Heart: The hollow, muscular organ that maintains the circulation of the blood.Heart Rate: The number of times the HEART VENTRICLES contract per unit of time, usually per minute.Heart Failure: A heterogeneous condition in which the heart is unable to pump out sufficient blood to meet the metabolic need of the body. Heart failure can be caused by structural defects, functional abnormalities (VENTRICULAR DYSFUNCTION), or a sudden overload beyond its capacity. Chronic heart failure is more common than acute heart failure which results from sudden insult to cardiac function, such as MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION.Heart Diseases: Pathological conditions involving the HEART including its structural and functional abnormalities.Heart Transplantation: The transference of a heart from one human or animal to another.Heart Defects, Congenital: Developmental abnormalities involving structures of the heart. These defects are present at birth but may be discovered later in life.Fetal Heart: The heart of the fetus of any viviparous animal. It refers to the heart in the postembryonic period and is differentiated from the embryonic heart (HEART/embryology) only on the basis of time.Heart Valves: Flaps of tissue that prevent regurgitation of BLOOD from the HEART VENTRICLES to the HEART ATRIA or from the PULMONARY ARTERIES or AORTA to the ventricles.Heart Atria: The chambers of the heart, to which the BLOOD returns from the circulation.Heart Block: Impaired conduction of cardiac impulse that can occur anywhere along the conduction pathway, such as between the SINOATRIAL NODE and the right atrium (SA block) or between atria and ventricles (AV block). Heart blocks can be classified by the duration, frequency, or completeness of conduction block. Reversibility depends on the degree of structural or functional defects.Myocardium: The muscle tissue of the HEART. It is composed of striated, involuntary muscle cells (MYOCYTES, CARDIAC) connected to form the contractile pump to generate blood flow.Heart Arrest, Induced: A procedure to stop the contraction of MYOCARDIUM during HEART SURGERY. It is usually achieved with the use of chemicals (CARDIOPLEGIC SOLUTIONS) or cold temperature (such as chilled perfusate).Heart Function Tests: Examinations used to diagnose and treat heart conditions.Myocardial Contraction: Contractile activity of the MYOCARDIUM.Myocardial Ischemia: A disorder of cardiac function caused by insufficient blood flow to the muscle tissue of the heart. The decreased blood flow may be due to narrowing of the coronary arteries (CORONARY ARTERY DISEASE), to obstruction by a thrombus (CORONARY THROMBOSIS), or less commonly, to diffuse narrowing of arterioles and other small vessels within the heart. Severe interruption of the blood supply to the myocardial tissue may result in necrosis of cardiac muscle (MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION).Myocytes, Cardiac: Striated muscle cells found in the heart. They are derived from cardiac myoblasts (MYOBLASTS, CARDIAC).Coronary Disease: An imbalance between myocardial functional requirements and the capacity of the CORONARY VESSELS to supply sufficient blood flow. It is a form of MYOCARDIAL ISCHEMIA (insufficient blood supply to the heart muscle) caused by a decreased capacity of the coronary vessels.Hemodynamics: The movement and the forces involved in the movement of the blood through the CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Cardiac Output, Low: A state of subnormal or depressed cardiac output at rest or during stress. It is a characteristic of CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASES, including congenital, valvular, rheumatic, hypertensive, coronary, and cardiomyopathic. The serious form of low cardiac output is characterized by marked reduction in STROKE VOLUME, and systemic vasoconstriction resulting in cold, pale, and sometimes cyanotic extremities.Ventricular Function, Left: The hemodynamic and electrophysiological action of the left HEART VENTRICLE. Its measurement is an important aspect of the clinical evaluation of patients with heart disease to determine the effects of the disease on cardiac performance.Risk Factors: An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.Heart, Artificial: A pumping mechanism that duplicates the output, rate, and blood pressure of the natural heart. It may replace the function of the entire heart or a portion of it, and may be an intracorporeal, extracorporeal, or paracorporeal heart. (Dorland, 28th ed)Perfusion: Treatment process involving the injection of fluid into an organ or tissue.Heart Failure, Systolic: Heart failure caused by abnormal myocardial contraction during SYSTOLE leading to defective cardiac emptying.Myocardial Infarction: NECROSIS of the MYOCARDIUM caused by an obstruction of the blood supply to the heart (CORONARY CIRCULATION).Cardiomyopathy, Dilated: A form of CARDIAC MUSCLE disease that is characterized by ventricular dilation, VENTRICULAR DYSFUNCTION, and HEART FAILURE. Risk factors include SMOKING; ALCOHOL DRINKING; HYPERTENSION; INFECTION; PREGNANCY; and mutations in the LMNA gene encoding LAMIN TYPE A, a NUCLEAR LAMINA protein.Cardiomegaly: Enlargement of the HEART, usually indicated by a cardiothoracic ratio above 0.50. Heart enlargement may involve the right, the left, or both HEART VENTRICLES or HEART ATRIA. Cardiomegaly is a nonspecific symptom seen in patients with chronic systolic heart failure (HEART FAILURE) or several forms of CARDIOMYOPATHIES.Heart Injuries: General or unspecified injuries to the heart.Heart Septum: This structure includes the thin muscular atrial septum between the two HEART ATRIA, and the thick muscular ventricular septum between the two HEART VENTRICLES.Cardiotonic Agents: Agents that have a strengthening effect on the heart or that can increase cardiac output. They may be CARDIAC GLYCOSIDES; SYMPATHOMIMETICS; or other drugs. They are used after MYOCARDIAL INFARCT; CARDIAC SURGICAL PROCEDURES; in SHOCK; or in congestive heart failure (HEART FAILURE).Heart Rate, Fetal: The heart rate of the FETUS. The normal range at term is between 120 and 160 beats per minute.Echocardiography: Ultrasonic recording of the size, motion, and composition of the heart and surrounding tissues. The standard approach is transthoracic.Stroke Volume: The amount of BLOOD pumped out of the HEART per beat, not to be confused with cardiac output (volume/time). It is calculated as the difference between the end-diastolic volume and the end-systolic volume.Cardiomyopathies: A group of diseases in which the dominant feature is the involvement of the CARDIAC MUSCLE itself. Cardiomyopathies are classified according to their predominant pathophysiological features (DILATED CARDIOMYOPATHY; HYPERTROPHIC CARDIOMYOPATHY; RESTRICTIVE CARDIOMYOPATHY) or their etiological/pathological factors (CARDIOMYOPATHY, ALCOHOLIC; ENDOCARDIAL FIBROELASTOSIS).Rheumatic Heart Disease: Cardiac manifestation of systemic rheumatological conditions, such as RHEUMATIC FEVER. Rheumatic heart disease can involve any part the heart, most often the HEART VALVES and the ENDOCARDIUM.Myocardial Reperfusion Injury: Damage to the MYOCARDIUM resulting from MYOCARDIAL REPERFUSION (restoration of blood flow to ischemic areas of the HEART.) Reperfusion takes place when there is spontaneous thrombolysis, THROMBOLYTIC THERAPY, collateral flow from other coronary vascular beds, or reversal of vasospasm.Heart Arrest: Cessation of heart beat or MYOCARDIAL CONTRACTION. If it is treated within a few minutes, heart arrest can be reversed in most cases to normal cardiac rhythm and effective circulation.Heart Valve Prosthesis: A device that substitutes for a heart valve. It may be composed of biological material (BIOPROSTHESIS) and/or synthetic material.Ventricular Dysfunction, Left: A condition in which the LEFT VENTRICLE of the heart was functionally impaired. This condition usually leads to HEART FAILURE; MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION; and other cardiovascular complications. Diagnosis is made by measuring the diminished ejection fraction and a depressed level of motility of the left ventricular wall.Adrenergic beta-Antagonists: Drugs that bind to but do not activate beta-adrenergic receptors thereby blocking the actions of beta-adrenergic agonists. Adrenergic beta-antagonists are used for treatment of hypertension, cardiac arrhythmias, angina pectoris, glaucoma, migraine headaches, and anxiety.Prospective Studies: Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.Heart Failure, Diastolic: Heart failure caused by abnormal myocardial relaxation during DIASTOLE leading to defective cardiac filling.American Heart Association: