggered by environmental factors such as narrow spaces, turning, or approaching a destination. This can increase the risk of falls and make daily activities challenging for affected individuals.

Freezing is also known as "freezing of gait" (FOG) when it specifically affects a person's ability to walk. During FOG episodes, the person may feel like their feet are glued to the ground, making it difficult to take steps forward. This can be very distressing and debilitating for those affected.

It is important to note that "freezing" has different meanings in different medical contexts, such as in the field of orthopedics, where it may refer to a loss of joint motion due to stiffness or inflammation. Always consult with a healthcare professional for accurate information tailored to your specific situation.

Immunologic adjuvants are substances that are added to a vaccine to enhance the body's immune response to the antigens contained in the vaccine. They work by stimulating the immune system and promoting the production of antibodies and activating immune cells, such as T-cells and macrophages, which help to provide a stronger and more sustained immune response to the vaccine.

Immunologic adjuvants can be derived from various sources, including bacteria, viruses, and chemicals. Some common examples include aluminum salts (alum), oil-in-water emulsions (such as MF59), and bacterial components (such as lipopolysaccharide or LPS).

The use of immunologic adjuvants in vaccines can help to improve the efficacy of the vaccine, particularly for vaccines that contain weak or poorly immunogenic antigens. They can also help to reduce the amount of antigen needed in a vaccine, which can be beneficial for vaccines that are difficult or expensive to produce.

It's important to note that while adjuvants can enhance the immune response to a vaccine, they can also increase the risk of adverse reactions, such as inflammation and pain at the injection site. Therefore, the use of immunologic adjuvants must be carefully balanced against their potential benefits and risks.

A bacterial gene is a segment of DNA (or RNA in some viruses) that contains the genetic information necessary for the synthesis of a functional bacterial protein or RNA molecule. These genes are responsible for encoding various characteristics and functions of bacteria such as metabolism, reproduction, and resistance to antibiotics. They can be transmitted between bacteria through horizontal gene transfer mechanisms like conjugation, transformation, and transduction. Bacterial genes are often organized into operons, which are clusters of genes that are transcribed together as a single mRNA molecule.

It's important to note that the term "bacterial gene" is used to describe genetic elements found in bacteria, but not all genetic elements in bacteria are considered genes. For example, some DNA sequences may not encode functional products and are therefore not considered genes. Additionally, some bacterial genes may be plasmid-borne or phage-borne, rather than being located on the bacterial chromosome.

"Influenza A Virus, H7N7 Subtype" is a type of influenza virus that causes respiratory illness in humans and animals. The "H" and "N" in the name refer to two proteins on the surface of the virus, hemagglutinin (H) and neuraminidase (N), respectively. In this subtype, the H7 protein is combined with the N7 protein.

H7N7 viruses are primarily avian influenza viruses, meaning they naturally infect birds. However, they can occasionally infect other animals, including humans, and have caused sporadic human infections and outbreaks, mainly in people who have close contact with infected birds or their droppings.

H7N7 infections in humans can range from mild to severe respiratory illness, and some cases have resulted in death. However, human-to-human transmission of H7N7 viruses is rare. Public health authorities closely monitor H7N7 and other avian influenza viruses due to their potential to cause a pandemic if they acquire the ability to transmit efficiently between humans.

Measles, also known as rubeola, is a highly infectious viral disease that primarily affects the respiratory system. It is caused by the measles virus, which belongs to the family Paramyxoviridae and the genus Morbillivirus. The virus is transmitted through direct contact with infected individuals or through airborne droplets released during coughing and sneezing.

The classic symptoms of measles include:

1. Fever: A high fever (often greater than 104°F or 40°C) usually appears before the onset of the rash, lasting for about 4-7 days.
2. Cough: A persistent cough is common and may become severe.
3. Runny nose: A runny or blocked nose is often present during the early stages of the illness.
4. Red eyes (conjunctivitis): Inflammation of the conjunctiva, the mucous membrane that covers the inner surface of the eyelids and the white part of the eye, can cause redness and irritation.
5. Koplik's spots: These are small, irregular, bluish-white spots with a red base that appear on the inside lining of the cheeks, usually 1-2 days before the rash appears. They are considered pathognomonic for measles, meaning their presence confirms the diagnosis.
6. Rash: The characteristic measles rash typically starts on the face and behind the ears, then spreads downward to the neck, trunk, arms, and legs. It consists of flat red spots that may merge together, forming irregular patches. The rash usually lasts for 5-7 days before fading.

Complications from measles can be severe and include pneumonia, encephalitis (inflammation of the brain), and ear infections. In rare cases, measles can lead to serious long-term complications or even death, particularly in young children, pregnant women, and individuals with weakened immune systems.

Vaccination is an effective way to prevent measles. The measles vaccine is typically administered as part of the Measles, Mumps, and Rubella (MMR) vaccine, which provides immunity against all three diseases.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "HN protein" is not a widely recognized or established medical term. HN is an abbreviation commonly used in virology to refer to the hemagglutinin-neuraminidase protein found on the surface of certain viruses, such as the paramyxoviridae family which includes viruses like parainfluenza and Hendra virus.

The HN protein plays a crucial role in the virus's ability to infect host cells. It helps the virus attach to and enter the host cell, and also assists in the release of new virus particles from infected cells. However, without more specific context, it's difficult to provide a more precise definition of "HN protein." If you have more details about the context in which this term was used, I'd be happy to try to provide a more specific answer.

A blood donor is a person who voluntarily gives their own blood or blood components to be used for the benefit of another person in need. The blood donation process involves collecting the donor's blood, testing it for infectious diseases, and then storing it until it is needed by a patient. There are several types of blood donations, including:

1. Whole blood donation: This is the most common type of blood donation, where a donor gives one unit (about 450-500 milliliters) of whole blood. The blood is then separated into its components (red cells, plasma, and platelets) for transfusion to patients with different needs.
2. Double red cell donation: In this type of donation, the donor's blood is collected using a special machine that separates two units of red cells from the whole blood. The remaining plasma and platelets are returned to the donor during the donation process. This type of donation can be done every 112 days.
3. Platelet donation: A donor's blood is collected using a special machine that separates platelets from the whole blood. The red cells and plasma are then returned to the donor during the donation process. This type of donation can be done every seven days, up to 24 times a year.
4. Plasma donation: A donor's blood is collected using a special machine that separates plasma from the whole blood. The red cells and platelets are then returned to the donor during the donation process. This type of donation can be done every 28 days, up to 13 times a year.

Blood donors must meet certain eligibility criteria, such as being in good health, aged between 18 and 65 (in some countries, the upper age limit may vary), and weighing over 50 kg (110 lbs). Donors are also required to answer medical questionnaires and undergo a mini-physical examination before each donation. The frequency of blood donations varies depending on the type of donation and the donor's health status.

Temperature, in a medical context, is a measure of the degree of hotness or coldness of a body or environment. It is usually measured using a thermometer and reported in degrees Celsius (°C), degrees Fahrenheit (°F), or kelvin (K). In the human body, normal core temperature ranges from about 36.5-37.5°C (97.7-99.5°F) when measured rectally, and can vary slightly depending on factors such as time of day, physical activity, and menstrual cycle. Elevated body temperature is a common sign of infection or inflammation, while abnormally low body temperature can indicate hypothermia or other medical conditions.

Oligosaccharides are complex carbohydrates composed of relatively small numbers (3-10) of monosaccharide units joined together by glycosidic linkages. They occur naturally in foods such as milk, fruits, vegetables, and legumes. In the body, oligosaccharides play important roles in various biological processes, including cell recognition, signaling, and protection against pathogens.

There are several types of oligosaccharides, classified based on their structures and functions. Some common examples include:

1. Disaccharides: These consist of two monosaccharide units, such as sucrose (glucose + fructose), lactose (glucose + galactose), and maltose (glucose + glucose).
2. Trisaccharides: These contain three monosaccharide units, like maltotriose (glucose + glucose + glucose) and raffinose (galactose + glucose + fructose).
3. Oligosaccharides found in human milk: Human milk contains unique oligosaccharides that serve as prebiotics, promoting the growth of beneficial bacteria in the gut. These oligosaccharides also help protect infants from pathogens by acting as decoy receptors and inhibiting bacterial adhesion to intestinal cells.
4. N-linked and O-linked glycans: These are oligosaccharides attached to proteins in the body, playing crucial roles in protein folding, stability, and function.
5. Plant-derived oligosaccharides: Fructooligosaccharides (FOS) and galactooligosaccharides (GOS) are examples of plant-derived oligosaccharides that serve as prebiotics, promoting the growth of beneficial gut bacteria.

Overall, oligosaccharides have significant impacts on human health and disease, particularly in relation to gastrointestinal function, immunity, and inflammation.

Galactose is a simple sugar or monosaccharide that is a constituent of lactose, the disaccharide found in milk and dairy products. It's structurally similar to glucose but with a different chemical structure, and it plays a crucial role in various biological processes.

Galactose can be metabolized in the body through the action of enzymes such as galactokinase, galactose-1-phosphate uridylyltransferase, and UDP-galactose 4'-epimerase. Inherited deficiencies in these enzymes can lead to metabolic disorders like galactosemia, which can cause serious health issues if not diagnosed and treated promptly.

In summary, Galactose is a simple sugar that plays an essential role in lactose metabolism and other biological processes.

Mammalian Orthoreovirus 3 (Reovirus 3) is a species in the Reoviridae family, Orthoreovirus genus. It is a non-enveloped, double-stranded RNA virus with a segmented genome. This virus is known to infect various mammals, including humans, and primarily targets the respiratory and gastrointestinal systems. However, it generally does not cause any noticeable symptoms or diseases in immunocompetent individuals. The virus has been studied for its potential use as an oncolytic agent in cancer therapy due to its ability to selectively infect and kill cancer cells.

A cell line is a culture of cells that are grown in a laboratory for use in research. These cells are usually taken from a single cell or group of cells, and they are able to divide and grow continuously in the lab. Cell lines can come from many different sources, including animals, plants, and humans. They are often used in scientific research to study cellular processes, disease mechanisms, and to test new drugs or treatments. Some common types of human cell lines include HeLa cells (which come from a cancer patient named Henrietta Lacks), HEK293 cells (which come from embryonic kidney cells), and HUVEC cells (which come from umbilical vein endothelial cells). It is important to note that cell lines are not the same as primary cells, which are cells that are taken directly from a living organism and have not been grown in the lab.

Amebic dysentery is a type of dysentery caused by the parasitic protozoan Entamoeba histolytica. It is characterized by severe diarrhea containing blood and mucus, abdominal pain, and cramping. The infection is typically acquired through the ingestion of contaminated food or water. Once inside the body, the parasites invade the intestinal lining, causing damage and leading to the symptoms of dysentery. In severe cases, the parasites can spread to other organs such as the liver, lungs, or brain, causing more serious infections. Amebic dysentery is treated with medications that kill the parasites, such as metronidazole or tinidazole. Prevention measures include practicing good hygiene and sanitation, including proper handwashing and safe food handling practices.

Glycolipids are a type of lipid (fat) molecule that contain one or more sugar molecules attached to them. They are important components of cell membranes, where they play a role in cell recognition and signaling. Glycolipids are also found on the surface of some viruses and bacteria, where they can be recognized by the immune system as foreign invaders.

There are several different types of glycolipids, including cerebrosides, gangliosides, and globosides. These molecules differ in the number and type of sugar molecules they contain, as well as the structure of their lipid tails. Glycolipids are synthesized in the endoplasmic reticulum and Golgi apparatus of cells, and they are transported to the cell membrane through vesicles.

Abnormalities in glycolipid metabolism or structure have been implicated in a number of diseases, including certain types of cancer, neurological disorders, and autoimmune diseases. For example, mutations in genes involved in the synthesis of glycolipids can lead to conditions such as Tay-Sachs disease and Gaucher's disease, which are characterized by the accumulation of abnormal glycolipids in cells.

