Viruses which enable defective viruses to replicate or to form a protein coat by complementing the missing gene function of the defective (satellite) virus. Helper and satellite may be of the same or different genus.
Viruses which lack a complete genome so that they cannot completely replicate or cannot form a protein coat. Some are host-dependent defectives, meaning they can replicate only in cell systems which provide the particular genetic function which they lack. Others, called SATELLITE VIRUSES, are able to replicate only when their genetic defect is complemented by a helper virus.
The process of intracellular viral multiplication, consisting of the synthesis of PROTEINS; NUCLEIC ACIDS; and sometimes LIPIDS, and their assembly into a new infectious particle.
Small, linear single-stranded RNA molecules functionally acting as molecular parasites of certain RNA plant viruses. Satellite RNAs exhibit four characteristic traits: (1) they require helper viruses to replicate; (2) they are unnecessary for the replication of helper viruses; (3) they are encapsidated in the coat protein of the helper virus; (4) they have no extensive sequence homology to the helper virus. Thus they differ from SATELLITE VIRUSES which encode their own coat protein, and from the genomic RNA; (=RNA, VIRAL); of satellite viruses. (From Maramorosch, Viroids and Satellites, 1991, p143)
Viruses whose genetic material is RNA.
Ribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.
Defective viruses which can multiply only by association with a helper virus which complements the defective gene. Satellite viruses may be associated with certain plant viruses, animal viruses, or bacteriophages. They differ from satellite RNA; (RNA, SATELLITE) in that satellite viruses encode their own coat protein.
The type species of ORTHOPOXVIRUS, related to COWPOX VIRUS, but whose true origin is unknown. It has been used as a live vaccine against SMALLPOX. It is also used as a vector for inserting foreign DNA into animals. Rabbitpox virus is a subspecies of VACCINIA VIRUS.
Viruses parasitic on plants higher than bacteria.
The functional hereditary units of VIRUSES.
The assembly of VIRAL STRUCTURAL PROTEINS and nucleic acid (VIRAL DNA or VIRAL RNA) to form a VIRUS PARTICLE.
A species in the group RETICULOENDOTHELIOSIS VIRUSES, AVIAN of the genus GAMMARETROVIRUS that causes a chronic neoplastic and a more acute immunosuppressive disease in fowl.
Proteins found in any species of virus.
DNA molecules capable of autonomous replication within a host cell and into which other DNA sequences can be inserted and thus amplified. Many are derived from PLASMIDS; BACTERIOPHAGES; or VIRUSES. They are used for transporting foreign genes into recipient cells. Genetic vectors possess a functional replicator site and contain GENETIC MARKERS to facilitate their selective recognition.
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.
A group of replication-defective viruses, in the genus GAMMARETROVIRUS, which are capable of transforming cells, but which replicate and produce tumors only in the presence of Murine leukemia viruses (LEUKEMIA VIRUS, MURINE).
A species of POLYOMAVIRUS originally isolated from Rhesus monkey kidney tissue. It produces malignancy in human and newborn hamster kidney cell cultures.
A strain of Murine leukemia virus (LEUKEMIA VIRUS, MURINE) producing leukemia of the reticulum-cell type with massive infiltration of liver, spleen, and bone marrow. It infects DBA/2 and Swiss mice.
A genus of the family PARVOVIRIDAE, subfamily PARVOVIRINAE, which are dependent on a coinfection with helper adenoviruses or herpesviruses for their efficient replication. The type species is Adeno-associated virus 2.
Specific molecular components of the cell capable of recognizing and interacting with a virus, and which, after binding it, are capable of generating some signal that initiates the chain of events leading to the biological response.
A strain of Murine leukemia virus (LEUKEMIA VIRUS, MURINE) arising during the propagation of S37 mouse sarcoma, and causing lymphoid leukemia in mice. It also infects rats and newborn hamsters. It is apparently transmitted to embryos in utero and to newborns through mother's milk.
Family of RNA viruses that infects birds and mammals and encodes the enzyme reverse transcriptase. The family contains seven genera: DELTARETROVIRUS; LENTIVIRUS; RETROVIRUSES TYPE B, MAMMALIAN; ALPHARETROVIRUS; GAMMARETROVIRUS; RETROVIRUSES TYPE D; and SPUMAVIRUS. A key feature of retrovirus biology is the synthesis of a DNA copy of the genome which is integrated into cellular DNA. After integration it is sometimes not expressed but maintained in a latent state (PROVIRUSES).
Process of growing viruses in live animals, plants, or cultured cells.
Subpopulation of CD4+ lymphocytes that cooperate with other lymphocytes (either T or B) to initiate a variety of immune functions. For example, helper-inducer T-cells cooperate with B-cells to produce antibodies to thymus-dependent antigens and with other subpopulations of T-cells to initiate a variety of cell-mediated immune functions.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
The expelling of virus particles from the body. Important routes include the respiratory tract, genital tract, and intestinal tract. Virus shedding is an important means of vertical transmission (INFECTIOUS DISEASE TRANSMISSION, VERTICAL).
A general term for diseases produced by viruses.
A phenomenon in which infection by a first virus results in resistance of cells or tissues to infection by a second, unrelated virus.
The type species of ALPHARETROVIRUS producing latent or manifest lymphoid leukosis in fowl.
Viruses whose nucleic acid is DNA.
An inheritable change in cells manifested by changes in cell division and growth and alterations in cell surface properties. It is induced by infection with a transforming virus.
Species of GAMMARETROVIRUS, containing many well-defined strains, producing leukemia in mice. Disease is commonly induced by injecting filtrates of propagable tumors into newborn mice.
The type species of ALPHAVIRUS normally transmitted to birds by CULEX mosquitoes in Egypt, South Africa, India, Malaya, the Philippines, and Australia. It may be associated with fever in humans. Serotypes (differing by less than 17% in nucleotide sequence) include Babanki, Kyzylagach, and Ockelbo viruses.
The type species of MORBILLIVIRUS and the cause of the highly infectious human disease MEASLES, which affects mostly children.
Viruses which produce a mottled appearance of the leaves of plants.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
A genus of RETROVIRIDAE comprising endogenous sequences in mammals, related RETICULOENDOTHELIOSIS VIRUSES, AVIAN, and a reptilian virus. Many species contain oncogenes and cause leukemias and sarcomas.
A subtype of INFLUENZA A VIRUS with the surface proteins hemagglutinin 1 and neuraminidase 1. The H1N1 subtype was responsible for the Spanish flu pandemic of 1918.
The type species of LYSSAVIRUS causing rabies in humans and other animals. Transmission is mostly by animal bites through saliva. The virus is neurotropic multiplying in neurons and myotubes of vertebrates.
A CELL LINE derived from the kidney of the African green (vervet) monkey, (CERCOPITHECUS AETHIOPS) used primarily in virus replication studies and plaque assays.
Substances elaborated by viruses that have antigenic activity.
A subtype of INFLUENZA A VIRUS comprised of the surface proteins hemagglutinin 5 and neuraminidase 1. The H5N1 subtype, frequently referred to as the bird flu virus, is endemic in wild birds and very contagious among both domestic (POULTRY) and wild birds. It does not usually infect humans, but some cases have been reported.
A species of CERCOPITHECUS containing three subspecies: C. tantalus, C. pygerythrus, and C. sabeus. They are found in the forests and savannah of Africa. The African green monkey (C. pygerythrus) is the natural host of SIMIAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS and is used in AIDS research.
Production of new arrangements of DNA by various mechanisms such as assortment and segregation, CROSSING OVER; GENE CONVERSION; GENETIC TRANSFORMATION; GENETIC CONJUGATION; GENETIC TRANSDUCTION; or mixed infection of viruses.
Leukemia induced experimentally in animals by exposure to leukemogenic agents, such as VIRUSES; RADIATION; or by TRANSPLANTATION of leukemic tissues.
The infective system of a virus, composed of the viral genome, a protein core, and a protein coat called a capsid, which may be naked or enclosed in a lipoprotein envelope called the peplos.
The type species of TOBAMOVIRUS which causes mosaic disease of tobacco. Transmission occurs by mechanical inoculation.
The type species of the genus ORTHOHEPADNAVIRUS which causes human HEPATITIS B and is also apparently a causal agent in human HEPATOCELLULAR CARCINOMA. The Dane particle is an intact hepatitis virion, named after its discoverer. Non-infectious spherical and tubular particles are also seen in the serum.
A subtype of INFLUENZA A VIRUS comprised of the surface proteins hemagglutinin 3 and neuraminidase 2. The H3N2 subtype was responsible for the Hong Kong flu pandemic of 1968.
A species of FLAVIVIRUS, one of the Japanese encephalitis virus group (ENCEPHALITIS VIRUSES, JAPANESE). It can infect birds and mammals. In humans, it is seen most frequently in Africa, Asia, and Europe presenting as a silent infection or undifferentiated fever (WEST NILE FEVER). The virus appeared in North America for the first time in 1999. It is transmitted mainly by CULEX spp mosquitoes which feed primarily on birds, but it can also be carried by the Asian Tiger mosquito, AEDES albopictus, which feeds mainly on mammals.
A group of viruses in the PNEUMOVIRUS genus causing respiratory infections in various mammals. Humans and cattle are most affected but infections in goats and sheep have also been reported.
A species of GAMMARETROVIRUS causing leukemia, lymphosarcoma, immune deficiency, or other degenerative diseases in cats. Several cellular oncogenes confer on FeLV the ability to induce sarcomas (see also SARCOMA VIRUSES, FELINE).
Acquired defect of cellular immunity that occurs in mice infected with mouse leukemia viruses (MuLV). The syndrome shows striking similarities with human AIDS and is characterized by lymphadenopathy, profound immunosuppression, enhanced susceptibility to opportunistic infections, and B-cell lymphomas.
Any of the processes by which cytoplasmic factors influence the differential control of gene action in viruses.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
A genus of the family RETROVIRIDAE with type C morphology, that causes malignant and other diseases in wild birds and domestic fowl.
The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.
Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.
The type species of SIMPLEXVIRUS causing most forms of non-genital herpes simplex in humans. Primary infection occurs mainly in infants and young children and then the virus becomes latent in the dorsal root ganglion. It then is periodically reactivated throughout life causing mostly benign conditions.
Infections produced by oncogenic viruses. The infections caused by DNA viruses are less numerous but more diverse than those caused by the RNA oncogenic viruses.
The mechanism by which latent viruses, such as genetically transmitted tumor viruses (PROVIRUSES) or PROPHAGES of lysogenic bacteria, are induced to replicate and then released as infectious viruses. It may be effected by various endogenous and exogenous stimuli, including B-cell LIPOPOLYSACCHARIDES, glucocorticoid hormones, halogenated pyrimidines, IONIZING RADIATION, ultraviolet light, and superinfecting viruses.
A genus of the family HERPESVIRIDAE, subfamily ALPHAHERPESVIRINAE, consisting of herpes simplex-like viruses. The type species is HERPESVIRUS 1, HUMAN.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
A satellite RNA (not a satellite virus) which has several types. Different cucumoviruses can act as helper viruses for different types.
A family of non-enveloped viruses infecting mammals (MASTADENOVIRUS) and birds (AVIADENOVIRUS) or both (ATADENOVIRUS). Infections may be asymptomatic or result in a variety of diseases.
The type species of VESICULOVIRUS causing a disease symptomatically similar to FOOT-AND-MOUTH DISEASE in cattle, horses, and pigs. It may be transmitted to other species including humans, where it causes influenza-like symptoms.
The outer protein protective shell of a virus, which protects the viral nucleic acid.
A genus of plant viruses of the family BROMOVIRIDAE, which infect cucurbits and solanaceous plants. Transmission occurs via aphids in a non-persistent manner, and also via seeds. The type species Cucumber mosaic virus, a CUCUMOVIRUS, should not be confused with Cucumber green mottle mosaic virus, a TOBAMOVIRUS.
A plant genus of the family SOLANACEAE. Members contain NICOTINE and other biologically active chemicals; its dried leaves are used for SMOKING.
Insertion of viral DNA into host-cell DNA. This includes integration of phage DNA into bacterial DNA; (LYSOGENY); to form a PROPHAGE or integration of retroviral DNA into cellular DNA to form a PROVIRUS.
Visible morphologic changes in cells infected with viruses. It includes shutdown of cellular RNA and protein synthesis, cell fusion, release of lysosomal enzymes, changes in cell membrane permeability, diffuse changes in intracellular structures, presence of viral inclusion bodies, and chromosomal aberrations. It excludes malignant transformation, which is CELL TRANSFORMATION, VIRAL. Viral cytopathogenic effects provide a valuable method for identifying and classifying the infecting viruses.
Membrane glycoproteins from influenza viruses which are involved in hemagglutination, virus attachment, and envelope fusion. Fourteen distinct subtypes of HA glycoproteins and nine of NA glycoproteins have been identified from INFLUENZA A VIRUS; no subtypes have been identified for Influenza B or Influenza C viruses.
The ability of a pathogenic virus to lie dormant within a cell (latent infection). In eukaryotes, subsequent activation and viral replication is thought to be caused by extracellular stimulation of cellular transcription factors. Latency in bacteriophage is maintained by the expression of virally encoded repressors.
A replication-defective strain of Murine leukemia virus (LEUKEMIA VIRUS, MURINE) capable of transforming lymphoid cells and producing a rapidly progressing lymphoid leukemia after superinfection with FRIEND MURINE LEUKEMIA VIRUS; MOLONEY MURINE LEUKEMIA VIRUS; or RAUSCHER VIRUS.
Viruses that produce tumors.
The complete genetic complement contained in a DNA or RNA molecule in a virus.
Species of the genus LENTIVIRUS, subgenus primate immunodeficiency viruses (IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUSES, PRIMATE), that induces acquired immunodeficiency syndrome in monkeys and apes (SAIDS). The genetic organization of SIV is virtually identical to HIV.
The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.
Inoculation of a series of animals or in vitro tissue with an infectious bacterium or virus, as in VIRULENCE studies and the development of vaccines.
A species of GAMMARETROVIRUS producing tumors in primates. Originally isolated from a fibrosarcoma in a woolly monkey, WMSV is a replication-defective v-onc virus which carries the sis oncogene. In order to propagate, WMSV requires a replication-competent helper virus.
Widely used technique which exploits the ability of complementary sequences in single-stranded DNAs or RNAs to pair with each other to form a double helix. Hybridization can take place between two complimentary DNA sequences, between a single-stranded DNA and a complementary RNA, or between two RNA sequences. The technique is used to detect and isolate specific sequences, measure homology, or define other characteristics of one or both strands. (Kendrew, Encyclopedia of Molecular Biology, 1994, p503)
A species of RESPIROVIRUS also called hemadsorption virus 2 (HA2), which causes laryngotracheitis in humans, especially children.
Strains of MURINE LEUKEMIA VIRUS that are replication-defective and rapidly transforming. The envelope gene plays an essential role in initiating erythroleukemia (LEUKEMIA, ERYTHROBLASTIC, ACUTE), manifested by splenic foci, SPLENOMEGALY, and POLYCYTHEMIA. Spleen focus-forming viruses are generated by recombination with endogenous retroviral sequences.
The type species of RUBULAVIRUS that causes an acute infectious disease in humans, affecting mainly children. Transmission occurs by droplet infection.
Biologically active DNA which has been formed by the in vitro joining of segments of DNA from different sources. It includes the recombination joint or edge of a heteroduplex region where two recombining DNA molecules are connected.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
A species of ALPHAVIRUS isolated in central, eastern, and southern Africa.
Subset of helper-inducer T-lymphocytes which synthesize and secrete the interleukins IL-4, IL-5, IL-6, and IL-10. These cytokines influence B-cell development and antibody production as well as augmenting humoral responses.
Plants or plant parts which are harmful to man or other animals.
In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.
The measurement of infection-blocking titer of ANTISERA by testing a series of dilutions for a given virus-antiserum interaction end-point, which is generally the dilution at which tissue cultures inoculated with the serum-virus mixtures demonstrate cytopathology (CPE) or the dilution at which 50% of test animals injected with serum-virus mixtures show infectivity (ID50) or die (LD50).
Diseases of plants.
Group of alpharetroviruses (ALPHARETROVIRUS) producing sarcomata and other tumors in chickens and other fowl and also in pigeons, ducks, and RATS.
A species in the genus HEPATOVIRUS containing one serotype and two strains: HUMAN HEPATITIS A VIRUS and Simian hepatitis A virus causing hepatitis in humans (HEPATITIS A) and primates, respectively.
Method for measuring viral infectivity and multiplication in CULTURED CELLS. Clear lysed areas or plaques develop as the VIRAL PARTICLES are released from the infected cells during incubation. With some VIRUSES, the cells are killed by a cytopathic effect; with others, the infected cells are not killed but can be detected by their hemadsorptive ability. Sometimes the plaque cells contain VIRAL ANTIGENS which can be measured by IMMUNOFLUORESCENCE.
A defective virus, containing particles of RNA nucleoprotein in virion-like form, present in patients with acute hepatitis B and chronic hepatitis. It requires the presence of a hepadnavirus for full replication. This is the lone species in the genus Deltavirus.
Agents used in the prophylaxis or therapy of VIRUS DISEASES. Some of the ways they may act include preventing viral replication by inhibiting viral DNA polymerase; binding to specific cell-surface receptors and inhibiting viral penetration or uncoating; inhibiting viral protein synthesis; or blocking late stages of virus assembly.
A subfamily in the family MURIDAE, comprising the hamsters. Four of the more common genera are Cricetus, CRICETULUS; MESOCRICETUS; and PHODOPUS.
The process by which a DNA molecule is duplicated.
Duplex DNA sequences in eukaryotic chromosomes, corresponding to the genome of a virus, that are transmitted from one cell generation to the next without causing lysis of the host. Proviruses are often associated with neoplastic cell transformation and are key features of retrovirus biology.
A plant genus of the family POACEAE. The seed is one of the EDIBLE GRAINS used in millet cereals and in feed for birds and livestock (ANIMAL FEED). It contains diosgenin (SAPONINS).
Lymphocytes responsible for cell-mediated immunity. Two types have been identified - cytotoxic (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and helper T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, HELPER-INDUCER). They are formed when lymphocytes circulate through the THYMUS GLAND and differentiate to thymocytes. When exposed to an antigen, they divide rapidly and produce large numbers of new T cells sensitized to that antigen.
An encapsulated lymphatic organ through which venous blood filters.
The binding of virus particles to receptors on the host cell surface. For enveloped viruses, the virion ligand is usually a surface glycoprotein as is the cellular receptor. For non-enveloped viruses, the virus CAPSID serves as the ligand.
A species of POLYOMAVIRUS apparently infecting over 90% of children but not clearly associated with any clinical illness in childhood. The virus remains latent in the body throughout life and can be reactivated under certain circumstances.
A family of RNA viruses causing INFLUENZA and other diseases. There are five recognized genera: INFLUENZAVIRUS A; INFLUENZAVIRUS B; INFLUENZAVIRUS C; ISAVIRUS; and THOGOTOVIRUS.
Viruses whose taxonomic relationships have not been established.
A species of POLYOMAVIRUS, originally isolated from the brain of a patient with progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy. The patient's initials J.C. gave the virus its name. Infection is not accompanied by any apparent illness but serious demyelinating disease can appear later, probably following reactivation of latent virus.
The first continuously cultured human malignant CELL LINE, derived from the cervical carcinoma of Henrietta Lacks. These cells are used for VIRUS CULTIVATION and antitumor drug screening assays.
Subset of helper-inducer T-lymphocytes which synthesize and secrete interleukin-2, gamma-interferon, and interleukin-12. Due to their ability to kill antigen-presenting cells and their lymphokine-mediated effector activity, Th1 cells are associated with vigorous delayed-type hypersensitivity reactions.
Virus diseases caused by the ORTHOMYXOVIRIDAE.
The developmental entity of a fertilized chicken egg (ZYGOTE). The developmental process begins about 24 h before the egg is laid at the BLASTODISC, a small whitish spot on the surface of the EGG YOLK. After 21 days of incubation, the embryo is fully developed before hatching.
Common name for the species Gallus gallus, the domestic fowl, in the family Phasianidae, order GALLIFORMES. It is descended from the red jungle fowl of SOUTHEAST ASIA.
The introduction of functional (usually cloned) GENES into cells. A variety of techniques and naturally occurring processes are used for the gene transfer such as cell hybridization, LIPOSOMES or microcell-mediated gene transfer, ELECTROPORATION, chromosome-mediated gene transfer, TRANSFECTION, and GENETIC TRANSDUCTION. Gene transfer may result in genetically transformed cells and individual organisms.
The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.
Proteins coded by the retroviral gag gene. The products are usually synthesized as protein precursors or POLYPROTEINS, which are then cleaved by viral proteases to yield the final products. Many of the final products are associated with the nucleoprotein core of the virion. gag is short for group-specific antigen.
The transfer of bacterial DNA by phages from an infected bacterium to another bacterium. This also refers to the transfer of genes into eukaryotic cells by viruses. This naturally occurring process is routinely employed as a GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUE.
The type species of ORBIVIRUS causing a serious disease in sheep, especially lambs. It may also infect wild ruminants and other domestic animals.
DNA sequences that form the coding region for proteins associated with the viral core in retroviruses. gag is short for group-specific antigen.
Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.
A myeloproliferative disorder characterized by neoplastic proliferation of erythroblastic and myeloblastic elements with atypical erythroblasts and myeloblasts in the peripheral blood.
The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.
The type species of RESPIROVIRUS in the subfamily PARAMYXOVIRINAE. It is the murine version of HUMAN PARAINFLUENZA VIRUS 1, distinguished by host range.
The protoplasm and plasma membrane of plant, fungal, bacterial or archaeon cells without the CELL WALL.
A critical subpopulation of T-lymphocytes involved in the induction of most immunological functions. The HIV virus has selective tropism for the T4 cell which expresses the CD4 phenotypic marker, a receptor for HIV. In fact, the key element in the profound immunosuppression seen in HIV infection is the depletion of this subset of T-lymphocytes.
Sequences of DNA or RNA that occur in multiple copies. There are several types: INTERSPERSED REPETITIVE SEQUENCES are copies of transposable elements (DNA TRANSPOSABLE ELEMENTS or RETROELEMENTS) dispersed throughout the genome. TERMINAL REPEAT SEQUENCES flank both ends of another sequence, for example, the long terminal repeats (LTRs) on RETROVIRUSES. Variations may be direct repeats, those occurring in the same direction, or inverted repeats, those opposite to each other in direction. TANDEM REPEAT SEQUENCES are copies which lie adjacent to each other, direct or inverted (INVERTED REPEAT SEQUENCES).
The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.
Deletion of sequences of nucleic acids from the genetic material of an individual.
Cell changes manifested by escape from control mechanisms, increased growth potential, alterations in the cell surface, karyotypic abnormalities, morphological and biochemical deviations from the norm, and other attributes conferring the ability to invade, metastasize, and kill.
Pneumovirus infections caused by the RESPIRATORY SYNCYTIAL VIRUSES. Humans and cattle are most affected but infections in goats and sheep have been reported.
Morphologic alteration of small B LYMPHOCYTES or T LYMPHOCYTES in culture into large blast-like cells able to synthesize DNA and RNA and to divide mitotically. It is induced by INTERLEUKINS; MITOGENS such as PHYTOHEMAGGLUTININS, and by specific ANTIGENS. It may also occur in vivo as in GRAFT REJECTION.
Enzymes that are part of the restriction-modification systems. They catalyze the endonucleolytic cleavage of DNA sequences which lack the species-specific methylation pattern in the host cell's DNA. Cleavage yields random or specific double-stranded fragments with terminal 5'-phosphates. The function of restriction enzymes is to destroy any foreign DNA that invades the host cell. Most have been studied in bacterial systems, but a few have been found in eukaryotic organisms. They are also used as tools for the systematic dissection and mapping of chromosomes, in the determination of base sequences of DNAs, and have made it possible to splice and recombine genes from one organism into the genome of another. EC 3.21.1.
The type species of the FLAVIVIRUS genus. Principal vector transmission to humans is by AEDES spp. mosquitoes.
Genes whose gain-of-function alterations lead to NEOPLASTIC CELL TRANSFORMATION. They include, for example, genes for activators or stimulators of CELL PROLIFERATION such as growth factors, growth factor receptors, protein kinases, signal transducers, nuclear phosphoproteins, and transcription factors. A prefix of "v-" before oncogene symbols indicates oncogenes captured and transmitted by RETROVIRUSES; the prefix "c-" before the gene symbol of an oncogene indicates it is the cellular homolog (PROTO-ONCOGENES) of a v-oncogene.
The type species of LEPORIPOXVIRUS causing infectious myxomatosis, a severe generalized disease, in rabbits. Tumors are not always present.
Inactivation of viruses by non-immune related techniques. They include extremes of pH, HEAT treatment, ultraviolet radiation, IONIZING RADIATION; DESICCATION; ANTISEPTICS; DISINFECTANTS; organic solvents, and DETERGENTS.
A species of ORTHOPOXVIRUS that is the etiologic agent of COWPOX. It is closely related to but antigenically different from VACCINIA VIRUS.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
A species of ORTHOPOXVIRUS causing infections in humans. No infections have been reported since 1977 and the virus is now believed to be virtually extinct.
A genus of plant viruses that infects ANGIOSPERMS. Transmission occurs mechanically and through soil, with one species transmitted via a fungal vector. The type species is Tomato bushy stunt virus.
The type species of PNEUMOVIRUS and an important cause of lower respiratory disease in infants and young children. It frequently presents with bronchitis and bronchopneumonia and is further characterized by fever, cough, dyspnea, wheezing, and pallor.
A species of ARENAVIRUS, part of the Old World Arenaviruses (ARENAVIRUSES, OLD WORLD), and the etiologic agent of LASSA FEVER. LASSA VIRUS is a common infective agent in humans in West Africa. Its natural host is the multimammate mouse Mastomys natalensis.
Sites on an antigen that interact with specific antibodies.
The spatial arrangement of the atoms of a nucleic acid or polynucleotide that results in its characteristic 3-dimensional shape.
An acute viral infection in humans involving the respiratory tract. It is marked by inflammation of the NASAL MUCOSA; the PHARYNX; and conjunctiva, and by headache and severe, often generalized, myalgia.
A species of ALPHAVIRUS causing an acute dengue-like fever.
The type species in the genus NOROVIRUS, first isolated in 1968 from the stools of school children in Norwalk, Ohio, who were suffering from GASTROENTERITIS. The virions are non-enveloped spherical particles containing a single protein. Multiple strains are named after the places where outbreaks have occurred.
Lymphoid cells concerned with humoral immunity. They are short-lived cells resembling bursa-derived lymphocytes of birds in their production of immunoglobulin upon appropriate stimulation.
Proteins that form the CAPSID of VIRUSES.
Techniques and strategies which include the use of coding sequences and other conventional or radical means to transform or modify cells for the purpose of treating or reversing disease conditions.
Includes the spectrum of human immunodeficiency virus infections that range from asymptomatic seropositivity, thru AIDS-related complex (ARC), to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS).
A collection of single-stranded RNA viruses scattered across the Bunyaviridae, Flaviviridae, and Togaviridae families whose common property is the ability to induce encephalitic conditions in infected hosts.
A genus of FLAVIVIRIDAE causing parenterally-transmitted HEPATITIS C which is associated with transfusions and drug abuse. Hepatitis C virus is the type species.
The type species of LYMPHOCRYPTOVIRUS, subfamily GAMMAHERPESVIRINAE, infecting B-cells in humans. It is thought to be the causative agent of INFECTIOUS MONONUCLEOSIS and is strongly associated with oral hairy leukoplakia (LEUKOPLAKIA, HAIRY;), BURKITT LYMPHOMA; and other malignancies.
A strain of MURINE LEUKEMIA VIRUS associated with mouse tumors similar to those caused by the FRIEND MURINE LEUKEMIA VIRUS. It is a replication-competent murine leukemia virus. It can act as a helper virus when complexing with a defective transforming component, RAUSCHER SPLEEN FOCUS-FORMING VIRUS.
Viral proteins that are components of the mature assembled VIRUS PARTICLES. They may include nucleocapsid core proteins (gag proteins), enzymes packaged within the virus particle (pol proteins), and membrane components (env proteins). These do not include the proteins encoded in the VIRAL GENOME that are produced in infected cells but which are not packaged in the mature virus particle,i.e. the so called non-structural proteins (VIRAL NONSTRUCTURAL PROTEINS).
Biological properties, processes, and activities of VIRUSES.
Infection with human herpesvirus 4 (HERPESVIRUS 4, HUMAN); which may facilitate the development of various lymphoproliferative disorders. These include BURKITT LYMPHOMA (African type), INFECTIOUS MONONUCLEOSIS, and oral hairy leukoplakia (LEUKOPLAKIA, HAIRY).
An individual that contains cell populations derived from different zygotes.
Specific hemagglutinin subtypes encoded by VIRUSES.
Directed modification of the gene complement of a living organism by such techniques as altering the DNA, substituting genetic material by means of a virus, transplanting whole nuclei, transplanting cell hybrids, etc.
A subgroup of the genus FLAVIVIRUS that causes encephalitis and hemorrhagic fevers and is found in eastern and western Europe and the former Soviet Union. It is transmitted by TICKS and there is an associated milk-borne transmission from viremic cattle, goats, and sheep.
A species of RESPIROVIRUS frequently isolated from small children with pharyngitis, bronchitis, and pneumonia.
The major interferon produced by mitogenically or antigenically stimulated LYMPHOCYTES. It is structurally different from TYPE I INTERFERON and its major activity is immunoregulation. It has been implicated in the expression of CLASS II HISTOCOMPATIBILITY ANTIGENS in cells that do not normally produce them, leading to AUTOIMMUNE DISEASES.
Use of restriction endonucleases to analyze and generate a physical map of genomes, genes, or other segments of DNA.
A replication-defective murine sarcoma virus (SARCOMA VIRUSES, MURINE) isolated from a rhabdomyosarcoma by Moloney in 1966.
The type species of APHTHOVIRUS, causing FOOT-AND-MOUTH DISEASE in cloven-hoofed animals. Several different serotypes exist.
Immunoglobulins produced in response to VIRAL ANTIGENS.
The degree of pathogenicity within a group or species of microorganisms or viruses as indicated by case fatality rates and/or the ability of the organism to invade the tissues of the host. The pathogenic capacity of an organism is determined by its VIRULENCE FACTORS.
Any DNA sequence capable of independent replication or a molecule that possesses a REPLICATION ORIGIN and which is therefore potentially capable of being replicated in a suitable cell. (Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)
A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.
A species of ARTERIVIRUS causing reproductive and respiratory disease in pigs. The European strain is called Lelystad virus. Airborne transmission is common.
Any of the viruses that cause inflammation of the liver. They include both DNA and RNA viruses as well viruses from humans and animals.
Experimentally induced neoplasms of CONNECTIVE TISSUE in animals to provide a model for studying human SARCOMA.
Non-antibody proteins secreted by inflammatory leukocytes and some non-leukocytic cells, that act as intercellular mediators. They differ from classical hormones in that they are produced by a number of tissue or cell types rather than by specialized glands. They generally act locally in a paracrine or autocrine rather than endocrine manner.
A method (first developed by E.M. Southern) for detection of DNA that has been electrophoretically separated and immobilized by blotting on nitrocellulose or other type of paper or nylon membrane followed by hybridization with labeled NUCLEIC ACID PROBES.
A group of ribonucleotides (up to 12) in which the phosphate residues of each ribonucleotide act as bridges in forming diester linkages between the ribose moieties.
Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.
A strain of PRIMATE T-LYMPHOTROPIC VIRUS 1 isolated from mature T4 cells in patients with T-lymphoproliferation malignancies. It causes adult T-cell leukemia (LEUKEMIA-LYMPHOMA, T-CELL, ACUTE, HTLV-I-ASSOCIATED), T-cell lymphoma (LYMPHOMA, T-CELL), and is involved in mycosis fungoides, SEZARY SYNDROME and tropical spastic paraparesis (PARAPARESIS, TROPICAL SPASTIC).
Proteins found mainly in icosahedral DNA and RNA viruses. They consist of proteins directly associated with the nucleic acid inside the NUCLEOCAPSID.
Tumor-selective, replication competent VIRUSES that have antineoplastic effects. This is achieved by producing cytotoxicity-enhancing proteins and/or eliciting an antitumor immune response. They are genetically engineered so that they can replicate in CANCER cells but not in normal cells, and are used in ONCOLYTIC VIROTHERAPY.
The type species of PARAPOXVIRUS which causes a skin infection in natural hosts, usually young sheep. Humans may contract local skin lesions by contact. The virus apparently persists in soil.
A group of viruses in the genus PESTIVIRUS, causing diarrhea, fever, oral ulcerations, hemorrhagic syndrome, and various necrotic lesions among cattle and other domestic animals. The two species (genotypes), BVDV-1 and BVDV-2 , exhibit antigenic and pathological differences. The historical designation, BVDV, consisted of both (then unrecognized) genotypes.
A suborder of PRIMATES consisting of six families: CEBIDAE (some New World monkeys), ATELIDAE (some New World monkeys), CERCOPITHECIDAE (Old World monkeys), HYLOBATIDAE (gibbons and siamangs), CALLITRICHINAE (marmosets and tamarins), and HOMINIDAE (humans and great apes).
A soluble factor produced by activated T-LYMPHOCYTES that induces the expression of MHC CLASS II GENES and FC RECEPTORS on B-LYMPHOCYTES and causes their proliferation and differentiation. It also acts on T-lymphocytes, MAST CELLS, and several other hematopoietic lineage cells.
A positive-stranded RNA virus species in the genus HEPEVIRUS, causing enterically-transmitted non-A, non-B hepatitis (HEPATITIS E).
The production of ANTIBODIES by proliferating and differentiated B-LYMPHOCYTES under stimulation by ANTIGENS.
An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed.
A genetic rearrangement through loss of segments of DNA or RNA, bringing sequences which are normally separated into close proximity. This deletion may be detected using cytogenetic techniques and can also be inferred from the phenotype, indicating a deletion at one specific locus.
DNA sequences which are recognized (directly or indirectly) and bound by a DNA-dependent RNA polymerase during the initiation of transcription. Highly conserved sequences within the promoter include the Pribnow box in bacteria and the TATA BOX in eukaryotes.
The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.
The type species of BETARETROVIRUS commonly latent in mice. It causes mammary adenocarcinoma in a genetically susceptible strain of mice when the appropriate hormonal influences operate.
An enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of alpha-2,3, alpha-2,6-, and alpha-2,8-glycosidic linkages (at a decreasing rate, respectively) of terminal sialic residues in oligosaccharides, glycoproteins, glycolipids, colominic acid, and synthetic substrate. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992)
The quantity of measurable virus in a body fluid. Change in viral load, measured in plasma, is sometimes used as a SURROGATE MARKER in disease progression.
Recombinases that insert exogenous DNA into the host genome. Examples include proteins encoded by the POL GENE of RETROVIRIDAE and also by temperate BACTERIOPHAGES, the best known being BACTERIOPHAGE LAMBDA.
INFLAMMATION of the LIVER in humans caused by HEPATITIS C VIRUS, a single-stranded RNA virus. Its incubation period is 30-90 days. Hepatitis C is transmitted primarily by contaminated blood parenterally, and is often associated with transfusion and intravenous drug abuse. However, in a significant number of cases, the source of hepatitis C infection is unknown.
A group of enzymes that catalyzes the hydrolysis of terminal, non-reducing beta-D-galactose residues in beta-galactosides. Deficiency of beta-Galactosidase A1 may cause GANGLIOSIDOSIS, GM1.
Viruses whose hosts are in the domain ARCHAEA.

