Blood Glucose: Glucose in blood.Glucose: A primary source of energy for living organisms. It is naturally occurring and is found in fruits and other parts of plants in its free state. It is used therapeutically in fluid and nutrient replacement.Blood Glucose Self-Monitoring: Self evaluation of whole blood glucose levels outside the clinical laboratory. A digital or battery-operated reflectance meter may be used. It has wide application in controlling unstable insulin-dependent diabetes.Glucose Tolerance Test: A test to determine the ability of an individual to maintain HOMEOSTASIS of BLOOD GLUCOSE. It includes measuring blood glucose levels in a fasting state, and at prescribed intervals before and after oral glucose intake (75 or 100 g) or intravenous infusion (0.5 g/kg).Insulin: A 51-amino acid pancreatic hormone that plays a major role in the regulation of glucose metabolism, directly by suppressing endogenous glucose production (GLYCOGENOLYSIS; GLUCONEOGENESIS) and indirectly by suppressing GLUCAGON secretion and LIPOLYSIS. Native insulin is a globular protein comprised of a zinc-coordinated hexamer. Each insulin monomer containing two chains, A (21 residues) and B (30 residues), linked by two disulfide bonds. Insulin is used as a drug to control insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (DIABETES MELLITUS, TYPE 1).Hypoglycemia: A syndrome of abnormally low BLOOD GLUCOSE level. Clinical hypoglycemia has diverse etiologies. Severe hypoglycemia eventually lead to glucose deprivation of the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM resulting in HUNGER; SWEATING; PARESTHESIA; impaired mental function; SEIZURES; COMA; and even DEATH.Glucose Intolerance: A pathological state in which BLOOD GLUCOSE level is less than approximately 140 mg/100 ml of PLASMA at fasting, and above approximately 200 mg/100 ml plasma at 30-, 60-, or 90-minute during a GLUCOSE TOLERANCE TEST. This condition is seen frequently in DIABETES MELLITUS, but also occurs with other diseases and MALNUTRITION.Hypoglycemic Agents: Substances which lower blood glucose levels.Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2: A subclass of DIABETES MELLITUS that is not INSULIN-responsive or dependent (NIDDM). It is characterized initially by INSULIN RESISTANCE and HYPERINSULINEMIA; and eventually by GLUCOSE INTOLERANCE; HYPERGLYCEMIA; and overt diabetes. Type II diabetes mellitus is no longer considered a disease exclusively found in adults. Patients seldom develop KETOSIS but often exhibit OBESITY.Hyperglycemia: Abnormally high BLOOD GLUCOSE level.Glucose Oxidase: An enzyme of the oxidoreductase class that catalyzes the conversion of beta-D-glucose and oxygen to D-glucono-1,5-lactone and peroxide. It is a flavoprotein, highly specific for beta-D-glucose. The enzyme is produced by Penicillium notatum and other fungi and has antibacterial activity in the presence of glucose and oxygen. It is used to estimate glucose concentration in blood or urine samples through the formation of colored dyes by the hydrogen peroxide produced in the reaction. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 1.1.3.4.Diabetes Mellitus: A heterogeneous group of disorders characterized by HYPERGLYCEMIA and GLUCOSE INTOLERANCE.Diabetes Mellitus, Experimental: Diabetes mellitus induced experimentally by administration of various diabetogenic agents or by PANCREATECTOMY.Hemoglobin A, Glycosylated: Minor hemoglobin components of human erythrocytes designated A1a, A1b, and A1c. Hemoglobin A1c is most important since its sugar moiety is glucose covalently bound to the terminal amino acid of the beta chain. Since normal glycohemoglobin concentrations exclude marked blood glucose fluctuations over the preceding three to four weeks, the concentration of glycosylated hemoglobin A is a more reliable index of the blood sugar average over a long period of time.Glucose Transporter Type 1: A ubiquitously expressed glucose transporter that is important for constitutive, basal GLUCOSE transport. It is predominately expressed in ENDOTHELIAL CELLS and ERYTHROCYTES at the BLOOD-BRAIN BARRIER and is responsible for GLUCOSE entry into the BRAIN.Fasting: Abstaining from all food.Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1: A subtype of DIABETES MELLITUS that is characterized by INSULIN deficiency. It is manifested by the sudden onset of severe HYPERGLYCEMIA, rapid progression to DIABETIC KETOACIDOSIS, and DEATH unless treated with insulin. The disease may occur at any age, but is most common in childhood or adolescence.Glucose Transporter Type 4: A glucose transport protein found in mature MUSCLE CELLS and ADIPOCYTES. It promotes transport of glucose from the BLOOD into target TISSUES. The inactive form of the protein is localized in CYTOPLASMIC VESICLES. In response to INSULIN, it is translocated to the PLASMA MEMBRANE where it facilitates glucose uptake.Glucagon: A 29-amino acid pancreatic peptide derived from proglucagon which is also the precursor of intestinal GLUCAGON-LIKE PEPTIDES. Glucagon is secreted by PANCREATIC ALPHA CELLS and plays an important role in regulation of BLOOD GLUCOSE concentration, ketone metabolism, and several other biochemical and physiological processes. (From Gilman et al., Goodman and Gilman's The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, 9th ed, p1511)Postprandial Period: The time frame after a meal or FOOD INTAKE.Diagnostic Equipment: Nonexpendable items used in examination.Gluconeogenesis: Biosynthesis of GLUCOSE from nonhexose or non-carbohydrate precursors, such as LACTATE; PYRUVATE; ALANINE; and GLYCEROL.Deoxyglucose: 2-Deoxy-D-arabino-hexose. An antimetabolite of glucose with antiviral activity.Monosaccharide Transport Proteins: A large group of membrane transport proteins that shuttle MONOSACCHARIDES across CELL MEMBRANES.Islets of Langerhans: Irregular microscopic structures consisting of cords of endocrine cells that are scattered throughout the PANCREAS among the exocrine acini. Each islet is surrounded by connective tissue fibers and penetrated by a network of capillaries. There are four major cell types. The most abundant beta cells (50-80%) secrete INSULIN. Alpha cells (5-20%) secrete GLUCAGON. PP cells (10-35%) secrete PANCREATIC POLYPEPTIDE. Delta cells (~5%) secrete SOMATOSTATIN.Glucose Transporter Type 2: A glucose transport facilitator that is expressed primarily in PANCREATIC BETA CELLS; LIVER; and KIDNEYS. It may function as a GLUCOSE sensor to regulate INSULIN release and glucose HOMEOSTASIS.Glycosuria: The appearance of an abnormally large amount of GLUCOSE in the urine, such as more than 500 mg/day in adults. It can be due to HYPERGLYCEMIA or genetic defects in renal reabsorption (RENAL GLYCOSURIA).Glucose 1-Dehydrogenase: A glucose dehydrogenase that catalyzes the oxidation of beta-D-glucose to form D-glucono-1,5-lactone, using NAD as well as NADP as a coenzyme.GlycogenInsulin Infusion Systems: Portable or implantable devices for infusion of insulin. Includes open-loop systems which may be patient-operated or controlled by a pre-set program and are designed for constant delivery of small quantities of insulin, increased during food ingestion, and closed-loop systems which deliver quantities of insulin automatically based on an electronic glucose sensor.Dietary Carbohydrates: Carbohydrates present in food comprising digestible sugars and starches and indigestible cellulose and other dietary fibers. The former are the major source of energy. The sugars are in beet and cane sugar, fruits, honey, sweet corn, corn syrup, milk and milk products, etc.; the starches are in cereal grains, legumes (FABACEAE), tubers, etc. (From Claudio & Lagua, Nutrition and Diet Therapy Dictionary, 3d ed, p32, p277)Liver: A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.Streptozocin: An antibiotic that is produced by Stretomyces achromogenes. It is used as an antineoplastic agent and to induce diabetes in experimental animals.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Lactates: Salts or esters of LACTIC ACID containing the general formula CH3CHOHCOOR.Glucokinase: A group of enzymes that catalyzes the conversion of ATP and D-glucose to ADP and D-glucose 6-phosphate. They are found in invertebrates and microorganisms, and are highly specific for glucose. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 2.7.1.2.Body Weight: The mass or quantity of heaviness of an individual. It is expressed by units of pounds or kilograms.Lactic Acid: A normal intermediate in the fermentation (oxidation, metabolism) of sugar. The concentrated form is used internally to prevent gastrointestinal fermentation. (From Stedman, 26th ed)Glucose Transporter Type 3: A major glucose transporter found in NEURONS.Insulin-Secreting Cells: A type of pancreatic cell representing about 50-80% of the islet cells. Beta cells secrete INSULIN.Fatty Acids, Nonesterified: FATTY ACIDS found in the plasma that are complexed with SERUM ALBUMIN for transport. These fatty acids are not in glycerol ester form.C-Peptide: The middle segment of proinsulin that is between the N-terminal B-chain and the C-terminal A-chain. It is a pancreatic peptide of about 31 residues, depending on the species. Upon proteolytic cleavage of proinsulin, equimolar INSULIN and C-peptide are released. C-peptide immunoassay has been used to assess pancreatic beta cell function in diabetic patients with circulating insulin antibodies or exogenous insulin. Half-life of C-peptide is 30 min, almost 8 times that of insulin.Glycemic Index: A numerical system of measuring the rate of BLOOD GLUCOSE generation from a particular food item as compared to a reference item, such as glucose = 100. Foods with higher glycemic index numbers create greater blood sugar swings.Glucagon-Like Peptide 1: A peptide of 36 or 37 amino acids that is derived from PROGLUCAGON and mainly produced by the INTESTINAL L CELLS. GLP-1(1-37 or 1-36) is further N-terminally truncated resulting in GLP-1(7-37) or GLP-1-(7-36) which can be amidated. These GLP-1 peptides are known to enhance glucose-dependent INSULIN release, suppress GLUCAGON release and gastric emptying, lower BLOOD GLUCOSE, and reduce food intake.Homeostasis: The processes whereby the internal environment of an organism tends to remain balanced and stable.Fructose: A monosaccharide in sweet fruits and honey that is soluble in water, alcohol, or ether. It is used as a preservative and an intravenous infusion in parenteral feeding.Reagent Strips: Narrow pieces of material impregnated or covered with a substance used to produce a chemical reaction. The strips are used in detecting, measuring, producing, etc., other substances. (From Dorland, 28th ed)Glycolysis: A metabolic process that converts GLUCOSE into two molecules of PYRUVIC ACID through a series of enzymatic reactions. Energy generated by this process is conserved in two molecules of ATP. Glycolysis is the universal catabolic pathway for glucose, free glucose, or glucose derived from complex CARBOHYDRATES, such as GLYCOGEN and STARCH.Glucose Metabolism Disorders: Pathological conditions in which the BLOOD GLUCOSE cannot be maintained within the normal range, such as in HYPOGLYCEMIA and HYPERGLYCEMIA. Etiology of these disorders varies. Plasma glucose concentration is critical to survival for it is the predominant fuel for the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.Obesity: A status with BODY WEIGHT that is grossly above the acceptable or desirable weight, usually due to accumulation of excess FATS in the body. The standards may vary with age, sex, genetic or cultural background. In the BODY MASS INDEX, a BMI greater than 30.0 kg/m2 is considered obese, and a BMI greater than 40.0 kg/m2 is considered morbidly obese (MORBID OBESITY).Liver Glycogen: Glycogen stored in the liver. (Dorland, 28th ed)Diabetic Diet: A diet prescribed in the treatment of diabetes mellitus, usually limited in the amount of sugar or readily available carbohydrate. (Dorland, 27th ed)Glucose-6-Phosphate: An ester of glucose with phosphoric acid, made in the course of glucose metabolism by mammalian and other cells. It is a normal constituent of resting muscle and probably is in constant equilibrium with fructose-6-phosphate. (Stedman, 26th ed)Glucose-6-Phosphatase: An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of D-glucose 6-phosphate and water to D-glucose and orthophosphate. EC 3.1.3.9.PhlorhizinMonitoring, Physiologic: The continuous measurement of physiological processes, blood pressure, heart rate, renal output, reflexes, respiration, etc., in a patient or experimental animal; includes pharmacologic monitoring, the measurement of administered drugs or their metabolites in the blood, tissues, or urine.Hexokinase: An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of ATP and a D-hexose to ADP and a D-hexose 6-phosphate. D-Glucose, D-mannose, D-fructose, sorbitol, and D-glucosamine can act as acceptors; ITP and dATP can act as donors. The liver isoenzyme has sometimes been called glucokinase. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 2.7.1.1.Glucose Dehydrogenases: D-Glucose:1-oxidoreductases. Catalyzes the oxidation of D-glucose to D-glucono-gamma-lactone and reduced acceptor. Any acceptor except molecular oxygen is permitted. Includes EC 1.1.1.47; EC 1.1.1.118; EC 1.1.1.119 and EC 1.1.99.10.Hyperinsulinism: A syndrome with excessively high INSULIN levels in the BLOOD. It may cause HYPOGLYCEMIA. Etiology of hyperinsulinism varies, including hypersecretion of a beta cell tumor (INSULINOMA); autoantibodies against insulin (INSULIN ANTIBODIES); defective insulin receptor (INSULIN RESISTANCE); or overuse of exogenous insulin or HYPOGLYCEMIC AGENTS.Lipids: A generic term for fats and lipoids, the alcohol-ether-soluble constituents of protoplasm, which are insoluble in water. They comprise the fats, fatty oils, essential oils, waxes, phospholipids, glycolipids, sulfolipids, aminolipids, chromolipids (lipochromes), and fatty acids. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Rats, Wistar: A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.Monitoring, Ambulatory: The use of electronic equipment to observe or record physiologic processes while the patient undergoes normal daily activities.Energy Metabolism: The chemical reactions involved in the production and utilization of various forms of energy in cells.Fructosamine: An amino sugar formed when glucose non-enzymatically reacts with the N-terminal amino group of proteins. The fructose moiety is derived from glucose by the "classical" Amadori rearrangement.Biological Transport: The movement of materials (including biochemical substances and drugs) through a biological system at the cellular level. The transport can be across cell membranes and epithelial layers. It also can occur within intracellular compartments and extracellular compartments.Pancreas, Artificial: Devices for simulating the activity of the pancreas. They can be either electromechanical, consisting of a glucose sensor, computer, and insulin pump or bioartificial, consisting of isolated islets of Langerhans in an artificial membrane.Eating: The consumption of edible substances.Prediabetic State: The time period before the development of symptomatic diabetes. For example, certain risk factors can be observed in subjects who subsequently develop INSULIN RESISTANCE as in type 2 diabetes (DIABETES MELLITUS, TYPE 2).Insulin Lispro: Insulin that has been modified so that the B-chain contains a LYSINE at position 28 instead of a PROLINE and a PROLINE at position 29 instead of a LYSINE. It is used to manage BLOOD GLUCOSE levels in patients with TYPE 2 DIABETES.TriglyceridesGlucosephosphatesMuscle, Skeletal: A subtype of striated muscle, attached by TENDONS to the SKELETON. Skeletal muscles are innervated and their movement can be consciously controlled. They are also called voluntary muscles.Plant Extracts: Concentrated pharmaceutical preparations of plants obtained by removing active constituents with a suitable solvent, which is evaporated away, and adjusting the residue to a prescribed standard.Diabetes Complications: Conditions or pathological processes associated with the disease of diabetes mellitus. Due to the impaired control of BLOOD GLUCOSE level in diabetic patients, pathological processes develop in numerous tissues and organs including the EYE, the KIDNEY, the BLOOD VESSELS, and the NERVE TISSUE.Glycerol: A trihydroxy sugar alcohol that is an intermediate in carbohydrate and lipid metabolism. It is used as a solvent, emollient, pharmaceutical agent, and sweetening agent.3-O-Methylglucose: A non-metabolizable glucose analogue that is not phosphorylated by hexokinase. 