"Vibrio cholerae" is a species of gram-negative, comma-shaped bacteria that is the causative agent of cholera, a diarrheal disease. It can be found in aquatic environments, such as estuaries and coastal waters, and can sometimes be present in raw or undercooked seafood. The bacterium produces a toxin called cholera toxin, which causes the profuse, watery diarrhea that is characteristic of cholera. In severe cases, cholera can lead to dehydration and electrolyte imbalances, which can be life-threatening if not promptly treated with oral rehydration therapy or intravenous fluids.

Electron microscopy (EM) is a type of microscopy that uses a beam of electrons to create an image of the sample being examined, resulting in much higher magnification and resolution than light microscopy. There are several types of electron microscopy, including transmission electron microscopy (TEM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and reflection electron microscopy (REM).

In TEM, a beam of electrons is transmitted through a thin slice of the sample, and the electrons that pass through the sample are focused to form an image. This technique can provide detailed information about the internal structure of cells, viruses, and other biological specimens, as well as the composition and structure of materials at the atomic level.

In SEM, a beam of electrons is scanned across the surface of the sample, and the electrons that are scattered back from the surface are detected to create an image. This technique can provide information about the topography and composition of surfaces, as well as the structure of materials at the microscopic level.

REM is a variation of SEM in which the beam of electrons is reflected off the surface of the sample, rather than scattered back from it. This technique can provide information about the surface chemistry and composition of materials.

Electron microscopy has a wide range of applications in biology, medicine, and materials science, including the study of cellular structure and function, disease diagnosis, and the development of new materials and technologies.

Neutralizing antibodies are a type of antibody that defends against pathogens such as viruses or bacteria by neutralizing their ability to infect cells. They do this by binding to specific regions on the surface proteins of the pathogen, preventing it from attaching to and entering host cells. This renders the pathogen ineffective and helps to prevent or reduce the severity of infection. Neutralizing antibodies can be produced naturally in response to an infection or vaccination, or they can be generated artificially for therapeutic purposes.

Molecular weight, also known as molecular mass, is the mass of a molecule. It is expressed in units of atomic mass units (amu) or daltons (Da). Molecular weight is calculated by adding up the atomic weights of each atom in a molecule. It is a useful property in chemistry and biology, as it can be used to determine the concentration of a substance in a solution, or to calculate the amount of a substance that will react with another in a chemical reaction.

An "injection, intradermal" refers to a type of injection where a small quantity of a substance is introduced into the layer of skin between the epidermis and dermis, using a thin gauge needle. This technique is often used for diagnostic or research purposes, such as conducting allergy tests or administering immunizations in a way that stimulates a strong immune response. The injection site typically produces a small, raised bump (wheal) that disappears within a few hours. It's important to note that intradermal injections should be performed by trained medical professionals to minimize the risk of complications.

'Campylobacter fetus' is a species of gram-negative, microaerophilic bacteria that can cause gastrointestinal infections in humans. It is commonly found in the intestinal tracts of animals, particularly cattle, and can be transmitted to humans through contaminated food or water.

The infection caused by 'Campylobacter fetus' is known as campylobacteriosis, which typically presents with symptoms such as diarrhea, abdominal cramps, fever, and vomiting. In some cases, the infection can also lead to serious complications such as bacteremia (bacterial infection of the blood) and Guillain-Barré syndrome, a neurological disorder that can cause muscle weakness and paralysis.

It's important to note that while 'Campylobacter fetus' is a significant cause of foodborne illness, it can be prevented through proper food handling and preparation practices, such as cooking meats thoroughly and avoiding cross-contamination between raw and cooked foods.

Chlamydia is a bacterial infection caused by the species Chlamydia trachomatis. It is one of the most common sexually transmitted infections (STIs) worldwide. The bacteria can infect the genital tract, urinary tract, eyes, and rectum. In women, it can also infect the reproductive organs and cause serious complications such as pelvic inflammatory disease, infertility, and ectopic pregnancy.

Chlamydia is often asymptomatic, especially in women, which makes it easy to spread unknowingly. When symptoms do occur, they may include abnormal vaginal or penile discharge, burning sensation during urination, pain during sexual intercourse, and painful testicular swelling in men. Chlamydia can be diagnosed through a variety of tests, including urine tests and swab samples from the infected site.

The infection is easily treated with antibiotics, but if left untreated, it can lead to serious health complications. It's important to get tested regularly for STIs, especially if you are sexually active with multiple partners or have unprotected sex. Prevention methods include using condoms during sexual activity and practicing good personal hygiene.

'Burkholderia pseudomallei' is a Gram-negative, aerobic, motile, rod-shaped bacterium that is the causative agent of melioidosis. It is found in soil and water in tropical and subtropical regions, particularly in Southeast Asia and northern Australia. The bacterium can infect humans and animals through inhalation, ingestion, or direct contact with contaminated soil or water. Melioidosis can cause a wide range of symptoms, including pneumonia, sepsis, and abscesses in various organs. It is a serious and potentially fatal disease, especially in people with underlying medical conditions such as diabetes, kidney disease, or compromised immune systems. Proper diagnosis and treatment with appropriate antibiotics are essential for managing melioidosis.

Secondary immunization, also known as "anamnestic response" or "booster," refers to the enhanced immune response that occurs upon re-exposure to an antigen, having previously been immunized or infected with the same pathogen. This response is characterized by a more rapid and robust production of antibodies and memory cells compared to the primary immune response. The secondary immunization aims to maintain long-term immunity against infectious diseases and improve vaccine effectiveness. It usually involves administering additional doses of a vaccine or booster shots after the initial series of immunizations, which helps reinforce the immune system's ability to recognize and combat specific pathogens.

Reoviridae is a family of double-stranded RNA viruses that are non-enveloped and have a segmented genome. The name "Reoviridae" is derived from Respiratory Enteric Orphan virus, as these viruses were initially discovered in respiratory and enteric (gastrointestinal) samples but did not appear to cause any specific diseases.

The family Reoviridae includes several important human pathogens such as rotaviruses, which are a major cause of severe diarrhea in young children worldwide, and orthoreoviruses, which can cause respiratory and systemic infections in humans. Additionally, many Reoviridae viruses infect animals, including birds, mammals, fish, and insects, and can cause a variety of diseases.

Reoviridae virions are typically composed of multiple protein layers that encase the genomic RNA segments. The family is divided into two subfamilies, Sedoreovirinae and Spinareovirinae, based on structural features and genome organization. Reoviruses have a complex replication cycle that involves multiple steps, including attachment to host cells, uncoating of the viral particle, transcription of the genomic RNA, translation of viral proteins, packaging of new virions, and release from infected cells.

Attenuated vaccines consist of live microorganisms that have been weakened (attenuated) through various laboratory processes so they do not cause disease in the majority of recipients but still stimulate an immune response. The purpose of attenuation is to reduce the virulence or replication capacity of the pathogen while keeping it alive, allowing it to retain its antigenic properties and induce a strong and protective immune response.

Examples of attenuated vaccines include:

1. Sabin oral poliovirus vaccine (OPV): This vaccine uses live but weakened polioviruses to protect against all three strains of the disease-causing poliovirus. The weakened viruses replicate in the intestine and induce an immune response, which provides both humoral (antibody) and cell-mediated immunity.
2. Measles, mumps, and rubella (MMR) vaccine: This combination vaccine contains live attenuated measles, mumps, and rubella viruses. It is given to protect against these three diseases and prevent their spread in the population.
3. Varicella (chickenpox) vaccine: This vaccine uses a weakened form of the varicella-zoster virus, which causes chickenpox. By introducing this attenuated virus into the body, it stimulates an immune response that protects against future infection with the wild-type virus.
4. Yellow fever vaccine: This live attenuated vaccine is used to prevent yellow fever, a viral disease transmitted by mosquitoes in tropical and subtropical regions of Africa and South America. The vaccine contains a weakened form of the yellow fever virus that cannot cause the disease but still induces an immune response.
5. Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) vaccine: This live attenuated vaccine is used to protect against tuberculosis (TB). It contains a weakened strain of Mycobacterium bovis, which does not cause TB in humans but stimulates an immune response that provides some protection against the disease.

Attenuated vaccines are generally effective at inducing long-lasting immunity and can provide robust protection against targeted diseases. However, they may pose a risk for individuals with weakened immune systems, as the attenuated viruses or bacteria could potentially cause illness in these individuals. Therefore, it is essential to consider an individual's health status before administering live attenuated vaccines.

Streptococcus is a genus of Gram-positive, spherical bacteria that typically form pairs or chains when clustered together. These bacteria are facultative anaerobes, meaning they can grow in the presence or absence of oxygen. They are non-motile and do not produce spores.

Streptococcus species are commonly found on the skin and mucous membranes of humans and animals. Some strains are part of the normal flora of the body, while others can cause a variety of infections, ranging from mild skin infections to severe and life-threatening diseases such as sepsis, meningitis, and toxic shock syndrome.

The pathogenicity of Streptococcus species depends on various virulence factors, including the production of enzymes and toxins that damage tissues and evade the host's immune response. One of the most well-known Streptococcus species is Streptococcus pyogenes, also known as group A streptococcus (GAS), which is responsible for a wide range of clinical manifestations, including pharyngitis (strep throat), impetigo, cellulitis, necrotizing fasciitis, and rheumatic fever.

It's important to note that the classification of Streptococcus species has evolved over time, with many former members now classified as different genera within the family Streptococcaceae. The current classification system is based on a combination of phenotypic characteristics (such as hemolysis patterns and sugar fermentation) and genotypic methods (such as 16S rRNA sequencing and multilocus sequence typing).

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "goats" is not a term commonly used in medical definitions. It is a common noun referring to the domesticated animal species Capra aegagrus hircus. If you have any questions about a specific medical condition or term, please provide that and I would be happy to help.

In a medical context, "hot temperature" is not a standard medical term with a specific definition. However, it is often used in relation to fever, which is a common symptom of illness. A fever is typically defined as a body temperature that is higher than normal, usually above 38°C (100.4°F) for adults and above 37.5-38°C (99.5-101.3°F) for children, depending on the source.

Therefore, when a medical professional talks about "hot temperature," they may be referring to a body temperature that is higher than normal due to fever or other causes. It's important to note that a high environmental temperature can also contribute to an elevated body temperature, so it's essential to consider both the body temperature and the environmental temperature when assessing a patient's condition.

Rubella vaccine is a preventive measure used to immunize individuals against rubella, also known as German measles. It contains inactivated or weakened forms of the rubella virus that stimulate an immune response when introduced into the body. The two types of rubella vaccines available are:

1. Live Attenuated Rubella Vaccine (RAV): This vaccine contains a weakened form of the rubella virus, which triggers an immune response without causing the disease. It is the most commonly used rubella vaccine and is often combined with measles and mumps vaccines to create the Measles-Mumps-Rubella (MMR) or Measles-Mumps-Rubella-Varicella (MMRV) vaccines.

2. Inactivated Rubella Vaccine: This vaccine contains a killed rubella virus, which is less commonly used but can still provide immunity against the disease.

The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) recommends that children receive one dose of MMR vaccine at 12-15 months of age and another dose at 4-6 years of age. This schedule ensures optimal protection against rubella and other diseases included in the vaccines.

It is important to note that pregnant women should not receive the rubella vaccine, as it can potentially harm the developing fetus. Women who are planning to become pregnant should ensure they have had their rubella immunization before conceiving.

Treponema is a genus of spiral-shaped bacteria, also known as spirochetes. These bacteria are gram-negative and have unique motility provided by endoflagella, which are located in the periplasmic space, running lengthwise between the cell's outer membrane and inner membrane.