A voluntary organization concerned with the prevention and treatment of heart and vascular diseases.Dogs: The domestic dog, Canis familiaris, comprising about 400 breeds, of the carnivore family CANIDAE. They are worldwide in distribution and live in association with people. (Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, p1065)Ventricular Remodeling: The geometric and structural changes that the HEART VENTRICLES undergo, usually following MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION. It comprises expansion of the infarct and dilatation of the healthy ventricle segments. While most prevalent in the left ventricle, it can also occur in the right ventricle.Follow-Up Studies: Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.Treatment Outcome: Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.Chronic Disease: Diseases which have one or more of the following characteristics: they are permanent, leave residual disability, are caused by nonreversible pathological alteration, require special training of the patient for rehabilitation, or may be expected to require a long period of supervision, observation, or care. (Dictionary of Health Services Management, 2d ed)Oxygen Consumption: The rate at which oxygen is used by a tissue; microliters of oxygen STPD used per milligram of tissue per hour; the rate at which oxygen enters the blood from alveolar gas, equal in the steady state to the consumption of oxygen by tissue metabolism throughout the body. (Stedman, 25th ed, p346)Rats, Sprague-Dawley: A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.Disease Models, Animal: Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.Autonomic Nervous System: The ENTERIC NERVOUS SYSTEM; PARASYMPATHETIC NERVOUS SYSTEM; and SYMPATHETIC NERVOUS SYSTEM taken together. Generally speaking, the autonomic nervous system regulates the internal environment during both peaceful activity and physical or emotional stress. Autonomic activity is controlled and integrated by the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM, especially the HYPOTHALAMUS and the SOLITARY NUCLEUS, which receive information relayed from VISCERAL AFFERENTS.Cardiac Pacing, Artificial: Regulation of the rate of contraction of the heart muscles by an artificial pacemaker.Heart Septal Defects: Abnormalities in any part of the HEART SEPTUM resulting in abnormal communication between the left and the right chambers of the heart. The abnormal blood flow inside the heart may be caused by defects in the ATRIAL SEPTUM, the VENTRICULAR SEPTUM, or both.Hypoplastic Left Heart Syndrome: A condition caused by underdevelopment of the whole left half of the heart. It is characterized by hypoplasia of the left cardiac chambers (HEART ATRIUM; HEART VENTRICLE), the AORTA, the AORTIC VALVE, and the MITRAL VALVE. Severe symptoms appear in early infancy when DUCTUS ARTERIOSUS closes.Heart Neoplasms: Tumors in any part of the heart. They include primary cardiac tumors and metastatic tumors to the heart. Their interference with normal cardiac functions can cause a wide variety of symptoms including HEART FAILURE; CARDIAC ARRHYTHMIAS; or EMBOLISM.Rats, Wistar: A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.Natriuretic Peptide, Brain: A PEPTIDE that is secreted by the BRAIN and the HEART ATRIA, stored mainly in cardiac ventricular MYOCARDIUM. It can cause NATRIURESIS; DIURESIS; VASODILATION; and inhibits secretion of RENIN and ALDOSTERONE. It improves heart function. It contains 32 AMINO ACIDS.National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (U.S.): Component of the NATIONAL INSTITUTES OF HEALTH. It conducts and supports research program related to diseases of the heart, blood vessels, lung, and blood; blood resources; and SLEEP WAKE DISORDERS. From 1948 until October 10, 1969, it was known as the National Heart Institute. From June 25, 1976, it was the National Heart and Lung Institute. Since October 1997, the NHLBI has also had administrative responsibility for the NIH Woman's Health Initiative.Exercise Test: Controlled physical activity which is performed in order to allow assessment of physiological functions, particularly cardiovascular and pulmonary, but also aerobic capacity. Maximal (most intense) exercise is usually required but submaximal exercise is also used.Ventricular Pressure: The pressure within a CARDIAC VENTRICLE. Ventricular pressure waveforms can be measured in the beating heart by catheterization or estimated using imaging techniques (e.g., DOPPLER ECHOCARDIOGRAPHY). The information is useful in evaluating the function of the MYOCARDIUM; CARDIAC VALVES; and PERICARDIUM, particularly with simultaneous measurement of other (e.g., aortic or atrial) pressures.Models, Cardiovascular: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of the cardiovascular system, processes, or phenomena; includes the use of mathematical equations, computers and other electronic equipment.Sympathetic Nervous System: The thoracolumbar division of the autonomic nervous system. Sympathetic preganglionic fibers originate in neurons of the intermediolateral column of the spinal cord and project to the paravertebral and prevertebral ganglia, which in turn project to target organs. The sympathetic nervous system mediates the body's response to stressful situations, i.e., the fight or flight reactions. It often acts reciprocally to the parasympathetic system.Biological Markers: Measurable and quantifiable biological parameters (e.g., specific enzyme concentration, specific hormone concentration, specific gene phenotype distribution in a population, presence of biological substances) which serve as indices for health- and physiology-related assessments, such as disease risk, psychiatric disorders, environmental exposure and its effects, disease diagnosis, metabolic processes, substance abuse, pregnancy, cell line development, epidemiologic studies, etc.Systole: Period of contraction of the HEART, especially of the HEART VENTRICLES.Endocardium: The innermost layer of the heart, comprised of endothelial cells.Predictive Value of Tests: In screening and diagnostic tests, the probability that a person with a positive test is a true positive (i.e., has the disease), is referred to as the predictive value of a positive test; whereas, the predictive value of a negative test is the probability that the person with a negative test does not have the disease. Predictive value is related to the sensitivity and specificity of the test.Prognosis: A prediction of the probable outcome of a disease based on a individual's condition and the usual course of the disease as seen in similar situations.Diastole: Post-systolic relaxation of the HEART, especially the HEART VENTRICLES.Retrospective Studies: Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.Isoproterenol: Isopropyl analog of EPINEPHRINE; beta-sympathomimetic that acts on the heart, bronchi, skeletal muscle, alimentary tract, etc. It is used mainly as bronchodilator and heart stimulant.Rabbits: The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.Cohort Studies: Studies in which subsets of a defined population are identified. These groups may or may not be exposed to factors hypothesized to influence the probability of the occurrence of a particular disease or other outcome. Cohorts are defined populations which, as a whole, are followed in an attempt to determine distinguishing subgroup characteristics.Risk Assessment: The qualitative or quantitative estimation of the likelihood of adverse effects that may result from exposure to specified health hazards or from the absence of beneficial influences. (Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 1988)Calcium: A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.Cardiovascular Diseases: Pathological conditions involving the CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM including the HEART; the BLOOD VESSELS; or the PERICARDIUM.Propanolamines: AMINO ALCOHOLS containing the propanolamine (NH2CH2CHOHCH2) group and its derivatives.Heart Septal Defects, Ventricular: Developmental abnormalities in any portion of the VENTRICULAR SEPTUM resulting in abnormal communications between the two lower chambers of the heart. Classification of ventricular septal defects is based on location of the communication, such as perimembranous, inlet, outlet (infundibular), central muscular, marginal muscular, or apical muscular defect.