New defective RNAs from citrus tristeza virus: evidence for a replicase-driven template switching mechanism in their generation. (1/552)

Defective RNAs (D-RNAs) ranging in size from 1968 to 2759 nt were detected in four citrus tristeza virus (CTV) isolates by hybridization of electroblotted dsRNAs with two probes specific for the 5'- and 3'-terminal genomic regions. The RNAs that hybridized with both probes were eluted, cloned and sequenced. Comparison with the sequences of the corresponding genomic regions of the helper virus showed, in all cases, over 99% nucleotide identity and direct repeats of 4-5 nt flanking or in the vicinity of the junction sites. The presence of the repeats from two separate genome locations suggests a replicase-driven template switching mechanism for the generation of these CTV D-RNAs. Two of the CTV isolates that differed greatly in their pathogenicity contained an identical D-RNA, suggesting that it is unlikely that this D-RNA is involved in symptom modulation, which may be caused by another factor.  (+info)

Virus promoters determine interference by defective RNAs: selective amplification of mini-RNA vectors and rescue from cDNA by a 3' copy-back ambisense rabies virus. (2/552)

Typical defective interfering (DI) RNAs are more successful in the competition for viral polymerase than the parental (helper) virus, which is mostly due to an altered DI promoter composition. Rabies virus (RV) internal deletion RNAs which possess the authentic RV terminal promoters, and which therefore are transcriptionally active and can be used as vectors for foreign gene expression, are poorly propagated in RV-infected cells and do not interfere with RV replication. To allow DI-like amplification and high-level gene expression from such mini-RNA vectors, we have used an engineered 3' copy-back (ambisense) helper RV in which the strong replication promoter of the antigenome was replaced with the 50-fold-weaker genome promoter. In cells coinfected with ambisense helper virus and mini-RNAs encoding chloramphenicol acetyltransferase (CAT) and luciferase, mini-RNAs were amplified to high levels. This was correlated with interference with helper virus replication, finally resulting in a clear predominance of mini-RNAs over helper virus. However, efficient successive passaging of mini-RNAs and high-level reporter gene activity could be achieved without adding exogenous helper virus, revealing a rather moderate degree of interference not precluding substantial HV propagation. Compared to infections with recombinant RV vectors expressing CAT, the availability of abundant mini-RNA templates led to increased levels of CAT mRNA such that CAT activities were augmented up to 250-fold, while virus gene transcription was kept to a minimum. We have also exploited the finding that internal deletion model RNAs behave like DI RNAs and are selectively amplified in the presence of ambisense helper virus to demonstrate for the first time RV-supported rescue of cDNA after transfection of mini-RNA cDNAs in ambisense RV-infected cells expressing T7 RNA polymerase.  (+info)

Multiple mitochondrial viruses in an isolate of the Dutch Elm disease fungus Ophiostoma novo-ulmi. (3/552)