3-O-Methylglucose is used as a marker to assess glucose transport by evaluating its uptake within various cells and organ systems. (J Neurochem 1993;60(4):1498-504)Adipose Tissue: Specialized connective tissue composed of fat cells (ADIPOCYTES). It is the site of stored FATS, usually in the form of TRIGLYCERIDES. In mammals, there are two types of adipose tissue, the WHITE FAT and the BROWN FAT. Their relative distributions vary in different species with most adipose tissue being white.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Cross-Over Studies: Studies comparing two or more treatments or interventions in which the subjects or patients, upon completion of the course of one treatment, are switched to another. In the case of two treatments, A and B, half the subjects are randomly allocated to receive these in the order A, B and half to receive them in the order B, A. A criticism of this design is that effects of the first treatment may carry over into the period when the second is given. (Last, A Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)MethylglucosidesRats, Sprague-Dawley: A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.Carbohydrate Metabolism: Cellular processes in biosynthesis (anabolism) and degradation (catabolism) of CARBOHYDRATES.Risk Factors: An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.3-Hydroxybutyric Acid: BUTYRIC ACID substituted in the beta or 3 position. It is one of the ketone bodies produced in the liver.Sodium-Glucose Transporter 1: The founding member of the sodium glucose transport proteins. It is predominately expressed in the INTESTINAL MUCOSA of the SMALL INTESTINE.Starch: Any of a group of polysaccharides of the general formula (C6-H10-O5)n, composed of a long-chain polymer of glucose in the form of amylose and amylopectin. It is the chief storage form of energy reserve (carbohydrates) in plants.Reference Values: The range or frequency distribution of a measurement in a population (of organisms, organs or things) that has not been selected for the presence of disease or abnormality.Mice, Inbred C57BLGlycogenolysis: The release of GLUCOSE from GLYCOGEN by GLYCOGEN PHOSPHORYLASE (phosphorolysis). The released glucose-1-phosphate is then converted to GLUCOSE-6-PHOSPHATE by PHOSPHOGLUCOMUTASE before entering GLYCOLYSIS. Glycogenolysis is stimulated by GLUCAGON or EPINEPHRINE via the activation of PHOSPHORYLASE KINASE.Gastric Emptying: The evacuation of food from the stomach into the duodenum.Ketone Bodies: The metabolic substances ACETONE; 3-HYDROXYBUTYRIC ACID; and acetoacetic acid (ACETOACETATES). They are produced in the liver and kidney during FATTY ACIDS oxidation and used as a source of energy by the heart, muscle and brain.Dose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.Gastric Inhibitory Polypeptide: A gastrointestinal peptide hormone of about 43-amino acids. It is found to be a potent stimulator of INSULIN secretion and a relatively poor inhibitor of GASTRIC ACID secretion.Body Mass Index: An indicator of body density as determined by the relationship of BODY WEIGHT to BODY HEIGHT. BMI=weight (kg)/height squared (m2). BMI correlates with body fat (ADIPOSE TISSUE). Their relationship varies with age and gender. For adults, BMI falls into these categories: below 18.5 (underweight); 18.5-24.9 (normal); 25.0-29.9 (overweight); 30.0 and above (obese). (National Center for Health Statistics, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention)AlloxanBiosensing Techniques: Any of a variety of procedures which use biomolecular probes to measure the presence or concentration of biological molecules, biological structures, microorganisms, etc., by translating a biochemical interaction at the probe surface into a quantifiable physical signal.Bread: Baked food product made of flour or meal that is moistened, kneaded, and sometimes fermented. A major food since prehistoric times, it has been made in various forms using a variety of ingredients and methods.Glucose Solution, Hypertonic: Solution that is usually 10 percent glucose but may be higher. An isotonic solution of glucose is 5 percent.Metformin: A biguanide hypoglycemic agent used in the treatment of non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus not responding to dietary modification. Metformin improves glycemic control by improving insulin sensitivity and decreasing intestinal absorption of glucose. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p289)Insulin, Long-Acting: Insulin formulations that contain substances that retard absorption thus extending the time period of action.Pancreas: A nodular organ in the ABDOMEN that contains a mixture of ENDOCRINE GLANDS and EXOCRINE GLANDS. The small endocrine portion consists of the ISLETS OF LANGERHANS secreting a number of hormones into the blood stream. The large exocrine portion (EXOCRINE PANCREAS) is a compound acinar gland that secretes several digestive enzymes into the pancreatic ductal system that empties into the DUODENUM.Phytotherapy: Use of plants or herbs to treat diseases or to alleviate pain.Mice, Obese: Mutant mice exhibiting a marked obesity coupled with overeating, hyperglycemia, hyperinsulinemia, marked insulin resistance, and infertility when in a homozygous state. They may be inbred or hybrid.Diabetes, Gestational: Diabetes mellitus induced by PREGNANCY but resolved at the end of pregnancy. It does not include previously diagnosed diabetics who become pregnant (PREGNANCY IN DIABETICS). Gestational diabetes usually develops in late pregnancy when insulin antagonistic hormones peaks leading to INSULIN RESISTANCE; GLUCOSE INTOLERANCE; and HYPERGLYCEMIA.Epinephrine: The active sympathomimetic hormone from the ADRENAL MEDULLA. It stimulates both the alpha- and beta- adrenergic systems, causes systemic VASOCONSTRICTION and gastrointestinal relaxation, stimulates the HEART, and dilates BRONCHI and cerebral vessels. It is used in ASTHMA and CARDIAC FAILURE and to delay absorption of local ANESTHETICS.Blood Pressure: PRESSURE of the BLOOD on the ARTERIES and other BLOOD VESSELS.Diabetic Nephropathies: KIDNEY injuries associated with diabetes mellitus and affecting KIDNEY GLOMERULUS; ARTERIOLES; KIDNEY TUBULES; and the interstitium. Clinical signs include persistent PROTEINURIA, from microalbuminuria progressing to ALBUMINURIA of greater than 300 mg/24 h, leading to reduced GLOMERULAR FILTRATION RATE and END-STAGE RENAL DISEASE.Insulin Resistance: Diminished effectiveness of INSULIN in lowering blood sugar levels: requiring the use of 200 units or more of insulin per day to prevent HYPERGLYCEMIA or KETOSIS.Carbon Isotopes: Stable carbon atoms that have the same atomic number as the element carbon, but differ in atomic weight. C-13 is a stable carbon isotope.Lipid Metabolism: Physiological processes in biosynthesis (anabolism) and degradation (catabolism) of LIPIDS.Hydroxybutyrates: Salts and esters of hydroxybutyric acid.Islets of Langerhans Transplantation: The transference of pancreatic islets within an individual, between individuals of the same species, or between individuals of different species.Rats, Zucker: Two populations of Zucker rats have been cited in research--the "fatty" or obese and the lean. The "fatty" rat (Rattus norvegicus) appeared as a spontaneous mutant. The obese condition appears to be due to a single recessive gene.Dietary Fats: Fats present in food, especially in animal products such as meat, meat products, butter, ghee. They are present in lower amounts in nuts, seeds, and avocados.Metabolic Syndrome X: A cluster of metabolic risk factors for CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASES and TYPE 2 DIABETES MELLITUS. The major components of metabolic syndrome X include excess ABDOMINAL FAT; atherogenic DYSLIPIDEMIA; HYPERTENSION; HYPERGLYCEMIA; INSULIN RESISTANCE; a proinflammatory state; and a prothrombotic (THROMBOSIS) state. (from AHA/NHLBI/ADA Conference Proceedings, Circulation 2004; 109:551-556)PyruvatesSulfonylurea CompoundsInfusions, Intravenous: The long-term (minutes to hours) administration of a fluid into the vein through venipuncture, either by letting the fluid flow by gravity or by pumping it.Administration, Oral: The giving of drugs, chemicals, or other substances by mouth.Rats, Inbred Strains: Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. This also includes animals with a long history of closed colony breeding.Acarbose: An inhibitor of ALPHA-GLUCOSIDASES that retards the digestion and absorption of DIETARY CARBOHYDRATES in the SMALL INTESTINE.alpha-Glucosidases: Enzymes that catalyze the exohydrolysis of 1,4-alpha-glucosidic