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Ischemic Preconditioning, Myocardial: Exposure of myocardial tissue to brief, repeated periods of vascular occlusion in order to render the myocardium resistant to the deleterious effects of ISCHEMIA or REPERFUSION. The period of pre-exposure and the number of times the tissue is exposed to ischemia and reperfusion vary, the average being 3 to 5 minutes.Myocarditis: Inflammatory processes of the muscular walls of the heart (MYOCARDIUM) which result in injury to the cardiac muscle cells (MYOCYTES, CARDIAC). Manifestations range from subclinical to sudden death (DEATH, SUDDEN). Myocarditis in association with cardiac dysfunction is classified as inflammatory CARDIOMYOPATHY usually caused by INFECTION, autoimmune diseases, or responses to toxic substances. Myocarditis is also a common cause of DILATED CARDIOMYOPATHY and other cardiomyopathies.United StatesAge Factors: Age as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or the effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from AGING, a physiological process, and TIME FACTORS which refers only to the passage of time.Electrocardiography, Ambulatory: Method in which prolonged electrocardiographic recordings are made on a portable tape recorder (Holter-type system) or solid-state device ("real-time" system), while the patient undergoes normal daily activities. It is useful in the diagnosis and management of intermittent cardiac arrhythmias and transient myocardial ischemia.Heart-Assist Devices: Small pumps, often implantable, designed for temporarily assisting the heart, usually the LEFT VENTRICLE, to pump blood. They consist of a pumping chamber and a power source, which may be partially or totally external to the body and activated by electromagnetic motors.Norepinephrine: Precursor of epinephrine that is secreted by the adrenal medulla and is a widespread central and autonomic neurotransmitter. Norepinephrine is the principal transmitter of most postganglionic sympathetic fibers and of the diffuse projection system in the brain arising from the locus ceruleus. It is also found in plants and is used pharmacologically as a sympathomimetic.Mice, Inbred C57BLDose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.Anti-Arrhythmia Agents: Agents used for the treatment or prevention of cardiac arrhythmias. They may affect the polarization-repolarization phase of the action potential, its excitability or refractoriness, or impulse conduction or membrane responsiveness within cardiac fibers. Anti-arrhythmia agents are often classed into four main groups according to their mechanism of action: sodium channel blockade, beta-adrenergic blockade, repolarization prolongation, or calcium channel blockade.Severity of Illness Index: Levels within a diagnostic group which are established by various measurement criteria applied to the seriousness of a patient's disorder.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Hypertrophy, Left Ventricular: Enlargement of the LEFT VENTRICLE of the heart. This increase in ventricular mass is attributed to sustained abnormal pressure or volume loads and is a contributor to cardiovascular morbidity and mortality.Mice, Knockout: Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.Cardiac Surgical Procedures: Surgery performed on the heart.Heart Valve Prosthesis Implantation: Surgical insertion of synthetic material to repair injured or diseased heart valves.Myocardial Reperfusion: Generally, restoration of blood supply to heart tissue which is ischemic due to decrease in normal blood supply. The decrease may result from any source including atherosclerotic obstruction, narrowing of the artery, or surgical clamping. Reperfusion can be induced to treat ischemia. Methods include chemical dissolution of an occluding thrombus, administration of vasodilator drugs, angioplasty, catheterization, and artery bypass graft surgery. However, it is thought that reperfusion can itself further damage the ischemic tissue, causing MYOCARDIAL REPERFUSION INJURY.Ventricular Dysfunction: A condition in which HEART VENTRICLES exhibit impaired function.Heart Septal Defects, Atrial: Developmental abnormalities in any portion of the ATRIAL SEPTUM resulting in abnormal communications between the two upper chambers of the heart. Classification of atrial septal defects is based on location of the communication and types of incomplete fusion of atrial septa with the ENDOCARDIAL CUSHIONS in the fetal heart. They include ostium primum, ostium secundum, sinus venosus, and coronary sinus defects.Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.Exercise: Physical activity which is usually regular and done with the intention of improving or maintaining PHYSICAL FITNESS or HEALTH. Contrast with PHYSICAL EXERTION which is concerned largely with the physiologic and metabolic response to energy expenditure.Baroreflex: A response by the BARORECEPTORS to increased BLOOD PRESSURE. Increased pressure stretches BLOOD VESSELS which activates the baroreceptors in the vessel walls. The net response of the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM is a reduction of central sympathetic outflow. This reduces blood pressure both by decreasing peripheral VASCULAR RESISTANCE and by lowering CARDIAC OUTPUT. Because the baroreceptors are tonically active, the baroreflex can compensate rapidly for both increases and decreases in blood pressure.Reference Values: The range or frequency distribution of a measurement in a population (of organisms, organs or things) that has not been selected for the presence of disease or abnormality.Fibrosis: Any pathological condition where fibrous connective tissue invades any organ, usually as a consequence of inflammation or other injury.Reproducibility of Results: The statistical reproducibility of measurements (often in a clinical context), including the testing of instrumentation or techniques to obtain reproducible results. The concept includes reproducibility of physiological measurements, which may be used to develop rules to assess probability or prognosis, or response to a stimulus; reproducibility of occurrence of a condition; and reproducibility of experimental results.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Energy Metabolism: The chemical reactions involved in the production and utilization of various forms of energy in cells.Incidence: The number of new cases of a given disease during a given period in a specified population. It also is used for the rate at which new events occur in a defined population. It is differentiated from PREVALENCE, which refers to all cases, new or old, in the population at a given time.Vascular Resistance: The force that opposes the flow of BLOOD through a vascular bed. It is equal to the difference in BLOOD PRESSURE across the vascular bed divided by the CARDIAC OUTPUT.Cardiac Catheterization: Procedures in which placement of CARDIAC CATHETERS is performed for therapeutic or diagnostic procedures.Infant, Newborn: An infant during the first month after birth.Aging: The gradual irreversible changes in structure and function of an organism that occur as a result of the passage of time.Echocardiography, Doppler: Measurement of intracardiac blood flow using an M-mode and/or two-dimensional (2-D) echocardiogram while simultaneously recording the spectrum of the audible Doppler signal (e.g., velocity, direction, amplitude, intensity, timing) reflected from the moving column of red blood cells.Proportional Hazards Models: Statistical models used in survival analysis that assert that the effect of the study factors on the hazard rate in the study population is multiplicative and does not change over time.Tachycardia: Abnormally rapid heartbeat, usually with a HEART RATE above 100 beats per minute for adults. Tachycardia accompanied by disturbance in the cardiac depolarization (cardiac arrhythmia) is called tachyarrhythmia.Case-Control Studies: Studies which start with the identification of persons with a disease of interest and a control (comparison, referent) group without the disease. The relationship of an attribute to the disease is examined by comparing diseased and non-diseased persons with regard to the frequency or levels of the attribute in each group.Receptors, Adrenergic, beta: One of two major pharmacologically defined classes of adrenergic receptors. The beta adrenergic receptors play an important role in regulating CARDIAC MUSCLE contraction, SMOOTH MUSCLE relaxation, and GLYCOGENOLYSIS.Adrenergic beta-Agonists: Drugs that selectively bind to and activate beta-adrenergic receptors.Vagus Nerve: The 10th cranial nerve. The vagus is a mixed nerve which contains somatic afferents (from skin in back of the ear and the external auditory meatus), visceral afferents (from the pharynx, larynx, thorax, and abdomen), parasympathetic efferents (to the thorax and abdomen), and efferents to striated muscle (of the larynx and pharynx).Sinoatrial Node: The small mass of modified cardiac