The nucleotide sequences of three mitochondrial virus double-stranded (ds) RNAs, RNA-4 (2599 nucleotides), RNA-5 (2474 nucleotides), and RNA-6 (2343 nucleotides), in a diseased isolate Log1/3-8d2 (Ld) of the Dutch elm disease fungus Ophiostoma novo-ulmi have been determined. All these RNAs are A-U-rich (71-73% A + U residues). Using the fungal mitochondrial genetic code in which UGA codes for tryptophan, the positive-strand of each of RNAs 4, 5, and 6 contains a single open reading frame (ORF) with the potential to encode a protein of 783, 729, and 695 amino acids, respectively, all of which contain conserved motifs characteristic of RNA-dependent RNA polymerases (RdRps). Sequence comparisons showed that these RNAs are related to each other and to a previously characterized RNA, RNA-3a, from the same O. novo-ulmi isolate, especially within the RdRp-like motifs. However, the overall RNA nucleotide and RdRp amino acid sequence identities were relatively low (43-55% and 20-32%, respectively). The 5'- and 3'-terminal sequences of these RNAs are different, but they can all be folded into potentially stable stem-loop structures. Those of RNA-4 and RNA-6 have inverted complementarity, potentially forming panhandle structures. Their molecular and biological properties indicate that RNAs 3a, 4, 5, and 6 are the genomes of four different viruses, which replicate independently in the same cell. These four viruses are also related to a mitochondrial RNA virus from another fungus, Cryphonectria parasitica, recently designated the type species of the Mitovirus genus of the Narnaviridae family, and to a virus from the fungus Rhizoctonia solani. It is proposed that the four O. novo-ulmi mitochondrial viruses are assigned to the Mitovirus genus and designated O. novo-ulmi mitovirus (OnuMV) 3a-Ld, 4-Ld, 5-Ld, and 6-Ld, respectively. Northern blot analysis indicated that O. novo-ulmi Ld nucleic acid extracts contain more single-stranded (ss, positive-stranded) RNA than dsRNA for all three newly described mitoviruses. O. novo-ulmi RNA-7, previously believed to be a satellite-like RNA, is shown to be a defective RNA, derived from OnuMV4-Ld RNA by multiple internal deletions. OnuMV4-Ld is therefore the helper virus for the replication of both RNA-7 and another defective RNA, RNA-10. Sequence comparisons indicate that RNA-10 could be derived from RNA-7, as previously suggested, or derived directly from RNA-4.  (+info)

Frequency and stability of chromosomal integration of adenovirus vectors. (4/552)

One of the limitations of adenovirus vectors is the lack of machinery necessary for their integration into host chromosomes, resulting in short-term gene expression in dividing cells. We analyzed frequencies of integration and persistence of gene expression from integrated adenovirus vectors. Both E1-substituted and helper-dependent adenovirus vectors achieved similar integration efficiencies of approximately 10(-3) to 10(-5) per cell, with the helper-dependent vector showing slightly higher efficiencies. In stable cell pools, gene expression of the integrated vector persisted for at least 50 cell divisions without selection. However, some stable cell clones showed changes in gene expression, which were accompanied by structural changes in the integrated vector DNA.  (+info)

Tamplicon-7, a novel T-lymphotropic vector derived from human herpesvirus 7. (5/552)

We describe the derivation of a novel T-cell-defective virus vector employing the human herpesvirus 7 (HHV-7). The new vector, designated Tamplicon-7, replicates in CD4(+) T cells. The system is composed of a helper virus and defective virus genomes derived by the replication of the input Tamplicon vector. There are two cis-acting functions required for the replication and packaging of the defective virus genomes in the presence of the helper virus: the viral DNA replication origin and the composite cleavage and packaging signal, which directs the cleavage and packaging of defective virus genomes. Viral DNA replication is compatible with the rolling circle mechanism, producing large head-to-tail concatemers of the Tamplicon vector. Thus, in the presence of the helper virus, the replicated vectors are packaged and secreted into the medium. Furthermore, we have shown that the vector can be employed to express a foreign gene, encoding the green fluorescent protein, in the T cells infected with the HHV-7 helper virus. We predict that the Tamplicon-7 vector might be potentially useful for gene therapy of diseases affecting the human CD4(+) T cells, including autoimmune diseases, T-cell lymphomas, and AIDS.  (+info)

Interactions between tombusviruses and satellite RNAs of tomato bushy stunt virus: a defect in sat RNA B1 replication maps to ORF1 of a helper virus. (6/552)

The biological properties of two recently described satellite RNAs of tomato bushy stunt virus (TBSV) were analyzed in natural and experimental hosts. Full-length cDNA clones were constructed for sat RNAs B1(822 nt) and B10 (612 nt) and used in inoculations with satellite-free transcripts of different tombusviruses. In all virus-host combinations tested, TBSV sat RNA B10 drastically reduced the accumulation of viral genomic RNA and attenuated symptoms. In contrast, sat RNA B1 caused a less marked reduction of viral RNA level and did not have any effect on symptoms. Experiments with Nicotiana benthamiana protoplasts showed that the differential effects of sat RNAs B1 and B10 on TBSV titer were related to differential abilities to interfere with virus replication. Three tombusviruses tested were able to maintain both sat RNAs in N. benthamiana plants, although carnation Italian ringspot virus (CIRV) was a poor helper for sat RNA B1. Using chimeric viruses, a strong determinant for low sat RNA B1 accumulation was mapped to the 5'-terminal part of the genome of CIRV. The poor helper activity of CIRV was shown to be due to low sat RNA B1 replication. A single-nucleotide mutation in the start codon of CIRV ORF1 restored the ability to replicate sat RNA B1 to high levels. This mutant encodes an ORF1 that is 22 amino acids shorter at the N-terminus than the wild-type virus.  (+info)

Use of helper-dependent adenoviral vectors of alternative serotypes permits repeat vector administration. (7/552)

We have developed a new helper adenovirus (Ad) based on serotype 2, Ad2LC8cCARP, for use in the Cre/loxP system (Parks et al. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA, 1996; 93: 13565-13570) to generate Ad vectors deleted of all protein coding sequences (helper-dependent Ad vectors (hdAd)). A comparison of Ad2LC8cCARP and our original helper virus (based on serotype 5, Ad5LC8cluc) showed that the two helper viruses amplified hdAd with a similar efficiency, and resulted in a similar yield and purity after large-scale preparation of vector. In vitro, the resulting hdAd2 had a similar transduction efficiency and expression kinetics of transgene (beta-gal) as the hdAd5. An important feature of the helper-dependent system is that all virion components, except the virion DNA, derive from the helper virus. Consequently, vectors produced with help from Ad2LC8cCARP were not neutralized by antibodies against Ad5, and vectors produced with Ad5 helper were resistant to neutralizing antibodies against Ad2. Analysis of transgene expression in mouse liver after intravenous injection of the Ad2-based hdAd showed that the vector could efficiently transduce the liver, and produce high levels of a foreign transgene, similar to those expressed by the hdAd generated with the Ad5 helper virus. Mice immunized with hdAd2 produced Ad2-neutralizing antibodies, which did not cross-react with hdAd5. To determine if successful repeat Ad vector administration could be achieved by sequential use of alternative Ad serotypes, we injected mice with hdAd2 (hSEAP) followed 3 months later by a lacZ-expressing hdAd of either the same or different serotype. Repeated administration of hdAd2 resulted in a 30- to 100-fold reduction in transgene expression compared with naive animals. In contrast, no decrease in transgene expression was observed when the second vector was of a different serotype. These results demonstrate that effective vector readministration can be achieved by the sequential use of hdAds based on alternative serotypes.  (+info)

Delivery of herpes simplex virus amplicon-based vectors to the dentate gyrus does not alter hippocampal synaptic transmission in vivo. (8/552)

Herpes simplex virus type-1 (HSV) amplicon vectors containing neuroprotective genes can alter cell physiology and enhance survival following various insults. However, to date, little is known about effects of viral infection itself (independent of the gene delivered) on neuronal physiology. Electrically-evoked synaptic responses are routinely recorded to measure functional alterations in the nervous system and were used here to assess the potential capability of HSV vectors to disrupt physiology of the hippocampus (a forebrain structure involved in learning that is highly susceptible to necrotic insult, making it a frequent target in gene therapy research). Population excitatory post-synaptic potentials (EPSPs) were recorded in the dentate gyrus (DG) and in area CA3 in vivo 72 h after infusion of an HSV vector expressing a reporter gene (lacZ) or vehicle into the DG. Evoked perforant path (PP-DG) or mossy fiber (MF-CA3) EPSPs slope values measured across input/output (I/O) curves were not altered by infection. Paired-pulse facilitation at either recording site was also unaffected. X-gal-positive granule cells surrounded the recording electrode (PP-DG recording) and stimulating electrode tracts (MF-CA3 recording) in animals that received vector, suggesting that we had measured function, at least in part, in infected neurons. Because of the negative electrophysiological result, we sought to deliver a gene with an HSV amplicon which would affect the measured endpoints, as a positive control. Delivery of calbindin D28kpotentiated PP-DG synaptic strength, indicating that our recording system could detect alterations due to vector expression. Thus, the data indicate that HSV vectors are benign, in regard to effects on synaptic function, and support the use of these vectors as a safe method to deliver selected genes to the central nervous system.  (+info)