linkages with release of alpha-glucose. Deficiency of alpha-1,4-glucosidase may cause GLYCOGEN STORAGE DISEASE TYPE II.Starvation: Lengthy and continuous deprivation of food. (Stedman, 25th ed)Pregnancy in Diabetics: The state of PREGNANCY in women with DIABETES MELLITUS. This does not include either symptomatic diabetes or GLUCOSE INTOLERANCE induced by pregnancy (DIABETES, GESTATIONAL) which resolves at the end of pregnancy.Infusions, Parenteral: The administration of liquid medication, nutrient, or other fluid through some other route than the alimentary canal, usually over minutes or hours, either by gravity flow or often by infusion pumping.Area Under Curve: A statistical means of summarizing information from a series of measurements on one individual. It is frequently used in clinical pharmacology where the AUC from serum levels can be interpreted as the total uptake of whatever has been administered. As a plot of the concentration of a drug against time, after a single dose of medicine, producing a standard shape curve, it is a means of comparing the bioavailability of the same drug made by different companies. (From Winslade, Dictionary of Clinical Research, 1992)Diabetic Ketoacidosis: A life-threatening complication of diabetes mellitus, primarily of TYPE 1 DIABETES MELLITUS with severe INSULIN deficiency and extreme HYPERGLYCEMIA. It is characterized by KETOSIS; DEHYDRATION; and depressed consciousness leading to COMA.Oxygen Consumption: The rate at which oxygen is used by a tissue; microliters of oxygen STPD used per milligram of tissue per hour; the rate at which oxygen enters the blood from alveolar gas, equal in the steady state to the consumption of oxygen by tissue metabolism throughout the body. (Stedman, 25th ed, p346)Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Receptors, Glucagon: Cell surface receptors that bind glucagon with high affinity and trigger intracellular changes which influence the behavior of cells. Activation of glucagon receptors causes a variety of effects; the best understood is the initiation of a complex enzymatic cascade in the liver which ultimately increases the availability of glucose to body organs.Diet: Regular course of eating and drinking adopted by a person or animal.Biological Markers: Measurable and quantifiable biological parameters (e.g., specific enzyme concentration, specific hormone concentration, specific gene phenotype distribution in a population, presence of biological substances) which serve as indices for health- and physiology-related assessments, such as disease risk, psychiatric disorders, environmental exposure and its effects, disease diagnosis, metabolic processes, substance abuse, pregnancy, cell line development, epidemiologic studies, etc.Sweetening Agents: Substances that sweeten food, beverages, medications, etc., such as sugar, saccharine or other low-calorie synthetic products. (From Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)Critical Illness: A disease or state in which death is possible or imminent.Oxidation-Reduction: A chemical reaction in which an electron is transferred from one molecule to another. The electron-donating molecule is the reducing agent or reductant; the electron-accepting molecule is the oxidizing agent or oxidant. Reducing and oxidizing agents function as conjugate reductant-oxidant pairs or redox pairs (Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p471).Adipocytes: Cells in the body that store FATS, usually in the form of TRIGLYCERIDES. WHITE ADIPOCYTES are the predominant type and found mostly in the abdominal cavity and subcutaneous tissue. BROWN ADIPOCYTES are thermogenic cells that can be found in newborns of some species and hibernating mammals.Pyruvic Acid: An intermediate compound in the metabolism of carbohydrates, proteins, and fats. In thiamine deficiency, its oxidation is retarded and it accumulates in the tissues, especially in nervous structures. (From Stedman, 26th ed)Proinsulin: A pancreatic polypeptide of about 110 amino acids, depending on the species, that is the precursor of insulin. Proinsulin, produced by the PANCREATIC BETA CELLS, is comprised sequentially of the N-terminal B-chain, the proteolytically removable connecting C-peptide, and the C-terminal A-chain. It also contains three disulfide bonds, two between A-chain and B-chain. After cleavage at two locations, insulin and C-peptide are the secreted products. Intact proinsulin with low bioactivity also is secreted in small amounts.Blood Specimen Collection: The taking of a blood sample to determine its character as a whole, to identify levels of its component cells, chemicals, gases, or other constituents, to perform pathological examination, etc.Infusions, Subcutaneous: The administration of liquid medication or nutrients under the skin, usually over minutes or hours.Cholesterol: The principal sterol of all higher animals, distributed in body tissues, especially the brain and spinal cord, and in animal fats and oils.Reproducibility of Results: The statistical reproducibility of measurements (often in a clinical context), including the testing of instrumentation or techniques to obtain reproducible results. The concept includes reproducibility of physiological measurements, which may be used to develop rules to assess probability or prognosis, or response to a stimulus; reproducibility of occurrence of a condition; and reproducibility of experimental results.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Incretins: Peptides which stimulate INSULIN release from the PANCREATIC BETA CELLS following oral nutrient ingestion, or postprandially.Blood Chemical Analysis: An examination of chemicals in the blood.Pregnancy: The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.Food: Any substances taken in by the body that provide nourishment.Sucrose: A nonreducing disaccharide composed of GLUCOSE and FRUCTOSE linked via their anomeric carbons. It is obtained commercially from SUGARCANE, sugar beet (BETA VULGARIS), and other plants and used extensively as a food and a sweetener.Diabetic Angiopathies: VASCULAR DISEASES that are associated with DIABETES MELLITUS.Tolbutamide: A sulphonylurea hypoglycemic agent with actions and uses similar to those of CHLORPROPAMIDE. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p290)Dipeptidyl-Peptidase IV Inhibitors: Compounds that suppress the degradation of INCRETINS by blocking the action of DIPEPTIDYL-PEPTIDASE IV. This helps to correct the defective INSULIN and GLUCAGON secretion characteristic of TYPE 2 DIABETES MELLITUS by stimulating insulin secretion and suppressing glucagon release.Venoms: Poisonous animal secretions forming fluid mixtures of many different enzymes, toxins, and other substances. These substances are produced in specialized glands and secreted through specialized delivery systems (nematocysts, spines, fangs, etc.) for disabling prey or predator.Prospective Studies: Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.Analysis of Variance: A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.Treatment Outcome: Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.Disease Models, Animal: Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.Mice, Knockout: Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.Trigonella: A plant genus of the family FABACEAE.Leptin: A 16-kDa peptide hormone secreted from WHITE ADIPOCYTES. Leptin serves as a feedback signal from fat cells to the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM in regulation of food intake, energy balance, and fat storage.Uridine Diphosphate Glucose: A key intermediate in carbohydrate metabolism. Serves as a precursor of glycogen, can be metabolized into UDPgalactose and UDPglucuronic acid which can then be incorporated into polysaccharides as galactose and glucuronic acid. Also serves as a precursor of sucrose lipopolysaccharides, and glycosphingolipids.Cinnamomum zeylanicum: The tree which is known for its bark which is sold as cinnamon. The oil contains about 65-80% cinnamaldehyde and 10% EUGENOL and many TERPENES.Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Diet, High-Fat: Consumption of excessive DIETARY FATS.Insulin, Isophane: An intermediate-acting INSULIN preparation with onset time of 2 hours and duration of 24 hours. It is produced by crystallizing ZINC-insulin-PROTAMINES at neutral pH 7. Thus it is called neutral protamine Hagedorn for inventor Hans Christian Hagedorn.Fatty Acids: Organic, monobasic acids derived from hydrocarbons by the equivalent of oxidation of a methyl group to an alcohol, aldehyde, and then acid. Fatty acids are saturated and unsaturated (FATTY ACIDS, UNSATURATED). (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Muscle Proteins: The protein constituents of muscle, the major ones being ACTINS and MYOSINS. More than a dozen accessory proteins exist including TROPONIN; TROPOMYOSIN; and DYSTROPHIN.Carbon Radioisotopes: Unstable isotopes of carbon that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. C atoms with atomic weights 10, 11, and 14-16 are radioactive carbon isotopes.Glucagon-Secreting Cells: A type of pancreatic cell representing about 5-20% of the islet cells. Alpha cells secrete GLUCAGON.Clinical Alarms: Components of medical instrumentation used for physiological evaluation of patients, that signal when a threshold value is reached.HexosaminesGliclazide: An oral sulfonylurea hypoglycemic agent which stimulates insulin secretion.Dietary Fiber: The remnants of plant cell walls that are resistant to digestion by the alimentary enzymes of man. It comprises various polysaccharides and lignins.Self Care: Performance of activities or tasks traditionally performed by professional health care providers. The concept includes care of oneself or one's family and friends.Somatostatin: A 14-amino acid peptide named for its ability to inhibit pituitary GROWTH HORMONE release, also called somatotropin release-inhibiting factor. It is expressed in the central and peripheral nervous systems, the gut, and other organs. SRIF can also inhibit the release of THYROID-STIMULATING HORMONE; PROLACTIN; INSULIN; and GLUCAGON besides acting as a neurotransmitter and neuromodulator. In a number of species including humans, there is an additional form of somatostatin, SRIF-28 with a 14-amino acid extension at the N-terminal.Random Allocation: A process involving chance used in therapeutic trials or other research endeavor for allocating experimental subjects, human or animal, between treatment and control groups, or among treatment groups. It may also apply to experiments on inanimate objects.Exercise: Physical activity which is usually regular and done with the intention of improving or maintaining PHYSICAL FITNESS or HEALTH. Contrast with PHYSICAL EXERTION which is concerned largely with the physiologic and metabolic response to energy expenditure.Predictive Value of Tests: In screening and diagnostic tests, the probability that a person with a positive test is a true positive (i.e., has the disease), is referred to as the predictive value of a positive test; whereas, the predictive value of a negative test is the probability that the person with a negative test does not have the disease. Predictive value is related to the sensitivity and specificity of the test.Sodium-Glucose Transport Proteins: Monosaccharide transport proteins that function as active symporters. They utilize SODIUM or HYDROGEN IONS to transport GLUCOSE across CELL MEMBRANES.Energy Intake: Total number of calories taken in daily whether ingested or by parenteral routes.Phosphoenolpyruvate Carboxykinase (GTP): An enzyme of the lyase class that catalyzes the conversion of GTP and oxaloacetate to GDP, phosphoenolpyruvate, and carbon dioxide. This reaction is part of gluconeogenesis in the liver. The enzyme occurs in both the mitochondria and cytosol of mammalian liver. (From Dorland, 27th ed) EC 4.1.1.32.Glucosephosphate DehydrogenaseCross-Sectional Studies: Studies in which the presence or absence of disease or other health-related variables are determined in each member of the study population or in a representative sample at one particular time. This contrasts with LONGITUDINAL STUDIES which are followed over a period of time.Glycogen Synthase: An enzyme that catalyzes the transfer of D-glucose from UDPglucose into 1,4-alpha-D-glucosyl chains. EC 2.4.1.11.Hormones: Chemical substances having a specific regulatory effect on the activity of a certain organ or organs. The term was originally applied to substances secreted by various ENDOCRINE GLANDS and transported in the bloodstream to the target organs. It is sometimes extended to include those substances that are not produced by the endocrine glands but that have similar effects.Dogs: The domestic dog, Canis familiaris, comprising about 400 breeds, of the carnivore family CANIDAE. They are worldwide in distribution and live in association with people. (Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, p1065)Fermentation: Anaerobic degradation of GLUCOSE or other organic nutrients to gain energy in the form of ATP. End products vary depending on organisms, substrates, and enzymatic pathways. Common fermentation products include ETHANOL and LACTIC ACID.Sorbitol: A polyhydric alcohol with about half the sweetness of sucrose. Sorbitol occurs naturally and is also produced synthetically from glucose. It was formerly used as a diuretic and may still be used as a laxative and in irrigating solutions for some surgical procedures. It is also used in many manufacturing processes, as a pharmaceutical aid, and in several research applications.Equipment and Supplies: Expendable and nonexpendable equipment, supplies, apparatus, and instruments that are used in diagnostic, surgical, therapeutic, scientific, and experimental procedures.Cardiovascular Diseases: Pathological conditions involving the CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM including the HEART; the BLOOD VESSELS; or the PERICARDIUM.Brain: The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.Intestinal Absorption: Uptake of substances through the lining of the INTESTINES.Osmolar Concentration: The concentration of osmotically active particles in solution expressed in terms of osmoles of solute per liter of solution. Osmolality is expressed in terms of osmoles of solute per kilogram of solvent.Culture Media: Any liquid or solid preparation made specifically for the growth, storage, or transport of microorganisms or other types of cells. The variety of media that exist allow for the culturing of specific microorganisms and cell types, such as differential media, selective media, test media, and defined media. Solid media consist of liquid media that have been solidified with an agent such as AGAR or GELATIN.Acetates: Derivatives of ACETIC ACID. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that contain the carboxymethane structure.AMP-Activated Protein Kinases: Intracellular signaling protein kinases that play a signaling role in the regulation of cellular energy metabolism. Their activity largely depends upon the concentration of cellular AMP which is increased under conditions of low energy or metabolic stress. AMP-activated protein kinases modify enzymes involved in LIPID METABOLISM, which in turn provide substrates needed to convert AMP into ATP.Retrospective Studies: Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.Carbon Dioxide: A colorless, odorless gas that can be formed by the body and is necessary for the respiration cycle of plants and animals.Gene Expression Regulation: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.Glyburide: An antidiabetic sulfonylurea derivative with actions similar to those of chlorpropamide.Sodium-Glucose Transporter 2: A sodium-glucose transporter that is expressed in the luminal membrane of the PROXIMAL KIDNEY TUBULES.
Blood glucose[edit]. Main articles: Blood sugar regulation and Glycolysis § Regulation of the rate limiting enzymes ... lowering the blood sugar level in anticipation of a large influx into the blood of glucose resulting from the digestion of ... and glucagon to be secreted from the alpha cells into the blood. This inhibits the uptake of glucose from the blood by the ... Arterial blood pressure[edit]. Main articles: Baroreflex and Renin-angiotensin system. The brain can regulate blood flow over a ...
3 hour blood glucose level ≥140 mg/dl (7.8 mmol/L). An alternative test uses a 75 g glucose load and measures the blood glucose ... Non-challenge blood glucose tests involve measuring glucose levels in blood samples without challenging the subject with ... Non-challenge blood glucose tests[edit]. When a plasma glucose level is found to be higher than 126 mg/dl (7.0 mmol/l) after ... 2 hour postprandial blood glucose levels ,6.7 mmol/L. Regular blood samples can be used to determine HbA1c levels, which give ...