muscle fibers located at the junction of the superior vena cava (VENA CAVA, SUPERIOR) and right atrium. Contraction impulses probably start in this node, spread over the atrium (HEART ATRIUM) and are then transmitted by the atrioventricular bundle (BUNDLE OF HIS) to the ventricle (HEART VENTRICLE).Sex Factors: Maleness or femaleness as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from SEX CHARACTERISTICS, anatomical or physiological manifestations of sex, and from SEX DISTRIBUTION, the number of males and females in given circumstances.Hospitalization: The confinement of a patient in a hospital.Double-Blind Method: A method of studying a drug or procedure in which both the subjects and investigators are kept unaware of who is actually getting which specific treatment.Models, Animal: Non-human animals, selected because of specific characteristics, for use in experimental research, teaching, or testing.Death, Sudden, Cardiac: Unexpected rapid natural death due to cardiovascular collapse within one hour of initial symptoms. It is usually caused by the worsening of existing heart diseases. The sudden onset of symptoms, such as CHEST PAIN and CARDIAC ARRHYTHMIAS, particularly VENTRICULAR TACHYCARDIA, can lead to the loss of consciousness and cardiac arrest followed by biological death. (from Braunwald's Heart Disease: A Textbook of Cardiovascular Medicine, 7th ed., 2005)Vasodilator Agents: Drugs used to cause dilation of the blood vessels.Creatine Kinase: A transferase that catalyzes formation of PHOSPHOCREATINE from ATP + CREATINE. The reaction stores ATP energy as phosphocreatine. Three cytoplasmic ISOENZYMES have been identified in human tissues: the MM type from SKELETAL MUSCLE, the MB type from myocardial tissue and the BB type from nervous tissue as well as a mitochondrial isoenzyme. Macro-creatine kinase refers to creatine kinase complexed with other serum proteins.Pacemaker, Artificial: A device designed to stimulate, by electric impulses, contraction of the heart muscles. It may be temporary (external) or permanent (internal or internal-external).Diuretics: Agents that promote the excretion of urine through their effects on kidney function.Sarcoplasmic Reticulum Calcium-Transporting ATPases: Calcium-transporting ATPases that catalyze the active transport of CALCIUM into the SARCOPLASMIC RETICULUM vesicles from the CYTOPLASM. They are primarily found in MUSCLE CELLS and play a role in the relaxation of MUSCLES.Prevalence: The total number of cases of a given disease in a specified population at a designated time. It is differentiated from INCIDENCE, which refers to the number of new cases in the population at a given time.Atrioventricular Node: A small nodular mass of specialized muscle fibers located in the interatrial septum near the opening of the coronary sinus. It gives rise to the atrioventricular bundle of the conduction system of the heart.Propranolol: A widely used non-cardioselective beta-adrenergic antagonist. Propranolol has been used for MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION; ARRHYTHMIA; ANGINA PECTORIS; HYPERTENSION; HYPERTHYROIDISM; MIGRAINE; PHEOCHROMOCYTOMA; and ANXIETY but adverse effects instigate replacement by newer drugs.Kidney: Body organ that filters blood for the secretion of URINE and that regulates ion concentrations.Metoprolol: A selective adrenergic beta-1 blocking agent that is commonly used to treat ANGINA PECTORIS; HYPERTENSION; and CARDIAC ARRHYTHMIAS.Telemetry: Transmission of the readings of instruments to a remote location by means of wires, radio waves, or other means. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Parasympathetic Nervous System: The craniosacral division of the autonomic nervous system. The cell bodies of the parasympathetic preganglionic fibers are in brain stem nuclei and in the sacral spinal cord. They synapse in cranial autonomic ganglia or in terminal ganglia near target organs. The parasympathetic nervous system generally acts to conserve resources and restore homeostasis, often with effects reciprocal to the sympathetic nervous system.Cardiology: The study of the heart, its physiology, and its functions.Atrial Fibrillation: Abnormal cardiac rhythm that is characterized by rapid, uncoordinated firing of electrical impulses in the upper chambers of the heart (HEART ATRIA). In such case, blood cannot be effectively pumped into the lower chambers of the heart (HEART VENTRICLES). It is caused by abnormal impulse generation.Tissue Distribution: Accumulation of a drug or chemical substance in various organs (including those not relevant to its pharmacologic or therapeutic action). This distribution depends on the blood flow or perfusion rate of the organ, the ability of the drug to penetrate organ membranes, tissue specificity, protein binding. The distribution is usually expressed as tissue to plasma ratios.Sarcolemma: The excitable plasma membrane of a muscle cell. (Glick, Glossary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1990)Gene Expression Regulation, Developmental: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action during the developmental stages of an organism.Guinea Pigs: A common name used for the genus Cavia. The most common species is Cavia porcellus which is the domesticated guinea pig used for pets and biomedical research.Body Weight: The mass or quantity of heaviness of an individual. It is expressed by units of pounds or kilograms.Action Potentials: Abrupt changes in the membrane potential that sweep along the CELL MEMBRANE of excitable cells in response to excitation stimuli.Sensitivity and Specificity: Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Respiration: The act of breathing with the LUNGS, consisting of INHALATION, or the taking into the lungs of the ambient air, and of EXHALATION, or the expelling of the modified air which contains more CARBON DIOXIDE than the air taken in (Blakiston's Gould Medical Dictionary, 4th ed.). This does not include tissue respiration (= OXYGEN CONSUMPTION) or cell respiration (= CELL RESPIRATION).Phenotype: The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.Gene Expression: The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.Muscle, Skeletal: A subtype of striated muscle, attached by TENDONS to the SKELETON. Skeletal muscles are innervated and their movement can be consciously controlled. They are also called voluntary muscles.Ventricular Fibrillation: A potentially lethal cardiac arrhythmia that is characterized by uncoordinated extremely rapid firing of electrical impulses (400-600/min) in HEART VENTRICLES. Such asynchronous ventricular quivering or fibrillation prevents any effective cardiac output and results in unconsciousness (SYNCOPE). It is one of the major electrocardiographic patterns seen with CARDIAC ARREST.Regression Analysis: Procedures for finding the mathematical function which best describes the relationship between a dependent variable and one or more independent variables. In linear regression (see LINEAR MODELS) the relationship is constrained to be a straight line and LEAST-SQUARES ANALYSIS is used to determine the best fit. In logistic regression (see LOGISTIC MODELS) the dependent variable is qualitative rather than continuously variable and LIKELIHOOD FUNCTIONS are used to find the best relationship. In multiple regression, the dependent variable is considered to depend on more than a single independent variable.Organ Specificity: Characteristic restricted to a particular organ of the body, such as a cell type, metabolic response or expression of a particular protein or antigen.Animals, Newborn: Refers to animals in the period of time just after birth.Cross-Sectional Studies: Studies in which the presence or absence of disease or other health-related variables are determined in each member of the study population or in a representative sample at one particular time. This contrasts with LONGITUDINAL STUDIES which are followed over a period of time.Cardiovascular Physiological Phenomena: Processes and properties of the CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM as a whole or of any of its parts.Adenosine Triphosphate: An adenine nucleotide containing three phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety. In addition to its crucial roles in metabolism adenosine triphosphate is a neurotransmitter.Survival Analysis: A class of statistical procedures for estimating the survival function (function of time, starting with a population 100% well at a given time and providing the percentage of the population still well at later times). The survival analysis is then used for making inferences about the effects of treatments, prognostic factors, exposures, and other covariates on the function.