The small genome of polyomaviruses encodes a limited number of proteins that are highly dependent on interactions with host cell proteins for efficient viral replication. The SV40 large T antigen (LT) contains several discrete functional domains including the LXCXE or RB-binding motif, the DNA binding and helicase domains that contribute to the viral life cycle. In addition, the LT C-terminal region contains the host range and adenovirus helper functions required for lytic infection in certain restrictive cell types. To understand how LT affects the host cell to facilitate viral replication, we expressed full-length or functional domains of LT in cells, identified interacting host proteins and carried out expression profiling. LT perturbed the expression of p53 target genes and subsets of cell-cycle dependent genes regulated by the DREAM and the B-Myb-MuvB complexes. Affinity purification of LT followed by mass spectrometry revealed a specific interaction between the LT C-terminal region and ...
The generation of high-titer, helper-free retroviruses by transient transfection has been achieved by using the highly transfectable 293T cell line into which are stably introduced constructs that express retroviral packaging functions. The resulting ecotropic virus packaging cell line BOSC 23 produces infectious retrovirus at , 10(6) infectious units/ml of supernatant within 72 hr after CaPO4-mediated transfection. A stringent assay for replication-competent virus showed that no helper virus was present. The system can produce high titers of retroviral vectors expressing genes that are extremely difficult to propagate at high titer in stable producer lines. This method should facilitate and extend the use of helper-free retroviral gene transfer, as well as be useful for gene therapy.. ...
Most of the adenovirus gene products required for the production of infective AAV particles are supplied on the pHelper plasmid (i.e. E2A, E4, and VA RNA genes) that is co-transfected into cells with human AAV vector DNA. The remaining adenoviral gene product is supplied by the 293 host cells, which stably expresses the adenovirus E1 gene. By eliminating the need for live helper virus, the AAV helper-free system provides a safer and more convenient gene delivery system ...
Aldevron Announces Ready-to-Use AAV Helper Plasmid - read this article along with other careers information, tips and advice on BioSpace
The persistent challenge for grinding and stuffing equipment is processors continual need to increase volume. Grinders and stuffers are expected to do more functions, have high performance and keep up with more technology and faster speeds while proving better quality. Grinders and stuffers also have to deal with the changing raw materials that processors see, not only from lot to lot that comes into a plant, but also the changes in raw materials that processors see over time, says Jeff Sindelar, assistant professor and extension . . .
next reply other threads:[~2019-03-03 12:29 UTC,newest] Thread overview: 37+ messages / expand[flat,nested] mbox.gz Atom feed top 2019-03-03 12:28 Rohit Ashiwal [this message] 2019-03-03 12:28 ` [PATCH 1/3] test functions: Add new function `test_file_not_empty` Rohit Ashiwal 2019-03-03 13:20 ` Junio C Hamano 2019-03-03 13:29 ` Rohit Ashiwal 2019-03-03 13:33 ` none Junio C Hamano 2019-03-03 14:07 ` Clearing logic Rohit Ashiwal 2019-03-03 16:19 ` Thomas Gummerer 2019-03-03 12:28 ` [PATCH 2/3] t3600: refactor code according to contemporary guidelines Rohit Ashiwal 2019-03-03 13:30 ` Junio C Hamano 2019-03-03 14:13 ` t3600: refactor code according to comtemporary guidelines Rohit Ashiwal 2019-03-03 12:28 ` [PATCH 3/3] t3600: use helper functions from test-lib-functions Rohit Ashiwal 2019-03-03 13:32 ` Junio C Hamano 2019-03-03 23:37 ` [GSoC][PATCH v2 0/3] Use helper functions in test script Rohit Ashiwal 2019-03-03 23:37 ` [GSoC][PATCH v2 1/3] test functions: add function `test_file_not_empty` Rohit ...
Занятие за границей: первопричины да перспективы Во сегодняшний день про работодателя не так важен диплом, который заверяет об полученном образовании, а теоретические да утилитарные навыки, который Вы смогли купить в ходе обучения. Как не прискорбно, Университеты в нашей стране как правило никак не готовы дать те знания да искусства, что требует настоящий рабочий рынок. Оттого ...
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Hi, I wonder if anybody can give me a clue to make ssDNA of pET-based plasmid with good yield. We have tried Novablue and XL1-blue as host cells and USC-M13 as a helper phage without success. I was told to use Promegas R408 helper phage instead. Any input ? Thanks in advance. Yee-yung Charng yccharng at ucdavis.edu ...
But if we keep ,,, helper running, who will be communicating with it via these open ,,, pipes? The process that is calling finish_command() on fast-import ,,, and disconnecting from the helper wont be, as read/write to the ,,, pipe, even if we do not disconnect from here, will result in errors ,,, if the helper has already exited at this point. ,, ,, Nobody will send any further input, but in theory we could redirect ,, the pipe and send more commands. Thats how it was designed. , , Who does the redirection to whom? The one that is doing all the redirections, transport-helper. , How would the process tree and , piping constructed around the current system? I cannot parse that correctly, but transport-helper is already receiving the output from the remote-helper. , I am not trying to say it is just theoretical mental exercise (which , I have seen you do not do at all on this list). I am trying to find , out what the practical use case is that you have in mind, because , disconnecting will prove ...
This document describes a simple helper class intended for making easy to initialize the grid parameters of a BSplineDeformableTranform. This paper is
Helper for rendering a template fragment in its own variable scope; iterates over data provided and renders for each iteration.. ...
The central part of ClassLaws is defined in the .Core, .Partial and .TestingEquality. Some more helper functions and examples reside in Test.ClassLaws.*. Finally, laws for the Monoid, Monad and MonadState classes live under their definitions in the hierarchy: Data.Monoid.Laws, Control.Monad.Laws, etc. ...
Management to Host Conference Call Today at 4:30 p.m. ET CAMBRIDGE, Mass.--(BUSINESS WIRE)-- Dicerna Pharmaceuticals, Inc...
Management to Host Conference Call Today at 4:30 p.m. ET CAMBRIDGE, Mass.--(BUSINESS WIRE)-- Dicerna Pharmaceuticals, Inc...
Signed-off-by: Michael Stefaniuc ,mstefani at winehq.org, On 5/27/20 11:55 PM, Jacek Caban wrote: , Signed-off-by: Jacek Caban ,jacek at codeweavers.com, , --- , dlls/dmusic/tests/dmusic.c , 8 +++++++- , 1 file changed, 7 insertions(+), 1 deletion(-) , , ...
Severity: Warning. Message: strpos() expects parameter 1 to be string, array given. Filename: helpers/form_helper.php. Line Number: 74. Backtrace:. File: /var/www/html/manipalhospitals.com/application/views/templates/includes/footer. ...
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As much as 90% of an intravenously (i.v.) injected dose of adenovirus serotype 5 (Ad5) is absorbed and destroyed by liver Kupffer cells. Viruses that escape these cells can then transduce hepatocytes after binding factor X (FX). Given that interactions with FX and Kupffer cells are thought to occur on the Ad5 hexon protein, we replaced its exposed hypervariable regions (HVR) with those from Ad6. When tested in vivo in BALB/c mice and in hamsters, the Ad5/6 chimera mediated |10 times higher transduction in the liver. This effect was not due to changes in FX binding. Rather, Ad5/6 appeared to escape Kupffer cell uptake as evidenced by producing no Kupffer cell death in vivo, not requiring predosing in vivo, and being phagocytosed less efficiently by macrophages in vitro compared to Ad5. When tested as a helper-dependent adenovirus (Ad) vector, Ad5/6 mediated higher luciferase and factor IX transgene expression than either helper-dependent adenoviral 5 (HD-Ad5) or HD-Ad6 vectors. These data suggest that
By using the hepatitis C virus (HCV) genotype 2a JFH-1 or its chimeric strains, a HCV infection system has been previously developed through several methods- such as in vitro-transcribed JFH1-RNA transfection or stable transfection of the JFH1 cDNA into human hepatoma Huh-7 cell line or its derivatives. However, other reliable methods for delivery of the HCV genome into cells are still worth trying. The helper-dependent adenovirus (HDAd) is devoid of all viral coding sequences and has a package capacity of 37 kb, which is suitably large for the delivery of the HCV genome. Here we report a new method for delivery of the HCV genome into Huh-7 and HepG2 cells by using the HDAd vector. Our results demonstrated that the infection of Huh-7 cells with the HDAdJFH1 virus led to efficient HCV replication and virion production. We found that the HCV viral RNA levels could reach 107 copies per milliliter (ml) in the culture medium. HDAdJFH1-infected Huh-7 cells could be cultured for 8 passages with the culture
A helper dependent virus also termed a gutless virus is a synthetic viral vector dependent on the assistance of a helper virus in order to replicate. Hepatitis D virus (HDV) is an example of a replication defective, helper dependent ssRNA virus because it requires Hepatitis B virus (HBV) to provide HBV surface antigen (HBsAg) for the encapsidation of its genome. The envelope proteins on the outer surface of HDV are entirely provided by HBV. Since the genome of the gutless virus does not include genes encoding the enzymes and/or structural proteins required to replicate, it is deemed safe for use in gene therapy since an infection cannot occur except in the presence of a suitable helper virus. Well established protocols allow scientists to propagate helper dependent viruses in the lab. However, using an actual helper virus poses problems when it comes to purification of a desired transgenic virus. Therefore, lab methods often utilize minimal fragments of the helper DNA that can serve this purpose ...
The avian myeloblastosis virus (AMV) is an alpha retrovirus responsible for acute myeloblastic leukemia (AML) when injected in ovo, or in newly hatched chickens [10]. Early in vitro dose response experiments indicated that the production of virion with leukemogenic potential required a double infection with AMV and a helper virus [11]. The AMV strains that are used and commercially available, are derived from the orignal BAI strain A purified from chicken leukemic plasma [12]. Leukemic plasma containing the BAI strain has been widely distributed for many years by Life Sciences Inc., in Florida which has been the official provider of national agencies in the USA. The Standard AMV-S BAI strain is a complex mixture of viruses that also includes two helper viruses in addition to AMV. The helper viruses Myeoloblastosis Associated Virus (MAV) contained in AMV-S belong to two different serological subgoups (type1 and type2, also called A and B). Both of them are oncogenic [13].. Both MAV-1 and MAV-2 ...
Description: The AAV Helper Free System produces recombinant AAV containing your gene of interest without the need to use a helper adenovirus. The adenoviral genes required for proper AAV packaging are provided in the pHelper plasmid (E2A, E4 and VA RNA) or in the 293 packaging cells (E1). AAV Helper Free Complete Expression Systems are available for native serotypes 1 through 6, as well as the novel AAV-DJ and AAV-DJ/8. The AAV-DJ system provides a hybrid capsid created by DNA shuffling technology combining 8 different native serotypes: AAV-2, AAV-4, AAV-5, AAV-8, AAV-9, avian AAV, bovine AAV, and caprine AAV. The result is a highly infectious vector that can transduce a wide variety of cells and tissues at significantly higher rates than AAV-2. AAV-DJ/8 was created by making a point mutation in the heparin binding domain of AAV-DJ. Recombinant AAV produced from the AAV-DJ/8 system closely resembles AAV-8 and AAV-9 in its ability to infect heart and brain tissues ...
I see posts about 3/8 stuffer tubes for sticks being hard to find. LEM makes several versions for different stuffers, and they constantly seem to be...
Naviaux, R.K., Costanzi, E., Haas, M. and Verma, I.M. (1996) The pCL Vector System Rapid Production of Helper-Free, High-Titer, Recombinant Retroviruses. Journal of Virology, 70, 5701-5705.
We think that AAV2 recognizes that the cancers cells are unusual and destroys them. This suggests that AAV2 has great potential to end up being created as an anti-cancer agent. The analysis was presented June 20, 2005, at the 24th annual conference of the American Society for Virology kept June 18-22 at Penn State, University Park campus. Although the nice reason remains unclear, population-based studies show that folks who carry AAV2 usually do not develop human being papillomavirus - associated cervical cancer. Generally, AAV2 needs association with a helper virus in order to replicate. When it discovers a helper virus, such as for example HPV, AAV2 disrupts the full life cycle of the host and induces apoptosis, a kind of cell death. Actually without co-mingling with another virus, AAV2 appears to be able to infect and communicate itself in other types of malignancy cells also disrupting their ability to survive and inducing cell loss of life, Meyers said. Read More →. ...
There are 350 calories in 1 serving, 1/4 piece of DoubleDaves Pizzaworks Chicken Parmesan Stuffer. Youd need to walk 92 minutes to burn 350 calories. Visit CalorieKing to see calorie count and nutrient data for all portion sizes.
Shop for jerky and sausage making supplies, including sausage stuffers and machines, at Academy Sports + Outdoors. Free shipping with select orders.
Before putting a halt on your holiday shopping, you might want to double check your list because these stocking stuffers are everything!
We always get excited when we receive big gifts but hey mini stocking stuffers are where the real fun is at. Today Ive rounded up some treats...
Sprent, J, Restricted helper function of f1 hybrid t cells positively selected to heterologous erythrocytes in irradiated parental strain mice. I. Failure to collaborate with b cells of the opposite parental strain not associated with active suppression. (1978). Subject Strain Bibliography 1978. 1860 ...
Welcome to Morsel by Plated, your go-to culinary destination for easy and satisfying weeknight recipes, cooking tips and tricks, and insight into all things delicious.
On top of that we hardly leave the bAbies behind. Whenever hubster and I go out, the bAbies tag along.. And I myself will put them to sleep whenever they wanna have their nap during the day. And also I put them to sleep at night.. So basically she NEED NOT cook us meal coz my moms maid will do so. And as for my bAbies meal, not much work need to be done....just dump everything in the slow cooker. She NEED NOT clean the entire house but only two rooms (nursery cum tv room and our bedroom). She NEED NOT water the plants outside nor do any gardening. She NEED NOT help with any marketing, going to the market and siang ikan, and all those barang basah.. So those with helper, does ur helper do more work than mine? What are the other jobscope does ur helper need to do? And what time does your helper goes to bed?. If you think mine is under uterlized...how do I make it known to her that she should feel fortunate with her jobscope??. And btw were paying her RM500 a month.. ...
Searching for safe and virus-free Jigsaw Puzzle downloads? Visit our downloadable Jigsaw Puzzles page, play the quality Free Versions and have fun!
Searching for safe and virus-free Jigsaw Puzzle downloads? Visit our downloadable Jigsaw Puzzles page, play the quality Free Versions and have fun!
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The average farm helper salary in the United States is $23,397 or an equivalent hourly rate of $11. Salary estimates based on salary survey data collected directly from employers and anonymous employees in the United States
GNU Hosting Helper is a web hosting control panel and management system. Managing multiple servers from a single admininstration and client point.…
Reversibility and adjustability of macrolide-responsive SEAP expression in HT-1080 and MCF-7 transduced by transgenic AAV type 2-derived particles. (A) HT-1080
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Frankel, A E.; Gilbert, J H.; and Fischinger, P J., Effect of helper virus on the number of murine sarcoma virus dna copies in infected mammalian cells. (1977). Subject Strain Bibliography 1977. 1156 ...
We have previously described avian leukosis virus-based packaging cell lines that express gag, pol, and env proteins from two transcomplementing genomes and produce helper-free stocks of retroviral vectors with different host ranges. In this report, we demonstrated that (i) despite the deletion of the psi packaging sequence, the packaging-defective transcomplementing retroviral transcripts were packaged into virions at a level that could reach 2.3% of a wild-type virus packaging level and (ii) despite deletion of the 3 LTR, these genomes were transferred along with the vector to target cells. As these genomes were also bearing a selectable gene, titers of the resulting contaminant particles could be estimated, depending on the cell line to be between 0 and 6 infectious particles/ml of supernatant.
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Virusoids are circular single-stranded RNAs dependent on plant viruses for replication and encapsidation. The genome of virusoids consist of several hundred nucleotides and does not code for any proteins. Virusoids are essentially viroids that have been encapsulated by a helper virus coat protein. They are thus similar to viroids in their means of replication (rolling circle replication), but they differ in that viroids do not possess a protein coat. Virusoids, while being studied in virology, are subviral particles rather than viruses. Since they depend on helper viruses, they are classified as satellites. In the virological taxonomy they appear as Satellites/Satellite nucleic acids/Subgroup 3: Circular satellite RNAs. The term virusoid is also sometimes used more generally to refer to all satellites. Symons RH (1991). The intriguing viroids and virusoids: what is their information content and how did they evolve? (PDF). Mol. Plant Microbe Interact. 4 (2): 111-21. doi:10.1094/MPMI-4-111. PMID ...
Find Pillow Bag Packaging System with Computer Multihead Weigher for Safety Pin from China Manufacturer, Manufactory, Factory and Supplier - Guangdong Kenwei Intellectualized Machinery Co., Ltd. on ECVV.com
Once you start making your own homemade sausage, your going to want to get a sausage stuffer. You will find that most of the homemade sausage recipes you choose to make will require the sausage to be stuffed into casings. When it comes to sausage stuffers there are many kinds to choose from. You can use a small manual type to push the sausage into your casings or you can go with the larger manual stuffer. It all depends on the amount of sausage you are going to be stuffing at a time, and the amount of money you would like to spend.. Small manual sausage stuffers are a great option if your making a small amount of homemade sausage at a time. These can typically make about three pounds of sausage at a time. They are made from stainless steel, aluminum, or cast iron which makes them all easy to clean after you make your homemade sausage. The best feature of these small sausage stuffers is the price. They typically can be purchasedfor about $50. Not a bad option, especially if youre just starting ...
DNA fragments (seeds) having the characteristics of amplicons, which are useful for amplifying genes of interest, have been isolated from Mareks disease viruses of poultry. Concatmers of the seeds and the associated genes have potential as vaccines or delivery vectors when cotransfected and replicated in the presence of helper viruses. The amplicons are also useful for inserting associated genes into the helper viruses, which in turn could be used as expression vectors. Candidate genes for use with the subject amplicons include those which encode immunogenic proteins and other beneficial economic traits desired in commercial poultry lines.
In addition, there are specific warnings for products in the following categories:. Electrical Cords (may be found on some travel accessories). California requires the following notice:. WARNING: The wires of some products may contain chemicals known to the State of California to cause cancer and birth defects or other reproductive harm. Wash hands after handling.. Beauty Products (containing progesterone). California requires the following notice on beauty and skin care products that contain progesterone:. WARNING: Certain beauty products may contain progesterone, a chemical known to the State of California to cause cancer. Consult with your physician before using this product.. This is not a complete description of California Prop 65. For a complete listing, visit www.oehha.org/prop65.html ...
This patent search tool allows you not only to search the PCT database of about 2 million International Applications but also the worldwide patent collections. This search facility features: flexible search syntax; automatic word stemming and relevance ranking; as well as graphical results.
Stefan Monnier ,[email protected], writes: ,, Is this a bug in package.el or is it an oversight in the Elisp manual? , , I think its a bug. OK, Ill write a bug report. Thanks Dieter -- Best wishes H. Dieter Wilhelm Zwingenberg, Germany ...
Satellites are subviral agents that differ from viroids because they depend on the presence of a helper virus for their propagation.
Building on the basic strategy above, we describe methods for labeling inputs to specific cell types by considering the case in which starter cells are accessed using cell type-specific Cre driver lines. This is the most widespread approach and this example illustrates mechanisms underlying trade-offs between selectivity and efficiency; similar considerations apply to other approaches.. Numerous mouse lines are available that express Cre recombinase selectively in cell types of interest. To label the direct monosynaptic inputs to Cre+ neurons, Cre-dependent expression of G and TVA first need to be generated in the desired starter cell population (Fig. 2). This has been done by either infecting neurons in the desired starter cell location with a Cre-dependent helper virus (Figure 2; Wall et al., 2010; among many other publications cited previously), or by crossing the Cre driver line with a responder mouse line that has Cre-dependent expression of TVA and G (Li et al., 2013; Takatoh et al., 2013; ...
During the 1960s and 1970s, a great deal of research was done on a class of viruses that affects rodents and birds and causes tumors in those species. The motivation for a lot of this research was the idea that similar viruses might cause tumors in humans, but in fact its turned out that there are very few viruses that cause tumors in humans. Nevertheless, the study of these rodent viruses has been enormously fruitful in helping us to understand human cancer, and thats the basis of this story. One of the viruses that was studied in those years had two peculiarities. One was that it had lost most of the genes that it needed to reproduce itself. It could only reproduce if a helper virus was present in the same cell to supply the missing functions. The second peculiarity was that in place of the genes that were required for reproduction of the virus was another gene that had actually been picked up at some point in the history of this virus when it went through rats, and it picked up a rat gene ...
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Page 1 of 2 - Helper.dll [RESOLVED] - posted in Virus, Spyware, Malware Removal: Upon rebooting I was greeted with a helper.dll folder. I ran malwarebyes and when rebooting I still had the helper folder only now the .dll was helper.sig. Below is my HijackThis log and my malwarebytes log.Logfile of Trend Micro HijackThis v2.0.2Scan saved at 11:17:18 AM, on 8/28/2008Platform: Windows XP SP2 (WinNT 5.01.2600)MSIE: Internet Explorer v7.00 (7.00.5730.0011)Boot mode: NormalRunning processes:C:...
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In business since 1993, we have developed unsurpassed knowledge about transit cases and foam packaging systems. We are serious about our work and proud of our expertise and product quality.. ...