... warning blood banks not to accept blood from people taking the drug, and adding a warning to the label advising women to start ... Increased blood glucose. *Haematuria. *Proteinuria. *Increased creatine phosphokinase. Possible permanent effects[edit]. ... After an orally-administered, 80 mg dose of liquid suspension 14C-isotretinoin, 14C-activity in blood declines with a half-life ... People taking isotretinoin are not permitted to donate blood during and for at least one month after discontinuation of therapy ...
Lower blood glucose. *Physical activity. References[edit]. *^ a b "Peripheral Arterial Disease: MedlinePlus". www.nlm.nih.gov. ... Buerger's disease - is due to small blood vessels that inflame and swell, vessels then narrow or are blocked by blood clots.[7] ... Vascular disease is a class of diseases of the blood vessels - the arteries and veins of the circulatory system of the body. It ... In the case of a peripheral vascular disease the physical exam consists in checking the blood flow in the legs.[15][16] ...
Low blood sugar[edit]. Studies show that alcohol hangover is associated with a decrease in blood glucose concentration (less ... "Hypoglycemia (Low Blood Glucose)". diabetes.org. American Diabetes Association. Retrieved 14 March 2015.. ... Vitamin B6: No effects on alcohol metabolism, peak blood alcohol and glucose concentrations have been found and psychomotor ... Fructose and glucose: Glucose and fructose significantly inhibit the metabolic changes produced by alcohol intoxication, ...
2] Pathophysiologic abnormalities in DN begin with long-standing poorly controlled blood glucose levels. This is followed by ... Optimizing blood glucose control is also important.. The proteinuria may become massive, and cause a low serum albumin with ... Other issues that are important in the management of this condition include control of high blood pressure and blood sugar ... High blood sugar, which leads to formation of advanced glycation end products; and cytokines have also been implicated as ...
Blood glucose management[edit]. Treatment of early manifestations of sensorimotor polyneuropathy involves improving glycemic ... and nerves depend on adequate blood flow. The first pathological change in the small blood vessels is narrowing of the blood ... Diabetic neuropathy can be largely prevented by maintaining blood glucose levels and lifestyle modifications.[8] Enhanced ... Blood vessel opening agents (e.g., ACE inhibitors, α1-antagonists) can lead to substantial improvements in neuronal blood flow ...
... and blood glucose. The real-time delivery of blood glucose and blood pressure readings enables immediate alerts for patient and ... Chase, H.P.; Pearson, J.A.; Wightman, C.; Roberts, M.D.; Oderberg, A.D.; Garg, S.K. "Modem transmission of glucose values ... Examples of peripheral devices are: blood pressure cuff, pulse oximeter, and glucometer. The data are transmitted to healthcare ... Physiological data such as blood pressure and subjective patient data are collected by sensors on peripheral devices. ...
Pathophysiologic abnormalities in DN begin with long-standing poorly controlled blood glucose levels. This is followed by ... Due to the higher load of filtered glucose, there is an up-regulation in the sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT2) in the ... Blood pressure control: Multiple randomized clinical trials (RCT) have demonstrated a benefit of decreasing systolic blood ... "Intensive Blood Glucose Control and Vascular Outcomes in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes" (PDF). New England Journal of Medicine ...
During the early 20th century, picric acid was used to measure blood glucose levels. When glucose, picric acid and sodium ... "Measuring blood glucose levels in the 1920s". Tacomed.com. Retrieved 13 June 2017.. ... With a calibrating glucose solution, the red color can be used to measure the glucose levels added. This is known as the Lewis ... and Benedict method of measuring glucose.[25] Much less commonly, wet picric acid has been used as a skin dye, or temporary ...
Beutler E (January 2008). "Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency: a historical perspective". Blood. 111 (1): 16-24. doi: ... This suggested[5] to Ernest Beutler, studying heterozygous females for Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency, ... 10.1182/blood-2007-04-077412. PMID 18156501.. *^ Beutler E, Yeh M, Fairbanks VF (January 1962). "The normal human female as a ... Linder D, Gartler SM (October 1965). "Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase mosaicism: utilization as a cell marker in the study of ...
Beutler, E (January 2008). "Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency: a historical perspective". Blood. 111 (1): 16-24. doi ... Pediatric Blood & Cancer Pediatr Blood Cancer. 62 (7): 1288-290. doi:10.1002/pbc.25483. Burgemeister , Lena Anna, Zirn Birgit, ... doi:10.1182/blood-2006-09-018655. PMC 1975831 . PMID 17435115. Petersson; et al. (2014). "The leiomyomatous stroma in renal ... Linder D, Gartler SM (October 1965). "Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase mosaicism: utilization as a cell marker in the study of ...
... and maintaining blood glucose levels in the normal range.[25] Self-monitoring of blood glucose for people with newly diagnosed ... Diagnosis of diabetes is by blood tests such as fasting plasma glucose, oral glucose tolerance test, or glycated hemoglobin ( ... fasting plasma glucose ≥ 7.0 mmol/l (126 mg/dl). or. *with a glucose tolerance test, two hours after the oral dose a plasma ... However, in the setting of insulin resistance, the liver inappropriately releases glucose into the blood.[10] The proportion of ...
... glucose is commonly found in the blood. However, in certain conditions, such as diabetes mellitus, the concentration of glucose ... Use of some drugs, especially stimulants, may also increase blood glucose and thus increase urination.[citation needed] ... the reduction in blood pressure is not due to decreased blood volume resulting from increased urine production, but occurs ... When this happens, glucose remains in the filtrate, leading to the osmotic retention of water in the urine. Glucosuria causes a ...
... and maintaining blood glucose levels in the normal range.[24] Self-monitoring of blood glucose for people with newly diagnosed ... Diagnosis of diabetes is by blood tests such as fasting plasma glucose, oral glucose tolerance test, or glycated hemoglobin ( ... fasting plasma glucose ≥ 7.0 mmol/l (126 mg/dl). or. *with a glucose tolerance test, two hours after the oral dose a plasma ... Waugh, N; Cummins, E; Royle, P; Clar, C; Marien, M; Richter, B; Philip, S (July 2010). "Newer agents for blood glucose control ...
55 years white blood cell count > 16000 cells/mm3 blood glucose > 11.1 mmol/L (> 200 mg/dL) serum AST > 250 IU/L serum LDH > ... Blood investigations - Full blood count, renal function tests, liver function, serum calcium, serum amylase and lipase, ... Blood studies are used to identify organ failure, offer prognostic information, determine if fluid resuscitation is adequate, ... The rate of fluid resuscitation should be adjusted based on clinical assessment, hematocrit and blood urea nitrogen (BUN) ...
This may help lower blood glucose levels because it can slow the absorption of sugar. Additionally, fiber, perhaps especially ... elevated blood sugar, elevated blood pressure, elevated blood triglycerides, and reduced HDL cholesterol. The negative effect ... Benton D, Sargent J (July 1992). "Breakfast, blood glucose and memory". Biol Psychol. 33 (2-3): 207-10. doi:10.1016/0301-0511( ... Traditionally, simple carbohydrates are believed to be absorbed quickly, and therefore to raise blood-glucose levels more ...
John Ranson (1938-1995). At admission: Age in years > 55 years WBC count > 16000 cells/mm3 Blood glucose > 11 mmol/L (> 200 mg/ ... Stands for Glucose, Age, LDH, AST and WBC; Calcium, Hematocrit, Oxygen, BUN, Base, Sequestration. Alternatively, pancreatitis ...
... a missed blood glucose test, a new blood glucose test 15 minutes after a low blood glucose test, etc. The alarms are customized ... integration with blood glucose meters: Blood glucose data can be manually entered into the pump to support the bolus wizard for ... The DANA Diabecare IISG insulin pump has a blood glucose meter in it. After a blood glucose check with the integrated ... On waking, they would test their blood glucose level periodically until lunch. Changes in blood glucose level are compensated ...