Treponema species are responsible for several important diseases in humans, including syphilis (Treponema pallidum), yaws (Treponema pertenue), pinta (Treponema carateum), and endemic syphilis or bejel (Treponema pallidum subspecies endemicum). These diseases are collectively known as treponematoses.

It is important to note that while these bacteria share some common characteristics, they differ in their clinical manifestations and geographical distributions. Proper diagnosis and treatment of treponemal infections require medical expertise and laboratory confirmation.

A viral attachment, in the context of virology, refers to the initial step in the infection process of a host cell by a virus. This involves the binding or adsorption of the viral particle to specific receptors on the surface of the host cell. The viral attachment proteins, often located on the viral envelope or capsid, recognize and interact with these receptors, leading to a close association between the virus and the host cell. This interaction is highly specific, as different viruses may target various cell types based on their unique receptor-binding preferences. Following attachment, the virus can enter the host cell and initiate the replication cycle, ultimately leading to the production of new viral particles and potential disease manifestations.

A cloaca is a common cavity or channel in some animals, including many birds and reptiles, that serves as the combined endpoint for the digestive, urinary, and reproductive systems. Feces, urine, and in some cases, eggs are all expelled through this single opening. In humans and other mammals, these systems have separate openings. Anatomical anomalies can result in a human born with a cloaca, which is very rare and typically requires surgical correction.

"Rickettsia rickettsii" is a species of bacteria that causes Rocky Mountain spotted fever, a potentially severe and life-threatening tick-borne disease. The bacteria are transmitted to humans through the bite of infected ticks, most commonly the American dog tick, Rocky Mountain wood tick, and the brown dog tick.

The bacteria infect endothelial cells, which line the blood vessels, causing vasculitis (inflammation of the blood vessels) and leading to a range of symptoms such as fever, headache, muscle pain, rash, and in severe cases, organ failure and death if left untreated. Rocky Mountain spotted fever is treated with antibiotics, usually doxycycline, which can be effective in reducing the severity of the disease and preventing complications if started promptly.

Toxoids are inactivated bacterial toxins that have lost their toxicity but retain their antigenicity. They are often used in vaccines to stimulate an immune response and provide protection against certain diseases without causing the harmful effects associated with the active toxin. The process of converting a toxin into a toxoid is called detoxication, which is typically achieved through chemical or heat treatment.

One example of a toxoid-based vaccine is the diphtheria and tetanus toxoids (DT) or diphtheria, tetanus, and pertussis toxoids (DTaP or TdaP) vaccines. These vaccines contain inactivated forms of the diphtheria and tetanus toxins, as well as inactivated pertussis toxin in the case of DTaP or TdaP vaccines. By exposing the immune system to these toxoids, the body learns to recognize and mount a response against the actual toxins produced by the bacteria, thereby providing immunity and protection against the diseases they cause.

Amebiasis is defined as an infection caused by the protozoan parasite Entamoeba histolytica, which can affect the intestines and other organs. The infection can range from asymptomatic to symptomatic with various manifestations such as abdominal pain, diarrhea (which may be mild or severe), bloody stools, and fever. In some cases, it can lead to serious complications like liver abscess. Transmission of the parasite typically occurs through the ingestion of contaminated food or water.

Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever (RMSF) is a bacterial disease transmitted to humans through the bite of an infected tick. The causative agent is Rickettsia rickettsii. The disease is characterized by the sudden onset of fever, severe headache, muscle pain, nausea, and vomiting. A rash typically appears 2-5 days after the onset of fever, starting on the wrists and ankles and spreading to the palms and soles, and then to the trunk and other parts of the body. If not treated promptly, RMSF can cause serious damage to internal organs, such as the heart and kidneys, and in some cases, it can be fatal. Early diagnosis and treatment with appropriate antibiotics are essential for a full recovery.

Diarrhea is a condition in which an individual experiences loose, watery stools frequently, often exceeding three times a day. It can be acute, lasting for several days, or chronic, persisting for weeks or even months. Diarrhea can result from various factors, including viral, bacterial, or parasitic infections, food intolerances, medications, and underlying medical conditions such as inflammatory bowel disease or irritable bowel syndrome. Dehydration is a potential complication of diarrhea, particularly in severe cases or in vulnerable populations like young children and the elderly.

Parvoviridae infections refer to diseases caused by viruses belonging to the Parvoviridae family. These viruses are known to infect a wide range of hosts, including humans, animals, and insects. The most well-known member of this family is the human parvovirus B19, which is responsible for a variety of clinical manifestations such as:

1. Erythema infectiosum (Fifth disease): A common childhood exanthem characterized by a "slapped cheek" rash and a lace-like rash on the extremities.
2. Transient aplastic crisis: A sudden and temporary halt in red blood cell production, which can lead to severe anemia in individuals with underlying hematologic disorders.
3. Hydrops fetalis: Intrauterine death due to severe anemia caused by parvovirus B19 infection in pregnant women, leading to heart failure and widespread fluid accumulation in the fetus.

Parvoviruses are small, non-enveloped viruses with a single-stranded DNA genome. They primarily infect and replicate within actively dividing cells, making them particularly harmful to rapidly proliferating tissues such as bone marrow and fetal tissues. In addition to parvovirus B19, other Parvoviridae family members can cause significant diseases in animals, including cats, dogs, and livestock.

Acetylgalactosamine (also known as N-acetyl-D-galactosamine or GalNAc) is a type of sugar molecule called a hexosamine that is commonly found in glycoproteins and proteoglycans, which are complex carbohydrates that are attached to proteins and lipids. It plays an important role in various biological processes, including cell-cell recognition, signal transduction, and protein folding.

In the context of medical research and biochemistry, Acetylgalactosamine is often used as a building block for synthesizing glycoconjugates, which are molecules that consist of a carbohydrate attached to a protein or lipid. These molecules play important roles in many biological processes, including cell-cell recognition, signaling, and immune response.

Acetylgalactosamine is also used as a target for enzymes called glycosyltransferases, which add sugar molecules to proteins and lipids. In particular, Acetylgalactosamine is the acceptor substrate for a class of glycosyltransferases known as galactosyltransferases, which add galactose molecules to Acetylgalactosamine-containing structures.

Defects in the metabolism of Acetylgalactosamine have been linked to various genetic disorders, including Schindler disease and Kanzaki disease, which are characterized by neurological symptoms and abnormal accumulation of glycoproteins in various tissues.

Anti-idiotypic antibodies are a type of immune protein that recognizes and binds to the unique identifying region (idiotype) of another antibody. These antibodies are produced by the immune system as part of a regulatory feedback mechanism, where they can modulate or inhibit the activity of the original antibody. They have been studied for their potential use in immunotherapy and vaccine development.

Necrotizing ulcerative gingivitis (NUG), also known as trench mouth or acute necrotizing ulcerative gingivostomatitis, is a severe and painful form of gingivitis that is characterized by the presence of necrosis (tissue death) and ulcers in the gum tissue. It is caused by a combination of factors, including poor oral hygiene, stress, smoking, and a weakened immune system. The condition is often associated with the presence of certain types of bacteria that produce toxins that can damage the gum tissue.

NUG is characterized by the sudden onset of symptoms such as severe pain, bleeding, bad breath, and a grayish-white or yellowish film covering the gums. The gums may also appear bright red, swollen, and shiny, and may bleed easily when brushed or touched. In some cases, the condition can progress to involve other areas of the mouth, such as the lining of the cheeks and lips.

NUG is typically treated with a combination of professional dental cleaning, antibiotics to eliminate the bacterial infection, and pain management. It is important to maintain good oral hygiene practices to prevent recurrence of the condition. If left untreated, NUG can lead to more serious complications such as tooth loss or spread of the infection to other parts of the body.

Affinity chromatography is a type of chromatography technique used in biochemistry and molecular biology to separate and purify proteins based on their biological characteristics, such as their ability to bind specifically to certain ligands or molecules. This method utilizes a stationary phase that is coated with a specific ligand (e.g., an antibody, antigen, receptor, or enzyme) that selectively interacts with the target protein in a sample.

The process typically involves the following steps:

1. Preparation of the affinity chromatography column: The stationary phase, usually a solid matrix such as agarose beads or magnetic beads, is modified by covalently attaching the ligand to its surface.
2. Application of the sample: The protein mixture is applied to the top of the affinity chromatography column, allowing it to flow through the stationary phase under gravity or pressure.
3. Binding and washing: As the sample flows through the column, the target protein selectively binds to the ligand on the stationary phase, while other proteins and impurities pass through. The column is then washed with a suitable buffer to remove any unbound proteins and contaminants.
4. Elution of the bound protein: The target protein can be eluted from the column using various methods, such as changing the pH, ionic strength, or polarity of the buffer, or by introducing a competitive ligand that displaces the bound protein.
5. Collection and analysis: The eluted protein fraction is collected and analyzed for purity and identity, often through techniques like SDS-PAGE or mass spectrometry.

Affinity chromatography is a powerful tool in biochemistry and molecular biology due to its high selectivity and specificity, enabling the efficient isolation of target proteins from complex mixtures. However, it requires careful consideration of the binding affinity between the ligand and the protein, as well as optimization of the elution conditions to minimize potential damage or denaturation of the purified protein.

Coronaviridae is a family of enveloped, positive-sense, single-stranded RNA viruses. They are named for the crown-like (corona) appearance of their surface proteins. Coronaviruses infect a wide range of animals, including mammals and birds, and can cause respiratory, gastrointestinal, and neurological diseases. Some coronaviruses, such as Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus (SARS-CoV) and Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus (MERS-CoV), can cause severe and potentially fatal illness in humans. The most recent example is SARS-CoV-2, which causes COVID-19.

Adsorption is a process in which atoms, ions, or molecules from a gas, liquid, or dissolved solid accumulate on the surface of a material. This occurs because the particles in the adsorbate (the substance being adsorbed) have forces that attract them to the surface of the adsorbent (the material that the adsorbate is adhering to).

In medical terms, adsorption can refer to the use of materials with adsorptive properties to remove harmful substances from the body. For example, activated charcoal is sometimes used in the treatment of poisoning because it can adsorb a variety of toxic substances and prevent them from being absorbed into the bloodstream.

It's important to note that adsorption is different from absorption, which refers to the process by which a substance is taken up and distributed throughout a material or tissue.

Hydrogen-ion concentration, also known as pH, is a measure of the acidity or basicity of a solution. It is defined as the negative logarithm (to the base 10) of the hydrogen ion activity in a solution. The standard unit of measurement is the pH unit. A pH of 7 is neutral, less than 7 is acidic, and greater than 7 is basic.

In medical terms, hydrogen-ion concentration is important for maintaining homeostasis within the body. For example, in the stomach, a high hydrogen-ion concentration (low pH) is necessary for the digestion of food. However, in other parts of the body such as blood, a high hydrogen-ion concentration can be harmful and lead to acidosis. Conversely, a low hydrogen-ion concentration (high pH) in the blood can lead to alkalosis. Both acidosis and alkalosis can have serious consequences on various organ systems if not corrected.

Bacterial vaccines are types of vaccines that are created using bacteria or parts of bacteria as the immunogen, which is the substance that triggers an immune response in the body. The purpose of a bacterial vaccine is to stimulate the immune system to develop protection against specific bacterial infections.

There are several types of bacterial vaccines, including:

1. Inactivated or killed whole-cell vaccines: These vaccines contain entire bacteria that have been killed or inactivated through various methods, such as heat or chemicals. The bacteria can no longer cause disease, but they still retain the ability to stimulate an immune response.
2. Subunit, protein, or polysaccharide vaccines: These vaccines use specific components of the bacterium, such as proteins or polysaccharides, that are known to trigger an immune response. By using only these components, the vaccine can avoid using the entire bacterium, which may reduce the risk of adverse reactions.
3. Live attenuated vaccines: These vaccines contain live bacteria that have been weakened or attenuated so that they cannot cause disease but still retain the ability to stimulate an immune response. This type of vaccine can provide long-lasting immunity, but it may not be suitable for people with weakened immune systems.