While playing around with the packaging system, I kept running into , one problem: losing my dynamic libraries. My guess: set up an /etc/ld.so.conf listing the directories where you have your other shared libraries and I think this problem will disappear. Because you *do* run a new enough system that ldconfig reads this file by itself, dont you? - H=E5vard ...
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PATCH v2] builtins + test helpers: use return instead of exit() in cmd_* 2021-06-07 11:12 [PATCH] builtins + test helpers: use return instead of exit() in cmd_* Ævar Arnfjörð Bjarmason 2021-06-07 17:02 ` Felipe Contreras 2021-06-08 6:49 ` Jeff King @ 2021-06-08 10:48 ` Ævar Arnfjörð Bjarmason 2021-06-08 23:55 ` Junio C Hamano 2 siblings, 1 reply; 10+ messages in thread From: Ævar Arnfjörð Bjarmason @ 2021-06-08 10:48 UTC (permalink / raw) To: git Cc: Junio C Hamano, Felipe Contreras, Jeff King, Ævar Arnfjörð Bjarmason Change various cmd_* functions that claim no return an int to use return instead of exit() to indicate an exit code. These were not marked with NORETURN, and by directly exit()-ing well skip the cleanup git.c would otherwise do (e.g. closing fds, erroring if we cant). See run_builtin() in git.c. In the case of shell.c and sh-i18n--envsubst.c this was the result of an incomplete migration to using a cmd_main() in 3f2e2297b9 (add an extra level of indirection to ...
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Searching for last-minute stocking stuffers? How about books for your pet-loving friends and relatives, or maybe as presents to yourself?…. ...
Dicerna Pharmaceuticals Inc (NASDAQ:DRNA) was the recipient of a large drop in short interest in January. As of January 31st, there was short interest totalling 335,400 shares, a drop of 52.7% from the January 12th total of 708,676 shares. Based on an average daily trading volume, of 502,823 shares, the days-to-cover ratio is presently 0.7 […]
Adecco has a job for Helper Coordinator (10:00am to 7:00pm), 576181819 in Gainesville, FL. View job details and apply for the job.
Checking email for viruses is typically the domain of the SMTP gateway or a server directly downstream of it. In this months column, Charly decide...
In order to test styled-components, you simply have to extract their logic out into helper functions and then test those. In this video, look at an example of how to do this.
T-rakud, mis reageerides makrofaagide poolt eksponeeritavale antigeenile, stimuleerivad B- ja T-lümfotsüüte, et neist areneksid vastavalt antikehasid moodustavad plasmarakud ja tapja-T-rakud.. ...
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Helper for rendering a template fragment in its own variable scope; iterates over data provided and renders for each iteration.. ...
... a group of small DNA viruses that infect protists and require a helper virus to replicate; they are a type of satellite virus. ... Zamilon is restricted in its range of helper viruses; it can be supported by viruses from Mimivirus-like Mimiviridae lineages B ... Although the helper virus formed a high proportion of abnormal virions in the presence of Zamilon, these were also observed at ... Zamilon does not appear to inhibit the ability of its helper virus to replicate significantly, nor to lyse its host amoebae ...
They are only limited by the virus they must infect with, also known as the helper virus. These helper viruses are necessary ... A common helper virus in humans is the adenovirus.[citation needed] Dependoparvovirus is not infectious enough to trigger an ... viruses because they cannot replicate productively in their host cell without the cell being coinfected by a helper virus such ... Dependoparvovirus (formerly Dependovirus or Adeno-associated virus group) is a genus in the subfamily Parvovirinae of the virus ...
Plant satellite RNAs and virusoids depend on their respective helper viruses for replication, while the helper viruses ... Virusoids, while being studied in virology, are subviral particles rather than viruses. Since they depend on helper viruses, ... and supported by a helper virus (Hepatitis B virus) to form virions; however, they possess a much larger genome size (~1700 nt ... Virusoids are essentially viroids that have been encapsulated by a helper virus coat protein. They are thus similar to viroids ...
... which only work with a helper virus such as adenovirus. Other viruses that can infect without helper viruses are called as ... Autonomous Parvoviruses do not require a helper virus like dependoviruses. The virus B19 was discovered in blood serum and ... They are classified as group II viruses in the Baltimore classification of viruses. Parvoviruses are among the smallest viruses ... Dependoviruses require helper viruses (e.g. herpesviruses) to replicate. They are also perfect candidates as gene vectors. They ...
Virophages are viruses that replicate only when host cells are co-infected with helper viruses. Following co-infection, helper ... The replication of virophages can negatively impact the replication of helper viruses. Sputnik and mavirus are examples of ... Prophages are genomes of bacteriophages (a type of virus) that are inserted into bacterial chromosomes; prophages can then be ... Miller DW, Miller LK (October 1982). "A virus mutant with an insertion of a copia-like transposable element". Nature. 299 (5883 ...
"Role of T-Helper 9 Cells in Chronic Hepatitis C-Infected Patients". Viruses. 10 (7): 341. doi:10.3390/v10070341. PMC 6071239. ... In cell biology, TH9 cells (T helper type 9 cells, CD4+IL-9+IL-13−IFNγ − ) are a sub-population of CD4+T cells that produce ... Kaplan, Mark H.; Hufford, Matthew M.; Olson, Matthew R. (May 2015). "The development and in vivo function of T helper 9 cells ... GATA-3 in TH9 cells development represses transcriptional factor FOXP3, which would other wise let to other T helper cell ...
The main use of BOSC 23 is the production of recombinant retroviruses; it stably expresses Moloney murine leukemia virus ... "Production of high-titer helper-free retroviruses by transient transfection". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA. 90 (18): 8392-8396. ... The cell line does not produce detectable replication-competent virus, an important safety feature. BOSC 23 carries neomycin/ ...
Luteoviruses can act as helper viruses for Umbraviruses, providing them with a coat protein. Viral replication is cytoplasmic. ... rosette assistor virus Indonesian soybean dwarf virus Sweet potato leaf speckling virus Tobacco necrotic dwarf virus Viruses in ... Barley yellow dwarf virus GPV Barley yellow dwarf virus SGV Chickenpea stunt disease associated virus Groundnut ... The virus exits the host cell by tubule-guided viral movement. Plants serve as the natural host. The virus is transmitted via a ...
... are completely dependent on a helper virus for replication. The symbiotic relationship between a satellite and a helper virus ... The tobacco necrosis virus was the virus that led to the discovery of the first satellite virus in 1962. Scientists discovered ... virus satellite RNA Tomato black ring virus satellite RNA Beet ringspot virus satellite RNA Beet necrotic yellow vein virus ... mosaic virus small satellite RNA Peanut stunt virus satellite RNA Turnip crinkle virus satellite RNA Tomato bushy stunt virus ...
MANZER FE; MERRIAM, DC; HELPER, PR. 1978. Effects of Potato virus S and two strains of Potato virus X on yield of Russet ... Description of plant viruses: Potato virus S. Surrey, England: Commonw. Mycol. Inst. /Assoc.Appl.Biol.,Kew. 60p. WRIGTH, N.S. ... Combined effects Potato viruses X and S on yield of Netted Gem and White Rose potatoes. American Potato Journal. 47:475-478.. ... Potato virus S. In: STEVENSON, W.R. et al. (Ed.). Compendium of potato diseases. 2.ed. St Paul,. 67p. ...
Helper T-cells require a much milder activation stimulus than cytotoxic T cells. Helper T cells can provide extra signals that ... "The Viruses That Make Us: A Role For Endogenous Retrovirus In The Evolution Of Placental Species". University of California, ... Helper T cells express T cell receptors (TCR) that recognize antigen bound to Class II MHC molecules. The activation of a naive ... Follicular helper T (Tfh) cells are another distinct population of effector CD4+ T cells that develop from naive T cells post- ...
They called it "Hepatitis Delta Virus" (HDV). This new virus was found to be defective. HDV needed HBV to act as a helper ... Agents of this virus resemble that of plant viroids. It is still hard to tell how many stereotypes exist because HDV is under ... Flu viruses can be directly transmitted (via droplets from sneezing or coughing) from pigs to people, and vice versa. These ... Human Immunodeficiency virus (HIV) can cause AIDS which is an acronym for Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS), a ...
It is a satellite virus, requiring P2-related helper phage to grow lytically. The P4 virion has a tail and an icosahedral head ... It is a satellite virus which cannot engage in lytic growth without the presence of a P2-related helper phage. It generally ... Enterobacteria phage P4 (also known as satellite phage P4) is a temperate bacteriophage strain of species Escherichia virus P2 ... Christie, GE; Calendar, R (1990). "Interactions between satellite bacteriophage P4 and its helpers". Annual Review of Genetics ...
October 2002). "Subcellular Location of the Helper Component-Proteinase of Cowpea Aphid-Borne Mosaic Virus". Virus Genes. 25 (2 ... Her main area of research has been viruses which attack the cowpea, one of the major food crops of Zimbabwe. Idah Sithole was ... Returning to Zimbabwe, she became a Lecturer at the University of Zimbabwe in 1992 on viruses which infect plants. Her chief ... When she was awarded a USAID Fellowship in 1983, Sithole chose to continued her education, studying plant and virus genetics. ...
"Chimeric retroviral helper virus and picornavirus IRES sequence to eliminate DNA methylation for improved retroviral packaging ... As an example, SPA targeting to the host factor LSF, which represses expression of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) type ... "Targeted derepression of the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 long terminal repeat by pyrrole-imidazole polyamides". J. ...
Key features of replication include no helper virus required and no proteins are encoded for. Unlike the other family of ... "ICTV Virus Taxonomy Profile: Avsunviroidae". The Journal of General Virology. 99 (5): 611-612. doi:10.1099/jgv.0.001045. PMID ... retrieved 2007-03-16 Description of Plant Viruses- Avsunviroidae, retrieved 2007-03-16 STUDIES ON CATALYTIC RNA MOLECULES ...
His lab has done major work on the regulation and proliferation of follicular helper T cells, as well as immunological ... Crotty S, Cameron CE, Andino R (2001). "RNA virus error catastrophe: Direct molecular test by using ribavirin". Proceedings of ... the virus that causes COVID-19, and later confirmed that the adaptive immune response is lasting. In 2020, Crotty joined the ... Crotty has warned that this T cell immunity does not equal protection against the virus. Choi YS, Kageyama R, Eto D, Escobar TC ...
Viruses like Sputnik that depend on co-infection of the host cell by helper viruses are known as satellite viruses. At its ... Sputnik uses the helper virus's machinery for reproduction and inhibits replication of the helper virus. It is known as a ... was the first known satellite virus that inhibited replication of its helper virus and thus acted as a parasite of that virus. ... is a subviral agent that reproduces in amoeba cells that are already infected by a certain helper virus; ...
Virus tropism Virus factors Host factors Virus tropism refers to the virus' preferential site of replication in discrete cell ... The primary cause of immunosuppression in HIV patients is due to the depletion of CD4+ T helper cells. Interestingly, ... varicella zoster virus), smallpox (variola), HIV (human immunodeficiency virus). A minority of viruses can disseminate via the ... For a virus to successfully infect and cause disease in the host, it has to encode specific virus factors in its genome to ...
"Pathogenetic effector function of CD4-positive T helper 1 cells in hepatitis B virus transgenic mice". Journal of Immunology. ... They altered the DNA of cowpox virus by inserting a gene from other viruses (namely Herpes simplex virus, hepatitis B and ... The Sindbis virus and Semliki Forest virus have been used to build recombinant alphavirus replicons. Unlike conventional DNA ... activity of vaccinia virus recombinants expressing the hepatitis B virus surface antigen and the herpes simplex virus ...
CD4+ helper T cells: T cells displaying co-receptor CD4 are known as CD4+ T cells. These cells have T-cell receptors and CD4 ... CD8+ cytotoxic T cells: virus-infected and tumor cells.. *γδ T cells: bridge between innate and adaptive immune responses; ... Helper T cells make cytokines and perform other functions that help coordinate the immune response. In HIV infection, these T ... Natural killer cells: virus-infected and tumor cells.. Deeply staining, eccentric. NK-cells and cytotoxic (CD8+) T-cells. Years ...
virus receptor activity. • protein binding. • transmembrane signaling receptor activity. • identical protein binding. ... T-helper 1 cell cytokine production. • negative regulation of interferon-gamma secretion. • negative regulation of interleukin- ... Tatsuo H, Ono N, Tanaka K, Yanagi Y (2000). "SLAM (CDw150) is a cellular receptor for measles virus". Nature. 406 (6798): 893-7 ... to measles virus (MV) depends on their activation stages in conjunction with the level of CDw150: role of Toll stimulators in ...
... fibroblasts by cloned Abelson murine leukemia virus DNA and recovery of transmissible virus by recombination with helper virus ... In Weinberg's lab, Tabin constructed murine leukemia virus, the first recombinant retrovirus that could be used as a eukaryotic ... "Human EJ bladder carcinoma oncogene is homologue of Harvey sarcoma virus ras gene". Nature. 297 (5866): 474-8. Bibcode: ...
However, because viral vectors frequently are lacking infectious sequences, they require helper viruses or packaging lines for ... Viral vectors are generally genetically engineered viruses carrying modified viral DNA or RNA that has been rendered ... the murine mammary tumor virus promoter only initiates transcription after dexamethasone application and the Drosophilia heat ...
Although they are sometimes considered genetic elements of their helper viruses, they are not always found within their helper ... Eugene Koonin, Valerian V Doljja (2014). Virus World as an Evolutionary Network of Viruses and Capsidless Selfish Elements. ... which are encapsidated as a stowaway in the virions of certain helper viruses and which depend on these to be able to replicate ... Viruses: They are viral agents composed of a molecule of genetic material (DNA or RNA) and with the ability to form complex ...
"Proviral Integration Site for Moloney Murine Leukemia Virus (PIM) Kinases Promote Human T Helper 1 Cell Differentiation". The ... PIM2 or Proviral Integrations of Moloney virus 2 is serine/threonine kinase that has roles in cell growth, proliferation, ... "Pim kinases are upregulated during Epstein-Barr virus infection and enhance EBNA2 activity". Virology. 333 (2): 201-6. doi: ...
... caused by the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). HIV directly infects a small number of T helper cells, and also impairs other ...
The Morocco Virus (voiced by Greg Ellis) is a sentient computer virus that manifests in the form of Dr. Morocco and was hidden ... Servo is a dog-like Autobot Helper-Bot that is kept in High Tide's chest compartment. He can transform himself depending on ... However, the Rescue Team is able to defeat the Morocco Virus by beating the game, only for the Virus to use a 3D printer to ... Quickshadow also helps the Rescue Team chase down the Morocco virus but is unable to catch it. After the Morocco Virus is ...
A DIP can usually still penetrate host cells, but requires another fully functional virus particle (the 'helper' virus) to co- ... in which the various regions may come from the same helper virus genome but in the wrong order; from different helper genome ... deficient rabies virus defective interfering particle RNA is replicated and transcribed by heterologous helper virus L proteins ... This also provides the virus with more time to spread and infect new hosts. DIP generation is regulated within viruses: the ...
Hepatitis B Virus-Specific CD8+ T Cells Maintain Functional Exhaustion after Antigen Reexposure in an Acute Activation Immune ... Modulation of autoimmune diseases by interleukin (IL)-17 producing regulatory T helper (Th17) cells. The Indian Journal of ... Role of regulatory T cells during virus infection. Immunological Reviews. September 2013, 255 (1): 182-96. PMC 3748387. PMID ... Cell-intrinsic transforming growth factor-beta signaling mediates virus-specific CD8+ T cell deletion and viral persistence in ...
Type 1 diabetes has a risk associated with coxsackie 4B virus, there is a potential for involvement of class I loci, ... The association with class I would be unusual since T-helper mediated autoantibody production is characteristic of disease, ...
... reduction in the CD4+/CD8+ ratio impaired development of CD4+ T follicular helper cells, which are specialized in facilitating ... envisaged as the result of the continuous challenge of the unavoidable exposure to a variety of antigens such as viruses and ...
... herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) - herpes simplex virus 2 (HSV-2) - herpes varicella zoster virus (VZV) - herpes viruses - highly ... helper T cells - helper/suppressor ratio (of T cells) - hematocrit - hematotoxic - hemoglobin - hemolysis - hemophilia - ... human papilloma virus (HPV) - human T cell lymphotropic virus type I (HTLV-I) - human T cell lymphotropic virus type II (HTLV- ... human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) - human immunodeficiency virus type 2 (HIV-2) - human leukocyte antigens (HLA) - ...
CD4+ helper T cells: T cells displaying co-receptor CD4 are known as CD4+ T cells. These cells have T-cell receptors and CD4 ... CD8+ cytotoxic T cells: virus-infected and tumor cells.. *γδ T cells: bridge between innate and adaptive immune responses; ... Helper T cells make cytokines and perform other functions that help coordinate the immune response. In HIV infection, these T ... Natural killer cells: virus-infected and tumor cells.. Deeply staining, eccentric. NK-cells and cytotoxic (CD8+) T-cells. Years ...
Helper virus. *Laboratory diagnosis of viral infections. *Viral load. *Virus-like particle ... Such viruses are either single stranded RNA (e.g. HIV) or double stranded DNA (e.g. Hepatitis B virus) viruses. ... Genus Betaretrovirus; type species: Mouse mammary tumour virus. *Genus Gammaretrovirus; type species: Murine leukemia virus; ... "Virus Taxonomy: 2018b Release" (html). International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses (ICTV). March 2019. Retrieved 16 March ...
T-helper 17 cell lineage commitment. • regulation of immune response. • natural killer cell differentiation. ... a novel SH2D1A-associated surface molecule contributing to the inability of natural killer cells to kill Epstein-Barr virus- ... "Human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 (HTLV-1) p12I down-modulates ICAM-1 and -2 and reduces adherence of natural killer cells, ...
Helper-virus. dependent. Satellite. *ssRNA satellite virus. *dsDNA satellite virus (Virophage). *ssDNA satellite virus ... In segmented RNA viruses, "mating" can occur when a host cell is infected by at least two virus particles. If these viruses ... Some of the viruses evolved into DNA viruses to protect their genes from attack. Through the process of viral infection into ... Patrick Forterre has been working on a novel hypothesis, called "three viruses, three domains":[83] that viruses were ...
Up to 40,000 individuals were caught and exported for research into those diseases, as well as Epstein-Barr virus, for the ... where helpers take on more of the work. Total care for infants remains constant with varying group size, and infant outcome is ...
For virus-associated tumors, such as cervical cancer and a subset of head and neck cancers, epitopes derived from viral open ... APCs then present the fragments to T helper cells (CD4+) by the use of class II histocompatibility molecules on their surface. ... This includes parts (coats, capsules, cell walls, flagella, fimbriae, and toxins) of bacteria, viruses, and other ... Some antigens start out as exogenous, and later become endogenous (for example, intracellular viruses). Intracellular antigens ...
Glavni zabrinjavajući patogeni T limfocita uključuju intracelularne patogene, kao što su Herpes simplex virus, Mycobacterium i ... Helper T ćelije postaju aktivne kada se prezentiraju peptidnim antigenima molekula MHC II klase, koje se ispoljavaju na ... 17 producing regulatory T helper (Th17) cells". Indian J. Med. Res. 138 (5): 591-4. PMC 3928692 . PMID 24434314.. ...
In non-persistent and semi-persistent viruses, these domains are in the coat protein and another protein known as the helper ... Plant viruses are viruses that affect plants. Like all other viruses, plant viruses are obligate intracellular parasites that ... The first virus to be discovered (see below) was Tobacco mosaic virus (TMV). This and other viruses cause an estimated US$60 ... Generally TMV, potato viruses and cucumber mosaic viruses are transmitted via sap. Plant viruses need to be transmitted by a ...
Helper virus. *Laboratory diagnosis of viral infections. *Viral load. *Virus-like particle ... In influenza viruses[edit]. In the influenza virus, the two relevant antigens are the surface proteins, hemagglutinin and ... Antigenic drift occurs in both influenza A and influenza B viruses.. The immune system recognizes viruses when antigens on the ... All influenza viruses experience some form of antigenic drift, but it is most pronounced in the influenza A virus. ...
Helper virus. *Laboratory diagnosis of viral infections. *Viral load. *Virus-like particle ... A new virus has been described in fish - White sucker hepatitis B virus.[3] This is the first hepadnavirus described from fish ... "Virus Taxonomy: 2014 Release". Retrieved 15 June 2015.. *^ Hahn CM, Iwanowicz LR, Cornman RS, Conway CM, Winton JR, Blazer VS ( ... "Deciphering the Origin and Evolution of Hepatitis B Viruses by Means of a Family of Non-enveloped Fish Viruses". Cell Host & ...
Spurred into action, the DC picks up the antigen and speeds to a lymph node, where it sticks tightly to a helper T cell and ... Some studies found that DNA from dying cells causes them to adhere more tightly to helper T cells which ultimately leads to an ... inducing greater release of danger signals by chemokine releasing cells such as helper T cells and mast cells. ...
Nassar GM, Montero A, Fukunaga M, Badr KF (1997). "Contrasting effects of proinflammatory and T-helper lymphocyte subset-2 ... and decreased survival in experimental models of respiratory syncytial virus disease, Lyme disease, Toxoplasma gondii disease, ... reduces growth and progression of the Lewis carcinoma by recruiting cancer-inhibiting CD4+ T helper cells and CD8+ T Cytotoxic ...
... s are found in all vertebrates, some viruses and some bacteria, but none have been described for other invertebrates. ... "Antibody-mediated blockade of the CXCR3 chemokine receptor results in diminished recruitment of T helper 1 cells into sites of ... Other chemokines are inflammatory and are released from a wide variety of cells in response to bacterial infection, viruses and ... or viruses) and actively participate in the inflammatory response attracting immune cells to the site of inflammation. Examples ...
In this case, the host-cell receptor is envisioned as an internal image of the virus, and the anti-idiotype antibodies can ... Consequently, auto-reactive B cells, that escape deletion, cannot find the antigen or the specific helper T cell.[8] ... Helper T-cells type 1 or type 2. The second category of cytokines, which include IL-4, IL-10 and TGF-β (to name a few), seem to ... can arise as a result of a cross-reaction between the idiotype on an antiviral antibody and a host cell receptor for the virus ...
Cofactors, or coenzymes, are helper molecules which are needed to make an enzyme work. They are not proteins, and may be ... haemagglutinin in the influenza virus is activated by a change in shape. This is caused by the acidic conditions which occur ... The need of enzymes for various little helpers is the basic reason why animals, including ourselves, need trace elements and ...