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Digoxin: A cardiotonic glycoside obtained mainly from Digitalis lanata; it consists of three sugars and the aglycone DIGOXIGENIN. Digoxin has positive inotropic and negative chronotropic activity. It is used to control ventricular rate in ATRIAL FIBRILLATION and in the management of congestive heart failure with atrial fibrillation. Its use in congestive heart failure and sinus rhythm is less certain. The margin between toxic and therapeutic doses is small. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p666)Gene Expression Regulation: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.Muscle Proteins: The protein constituents of muscle, the major ones being ACTINS and MYOSINS. More than a dozen accessory proteins exist including TROPONIN; TROPOMYOSIN; and DYSTROPHIN.Survival Rate: The proportion of survivors in a group, e.g., of patients, studied and followed over a period, or the proportion of persons in a specified group alive at the beginning of a time interval who survive to the end of the interval. It is often studied using life table methods.Immunohistochemistry: Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.Anoxia: Relatively complete absence of oxygen in one or more tissues.Cardiac Volume: The volume of the HEART, usually relating to the volume of BLOOD contained within it at various periods of the cardiac cycle. The amount of blood ejected from a ventricle at each beat is STROKE VOLUME.Rats, Inbred Strains: Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. This also includes animals with a long history of closed colony breeding.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Cyanosis: A bluish or purplish discoloration of the skin and mucous membranes due to an increase in the amount of deoxygenated hemoglobin in the blood or a structural defect in the hemoglobin molecule.Antihypertensive Agents: Drugs used in the treatment of acute or chronic vascular HYPERTENSION regardless of pharmacological mechanism. Among the antihypertensive agents are DIURETICS; (especially DIURETICS, THIAZIDE); ADRENERGIC BETA-ANTAGONISTS; ADRENERGIC ALPHA-ANTAGONISTS; ANGIOTENSIN-CONVERTING ENZYME INHIBITORS; CALCIUM CHANNEL BLOCKERS; GANGLIONIC BLOCKERS; and VASODILATOR AGENTS.Carbazoles: Benzo-indoles similar to CARBOLINES which are pyrido-indoles. In plants, carbazoles are derived from indole and form some of the INDOLE ALKALOIDS.Risk: The probability that an event will occur. It encompasses a variety of measures of the probability of a generally unfavorable outcome.Sarcoplasmic Reticulum: A network of tubules and sacs in the cytoplasm of SKELETAL MUSCLE FIBERS that assist with muscle contraction and relaxation by releasing and storing calcium ions.Blotting, Western: Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.Acute Disease: Disease having a short and relatively severe course.Blood Flow Velocity: A value equal to the total volume flow divided by the cross-sectional area of the vascular bed.Cause of Death: Factors which produce cessation of all vital bodily functions. They can be analyzed from an epidemiologic viewpoint.Questionnaires: Predetermined sets of questions used to collect data - clinical data, social status, occupational group, etc. The term is often applied to a self-completed survey instrument.Endomyocardial Fibrosis: A condition characterized by the thickening of the ventricular ENDOCARDIUM and subendocardium (MYOCARDIUM), seen mostly in children and young adults in the TROPICAL CLIMATE. The fibrous tissue extends from the apex toward and often involves the HEART VALVES causing restrictive blood flow into the respective ventricles (CARDIOMYOPATHY, RESTRICTIVE).Phosphocreatine: An endogenous substance found mainly in skeletal muscle of vertebrates. It has been tried in the treatment of cardiac disorders and has been added to cardioplegic solutions. (Reynolds JEF(Ed): Martindale: The Extra Pharmacopoeia (electronic version). Micromedex, Inc, Englewood, CO, 1996)Oxygen: An element with atomic symbol O, atomic number 8, and atomic weight [15.99903; 15.99977]. It is the most abundant element on earth and essential for respiration.Algorithms: A procedure consisting of a sequence of algebraic formulas and/or logical steps to calculate or determine a given task.Epinephrine: The active sympathomimetic hormone from the ADRENAL MEDULLA. It stimulates both the alpha- and beta- adrenergic systems, causes systemic VASOCONSTRICTION and gastrointestinal relaxation, stimulates the HEART, and dilates BRONCHI and cerebral vessels. It is used in ASTHMA and CARDIAC FAILURE and to delay absorption of local ANESTHETICS.Pulmonary Wedge Pressure: The blood pressure as recorded after wedging a CATHETER in a small PULMONARY ARTERY; believed to reflect the PRESSURE in the pulmonary CAPILLARIES.Tachycardia, Ventricular: An abnormally rapid ventricular rhythm usually in excess of 150 beats per minute. It is generated within the ventricle below the BUNDLE OF HIS, either as autonomic impulse formation or reentrant impulse conduction. Depending on the etiology, onset of ventricular tachycardia can be paroxysmal (sudden) or nonparoxysmal, its wide QRS complexes can be uniform or polymorphic, and the ventricular beating may be independent of the atrial beating (AV dissociation).Regional Blood Flow: The flow of BLOOD through or around an organ or region of the body.Atrial Function: The hemodynamic and electrophysiological action of the HEART ATRIA.Heart Aneurysm: A localized bulging or dilatation in the muscle wall of a heart (MYOCARDIUM), usually in the LEFT VENTRICLE. Blood-filled aneurysms are dangerous because they may burst. Fibrous aneurysms interfere with the heart function through the loss of contractility. True aneurysm is bound by the vessel wall or cardiac wall. False aneurysms are HEMATOMA caused by myocardial rupture.Logistic Models: Statistical models which describe the relationship between a qualitative dependent variable (that is, one which can take only certain discrete values, such as the presence or absence of a disease) and an independent variable. A common application is in epidemiology for estimating an individual's risk (probability of a disease) as a function of a given risk factor.Cardiac Myosins: Myosin type II isoforms found in cardiac muscle.Oxidative Stress: A disturbance in the prooxidant-antioxidant balance in favor of the former, leading to potential damage. Indicators of oxidative stress include damaged DNA bases, protein oxidation products, and lipid peroxidation products (Sies, Oxidative Stress, 1991, pxv-xvi).Atropine: An alkaloid, originally from Atropa belladonna, but found in other plants, mainly SOLANACEAE. Hyoscyamine is the 3(S)-endo isomer of atropine.Linear Models: Statistical models in which the value of a parameter for a given value of a factor is assumed to be equal to a + bx, where a and b are constants. The models predict a linear regression.Cattle: Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.Comorbidity: The presence of co-existing or additional diseases with reference to an initial diagnosis or with reference to the index condition that is the subject of study. Comorbidity may affect the ability of affected individuals to function and also their survival; it may be used as a prognostic indicator for length of hospital stay, cost factors, and outcome or survival.Rest: Freedom from activity.Chi-Square Distribution: A distribution in which a variable is distributed like the sum of the squares of any given independent random variable, each of which has a normal distribution with mean of zero and variance of one. The chi-square test is a statistical test based on comparison of a test statistic to a chi-square distribution. The oldest of these tests are used to detect whether two or more population distributions differ from one another.Disease Progression: The worsening of a disease over time. This concept is most often used for chronic and incurable diseases where the stage of the disease is an important determinant of therapy and prognosis.Sodium-Calcium Exchanger: An electrogenic ion exchange protein that maintains a steady level of calcium by removing an amount of calcium equal to that which enters the cells. It is widely distributed in most excitable membranes, including the brain and heart.Adenosine: A nucleoside that is composed of ADENINE and D-RIBOSE. Adenosine or adenosine derivatives play many important biological roles in addition to being components of DNA and RNA. Adenosine itself is a neurotransmitter.
heart; Chips, Loves Both the Edible; Chips, The Non-Edible Silicon. "Nokia 8 Flagship with Snapdragon 835 and Zeiss Dual Camera ...