Bacterial vaccines are essential tools in preventing and controlling bacterial infections, reducing the burden of diseases such as tuberculosis, pneumococcal disease, meningococcal disease, and Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) disease. They work by exposing the immune system to a harmless form of the bacteria or its components, which triggers the production of antibodies and memory cells that can recognize and fight off future infections with that same bacterium.

It's important to note that while vaccines are generally safe and effective, they may cause mild side effects such as pain, redness, or swelling at the injection site, fever, or fatigue. Serious side effects are rare but can occur, so it's essential to consult with a healthcare provider before receiving any vaccine.

"Military medicine" is a specific branch of medical practice that deals with the diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of diseases and injuries in military populations. It encompasses the provision of healthcare services to military personnel, both in peacetime and during times of conflict or emergency situations. This may include providing care in combat zones, managing mass casualties, delivering preventive medicine programs, conducting medical research, and providing medical support during peacekeeping missions and humanitarian assistance efforts. Military medicine also places a strong emphasis on the development and use of specialized equipment, techniques, and protocols to ensure the best possible medical care for military personnel in challenging environments.

Sonication is a medical and laboratory term that refers to the use of ultrasound waves to agitate particles in a liquid. This process is often used in medical and scientific research to break down or disrupt cells, tissue, or other substances that are being studied. The high-frequency sound waves create standing waves that cause the particles in the liquid to vibrate, which can lead to cavitation (the formation and collapse of bubbles) and ultimately result in the disruption of the cell membranes or other structures. This technique is commonly used in procedures such as sonication of blood cultures to release microorganisms from clots, enhancing their growth in culture media and facilitating their identification.

Indicators and reagents are terms commonly used in the field of clinical chemistry and laboratory medicine. Here are their definitions:

1. Indicator: An indicator is a substance that changes its color or other physical properties in response to a chemical change, such as a change in pH, oxidation-reduction potential, or the presence of a particular ion or molecule. Indicators are often used in laboratory tests to monitor or signal the progress of a reaction or to indicate the end point of a titration. A familiar example is the use of phenolphthalein as a pH indicator in acid-base titrations, which turns pink in basic solutions and colorless in acidic solutions.

2. Reagent: A reagent is a substance that is added to a system (such as a sample or a reaction mixture) to bring about a chemical reaction, test for the presence or absence of a particular component, or measure the concentration of a specific analyte. Reagents are typically chemicals with well-defined and consistent properties, allowing them to be used reliably in analytical procedures. Examples of reagents include enzymes, antibodies, dyes, metal ions, and organic compounds. In laboratory settings, reagents are often prepared and standardized according to strict protocols to ensure their quality and performance in diagnostic tests and research applications.

"Bordetella" is a genus of gram-negative, aerobic bacteria that are known to cause respiratory infections in humans and animals. The most well-known species within this genus is Bordetella pertussis, which is the primary causative agent of whooping cough (pertussis) in humans.

Whooping cough is a highly contagious respiratory infection that is characterized by severe coughing fits, followed by a high-pitched "whoop" sound upon inhalation. The bacteria attach to the cilia lining the respiratory tract and release toxins that damage the cilia and cause inflammation, leading to the characteristic symptoms of the disease.

Other species within the Bordetella genus include Bordetella parapertussis, which can also cause a milder form of whooping cough, and Bordetella bronchiseptica, which is associated with respiratory infections in animals but can occasionally infect humans as well.

Prevention of Bordetella infections typically involves vaccination, with vaccines available for both infants and adults to protect against B. pertussis and B. parapertussis. Good hygiene practices, such as covering the mouth and nose when coughing or sneezing, can also help prevent the spread of these bacteria.

A binding site on an antibody refers to the specific region on the surface of the antibody molecule that can recognize and bind to a specific antigen. Antibodies are proteins produced by the immune system in response to the presence of foreign substances called antigens. They have two main functions: to neutralize the harmful effects of antigens and to help eliminate them from the body.

The binding site of an antibody is located at the tips of its Y-shaped structure, formed by the variable regions of the heavy and light chains of the antibody molecule. These regions contain unique amino acid sequences that determine the specificity of the antibody for a particular antigen. The binding site can recognize and bind to a specific epitope or region on the antigen, forming an antigen-antibody complex.

The binding between the antibody and antigen is highly specific and depends on non-covalent interactions such as hydrogen bonds, van der Waals forces, and electrostatic attractions. This interaction plays a crucial role in the immune response, as it allows the immune system to recognize and eliminate pathogens and other foreign substances from the body.

The Rh-Hr blood group system is a complex system of antigens found on the surface of red blood cells (RBCs), which is separate from the more well-known ABO blood group system. The term "Rh" refers to the Rhesus monkey, as these antigens were first discovered in rhesus macaques.

The Rh system consists of several antigens, but the most important ones are the D antigen (also known as the Rh factor) and the hr/Hr antigens. The D antigen is the one that determines whether a person's blood is Rh-positive or Rh-negative. If the D antigen is present, the blood is Rh-positive; if it is absent, the blood is Rh-negative.

The hr/Hr antigens are less well known but can still cause problems in blood transfusions and pregnancy. The Hr antigen is relatively rare, found in only about 1% of the population, while the hr antigen is more common.

When a person with Rh-negative blood is exposed to Rh-positive blood (for example, through a transfusion or during pregnancy), their immune system may produce antibodies against the D antigen. This can cause problems if they later receive a transfusion with Rh-positive blood or if they become pregnant with an Rh-positive fetus.

The Rh-Hr blood group system is important in blood transfusions and obstetrics, as it can help ensure that patients receive compatible blood and prevent complications during pregnancy.

Diphtheria Antitoxin is a medication used to treat diphtheria, a serious bacterial infection that can affect the nose, throat, and skin. It is made from the serum of animals (such as horses) that have been immunized against diphtheria. The antitoxin works by neutralizing the harmful effects of the diphtheria toxin produced by the bacteria, which can cause tissue damage and other complications.

Diphtheria Antitoxin is usually given as an injection into a muscle or vein, and it should be administered as soon as possible after a diagnosis of diphtheria has been made. It is important to note that while the antitoxin can help prevent further damage caused by the toxin, it does not treat the underlying infection itself, which requires antibiotics for proper treatment.

Like any medication, Diphtheria Antitoxin can have side effects, including allergic reactions, serum sickness, and anaphylaxis. It should only be administered under the supervision of a healthcare professional who is experienced in its use and can monitor the patient for any adverse reactions.

Bacterial outer membrane proteins (OMPs) are a type of protein found in the outer membrane of gram-negative bacteria. The outer membrane is a unique characteristic of gram-negative bacteria, and it serves as a barrier that helps protect the bacterium from hostile environments. OMPs play a crucial role in maintaining the structural integrity and selective permeability of the outer membrane. They are involved in various functions such as nutrient uptake, transport, adhesion, and virulence factor secretion.

OMPs are typically composed of beta-barrel structures that span the bacterial outer membrane. These proteins can be classified into several groups based on their size, function, and structure. Some of the well-known OMP families include porins, autotransporters, and two-partner secretion systems.

Porins are the most abundant type of OMPs and form water-filled channels that allow the passive diffusion of small molecules, ions, and nutrients across the outer membrane. Autotransporters are a diverse group of OMPs that play a role in bacterial pathogenesis by secreting virulence factors or acting as adhesins. Two-partner secretion systems involve the cooperation between two proteins to transport effector molecules across the outer membrane.

Understanding the structure and function of bacterial OMPs is essential for developing new antibiotics and therapies that target gram-negative bacteria, which are often resistant to conventional treatments.

Dengue virus (DENV) is a single-stranded, positive-sense RNA virus that belongs to the genus Flavivirus in the family Flaviviridae. It is primarily transmitted to humans through the bites of infected female mosquitoes, mainly Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus.

The DENV genome contains approximately 11,000 nucleotides and encodes three structural proteins (capsid, pre-membrane/membrane, and envelope) and seven non-structural proteins (NS1, NS2A, NS2B, NS3, NS4A, NS4B, and NS5). There are four distinct serotypes of DENV (DENV-1, DENV-2, DENV-3, and DENV-4), each of which can cause dengue fever, a mosquito-borne viral disease.

Infection with one serotype provides lifelong immunity against that particular serotype but only temporary and partial protection against the other three serotypes. Subsequent infections with different serotypes can increase the risk of developing severe dengue, such as dengue hemorrhagic fever or dengue shock syndrome, due to antibody-dependent enhancement (ADE) and original antigenic sin phenomena.

DENV is a significant public health concern in tropical and subtropical regions worldwide, with an estimated 390 million annual infections and approximately 100-400 million clinical cases. Preventive measures include vector control strategies to reduce mosquito populations and the development of effective vaccines against all four serotypes.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Hemolytic Plaque Technique" is not a widely recognized or established medical term. It seems like it might be a combination of two different concepts in medical and scientific research: the Hemolytic Assay and the Plaque Assay technique.

A Hemolytic Assay is a method used to measure the amount of hemolysis, or the rupturing of red blood cells, caused by a substance such as a toxin or an antibody. This assay can help determine the concentration of the hemolysin in a sample.

On the other hand, the Plaque Assay Technique is a method used to measure the number of infectious virus particles in a sample. It involves adding a layer of cells (like bacteria) that the virus can infect and then covering it with a nutrient agar overlay. After a period of incubation, clear areas or "plaques" appear in the agar where the viruses have infected and lysed the cells. By counting these plaques, researchers can estimate the number of infectious virus particles present in the original sample.

Therefore, if you're looking for a definition of a Hemolytic Plaque Technique, it might refer to a research method that combines both concepts, possibly measuring the amount of a substance (like an antibody) that causes hemolysis in red blood cells and correlating it with the number of infectious virus particles present. However, I would recommend consulting the original source or author for clarification on their intended meaning.

Mumps is a viral infection that primarily affects the parotid salivary glands, causing them to swell and become painful. The medical definition of mumps is: "An acute infectious disease, caused by the mumps virus, characterized by painful enlargement of one or more of the salivary glands, especially the parotids."

The infection spreads easily through respiratory droplets or direct contact with an infected person's saliva. Symptoms typically appear 16-18 days after exposure and include fever, headache, muscle aches, tiredness, and swollen, tender salivary glands. Complications of mumps are rare but can be serious and include meningitis, encephalitis, deafness, and inflammation of the reproductive organs in males.

Prevention is through vaccination with the measles-mumps-rubella (MMR) vaccine, which is part of routine childhood immunization schedules in many countries.

Carbohydrate metabolism is the process by which the body breaks down carbohydrates into glucose, which is then used for energy or stored in the liver and muscles as glycogen. This process involves several enzymes and chemical reactions that convert carbohydrates from food into glucose, fructose, or galactose, which are then absorbed into the bloodstream and transported to cells throughout the body.

The hormones insulin and glucagon regulate carbohydrate metabolism by controlling the uptake and storage of glucose in cells. Insulin is released from the pancreas when blood sugar levels are high, such as after a meal, and promotes the uptake and storage of glucose in cells. Glucagon, on the other hand, is released when blood sugar levels are low and signals the liver to convert stored glycogen back into glucose and release it into the bloodstream.

Disorders of carbohydrate metabolism can result from genetic defects or acquired conditions that affect the enzymes or hormones involved in this process. Examples include diabetes, hypoglycemia, and galactosemia. Proper management of these disorders typically involves dietary modifications, medication, and regular monitoring of blood sugar levels.

Aluminum hydroxide is a medication that contains the active ingredient aluminum hydroxide, which is an inorganic compound. It is commonly used as an antacid to neutralize stomach acid and relieve symptoms of acid reflux and heartburn. Aluminum hydroxide works by reacting with the acid in the stomach to form a physical barrier that prevents the acid from backing up into the esophagus.