A virus that causes enlargement of the salivary glands, salivary gland hypertrophy virus (SGHV), is spread among houseflies ... and even the least of these such as tiny Chipmunk and those little insect helpers and mentors of deity and man in the myths, ... "Musca domestica salivary gland hypertrophy virus, a globally distributed insect virus that infects and sterilizes female ...
... which can be overcome by helper adenovirus type 5 virus-associated RNA". Journal of Virology. 81 (21): 11908-16. PMC 2168773. ... "Adeno-associated viruses can induce phosphorylation of eIF2alpha via PKR activation, ...
Then, an immunosuppression state ensues when the proinflammatory T helper cell 1 (TH1) is shifted to TH2,[47] mediated by ... viruses, or parasites.[39] Criteria with regard to hemodynamic compromise or respiratory failure are not useful because they ... viremia for viruses, and fungemia for a fungus.[107] ...
The pathophysiology of HIV/AIDS involves, upon acquisition of the virus, that the virus replicates inside and kills T helper ... discovering details of cell physiology by tracking changes to bacteria upon infection with their viruses, the process ...
Human Immunodeficiency virus uses CCR5 receptor to target and infect host T-cells in humans. It weakens the immune system by ... destroying the CD4+ T-helper cells, making the body more susceptible to other infections. CCR5-Δ32 is an allelic variant of ... Myxoma and variola major belong to the same family of viruses and myxoma has been shown to use CCR5 receptor to enter its host. ... 11] Moreover, Yerisinia is a bacterium which is biologically distinct from viruses and is unlikely to have similar mechanism of ...
Antigens presented on MHC 1 molecules activates CD8+ T cells on keratinocytes or by encounters with activated CD4+ helper T ... Hepatitis C virus-associated diseases. *Autoimmune diseases. *Oral mucosal pathology. Hidden categories: *CS1 maint: Multiple ... and cytokines associated with T-helper 1 immune response, may also pay an important role in the pathogenesis of lichen planus. ... cells or cytokines produced by activated CD4+ helper T cells Activated CD8+ T cells induce keratinocyte apoptosis through ...
Salim AF, Phillips AD, Farthing MJ (1990). "Pathogenesis of gut virus infection". Baillière's Clinical Gastroenterology. 4 (3 ... T-helper cell mediated) response. One protease-resistant peptide from α-gliadin contains a region that stimulates lymphocytes ...
Kumar B, Asha K, Khanna M, Ronsard L, Meseko CA, Sanicas M (April 2018). "The emerging influenza virus threat: status and new ... Asthma is characterized by eosinophil-induced inflammation motivated by a type 2 helper T cell (Th2). By targeting the ... Roy S, Gupta N, Subramanian N, Mondal T, Banerjea AC, Das S (July 2008). "Sequence-specific cleavage of hepatitis C virus RNA ... Kumar B, Rajput R, Pati DR, Khanna M (September 2015). "Potent Intracellular Knock-Down of Influenza A Virus M2 Gene Transcript ...
Th1 and Th2: helper T cell responsesEdit. Classically, two types of effector CD4+ T helper cell responses can be induced by a ... "The Viruses That Make Us: A Role For Endogenous Retrovirus In The Evolution Of Placental Species". University of California, ... Helper T-cells require a much milder activation stimulus than cytotoxic T cells. Helper T cells can provide extra signals that ... 5.2 Helper T-cells *5.2.1 Th1 and Th2: helper T cell responses ... Helper T cells express T cell receptors (TCR) that recognize ...
Determination of the virus clearance studies. Before clinical trials[edit]. *Product safety testing : Sterility (bacteria and ... Affinity maturation occurs in mature B cells after V(D)J recombination, and is dependent on help from helper T cells.[43] ... Circulating antibodies are produced by clonal B cells that specifically respond to only one antigen (an example is a virus ... These antibodies can activate the classical complement pathway leading to lysis of enveloped virus particles long before the ...
Helper T cell IL-2 production is limited by negative feedback and STAT-dependent cytokine signals. „J Exp Med". 204 (1), s. 65- ... Tregs control the development of symptomatic West Nile virus infection in humans and mice. „J Clin Invest". 119 (11), s. 3266- ... Specific suppression of T helper alloreactivity by allo-MHC class I-restricted CD8+CD28- T cells. „Int Immunol". 10 (6), s. 775 ... Regulatory T cells inhibit acute IFN-γ synthesis without blocking T-helper cell type 1 (Th1) differentiation via a ...
A helper virus is a virus that allows an otherwise-deficient coinfecting virus to replicate. These can be naturally occurring ... Helper viruses are also commonly used to replicate and spread viral vectors for gene expression and gene therapy. Helper ... as with Hepatitis D virus, which requires Hepatitis B virus to coinfect cells in order to replicate. ... dependent virus Virophage Graham BS, Crowe JE, Ledgerwood JE (2007). "14 - Immunization Against Viral Diseases". In Knipe DM, ...
A helper dependent virus, also termed a gutless virus, is a synthetic viral vector dependent on the assistance of a helper ... Helper dependent viruses can also occur in nature without being "gutted". The term satellite virus has been given to a large ... Hepatitis D virus (HDV) is an example of a replication defective, helper dependent ssRNA virus because it requires Hepatitis B ... Naturally-occurring satellite viruses are also helper virus dependent, and can sometimes be modified to become viral vectors. ...
Identification of T-helper cell epitopes in the hypervariable region of the nucleocapsid (N) protein of rinderpest virus (RPV) ... It appears that helper T-cell epitope(s) for cattle which can be broadly recognized within an MHC diverse population, exists in ... The proliferative responses to synthetic peptides by lymphocytes derived from rinderpest virus (RPV)-infected cattle, the ... responses were detected to peptides representing amino acids 452-501 in the C-terminal hypervariable region of the virus ...
The T helper cell communicates with many cells, giving instructions to destroy the virus. ... This illustration focuses on some ways T helper cells respond to virus infection. ... This illustration focuses on some ways T helper cells respond to virus infection. The T helper cell communicates with many ...
Conserved hierarchy of helper T cell responses in a chimpanzee during primary and secondary hepatitis C virus infections. J. ... Dominance of the CD4+ T helper cell response during acute resolving hepatitis A virus infection. Yan Zhou, Benoît Callendret, ... Moreover, virus-specific CD4+ T cell responses critical to control of other hepatotropic viruses like HBV and HCV have not yet ... Adaptive immunity to the hepatitis C virus. Adv. Virus Res. 78:43-86. doi:10.1016/B978-0-12-385032-4.00002-1. ...
Characterization of T-helper epitopes of the glycoprotein of vesicular stomatitis virus.. C Burkhart, G Freer, R Castro, L ... The T-helper (Th) cell epitopes in the glycoprotein (GP) of vesicular stomatitis virus serotype Indiana (VSV-IND) were analyzed ... Characterization of T-helper epitopes of the glycoprotein of vesicular stomatitis virus. ... Characterization of T-helper epitopes of the glycoprotein of vesicular stomatitis virus. ...
PubMed journal article T helper 1/T helper 2 cytokine imbalance in respiratory syncytial virus infection is associated with ... T helper 1/T helper 2 cytokine imbalance in respiratory syncytial virus infection is associated with increased endogenous ... "T Helper 1/T Helper 2 Cytokine Imbalance in Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infection Is Associated With Increased Endogenous ... T helper 1/T helper 2 cytokine imbalance in respiratory syncytial virus infection is associated with increased endogenous ...
NIH Awards HIV Grant to Antigen Express for Novel T-Helper Cell-Expanding Virus Vaccine. May 27, 2003 ... before the virus is released into the circulation. In addition to increasing the immunogenecity, T-helper responses also induce ... Boosting the antigen-specific T-helper cell response is critical to getting strong, prompt humoral and cytotoxic T-cell ... Antigen Express scientists have pioneered strategies for enhancing helper T-cell responses to DNA vaccines by controlling the ...
Construction of a helper cell line for avian reticuloendotheliosis virus cloning vectors.. S Watanabe, H M Temin ... Construction of a helper cell line for avian reticuloendotheliosis virus cloning vectors. ... Construction of a helper cell line for avian reticuloendotheliosis virus cloning vectors. ... Construction of a helper cell line for avian reticuloendotheliosis virus cloning vectors. ...
... the vector contains deletions that overlap with deletions in the integrated helper virus DNAs. This helper cell-vector system ... Construction of a helper cell line for avian reticuloendotheliosis virus cloning vectors.. S Watanabe, H M Temin ... Construction of a helper cell line for avian reticuloendotheliosis virus cloning vectors. ... Construction of a helper cell line for avian reticuloendotheliosis virus cloning vectors. ...
Vaccine-Induced, Pseudorabies Virus-Specific, Extrathymic CD4+CD8+ Memory T-Helper Cells in Swine. Bertram T. Ober, Artur ... Vaccine-Induced, Pseudorabies Virus-Specific, Extrathymic CD4+CD8+ Memory T-Helper Cells in Swine ... Vaccine-Induced, Pseudorabies Virus-Specific, Extrathymic CD4+CD8+ Memory T-Helper Cells in Swine ... Vaccine-Induced, Pseudorabies Virus-Specific, Extrathymic CD4+CD8+ Memory T-Helper Cells in Swine ...
We constructed a helper-dependent adenoviral (HDAd) vector expressing a condon-optimized soluble ... Next Document: Easy-to-use rapid gene amplification method for direct detection of RNA and DNA viruses in sera and .... ... We constructed a helper-dependent adenoviral (HDAd) vector expressing a condon-optimized soluble fusion glycoprotein (sFsyn) of ... Sublingual administration of a helper-dependent adenoviral vector expressing the codon-optimized soluble fusion glycoprotein of ...
However, the IL-2-producing helper T lymphocyte (HTL) represents a critical regulatory cell that likely influences the ... Genetic Vaccination-Induced Immune Responses to the Human Immunodeficiency Virus Protein Rev: Emergence of the Interleukin 2- ... Producing Helper T Lymphocyte Chan, Sherri Y.; Louie, Marisa C.; Piccotti, Joseph R.; Iyer, Gaitry; Ling, Xu; Yang, Zhi-Yong; ... "Genetic Vaccination-Induced Immune Responses to the Human Immunodeficiency Virus Protein Rev: Emergence of the Interleukin 2- ...
Here, we provide data on involvement of an MT-associated protein in infection of plants with a potyvirus, Potato virus A (PVA ... outline and maintain the overall shape of cells and can reorganize cellular membranes to serve as sites of RNA virus ... representing the largest family of plant-infecting RNA viruses. Our results showed that helper-component proteinase (HCpro)- ... Virus-induced silencing of HIP2 in Nicotiana benthamiana resulted in a spiral-like growth phenotype, similar to the Arabidopsis ...
Strain specificity of Potato virus Y encoded helper components provides evidences for transmission bias of recombinant strains ... To understand the mechanisms behind this, we separated purified virus and active helper component proteins (HC), mixed them in ... In this case, non-specificity could be due to factors of virus or HC concentration affecting virus binding and release ... In these experiments both viruses were transmitted at higher efficiencies than in the single virus treatments when mixed with ...
Jembrana disease virus, visna virus, caprine arthritis encephalitis virus, HIV-1, and simian immunodeficiency virus. The region ... feline immunodeficiency virus, Jembrana disease virus, visna virus, and caprine arthritis encephalitis virus. PBMC reactivity ... Gag Protein Epitopes Recognized by CD4+ T-Helper Lymphocytes from Equine Infectious Anemia Virus-Infected Carrier Horses. S. M ... Stephens R M, Casey J W, Rice N R. Equine infectious anemia virus gag and pol genes: relatedness to visna and AIDS virus. ...
All structured data from the main and property namespace is available under the Creative Commons CC0 License; text in the other namespaces is available under the Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License; additional terms may apply. By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. ...
Inhibition of T1/St2 during Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infection Prevents T Helper Cell Type 2 (Th2)- but Not Th1-Driven ... Lung Virus Titer.. Clearance of RSV was assessed in lung homogenates on days 2 and 4 after virus challenge. Lungs were removed ... Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is a common cold virus that causes bronchiolitis in infants, killing up to one million ... Mice and Virus Stocks.. 8-10-wk-old female BALB/c mice were purchased from Harlan Olac Ltd. and kept in pathogen-free ...
The human parvovirus Adeno-Associated Virus (AAV) type 2 can only replicate in cells co-infected with a helper virus, such as ... The human parvovirus Adeno-Associated Virus (AAV) type 2 can only replicate in cells co-infected with a helper virus, such as ... Definition of herpes simplex virus type 1 helper activities for adeno-associated virus early replication events ... Definition of herpes simplex virus type 1 helper activities for adeno-associated virus early replication events. PLoS Pathogens ...
Recently, we have shown that monocyte-derived DC (MoDC) from patients with chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection are ... results show that HBV infection compromises the antigen-presenting function of MoDC with concomitant impairment of T helper ... Hepatitis B virus-induced defect of monocyte-derived dendritic cells leads to impaired T helper type 1 response in vitro: ... Hepatitis B virus-induced defect of monocyte-derived dendritic cells leads to impaired T helper type 1 response in vitro: ...
... in the Friend virus complex and the helper-independent mink ... that both the replication-defective spleen focus-forming virus ... viruses derived from AKR-murine leukemia virus (MuLV) are env gene recombinants between ecotropic virus and xenotropic virus. ... Like the previously described AKR-MCF viruses, the Friend MCF viruses are env gene recombinants between an ecotropic virus (F- ... Helper-independent mink cell focus-inducing strains of Friend murine type-C virus: potential relationship to the origin of ...
Influenza virus-specific CD4+ T helper type 2 T lymphocytes do not promote recovery from experimental virus infection. M B ... Influenza virus-specific CD4+ T helper type 2 T lymphocytes do not promote recovery from experimental virus infection.. J Exp ... These data suggest that virus-specific CD4+ T cells of the Th2 subset may not play a primary role in virus clearance and ... To further examine the role of CD4+ T cells in the immune response to influenza infection, we have generated influenza virus- ...
Recent studies have shown that helper-dependent adenoviral (HDAd) vectors may represent effective and safe vaccine vectors. ... Human respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is a serious pediatric pathogen of the lower respiratory tract. Currently, there is no ... Large-scale production of HDAd-Fsyn was achieved by infecting 293Cre4 in 150-mm dishes with crude HDAd-Fsyn and helper virus, ... The cells were infected with E1-E3-deleted helper virus H14 (Microbix) 16 h after transfection. HDAd-Fsyn was amplified by ...
The helper-dependent adenovirus (HDAd) is devoid of all viral coding sequences and has a package capacity of 37 kb, which is ... Our results demonstrated that the infection of Huh-7 cells with the HDAdJFH1 virus led to efficient HCV replication and virion ... Co-infection of HepG2 cells with the HDAdJFH1 and HDAdmiR-122 virus also resulted in HCV expression and replication. This is ... By using the hepatitis C virus (HCV) genotype 2a JFH-1 or its chimeric strains, a HCV infection system has been previously ...
Sources of variability in repeated t-helper lymphocyte counts from human immunodeficiency virus type 1-infected patients: Total ... Sources of variability in repeated t-helper lymphocyte counts from human immunodeficiency virus type 1-infected patients: Total ... T1 - Sources of variability in repeated t-helper lymphocyte counts from human immunodeficiency virus type 1-infected patients ... Sources of variability in repeated t-helper lymphocyte counts from human immunodeficiency virus type 1-infected patients : ...
As in adults, the frequency of circulating effector T-follicular helper cells (TFH) in HIV infected, treatment naïve children ... As in adults, the frequency of circulating effector T-follicular helper cells (TFH) in HIV infected, treatment naïve children ... Induction of Th1-biased T follicular helper (Tfh) cells in lymphoid tissues during chronic simian immunodeficiency virus ... Decreased T follicular regulatory cell/T follicular helper cell (TFH) in simian immunodeficiency virus-infected rhesus macaques ...
1994) Fine specificity of a virus-encoded helper T-cell epitope expressed on FBL-3 tumor cells. J Virol 68:7704-7708, pmid: ... 1993) Multiplicity of virus-encoded helper T-cell epitopes expressed on FBL-3 tumor cells. J Virol 67:4533-4542, pmid:7687300. ... In conclusion, optimal virus or tumor vaccines should preferably contain both antigen-specific CTLs and T helper epitopes. ... 39)) showed protective effects of env-gp70 T helper peptide vaccination against Friend virus, especially by a I-Eb/k-binding ...
Seoul Virus Spread by Pet Rats Under Investigation in Multiple States Teacher Aide Accused of Faking Cancer to Hide Criminal ...
Selected Toll-like Receptor Ligands and Viruses Promote Helper-Independent Cytotoxic T Cell Priming by Upregulating CD40L on ...
Fingerprint Dive into the research topics of Potato virus Y helper component protein is associated with amorphous inclusions ...
  • The proliferative responses to synthetic peptides by lymphocytes derived from rinderpest virus (RPV)-infected cattle, the natural host for RPV, were assayed by determining [3H]thymidine incorporation into the DNA. (nih.gov)
  • These lymphocytes can be subdivided into 2 subsets, T helper 1 (Th1) and Th2, on the basis of the cytokine profiles they synthesize. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • This vaccination was demonstrated to induce extrathymic virus-specific memory CD4 + CD8 + T lymphocytes. (asm.org)
  • Due to their major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II-restricted proliferation, it is generally believed that these T lymphocytes function as memory T-helper cells. (asm.org)
  • The experiments identified the first T-cell epitopes so far known to induce the generation of virus-specific CD4 + CD8 + memory T lymphocytes and showed that CD4 + CD8 + T cells are memory T-helper cells. (asm.org)
  • Antigen-specific T-helper (Th) lymphocytes are critical for the development of antiviral humoral responses and the expansion of cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL). (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Influenza virus-specific CD4+ T helper type 2 T lymphocytes do not promote recovery from experimental virus infection. (rupress.org)
  • In the cellular immune response, specialized APCs process protein and present antigenic peptide fragments in MHC class II molecules to CD4 + T helper lymphocytes. (rupress.org)
  • Jennings, S. R., Bonneau, R. H., Smith, P. M., Wolcott, R. M. & Chervenak, R. CD4-positive T lymphocytes are required for the generation of the primary but not the secondary CD8-positive cytolytic T lymphocyte response to herpes simplex virus in C57BL/6 mice. (nature.com)
  • The capacity of novel subunit vaccines to generate cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) against hepatitis C virus (HCV) was assessed. (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • A research team led by Xian Chang Li, MD, PhD, Brigham and Women's Hospital (BWH) Transplantation Research Center, has shed light on how a population of lymphocytes, called CD4+ T cells, mature into various subsets of adult T helper cells. (medicalxpress.com)
  • IgE production is regulated by CD4 + T helper type 2 (Th-2) lymphocytes, producing interleukin 4 (IL-4) and expressing a ligand for the B cell-specific CD40 molecule (CD40 ligand [L]). A shift to a Th-2-1ike pattern of cytokine secretion has been postulated to be associated with progression toward acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). (wordpress.com)
  • Although HTLV-1 Tax is the most dominant antigen for HTLV-1-specific CD8 + CTLs in HTLV-1-infected individuals, few epitopes recognized by CD4 + helper T lymphocytes in HTLV-1 Tax protein have been described. (elsevier.com)
  • We assessed the ability of the corresponding peptides to elicit helper T-cell responses by in vitro vaccination of purified CD4 + T lymphocytes. (elsevier.com)
  • Abbas AK, Murphy KM, Sher A. Functional diversity of helper T lymphocytes. (springer.com)
  • Sallusto F, Lenig D, Mackay CR, Lanzavecchia A: Flexible programs of chemokine receptor expression on human polarized T helper 1 and 2 lymphocytes. (springer.com)
  • HIV destroys CD4 T lymphocytes (helper T cells). (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • These can be naturally occurring as with Hepatitis D virus, which requires Hepatitis B virus to coinfect cells in order to replicate. (wikipedia.org)
  • This illustration focuses on some ways T helper cells respond to virus infection. (sciencelearn.org.nz)
  • The T helper cell communicates with many cells, giving instructions to destroy the virus. (sciencelearn.org.nz)
  • Because this innate response can regulate the pace and quality of developing cellular immune responses, we characterized the kinetics and function of virus-specific T cells in these animals. (rupress.org)
  • Three Th-cell epitopes in C57BL/6 (H-2b) mice and two epitopes in BALB/c (H-2d) mice were defined by their ability to stimulate in vitro proliferation of virus-primed, CD8+ T-cell-depleted spleen cells in a class II-restricted manner. (asm.org)
  • Antibodies bind to and neutralize infectious viral particles while cytotoxic T-cells attack host cells, which synthesize the virus, before the virus is released into the circulation. (infectioncontroltoday.com)
  • This helper cell-vector system will be useful to derive infectious recombinant virus stocks of high titer (over 10(5) thymidine kinase transforming units per ml) which are able to infect avian, rat, and dog cells without the aid of helper virus. (asm.org)
  • Therefore, this study describes the generation of virus-specific CD4 + CD8 + T cells, which is observed during vaccination, as a part of the potent humoral anti-PRV memory response induced by the vaccine. (asm.org)
  • Microtubules (MT) outline and maintain the overall shape of cells and can reorganize cellular membranes to serve as sites of RNA virus replication. (apsnet.org)
  • The development of immune responses capable of recognizing conserved epitopes expressed on virus and viral-infected cells is critical to the control of virus replication and therefore clinical disease. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Inactivated whole-virus preparations are useful against some diseases, but these vaccines generally do not generate a potent major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I-restricted cytotoxic T-lymphocyte (CTL) response necessary to clear lentiviral-infected cells and are not effective against lentivirus variants ( 15 , 29 ). (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • T cells secreting interleukin (IL)-4 and IL-5 (T helper cell type 2 [Th2] cells) play a detrimental role in a variety of diseases, but specific methods of regulating their activity remain elusive. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Hepatitis B virus-induced defect of monocyte-derived dendritic cells leads to impaired T helper type 1 response in vitro: mechanisms for viral immune escape. (semanticscholar.org)
  • These data suggest that virus-specific CD4+ T cells of the Th2 subset may not play a primary role in virus clearance and recovery and may lead to immune mediated potentiation of injury. (rupress.org)
  • As in adults, the frequency of circulating effector T-follicular helper cells (T FH ) in HIV infected, treatment naïve children correlates with neutralization breadth. (frontiersin.org)
  • This study shows that induction of tumor-specific CD4 + T cells by vaccination with a specific viral T helper epitope, contained within a synthetic peptide, results in protective immunity against major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II negative, virus-induced tumor cells. (rupress.org)
  • By cytokine pattern analysis, the induced CD4 + T cells were of the T helper cell 1 type. (rupress.org)