Benton, D., & Sargent, J. (1992). Breakfast, blood glucose and memory. Biological Psychology, 33(2-3), 207-210. Bryan, J., & ... Glucose is the preferred energy source for the brain, accounting for 25% of the body's glucose consumption, despite being only ... Studies have indicated the importance of glucose on memory, showing that reduced levels of glucose in the brain impair an ... The reduced blood flow in the limbic system of individuals with AN is what mostly accounts for their impairment in cognitive ...
The spike in blood glucose levels after ingestion of simple sugars is thought to be related to some of the heart and vascular ... to glucose and can be used for energy production just as ordinary glucose. By breaking down existing protein, some glucose can ... elevated blood sugar, elevated blood pressure, elevated blood triglycerides, and reduced HDL cholesterol.[medical citation ... Benton, David; Sargent, Julia (1992). "Breakfast, blood glucose and memory". Biological Psychology. 33 (2-3): 207-10. doi: ...
Caution is advised when using herbs or supplements that may also lower blood sugar. Blood glucose levels may require monitoring ... These fatty acids can also lower blood sugar levels.[71] They are also a good source of vitamin D,[72] calcium, vitamin B12,[73 ... Fish oil supplements may lower blood sugar levels a small amount. ...
Glucose (blood sugar) rat, oral 25,800 mg/kg 25.8 [9]. Monosodium glutamate (MSG) rat, oral 16,600 mg/kg 16.6 [10]. ... "Safety (MSDS) data for glucose" (PDF). utoronto.ca. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2017-01-01. Retrieved 2016-12-31.. Cite ... Kiyatkin EA, Sharma HS (2009). Acute methamphetamine intoxication: brain hyperthermia, blood-brain barrier, brain edema, and ...
Glucose (blood sugar) rat, oral 25,800 mg/kg 25.8 [9]. Monosodium glutamate (MSG) rat, oral 16,600 mg/kg 16.6 [10]. ... "Safety (MSDS) data for glucose" (PDF). utoronto.ca.. *^ Walker R, Lupien JR (April 2000). "The safety evaluation of monosodium ... Kiyatkin EA, Sharma HS (2009). Acute methamphetamine intoxication: brain hyperthermia, blood-brain barrier, brain edema, and ...
This insulin secretion subsides as glucose concentrations decrease and approach euglycemia (normal blood glucose level). It ... It acts in a glucose-dependent manner, meaning it will stimulate insulin secretion only when blood glucose levels are higher ... Liraglutide improves control of blood glucose. It reduces meal-related hyperglycemia (for 24 hours after administration) by ... Liraglutide leads to insulin release in pancreatic beta cells in the presence of elevated blood glucose. ...
The brain checks for glucoprivation on its side of the blood-brain barrier (since glucose is its fuel), while the liver ... As time passes between meals, the body starts to take nutrients from long-term reservoirs.[20] When the glucose levels of cells ... The brain detects insulin in the blood, which indicates that nutrients are being absorbed by cells and a person is getting full ...
Guidelines for Blood Glucose Self-Monitoring: Contents Abstract: ContentsIntroduction The Law Guidelines Appendixes Printable ...
... means the sales value of Self-monitoring Blood Glucose Devices This report studies sales (consumption) of Self-monitoring Blood ... Glucose Devices in Global market, especially in United States, China, Europe, Japan, focuses on top players in these regions/ ... means the sales volume of Self-monitoring Blood Glucose Devices Revenue, ... 1 Self-monitoring Blood Glucose Devices Overview. 1.1 Product Overview and Scope of Self-monitoring Blood Glucose Devices. 1.2 ...
... means the sales value of Self-monitoring Blood Glucose Devices This report studies Self-monitoring Blood Glucose Devices in ... means the output of Self-monitoring Blood Glucose Devices Revenue, ... 1 Self-monitoring Blood Glucose Devices Market Overview. 1.1 Product Overview and Scope of Self-monitoring Blood Glucose ... 2.5 Self-monitoring Blood Glucose Devices Market Competitive Situation and Trends. 2.5.1 Self-monitoring Blood Glucose Devices ...
Schmidt S, Boiroux D, Ranjan A, Jørgensen JB, Madsen H, Nørgaard K. An artificial pancreas for automated blood glucose control ... An artificial pancreas for automated blood glucose control in patients with Type 1 diabetes. / Schmidt, Signe; Boiroux, Dimitri ... An artificial pancreas for automated blood glucose control in patients with Type 1 diabetes. In: Therapeutic Delivery. 2015 ; ... title = "An artificial pancreas for automated blood glucose control in patients with Type 1 diabetes", ...
Posted in Blood Glucose Monitoring , Tags: Blood, Compact, Glucose, Plus, SelfMonitoring, System ... Paperback Glucerna Diabetic With Strips Pack Cookbook System Blood Glucose Test People Shake Edition Snack Monitoring Guide ... Features of the ACCU-CHEK Compact Plus Blood Glucose Meter: No strip handling: Preloaded drum of 17 diabetes test stripsfor no ... Detachable lancet device: The ACCU-CHEK Softclix Plus lancet device can be used attached or detached from the blood glucose ...
Global Self-Monitoring Blood Glucose (SMBG) Devices Market Research Report 2017 1 Self-Monitoring Blood Glucose (SMBG) Devices ... 1.2 Self-Monitoring Blood Glucose (SMBG) Devices Segment by Type (Product Category) 1.2.1 Global Self-Monitoring Blood Glucose ... of Self-Monitoring Blood Glucose (SMBG) Devices (2012-2022) 1.5.1 Global Self-Monitoring Blood Glucose (SMBG) Devices Revenue ... 2.5 Self-Monitoring Blood Glucose (SMBG) Devices Market Competitive Situation and Trends 2.5.1 Self-Monitoring Blood Glucose ( ...
Some kids who have diabetes need to regularly check their blood sugar levels. This form can help you keep track of the readings ...
... which measures the amount of sugar in the blood, may be done as part of a routine physical or to help diagnose diabetes. ... What Is a Glucose Test?. A glucose test measures how much glucose is in the blood. Glucose is a type of sugar used by the body ... Análisis de sangre: glucosa. What Is a Blood Test?. A blood test is when a sample of blood is taken from the body to be tested ... How Is a Glucose Test Done?. Most blood tests take a small amount of blood from a vein. To do that, a health professional will: ...
... or blood sugar levels using an ear poke with a lancet pen, and a glucometer. For more information, see feli... ... Home testing a diabetic cats blood glucose (BG), ... Home testing a diabetic cats blood glucose (BG), or blood ... Testing blood glucose in a cat- Part 3 - Duration: 4:25. FrangipaniSal 355 views ... How to test your dogs blood glucose level - Duration: 6:21. fishhoundsoutdoors 110,181 views ...
Hypoglycemia (Low Blood sugar). Throughout the day, depending on multiple different factors, blood sugar (also called blood ... Causes of low blood sugar. Low blood sugar is common for people with type 1 diabetes and can occur in people with type 2 ... If blood sugar stays low for too long, starving the brain of glucose, it may lead to seizures, coma, and very rarely death. ... Signs and symptoms of low blood sugar (happen quickly). Each persons reaction to low blood sugar is different. Learn your own ...
The compact One Drop Chrome blood glucose monitoring kit lets you measure your glucose levels and then track them on your ... Sync your meter with the One Drop Mobile app on your iPhone or Apple Watch to see all your blood glucose data and analytics at ... Blood glucose meter Proprietary technology ensures clinically proven accurate, reliable results in just five seconds. The meter ... Wirelessly transmits blood glucose data via Bluetooth to the One Drop app on your iPhone or Apple Watch ...