In addition to its use as an antacid, aluminum hydroxide is also used as a phosphate binder in patients with kidney disease. It works by binding to phosphate in the gut and preventing it from being absorbed into the bloodstream, which can help to control high phosphate levels in the body.

Aluminum hydroxide is available over-the-counter and by prescription in various forms, including tablets, capsules, and liquid suspensions. It is important to follow the dosage instructions carefully and to talk to a healthcare provider if symptoms persist or worsen.

BALB/c is an inbred strain of laboratory mouse that is widely used in biomedical research. The strain was developed at the Institute of Cancer Research in London by Henry Baldwin and his colleagues in the 1920s, and it has since become one of the most commonly used inbred strains in the world.

BALB/c mice are characterized by their black coat color, which is determined by a recessive allele at the tyrosinase locus. They are also known for their docile and friendly temperament, making them easy to handle and work with in the laboratory.

One of the key features of BALB/c mice that makes them useful for research is their susceptibility to certain types of tumors and immune responses. For example, they are highly susceptible to developing mammary tumors, which can be induced by chemical carcinogens or viral infection. They also have a strong Th2-biased immune response, which makes them useful models for studying allergic diseases and asthma.

BALB/c mice are also commonly used in studies of genetics, neuroscience, behavior, and infectious diseases. Because they are an inbred strain, they have a uniform genetic background, which makes it easier to control for genetic factors in experiments. Additionally, because they have been bred in the laboratory for many generations, they are highly standardized and reproducible, making them ideal subjects for scientific research.

Virus-like particles (VLPs) are nanostructures that mimic the organization and conformation of authentic viruses but lack the genetic material required for replication. VLPs can be produced from one or more viral proteins, which can be derived from various expression systems including bacteria, yeast, insect, or mammalian cells.

VLP-based vaccines are a type of vaccine that uses these virus-like particles to induce an immune response in the body. These vaccines can be designed to target specific viruses or other pathogens and have been shown to be safe and effective in inducing both humoral and cellular immunity.

VLPs resemble authentic viruses in their structure, size, and antigenic properties, making them highly immunogenic. They can be designed to present specific epitopes or antigens from a pathogen, which can stimulate the immune system to produce antibodies and activate T-cells that recognize and attack the pathogen.

VLP vaccines have been developed for several viruses, including human papillomavirus (HPV), hepatitis B virus (HBV), and respiratory syncytial virus (RSV). They offer several advantages over traditional vaccines, such as a strong immune response, safety, and stability.

Enterobacteriaceae is a family of gram-negative, rod-shaped bacteria that are commonly found in the intestines of humans and animals. Many species within this family are capable of causing various types of infections, particularly in individuals with weakened immune systems. Some common examples of Enterobacteriaceae include Escherichia coli (E. coli), Klebsiella pneumoniae, Proteus mirabilis, and Salmonella enterica.

These bacteria are typically characterized by their ability to ferment various sugars and produce acid and gas as byproducts. They can also be distinguished by their biochemical reactions, such as their ability to produce certain enzymes or resist specific antibiotics. Infections caused by Enterobacteriaceae can range from mild to severe, depending on the species involved and the overall health of the infected individual.

Some infections caused by Enterobacteriaceae include urinary tract infections, pneumonia, bloodstream infections, and foodborne illnesses. Proper hygiene, such as handwashing and safe food handling practices, can help prevent the spread of these bacteria and reduce the risk of infection.

A disease outbreak is defined as the occurrence of cases of a disease in excess of what would normally be expected in a given time and place. It may affect a small and localized group or a large number of people spread over a wide area, even internationally. An outbreak may be caused by a new agent, a change in the agent's virulence or host susceptibility, or an increase in the size or density of the host population.

Outbreaks can have significant public health and economic impacts, and require prompt investigation and control measures to prevent further spread of the disease. The investigation typically involves identifying the source of the outbreak, determining the mode of transmission, and implementing measures to interrupt the chain of infection. This may include vaccination, isolation or quarantine, and education of the public about the risks and prevention strategies.

Examples of disease outbreaks include foodborne illnesses linked to contaminated food or water, respiratory infections spread through coughing and sneezing, and mosquito-borne diseases such as Zika virus and West Nile virus. Outbreaks can also occur in healthcare settings, such as hospitals and nursing homes, where vulnerable populations may be at increased risk of infection.

'Influenza A Virus, H2N2 Subtype' is a type of influenza virus that causes flu in humans and animals. It has the surface proteins hemagglutinin 2 (H) and neuraminidase 2 (N). This subtype was responsible for the Asian Flu pandemic in 1957-1958, which is estimated to have caused 1 to 4 million deaths worldwide. Since then, this specific H2N2 subtype has not circulated widely among humans. However, it still exists in animals such as birds and pigs, and there is a risk that it could evolve and infect humans again, which is why it is closely monitored by public health authorities.

Trypanosoma cruzi is a protozoan parasite that causes Chagas disease, also known as American trypanosomiasis. It's transmitted to humans and other mammals through the feces of triatomine bugs, often called "kissing bugs." The parasite can also be spread through contaminated food, drink, or from mother to baby during pregnancy or birth.

The life cycle of Trypanosoma cruzi involves two main forms: the infective metacyclic trypomastigote that is found in the bug's feces and the replicative intracellular amastigote that resides within host cells. The metacyclic trypomastigotes enter the host through mucous membranes or skin lesions, where they invade various types of cells and differentiate into amastigotes. These amastigotes multiply by binary fission and then differentiate back into trypomastigotes, which are released into the bloodstream when the host cell ruptures. The circulating trypomastigotes can then infect other cells or be taken up by another triatomine bug during a blood meal, continuing the life cycle.

Clinical manifestations of Chagas disease range from an acute phase with non-specific symptoms like fever, swelling, and fatigue to a chronic phase characterized by cardiac and gastrointestinal complications, which can develop decades after the initial infection. Early detection and treatment of Chagas disease are crucial for preventing long-term health consequences.

Centrifugation, Density Gradient is a medical laboratory technique used to separate and purify different components of a mixture based on their size, density, and shape. This method involves the use of a centrifuge and a density gradient medium, such as sucrose or cesium chloride, to create a stable density gradient within a column or tube.

The sample is carefully layered onto the top of the gradient and then subjected to high-speed centrifugation. During centrifugation, the particles in the sample move through the gradient based on their size, density, and shape, with heavier particles migrating faster and further than lighter ones. This results in the separation of different components of the mixture into distinct bands or zones within the gradient.

This technique is commonly used to purify and concentrate various types of biological materials, such as viruses, organelles, ribosomes, and subcellular fractions, from complex mixtures. It allows for the isolation of pure and intact particles, which can then be collected and analyzed for further study or use in downstream applications.

In summary, Centrifugation, Density Gradient is a medical laboratory technique used to separate and purify different components of a mixture based on their size, density, and shape using a centrifuge and a density gradient medium.

A "false negative" reaction in medical testing refers to a situation where a diagnostic test incorrectly indicates the absence of a specific condition or disease, when in fact it is present. This can occur due to various reasons such as issues with the sensitivity of the test, improper sample collection, or specimen handling and storage.

False negative results can have serious consequences, as they may lead to delayed treatment, misdiagnosis, or a false sense of security for the patient. Therefore, it is essential to interpret medical test results in conjunction with other clinical findings, patient history, and physical examination. In some cases, repeating the test or using a different diagnostic method may be necessary to confirm the initial result.

Leptospirosis is a bacterial infection caused by pathogenic serovars of the genus Leptospira. It's primarily a zoonotic disease, meaning it can be transmitted from animals to humans. The bacteria are often found in the urine of infected animals and can survive in freshwater environments for weeks or even months.

Humans typically get infected through direct contact with the urine of infected animals or contaminated soil or water. This can occur through cuts or abrasions on the skin, mouth, eyes, or through mucous membranes. Occupational groups like farmers, sewer workers, slaughterhouse workers, and veterinarians are at a higher risk of infection.

The symptoms of leptospirosis can vary widely, but they often include high fever, severe headache, muscle aches, and general weakness. In some cases, it can cause potentially serious complications like meningitis (inflammation of the membrane around the brain and spinal cord), liver damage, kidney failure, and respiratory distress. Early diagnosis and treatment with antibiotics are crucial to prevent these complications.

Antibodies, protozoan, refer to the immune system's response to an infection caused by a protozoan organism. Protozoa are single-celled microorganisms that can cause various diseases in humans, such as malaria, giardiasis, and toxoplasmosis.

When the body is infected with a protozoan, the immune system responds by producing specific proteins called antibodies. Antibodies are produced by a type of white blood cell called a B-cell, and they recognize and bind to specific antigens on the surface of the protozoan organism.

There are five main types of antibodies: IgA, IgD, IgE, IgG, and IgM. Each type of antibody has a different role in the immune response. For example, IgG is the most common type of antibody and provides long-term immunity to previously encountered pathogens. IgM is the first antibody produced in response to an infection and is important for activating the complement system, which helps to destroy the protozoan organism.

Overall, the production of antibodies against protozoan organisms is a critical part of the immune response and helps to protect the body from further infection.

Pulmonary Surfactant-Associated Protein D, also known as SP-D or surfactant protein D, is a protein that belongs to the collectin family. It is produced by specialized cells called type II alveolar epithelial cells and is found in the lungs, where it plays an important role in maintaining lung homeostasis and host defense.

SP-D has several functions in the lungs, including:

1. Reducing surface tension: SP-D helps to reduce surface tension in the alveoli, which facilitates breathing by preventing the collapse of the lungs during expiration.
2. Host defense: SP-D plays a crucial role in innate immunity by recognizing and binding to pathogens such as bacteria, viruses, and fungi. This helps to neutralize and clear these microorganisms from the lungs.
3. Inflammation regulation: SP-D has anti-inflammatory properties and can help to regulate the immune response in the lungs. It does this by modulating the activation of immune cells such as macrophages and neutrophils.
4. Tissue repair: SP-D may also play a role in tissue repair and remodeling in the lungs, although its exact mechanisms are not fully understood.

Abnormalities in SP-D have been implicated in several lung diseases, including respiratory distress syndrome, asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), and interstitial lung diseases.

Electrophoresis, polyacrylamide gel (EPG) is a laboratory technique used to separate and analyze complex mixtures of proteins or nucleic acids (DNA or RNA) based on their size and electrical charge. This technique utilizes a matrix made of cross-linked polyacrylamide, a type of gel, which provides a stable and uniform environment for the separation of molecules.

In this process:

1. The polyacrylamide gel is prepared by mixing acrylamide monomers with a cross-linking agent (bis-acrylamide) and a catalyst (ammonium persulfate) in the presence of a buffer solution.
2. The gel is then poured into a mold and allowed to polymerize, forming a solid matrix with uniform pore sizes that depend on the concentration of acrylamide used. Higher concentrations result in smaller pores, providing better resolution for separating smaller molecules.
3. Once the gel has set, it is placed in an electrophoresis apparatus containing a buffer solution. Samples containing the mixture of proteins or nucleic acids are loaded into wells on the top of the gel.
4. An electric field is applied across the gel, causing the negatively charged molecules to migrate towards the positive electrode (anode) while positively charged molecules move toward the negative electrode (cathode). The rate of migration depends on the size, charge, and shape of the molecules.
5. Smaller molecules move faster through the gel matrix and will migrate farther from the origin compared to larger molecules, resulting in separation based on size. Proteins and nucleic acids can be selectively stained after electrophoresis to visualize the separated bands.

EPG is widely used in various research fields, including molecular biology, genetics, proteomics, and forensic science, for applications such as protein characterization, DNA fragment analysis, cloning, mutation detection, and quality control of nucleic acid or protein samples.