  • The main effector cells responsible for tumor eradication were identified as CD8 + cytotoxic T cells that were found to recognize a recently described immunodominant viral gag-encoded cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) epitope, which is unrelated to the viral env-encoded T helper peptide sequence. (rupress.org)
  • These results indicate the crucial role of T helper cells for optimal induction of protective immunity against MHC class II negative tumor cells. (rupress.org)
  • Evidence for a role of T helper cell-mediated immunity comes from studies with genetically modified tumor cells. (rupress.org)
  • This MHC class II association indicates an important role of T helper cells influencing both CTL activity as well as class switching of antiviral antibodies from IgM to IgG. (rupress.org)
  • CD4 + T helper cells are well known for their role in providing critical signals during priming of cytotoxic CD8 + T lymphocyte (CTL) responses in vivo . (nature.com)
  • CD4 + T helper cells control the migration of CTL indirectly through the secretion of IFN-γ and induction of local chemokine secretion in the infected tissue. (nature.com)
  • Vaginal submucosal dendritic cells, but not Langerhans cells, induce protective Th1 responses to herpes simplex virus-2. (nature.com)
  • Measuring the diaspora for virus-specific CD8 + T cells. (nature.com)
  • New viruses are then released either by destroying their host cell or by forming small buds that break off and infect other cells. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Because host cells do not have the ability to replicate "viral RNA" but are able to transcribe messenger RNA, RNA viruses must contain enzymes to produce genetic material for new virions. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • But no virus has the thousands of genes required by even the simplest cells. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Some viruses do not produce rapid lysis of host cells, but rather remain latent for long periods in the host before the appearance of clinical symptoms. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Long-lived virus-reactive memory T cells generated from purified cytokine-secreting T helper type 1 and type 2 effectors. (ox.ac.uk)
  • In adoptive cell transfers into normal, nonlymphopenic mice, we show that long-lived virus-specific memory T cells can efficiently be generated from purified interferon gamma-secreting T helper (Th) type 1 and interleukin (IL)-4- or IL-10-secreting Th2 effectors primed in vitro or in vivo. (ox.ac.uk)
  • The luciferase activity was analyzed from the progeny virus-infected cells in order to examine if the 5' and 3' terminal sequences play a role in regulating a packaging pathway while genome of HTN virus is packaged. (bvsalud.org)
  • Through RNA silencing, plant cells recognize this viral genetic material, remember and copy it so that other cells in the organism can be warned to destroy the virus. (intechopen.com)
  • The T helper cells ( T h cells ), also known as CD4 cells , are a type of T cell that play an important role in the immune system , particularly in the adaptive immune system . (wikipedia.org)
  • Such CD4 + T cells are generally treated as having a pre-defined role as helper T cells within the immune system . (wikipedia.org)
  • CD154 acts as a costimulatory molecule and is particularly important on a subset of T cells called T follicular helper cells (T FH cells). (wikipedia.org)
  • The importance of helper T cells can be seen from HIV , a virus that primarily infects CD4 + T cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Antigen presentation stimulates naïve CD8+ and CD4+ T cells to respectively become mature "cytotoxic" CD8+ cells and "helper" CD4+ cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • During an immune response, professional antigen-presenting cells (APCs) endocytose foreign material (typically bacteria or viruses ), which undergoes processing , then travel from the infection site to the lymph nodes . (wikipedia.org)
  • Oncolytic viruses, which kill cancer cells, can offer an effective and versatile approach for treating cancer. (sciencemag.org)
  • Dimethyl fumarate promoted viral infection of cancer cells, and the combined treatment was effective in multiple cancer models, including those that did not respond to virus or drug treatment alone. (sciencemag.org)
  • Resistance to oncolytic virotherapy is frequently associated with failure of tumor cells to get infected by the virus. (sciencemag.org)
  • In vivo, different models of immunization revealed that Elp3-deficient T cells display reduced expansion, resulting in functional impairment of T follicular helper (TFH) responses, but not of other CD4 + effector T cell responses. (jimmunol.org)
  • Specificity of helper T-cells generated from macaques infected with attenuated simian immunodeficiency virus. (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • The proliferating cells were characterized as CD4+ helper T-cells (TH) and their antigen recognition was MHC class II DR-restricted. (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • T follicular helper (Tfh) cells are a new subset of CD4 + T cells located in tonsils and circulating in the blood. (medcraveonline.com)
  • Also it was proved that HCV can infect thyroid cells directly by binding of E2protein to CD81 which is highly expressed on thyroid cells which could trigger thyroid inflammation through activation of autoreactive CD4 T helper cells and autoantibodies production. (medcraveonline.com)
  • There is increasing evidence of the high flexibility between T- helper cells depending on the matched transcription factors, cytokines and the nature of infection. (medcraveonline.com)
  • In this review, we will highlight plasticity between Tfh cells and other CD4 T helper cell, and how this will affect autoimmune thyroiditis in case of HCV infection. (medcraveonline.com)
  • The term T follicular helper (Tfh) cells were first used in 2000, it describes anew subset of CD4 + T cells located in tonsils. (medcraveonline.com)
  • Tfh cells are subsets of CD4 + T helper cells that are required for maintenance of the germinal center reactions and generation of long-lived humoral immunity. (medcraveonline.com)
  • T follicular helper (Tfh) cells play critical roles for germinal center responses and effective humoral immunity. (elifesciences.org)
  • We find that follicular B helper T (Tfh) cells exhibited less proliferation, glycolysis, and mitochondrial respiration, accompanied by reduced mTOR kinase activity compared to T helper 1 (Th1) cells in response to acute viral infection. (nih.gov)
  • Dendritic cells (DCs) pulsed with HBsAg efficiently reverse the immune tolerance to hepatitis B virus (HBV) and induce HBV-specific cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) responses in transgenic mice and healthy volunteers. (wiley.com)
  • However, it is not clear whether HBV core antigen (HBcAg)-pulsed DCs can effectively induce CD4 + helper T cells polarization into Th1, which contribute to the induction and maintenance of HBV-specific CD8 + T cells in chronic hepatitis B (CHB) patients. (wiley.com)
  • Thus activation of virus-specific CD4 T cells at the time of exposure to a CD4 T cell-tropic lentivirus, in the absence of an effective CD8 response, may enhance virus replication and disease. (pnas.org)
  • After challenge with the pathogenic simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) strain SIVsmE660, rVZV-SIVenv vaccinees manifested an early expansion of CD4 T cells in conjunction with significantly enhanced levels of SIV replication. (pnas.org)
  • This finding may reflect a form of vaccine enhancement of disease that is unique to viruses that preferentially target activated memory CD4 + T cells for infection, the pathognomonic feature of CD4 + T cell-tropic lentiviruses such as HIV. (pnas.org)
  • While most mRNAs in eukaryotic cells are monocistronic, positive-strand RNA viruses encode multiple proteins in single polycistronic genomes. (nature.com)
  • Feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) targets helper T cells by connection from the envelope glycoprotein (Env) to Compact disc134, a subsequent connections with CXCR4 facilitating the procedure of viral entrance then. (capecodmushroom.org)
  • Cells are affected by viruses . (howstuffworks.com)
  • Could a virus seek out cancerous cells? (howstuffworks.com)
  • The Yale researchers, led by Dr. Anthony van den Pol, used an existing virus related to rabies, the vesicular stomatitis virus -- as a weapon against cancerous cells. (howstuffworks.com)
  • The cancerous cells were tagged with fluorescent proteins, as was the virus they injected into the mice's tails. (howstuffworks.com)
  • As it worked its way through the brains of the mice, the virus killed only cancerous cells and left non-cancerous cells of the mice's own tissue as well as that grafted from human specimens intact. (howstuffworks.com)
  • It's possible that the virus has an appetite for cancerous cells, but will turn to healthy tissue in the absence of a cancerous alternative. (howstuffworks.com)
  • AAVs are nonenveloped single-stranded DNA viruses used in gene therapy to insert copies of missing genes into host cells. (tabers.com)
  • Activated helper T cells usually have CD4 receptors on the surface. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • The nucleic acid sequences of adeno-associated virus (AAV) serotype 1 are provided, as are vectors and host cells containing these sequences and functional fragments thereof. (google.com)
  • Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is a retrovirus that infects cells that possess the CD4 receptor (1-3). (cdc.gov)
  • pCAGGS helper plasmids expressing the N, P, and L genes, and a plasmid encoding the recombinant complete-duration antigenomic sequence of either the wild-kind (WT) or mutant NiV, ended up cotransfected into these cells. (cannabinoid-receptor.com)
  • Conclusion: Our data suggest that HTLV-1 Tax protein could serve as tumor-associated antigen for CD4 + helper T cells and that the present epitopes might be used for T-cell-based immunotherapy against tumors expressing HTLV-1. (elsevier.com)
  • Effect of helper virus on the number of murine sarcoma virus dna copies in infected mammalian cells. (jax.org)
  • Because the viruses require actively dividing cells to replicate, the type of tissue infected varies with the age of the animal. (wikipedia.org)
  • The differentiation of naive CD4 + T cells into subsets of T helper cells is a pivotal process with major implications for host defense and the pathogenesis of immune-mediated diseases. (springer.com)
  • T helper (T H )1 cells produce interferon (IFN)-γ, promoting cell-mediated immunity and control of intracellular pathogens. (springer.com)
  • Differential expression of chemokine receptors and chemotactic responsiveness of type 1 T helper cells (Th1s) and Th2s. (springer.com)
  • Carballido JM, Faith A, Carballido-Perrig N, Blaser K: The intensity of T cell receptor engagement determines the cytokine pattern of human allergen-specific T helper cells. (springer.com)
  • Like, a protein that is over-expressed in cancer cells, but not normally found in healthy cells (I am not sure about the particular measles virus used in this particular study). (scienceblogs.com)
  • In this study, they had a measles vaccine strain virus, that had been 'addicted' to HeLa cells . (scienceblogs.com)
  • This means any cells the viruses infected would also take up radioactive iodine, so researchers could track the virus in patients using SPECT/CT . (scienceblogs.com)
  • It's probably a combination of her immune system waking up due to huge amoungs of virus, and the straight damage the virus was doing to the cancer cells. (scienceblogs.com)
  • Helper T cells are crucial for immune system function and activate after encountering antigens from disease-causing microorganisms. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • There are two main types of T cells: helper T cells and killer T cells. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • They consume disease-causing microorganisms, or pathogens, then present fragments of their antigens to helper T cells. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • When a helper T cell binds to the antigen fragment that it recognizes, it activates and alerts other white blood cells to the pathogen. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Helper T cells have CD4 proteins on their cell surface, which help them bind to antigen fragments. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Because HIV destroys helper T cells, healthcare professionals use a CD4 count to measure CD4 levels and HIV progression. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • After receiving the alert, killer T cells seek out and destroy the pathogen (virus, bacteria, or disease-causing microorganisms). (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • HIV enters its genetic information into helper T cells to make copies of itself. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • When this happens, the helper T cells die. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Low levels of helper T cells mean killer T cells and other white blood cells do not receive as much information about pathogens in the body. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • When the amount of helper T cells falls below 200 cells/mm 3 (cells per cubic millimeter), a person may receive an AIDS diagnosis. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • When activated, helper T cells mobilize other white blood cells to initiate a full immune response. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • If someone's helper T cells are below 200 cells/mm 3 , they will likely receive an AIDS diagnosis. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • The CD4 count helps determine how many helper T cells a person has. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • All people whose helper T cells are below 200 cells/mm 3 should receive a CD4 count every 3-6 months. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Since the genome of the gutless virus does not include genes encoding the enzymes and/or structural proteins required to replicate, it is deemed safe for use in gene therapy since an infection cannot occur except in the presence of a suitable helper virus. (wikipedia.org)
  • Hepatitis A virus (HAV) infection typically resolves within 4-7 wk but symptomatic relapse occurs in up to 20% of cases. (rupress.org)
  • Immune mechanisms that terminate acute HAV infection, and prevent a relapse of virus replication and liver disease, are unknown. (rupress.org)
  • An imbalance in the Th1/Th2 cytokine immune response has been related to pathogenesis of the respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) bronchiolitis and to the severity of the infection. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • Boosting the antigen-specific T-helper cell response is critical to getting strong, prompt humoral and cytotoxic T-cell response for complete and rapid control of infection. (infectioncontroltoday.com)
  • Here, we provide data on involvement of an MT-associated protein in infection of plants with a potyvirus, Potato virus A (PVA), representing the largest family of plant-infecting RNA viruses. (apsnet.org)
  • HIP2-HCpro interaction was determined by the C-proximal α-helix-rich domain of HIP2, whereas the N-proximal putative TOG domain and the central coiled-coil domain of HIP2 controlled HIP2 dimerization and binding to MT. Accumulation of PVA was significantly reduced in the HIP2-silenced leaves of N. benthamiana , which indicates that HIP2-HCpro interactions are important for virus infection. (apsnet.org)
  • whereas, in the absence of a helper virus, it establishes a latent infection. (uzh.ch)
  • Recently, we have shown that monocyte-derived DC (MoDC) from patients with chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection are functionally impaired. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Immune Response in Hepatitis B Virus Infection. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Jones, C. A., Taylor, T. J. & Knipe, D. M. Biological properties of herpes simplex virus 2 replication-defective mutant strains in a murine nasal infection model. (nature.com)
  • However, rapid and high cytotoxic activities against HCV core were not only detected after immunization with peptides containing the CTL epitope but also as a result of infection with recombinant vaccinia virus carrying the HCV core gene after immunization with the Th epitope alone. (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • We show that DMF and various fumaric and maleic acid esters (FMAEs) enhance viral infection of cancer cell lines as well as human tumor biopsies with several oncolytic viruses (OVs), improving therapeutic outcomes in resistant syngeneic and xenograft tumor models. (sciencemag.org)
  • This study investigated the immunogenicity and protective efficacy of a replication-competent recombinant AIDS vaccine (rVZV-SIVenv) based on attenuated varicella-zoster virus (VZV) vaccine VZV-Oka, the only vaccine approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration that establishes persistent infection and may periodically boost immunity by intermittent virus reactivation, providing long-term protection ( 2 ). (pnas.org)
  • However, the PHI group did exhibit stronger T helper cell responses, which led the researchers to suggest that "individuals treated in early infection may benefit from [therapeutic] strategies aimed at enhancing virus-specific CTL responses, whereas individuals treated later in infection may benefit from strategies aimed at enhancing HIV-1-specific T helper cell functions as well as broadening CTL responses to combat increased viral diversity. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Sera from 61 Indian patients with visceral leishmaniasis caused by infection with Leishmania donovani were tested for the presence of T helper 1 (Th1) cell-(interferon-γ [IFN-γ]) and Th2 cell-associated cytokines (interleukin-4 [IL-4] and IL-10). (ajtmh.org)
  • Effect of HLA class II genotype on T helper lymphocyte responses and viral control in hepatitis C virus infection. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is very common worldwide, but has a broad range of outcomes. (ox.ac.uk)
  • It has been suggested that the pathogenesis of respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infection is related to the development of T helper (Th) type 2 cytokine responses. (utmb.edu)
  • Infection of maize with both viruses produces corn lethal necrosis disease (CLND). (nebraska.edu)
  • Although the factors that cause these different manifestations of HTLV-1 infection are not fully understood, accumulating evidence suggests that complex virus-host interactions play an important role in determining the risk of HAM/TSP. (hindawi.com)
  • Human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 (HTLV-1) infection is of particular interest to the field of immunology as well as microbiology because HTLV-1 is never eliminated from the host in spite of vigorous cellular and humoral immune responses against the virus but causes no disease in vast majority of infected subjects (asymptomatic carriers:ACs). (hindawi.com)
  • abstract = "The tritimovirus Wheat streak mosaic virus (WSMV) and the machlomovirus Maize chlorotic mottle virus (MCMV) each cause systemic chlorosis in infected maize plants. (nebraska.edu)
  • Helper viruses are also commonly used to replicate and spread viral vectors for gene expression and gene therapy. (wikipedia.org)
  • Naturally-occurring satellite viruses are also helper virus dependent, and can sometimes be modified to become viral vectors. (wikipedia.org)
  • Construction of a helper cell line for avian reticuloendotheliosis virus cloning vectors. (asm.org)
  • We wished to construct cell lines that supply the gene products of gag, pol, and env for the growth of replication-defective reticuloendotheliosis retrovirus vectors without production of the helper virus. (asm.org)
  • Two cell clones that contain both modified viral DNAs support the production of replication-defective spleen necrosis virus-thymidine kinase recombinant retrovirus vectors without the production of helper virus. (asm.org)
  • Recent studies have shown that helper-dependent adenoviral (HDAd) vectors may represent effective and safe vaccine vectors. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Most Ad vectors are deleted of key, or all, viral protein coding sequences, which functions to not only prevent virus replication but also increase the cloning capacity of the vector for foreign DNA. (mdpi.com)
  • Vectors based upon the genome of cauliflower mosaic virus (CaMV) have only a limited capacity for replicating foreign DNA in plants. (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • Co-inoculation of helper virus with CaMV gene replacement vectors in which replication was prevented by moving the primer-binding site or by deletion of an essential splice acceptor produced only small, randomly distributed GUS activity foci, demonstrating that the lesion-associated foci were produced by gene expression from replicating constructs. (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • These experiments show that CaMV genes III-V can be complemented by wild-type virus and replacement gene vectors can be used for transient gene expression studies with CaMV constructs that distinguish gene expression associated with a replicating vector from that associated with a non-replicating vector. (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • Vector Control (insects, virus, and other similar vectors). (yahoo.com)
  • The most widely known dependovirus is adeno-associated virus (AAV) which was originally discovered as a contaminant in a sample of simian adenovirus. (wikipedia.org)
  • Groups of rhesus macaques that had previously been immunized with HIV-1 envelope (env) peptides and first generation adenovirus serotype 5 (FG-Ad5) vaccines expressing the same peptides were immunized intramuscularly three times with helper- dependent adenovirus (HD-Ad) vaccines expressing only the HIV-1 envelope from JRFL. (unl.edu)
  • Different examples can be given for the subfamily Parvovirinae but the most common is Dependovirus , which only work with a helper virus such as adenovirus. (wikipedia.org)
  • An attenuated recombinant varicella-zoster virus vaccine expressing the simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) envelope (Env) elicited nonneutralizing Env-binding antibodies and little if any cytotoxic T lymphocyte responses in rhesus macaques ( Macaca mulatta ). (pnas.org)
  • Cytotoxic and helper T-lymphocyte responses to antibody recognition regions on influenza virus hemagglutinin. (elsevier.com)
  • 8 , 9 Active immunity in the newborn includes the full range of B-cell responses including the production of IgM, IgG, and secretory and monomeric IgA, as well as the development of helper T-cell (Th) and cytotoxic T-cell responses. (aappublications.org)
  • The study demonstrates that MUC-1 in the form of an immune complex is more efficiently processed than MUC-1 alone, leading to T helper cell stimulation and an enhanced cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) response. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Our results showed that helper-component proteinase (HCpro)-interacting protein 2 (HIP2) of potato ( Solanum tuberosum ) is an MT-associated protein similar to Arabidopsis SPR2. (apsnet.org)
  • Here, we report that complete deletion of the WSMV helper component-proteinase (HC-Pro) coding region had no effect on induction of CLND symptoms following coinoculation of maize with WSMV and MCMV. (nebraska.edu)
  • The differentiation of CD4(+) helper T cell subsets with diverse effector functions is accompanied by changes in metabolism required to meet their bioenergetic demands. (nih.gov)
  • Every cell that is successfully transfected with all three DNA fragments will produce the necessary proteins to produce infective viruses. (wikipedia.org)
  • To understand the mechanisms behind this, we separated purified virus and active helper component proteins (HC), mixed them in homologous and heterologous combinations, and then fed them to aphids. (apsnet.org)