Discover the best Blood Glucose Monitors in Best Sellers. Find the top 100 most popular items in Amazon Health & Personal Care ... Blood Glucose W/Glucose SOS Dextrose Powder, A Natural Alternative to Glucose Gel and Glucose Tablets for Blood Sugar - Glucose ... Dario Blood Glucose Test Strips for The Dario and Dario LC Blood Glucose Monitoring System. Great for Diabetics to Keep Track ... Dario Blood Glucose Monitor Kit Test Your Blood Sugar Levels and Estimate A1c. Kit Includes: Glucose-Meter with 25 Strips,10 ...
... high blood glucose levels mean pregnancy, diabetic test strips cpt code, diabetes low blood sugar during pregnancy risks, what ... causes low blood sugar and low potassium juice ... how to keep your blood sugar in check, sugar machine.com, ... range of blood sugar Fasting blood glucose level singapore 4d Symptoms of high blood sugar glucose What to do if your blood ... High blood glucose levels mean pregnancy,high blood sugar symptoms type 1 diabetes symptoms,if you lower your blood sugar will ...
Your blood carries glucose (blood sugar) to all of your bodys cells to use for energy. Learn more. ... Your body processes the food you eat into glucose. ... Blood sugar, or glucose, is the main sugar found in your blood ... All about Blood Glucose (American Diabetes Association) - PDF Also in Spanish * Blood Sugar Testing: Why, When and How (Mayo ... Blood sugar test - blood (Medical Encyclopedia) Also in Spanish * Estimated average glucose (eAG) (Medical Encyclopedia) Also ...
Such measurement utilizes only a small drop of blood from the fingertip placed on a disposable test strip. The digital meter ... Blood glucose meters measure blood glucose levels electronically. ... Blood glucose meters measure blood glucose levels electronically. Such measurement utilizes only a small drop of blood from the ... Determination of plasma glucose during rapid glucose excursions with a subcutaneous glucose sensor. Diabetes Technol Ther. 2003 ...
A blood glucose test measures the amount of glucose in your blood. It may be used to help diagnose or monitor diabetes. Learn ... What is a blood glucose test?. A blood glucose test measures the glucose levels in your blood. Glucose is a type of sugar. It ... self-monitoring of blood glucose (SMBG), fasting plasma glucose (FPG), fasting blood sugar (FBS), fasting blood glucose (FBG), ... Why do I need a blood glucose test?. Your health care provider may order a blood glucose test if you have symptoms of high ...
... you should check your blood whenever you feel low blood glucose coming on. After you check and see that your blood glucose ... How do I know when my blood glucose is low?. Part of managing diabetes is checking blood glucose often. Ask your doctor how ... The results from checking your blood will tell you when your blood glucose is low and that you need to treat it. ... Once youve checked your blood glucose and treated your hypoglycemia, wait 15 or 20 minutes and check your blood again. If your ...
Rapid Estimation of Blood Glucose. Br Med J 1965; 1 doi: https://doi.org/10.1136/bmj.1.5439.925-a (Published 03 April 1965) ...
... is in the blood. A specially coated strip containing a fresh sample of blood is inserted in a machine... ... A machine that helps test how much glucose (sugar) ... blood glucose. Polycythaemia Rubra Vera. Blood Glucose Testing ... A machine that helps test how much glucose (sugar) is in the blood. A specially coated strip containing a fresh sample of blood ... when then calculates the correct level of glucose in the blood sample and shows the result in a digital display. Some meters ...
... and the incremental glucose area, defined as the area under the glucose curve that is above the premeal (or pre-oral glucose ... Because blood glucose concentrations vary widely during a 24-h period and from day to day in diabetes, the measurement of HbA1c ... However, the HbA1c level does not provide a measure of the magnitude or frequency of short-term fluctuations of blood glucose, ... de Veciana M, Major CA, Morgan MA, Asrat T, Toohey JS, Lien JM, Evans AT: Postprandial versus preprandial blood glucose ...
... One of the main aims of diabetes treatment is to keep blood glucose levels within a specified target ... Self-blood glucose monitoring allows you to check your blood glucose levels as often as you need to or as recommended by your ... Glucose level targets. Blood glucose levels are measured in millimoles per litre of blood (mmol/L). Target ranges may differ ... How do I test my blood glucose levels?. To test your blood glucose levels, you prick your finger with the lancet and add a ...
Create healthcare diagrams like this example called Blood Glucose Levels in minutes with SmartDraw. SmartDraw includes 1000s of ... Target Blood Glucose Levels for People with Diabetes. My Target Blood Glucose Levels. Before meals. 70 to 130. 1 to 2 hours ... Blood Glucose Levels. Create healthcare diagrams like this example called Blood Glucose Levels in minutes with SmartDraw. ... Talk with your health care provider about your blood glucose target levels and write them here:. Talk with your doctor or ...
Blood glucose levels can sink fast, and some dont feel the usual symptoms of hypoglycemia. Several programs worldwide give ... And about half of the dogs at D4D detect high blood glucose as well as low. "Weve been trying to figure out what the common ... Nettle, who has been with the family for almost 2 years, is trained to alert if the girls blood glucose level hits 4.5 mmol/L ... Ruefenachts own dogs are trained to alert to keep him at a blood glucose level of between 100 and 200 mg/dL, he said. ...
Write Blood Glucose Data. Your app can record blood glucose data by writing to the com.google.blood_glucose. data type. In this ... bloodGlucose.getValue(FIELD_BLOOD_GLUCOSE_SPECIMEN_SOURCE) .setInt(BLOOD_GLUCOSE_SPECIMEN_SOURCE_CAPILLARY_BLOOD); REST. This ... FIELD_BLOOD_GLUCOSE_SPECIMEN_SOURCE. .. Create a data source. Android. To write a blood glucose data point, create a new ... GLUCOSE_SPECIMEN_SOURCE_CAPILLARY_BLOOD "intVal": 2 } ] } ] } Response. If the blood glucose data is added successfully, the ...
... what can cause blood sugar level to drop, high blood sugar in diabetic, diabetic blood sugar conversion chart uk, low blood ... blood sugar high low carb diet 2014, normal range blood sugar reading, does zoloft lower blood sugar, normal reading for ... how to regulate your blood sugar levels naturally menopause, ... iq diabetes blood glucose monitoring system Blood sugar after ... This glucose count gives physicians a good idea of your average blood sugar levels during the life of the red blood cells. Your ...
  • It is the expectation that a system for automated control, also know as an artificial pancreas, will improve glucose control, reduce the risk of diabetes complications and markedly improve patient quality of life. (dtu.dk)
  • Natural News) Researchers are getting closer to getting closer to understanding how blood sugar homeostasis happens in the body, as they found that the pancreatic islets are responsible for maintaining normal blood glucose levels in the body, according to a study published in the scientific journal Cell Metabolism. (naturalnews.com)
  • Researchers also found that those who received the GOP infusions had "near normal" blood glucose levels with less variability, which was not seen in those who underwent bariatric surgery. (smartbrief.com)
  • Complex carbohydrates, or foods that contain fats along with carbs (like chocolate) can slow the absorption of glucose and should not be used to treat an emergency low. (diabetes.org)
  • This is because the sensor provides trends rather than actual glucose levels and the patient doesn't see the glucose information while wearing the device because it is not displayed on the device's monitor. (healingwell.com)
  • Flash involves a small sensor that sits just underneath your skin and continuously measures glucose in the fluid that surrounds your body's cells. (diabetes.org.uk)
  • The sensor measures the blood glucose concentration, then wirelessly transmits the data via Bluetooth to a custom-designed Android app that displays the numbers on the smartphone screen. (eurekalert.org)
  • Foods that have a lot of fat as well as sugars and carbohydrates, such as chocolate or cookies, do not work as quickly to raise blood glucose levels. (archive.org)