Blood bactericidal activity refers to the ability of an individual's blood to kill or inhibit the growth of bacteria. This is an important aspect of the body's immune system, as it helps to prevent infection and maintain overall health. The bactericidal activity of blood can be influenced by various factors, including the presence of antibodies, white blood cells (such as neutrophils), and complement proteins.

In medical terms, the term "bactericidal" specifically refers to an agent or substance that is capable of killing bacteria. Therefore, when we talk about blood bactericidal activity, we are referring to the collective ability of various components in the blood to kill or inhibit the growth of bacteria. This is often measured in laboratory tests as a way to assess a person's immune function and their susceptibility to infection.

It's worth noting that not all substances in the blood are bactericidal; some may simply inhibit the growth of bacteria without killing them. These substances are referred to as bacteriostatic. Both bactericidal and bacteriostatic agents play important roles in maintaining the body's defense against infection.

Chloroform is a volatile, clear, and nonflammable liquid with a mild, sweet, and aromatic odor. Its chemical formula is CHCl3, consisting of one carbon atom, one hydrogen atom, and three chlorine atoms. Chloroform is a trihalomethane, which means it contains three halogens (chlorine) in its molecular structure.

In the medical field, chloroform has been historically used as an inhaled general anesthetic agent due to its ability to produce unconsciousness and insensibility to pain quickly. However, its use as a surgical anesthetic has largely been abandoned because of several safety concerns, including its potential to cause cardiac arrhythmias, liver and kidney damage, and a condition called "chloroform hepatopathy" with prolonged or repeated exposure.

Currently, chloroform is not used as a therapeutic agent in medicine but may still be encountered in laboratory settings for various research purposes. It's also possible to find traces of chloroform in drinking water due to its formation during the disinfection process using chlorine-based compounds.

There is no medical definition for "dog diseases" as it is too broad a term. However, dogs can suffer from various health conditions and illnesses that are specific to their species or similar to those found in humans. Some common categories of dog diseases include:

1. Infectious Diseases: These are caused by viruses, bacteria, fungi, or parasites. Examples include distemper, parvovirus, kennel cough, Lyme disease, and heartworms.
2. Hereditary/Genetic Disorders: Some dogs may inherit certain genetic disorders from their parents. Examples include hip dysplasia, elbow dysplasia, progressive retinal atrophy (PRA), and degenerative myelopathy.
3. Age-Related Diseases: As dogs age, they become more susceptible to various health issues. Common age-related diseases in dogs include arthritis, dental disease, cancer, and cognitive dysfunction syndrome (CDS).
4. Nutritional Disorders: Malnutrition or improper feeding can lead to various health problems in dogs. Examples include obesity, malnutrition, and vitamin deficiencies.
5. Environmental Diseases: These are caused by exposure to environmental factors such as toxins, allergens, or extreme temperatures. Examples include heatstroke, frostbite, and toxicities from ingesting harmful substances.
6. Neurological Disorders: Dogs can suffer from various neurological conditions that affect their nervous system. Examples include epilepsy, intervertebral disc disease (IVDD), and vestibular disease.
7. Behavioral Disorders: Some dogs may develop behavioral issues due to various factors such as anxiety, fear, or aggression. Examples include separation anxiety, noise phobias, and resource guarding.

It's important to note that regular veterinary care, proper nutrition, exercise, and preventative measures can help reduce the risk of many dog diseases.

Antigenic variation is a mechanism used by some microorganisms, such as bacteria and viruses, to evade the immune system and establish persistent infections. This occurs when these pathogens change or modify their surface antigens, which are molecules that can be recognized by the host's immune system and trigger an immune response.

The changes in the surface antigens can occur due to various mechanisms, such as gene mutation, gene rearrangement, or gene transfer. These changes can result in the production of new variants of the microorganism that are different enough from the original strain to avoid recognition by the host's immune system.

Antigenic variation is a significant challenge in developing effective vaccines against certain infectious diseases, such as malaria and influenza, because the constantly changing surface antigens make it difficult for the immune system to mount an effective response. Therefore, researchers are working on developing vaccines that target conserved regions of the microorganism that do not undergo antigenic variation or using a combination of antigens to increase the likelihood of recognition by the immune system.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "poultry" is not a medical term. It is a agricultural and culinary term that refers to domestic birds (such as chickens, ducks, geese, and turkeys) that are kept for their eggs, meat, or feathers. The study and care of these birds would fall under the field of veterinary medicine, but "poultry" itself is not a medical term.

A base sequence in the context of molecular biology refers to the specific order of nucleotides in a DNA or RNA molecule. In DNA, these nucleotides are adenine (A), guanine (G), cytosine (C), and thymine (T). In RNA, uracil (U) takes the place of thymine. The base sequence contains genetic information that is transcribed into RNA and ultimately translated into proteins. It is the exact order of these bases that determines the genetic code and thus the function of the DNA or RNA molecule.

St. Louis Encephalitis Virus (SLEV) is a type of arbovirus (arthropod-borne virus) from the family Flaviviridae and genus Flavivirus. It is the causative agent of St. Louis encephalitis (SLE), a viral disease characterized by inflammation of the brain (encephalitis). The virus is primarily transmitted to humans through the bite of infected mosquitoes, particularly Culex spp.

The SLEV infection in humans is often asymptomatic or may cause mild flu-like symptoms such as fever, headache, nausea, and vomiting. However, in some cases, the virus can invade the central nervous system, leading to severe neurological manifestations like meningitis, encephalitis, seizures, and even coma or death. The risk of severe disease increases in older adults and people with weakened immune systems.

There is no specific antiviral treatment for SLE; management typically focuses on supportive care to alleviate symptoms and address complications. Prevention measures include avoiding mosquito bites, using insect repellents, and eliminating breeding sites for mosquitoes. Vaccines are not available for SLEV, but they have been developed and tested in the past, with potential for future use in high-risk populations during outbreaks.

Polyomavirus is a type of double-stranded DNA virus that belongs to the family Polyomaviridae. These viruses are small, non-enveloped viruses with an icosahedral symmetry. They have a relatively simple structure and contain a circular genome.

Polyomaviruses are known to infect a wide range of hosts, including humans, animals, and birds. In humans, polyomaviruses can cause asymptomatic infections or lead to the development of various diseases, depending on the age and immune status of the host.

There are several types of human polyomaviruses, including:

* JC virus (JCV) and BK virus (BKV), which can cause severe disease in immunocompromised individuals, such as those with HIV/AIDS or organ transplant recipients. JCV is associated with progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML), a rare but often fatal demyelinating disease of the central nervous system, while BKV can cause nephropathy and hemorrhagic cystitis.
* Merkel cell polyomavirus (MCPyV), which is associated with Merkel cell carcinoma, a rare but aggressive form of skin cancer.
* Trichodysplasia spinulosa-associated polyomavirus (TSV), which is associated with trichodysplasia spinulosa, a rare skin disorder that affects immunocompromised individuals.

Polyomaviruses are typically transmitted through respiratory droplets or direct contact with infected bodily fluids. Once inside the host, they can establish latency in various tissues and organs, where they may remain dormant for long periods of time before reactivating under certain conditions, such as immunosuppression.

Prevention measures include good hygiene practices, such as handwashing and avoiding close contact with infected individuals. There are currently no vaccines available to prevent polyomavirus infections, although research is ongoing to develop effective vaccines against some of the more pathogenic human polyomaviruses.

Pronase is not a medical term itself, but it is a proteolytic enzyme mixture derived from the bacterium Streptomyces griseus. The term "pronase" refers to a group of enzymes that can break down proteins into smaller peptides and individual amino acids by hydrolyzing their peptide bonds.

Pronase is used in various laboratory applications, including protein degradation, DNA and RNA isolation, and the removal of contaminating proteins from nucleic acid samples. It has also been used in some medical research contexts to study protein function and structure, as well as in certain therapeutic settings for its ability to break down proteins.

It is important to note that pronase is not a drug or a medical treatment itself but rather a laboratory reagent with potential applications in medical research and diagnostics.