  • Within the host cell the genetic material of a DNA virus is replicated and transcribed into messenger RNA by host cell enzymes, and proteins coded for by viral genes are synthesized by host cell ribosomes. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • In viruses that have membranes, membrane-bound viral proteins are synthesized by the host cell and move, like host cell membrane proteins, to the cell surface. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Some viruses have only a few genes coding for capsid proteins. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Although in general viruses "steal" their lipid envelope from the host cell, virtually all of them produce "envelope proteins" that penetrate the envelope and serve as receptors. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Invading viruses carry genetic material that controls the host cell's machinery and tricks it into producing proteins and new viruses. (intechopen.com)
  • However, viruses are known to fight back using RNA silencing suppressors, proteins that inhibit this defense mechanism. (intechopen.com)
  • Ninety dimeric VP1 proteins form the outer layer of the icosahedral virus particle, which can vary in size from ∼27 to 40 nm, depending on the genotype ( Vinje, 2015 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • In addition to increasing the immunogenecity, T-helper responses also induce immunological memory, which is very important for long-term protection. (infectioncontroltoday.com)
  • We have previously shown that these viruses induce a potent cellular immune response in macaques. (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • H IV vaccine studies strive to induce virus-specific CD4 and CD8 responses, but there have been no systematic attempts to manipulate the relative strengths of these responses to determine what might be the best balance to enable the most effective viral control and protection from disease progression. (pnas.org)
  • The double stranded RNA intermediates of replicating plant viruses often induce PTGS, leading to symptom attenuation. (elsevier.com)
  • Antigen Express scientists have pioneered strategies for enhancing helper T-cell responses to DNA vaccines by controlling the function of the immunoregulatory Ii-protein. (infectioncontroltoday.com)
  • Modified live vaccines are efficacious against numerous viral diseases, but concern over reversion to a virulent phenotype or recombination with endogenous or exogenous viruses have limited their use against lentiviruses ( 8 ). (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Thus, tumor-specific T helper epitopes have to be included in the design of epitope-based vaccines. (rupress.org)
  • The common influenza viruses have antigens that mutate or combine readily, requiring new vaccines with each mutation. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Helper T cell determinant peptide contributes to induction of cellular immune responses by peptide vaccines against hepatitis C virus. (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • A family of broadly neutralizing antibodies from a chronically infected donor provides a schematic for designing vaccines and treatments that target multiple strains of the virus. (the-scientist.com)
  • In designing epitope-based vaccines, the inclusion of a helper T-lymphocyte (HTL) epitope is necessary to elicit both humoral and cellular immune responses. (kribb.re.kr)
  • However, the IL-2-producing helper T lymphocyte (HTL) represents a critical regulatory cell that likely influences the inductive phase of the immune response following gene transfer. (umich.edu)
  • Identification of relevant Th lymphocyte epitopes remains an important step in the development of an efficacious subunit peptide vaccine against equine infectious anemia virus (EIAV), a naturally occurring lentivirus of horses. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • This document contains revised guidelines developed by CDC for laboratories performing lymphocyte immunophenotyping assays in human immunodeficiency virus-infected persons. (cdc.gov)
  • Identification of T-helper cell epitopes in the hypervariable region of the nucleocapsid (N) protein of rinderpest virus (RPV) in cattle. (nih.gov)
  • In eight out of twelve cattle tested, significant responses were detected to peptides representing amino acids 452-501 in the C-terminal hypervariable region of the virus nucleocapsid (N) protein. (nih.gov)
  • It appears that helper T-cell epitope(s) for cattle which can be broadly recognized within an MHC diverse population, exists in this region of the protein. (nih.gov)
  • Prior exposure of BALB/c mice to the attachment (G) or fusion (F) protein of respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) increases illness severity during intranasal RSV challenge, due to Th2-driven lung eosinophilia and exuberant Th1-driven pulmonary infiltration, respectively. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • A virus consists of genetic material, which may be either DNA or RNA, and is surrounded by a protein coat and, in some viruses, by a membranous envelope. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • CD154 , also called CD40 ligand or CD40L , is a cell surface protein that mediates T cell helper function in a contact-dependent process [1] and is a member of the TNF superfamily of molecules. (wikipedia.org)
  • Using these SIV-specific cell lines, a variety of helper T-cell epitopes in the SIV Env protein were determined with overlapping peptides. (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • Translation of a polycistronic mRNA in the presence of the cauliflower mosaic virus transactivator protein. (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • In contrast, only a few publications are available on the NoV capsid VP1 protein-specific T cell responses in humans naturally infected with the virus. (frontiersin.org)
  • The objective of the present study was to investigate the relationship between the serum cytokine pattern of T-helper (Th) response and the acquisition of syncytium-inducing (SI) human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) variants in HIV-1-seropositive patients treated with antiretroviral drugs. (ovid.com)
  • A helper dependent virus, also termed a gutless virus, is a synthetic viral vector dependent on the assistance of a helper virus in order to replicate, and can be used for purposes such as gene therapy. (wikipedia.org)
  • The T-helper (Th) cell epitopes in the glycoprotein (GP) of vesicular stomatitis virus serotype Indiana (VSV-IND) were analyzed with a complete panel of overlapping synthetic peptides. (asm.org)
  • BALB/c mice were immunized with peptides based on the CTL and helper T cell (Th) epitopes of the HCV core, with a mixture of CTL and Th peptides (CTL+Th) or with a conjugated Th-CTL peptide. (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • Experimental Design: An MHC class II binding peptide algorithm was used to predict potential T-helper cell epitope peptides from HTLV-1 Tax. (elsevier.com)
  • Results: Peptides Tax 191-205 and Tax 305-319 were effective in inducing T-helper-cell responses. (elsevier.com)
  • Like the previously described AKR-MCF viruses, the Friend MCF viruses are env gene recombinants between an ecotropic virus (F-MuLV) and a mouse xenotropic virus, as shown by host range, interference pattern, and tryptic peptide analysis of the gp70s of these MuLV. (rupress.org)
  • Protection against Mucosal SHIV Challenge by Peptide and Helper-Depend" by Eric A. Weaver, Pramod N. Nehete et al. (unl.edu)
  • Notably, the two newly identified helper T-cell epitopes are found to lie proximal to known CTL epitopes, which will facilitate the development of prophylactic peptide - based vaccine capable of inducing simultaneous CTL and T-helper responses. (elsevier.com)
  • Improvements in sanitation that accompany economic development have dramatically changed the epidemiology of HAV in some regions of the world where the virus remains endemic and vaccine utilization is low. (rupress.org)
  • WORCESTER, Mass. -- This $357,000 NIH Small Business Innovative Research (SBIR) award supports pre-clinical testing of a novel HIV DNA vaccine incorporating Antigen Express proprietary platform technology for boosting antigen-specific T-helper cell responses. (infectioncontroltoday.com)
  • One lentivirus vaccine strategy is to use subunit preparations, which circumvents some of the problems associated with the use of modified live or inactivated whole-virus preparations ( 7 , 33 ). (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • A plant virus used in vaccine development to deliver antigens from pathogens and tumors. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Using epidemiological and laboratory data, scientists have mapped out a sequence of mutations through which the attenuated oral polio vaccine reverts to a virulent virus. (the-scientist.com)
  • The aim of the present study was to study T-helper-cell responses to HTLV-1 Tax and to identify naturally processed MHC class II - restricted epitopes that could be used for vaccine development. (elsevier.com)
  • With a genetically modified, vaccine strain measles virus. (scienceblogs.com)
  • Hepatitis D virus (HDV) is an example of a replication defective, helper dependent ssRNA virus because it requires Hepatitis B virus (HBV) to provide HBV surface antigen (HBsAg) for the encapsidation of its genome. (wikipedia.org)
  • Although viral architecture is very complex, every virus contains at least a genome and a capsid.Most animal viruses are also surrounded by a lipid envelope, a bilayered membrane analogous to a cell membrane. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • The 400 known viruses are classified in several ways: by genome core (RNA or DNA), host (animals, plants, or bacteria), method of reproduction (such as retrovirus), mode of transmission (such as enterovirus), and disease produced (such as hepatitis virus). (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Some of these may already have been present within the initial virus, and others may be coded for by the viral genome for production within the host cell. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • The hantavirus-like luciferase RNA was constructed by the deletion of the coding region in HTN virus (76~118) S genome and by replacement of a luciferase gene. (bvsalud.org)
  • The 5' terminal and 3' terminal conserved sequences of HTN virus genome were sufficient to provide the signals for RNA amplification and packaging. (bvsalud.org)
  • The fact that the hantavirus-like luciferase RNA can be packaged into progeny virus suggests that the 5' and 3' terminal sequences of HTN virus genome play an important role in regulating a packaging pathway. (bvsalud.org)
  • However, radical modifications to the genome size significantly decreases virion stability, suggesting that the virus genome plays a role in maintaining the physical stability of the Ad virion. (mdpi.com)
  • Indeed, a similar relationship between genome size and virion stability has been noted for many viruses. (mdpi.com)
  • This review discusses the impact of the genome size on Ad virion stability and emphasizes the need to consider this aspect of virus biology in Ad-based vector design. (mdpi.com)
  • Viral architecture is very complex, but every virus contains at least a genome and a capsid. (tabers.com)
  • Parvoviruses are linear, non-segmented single-stranded DNA viruses , with an average genome size of 5000 nucleotides. (wikipedia.org)
  • Recombinant Potato virus Y (PVY) strains (PVY N:O , PVY NTN ) have replaced the long dominant ordinary strain (PVY O ) in the US potato crop. (apsnet.org)
  • Helper-independent mink cell focus-inducing strains of Friend murine type-C virus: potential relationship to the origin of replication-defective spleen focus-forming virus. (rupress.org)
  • Two helper-independent MCF strains of F-MuLV have been isolated. (rupress.org)
  • Citrus tristeza virus (CTV) populations are among the more complex of plant RNA viruses with unusual mixtures of strains and defective RNAs (dRNAs). (meta.org)
  • Recent studies have indicated that both the replication-defective spleen focus-forming virus (SFFV) in the Friend virus complex and the helper-independent mink cell focus-inducing (MCF) viruses derived from AKR-murine leukemia virus (MuLV) are env gene recombinants between ecotropic virus and xenotropic virus. (rupress.org)
  • In an attempt to isolate additional env gene recombinants between Friend murine leukemia virus (F-MuLV) and xenotropic virus, we have inoculated cloned ecotropic F-MuLV into newborn NIH Swiss mice and analyzed MuLV released from preleukemic and leukemic spleens of infected mice. (rupress.org)
  • Effect of helper virus on the number of murine sarcoma virus dna copie" by A E. Frankel, J H. Gilbert et al. (jax.org)
  • Mosmann TR, Cherwinski H, Bond MW, Giedlin MA, Coffman RL: Two types of murine helper T cell clone. (springer.com)
  • Serum cytokines of Th1/Th2 responses were analysed in a case-control study of 20 individuals selected from a cohort of HIV-1-infected patients without SI variants at entry, who developed or did not develop SI virus during a prospective follow-up. (ovid.com)
  • The generation of high-titer, helper-free retroviruses by transient transfection has been achieved by using the highly transfectable 293T cell line into which are stably introduced constructs that express retroviral packaging functions. (pnas.org)
  • Independent security certification body Virus Bulletin tested 15 security suites on Windows Vista against a set of malware from the WildList database. (neowin.net)
  • But it failed to stop some viruses, file infectors and polymorphic malware which constantly changes in an effort to avoid detection by security software. (neowin.net)
  • Problem with virus - malware suspected. (techspot.com)
  • such as install/uninstall programs, use special fix tools, delete files, edit the registry, etc. - unless advised by a malware removal helper. (techspot.com)
  • The file WINDOWSAPPSVC - HELPER.DLL is malware related. (greatis.com)
  • How does your computer get viruses or malware? (maxthon.com)
  • So to prevent viruses and malware, a secure internet browser is of significant importance. (maxthon.com)
  • First of all, Maxthon Cloud Browser has been tested by lots of 3rd party labs that it's clean of viruses and malware. (maxthon.com)
  • Many download sites will conduct tests on virus and malware before including certain software. (maxthon.com)
  • 21st, 2017 with different anti-virus and anti-malware programs and services, Maxthon Cloud Browser was tested clean 100%, and does not contain any malware, spyware, Trojans or viruses. (maxthon.com)
  • Apart from anti-virus software, this download has also been tested with several popular anti-malware and anti-spam services. (maxthon.com)
  • Browsing with Maxthon Cloud Browser, annoying banners, pop-ups, malware and viruses are all blocked. (maxthon.com)
  • Visiting the wrong website, clicking the wrong link, or downloading the wrong file could all lead to a disastrous consequence Maxthon Cloud Browser is not only tested clean and without virus itself, it also helps prevent viruses and malware, bringing a secure internet environment for you. (maxthon.com)
  • I assumed it was a registry issue, but despite using all of the below virus/malware scanners nothing has been found. (mozilla.org)
  • 1) Kaspersky Anti-Virus 2011 Professional 2) HijackThis 3) SuperAntiSpyware 4) Spybot S&D If there are other recommended malware scanners you think I should try I would be happy to do so. (mozilla.org)
  • Mixtures of PVY O HC with either recombinant virus, PVY N:O or PVY NTN , resulted in efficient transmission. (apsnet.org)
  • Characterization of T-helper epitopes of the glycoprotein of vesicular stomatitis virus. (asm.org)
  • identified a promising solution for this problem by combining oncolytic vesicular stomatitis virus with dimethyl fumarate, a small-molecule drug that is already in use for some nonmalignant disorders and may also have direct anticancer effects. (sciencemag.org)
  • The vesicular stomatitis virus, on the other hand, was able to pass through this barrier. (howstuffworks.com)
  • The study objective was to determine the causes and magnitude of absolute CD4 (T4) count variation in human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HlV-l)-infected (+) adult males. (elsevier.com)
  • Genetic Studies with Herpes Simplex Virus Type 1. (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • T helper type 1 (T(H)1) immune responses are central in cell-mediated immunity, and a T(H)1-specific cell surface molecule called Tim-3 (T cell immunoglobulin domain, mucin domain) has been identified. (nih.gov)
  • Our findings, in both animal and human models, indicate that the type of T helper cell present is the determining factor in predicting whether interferon-_ will be effective," Raman added. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • GUS replaced part or all of the non-essential CaMV gene II and the essential genes III, IV and V. This construct was co-inoculated mechanically with wild-type CaMV helper virus onto Brassica rapa leaves to promote GUS vector complementation. (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • Purpose: Adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma induced by human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 (HTLV-1) is usually a fatal lymphoproliferative malignant disease. (elsevier.com)
  • Human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 (HTLV-1) is a replication-competent human retrovirus associated with two distinct types of disease only in a minority of infected individuals: the malignancy known as adult T-cell leukemia (ATL) and a chronic inflammatory central nervous system disease HTLV-1-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP). (hindawi.com)
  • Sublingual administration of a helper-dependent adenoviral vector expressing the codon-optimized soluble fusion glycoprotein of human respiratory syncytial virus elicits protective immunity in mice. (biomedsearch.com)
  • We constructed a helper-dependent adenoviral (HDAd) vector expressing a condon-optimized soluble fusion glycoprotein (sFsyn) of respiratory syncytial virus (HDAd-sFsyn) and explored the potential of s.l. immunization with HDAd-sFsyn to stimulate immune responses in the respiratory mucosa. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is a common cold virus that causes bronchiolitis in infants, killing up to one million children per year worldwide 27 . (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Human respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is a serious pediatric pathogen of the lower respiratory tract. (biomedcentral.com)
  • both animal models and patient studies have shown a link between a lack of anti-hepatitis C virus (HCV) T helper (Th) cell responses and viral persistence. (wiley.com)
  • Our studies have revealed that Th1 clones are cytolytic in vitro and protective against lethal challenge with virus in vivo, whereas Th2 clones are noncytolytic and not protective. (rupress.org)
  • Furthermore, RNA from the Friend MCF viruses hybridizes completely to cDNAsffv, a nucleic acid probe which detects that portion of SFFV which was not derived from P-MuLV. (rupress.org)
  • When a complete virus particle ( virion ) comes in contact with a host cell, only the viral nucleic acid and, in some viruses, a few enzymes are injected into the host cell. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • We have done this with Newcastle virus vs prostate cancer , Cowpox virus vs liver cancer , Herpes simplex virus vs breast & ovarian cancer , lots of different viruses vs lots of different cancers . (scienceblogs.com)
  • This method should facilitate and extend the use of helper-free retroviral gene transfer, as well as be useful for gene therapy. (pnas.org)
  • A helper virus is a virus that allows an otherwise-deficient coinfecting virus to replicate. (wikipedia.org)
  • The term satellite virus has been given to a large group of viruses that all require the presence of another virus to replicate. (wikipedia.org)
  • ABBR: AAV A genus in the parvovirus family whose members cannot replicate without the presence of another virus. (tabers.com)
  • Dependoviruses require helper viruses (e.g. herpesviruses) to replicate. (wikipedia.org)
  • To prevent recombination, the vector contains deletions that overlap with deletions in the integrated helper virus DNAs. (asm.org)
  • 5 . A pharmaceutical composition comprising a carrier and a virus comprising the vector according to claim 1 . (google.com)
  • The four gene fragments were cloned into an expression vector respectively after sequencing to construct four helper plasmids . (bvsalud.org)
  • The molecular biology of cauliflower mosaic virus and its application as plant gene vector. (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • A new strategy to improve a cauliflower mosaic virus vector. (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • The effect on T helper responses was also maintained after combination interferon-alpha/ribavirin therapy, although the latter influenced the pattern of viral antigens to which patients responded. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Antigens are biological markers that identify microorganisms such as bacteria and viruses. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Multiple epitopes were recognized in a region corresponding to the major homology region of the human immunodeficiency virus, a region with significant sequence similarity to other lentiviruses including simian immunodeficiency virus, puma lentivirus, feline immunodeficiency virus, Jembrana disease virus, visna virus, and caprine arthritis encephalitis virus. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Deletion of the simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) nef gene leads to an attenuated virus phenotype in vivo. (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • Because these properties are shared by certain bacteria ( rickettsiae , chlamydiae ), viruses are now characterized by their simple organization and their unique mode of replication. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • As a result, disease-causing bacteria and viruses multiply with minimal detection. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • These antigen fragments belong to viruses, bacteria, and other microorganisms that could threaten a person's health. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Many of these are plant viruses, but animal viruses can be seen in the case of dependoviruses. (wikipedia.org)
  • Potyviruses belong to the family Potyviridae in the picornavirus-like supergroup of positive-strand RNA viruses, and comprise one of the largest genera of plant viruses. (nature.com)
  • To do this, first we located by S1 mapping the donor and acceptor splice sites of reticuloendotheliosis virus strain A. The donor splice site is ca. 850 base pairs from the 5' end of proviral DNA. (asm.org)
  • After all, to a natural antibody, a virus is a virus, even when it's meant to perform a beneficial function. (howstuffworks.com)
  • Viruses with lipid envelopes have a greater ability to adhere to cell membranes and to avoid destruction by the immune system. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • The role of the immune system both as a means of clearing the virus and as an inducer of inflammatory liver damage may complicate the use of cytokine therapies. (wiley.com)
  • So, our immune system would fight the tumor-killing measles virus before it had a chance to kill the tumors. (scienceblogs.com)
  • Because the virus does not infect animals, it is considered a safe vehicle for antigen display in humans and other species. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • A team finds that viruses can sense chemical signals and use them to decide whether to kill or infect their hosts. (the-scientist.com)
  • Other viruses that can infect without helper viruses are called as autonomous parvoviruses. (wikipedia.org)
  • The virus could already do what researchers wanted, no need to genetically modify it to infect/kill the cancer. (scienceblogs.com)
  • How this sexually-transmitted virus came from black Africa to initially infect only young white gay men in Manhattan has never been explained satisfactorily. (rense.com)
  • Leaves inoculated with the GUS construct in the absence of helper virus showed randomly distributed foci of GUS activity that were generally smaller than the lesion-associated GUS foci. (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • Oncolytic viruses, including the autonomous protoparvovirus H-1 (H-1PV), show great promise as novel immunotherapeutic tools. (mdpi.com)
  • Measles, and certain other viruses, can be domesticated and modified to kill cancers- we call them oncolytic viruses. (scienceblogs.com)
  • Viruses that possess single-stranded, mRNA-sense genomes are called positive-strand RNA viruses. (nature.com)