2008). "Metabolic actions of metformin in the heart can occur by AMPK-independent mechanisms". Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol ... According to the prescribing information, heart failure (in particular, unstable or acute congestive heart failure) increases ... Outcomes appear to be improved even in those with some degree of kidney disease, heart failure, or liver problems. The American ... However, following a meta-analysis in 2007 that linked the medication's use to an increased risk of heart attack, concerns were ...
... is the replacement of the aortic valve of the heart through the blood vessels (as opposed to valve replacement by open heart ... Once the wire is across, a large tube is used to place the transcatheter heart valve through the femoral vein and inferior vena ... Under general anesthesia, a small surgical incision is made between the ribs, followed by a small puncture of the heart. The ... Afterwards, the hole in the aorta is closed with a self-collapsing nitinol device designed to close holes in the heart. ...
This means that some of the blood that was already ejected from the heart is regurgitating back into the heart. The percentage ... The amount of blood that is ejected by the heart is known as the stroke volume. Under normal conditions, >50% of the blood in a ... Bonow, RO; American Heart Association Task Force on Practice Guidelines (Writing Committee to revise the 1998 guidelines for ... Heart in Fours: Cardiology for Residents and Practitioners. JP Medical Ltd. p. 47. ISBN 9789350904930. Retrieved 4 June 2016. ...
"Birmingham Children's & Women's Hospital Will Now Be Run As One". Heart. 31 January 2017. Retrieved 15 May 2017. "Exclusive: ...
However, high doses of deguelin are suspected of having negative effects on the heart, lungs and nerves. The molecular ... Tissue distributions after i.g. (intragastric) administration: perirenal fat > heart > mammary gland > colon > kidney > liver ... heart > fat > mammary gland > colon > liver > kidney > brain > lung. ...
The American Heart Association, NIH and NCEP provide a set of guidelines for fasting HDL levels and risk for heart disease. ... Data from the landmark Framingham Heart Study showed that, for a given level of LDL, the risk of heart disease increases 10- ... National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute HDL: The good, but complex, cholesterol - Harvard Heart Letter HDL Cholesterol at Lab ... National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (NHLBI). Retrieved 2 June 2011. M.J. Sorrentino (2011), "Non-HDL-Cholesterol", ...
Although still controversial, this may increase the risk of stroke or heart attack in people taking clopidogrel to prevent ... Heart. 99 (8): 520-7. doi:10.1136/heartjnl-2012-302371. PMID 22851683. Shirasaka, Y; Sager, J. E.; Lutz, J. D.; Davis, C; ...
Heart. 93 (2): 215. doi:10.1136/hrt.2006.093187. PMC 1861368 . PMID 17228071. Hibino H, Kurachi Y (March 2006). "A new insight ...
Perrault LP (2003). "A prospective randomized angiographic study of open versus endoscopic saphenectomy for CABG". Heart ... Heart Surgery Forum. 6: S15. Meyer DM (2000). "Histologic evidence of the safety of endoscopic saphenous vein graft preparation ... Heart Surgery Forum. 6: E143. Connolly MW (2002). "Endoscopic radial artery harvesting: results of first 300 patients". Annals ... channel or new blood flow connection across the heart. The success of coronary artery bypass graft surgery (CABG) may be ...
Every year, 300,000 people worldwide undergo open heart surgery for mitral valve repair, 44,000 people in the US alone. Since ... de Oliveira, J.M.F; Antunes, M.J (2006). "Mitral valve repair: better than replacement". Heart. 92 (2): 275-281. doi:10.1136/ ... 2006). "ACC/AHA 2006 guidelines for the management of patients with valvular heart disease". Circulation. 114 (5): e84-e231. ...
"Alcohol intake and the risk of coronary heart disease in the Spanish EPIC cohort study". Heart. 96 (2): 124-30. doi:10.1136/hrt ... involving hypertrophy of the musculature of the heart that can lead to congestive heart failure. Alcoholics may have anemia ... A meta-analysis of 34 studies found a reduced risk of mortality from coronary heart disease in men who drank 2 - 4 drinks per ... 2002). "Alcohol, heart disease, and mortality: a review". Rev Cardiovasc Med. 3 (1): 7-13. PMID 12439349. Sesso HD, Stampfer MJ ...
Kubler P, Gibbs H, Garrahy P (2000). "Platypnoea-orthodeoxia syndrome". Heart. 83 (2): 221-3. doi:10.1136/heart.83.2.221. PMC ...
The Perpetrators Speak". HEART. Archived from the original on September 6, 2011. Retrieved 14 October 2014 - via Internet ...
Heart. 81 (3): 308-12. doi:10.1136/hrt.81.3.308. PMC 1728981 . PMID 10026359. Rapini, Ronald P.; Bolognia, Jean L.; Jorizzo, ...
When the heart is involved, the prognosis is generally less favourable, though corticosteroids appear effective in improving AV ... Less commonly affected are the eyes, liver, heart, and brain. Any organ, however, can be affected. The signs and symptoms ... Syed J, Myers R; Myers (January 2004). "Sarcoid heart disease". Can J Cardiol. 20 (1): 89-93. PMID 14968147. Sadek MM, Yung D, ... Cardiac sarcoidosis can cause fibrosis, granuloma formation, or the accumulation of fluid in the interstitium of the heart, or ...
For a healthy human heart the entire cardiac cycle typically runs less than one second. That is, for a normal heart rate of 72 ... Diastole /daɪˈæstəliː/ is that part of the cardiac cycle during which the heart refills with blood after the emptying done ... Examining diastolic function during a cardiac stress test is a good way to test for heart failure with preserved ejection ... Over time, decreased cardiac output will diminish the ability of the heart to circulate blood efficiently throughout the body. ...
"Harwich: Birth Of The American Dream?". Heart. 1 May 2013. Retrieved 15 May 2015. "Harwich tries to claim Mayflower". Wall ...
He is also famous for discovering the sinoatrial node, the component of the heart which makes it beat, with his student Martin ... Heart. 93 (10): 1184-1187. doi:10.1136/hrt.2006.105049. PMC 2000948 . PMID 17890694. BIOGRAPHICAL INDEX OF FORMER FELLOWS OF ...
... is a disorder of the heart muscle in people with diabetes. It can lead to inability of the heart to ... While the heart can function without help from the nervous system, it is highly innervated with autonomic nerves, regulating ... An analysis of major clinical trials shows that diabetic patients with heart failure benefit from such a therapy to a similar ... Therefore, the diabetic heart shows clear denervation as the pathology progresses. This denervation correlates with ...
Strokes of laddish humour, dad-dancing and chart-toppers such as Heart Skips a Beat and Dance With Me Tonight all appeared ... Hughes, Lorna (17 March 2017). "REVIEW: Olly Murs makes fans' hearts skip a beat at ECHO Arena". Liverpool Echo. Retrieved 7 ... "See Olly Murs Live On His Spring 2017 Arena Tour!". Heart. Global. 5 September 2016. Retrieved 18 May 2017. Ahmed, Afshan (5 ... " "Heart Skips a Beat" "24 Hrs" "Deeper" "Dear Darlin'" "That's the Way (I Like It)" / "Never Too Much" / "She's Got That Vibe ...
Heart's version of her song became the band's eighth U.S. top-ten single, peaking at number seven. It also climbed to number ... "Who Will You Run To" is a song recorded by American rock band Heart. It was composed by Diane Warren and released as the second ... https://www.billboard.com/artist/303367/heart/chart?f=379 "Heart". AllMusic. Retrieved 2012-01-12. ... "HEART , full Official Chart History , Official Charts Company". officialcharts.com. Retrieved 2016-11-09. ...