... , or haemagglutination, is a specific form of agglutination that involves red blood cells (RBCs). It has two ... Hemagglutination at the U.S. National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) (All articles with unsourced ... the greatest dilution which inhibits hemagglutination). Muramatsu M, Gonzalez HD, Cacciola R, Aikawa A, Yaqoob MM, Puliatti C ( ... common uses in the laboratory: blood typing and the quantification of virus dilutions in a haemagglutination assay. Blood type ...
The hemagglutination assay or haemagglutination assay (HA) and the hemagglutination inhibition assay (HI or HAI) were developed ... HA and HAI apply the process of hemagglutination, in which sialic acid receptors on the surface of red blood cells (RBCs) bind ... Hemagglutination is observed in the presence of staphylococci, vibrios, and other bacterial species, similar to the mechanism ... Hemagglutination Virus quantification Hirst, GK (1942). "The quantitative determination of Influenza virus and antibodies by ...
In molecular biology, the haemagglutination activity domain is a conserved protein domain found near the N terminus of a number ... This domain is suggested to be a carbohydrate-dependent haemagglutination activity site. In Bordetella pertussis, the ...
"Influenza hemagglutination inhibition assay". www.virology.ws. Retrieved 19 October 2020. (Articles with short description, ...
The hemagglutination inhibition assay is a common variation of the HA assay used to measure flu-specific antibody levels in ... The hemagglutination assay (HA) is a common non-fluorescence protein quantification assay specific for influenza. It relies on ... The assay produces a result of hemagglutination units (HAU), with typical PFU to HAU ratios in the 106 range. This assay takes ... Therefore, hemagglutination is inhibited when antibodies are present at a sufficient concentration. The bicinchoninic acid ...
... and hemagglutination assays, with particular emphasis on use of the ELISA for its high sensitivity (unlike the hemagglutination ... Killian ML (2008). "Hemagglutination Assay for the Avian Influenza Virus". Avian Influenza Virus. Methods in Molecular Biology ... Fukumi H, Nishikawa F, Kitayama T (August 1954). "A pneumotropic virus from mice causing hemagglutination". Japanese Journal of ... Hemagglutinin-neuraminidase (HN) is a single protein that induces hemagglutination and possesses neuraminidase (sialidase) ...
Hemagglutination is the process by which red blood cells agglutinate, meaning clump or clog. The agglutin involved in ... hemagglutination is called hemagglutinin. In cross-matching, donor red blood cells and the recipient's serum or plasma are ...
Jindayok T, Piromsontikorn S, Srimuang S, Khupulsup K, Krajaejun T (July 2009). "Hemagglutination Test for Rapid Serodiagnosis ...
This lectin exists as a disulfide-linked homodimer of two subunits; the dimeric form is essential for hemagglutination activity ...
... erecta was reported to have strong hemagglutination activity. In addition, the chloroform fraction of a methanol ...
On the contrary, if hemagglutination occurs, the test will result negative. Hemagglutination blood typing detection: This ... Hemagglutination Inhibition Assay: A serologic assay which can be used either to screen for antibodies using RBCs with known ... Cold agglutinin disease Hemagglutination assay Neuraminidase Influenza hemagglutinin (HA) Agglutination Nobusawa, E. (October ... "Hemagglutination detection for blood typing based on waveguide-mode sensors". Sensing and Bio-Sensing Research. 3: 59-64. doi: ...
Cold hemagglutination was first reported by Landsteiner in 1903 and found to occur in human beings in 1918. The association of ... The auto antibodies responsible for hemagglutination at low temperatures, cold agglutinins (CA), may be found in the sera of ... RØRVIK, K (1954). "The syndrome of high-titre cold haemagglutination; a survey and a case report". Acta Medica Scandinavica. ... cold hemagglutination with hemolysis was described in 1937 by Rosenthal and Corten. During the 1960s, Dacie and Schubothe ...
Mettler, N. E.; Clarke, D. H.; Casals, J. (1971). "Hemagglutination Inhibition with Arboviruses: Relationship Between Titers ... and hemagglutination-inhibition test. In the past, arboviruses were organized into one of four groups: A, B, C, and D. Group A ...
Older methods included complement fixation tests, hemagglutination inhibition and virus neutralisation. Newer methods use ...
Her main research areas include influenza vaccination and influenza hemagglutination inhibition. Her thesis on 1 - ...
Many legume seeds have been proven to contain high lectin activity, termed hemagglutination. Soybean is the most important ... "Sialidase-Enhanced Lectin-Like Mechanism for Actinomyces viscosus and Actinomyces naeslundii Hemagglutination". Infection and ...
Other tests include various fluorescence assays, indirect hemagglutination, (PCR) and latex agglutination. An ELISA technique ...
A seroprevalence study in Andaman and Nicobar islands in 2002 revealed a high prevalence of hemagglutination inhibition (HI) ... Other methods of diagnosis included hemagglutination inhibition (HI), complement fixation, neutralization tests. However, new ...
Royal, Jr., George C.; Sampson, Calvin C.; Faggett, Timothy (1981). "A Rapid Passive Hemagglutination Method For Demonstrating ...
... including hemagglutination assays. He worked on a live vaccine against influenza, but the vaccine was unsuccessful when tested ...
Sampaio, A. A. C. (1952). "Inhibitors of influenza virus haemagglutination in normal animal sera". Bulletin of the World Health ...
1966: Launch of HA Ag (TPHA), the world's first hemagglutination test for syphilis. 1981: Established Fujirebio Taiwan Inc. ...
Brand, K. G.; Syverton, J. T. (1962). "Results of Species-Specific Hemagglutination Tests on "Transformed," Nontransformed, and ...
Hutson, A. M.; Atmar, R. L.; Marcus, D. M.; Estes, M. K. (2003). "Norwalk virus-like particle hemagglutination by binding to h ...
Cooper, M. D.; Hollingdale, M. R.; Vinson, J. W.; Costa, J. (1976). "A Passive Hemagglutination Test for Diagnosis of Trench ...
Many traditional serological tests such as hemagglutination or complement fixation employ this principle. Such tests can ...
Khalesi, B.; Bonne, N.; Stewart, M.; Sharp, M.; Raidal, S.R. (2005). "A comparison of haemagglutination, haemagglutination ... and excreted antigen detection in feather dander using haemagglutination assay (HA) alongside serology using haemagglutination ... "Laboratory diagnosis of psittacine beak and feather disease by haemagglutination and haemagglutination inhibition". Australian ... Raidal, S.R.; Cross, M.G. (1994). "The haemagglutination spectrum of psittacine beak and feather disease virus". Avian ...
They cause apoptosis, hemagglutination, inhibition of protein synthesis, and depurination of ribosomes and DNA. Mouse ...
Hemagglutination inhibition (HI) is one method of serology that detects antibodies for diagnostic purposes. Western blot ( ... No samples of influenza D virus were detected in serum samples from humans; however, hemagglutination-inhibiting antibodies ...
Hemagglutination inhibition (HI) is one method of serology that detects antibodies for diagnostic purposes. Western blot ( ...
Hemagglutination, or haemagglutination, is a specific form of agglutination that involves red blood cells (RBCs). It has two ... Hemagglutination at the U.S. National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) (All articles with unsourced ... the greatest dilution which inhibits hemagglutination). Muramatsu M, Gonzalez HD, Cacciola R, Aikawa A, Yaqoob MM, Puliatti C ( ... common uses in the laboratory: blood typing and the quantification of virus dilutions in a haemagglutination assay. Blood type ...
Hemagglutination inhibition antibody titers to influenza A/ H1N1 viruses (Surplus) (SSHN10_R) RDC Only Data File: SSHN10_R.xpt ... SSH1N1CA: Geometric mean hemagglutination inhibition (HI) titer against the influenza A/H1N1 virus A/California/7/2009. ... SSH3N2PR: Geometric mean hemagglutination inhibition (HI) titer against the influenza AH3N2 virus A/Perth16/2009 Continuous ... SSH3N2BR: Geometric mean hemagglutination inhibition (HI) titer against the influenza A/H3N2 virus B/Brisbane/60/2008. ...
Comparison of radial haemolysis with haemagglutination inhibition in estimating rubella antibody. Message subject: (Your Name) ...
Essentially, the presence of and characteristics of the hemagglutination reaction in-vitro are used to predict whether or not a ... This term is synonymous to the shorter "agglutination." Hemagglutination is the core reaction in blood banking testing, as the ...
Serological analyses demonstrated that homologous hemagglutination inhibition and microneutralization antibody titers were ... Hemagglutination inhibition. Hemagglutination inhibition (HI) antibody titers against H7N9 A/Shanghai/2/2013, H7N9 A/Anhui/1/ ... 2: Hemagglutination inhibition (HI) titers against homologous H7N9 viruses and heterologous H7N3 and H7N7 viruses.. ... 4: Hemagglutination inhibition (HI) and microneutralization titers (VN) against fifth wave H7N9 viruses and a North American ...
Hemagglutination Inhibition Assays. To evaluate if the antibodies to influenza A were able to inhibit viral activity, we used a ... Hemagglutination Inhibition Assays (HIA). The ability of antibodies to inhibit influenza A binding was measured using ... hemagglutination inhibition assay. This assay was performed by Virapur, Inc., using strains A\Hong Kong and A\California, both ... hemagglutination inhibition assays (HIA), performed by Virapur (San Diego, CA, USA). HIA activity was measured against A\ ...
One of them was capable of neutralizing virus infectivity and inhibiting haemagglutination, while the other had no significant ... neutralizing or haemagglutination-inhibiting capability, but did inhibit virus-mediated haemolysis. Both monoclonal antibodies ... Clarke D. H., Casals J. 1958; Techniques for haemagglutination and haemagglutination inhibition with arthropod-borne viruses. ... and Independently Inhibit Haemagglutination or Haemolysis * A. C. Chanas1, E. A. Gould1, J. C. S. Clegg2, M. G. R. Varma1 ...
Clarke, D.H. and Casals, J. Techniques for hemagglutination and hemagglutination-inhibitiion with arthropod-borne viruses. Am. ... Hemagglutination Inhibition (HI) Assay. ,,Return to Search Results Requisition Forms. Viral Zoonoses Requisition. 29- ... Serological detection of total antibodies (IgM and IgG) directed towards Japanese Encephalitis (JE) virus by Hemagglutination ...
The number of hemagglutination positive wells after this row was also recorded and TCID50 was calculated using the Reed-Muench ... Hemagglutination Inhibition Assay (HAI). All sera were treated with Receptor Destroying Enzyme (RDE) (Seiken) in a 1:4 dilution ... D) Naturally induced immune response in mice pre- and post-CA/09 challenge was assessed via Hemagglutination Inhibition (HAI) ... To compare anti-influenza immune response pre- and post-CA/09 challenge we used a hemagglutination inhibition (HAI) assay on ...
West, B S and Pagano, D A "Evaluation of the automated micro-hemagglutination assay for antibodies to Treponema pallidum." 87, ... West, B S and Pagano, D A "Evaluation of the automated micro-hemagglutination assay for antibodies to Treponema pallidum." vol ... West, B S and Pagano, D A (1972). Evaluation of the automated micro-hemagglutination assay for antibodies to Treponema pallidum ... Antibodies Automation Evaluation Studies As Topic Flocculation Tests Fluorescent Antibody Technique Hemagglutination Tests ...
Immune adherence hemagglutination was compared with the complement fixation test as a means of measuring antibodies to ... Quantitation of antibodies to varicella-zoster virus by immune adherence hemagglutination Journal Articles ... Our findings support the contention that immune adherence hemagglutination is the method of choice for detecting antibodies to ... There were 35 cases where antibodies were detected by immune adherence hemagglutination but not by complement fixation, whereas ...
Budzko, D. B. ; Jelinek, D. F. ; Wilcke, B. W. / Nonspecific reactions in the hemagglutination inhibition test for detection of ... Budzko, D. B., Jelinek, D. F., & Wilcke, B. W. (1981). Nonspecific reactions in the hemagglutination inhibition test for ... Nonspecific reactions in the hemagglutination inhibition test for detection of rubella antibodies. / Budzko, D. B.; Jelinek, D ... Budzko, DB, Jelinek, DF & Wilcke, BW 1981, Nonspecific reactions in the hemagglutination inhibition test for detection of ...
a. Cold hemagglutination syndrome. - Cryoglobulinemia. - Macroglobulinemia. 5. Intoxication. a. Acro-osteolysis. b. Ergot. c. ...
Haemagglutination inhibiting (HI) antibodies were tested by a standard WHO procedure. Response was defined as a fourfold or ... Binding to red cells results in haemagglutination, which can be observed as a carpet of agglutinated red cells at the bottom of ... Haemagglutination inhibition test. Influenza virus has two important surface glycoproteins-the haemagglutinin (HA) and the ... In the haemagglutination inhibition test (HIT), antibody directed against the viral haemagglutinins block the virus from ...
Hemagglutination. Hemaggiutination. Yes Antigen Source. SMB ext. by sucrose-acetone; BHK-21 culture fluid-serum free ...
Hemagglutination. Hemaggiutination. Antigen Source. Erythrocytes (species used). pH Range. pH Optimum. Temperature Range. ...
Neutralizing and haemagglutination-inhibiting antibodies to yellow fever 17 years after vaccination with 17D vaccine. Bull ... hemagglutination inhibition assay; LNI = log10 neutralization index; M = measles vaccine; MMR= measles, mumps, and rubella ... haemagglutination inhibition test, immunofluorescence assay and ELISA. Trop Med Int Health 1999;4:867-71. ...
A haemagglutination test for rapid detection of antibodies to SARS-CoV-2 ... A haemagglutination test for rapid detection of antibodies to SARS-CoV-2 ... We show that the Haemagglutination Test ("HAT") has a sensitivity of 90% and specificity of 99% for detection of antibodies ...
Serological Hemagglutination Inhibition (HI) Test. Serum specimens, obtained from 45 narcoleptic patients, from 28 patients (56 ... All patients showed a diagnostic antibody rise in the H1N1pdm09 virus-specific hemagglutination inhibition assay (HI; ≥4 × rise ... Anti-NS1 and virus-specific hemagglutination inhibition (HI) titers from 28 paired serum samples. ... Anti-NS1 and virus-specific hemagglutination inhibition (HI) titers from 50 age-matched controls. ...