Low sodium versus normal sodium diets in systolic heart failure: systematic review and meta-analysis". Heart. 99 (11): 820. doi ... "Low sodium versus normal sodium diets in systolic heart failure: systematic review and meta-analysis". Heart (British Cardiac ... In 2012, the British Journal Heart published an article claiming that a low salt diet appears to increase the risk of death in ... "Heart pulls sodium meta-analysis over duplicated, and now missing, data". Retraction Watch. Retrieved 2013-09-29. Sodium, Your ...
Heart Disease and Exercise 1957 Aubrey Lewis, Between Guesswork and Certainty in Psychiatry 1956 Phillips William, The ... Bedford, D. E.; Muir, D. C. (1959). "James William Brown". Heart. 21: 284-8. doi:10.1136/hrt.21.2.284. "Obituary". BMJ. 1 (4874 ... doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(01)29463-X. "Bradshaw Lecture ON THE SURGERY OF THE HEART". The Lancet. 195 (5029): 134-139. 1920. doi: ... doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(01)09687-8. Campbell, M. (1951). "A. G. GIBSON". Heart. 13: 255-7. doi:10.1136/hrt.13.2.255. PMC 479416 ...
... blood away from those parts of the heart. This happens as a result of the narrowed coronary arteries being always maximally ... Heart. 91 (7): 863. doi:10.1136/hrt.2004.043471. PMC 1768979 . PMID 15958345. Kern MJ (1996). "Coronary steal through anomalous ... internal mammary artery graft treated by ligation without sternotomy". Tex Heart Inst J. 23 (4): 316-7. PMC 325384 . PMID ...
An artificial heart is a device that replaces the heart. Artificial hearts are typically used to bridge the time to heart ... "Carmats heart sinks with another delay". 15 January 2019.. *^ a b "Artificial Heart Offers Hope to Heart Failure Patients". 16 ... Total artificial heart prototypesEdit. Total artificial heart pumpEdit. The U.S. Army artificial heart pump was a compact, air- ... Cleveland HeartEdit. The Cleveland Heart is a continuous-flow total artificial heart (CFTAH)[citation needed] ...
The smallest artificial heart in the world, weighing only 11 grams, was enough to save life of an infant boy suffering a deadly ... An Italian heart surgeon holds a tiny titanium pump, the worlds smallest artificial heart, which was implanted in a baby, at ... was able to survive for 13 days with the artificial heart before receiving an actual heart transplant. ... The smallest artificial heart in the world, weighing only 11 grams, was enough to save life of an infant boy suffering a deadly ...
Mom with a child with Hypoplastic Left Heart Syndrome. Anyone can join. Has your child gone through surgeries,... ... Hypoplastic Right Heart syndrome. im 20 weeks and have just found out our baby has hypoplastic right heart syndrome and was ... Mom with a child with Hypoplastic Left Heart Syndrome. Anyone can join. Has your child gone through surgeries, heart transplant ... Started by Adriana on 02/15/2010 in Hypoplastic Left Heart Syndrome. Last update on 10/02/2011 by Ed Sierra ...
... medical professionals and the public can watch the implantation of the SynCardia temporary Total Artificial Heart in a peer ... Heart failure patients who are extremely sick can get a second chance at life with the SynCardia Total Artificial Heart. It is ... Originally used as a permanent replacement heart, the SynCardia Total Artificial Heart is currently approved as a bridge to ... The SynCardia Total Artificial Heart is becoming the standard of care for addressing end-stage biventricular heart failure. ...
Heart valves are important to making the heart act as a pump. There are four heart valves: tricuspid, mitral, pulmonic, and ... Transcatheter heart valve replacement is the newest option in heart valve replacement. Rather than enduring open heart surgery ... Heart Basics. The heart is one of two organs that make up the cardiovascular system; it pumps blood throughout the body. "The ... "The development of the heart valve design was fueled by the introduction of the heart-lung bypass machine,which was first used ...
Artificial heart operation fails. Thursday, November 29, 2001. HOUSTON -- A man suffering from chronic heart failure died from ... The heart of the matter: Clinic helps patients rise above congestive heart failure (2/17/18) ... The heart device performed well during the surgery, officials said.. Dr. O.H. Frazier, who led the team, said the bleeding was ... The man who died Tuesday was the first of a second group of five patients who will be implanted with the artificial heart ...
Artificial heart patient Anthony Mandia yesterday continued to rebound from Tuesdays setback, when he lapsed in and out of a ... Two potential donor hearts, traced by the Delaware Valley Transplant Program, have not worked out. The first heart was too ... "I spent a lot of time, as have the members of our group, developing this heart. So it was a thrill for us," to have used it in ... Artificial heart patient Anthony Mandia yesterday continued to rebound from Tuesdays setback, when he lapsed in and out of a ...
The second person in France to receive a much-hyped new-generation artificial heart has died eight months after receiving the ... Artificial hearts have been in use for many years as a temporary fix for patients with chronic heart problems. ... The artificial heart uses soft biomaterials intended to lessen the risk of blood clots and rejection by the immune system. It ... Nearly 100,000 people in Europe and the United States are in need of a heart transplant, according to Carmat, but only about ...
Heart valves are important to making the heart act as a pump. There are four heart valves: tricuspid, mitral, pulmonic, and ... Heart valves are important to making the heart act as a pump. There are four heart valves: tricuspid, mitral, pulmonic, and ... Heart valves are important to making the heart act as a pump. There are four heart valves: tricuspid, mitral, pulmonic, and ... Heart Basics. The heart is one of two organs that make up the cardiovascular system; it pumps blood throughout the body. "The ...
... the blood-thinning drug Pradaxa is not to be used in patients with artificial heart valves (also known as prosthetic heart ... If you are taking Pradaxa and have had an artificial heart valve replacement, talk to your health care professional as soon as ... A recent European clinical trial involving patients with a type of artificial heart valve was terminated early due to ... The Product Monograph for Pradaxa currently recommends against the use of Pradaxa in patients with artificial heart valves. ...
... all 40+ pages of the American Heart Associations scientific statement, published in 2011 (the most recent one - citation below ... Just Read: Triglycerides and Cardiovascular Disease - American Heart Association Scientific Statement. * Post date March 28, ... And the American Heart Association recommended high carbohydrate diets and even candy in the prevention of cardiovascular ... Snack on sugar, candy and pretzels-this was the recommendation of the @American_Heart Assn. for decades. pic.twitter.com/ ...
Learn about the causes of valvular heart disease. ... Valvular heart disease is when any valve in the heart has ... Other types of heart disease: *Heart failure. Heart failure happens when the heart cannot pump enough blood and oxygen to ... What is valvular heart disease?. Valvular heart disease is when any valve in the heart has damage or is diseased. There are ... Facts About Valvular Heart Disease. *About 2.5% of the U.S. population has valvular heart disease, but it is more common in ...
... a serious condition when the heart cannot pump enough blood and oxygen to support other organs in your body. ... Heart failure happens when the heart cannot pump enough blood and oxygen to support other organs in your body. Heart failure is ... Facts About Heart Failure in the United States. *About 6.2 million adults in the United States have heart failure.1 ... Deaths from Heart Failure Vary by Geography. Heart failure is more common in some areas of the United States than in others. ...
Flu Shots Protect Hearts, Too Many people with heart disease and other chronic health conditions die from the flu each year. ... Don Fick suffered a heart attack while on vacation with his family. After his heart attack, Don made cardiac rehab a priority ... Gum disease increases risk for heart attack by nearly 50%, according to a recent study published in the American Heart ... Just as gum disease causes inflammation of the gums, heart disease is associated with inflammation of the hearts arteries, ...
Stories From the Heart chronicles the inspiring journeys of heart disease and stroke survivors, caregivers and advocates. ... Categories: Stories from the Heart , Tags: Cardiac Arrest, Heart disease, Heart attack ... A heart attack caused Laura Vanderpools heart to stop. Since then, shes left a stressful job for a new gig that leaves plenty ... Since suffering a heart attack at 55, Bev Pohlit has been devoted to raising awareness that heart disease is the No. 1 killer ...
We go over the Pyle Heart Rate Monitor Watch, Scosche Rhythm+ Heart Rate Monitor Armband, Polar FT7, and Polar M430. The review ... Also, it features devices at every price level along with tips on what to look for when selecting a heart rate monitor. ... Reviews of the best heart rate monitors are here. The article uncovers optical, chest strap, and arm band pulse monitors. ... includes our pick of the best heart rate monitor. ... Best Heart Rate Monitor Reviews - The Heart Rate Watch Buyers ...
Teaching Heart Blog. Bugs and Insects. Frogs. St. Patricks Day. Hungry Caterpillar. Weather. Rainbows. Learning Centers. ... I hope this site gives back to all sharing teachers with a Teaching Heart.. Enjoy!. Proud to be a #1 Teacher Resource for over ... Get the Teaching Heart Mom widget and many other great free widgets at Widgetbox!. Teaching Heart (www.teachingheart.net) on ... Instant download after payment! Trust Teaching Heart! Teaching Heart has been selling great products to happy teachers for over ...
... is a groundbreaking and critically important guide to heart care for athletes. By protecting your heart now ... The Haywire Heart is the first book to examine heart arrhythmia in athletes. Share:. *Click to share on Facebook (Opens in new ... The Haywire Heart How too much exercise can kill you, and what you can do to protect your heart. Dr. John Mandrola and Lennard ... The Haywire Heart: How too much exercise can kill you, and what you can do to protect your heart. Chris Case, Dr. John Mandrola ...
... and in the hearts of people with heart disease. ... Addiction, like heart disease, cancers, and type II diabetes, ... No one chooses to be a drug addict or to develop heart disease. ...
... the National Institutes of Health and other government agencies to compile up-to-date statistics on heart disease, stroke and ... Heart Disease Statistics at a Glance. Since its inception, the American Heart Association (AHA) has lead efforts in research, ... Understanding Congenital Heart Defects. Up to 1.3 million Americans alive today have some form of congenital heart defect and ... Understanding Congenital Heart Defects. Up to 1.3 million Americans alive today have some form of congenital heart defect and ...
Other diseases that damage or weaken the heart muscle or heart valves can also cause heart failure. Heart failure is most ... Ways the Heart Can Fail. Heart failure can occur in several ways: *The muscles of the heart pumps (ventricles) become thin and ... Heart Failure. Heart failure is a condition in which the heart does not pump enough blood to meet the needs of the bodys ... Angina and Heart Attacks. While coronary artery disease is a major cause of heart failure, people with heart failure are at ...
The Heart Foundation saves lives and improves health through funding world-class cardiovascular research, guidelines for health ... Your heart Understanding your heart. Learn about how to have a healthy heart and living with heart conditions. ... After my heart attack What happened to your heart?. Some people do not even notice they are having a heart attack, others have ... Jump Rope for Heart. Established in 1983, Heart Foundation Jump Rope for Heart is renowned for being one of Australias most ...
Target heart rate[edit]. For healthy people, the Target Heart Rate or Training Heart Rate (THR) is a desired range of heart ... Heart rate recovery[edit]. Heart rate recovery (HRrecovery) is the reduction in heart rate at peak exercise and the rate as ... Resting heart rate[edit]. The basal or resting heart rate (HRrest) is defined as the heart rate when a person is awake, in a ... Maximum heart rate[edit]. The maximum heart rate (HRmax) is the highest heart rate an individual can achieve without severe ...
Smoking increases the risk of heart attack, stroke and angina. ... Smoking affects the vessels that supply blood to your heart and ... Your heart Understanding your heart. Learn how your heart works and living with heart conditions. ... After my heart attack What happened to your heart?. Some people do not even notice they are having a heart attack, others have ... Recovering from a heart attack?. Learn more about heart attack recovery, including information on what happened to your heart, ...
Peter Liu, University of Ottawa Heart Institute, Canada Immune System as Sensor/Mediator for Progression in Heart Failure - ... Harnessing the T Cell Function as a New Direction in Attenuating the Transition from Left Heart Failure to Right Heart Failure ... Does XX or XY Make the Heart Grow Fonder?. Leslie A. Leinwand, University of Colorado Boulder, USA A Woman is Not a Small Man: ... Epigenetic Regulation of Heart Failure. Toshiyuki Ko, University of Tokyo, Japan Short Talk: Single-Cell Analysis of Non- ...
  • The 69-year-old man, who wished to remain anonymous, was terminally ill when he received the experimental heart that was seen as a long-term solution for patients with end-stage heart failure. (thelocal.fr)
  • Following these advances, scientific interest for the development of a solution for heart disease developed in numerous research groups worldwide. (wikipedia.org)
  • The smallest artificial heart in the world, weighing only 11 grams, was enough to save life of an infant boy suffering a deadly disease. (rt.com)
  • The boy suffered from dilated myocardiopathy, a disease which eventually would atrophy the heart muscle and stop its ability to pump blood. (rt.com)
  • However Carmat hopes to provide a longer-term solution to tens of thousands who suffer from heart disease -- the world's leading cause of death -- and are unable to receive a transplant. (thelocal.fr)
  • And the American Heart Association recommended high carbohydrate diets and even candy in the prevention of cardiovascular disease. (tedeytan.com)
  • Although the heart is conceptually a pump, it embodies subtleties that defy straightforward emulation with synthetic materials and power supplies. (wikipedia.org)
  • In 1949, a precursor to the modern artificial heart pump was built by doctors William Sewell and William Glenn of the Yale School of Medicine using an Erector Set , assorted odds and ends, and dime-store toys. (wikipedia.org)
  • The external pump successfully bypassed the heart of a dog for more than an hour. (wikipedia.org)
  • A heart-lung machine was first used in 1953 during a successful open heart surgery. (wikipedia.org)
  • John Heysham Gibbon , the inventor of the machine, performed the operation and developed the heart-lung substitute himself. (wikipedia.org)
  • The development of the heart valve design was fueled by the introduction of the heart-lung bypass machine,which was first used successfully on humans in 1953 to perform an atrial septal repair". (openwetware.org)
  • Nearly 100,000 people in Europe and the United States are in need of a heart transplant, according to Carmat, but only about 4,000 hearts become available for transplant. (thelocal.fr)
  • In Dodrill's post-operative report, he notes, "To our knowledge, this is the first instance of survival of a patient when a mechanicaly heart mechanism was used to take over the complete body function of maintaining the blood supply of the body while the heart was open and operated on. (wikipedia.org)
  • The contractions of the heart necessary to drive the blood are controlled by electrochemical impulses created by pace maker cells" . (openwetware.org)
  • The artificial heart uses soft biomaterials intended to lessen the risk of blood clots and rejection by the immune system. (thelocal.fr)
  • The device, a self-contained unit implanted in a patient's chest, is a mix of synthetic materials and animal tissue, and seeks to mimic the form and function of an actual human heart. (thelocal.fr)
  • It is also distinct from a cardiopulmonary bypass machine, which is an external device used to provide the functions of both the heart and lungs, used only for a few hours at a time, most commonly during cardiac surgery . (wikipedia.org)
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