A haemagglutination test for rapid detection of antibodies to SARS-CoV-2 ... A haemagglutination test for rapid detection of antibodies to SARS-CoV-2 ...
Evaluation of the Indirect Hemagglutination Test as an Epidemiologic Technique for Malaria ...
Influenza is the one of the most significant acute upper respiratory tract infections. Influenza viruses cause a broad array of respiratory illnesses responsible for significant morbidity and mortality in children.
serologic testing using hemagglutination inhibition or microneutralization.[59,60]. The state health department should be ... Hemagglutination inhibition or microneutralization tests are most commonly used for serodiagnosis. A positive result is a 4- ...
H3N2 influenza hemagglutination inhibition method qualification with data driven statistic H3N2 influenza hemagglutination ... Hemagglutination inhibition (HAI) antibody titers to seasonal influenza strains are important surrogates for vaccine-elicited ... antibody; clinical trials; data pipeline; hemagglutination inhibition (HAI); human; influenza; qualification; statistical ...
Hemagglutination Test (HAT) to detect antibodies against the RBD domain of the SARS2-Covid19 virus ... Hemagglutination Test (HAT) to detect antibodies against the RBD domain of the SARS2-Covid19 virus ...
The hemagglutination inhibition assay was used to measure antibody levels. The Chi-square test, multivariable logistic ... Hemagglutination inhibition assay. Hemagglutination inhibition (HAI) assay was used to measure the serum antibody titers ... The hemagglutination inhibition assay was used to measure antibody levels. The Chi-square test, multivariable logistic ... The TIV contained 15 µg hemagglutination (HA) for 3 strains, including A H1N1, A H3N2, and either B/Victoria or B/Yamagata ...
Evaluation of the Impact of the COVID-19 Pandemic on Cystic Echinococcosis Indirect Hemagglutination Test Dynamics: A Single- ... effects of the pandemic on the diagnosis of the disease by evaluating the number and results of CE indirect hemagglutination ...
Casonis skin test and indirect haemagglutination test (IHA) are still used in Turkey. The preoperative IHA test or Casonis ... The role of Casonis skin test and indirect haemagglutination test in the diagnosis of hydatid disease ...
  • It has two common uses in the laboratory: blood typing and the quantification of virus dilutions in a haemagglutination assay. (wikipedia.org)
  • This data release contains the hemagglutination inhibition assay titers to 2009 H1N1 and three contemporary influenza viruses. (cdc.gov)
  • Antibody titers against 2009 H1N1 and three contemporary influenza viruses were measured with the hemagglutination inhibition (HI) assay following standard procedures by Focus Diagnositcs, Inc., Cypress, CA. (cdc.gov)
  • Serological detection of total antibodies (IgM and IgG) directed towards Japanese Encephalitis (JE) virus by Hemagglutination Inhibition (HI) assay. (canada.ca)
  • Evaluation of the automated micro-hemagglutination assay for antibodies to Treponema pallidum. (cdc.gov)
  • The hemagglutination inhibition assay was used to measure antibody levels. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Hemagglutination Assay via Optical Density Characterization in 3D Microtrap Chips. (nih.gov)
  • For the hemagglutination assay the method described by Gatermann et al. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Using a cross-sectional study design, sera was collected from volunteers and then tested for the presence of antibodies to the virus using a ≥ 1:40 dilution cut-off by hemagglutination inhibition assay. (biomedcentral.com)
  • 158 (52.6%) tested positive for influenza A(H1N1) 2009 via hemagglutination inhibition assay using a ≥ 1:40 dilution cut-off. (biomedcentral.com)
  • 54.4% of those who tested positive for influenza A(H1N1) 2009 using the ≥ 1:40 dilution cut-off on the hemagglutination inhibition assay in this study population did not report experiencing symptoms during the pandemic meeting the May 2010 CDC definition of influenza-like illness. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Immune adherence hemagglutination was compared with the complement fixation test as a means of measuring antibodies to varicella-zoster virus. (mcmaster.ca)
  • There were 35 cases where antibodies were detected by immune adherence hemagglutination but not by complement fixation, whereas in five cases the converse was found. (mcmaster.ca)
  • Our findings support the contention that immune adherence hemagglutination is the method of choice for detecting antibodies to varicella-zoster virus. (mcmaster.ca)
  • Approximately 7% of the sera tested to determine the presence of rubella-specific antibodies by the hemagglutination inhibition test demonstrated abnormal patterns of reactivity, rendering the test unreadable. (elsevierpure.com)
  • Haemagglutination inhibiting (HI) antibodies were tested by a standard WHO procedure. (bmj.com)
  • We show that the Haemagglutination Test ("HAT") has a sensitivity of 90% and specificity of 99% for detection of antibodies after a PCR diagnosed infection. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Here we describe a quantitative Haemagglutination test (HAT) for the detection of antibodies to the receptor binding domain of the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein. (liverpool.ac.uk)
  • Protein E1 is the viral hemagglutinin that binds both hemagglutination-inhibiting and hemolysis-inhibiting antibodies. (medscape.com)
  • Serological analyses demonstrated that homologous hemagglutination inhibition and microneutralization antibody titers were detectable in the ferrets after the first immunization with the AS03-adjuvanted vaccines that were further boosted by the second immunization. (nature.com)
  • Hemagglutination inhibition (HAI) antibody titers to seasonal influenza strains are important surrogates for vaccine -elicited protection . (bvsalud.org)
  • In addition, blood samples were collected for hemagglutination-inhibition titers 28 days after vaccination. (medscape.com)
  • The researchers found that the percentage of people with hemagglutination-inhibition titers 1:40 (the cut-off for seroprotection) or higher after vaccination was much higher in the high-dose vaccine group when compared with the standard-dose vaccine group. (medscape.com)
  • In our study, we aimed to make inferences about the effects of the pandemic on the diagnosis of the disease by evaluating the number and results of CE indirect hemagglutination test (IHA) before and during the pandemic. (nevinmanimala.com)
  • Statistical associations were evaluated between frailty status and pre- and post-vaccination antibody titres in sera measured by Hemagglutination inhibition (HAI) and microneutralization (MN) assays. (frontiersin.org)
  • H3N2 influenza hemagglutination inhibition method qualification with data driven statistical methods for human clinical trials. (bvsalud.org)
  • Human seasonal Influenza A(H3N2) haemagglutination inhibition data 1990-2021 from the WHO Collaborating Centre for Reference and Research on Influenza, London, UK. (gla.ac.uk)
  • Haemagglutination inhibition (HI) assays performed on dates between 1990 and 2021 by the WHO Collaborating Centre for Reference and Research on Influenza, London, UK on viruses collected between 1961 and 2021. (gla.ac.uk)
  • Techniques for haemagglutination and haemagglutination inhibition with arthropod-borne viruses. (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • Clarke, D.H. and Casals, J. Techniques for hemagglutination and hemagglutination-inhibitiion with arthropod-borne viruses. (canada.ca)
  • Comparison of radial haemolysis with haemagglutination inhibition in estimating rubella antibody. (bmj.com)
  • When these abnormally reacting and false-positive sera were heated at 56°C for 30 min after chemical treatment they always converted to negative, indicating the absence of specific rubella hemagglutination-inhibiting antibody. (elsevierpure.com)
  • These results emphasize the necessity of heating sera for the rubella hemagglutination inhibition test after the chemical removal of nonspecific inhibitors. (elsevierpure.com)
  • Analysis of acute- and convalescent-phase sera from patients infected with varicella-zoster or with herpes simplex virus showed the immune adherence hemagglutination test to be more sensitive than the complement fixation test, and greater cross-reactivity between the two viruses appeared to be associated with the increased sensitivity. (mcmaster.ca)
  • Casoni's skin test and indirect haemagglutination test (IHA) are still used in Turkey. (bezmialem.edu.tr)
  • One of them was capable of neutralizing virus infectivity and inhibiting haemagglutination, while the other had no significant neutralizing or haemagglutination-inhibiting capability, but did inhibit virus-mediated haemolysis. (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • By using a standard amount of virus, a standard amount of blood cells, and serially diluting the antiserum, one can identify the concentration of the antiserum (the greatest dilution which inhibits hemagglutination). (wikipedia.org)
  • Mannose-sensitive haemagglutination in the absence of piliation in Escherichia coli. (wustl.edu)
  • In terms of hemocompatibility, polymers with shorter chains are more prone to hemagglutination. (rsc.org)
  • Hemagglutination is the core reaction in blood banking testing, as the majority of our testing has for years relied on detection of this process. (bbguy.org)
  • Hemagglutination, or haemagglutination, is a specific form of agglutination that involves red blood cells (RBCs). (wikipedia.org)
  • Reaction result is expressed as the smallest amount of antigen which causes complete inhibition of hemagglutination. (bvsalud.org)
  • Essentially, the presence of and characteristics of the hemagglutination reaction in-vitro are used to predict whether or not a particular antibody will cause a problem for a patient in-vivo . (bbguy.org)
  • Hemagglutination inhibition (HI) and microneutralization (MN) assays were performed following standard procedures * using A/Minnesota/11/2010 (H3N2)v and seasonal influenza viruses, A/Wisconsin/67/2005 (H3N2), and A/Perth/16/2009 (H3N2). (cdc.gov)
  • Haemagglutination inhibition (HI) assays performed on dates between 1990 and 2021 by the WHO Collaborating Centre for Reference and Research on Influenza, London, UK on viruses collected between 1961 and 2021. (gla.ac.uk)
  • With the expanded number of longitudinal studies examining natural influenza infections in different population groups, as well as the expanded number of clinical trials investigating the efficacy of next-generation influenza vaccines, the development of improved immunological assays to measure correlates other than hemagglutination inhibition (HAI), microneutralization (MN) or neuraminidase inhibition (NAI) is timely and needed. (nih.gov)
  • were examined by Real-Time qRT-PCR and the biological functions of the recombined mature Aalb_CTL1 were tested by hemagglutination and sugar inhibitory agglutination assays. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Hemagglutination, or haemagglutination, is a specific form of agglutination that involves red blood cells (RBCs). (wikipedia.org)
  • Measles hemagglutination inhibition (HI) antibody titer, widely used in clinical practice to simply and easily determine the measles immunity level has, in recent years, been increasingly replaced by measles IgG-antibody titer determined by enzyme-immunoassay (EIA). (unboundmedicine.com)
  • The Journal of the Japanese Association for Infectious Diseases JO - Kansenshogaku Zasshi VL - 83 IS - 5 N2 - Measles hemagglutination inhibition (HI) antibody titer, widely used in clinical practice to simply and easily determine the measles immunity level has, in recent years, been increasingly replaced by measles IgG-antibody titer determined by enzyme-immunoassay (EIA). (unboundmedicine.com)
  • Comparison of radial haemolysis with haemagglutination inhibition in estimating rubella antibody. (bmj.com)
  • Hemagglutination tests are based on an antigen-antibody reaction. (nih.gov)
  • What are the benefits of TREPONEMA PALLIDUM HAEMAGGLUTINATION Full Body Checkup? (hellodox.com)
  • The Treponema Pallidum Haemagglutination test in Singapore may be done at Shim Clinic. (shimclinic.com)
  • TREPONEMA PALLIDUM HAEMAGGLUTINATION blood test in Khambhalia is done at fully automated NABL accredited diagnostic laboratory Thyrocare which has Centralized Processing Lab in Mumbai for esoteric tests and Regional Processing Labs in major cities of India. (mediyaar.com)
  • Mediyaar Healthcare in Khambhalia provides online facility for booking of TREPONEMA PALLIDUM HAEMAGGLUTINATION where sample can be collected from your home or offce in Khambhalia. (mediyaar.com)
  • Hemagglutination tests were used at doctor's offices to diagnose pregnancy in the 1960s and 1970s. (nih.gov)
  • Then, the hemagglutination-based tests took ~2 hours to produce a result whereas today, results are available within minutes. (aacc.org)
  • A study of 1026 serums by hemagglutination inhibition reaction]. (nih.gov)
  • Reaction result is expressed as the smallest amount of antigen which causes complete inhibition of hemagglutination. (bvsalud.org)
  • By using a standard amount of virus, a standard amount of blood cells, and serially diluting the antiserum, one can identify the concentration of the antiserum (the greatest dilution which inhibits hemagglutination). (wikipedia.org)
  • Haemagglutination was performed against all human blood groups while free radical scavenging activity was performed to investigate the antioxidant potential of A. tortuosum. (jatstech.org)
  • Regions Important for Hemagglutination Activity and Serotypes of Avibacterium paragallinarum HMTp210 Protein. (bvsalud.org)
  • However, the regions important for the hemagglutination (HA) activity and serotypes of HMTp210 remain unclear. (bvsalud.org)
  • These lectins have significant hemagglutination activity against trypsinized rabbit erythrocytes, which was inhibited by galactose-containing saccharides. (techscience.com)
  • In the current study, the antimicrobial, phytotoxic, haemagglutination and antioxidant potential of crude methanolic extract (Crd. (jatstech.org)